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Sample records for brca mutation carriers

  1. Tamoxifen and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Milne, Roger L; Rookus, Matti A;

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers.......To determine whether adjuvant tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer (BC) is associated with reduced contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers....

  2. Fertility preservation in BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Salvagno, Francesca; Delle Piane, Luisa; Casano, Simona; Evangelista, Francesca; Pittatore, Giulia; Razzano, Alessandra; Marchino, Gian L; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Benedetto, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    According to enhanced long-term survival rates of these patients, interest in fertility preservation for young women facing gonadotoxic therapies is increasing. Women who carry a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene have a specifically increased lifetime risk of developing breast and tubo-ovarian cancer. Moreover, they are at high risk of undergoing premature infertility due to the medical interventions that are often performed in order to reduce cancer risk or treat an already existing malignancy. Fertility issues are relevant for healthy BRCA mutation carriers, whose family-planning decisions are often influenced by the need of prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at young age. In BRCA mutation carriers who have a breast cancer at young age, the oncostatic treatment is associated with a significant ovarian toxicity linked to chemotherapy as well as to the long lasting hormonotherapy and to the need of delaying pregnancy for several years. Prompt counselling about different fertility preservation options should be offered to all young girls and women at high risk of ovarian insufficiency and infertility. Validated techniques to preserve fertility include oocyte and embryo cryopreservation, while experimental techniques include ovarian suppression with GnRH-analogs during chemotherapy and ovarian tissue cryopreservation. The choice of the best strategy depends on age, type of chemotherapy, partner status, cancer type, time available for fertility preservation intervention and the risk of ovarian metastasis. All available options should be offered and can be performed alone or in combination. A crucial point is to avoid a significant delay to cancer treatment. PMID:26997146

  3. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, J.; Mann, R.; Kok, T.; Obdeijn, I. M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Blickman, J. G.; Boetes, C.

    2008-01-01

    The appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control g

  4. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Veltman; R. Mann; T. Kok (Theo); A.I.M. Obdeijn (Inge-Marie); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); J.G. Blickman; C. Boetes

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type match

  5. Reproductive and hormonal factors, and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Rookus, Matti; Andrieu, Nadine;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated in a...... small number of studies. METHODS: We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox...... proportional hazards framework. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had...

  6. Breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers: medical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Andrea; Geuna, Elena; Zucchini, Giorgia; Aversa, Caterina; Martinello, Rossella; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    About 10% of breast cancers are associated with the inheritance of autosomal dominant breast cancer susceptibility alleles BRCA1 and BRCA2. Until recently, the medical management of BRCA mutation-associated breast cancer has not differed from that of the sporadic breast cancer counterpart. However, there is mounting evidence that this molecular alteration confers sensitivity or resistance to systemic therapies that can be exploited in terms of medical management. For example, studies support the use of platinum salts chemotherapy in BRCA mutated cancers. Moreover, a number of targeted therapies are showing activity in BRCA mutation carriers. Above all, BRCA defective tumor cells are particularly sensitive to Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This review will summarize the state of the art of the medical treatment of breast cancer in BRCA mutation carriers, with a particular focus on chemotherapies and targeted therapies. PMID:26799758

  7. Survival in Norwegian BRCA1 mutation carriers with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen Anne; Tretli Steinar; Mæhle Lovise; Apold Jaran; Vedå Nina; Møller Pål

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several studies of survival in women with BRCA1 mutations have shown either reduced survival or no difference compared to controls. Programmes for early detection and treatment of inherited breast cancer, have failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in survival in BRCA1 mutation carriers. One hundred and sixty-seven women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer from 1980 to 2001 were identified. Tumour characteristics, treatment given and survival w...

  8. Aromatase expression is increased in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until recently, the molecular mechanisms explaining increased incidence of ovarian and breast cancers in carriers of BRCA1 gene mutations had not been clearly understood. Of significance is the finding that BRCA1 negatively regulates aromatase expression in vitro. Our objective was to characterise aromatase gene (CYP19A1) and its promoter expression in breast adipose and ovarian tissue in BRCA1 mutation carriers and unaffected controls. We measured aromatase transcripts, total and promoter-specific (PII, PI.3, PI.4) in prophylactic oophorectomy or mastectomy, therapeutic mastectomy, ovarian and breast tissue from unaffected women. We demonstrate that the lack of functional BRCA1 protein correlates to higher aromatase levels in 85% of BRCA1 mutation carriers. This increase is mediated by aberrant transcriptional regulation of aromatase; in breast adipose by increases in promoter II/I.3 and I.4-specific transcripts; and in the ovary with elevation in promoter I.3 and II-specific transcripts. Understanding the link between BRCA1 and aromatase is significant in terms of understanding why carcinogenesis is restricted to estrogen-producing tissues in BRCA1 mutation carriers

  9. Breast conservation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers with early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of breast conservation therapy (limited surgery and irradiation of the breast with/without axilla) in the approximately 5% of breast cancer patients who harbour a germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2, is a largely unexplored area and is seen by some as controversial. The relatively high cumulative risk of second primary cancers in such patients and concern about a possible decreased ability of mutation carriers to repair DNA damage caused by radiation has fuelled this controversy. Published studies of breast conservation therapy in carriers of a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are reviewed, with particular attention to their methodology. These studies have not demonstrated any increase in radiation sensitivity of normal tissues in mutation carriers, either in terms of increased early or late toxicity or tumourigenesis. Likewise, tumour sensitivity to radiotherapy, which might be expected based on the known functions of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, has not been documented to date in mutation carriers. Further, methodologically rigorous studies of large numbers of breast cancer patients who carry a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are required to fully elucidate these issues. Copyright (2001) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  10. Loss of nuclear BRCA1 protein staining in normal tissue cells derived from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced genomic instability has been recently reported in normal cells derived from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when placed in vitro in non-physiological stress conditions. We present here original data which help to explain the observed genomic instability. Leucocytes from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, sporadic breast cancer patients and controls were prepared for BRCA1 immunocytochemistry. We show that BRCA1 containing nuclear dot like structures are detectable in about 80% of the leucocytes from controls and sporadic breast cancer patients, but are absent in the majority of normal cells from BRCA1 as well as BRCA2 mutation carriers (also in their normal breast cells). Our results thus indicate that the genomic instability observed in normal cells from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is associated with a down-regulation of nuclear BRCA1 protein accumulation in the dot like structures. These results suggest in addition that immunocytochemical or alternative molecular screening strategies might help to identify women with a high risk for breast (ovarian) cancer even when the underlying genetic defect remains undetectable

  11. Loss of nuclear BRCA1 protein staining in normal tissue cells derived from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brakeleer, Sylvia de [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology (Department of Medical Oncology), UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Bogdani, Marika [Department of Experimental Pathology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Greve, Jacques de [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology (Department of Medical Oncology), UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Familial Cancer Clinic, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Decock, Julie [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology (Department of Medical Oncology), UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Sermijn, Erica [Familial Cancer Clinic, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Bonduelle, Maryse [Familial Cancer Clinic, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Goelen, Guido [Familial Cancer Clinic, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Teugels, Erik [Laboratory of Molecular Oncology (Department of Medical Oncology), UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium) and Familial Cancer Clinic, UZ Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 101, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: eteugels@uzbrussel.be

    2007-06-01

    Enhanced genomic instability has been recently reported in normal cells derived from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers when placed in vitro in non-physiological stress conditions. We present here original data which help to explain the observed genomic instability. Leucocytes from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, sporadic breast cancer patients and controls were prepared for BRCA1 immunocytochemistry. We show that BRCA1 containing nuclear dot like structures are detectable in about 80% of the leucocytes from controls and sporadic breast cancer patients, but are absent in the majority of normal cells from BRCA1 as well as BRCA2 mutation carriers (also in their normal breast cells). Our results thus indicate that the genomic instability observed in normal cells from BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers is associated with a down-regulation of nuclear BRCA1 protein accumulation in the dot like structures. These results suggest in addition that immunocytochemical or alternative molecular screening strategies might help to identify women with a high risk for breast (ovarian) cancer even when the underlying genetic defect remains undetectable.

  12. Common genetic variation at BARD1 is not associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Marquart, Louise; McGuffog, Lesley;

    2011-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Knowledge of factors that can improve breast cancer risk assessment in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers may improve personalized cancer prevention strategies....

  13. Pathology of Breast and Ovarian Cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers: Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previously, small studies have found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. METHODS: We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the...

  14. Low prevalence of HER2 positivity amongst BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and in primary BRCA screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D G; Lalloo, F; Howell, S; Verhoef, S; Woodward, E R; Howell, A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to delineate more clearly the prevalence of HER2+ breast cancer in women with germline BRCA1/2 mutations. For this purpose, we analysed primary mutation screens on women with breast cancer with unequivocal HER2 amplification and assessed the proportion of BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancers that were HER2+ comparing this with the existing literature. The results are that 1063 primary BRCA screens had confirmed tumour HER2 status. If HER2+ only 2.5 % (4/156) and 3.2 % (5/156) of women had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation identified respectively; compared to 27.7 % (115/415) and 8.2 % (34/415) with triple negative tumours. Only 2.1 % (4/195) women with BRCA1-related breast cancer had HER2 amplified breast cancers rising to 6.8 % (n = 12, p = 0.04) in BRCA2. These rates are in keeping with most of the existing literature except a recent large multicenter report which documented higher rates but with no control group. The study concluded that true HER2-amplified breast cancers are rare amongst BRCA1 mutation carriers and are less common in BRCA2 than background rates. PMID:26888723

  15. Contralateral breast cancer after radiotherapy among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Jonine L; Thomas, Duncan C; Shore, Roy E;

    2013-01-01

    Women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/BRCA2) mutations are at very high risk of developing breast cancer, including asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (CBC). BRCA1/BRCA2 genes help maintain genome stability and assist in DNA repair. We examined whether the risk of CBC associated with...

  16. Candidate genetic modifiers for breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterlongo, Paolo; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Moysich, Kirsten B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and ovarian cancer. The incomplete penetrance coupled with the variable age at diagnosis in carriers of the same mutation suggests the existence of genetic and nongenetic modifying factors. In ...

  17. Clinical Considerations of BRCA1- and BRCA2-Mutation Carriers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bougie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals who carry an inherited mutation in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a significant risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer over the course of their lifetime. As a result, there are important considerations for the clinician in the counseling, followup and management of mutation carriers. This review outlines salient aspects in the approach to patients at high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer, including criteria for genetic testing, screening guidelines, surgical prophylaxis, and chemoprevention.

  18. The androgen receptor CAG repeat polymorphism and modification of breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The androgen receptor (AR) gene exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphism encodes a string of 9–32 glutamines. Women with germline BRCA1 mutations who carry at least one AR allele with 28 or more repeats have been reported to have an earlier age at onset of breast cancer. A total of 604 living female Australian and British BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers from 376 families were genotyped for the AR CAG repeat polymorphism. The association between AR genotype and disease risk was assessed using Cox regression. AR genotype was analyzed as a dichotomous covariate using cut-points previously reported to be associated with increased risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers, and as a continuous variable considering smaller allele, larger allele and average allele size. There was no evidence that the AR CAG repeat polymorphism modified disease risk in the 376 BRCA1 or 219 BRCA2 mutation carriers screened successfully. The rate ratio associated with possession of at least one allele with 28 or more CAG repeats was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.42–1.29; P = 0.3) for BRCA1 carriers, and 1.12 (95% confidence interval 0.55–2.25; P = 0.8) for BRCA2 carriers. The AR exon 1 CAG repeat polymorphism does not appear to have an effect on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

  19. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veltman, J.; Mann, R.; Blickman, J.G.; Boetes, C. [University Medical Center, 430 Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9101, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kok, T. [University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Obdeijn, I.M. [Erasmus Medical Center Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Hoogerbrugge, N. [University Medical Center, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2008-05-15

    The appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases. Detection rates on both modalities were evaluated. Tumors were analyzed on morphology, density (mammography), enhancement pattern and kinetics (MRI). Overall detection was significantly better with MRI than with mammography (55/58 vs 44/57, P = 0.021). On mammography, lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (12//19 vs 3/13, P = 0.036) and with sharp margins (9/19 vs 1/13, P = 0.024). On MRI lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (16/27 vs 7/28, P = 0.010), with sharp margins (20/27 vs 7/28, P < 0.001) and with rim enhancement (7/27 vs 1/28, P = 0.025). No significant difference was found for enhancement kinetics (P = 0.667). Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins. This applies for both mammography and MRI. However the possibility of MRI to evaluate the enhancement pattern and kinetics enables the detection of characteristics suggestive for a malignancy. (orig.)

  20. Breast tumor characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appearance of malignant lesions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA-MCs) on mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated. Thus, 29 BRCA-MCs with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated and the results compared with an age, tumor size and tumor type matched control group of 29 sporadic breast cancer cases. Detection rates on both modalities were evaluated. Tumors were analyzed on morphology, density (mammography), enhancement pattern and kinetics (MRI). Overall detection was significantly better with MRI than with mammography (55/58 vs 44/57, P = 0.021). On mammography, lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (12//19 vs 3/13, P = 0.036) and with sharp margins (9/19 vs 1/13, P 0.024). On MRI lesions in the BRCA-MC group were significantly more described as rounded (16/27 vs 7/28, P = 0.010), with sharp margins (20/27 vs 7/28, P < 0.001) and with rim enhancement (7/27 vs 1/28, P = 0.025). No significant difference was found for enhancement kinetics (P = 0.667). Malignant lesions in BRCA-MC frequently have morphological characteristics commonly seen in benign lesions, like a rounded shape or sharp margins. This applies for both mammography and MRI. However the possibility of MRI to evaluate the enhancement pattern and kinetics enables the detection of characteristics suggestive for a malignancy. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of the Needs of Male Carriers of Mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 Who Have Undergone Genetic Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Liede, Alexander; Metcalfe, Kelly; Hanna, Danielle; Hoodfar, Elizabeth; Snyder, Carrie; Durham, Carolyn; Lynch, Henry T.; Narod, Steven A.

    2000-01-01

    To date, the concerns of men at risk of inheriting a BRCA1 mutation or a BRCA2 mutation have received little attention. It had been anticipated that few men would be interested in predictive testing when a BRCA mutation was identified in their family. However, these men are often affected emotionally by diagnoses of breast cancer in their relatives and may themselves harbor fears that cancer will develop. Male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations are at increased risk of development of cancers of se...

  2. Genetic Variation at 9p22.2 and Ovarian Cancer Risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A;

    2011-01-01

    Background Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility....

  3. Genetic variation at 9p22.2 and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Gayther, Simon A;

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancers. Although several common variants have been associated with breast cancer susceptibility in mutation carriers, none have been associated with ovarian cancer susceptibility. A genome-w...

  4. Elevated expression of Ki-67 identifies aggressive prostate cancers but does not distinguish BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, A V; Jameson, C; Barbachano, Y;

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancers in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are more aggressive than morphologically similar cancers in men without these mutations. This study was performed to test the hypothesis that enhanced expression of Ki-67, as a surrogate of cell proliferation, is a characteristic...... and benign tissues (p0.5). Similar results were obtained when the data were analysed using a threshold set at 3.5 and 7.1%. This study shows that elevated expression of Ki-67 is associated both with aggressive prostate cancers and with high Gleason score irrespective of whether their occurrence is...... against a background of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations or as sporadic disease. The data suggest that, since elevated Ki-67 does not distinguish prostate cancers occurring in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers from sporadic prostatic malignancies, the effects of these genetic mutations are probably independent...

  5. Finding all BRCA pathogenic mutation carriers: best practice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jongmans, Marjolijn Cj

    2016-09-01

    Identifying germline BRCA pathogenic mutations in patients with ovarian or breast cancer is a crucial component in the medical management of affected patients. Furthermore, the relatives of affected patients can be offered genetic testing. Relatives who test positive for a germline BRCA pathogenic mutation can take appropriate action to prevent cancer or have cancer diagnosed as early as possible for better treatment options. The recent discovery that BRCA pathogenic mutation status can inform treatment decisions in patients with ovarian cancer has led to an increased demand for BRCA testing, with testing taking place earlier in the patient care pathway. New approaches to genetic counselling may be required to meet this greater demand for BRCA testing. This review discusses the need for best practices for genetic counselling and BRCA testing; it examines the challenges facing current practice and looks at adapted models of genetic counselling. PMID:27514840

  6. Pathology of breast and ovarian cancers among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavaddat, Nasim; Barrowdale, Daniel; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Engel, Christoph; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Goldgar, David; O’Malley, Frances; John, Esther M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Hansen, Thomas v O; Nielsen, Finn C.; Osorio, Ana; Stavropoulou, Alexandra; Benítez, Javier; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Barile, Monica; Volorio, Sara; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Putignano, Anna Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Rashid, Muhammad U.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Brewer, Carole; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Houghton, Catherine; Weaver, JoEllen; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Kast, Karin; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Doroteha; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Belotti, Muriel; Barjhoux, Laure; Isaacs, Claudine; Peshkin, Beth N.; Caldes, Trinidad; de al Hoya, Miguel; Cañadas, Carmen; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Arason, Adalgeir; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; D’Andrea, Emma; Yan, Max; Fox, Stephen; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Rubinstein, Wendy; Tung, Nadine; Garber, Judy E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia M.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Rappaport, Christine; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Sokolenko, Anna; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Senter, Leigha; Sweet, Kevin; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben; Caligo, Maria; Aretini, Paolo; Rantala, Johanna; von Wachenfeld, Anna; Henriksson, Karin; Steele, Linda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nussbaum, Bob; Beattie, Mary; Odunsi, Kunle; Sucheston, Lara; Gayther, Simon A; Nathanson, Kate; Gross, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Karlan, Beth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous small studies found that BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast tumors differ in their pathology. Analysis of larger datasets of mutation carriers should allow further tumor characterization. Methods We used data from 4,325 BRCA1 and 2,568 BRCA2 mutation carriers to analyze the pathology of invasive breast, ovarian and contralateral breast cancers. Results There was strong evidence that the proportion of estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast tumors decreased with age at diagnosis among BRCA1 (p-trend=1.2×10−5) but increased with age at diagnosis among BRCA2 carriers (p-trend=6.8×10−6). The proportion of triple negative tumors decreased with age at diagnosis in BRCA1 carriers but increased with age at diagnosis of BRCA2 carriers. In both BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers, ER-negative tumors were of higher histological grade than ER-positive tumors (Grade 3 vs. Grade 1, p=1.2×10−13 for BRCA1 and p=0.001 for BRCA2). ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression were independently associated with mutation carrier status (ER-positive odds ratio (OR) for BRCA2=9.4, 95%CI:7.0-12.6 and PR-positive OR=1.7, 95%CI:1.3-2.3, under joint analysis). Lobular tumors were more likely to be BRCA2-related (OR for BRCA2=3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.4, p=4.4×10−14), and medullary tumors BRCA1-related (OR for BRCA2=0.25, 95%CI:0.18-0.35, p=2.3×10−15). ER-status of the first breast cancer was predictive of ER-status of asynchronous contralateral breast cancer (p=0.0004 for BRCA1; p=0.002 for BRCA2). There were no significant differences in ovarian cancer morphology between BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers (serous:67%; mucinous:1%; endometriod:12%; clear-cell:2%). Conclusions/Impact Pathology characteristics of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumors may be useful for improving risk prediction algorithms and informing clinical strategies for screening and prophylaxis. PMID:22144499

  7. Should we screen BRCA1 mutation carriers only with MRI? A multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obdeijn, I.-M.; Winter-Warnars, G.A.O.; Mann, R.M.; Hooning, M.J.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BRCA1 mutation carriers are offered screening with MRI and mammography. Aim of the study was to investigate the additional value of digital mammography over MRI screening. BRCA1 mutation carriers, who developed breast cancer since the introduction of digital mammography between January 2003 and Marc

  8. An international survey of surveillance schemes for unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madorsky-Feldman, Dana; Sklair-Levy, Miri; Perri, Tamar; Laitman, Yael; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Schmutzler, Rita; Rhiem, Kerstin; Lester, Jenny; Karlan, Beth Y; Singer, Christian F; Van Maerken, Tom; Claes, Kathleen; Brunet, Joan; Izquierdo, Angel; Teulé, Alex; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Sung-Won; Arun, Banu; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Tucker, Katherine; Poplawski, Nicola K; Varesco, Liliana; Bonelli, Luigina Ada; Buys, Saundra S; Mitchell, Gillian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Seynaeve, Caroline; Robson, Mark; Kwong, Ava; Tung, Nadine; Tessa, Nalven; Domchek, Susan M; Godwin, Andrew K; Rantala, Johanna; Arver, Brita; Friedman, Eitan

    2016-06-01

    Female BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers are at substantially increased risk for developing breast and/or ovarian cancer, and are offered enhanced surveillance including screening from a young age and risk-reducing surgery (RRS)-mastectomy (RRM) and/or salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). While there are established guidelines for early detection of breast cancer in high-risk women who have not undergone RRM, there are less developed guidelines after RRM. We evaluated the schemes offered before and after RRS in internationally diverse high-risk clinics. An e-mailed survey was distributed to high-risk clinics affiliated with CIMBA. Overall, 22 centers from 16 countries responded. Pre RRS surveillance schemes overwhelmingly included breast imaging (primarily MRI) from 18 to 30 years and clinical breast exam (CBE) at 6-12 month intervals. For ovarian cancer, all but 6 centers offered semiannual/annual gynecological exam, transvaginal ultrasound, and CA 125 measurements. Post RRM, most centers offered only annual CBE while 4 centers offered annual MRI, primarily for substantial residual breast tissue. After RRSO only 4 centers offered specific gynecological surveillance. Existing guidelines for breast/ovarian cancer detection in BRCA carriers are being applied pre RRS but are not globally harmonized, and most centers offer no specific surveillance post RRS. From this comprehensive multinational study it is clear that evidence-based, long-term prospective data on the most effective scheme for BRCA carriers post RRS is needed. PMID:27117159

  9. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Im, Kate M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu;

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele fre...

  10. Haplotype structure in Ashkenazi Jewish BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Im, Kate M.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Wang, Xianshu; Green, Todd; Chow, Clement Y.; Vijai, Joseph; Korn, Joshua; Gaudet, Mia M.; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Guiducci, Candace; Crenshaw, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Roozendaal, Cees E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Perez-Segura, Pedro; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Blecharz, Pawel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Singer, Christian F.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Caligo, Maria Adelaide; Beattie, Mary S.; Chan, Salina; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Steven; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Tung, Nadine; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare T.; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Paterson, Joan; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Side, Lucy E.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Laitman, Yael; Meindl, Alfons; Deissler, Helmut; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Klein, Robert J.; Daly, Mark J.; Friedman, Eitan; Dean, Michael; Clark, Andrew G.; Altshuler, David M.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Gold, Bert

    2011-01-01

    Three founder mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 contribute to the risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer in Ashkenazi Jews (AJ). They are observed at increased frequency in the AJ compared to other BRCA mutations in Caucasian non-Jews (CNJ). Several authors have proposed that elevated allele freque

  11. Comparison of risk assessment models of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybchenko L.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of efficiency of the algorithm BOADICEA using and Manchester scoring system to predict the carrier of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Ukranian patients with breast cancer was performed. Materials for this study were the results of clinical, imunogistological, pathogistological, genealogical, molecular genetic researches of 146 patients with breast cancer. Calculations of mutations risk were performed using BOADICEA algorithm and Manchester scoring system. In the total group of patients the area under the curve while predicting BRCA1 mutations with algorithm BOADICEA was 0.86, with Manchester scoring system - 0.84, and in calculation of the combined risk of BRCA mutations - 0.83 and 0.84, respectively. However, statistical difference between the areas of algorithms has not been established (p> 0.05, it indicates to the same discriminatory power of the test models. Better sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of results of BOADICEA algorithm was reached in 6% of BRCA1 probability and in 8% threshold of BRCA1/2 mutations. The Manchester scoring system has showed the best operating characteristics with 6 and 13-point probability of BRCA1 and BRCA1/2 mutations respectively. Patients with probability of mutations with such thresholds may be offered molecular study of pathogenic alleles.

  12. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shani-Shimon–Paluch; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramóny; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; García, Encarna B. Gómez; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Léoné, Mélanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Hélène; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Maria, Muy-Kheng Tea; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated with breast cancer risk in a larger cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Methods IRS1 rs1801123, rs1330645, and rs1801278 were genotyped in samples from 36 centers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Data were analyzed by a retrospective cohort approach modeling the associations with breast and ovarian cancer risks simultaneously. Analyses were stratified by BRCA1 and BRCA2 status and mutation class in BRCA1 carriers. Results Rs1801278 (Gly972Arg) was associated with ovarian cancer risk for both BRCA1 [Hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.06–1.92; p = 0.019] and BRCA2 mutation carriers (HR=2.21; 95% CI: 1.39–3.52, p=0.0008). For BRCA1 mutation carriers, the breast cancer risk was higher in carriers with class 2 mutations than class 1 (mutations (class 2 HR=1.86, 95% CI: 1.28–2.70; class 1 HR=0.86, 95%CI:0.69–1.09; p-for difference=0.0006). Rs13306465 was associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers (HR = 2.42; p = 0.03). Conclusion The IRS1 Gly972Arg SNP, which affects insulin-like growth factor and insulin signaling, modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 class 2 mutation carriers. Impact These findings may prove useful for risk prediction for breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. PMID:22729394

  13. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan;

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 ...

  14. [Gynecological Care and Prevention of Gynecological Malignancies in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikán, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current knowledge of gynecological care aspects in women with inherited predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer, i.e. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, and proposes guidelines for furher management of these women, addressing follow-up recommendations, prophylactic surgery indications and preimplantation genetic conseling. It evaluates cancer risk and severity of ovarian cancer in particular with regards to its high mortality resulting from aggressive biological behavior of the tumor and late detection rates. BRCA-positive women should be enrolled in prevention programs including carefull surveillance, prophylactic surgery or pre-implantation genetic counseling. Follow-up care consists of gynecological examination, expert oncogynecological ultrasound and tumor marker CA125 examination every six months. However, the most effective strategy for mortality reduction in ovarian cancer is prophylactic surgery--salpingo-oophorectomy (and hysterectomy). The optimal age for surgery is between 35 to 40 years. Prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy performed in premenopausal women was proved to reduce the risk of ovarian as well as breast cancer. Symptoms of estrogen deficiency after prophylactic surgery can be suppressed by administration of hormone replacement therapy without increasing the risk of breast cancer. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis is an effective way to prevent the trans--mission of hereditary predisposition to the next generation. The management of patients with hereditary suspceptibility to ovarian cancer should be confined to specialized centres. PMID:26691939

  15. Targeted prostate cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Page, Elizabeth C; Castro, Elena;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Men with germline breast cancer 1, early onset (BRCA1) or breast cancer 2, early onset (BRCA2) gene mutations have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer (PCa) than noncarriers. IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening in ...

  16. Recommendations for prevention in carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that 5% -10% of all breast cancers in women are developed in the context of inherited susceptibility of dominant autosomal, where the BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the main known associated genes. The inheritance of a mutated allele of some of these genes confers a risk extremely high in the breast cancer. In fact, while in the general population in countries with high incidence of breast cancer such as Uruguay, the cumulative risk of developing the disease is around 10% -12%, in the carriers of a germ line mutation in BRCA1 / 2 such risk can reach 85%. Furthermore, they present an increased risk of developing other tumors, including ovarian cancer. The recommendations for monitoring / screening are based on expert opinion. In relation to breast cancer, the emphasis is on the early onset controls than the general population, which is based on the younger age presentation of the disease in genetically predisposed women. Recommendations for ovarian cancer consists of trans vaginal ultrasound and determination of serum levels of CA125 from 30-35 years. The suboptimal results obtained with the conventional monitoring methods emphasize the importance of incorporating more useful procedures. In these sense preliminary results show that mammary magnetic resonance imaging has higher sensitivity. Moreover, proteomics allowed development of promising techniques to improve the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Primary prevention options include mastectomy and prophylactic oophorectomy and chemo prevention. Difficulties in early detection of ovarian cancer and its high mortality justify consider prophylactic oophorectomy as a management option from 35 years and once completed the family. In the case of breast cancer, if while prophylactic mastectomy has proven very effective, is unacceptable for most patients. Monitoring to detect early and chemo prevention are important alternatives. In all cases, the management should be individualized based on the level of risk and

  17. Factors influencing ovulation and the risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Cybulski, Cezary; Demsky, Rochelle; Neuhausen, Susan L; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Tung, Nadine; Friedman, Susan; Senter, Leigha; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Karlan, Beth; Moller, Pal; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    The role of the lifetime number of ovulatory cycles has not been evaluated in the context of BRCA-associated ovarian cancer. Thus, we conducted a matched case-control study to evaluate the relationship between the cumulative number of ovulatory cycles (and contributing components) and risk of developing ovarian cancer in BRCA mutation carriers (1,329 cases and 5,267 controls). Information regarding reproductive and hormonal factors was collected from a routinely administered questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to evaluate all associations. We observed a 45% reduction in the risk of developing ovarian cancer among women in the lowest vs. highest quartile of ovulatory cycles (OR = 0.55; 95% CI 0.41-0.75, p = 0.0001). Breastfeeding for more than 12 months was associated with a 38% (95% CI 0.48-0.79) and 50% (95% CI 0.29-0.84) reduction in risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. For oral contraceptive use, maximum benefit was seen with five or more years of use among BRCA1 mutation carriers (OR = 0.50; 95% CI 0.40-0.63) and three or more years for BRCA2 mutation carriers (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.22-0.83). Increasing parity was associated with a significant inverse trend among BRCA1 (OR = 0.87; 95% CI 0.79-0.96; p-trend = 0.005) but not BRCA2 mutation carriers (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.81-1.19; p-trend = 0.85). A later age at menopause was associated with an increased risk in women with a BRCA1 mutation (OR trend = 1.18; 95% CI 1.03-1.35; p = 0.02). These findings support an important role of breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use for the primary prevention of ovarian cancer among women carrying BRCA mutations. PMID:25482078

  18. Effect of Prior Bilateral Oophorectomy on the Presentation of Breast Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metcalfe Kelly A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To compare the presentation of invasive breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with and without prior bilateral oophorectomy. Patients and methods Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation with the diagnosis of invasive breast cancer were identified from ten cancer genetics clinics. The medical history, medical treatment records and pathology reports for the breast cancers were reviewed. Information was abstracted from medical charts, including history (and date of oophorectomy, date of breast cancer diagnosis, stage of disease, and pathologic characteristics of the breast cancer. Women with prior bilateral oophorectomy were matched by age, year of diagnosis, and mutation with one or more women who had two intact ovaries at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. Characteristics of the breast tumours were compared between the two groups. Results Women with prior bilateral oophorectomy presented with smaller tumours on average compared to women without prior oophorectomy (mean size 1.50 cm vs. 1.95 cm; p = 0.01. Additionally, although not statistically significant, women with intact ovaries were more likely to have high-grade tumour (70% vs. 54%: p = 0.10 and to have positive lymph nodes (34% vs. 18%; p = 0.11 compared to women with prior bilateral oophorectomy. Conclusions Bilateral oophorectomy prior to breast cancer appears to favourably influence the biological presentation of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  19. Common breast cancer-predisposition alleles are associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Spurdle, Amanda B; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2008-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast cancer. However, evidence suggests that these risks are modified by other genetic or environmental factors that cluster in families. A recent genome-wide association study has shown that common alleles at single nucleotide...... polymorphisms (SNPs) in FGFR2 (rs2981582), TNRC9 (rs3803662), and MAP3K1 (rs889312) are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. To investigate whether these loci are also associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, we genotyped these SNPs in a sample...... of 10,358 mutation carriers from 23 studies. The minor alleles of SNP rs2981582 and rs889312 were each associated with increased breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele hazard ratio [HR] = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20-1.45, p(trend) = 1.7 x 10(-8) and HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.02-1.24, p(trend) = 0...

  20. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, David G.; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel; Hamdi, Yosr; Soucy, Penny; Ouimet, Manon; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Szabo, Csilla; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch, Shani S.; Borg, Åke; Karlsson, Per; Stenmark Askmalm, Marie; Barbany Bustinza, Gisela; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti A.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; Ausems, Margreet G.E.M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Gille, Hans J.J.P.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Paterson, Joan; Eason, Jacqueline; Godwin, Andrew K.; Remon, Marie-Alice; Moncoutier, Virginie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Giraud, Sophie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Sobol, Hagay; Eisinger, François; Bressac de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Delnatte, Capucine; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alex; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Buys, Saundra; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne-Catharina; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Hansen, Thomas V.O.; Johannsson, Oskar; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Basil, Jack B.; Blank, Stephanie; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Isaacs, Claudine; Blanco, Ignacio; Gayther, Simon A.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Fiebig, Britta; Caldes, Trinidad; Laframboise, Rachel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Sinilnikova, Olga M.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.77–0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 modify risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1 mutations, possibly by altering the efficiency of BRCA1 transcription. PMID:21890493

  1. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Arun, Banu K.; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Cohn, David E.; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B.; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; de Pauw, Antoine; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M.; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F.; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D. Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D.; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldgar, David E.; Hake, Christopher R.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M.; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Ong, Kai-ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Rookus, Matti A.; Ross, Eric A.; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F.; Slavin, Thomas P.; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J.; Greene, Mark H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10−16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10−6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  2. Fine-Scale Mapping at 9p22.2 Identifies Candidate Causal Variants That Modify Ovarian Cancer Risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Beesley, Jonathan; Adlard, Julian; Agnarsson, Bjarni A; Andrulis, Irene L; Arun, Banu K; Barjhoux, Laure; Belotti, Muriel; Benitez, Javier; Berger, Andreas; Bojesen, Anders; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brewer, Carole; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A; Campbell, Ian; Chan, Salina B; Claes, Kathleen B M; Cohn, David E; Cook, Jackie; Daly, Mary B; Damiola, Francesca; Davidson, Rosemarie; Pauw, Antoine de; Delnatte, Capucine; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Dumont, Martine; Durda, Katarzyna; Dworniczak, Bernd; Easton, Douglas F; Eccles, Diana; Edwinsdotter Ardnor, Christina; Eeles, Ros; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Evans, D Gareth; Feliubadalo, Lidia; Fostira, Florentia; Foulkes, William D; Friedman, Eitan; Frost, Debra; Gaddam, Pragna; Ganz, Patricia A; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Barberan, Vanesa; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Gehrig, Andrea; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Giraud, Sophie; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; Hake, Christopher R; Hansen, Thomas V O; Healey, Sue; Hodgson, Shirley; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Houdayer, Claude; Hulick, Peter J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Izatt, Louise; Izquierdo, Angel; Jacobs, Lauren; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Vijai, Joseph; Karlan, Beth Y; Kast, Karin; Investigators, KConFab; Khan, Sofia; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lester, Jenny; Lesueur, Fabienne; Liljegren, Annelie; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Manoukian, Siranoush; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Meindl, Alfons; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Montagna, Marco; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Niederacher, Dieter; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Ong, Kai-Ren; Osorio, Ana; Park, Sue Kyung; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Piedmonte, Marion; Poppe, Bruce; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Radice, Paolo; Rennert, Gad; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Rookus, Matti A; Ross, Eric A; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Simard, Jacques; Singer, Christian F; Slavin, Thomas P; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Sutter, Christian; Szabo, Csilla I; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Terry, Mary Beth; Thomassen, Mads; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Tihomirova, Laima; Tognazzo, Silvia; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Varesco, Liliana; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Vratimos, Athanassios; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; McGuffog, Lesley; Kirk, Judy; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Hamann, Ute; Lindor, Noralane; Ramus, Susan J; Greene, Mark H; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Pharoah, Paul D P; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C

    2016-01-01

    Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population. PMID:27463617

  3. Relevance and efficacy of breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers above 60 years : a national cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Vos, Janet R; Hooning, Maartje J; Oosterwijk, Jan C; Koppert, Linetta B; de Bock, Geertruida H; Ausems, Margreet G; van Asperen, Christi J; Aalfs, Cora M; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Piek, Marianne; Seynaeve, Caroline; Verhoef, Cornelis; Rookus, Matti; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M

    2014-01-01

    Annual MRI and mammography is recommended for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to reduce breast cancer mortality. Less intensive screening is advised ≥60 years, although effectiveness is unknown. We identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers without bilateral mastectomy before age 60 to determine for whom screen

  4. Relevance and efficacy of breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers above 60 years : A national cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Vos, Janet R.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Koppert, Linetta B.; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Ausems, Margreet G.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Piek, Marianne; Seynaeve, Caroline; Verhoef, Cornelis; Rookus, Matti; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual MRI and mammography is recommended for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to reduce breast cancer mortality. Less intensive screening is advised >= 60 years, although effectiveness is unknown. We identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers without bilateral mastectomy before age 60 to determine for whom scre

  5. Relevance and efficacy of breast cancer screening in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers above 60 years: a national cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadatmand, S.; Vos, J.R.; Hooning, M.J.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Koppert, L.B.; Bock, G.H. de; Ausems, M.G.; Asperen, C.J. van; Aalfs, C.M.; Garcia, E.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Piek, M.; Seynaeve, C.; Verhoef, C.; Rookus, M.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Annual MRI and mammography is recommended for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers to reduce breast cancer mortality. Less intensive screening is advised >/=60 years, although effectiveness is unknown. We identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers without bilateral mastectomy before age 60 to determine for whom s

  6. The CASP8 rs3834129 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The rs3834129 polymorphism, in the promoter of CASP8 gene, has been recently reported as associated with breast cancer risk in the general population, with the minor allele del having a protective effect. Some of the genetic variants found associated with breast cancer risk were reported as risk modifiers in individuals with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here, we tested the effect of the rs3834129 del allele on breast cancer risk in BRCA mutation carriers. The rs3834...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E.J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K.E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th.; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10088218 (at 8q24), rs2665390 (at 3q25), rs717852 (at 2q31), and rs9303542 (at 17q21), were genotyped in 12,599 BRCA1 and 7,132 BRCA2 carriers, including 2,678 ovarian cancer cases. Associations were evaluated within a retrospective cohort approach. All four loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA2 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.67–0.98) P-trend = 0.033, rs2665390 HR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.21–1.83) P-trend = 1.8 × 10−4, rs717852 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.6 × 10−4, rs9303542 HR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.02–1.33) P-trend = 0.026. Two loci were associated with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 carriers; rs10088218 per-allele HR = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.81–0.99) P-trend = 0.029, rs2665390 HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.10–1.42) P-trend = 6.1 × 10−4. The HR estimates for the remaining loci were consistent with odds ratio estimates for the general population. The identification of multiple loci modifying ovarian cancer risk may be useful for counseling women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations regarding their risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:22253144

  8. Risk of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Cancer in BRCA Mutation Carriers with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leila; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer have a high risk of ipsilateral breast cancer tumor recurrence (IBTR) and a high lifetime risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The IBTR risk is significantly higher in women who elect breast conservation. Oophorectomy has a protective effect for both ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and CBC. Patients with younger age of breast cancer onset have a significantly greater risk of CBC. Given the higher risk of IBTR and CBC, when indicat...

  9. Haplotype analysis of TP53 polymorphisms, Arg72Pro and Ins16, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers of French Canadian descent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TP53 polymorphisms Arg72Pro (Ex4+199 G>C) and Ins16 (IVS3+24 ins16) have been proposed to modify risk of breast cancer associated with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Allele frequencies of these polymorphisms were investigated to determine if they modify risk in BRCA mutation carriers in breast cancer cases drawn from French Canadian cancer families, a population shown to exhibit strong founder effects. The frequencies of the TP53 alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of 157 index breast cancer cases comprised of 42 BRCA1 mutation carriers, 57 BRCA2 mutation carriers, and 58 BRCA mutation-negative cases, where each case was drawn from independently ascertained families were compared. The effect of TP53 variants on the age of diagnosis was also investigated for these groups. The TP53 polymorphisms were also investigated in 112 women of French Canadian descent with no personal history of cancer. The BRCA mutation-positive groups had the highest frequency of homozygous carriers of the 72Pro allele compared with mutation-negative group. The TP53 polymorphisms exhibited linkage disequilibrium (p < 0.001), where the 72Arg and Ins16minus alleles occurred in strong disequilibrium. The highest frequency of carriers of Ins16minus-72Arg haplotype occurred in the BRCA mutation-negative groups. The BRCA1 mutation carriers homozygous for the 72Pro allele had the youngest ages of diagnosis of breast cancer. However none of these observations were statistically significant. In contrast, the BRCA2 mutation carriers homozygous for the 72Pro allele had a significantly older age of diagnosis of breast cancer (p = 0.018). Moreover, in this group, the mean age of diagnosis of breast cancer in carriers of the Ins16minus-72Arg haplotype was significantly younger than that of the individuals who did not this carry this haplotype (p = 0.009). We observed no significant association of breast cancer risk with TP53 genetic variants based on BRCA1/2 mutation carrier status. Although the

  10. Aspirin use is associated with lower prostate cancer risk in male carriers of BRCA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossack, Matthew; Ghaffary, Cameron; Watson, Patrice; Snyder, Carrie; Lynch, Henry

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that male BRCA mutation carriers stand at increased risk of developing prostate cancer and have concerns about developing cancer. Genetic counseling practitioners often discuss strategies for reducing the risk of cancer for patients at high risk due to their genetic background. Addressing modifiable health habits is one such strategy. Unfortunately, modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer have only been documented in the general population and have not yet been studied in the BRCA carrier subpopulation. Therefore, this study aimed to identify modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer in BRCA carriers. We examined prostate cancer risk factors in 74 men who were part of families with a BRCA mutation. This study examined nine dichotomous variables including: exercise, history of vasectomy, smoking history, alcohol use, finasteride use, statin use, aspirin use, coffee use, and vitamin use. The survey was sent to all cases of prostate cancer in the Hereditary Cancer Center Database at Creighton University with a known BRCA status. This study confirmed the protective benefits of daily aspirin use, which have been observed in previous studies of the general population, and suggests its benefit in BRCA carriers. Protective benefits from regular vigorous exercise and daily coffee use trended towards significance, but neither factor withstood the Bonferroni Correction for multiple comparisons. PMID:23881471

  11. Chromosomal radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients and BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity is observed in significant proportions of cancer patients. In breast cancer patients, this elevated sensitivity is confirmed in several independent studies with the G2 assay as well as with the GO micronucleus (MN) assay for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Enhanced chromosomal radiosensitivity is a common feature of sporadic breast cancer patients as well as breast cancer patients with a family history of the disease. Segregation analysis showed Mendelian heritability of chromosomal radiosensitivity. As mutations in the highly penetrant breast cancer predisposing genes, BRCA1 and 2, are only present in about 3-5 % of familial breast cancer patients, they cannot solely account for the high proportion of radiosensitive cases found among all breast cancer patients. A review on chromosomal radiosensitivity in BRCA1 and 2 mutation carriers shows that breast cancer patients with a BRCAl or 2 mutation are on the average more radiosensitive than healthy individuals, but not different from breast cancer patients without a BRCA mutation. The radiation response of healthy BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, on the contrary, is not significantly different from controls. Most studies performed on wild type and BRCA +/- EBV lymphoblastoid cell lines also could not demonstrate any differences in MN response between both groups. These findings suggest that mutations in BRCA 1 and 2 are not playing a major role in chromosomal radiosensitivity as measured by G2 and MN assay. The enhanced sensitivity observed in a substantial proportion of breast cancer patients, irrespective of a BRCA1/2 mutation or not, suggests that this feature may be related to the presence of other mutations in low penetrance breast cancer predisposing genes, which may be involved in the process of DNA damage. (author)

  12. Expression of estrogen receptor beta in the breast carcinoma of BRCA1 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancers (BC) in women carrying mutations in BRCA1 gene are more frequently estrogen receptor negative than the nonhereditary BC. Nevertheless, tamoxifen has been found to have a protective effect in preventing contralateral tumors in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The identification of the second human estrogen receptor, ERβ, raised a question of its role in hereditary breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of ERα, ERβ, PgR (progesterone receptor) and HER-2 expression in breast cancer patients with mutated BRCA1 gene and in the control group. The study group consisted of 48 women with BRCA1 gene mutations confirmed by multiplex PCR assay. The patients were tested for three most common mutations of BRCA1 affecting the Polish population (5382insC, C61G, 4153delA). Immunostaining for ERα, ERβ and PgR (progesterone receptor) was performed using monoclonal antibodies against ERα, PgR (DakoCytomation), and polyclonal antibody against ERβ (Chemicon). The EnVision detection system was applied. The study population comprised a control group of 120 BC operated successively during the years 1998–99. The results of our investigation showed that BRCA1 mutation carriers were more likely to have ERα-negative breast cancer than those in the control group. Only 14.5% of BRCA1-related cancers were ERα-positive compared with 57.5% in the control group (P < 0.0001). On the contrary, the expression of ERβ protein was observed in 42% of BRCA1-related tumors and in 55% of the control group. An interesting finding was that most hereditary cancers (75% of the whole group) were triple-negative: ERα(-)/PgR(-)/HER-2(-) but almost half of this group (44.4%) showed the expression of ERβ. In the case of BRCA1-associated tumors the expression of ERβ was significantly higher than the expression of ERα. This may explain the effectiveness of tamoxifen in preventing contralateral breast cancer development in BRCA1 mutation carriers

  13. DCIS in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: prevalence, phenotype, and expression of oncodrivers C-MET and HER3

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Rachel L.; Mick, Rosemarie; Lee, Kathreen; Holly L Graves; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Kelz, Rachel R; Zhang, Paul J; Czerniecki, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies report conflicting evidence regarding the existence of a DCIS-associated premalignant pathway in BRCA mutation carriers. We aimed to examine the prevalence, phenotype, and expression of oncodrivers in pure DCIS (pDCIS) and invasive breast cancer with concurrent DCIS (IBC + DCIS) in mutation carriers. Methods A cohort of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers >18 years old who underwent surgery for breast cancer at an academic hospital (1992–2011) and had pathology available for ...

  14. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A; Milne, R L; Pita, G;

    2009-01-01

    Background:In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.Methods:We have geno...

  15. Evaluation of a candidate breast cancer associated SNP in ERCC4 as a risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/BRCA2 (CIMBA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, A.; Milne, R.L.; Pita, G.;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to evaluate the role of a SNP in intron 1 of the ERCC4 gene (rs744154), previously reported to be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer in the general population, as a breast cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We have g...

  16. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Osorio

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of the components of the BER pathway, PARP1 (poly ADP ribose polymerase, and both BRCA1 and BRCA2. In the present study, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 18 genes involved in BER using a tagging SNP approach in a large series of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. 144 SNPs were analyzed in a two stage study involving 23,463 carriers from the CIMBA consortium (the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Eleven SNPs showed evidence of association with breast and/or ovarian cancer at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. Four of the five genes for which strongest evidence of association was observed were DNA glycosylases. The strongest evidence was for rs1466785 in the NEIL2 (endonuclease VIII-like 2 gene (HR: 1.09, 95% CI (1.03-1.16, p = 2.7 × 10(-3 for association with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers, and rs2304277 in the OGG1 (8-guanine DNA glycosylase gene, with ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (HR: 1.12 95%CI: 1.03-1.21, p = 4.8 × 10(-3. DNA glycosylases involved in the first steps of the BER pathway may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and should be more comprehensively studied.

  17. Validation study suggested no differential misclassification of self-reported mammography history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Mulder, Renee L.; Manders, Peggy; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We assessed accuracy of self-reported lifetime mammography history by BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with and without breast cancer. Study Design and Setting: Within the framework of the HEBON study (The Netherlands Collaborative Group on Hereditary Breast Cancer), 218 Dutch BRCA1/2 mutation

  18. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers : results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J.; Barrowdale, Daniel; Domchek, Susan M.; Eccles, Diana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Ramus, Susan J.; Robson, Mark; Sherman, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Lee, Andrew; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Osorio, Ana; Munoz-Repeto, Ivan; Duran, Mercedes; Godino, Javier; Pertesi, Maroulio; Benitez, Javier; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Pasini, Barbara; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Savarese, Antonella; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Hamann, Ute; Verheus, Martijn; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Wijnen, Juul; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Nelen, Marcel R.; Kets, C. Marleen; Seynaeve, Caroline; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo; Rookus, Matti; Frost, Debra; Jones, J. Louise; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cook, Jackie; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Gregory, Helen; Eason, Jacqueline; Houghton, Catherine; Barwell, Julian; Side, Lucy E.; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Kast, Karin; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Fiebig, Britta; Heinritz, Wolfram; Schaefer, Dieter; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Cornelis, Francois; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Leone, Melanie; Boutry-Kryza, Nadia; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Muller, Daniele; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Longy, Michel; Sevenet, Nicolas; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Isaacs, Claudine; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Soucy, Penny; Dumont, Martine; Simard, Jacques; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; D'Andrea, Emma; Fox, Stephen; Yan, Max; Rebbeck, Tim; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Szabo, Csilla; Offit, Kenneth; Sakr, Rita; Gaudet, Mia; Bhatia, Jasmine; Kauff, Noah; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Imyanitov, Evgeny; O'Malley, Frances P.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gordon; Toland, Amanda E.; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Soller, Maria; Henriksson, Karin; Wachenfeldt, von Anna; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Karlsson, Per; Ding, Yuan Chun; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Beattie, Mary; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.; Buys, Saundra M.; Southey, Melissa C.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; Miron, Alexander F.; Goldgar, David; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes in BRCA1 an

  19. Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Alleles and the Risk of Breast Cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutation Carriers : Implications for Risk Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall'Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernstroem, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.; Blok, Marinus J.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valerie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Helene; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frenay, Marc; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jnson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 i

  20. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley;

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs650495...

  1. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: Implications for risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); J. Beesley (Jonathan); L. McGuffog (Lesley); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Healey (Sue); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); H. Lynch (Henry); C. Isaacs (Claudine); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); G. Tomlinson (Gail); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); F.J. Couch (Fergus); X. Wang (Xing); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); P. Radice (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); M. Barile (Monica); A. Viel (Alessandra); A. Allavena (Anna); V. Dall'Olio (Valentina); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); C. Szabo (Csilla); M. Zikan (Michal); K. Claes (Kathleen); B. Poppe (Bruce); L. Foretova (Lenka); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); G. Rennert (Gad); F. Lejbkowicz (Flavio); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); M. Thomassen (Mads); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); L. Sunde (Lone); D. Cruger (Dorthe); U.B. Jensen; M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); B. Kaufman (Bella); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); M. Dubrovsky (Maya); S. Cohen (Shimrit); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Jernström (H.); A. Lindblom (Annika); J. Rantala (Johanna); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); B. Melin (Beatrice); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); A. Osorio (Ana); A. Lasa (Adriana); M. Durán (Mercedes); M.I. Tejada; J. Godino (Javier); J. Benitez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); M. Kriege (Mieke); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); P. Devilee (Peter); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); M.J. Blok (Marinus); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M. Cook (Margaret); C.T. Oliver (Clare); D. Frost (Debra); D. Conroy (Don); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); G. Pichert (Gabriella); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); T.J. Cole (Trevor); J. Paterson (Joan); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); M.E. Porteous (Mary); L.J. Walker (Lisa); M.J. Kennedy (John); H. Dorkins (Huw); S. Peock (Susan); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); A. de Pauw (Antoine); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); V. Bonadona (Valérie); C. Lasset (Christine); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); D. Leroux (Dominique); A. hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); L. Faivre (Laurence); C. Loustalot (Catherine); T. Noguchi (Tetsuro); H. Sobol (Hagay); E. Rouleau (Etienne); C. Nogues (Catherine); M. Frenay (Marc); L. Vénat-Bouvet (Laurence); J. Hopper (John); M.J. Daly (Mark); M-B. Terry (Mary-beth); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Dressler (Catherina); D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); G. Pfeiler (Georg); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jnson (Lars); B.A. Agnarsson (Bjarni); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); V. Devlin (Vincent); A. Dutra-Clarke (Ana); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); K. Wakeley (Katie); J.F. Boggess (John); J. Basil (Jack); P.E. Schwartz (Peter); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); C. Casella (Cinzia); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); L. Tihomirova (Laima); I. Blanco (Ignacio); C. Lazaro (Conxi); S.J. Ramus (Susan); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); J. Gross (Jenny); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); M. Lochmann (Magdalena); N. Arnold (Norbert); S. Heidemann (Simone); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); D. Niederacher (Dieter); C. Sutter (Christian); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); K. Kast (Karin); I. Schönbuchner (Ines); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J. Simard (Jacques); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); H. Holland (Helene); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); R. Platte (Radka); D.F. Easton (Douglas)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe known breast cancer susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, and 2q35 confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of 3 additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10,

  2. DNA glycosylases involved in base excision repair may be associated with cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, Ana; Milne, Roger L; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline;

    2014-01-01

    Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in the DNA Base Excision Repair (BER) pathway could be associated with cancer risk in carriers of mutations in the high-penetrance susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, given the relation of synthetic lethality that exists between one of th...

  3. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Bernard, Loris; Radice, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Foretova, Lenka; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Glendon, Gord; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Kontorovich, Tair; Cohen, Shimrit; Kaufman, Bella; Dagan, Efrat; Baruch, Ruth Gershoni; Friedman, Eitan; Harbst, Katja; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Karlsson, Per; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Osorio, Ana; Blanco, Ignacio; Lasa, Adriana; Benítez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collee, J. Margriet; Devilee, Peter; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Waisfisz, Quinten; Wijnen, Juul; van Roozendaal, Cornelis E.P.; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Oliver, Clare; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Rosalind; Izatt, Louise; Davidson, Rosemarie; Chu, Carol; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Hodgson, Shirley; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Léoné, Mélanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert M.; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Prieur, Fabienne; Goldgar, David; Miron, Alexander; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Hopper, John L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Yassin, Yosuf; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Staudigl, Christine; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Pal, Prodipto; Kosarin, Kristi; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Allavena, Anna; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Versmold, Beatrix; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Deißler, Helmut; Fiebig, Britta; Suttner, Christian; Schönbuchner, Ines; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Pooley, Karen A.; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9 and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25, P-trend = 2.8 × 10−4]. The best fit for the association of SNP rs13387042 at 2q35 with breast cancer risk was a dominant model for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers (BRCA1: HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.25, P = 0.0047; BRCA2: HR = 1.18 95% CI: 1.04–1.33, P = 0.0079). SNP rs13281615 at 8q24 was not associated with breast cancer for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, but the estimated association for BRCA2 mutation carriers (per-allele HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.98–1.14) was consistent with odds ratio estimates derived from population-based case–control studies. The LSP1 and 2q35 SNPs appear to interact multiplicatively on breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers. There was no evidence that the associations vary by mutation type depending on whether the mutated protein is predicted to be stable or not. PMID:19656774

  4. Reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assessed reliability of self-reported diagnostic radiation history in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers with and without breast cancer. Within the frame-work of the HEBON study, 401 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers completed a baseline (1999-2004) and a follow-up questionnaire (2006-2007). Test-retest reliability of self-reported exposure to chest X-rays, fluoroscopies and mammograms was assessed for the entire study population and by case status. Overall proportion agreement on reporting ever/never exposure was good (> 75%), while the corresponding kappa coefficients were between 0.40 and 0.75, indicating at least moderate reliability beyond chance. Reliability of number of exposures was also good (> 75%). Proportion agreement on reporting age at first mammogram was low (40%) for exact consistency and moderate (60%) for consistency ± 1 year. Reliability of age at first mammogram was higher for cases than for unaffected carriers (P < 0.001) but this difference disappeared when excluding diagnostic mammograms (P = 0.60). In unaffected carriers proportion agreement on age at last mammogram was 50%. In general, the direction of disagreement on all items was equally distributed. More consistent reporting was mainly determined by a younger age at questionnaire completion. In conclusion, inconsistent self-report of diagnostic radiation by BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was mainly non-differential by disease status.

  5. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles and the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: implications for risk prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Beesley, Jonathan; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Isaacs, Claudine; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Allavena, Anna; Dall’Olio, Valentina; Peterlongo, Paolo; Szabo, Csilla I.; Zikan, Michal; Claes, Kathleen; Poppe, Bruce; Foretova, Lenka; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Sunde, Lone; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Dubrovsky, Maya; Cohen, Shimrit; Borg, Ake; Jernström, Helena; Lindblom, Annika; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Lasa, Adriana; Durán, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Godino, Javier; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Kriege, Mieke; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; van Asperen, Christi J; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, E.J.; Blok, Marinus J; Aalfs, Cora M.; Hogervorst, Frans; Rookus, Matti; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Conroy, Don; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Pichert, Gabriella; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Porteous, Mary E.; Walker, Lisa; Kennedy, M. John; Dorkins, Huw; Peock, Susan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bonadona, Valérie; Lasset, Christine; Dreyfus, Hélène; Leroux, Dominique; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Sobol, Hagay; Rouleau, Etienne; Nogues, Catherine; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alex; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Jønson, Lars; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Devlin, Vincent; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Schwartz, Peter E.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Schmutzler, Rita; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Lochmann, Magdalena; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Schönbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Chen, Xiaoqing; Platte, Radka; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.

    2010-01-01

    The known breast cancer (BC) susceptibility polymorphisms in FGFR2, TNRC9/TOX3, MAP3K1,LSP1 and 2q35 confer increased risks of BC for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. We evaluated the associations of three additional SNPs, rs4973768 in SLC4A7/NEK10, rs6504950 in STXBP4/COX11 and rs10941679 at 5p12 and reanalyzed the previous associations using additional carriers in a sample of 12,525 BRCA1 and 7,409 BRCA2 carriers. Additionally, we investigated potential interactions between SNPs and assessed the implications for risk prediction. The minor alleles of rs4973768 and rs10941679 were associated with increased BC risk for BRCA2 carriers (per-allele Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.10, 95%CI:1.03-1.18, p=0.006 and HR=1.09, 95%CI:1.01-1.19, p=0.03, respectively). Neither SNP was associated with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers and rs6504950 was not associated with BC for either BRCA1 or BRCA2 carriers. Of the nine polymorphisms investigated, seven were associated with BC for BRCA2 carriers (FGFR2, TOX3, MAP3K1, LSP1, 2q35, SLC4A7, 5p12, p-values:7×10−11-0.03), but only TOX3 and 2q35 were associated with the risk for BRCA1 carriers (p=0.0049, 0.03 respectively). All risk associated polymorphisms appear to interact multiplicatively on BC risk for mutation carriers. Based on the joint genotype distribution of the seven risk associated SNPs in BRCA2 mutation carriers, the 5% of BRCA2 carriers at highest risk (i.e. between 95th and 100th percentiles) were predicted to have a probability between 80% and 96% of developing BC by age 80, compared with 42-50% for the 5% of carriers at lowest risk. Our findings indicated that these risk differences may be sufficient to influence the clinical management of mutation carriers. PMID:21118973

  6. Classifications within molecular subtypes enables identification of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers by RNA tumor profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Kruse, Torben A; Tan, Qihua;

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are detected in less than one third of families with a strong history of breast cancer. It is therefore expected that mutations still remain undetected by currently used screening methods. In addition, a growing number of BRCA1/2 sequence variants of...... unclear pathogen significance are found in the families, constituting an increasing clinical challenge. New methods are therefore needed to improve the detection rate and aid the interpretation of the clinically uncertain variants. In this study we analyzed a series of 33 BRCA1, 22 BRCA2, and 128 sporadic......-specific BRCA1/2 gene signatures were successfully validated in two independent data sets with high accuracies. Although additional validation studies are required, indication of BRCA1/2 involvement ("BRCAness") by RNA profiling could potentially be valuable as a tool for distinguishing pathogenic mutations...

  7. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    instrumental in safeguarding cells against tumorigenesis. We hypothesized that polymorphisms that alter the expression and/or function of BRCA1 carried on the wild-type (non-mutated) copy of the BRCA1 gene would modify the risk of breast cancer in carriers of BRCA1 mutations. A total of 9874 BRCA1 mutation...... carriers were available in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) for haplotype analyses of BRCA1. Women carrying the rare allele of single nucleotide polymorphism rs16942 on the wild-type copy of BRCA1 were at decreased risk of breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence...... interval 0.77-0.95, P = 0.003). Promoter in vitro assays of the major BRCA1 haplotypes showed that common polymorphisms in the regulatory region alter its activity and that this effect may be attributed to the differential binding affinity of nuclear proteins. In conclusion, variants on the wild-type copy...

  8. Impact of lifestyle factors on preneoplastic changes in prophylactic oophorectomies of BRCA mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primas, Helga; Kroiss, Regina; Kalteis, Karin; Rappaport, Christine; Muhr, Daniela; Primas, Christian; Kubista, Ernst; Horvat, Reinhard; Oefner, Peter; Singer, Christian; Wagner And The Austrian Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Group, Teresa

    2012-03-01

    BRCA mutation carriers are at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. Ovarian malignancies are usually identified at an advanced stage with poor prognosis, attributed to inadequate options of early detection. Because of its risk-reducing effect of nearly 96%, prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy is still the leading option for risk-reduction in women with a positive BRCA mutation status. The presence of ovarian cancer precursor lesions, such as epithelial inclusion cysts (EICs) or cortical invaginations (CIs), has previously been discussed in several studies with diverse conclusions. We retrospectively investigated a large and consistent population (n=94) of BRCA mutation carriers for the presence of potential preneoplastic and neoplastic changes. We also examined the role of specific lifestyle factors. Ninety-four women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were included in this retrospective study. All women had undergone genetic counseling and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy, which was performed at a mean age of 43.33 years (range 27-66). Histological slides of both ovaries were reviewed by an independent pathologist. Data concerning lifestyle factors were collected from medical files and questionnaires. Two malignant lesions (2.1%), one bilateral serous papillary adenocarcinoma of the epithelial surface and one adenocarcinoma of the peritoneum with involvement of the left adnexa, and one lesion (1.1%) with obvious malignant potential, one mucinous borderline tumor of the right ovary, have been identified. We registered a high prevalence of CIs (30; 31.9%) and EICs (44; 46.8%) in prophylactically removed ovaries of BRCA mutation carriers. A significant correlation (P=0.002) was found with regard to the presence of EICs in women with increased BMI. Concerning the regular consumption of alcohol as a risk factor for premalignant lesions, in particular CIs, a statistically insignificant trend (P=0.083) was noted. Overweight women seem to be at

  9. Smoking and the risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadirian, Parviz; Lubinski, Jan; Lynch, Henry; Neuhausen, Susan L; Weber, Barbara; Isaacs, Claudine; Baruch, Ruth-Gershoni; Randall, Susan; Ainsworth, Peter; Friedman, Eitan; Freidman, Eitan; Horsman, Douglas; Tonin, Patricia; Foulkes, William D; Tung, Nadine; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2004-06-20

    The effect of cigarette smoking on the risk of breast cancer is controversial, although most studies show little or no effect. It has been suggested that smoking may reduce the risk of developing hereditary breast cancer. We completed a case-control study on 1,097 women with breast cancer who were BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers and 1,097 age-matched controls with a mutation in the same gene but without breast cancer. There were no statistically significant differences between the cases and controls in terms of the number of current and ex-smokers (41.2% and 40.4%, respectively) or the age at smoking commencement (18.2 years and 18.5 years, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences between cases and controls regarding beginning smoking within 5 years of menarche (OR = 1.03; 95% CI 0.83 to l.28) or before the first pregnancy (OR = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.33). In conclusion, contrary to our previous report, smoking does not appear to be a risk factor for breast cancer among carriers of BRCA mutations. PMID:15095307

  10. Prophylactic and Therapeutic Breast Conservation in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast-conserving therapy (BCT) for sporadic breast cancer has been widely accepted by surgeons and patients alike. While BCT is associated with a higher risk of ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR), it has not been shown to decrease overall survival (OS) in comparison with mastectomy. Many women with a BRCA1/2 mutation opt for mastectomy instead of breast-conserving measures at the time of a breast cancer diagnosis. In some cases, this is due to fear of aggressive disease, but to date, there have been no studies offering strong evidence that breast conservation should not be offered to these women. BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer has not been found to be more aggressive or resistant to treatment than comparable sporadic tumors, and no study has shown an actual survival advantage for mastectomy in appropriately treated affected mutation carriers. This paper reviews the available literature for breast conservation and surgical decision making in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

  11. PGD for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer : the route to universal tests for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drusedau, Marion; Dreesen, Jos C.; Derks-Smeets, Inge; Coonen, Edith; van Golde, Ron; van Echten-Arends, Jannie; Kastrop, Peter M. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Gomez-Garcia, Encarna; Geraedts, Joep P.; Smeets, Hubert J.; de Die-Smulders, Christine E.; Paulussen, Aimee D.

    2013-01-01

    Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) is a method of testing in vitro embryos as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis with possible termination of pregnancy in case of an affected child. Recently, PGD for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer caused by BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations has found its way in

  12. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramus, S.J.; Antoniou, A.C.; Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Soucy, P.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; McGuffog, L.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Healey, S.; Barrowdale, D.; Lee, A.; Thomassen, M.; Gerdes, A.M.; Kruse, T.A.; Jensen, U.B.; Skytte, A.B.; Caligo, M.A.; Liljegren, A.; Lindblom, A.; Olsson, H.; Kristoffersson, U.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Melin, B.; Swe, B.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Jaworska, K.; Durda, K.; Zlowocka, E.; Gronwald, J.; Huzarski, T.; Byrski, T.; Cybulski, C.; Toloczko-Grabarek, A.; Osorio, A.; Benitez, J.; Duran, M.; Tejada, M.I.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Aalfs, C.M.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Asperen, C.J. van; Roozendaal, K.E. van; Hoogerbrugge-van der Linden, N.; Collee, J.M.; Kriege, M.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Hebon, .; Embrace, .; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Ellis, S.D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Jacobs, C.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Eccles, D.; Cole, T.; Cook, J.; Paterson, J.; Douglas, F.; Brewer, C.; Hodgson, S.; Morrison, P.J.; Walker, L.; Porteous, M.E.; Kennedy, M.J.; Pathak, H.; Godwin, A.K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Caux-Moncoutier, V.; Pauw, A. de; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Mazoyer, S.; Leone, M.; Calender, A.; Lasset, C.; Bonadona, V.; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Bignon, Y.J.; Uhrhammer, N.; Faivre, L.; Loustalot, C.; Gemo, .; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Miron, A.; Terry, M.B.; Chung, W.K.; John, E.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of

  13. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B;

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers ...

  14. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumor subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtype...... subtypes. As more risk modifying variants are identified, incorporating these associations into breast cancer subtype-specific risk models may improve clinical management for mutation carriers....

  15. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumor subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulligan, Anna Marie; Couch, Fergus J; Barrowdale, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtype...

  16. Common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are associated with tumour subtypes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: results from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulligan, A.M.; Couch, F.J.; Barrowdale, D.; Domchek, S.M.; Eccles, D.; Nevanlinna, H.; Ramus, S.J.; Robson, M.; Sherman, M.; Spurdle, A.B.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Lee, A.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Janavicius, R.; Hansen, T.V.; Nielsen, F.C.; Ejlertsen, B.; Osorio, A.; Munoz-Repeto, I.; Duran, M.; Godino, J.; Pertesi, M.; Benitez, J.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Cattaneo, E.; Bonanni, B.; Viel, A.; Pasini, B.; Papi, L.; Ottini, L.; Savarese, A.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Hamann, U.; Verheus, M.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Wijnen, J.; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Nelen, M.R.; Kets, C.M.; Seynaeve, C.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M.M.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Os, T.V.; Rookus, M.; Frost, D.; Jones, J.L.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Cook, J.; Donaldson, A.; Dorkins, H.; Gregory, H.; Eason, J.; Houghton, C.; Barwell, J.; Side, L.E.; McCann, E.; Murray, A.; Peock, S.; Godwin, A.K.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Rhiem, K.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ruehl, I.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Sutter, C.; Deissler, H.; Gadzicki, D.; Kast, K.; Preisler-Adams, S.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Schoenbuchner, I.; Fiebig, B.; Heinritz, W.; Schafer, D.; Gevensleben, H.; Caux-Moncoutier, V.; Fassy-Colcombet, M.; Cornelis, F.; Mazoyer, S.; Leone, M.; Boutry-Kryza, N.; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Muller, D.; Fricker, J.P.; Mortemousque, I.; Pujol, P.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have demonstrated that common breast cancer susceptibility alleles are differentially associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. It is currently unknown how these alleles are associated with different breast cancer subtypes i

  17. Ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers: analysis of prognostic factors and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; Sgandurra, Paola; Bounous, Valentina Elisabetta; Maggiorotto, Furio; Piva, Eleonora; Pivetta, Emanuele; Ponzone, Riccardo; Pasini, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare clinical–pathological characteristics and outcome between sporadic ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer in patents with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Methods Twenty-four patients with ovarian cancer treated between 2000 and 2009 who tested positive for BRCA1/2 mutation (BRCA+) and a control group of 64 age-matched patients with no family history of breast/ovarian cancer (controls) were enrolled. Clinical–pathological characteristics, surgical outcome, overall (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were compared between the two groups. Results The high-grade serous histotype was more represented in BRCA+ than in controls (70.8% versus 53.1%) (p > 0.05). BRCA+ cancers were more frequently diagnosed at stage II than controls (20.83% versus 4.69%) (p = 0.024). Radical primary surgery was performed in 70% of women in both groups, with no difference in debulking results. In patients undergoing surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in all BRCA+ patients, optimal cytoreduction was achieved (versus 70% of the controls). PFS was significantly longer for BRCA+ patients compared to controls (60 months versus 22 months; p = 0.039). No significant difference was observed in OS between BRCA+ patients and controls. Conclusions At a median follow-up time of 46 months, BRCA+ patients have a better prognosis than controls in terms of PFS. Higher chemosensitivity of BRCA+ tumours was observed. PMID:27350785

  18. Common variants in LSP1, 2q35 and 8q24 and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, A.C.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; McGuffog, L.;

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with increased breast cancer risks in the general population. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the minor alleles at three of these SNPs, in FGFR2, TNRC9...... and MAP3K1, also confer increased risks of breast cancer for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Three additional SNPs rs3817198 at LSP1, rs13387042 at 2q35 and rs13281615 at 8q24 have since been reported to be associated with breast cancer in the general population, and in this study we evaluated...... their association with breast cancer risk in 9442 BRCA1 and 5665 BRCA2 mutation carriers from 33 study centres. The minor allele of rs3817198 was associated with increased breast cancer risk only for BRCA2 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07-1.25, P-trend = 2.8 x 10(-4)]. The best fit...

  19. Contribution of mammography to MRI screening in BRCA mutation carriers by BRCA status and age : individual patient data meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phi, Xuan-Anh; Saadatmand, Sepideh; De Bock, Geertruida H; Warner, Ellen; Sardanelli, Francesco; Leach, Martin O; Riedl, Christopher C; Trop, Isabelle; Hooning, Maartje J; Mandel, Rodica; Santoro, Filippo; Kwan-Lim, Gek; Helbich, Thomas H; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine Ma; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Houssami, Nehmat

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the additional contribution of mammography to screening accuracy in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers screened with MRI at different ages using individual patient data from six high-risk screening trials. METHODS: Sensitivity and specificity of MRI, mammography and the combinatio

  20. Comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational profile in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janavičius, Ramūnas; Rudaitis, Vilius; Mickys, Ugnius; Elsakov, Pavel; Griškevičius, Laimonas

    2014-05-01

    There is limited knowledge about the BRCA1/2 mutational profile in Lithuania. We aimed to define the full BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational spectrum and the clinically relevant prevalence of these gene mutations in Lithuania. A data set of 753 unrelated probands, recruited through a clinical setting, was used and consisted of 380 female breast cancer cases, 213 epithelial ovarian cancer cases, 20 breast and ovarian cancer cases, and 140 probands with positive family history of breast or ovarian cancer. A comprehensive mutation analysis of the BRCA1/2 genes by high resolution melting analysis coupled with Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed. Genetic analysis revealed 32 different pathogenic germline BRCA1/2 mutations: 20 in the BRCA1 gene and 12 in the BRCA2 gene, including four different large genomic rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene. In all, 10 novel BRCA1/2 mutations were found. Nine different recurrent BRCA1 mutations and two recurrent BRCA2 mutations were identified, which comprised 90.4% of all BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1 exon 1-3 deletion and BRCA2 c.658_659del are reported for the first time as recurrent mutations, pointing to a possible Baltic founder effect. Approximately 7% of breast cancer and 22% of ovarian cancer patients without family history and an estimated 0.5-0.6% of all Lithuanian women were found to be carriers of mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. PMID:25066507

  1. Neo-adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel in triple-negative breast cancer among BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Berger, Raanan; Papa, Moshe; Dadiani, Maya; Friedman, Neil; Shabtai, Moshe; Zippel, Dov; Gutman, Mordechai; Golan, Talia; Yosepovich, Ady; Catane, Raphael; Modiano, Tami; Kaufman, Bella

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess pathological complete response and whether it serves a surrogate for survival among patients receiving neo-adjuvant doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide followed by paclitaxel for triple-negative breast cancer with respect to BRCA1 mutation status. From a neo-adjuvant systemic therapy database of 588 breast cancer cases, 80 triple-negative cases who had undergone BRCA genotyping were identified. Logistic regression model was fitted to examine the association between BRCA1 status and pathological complete response. Survival outcomes were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier method, differences between study groups calculated by log-rank test. Thirty-four BRCA1 carriers and 43 non-carriers were identified. The BRCA1 carriers had pathological complete response rate of 68 % compared with 37 % among non-carriers, p = 0.01. Yet this did not translate into superior survival for BRCA1 carriers compared with non-carriers. No difference in relapse-free survival were noted among those with or without pathological complete response in BRCA1 carriers regardless of pathological complete response status (Log-rank p = 0.25), whereas in the non-carrier cohort, relapse-free survival was superior for those achieving pathological complete response (Log-rank p < 0.0001). Response to neo-adjuvant systemic therapy differed in BRCA1-associated triple-negative breast cancer compared with triple-negative non-carriers, with a higher rate of pathological complete response. However, compared with non-carrier triple-negative breast cancer, pathological complete response was not a surrogate for superior relapse-free survival in BRCA1 patients. Future studies using specific chemotherapy regimens may provide further improvements in outcomes. PMID:27113739

  2. The Quality of Genetic Counseling and Connected Factors as Evaluated by Male BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajula, Outi; Kääriäinen, Maria; Moilanen, Jukka S; Kyngäs, Helvi

    2016-06-01

    There is little written about the quality of genetic counseling for men with the BRCA1/2 mutation. The purpose of this study was to describe the quality of genetic counseling and connected factors according to Finnish male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' (n = 35) perspectives and reasons for seeking genetic counseling. Data were collected from the Departments of Clinical Genetics at five Finnish university hospitals. The exploratory study design was conducted using a 51-item questionnaire based on a previously devised quality of counseling model and analyzed using non-parametric tests and principle content analysis. The satisfaction level with genetic counseling was high, especially with regard to the content of genetic counseling. The benefit of genetic counseling on the quality of life differed significantly (p education, affected the perceived quality of genetic counseling. The results of the study could be used to tailor genetic counseling for male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:26416184

  3. Use of Gene Expression Profiles of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes to Distinguish BRCA1 Mutation Carriers in High Risk Breast Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Laure Vuillaume

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mutations in two major genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for up to 30% of families with hereditary breast cancer. Unfortunately, in most families there is little to indicate which gene should be targeted first for mutation screening, which is labor intensive, time consuming and often prohibitively expensive. As BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene involved in various cellular processes, heterozygous mutations could deregulate dependent pathways, such as DNA damage response, and disturb transcriptional activity of genes involved in the downstream signaling cascade. We investigated gene expression profiling in peripheral blood lymphocytes to evaluate this strategy for distinguishing BRCA1 mutation carriers from non-carriers. RNA from whole blood samples of 15 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 15 non-carriers from BRCA1 or BRCA2 families were hybridized to Agilent Technologies Whole Human Genome OligoMicroarrays (4 × 44 K multiplex format containing 41,000 unique human genes and transcripts. Gene expression data were analyzed with Welch’s t-tests and submitted to hierarchical clustering (GeneSpring GX software, Agilent Technologies. Statistical analysis revealed a slight tendency for 133 genes to be differentially expressed between BRCA1 mutation carriers and non-carriers. However, hierarchical clustering of these genes did not accurately discriminate BRCA1 mutation carriers from non-carriers. Expression variation for these genes according to BRCA1 mutation status was weak. In summary, microarray profiling of untreated whole blood does not appear to be informative in identifying breast cancer risk due to BRCA1 mutation.

  4. First description of an acinic cell carcinoma of the breast in a BRCA1 mutation carrier: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acinic cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignant epithelial neoplasm characterized by the presence of malignant tubular acinar exocrine gland structures. Diagnosis is generally made in salivary glands and in the pancreas. ACC of the breast has been reported in few cases only. Carriers of inherited mutations in the BRCA1 gene are prone to the development of breast cancer, mainly invasive ductal or medullary type carcinomas. We describe for the first time a BRCA1 mutation carrier with a diagnosis of ACC of the breast. The patient developed an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) at the age of 40 years and an ACC in the contralateral breast at 44 years. Immunohistochemical examination of the ACC revealed a triple negative status (i.e., negativity for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 protein) and positivity for p53. Using a combination of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and sequencing analyses, the loss of the wild-type BRCA1 allele was detected in both the ACC and the IDC. In addition, two different somatic TP53 mutations, one in the ACC only and another one in the IDC only, were observed. Both the immunohistochemical and molecular features observed in the ACC are typical of BRCA1-associated breast cancers and suggest an involvement of the patient’s germline mutation in the disease. The occurrence of rare histological types of breast cancers, including malignant phyllodes tumor, atypical medullary carcinoma and metaplastic carcinoma, in BRCA1 mutation carriers has been already reported. Our findings further broaden the spectrum of BRCA1-associated breast malignancies

  5. Influence of the MDM2 single nucleotide polymorphism SNP309 on tumour development in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MDM2 gene encodes a negative regulator of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MDM2 promoter (a T to G exchange at nucleotide 309) has been reported to produce accelerated tumour formation in individuals with inherited p53 mutations. We have investigated the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 on clinical outcome in a cohort of patients with germline mutations of BRCA1. Genomic DNA was obtained for 102 healthy controls and 116 patients with established pathogenic mutations of BRCA1 and Pyrosequencing technology™ was used to determine the genotype at the MDM2 SNP309 locus. The polymorphism was present in 52.9% of the controls (G/T in 37.3% and G/G in 15.6%) and 58.6% of the BRCA1 mutation carriers (47.4% G/T and 11.2% G/G). Incidence of malignancy in female BRCA1 carriers was not significantly higher in SNP309 carriers than in wildtype (T/T) individuals (72.7% vs. 75.6%, p = 1.00). Mean age of diagnosis of first breast cancer was 41.2 years in the SNP309 G/G genotype carriers, 38.6 years in those with the SNP309 G/T genotype and 39.0 years in wildtype subjects (p = 0.80). We found no evidence that the MDM2 SNP309 accelerates tumour development in carriers of known pathogenic germline mutations of BRCA1

  6. Influence of the MDM2 single nucleotide polymorphism SNP309 on tumour development in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Peter W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The MDM2 gene encodes a negative regulator of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in the MDM2 promoter (a T to G exchange at nucleotide 309 has been reported to produce accelerated tumour formation in individuals with inherited p53 mutations. We have investigated the effect of the MDM2 SNP309 on clinical outcome in a cohort of patients with germline mutations of BRCA1. Methods Genomic DNA was obtained for 102 healthy controls and 116 patients with established pathogenic mutations of BRCA1 and Pyrosequencing technology™ was used to determine the genotype at the MDM2 SNP309 locus. Results The polymorphism was present in 52.9% of the controls (G/T in 37.3% and G/G in 15.6% and 58.6% of the BRCA1 mutation carriers (47.4% G/T and 11.2% G/G. Incidence of malignancy in female BRCA1 carriers was not significantly higher in SNP309 carriers than in wildtype (T/T individuals (72.7% vs. 75.6%, p = 1.00. Mean age of diagnosis of first breast cancer was 41.2 years in the SNP309 G/G genotype carriers, 38.6 years in those with the SNP309 G/T genotype and 39.0 years in wildtype subjects (p = 0.80. Conclusion We found no evidence that the MDM2 SNP309 accelerates tumour development in carriers of known pathogenic germline mutations of BRCA1.

  7. Assessing Associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 Functional Module and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel; Wang, Xianshu; Barrowdale, Daniel; de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Librado, Pablo; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Rozas, Julio; Bonifaci, Núria; McGuffog, Lesley; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Islam, Abul; Mateo, Francesca; Berenguer, Antoni; Petit, Anna; Català, Isabel; Brunet, Joan; Feliubadaló, Lidia; Tornero, Eva; Benítez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Cajal, Teresa Ramón y; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Arun, Banu K.; Toland, Amanda E.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Claes, Kathleen; Van Maerken, Tom; Díez, Orland; Hansen, Thomas V.; Jønson, Lars; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldés, Trinidad; Dunning, Alison M.; Oliver, Clare; Fineberg, Elena; Cook, Margaret; Peock, Susan; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Jacobs, Chris; Pichert, Gabriella; Lalloo, Fiona; Chu, Carol; Dorkins, Huw; Paterson, Joan; Ong, Kai-Ren; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Devilee, Peter; Wijnen, Juul T.; Rookus, Matti A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Blok, Marinus J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Phillips, Kelly-Anne A.; Piedmonte, Marion; Nerenstone, Stacy R.; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; O'Malley, David M.; Ratner, Elena S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Rhiem, Kerstin; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Plendl, Hansjoerg J.; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Steinemann, Doris; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Kast, Karin; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Gehrig, Andrea; Bojesen, Anders; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Sunde, Lone; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Foretova, Lenka; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bernard, Loris; Peissel, Bernard; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Radice, Paolo; Ottini, Laura; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Maugard, Christine; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Geschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alex; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Daly, Mary B.; Goldgar, David E.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elisabeth J.; Fostira, Florentia; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Godwin, Andrew K.; Olah, Edith; Narod, Steven A.; Rennert, Gad; Paluch, Shani Shimon; Laitman, Yael; Friedman, Eitan; Liljegren, Annelie; Rantala, Johanna; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Hamann, Ute; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Healey, Sue; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Herzog, Josef; Margileth, David; Gorrini, Chiara; Esteller, Manel; Gómez, Antonio; Sayols, Sergi; Vidal, Enrique; Heyn, Holger; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Léoné, Melanie; Barjhoux, Laure; Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; de Pauw, Antoine; Lasset, Christine; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Castera, Laurent; Berthet, Pascaline; Cornelis, François; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Damiola, Francesca; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Corines, Marina J.; Villano, Danylko; Cunningham, Julie; Lee, Adam; Lindor, Noralane; Lázaro, Conxi; Easton, Douglas F.; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Pujana, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04 – 1.15, p = 1.9 x 10−4 (false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p = 0.043). Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045). Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05) for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients’ survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. PMID:25830658

  8. Assessing associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Blanco

    Full Text Available While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 functional module and risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. Forty-one single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were genotyped in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8,211 BRCA2 mutation carriers and subsequently analyzed using a retrospective likelihood approach. The association of HMMR rs299290 with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers was confirmed: per-allele hazard ratio (HR = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04-1.15, p = 1.9 x 10(-4 (false discovery rate (FDR-adjusted p = 0.043. Variation in CSTF1, located next to AURKA, was also found to be associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers: rs2426618 per-allele HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.005 (FDR-adjusted p = 0.045. Assessment of pairwise interactions provided suggestions (FDR-adjusted pinteraction values > 0.05 for deviations from the multiplicative model for rs299290 and CSTF1 rs6064391, and rs299290 and TUBG1 rs11649877 in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following these suggestions, the expression of HMMR and AURKA or TUBG1 in sporadic breast tumors was found to potentially interact, influencing patients' survival. Together, the results of this study support the hypothesis of a causative link between altered function of AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 and breast carcinogenesis in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.

  9. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne; Ladelund, Steen; Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Hansen, Thomas V O; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Borg, Åke; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in...... mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk...... was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G...

  10. Ovarian cancer risk in Polish BRCA1 mutation carriers is not associated with the prohibitin 3' untranslated region polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benner Axel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variable penetrance of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify disease risk. The C to T transition in the 3' untranslated region of the prohibitin (PHB gene alters mRNA function and has recently been shown to be associated with hereditary breast cancer risk in Polish women harbouring BRCA1 mutations. Methods To investigate whether the PHB 3'UTR polymorphism also modifies hereditary ovarian cancer risk, we performed a case-control study among Polish women carrying one of the three common founder mutations (5382insC, 300 T > G, 4154delA including 127 ovarian cases and 127 unaffected controls who had both breasts and ovaries intact. Controls were matched to cases by year of birth and BRCA1 mutation. Genotyping analysis was performed using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Odds ratios (OR were calculated using conditional and penalized univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Results A comparison of the genotype frequencies between cases and controls revealed no association of the PHB 3'UTR _CT+TT genotypes with ovarian cancer risk (ORadj 1.34; 95% CI, 0.59–3.11. Conclusion Our data suggest that the PHB 3'UTR polymorphism does not modify ovarian cancer risk in women carrying one of the three Polish BRCA1 founder mutations.

  11. Influence of selected lifestyle factors on breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Sun, Ping; Tulman, Anna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is as high as 80%, and the risk estimates for ovarian cancer range from 15 to 40%. Several environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to contribute to the development of breast cancer in the general population and it is of interest to establish if these factors operate among mutation carriers as well. To evaluate the effects of age of menarche, parity, breast-feeding, oophorectomy and oral contraceptive use, as well as smoking and coffee consumption, on the risks of breast and ovarian cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study of Polish women with BRCA1 mutations. There were 348 breast cancer patients, 150 ovarian cancer patients and similar numbers of age-matched controls. BRCA1 carriers with late age of menarche, lower parity and long-term breast-feeding were less likely to develop breast cancer. Oral contraceptives protected against ovarian cancer. PMID:16261399

  12. Evaluation of chromosome 6p22 as a breast cancer risk modifier locus in a follow-up study of BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Kristen N; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S; Greene, Mark H; Andrulis, Irene L; Thomassen, Mads; Caligo, Maria; Nathanson, Katherine L; Jakubowska, Anna; Osorio, Ana; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S; Singer, Christian F; Hansen, Thomas V O; Arason, Adalgeir; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Montagna, Marco; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Tihomirova, Laima; Sucheston, Lara; Beattie, Mary; Neuhausen, Susan L; Szabo, Csilla I; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B; Healey, Sue; Chen, Xiaoqing; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Easton, Douglas F; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C; Couch, Fergus J

    2012-01-01

    Several common germline variants identified through genome-wide association studies of breast cancer risk in the general population have recently been shown to be associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers. When combined, these variants can identify marked differe...

  13. Assessing Associations between the AURKA-HMMR-TPX2-TUBG1 Functional Module and Breast Cancer Risk in BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanco, Ignacio; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Cuadras, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    While interplay between BRCA1 and AURKA-RHAMM-TPX2-TUBG1 regulates mammary epithelial polarization, common genetic variation in HMMR (gene product RHAMM) may be associated with risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers. Following on these observations, we further assessed the link between ...

  14. Common variants at the 19p13.1 and ZNF365 loci are associated with ER subtypes of breast cancer and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couch, Fergus J; Gaudet, Mia M; Antoniou, Antonis C;

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified variants at 19p13.1 and ZNF365 (10q21.2) as risk factors for breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, respectively. We explored associations with ovarian cancer and with breast cancer by tumor histopathology for these variants in mut...

  15. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Soucy, Penny;

    2012-01-01

    Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B), rs10995190 ...

  16. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, A.C.; Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Soucy, P.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; McGuffog, L.; Lee, A.; Barrowdale, D.; Healey, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Caligo, M.A.; Loman, N.; Harbst, K.; Lindblom, A.; Arver, B.; Rosenquist, R.; Karlsson, P.; Nathanson, K.; Domchek, S.; Rebbeck, T.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Jaworska, K.; Durda, K.; Zlowowcka-Perlowska, E.; Osorio, A.; Duran, M.; Andres, R.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Os, T.A. van; Verhoef, S.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Wijnen, J.; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Kriege, M.; Collee, J.M.; Ausems, M.G.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Ellis, S.D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Jacobs, C.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Cole, T.; Cook, J.; Paterson, J.; Douglas, F.; Brewer, C.; Hodgson, S.; Morrison, P.J.; Walker, L.; Rogers, M.T.; Donaldson, A.; Dorkins, H.; Godwin, A.K.; Bove, B.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Houdayer, C.; Buecher, B.; Pauw, A. de; Mazoyer, S.; Calender, A.; Leone, M.; Bressac-de Paillerets, B.; Caron, O.; Sobol, H.; Frenay, M.; Prieur, F.; Ferrer, S.U.; Mortemousque, I.; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Miron, A.; Terry, M.U.; Hopper, J.L.; John, E.M.; Southey, M.; Goldgar, D.; Singer, C.F.; Fink-Retter, A.; Tea, M.K.; Kaulich, D.U.; Hansen, T.V.; Nielsen, F.C.; Barkardottir, R.B.; Gaudet, M.; Kirchhoff, T.; Joseph, V.; Dutra-Clarke, A.; Offit, K.; Piedmonte, M., et al.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B),

  17. Common variants at 12p11, 12q24, 9p21, 9q31.2 and in ZNF365 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and/or BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Barrowdale, Daniel; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Caligo, Maria A.; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Rosenquist, Richard; Karlsson, Per; Nathanson, Kate; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Tim; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Zlowowcka-Perlowska, Elzbieta; Osorio, Ana; Duran, Mercedes; Andres, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; van Os, Theo A.; Verhoef, Senno; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Wijnen, Juul; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J.; Kriege, Mieke; Collee, Margriet; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Rogers, Mark T.; Donaldson, Alan; Dorkins, Huw; Godwin, Andrew K.; Bove, Betsy; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Buecher, Bruno; de Pauw, Antoine; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Calender, Alain; Leone, Melanie; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Caron, Olivier; Sobol, Hagay; Frenay, Marc; Prieur, Fabienne; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alexander; Terry, Mary Beth; Hopper, John L.; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Gaudet, Mia; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Joseph, Vijai; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Kirk, Judy; Cohn, David; Hurteau, Jean; Byron, John; Fiorica, James; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; Oliani, Cristina; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Tihomirova, Laima; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Teule, Alex; Del Valle, J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Odunsi, Kunle; Gross, Jenny; Karlan, Beth Y.; Olah, Edith; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth Jansen; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schaefer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Lesperance, Bernard; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan C.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Uffe B.; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Kruse, Torben A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Several common alleles have been shown to be associated with breast and/or ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Recent genome-wide association studies of breast cancer have identified eight additional breast cancer susceptibility loci: rs1011970 (9p21, CDKN2A/B),

  18. Breast cancer size estimation with MRI in BRCA mutation carriers and other high risk patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, R.M., E-mail: r.mann@rad.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bult, P., E-mail: p.bult@path.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Pathology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Laarhoven, H.W.M. van, E-mail: h.vanlaarhoven@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Span, P.N., E-mail: p.span@rther.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schlooz, M., E-mail: m.schlooz@chir.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Surgery, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Veltman, J., E-mail: j.veltman@zgt.nl [Hospital group Twente (ZGT), Department of Radiology, Almelo (Netherlands); Hoogerbrugge, N., E-mail: n.hoogerbrugge@gen.umcn.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Human Genetics, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    Objective: To assess the value of breast MRI in size assessment of breast cancers in high risk patients, including those with a BRCA 1 or 2 mutation. Guidelines recommend invariably breast MRI screening for these patients and therapy is thus based on these findings. However, the accuracy of breast MRI for staging purposes is only tested in sporadic cancers. Methods: We assessed concordance of radiologic staging using MRI with histopathology in 49 tumors in 46 high risk patients (23 BRCA1, 12 BRCA2 and 11 Non-BRCA patients). The size of the total tumor area (TTA) was compared to pathology. In invasive carcinomas (n = 45) the size of the largest focus (LF) was also addressed. Results: Correlation of MRI measurements with pathology was 0.862 for TTA and 0.793 for LF. TTA was underestimated in 8(16%), overestimated in 5(10%), and correctly measured in 36(73%) cases. LF was underestimated in 4(9%), overestimated in 5(11%), and correctly measured in 36(80%) cases. Impact of BRCA 1 or 2 mutations on the quality of size estimation was not observed. Conclusions: Tumor size estimation using breast MRI in high risk patients is comparable to its performance in sporadic cancers. Therefore, breast MRI can safely be used for treatment planning.

  19. Breast cancer size estimation with MRI in BRCA mutation carriers and other high risk patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the value of breast MRI in size assessment of breast cancers in high risk patients, including those with a BRCA 1 or 2 mutation. Guidelines recommend invariably breast MRI screening for these patients and therapy is thus based on these findings. However, the accuracy of breast MRI for staging purposes is only tested in sporadic cancers. Methods: We assessed concordance of radiologic staging using MRI with histopathology in 49 tumors in 46 high risk patients (23 BRCA1, 12 BRCA2 and 11 Non-BRCA patients). The size of the total tumor area (TTA) was compared to pathology. In invasive carcinomas (n = 45) the size of the largest focus (LF) was also addressed. Results: Correlation of MRI measurements with pathology was 0.862 for TTA and 0.793 for LF. TTA was underestimated in 8(16%), overestimated in 5(10%), and correctly measured in 36(73%) cases. LF was underestimated in 4(9%), overestimated in 5(11%), and correctly measured in 36(80%) cases. Impact of BRCA 1 or 2 mutations on the quality of size estimation was not observed. Conclusions: Tumor size estimation using breast MRI in high risk patients is comparable to its performance in sporadic cancers. Therefore, breast MRI can safely be used for treatment planning

  20. TP53 mutations in ovarian carcinomas from sporadic cases and carriers of two distinct BRCA1 founder mutations; relation to age at diagnosis and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovarian carcinomas from 30 BRCA1 germ-line carriers of two distinct high penetrant founder mutations, 20 carrying the 1675delA and 10 the 1135insA, and 100 sporadic cases were characterized for somatic mutations in the TP53 gene. We analyzed differences in relation to BRCA1 germline status, TP53 status, survival and age at diagnosis, as previous studies have not been conclusive. DNA was extracted from paraffin embedded formalin fixed tissues for the familial cases, and from fresh frozen specimen from the sporadic cases. All cases were treated at our hospital according to protocol. Mutation analyses of exon 2 – 11 were performed using TTGE, followed by sequencing. Survival rates for BRCA1-familial cases with TP53 mutations were not significantly lower than for familial cases without TP53 mutations (p = 0.25, RR = 1.64, 95% CI [0.71–3.78]). Median age at diagnosis for sporadic (59 years) and familial (49 years) cases differed significantly (p < 0.001) with or without TP53 mutations. Age at diagnosis between the two types of familial carriers were not significantly different, with median age of 47 for 1675delA and 52.5 for 1135insA carriers (p = 0.245). For cases ≥50 years at diagnosis, a trend toward longer survival for sporadic over familial cases was observed (p = 0.08). The opposite trend was observed for cases <50 years at diagnosis. There do not seem to be a protective advantage for familial BRCA1 carriers without TP53 mutations over familial cases with TP53 mutations. However, there seem to be a trend towards initial advantage in survival for familial cases compared to sporadic cases diagnosed before the age of 50 both with and without TP53 mutations. However, this trend diminishes over time and for cases diagnosed ≥50 years the sporadic cases show a trend towards an advantage in survival over familial cases. Although this data set is small, if confirmed, this may be a link in the evidence that the differences in ovarian cancer survival reported, are

  1. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2011-01-01

    independently associated with the risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 mutation carriers [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.23, P-trend = 4.5 × 10(-9) for rs2046210; HR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.18-1.40, P-trend = 1.3 × 10(-8) for rs9397435], but only rs9397435 was associated with the risk...... to a better understanding of the biology of tumour development in these women....

  2. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S;

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagn...

  3. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor-negative breast cancer in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; McGuffog, Lesley; Tarrell, Robert; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Morrison, Jonathan; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Lesnick, Timothy; Ghoussaini, Maya; Barrowdale, Daniel; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Giraud, Sophie; Lasset, Christine; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Holland, Helene; Goldgar, David E.; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary-Beth; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Blum, Joanne L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F.; Basil, Jack; Blank, Stephanie V.; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Gaudet, Mia M.; Altshuler, David; Guiducci, Candace; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Singer, Christian F.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane M.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Garber, Judy; Ramus, Susan J.; Gayther, Simon A.; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Stephen; Szabo, Csilla I.; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Caligo, Maria A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K.; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Tung, Nadine; Toland, Amanda E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olofunmilayo; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Brauch, Hiltrud; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Miron, Penelope; Gerty, Sue M.; Tapper, William; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fountzilas, George; Fasching, Peter A.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Lambrechts, Diether; Paridaens, Robert; Ruediger, Thomas; Foersti, Asta; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkaes, Katri; Diasio, Robert B.; Lee, Adam M.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette; Vachon, Celine; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Dunning, Alison; Pharoah, Paul P. D.; Offit, Kenneth; Pankratz, V. Shane; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.

    2010-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosi

  4. Women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations survive ovarian cancer at higher rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results from a National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored multicenter study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association on January 25, 2012, provides strong evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers with ovarian cancer were more

  5. Effect of chest X-rays on the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study: a report from the EMBRACE, GENEPSO, GEO-HEBON, and IBCCS Collaborators' Group.

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine, Andrieu; Easton, Douglas; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rookus, Matti; Brohet, Richard,; Cardis, Elisabeth; Antoniou, Antonis; Wagner, Teresa; Simard, Jacques; Evans, Gareth; Peock, Susan; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Nogues, Catherine; Van'T Veer, Laura; Leeuwen, Flora

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: Women who carry germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are at greatly increased risk of breast cancer (BC). Numerous studies have shown that moderate to high doses of ionizing radiation are a risk factor for BC. Because of the role of the BRCA proteins in DNA repair, we hypothesized that BRCA carriers might be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than women in the general population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of 1,601 female BRCA1/2 carriers was perf...

  6. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.G. Cox; J. Simard; D. Sinnett; Y. Hamdi; P. Soucy; M. Ouimet; L. Barjhoux; C. Verny-Pierre; L. McGuffog; S. Healey; C. Szabo; M.H. Greene; P.L. Mai; I.L. Andrulis; M. Thomassen; A.M. Gerdes; M.A. Caligo; E. Friedman; Y. Laitman; B. Kaufman; S.S. Paluch; A. Borg; P. Karlsson; M.S. Askmalm; G.B. Bustinza; K.L. Nathanson; S.M. Domchek; T.R. Rebbeck; J. Benitez; U. Hamann; M.A. Rookus; A.M.W. van den Ouweland; M.G.E.M. Ausems; C.M. Aalfs; C.J. van Asperen; P. Devilee; H.J.J.P. Gille; S. Peock; D. Frost; D.G. Evans; R. Eeles; L. Izatt; J. Adlard; J. Paterson; J. Eason; A.K. Godwin; M.A. Remon; V. Moncoutier; M. Gauthier-Villars; C. Lasset; S. Giraud; A. Hardouin; P. Berthet; H. Sobol; F. Eisinger; B.B. de Paillerets; O. Caron; C. Delnatte; D. Goldgar; A. Miron; H. Ozcelik; S. Buys; M.C. Southey; M.B. Terry; C.F. Singer; A.C. Dressler; M.K. tea; T.V.O. Hansen; O. Johannsson; M. Piedmonte; G.C. Rodriguez; J.B. Basil; S. Blank; A.E. Toland; M. Montagna; C. Isaacs; I. Blanco; S.A. Gayther; K.B. Moysich; R.K. Schmutzler; B. Wappenschmidt; C. Engel; A. Meindl; N. Ditsch; N. Arnold; D. Niederacher; C. Sutter; D. Gadzicki; B. Fiebig; T. Caldes; R. Laframboise; H. Nevanlinna; X. Chen; J. Beesley; A.B. Spurdle; S.L. Neuhausen; Y.C. Ding; F.J. Couch; X. Wang; P. Peterlongo; S. Manoukian; L. Bernard; P. Radice; D.F. Easton; G. Chenevix-Trench; A.C. Antoniou; D. Stoppa-Lyonnet; S. Mazoyer; O.M. Sinilnikova

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly in

  7. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, D.G.; Simard, J.; Sinnett, D.; Hamdi, Y.; Soucy, P.; Ouimet, M.; Barjhoux, L.; Verny-Pierre, C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Szabo, C.; Greene, M.H.; Mai, P.L.; Andrulis, I.L.; Thomassen, M.; Gerdes, A.M.; Caligo, M.A.; Friedman, E.; Laitman, Y.; Kaufman, B.; Paluch, S.S.; Borg, A.; Karlsson, P.; Askmalm, M.S.; Bustinza, G.B.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.A.; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Ausems, M.G.; Aalfs, C.M.; Asperen, C.J. van; Devilee, P.; Gille, H.J.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Evans, D.G.; Eeles, R.; Izatt, L.; Adlard, J.; Paterson, J.; Eason, J.; Godwin, A.K.; Remon, M.A.; Moncoutier, V.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Lasset, C.; Giraud, S.; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Sobol, H.; Eisinger, F.; Bressac de Paillerets, B.; Caron, O.; Delnatte, C.; Goldgar, D.; Miron, A.; Ozcelik, H.; Buys, S.; Southey, M.C.; Terry, M.B.; Singer, C.F.; Dressler, A.C.; Tea, M.K.; Hansen, T.V.; Johannsson, O.; Piedmonte, M.; Rodriguez, G.C.; Basil, J.B.; Blank, S.; Toland, A.E.; Montagna, M.; Isaacs, C.; Blanco, I.; Gayther, S.A.; Moysich, K.B.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Engel, C.; Meindl, A.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Sutter, C.; Gadzicki, D.; Fiebig, B.; Caldes, T.; Laframboise, R.; Nevanlinna, H.; Chen, X.; Beesley, J.; Spurdle, A.B.; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Couch, F.J.; Wang, X.; Peterlongo, P.; Manoukian, S.; Bernard, L.; Radice, P.; Easton, D.F.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Mazoyer, S.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Ligtenberg, M.J.L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly in

  8. Common variants of the BRCA1 wild-type allele modify the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, David G; Simard, Jacques; Sinnett, Daniel;

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 gene substantially increase a woman's lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, there is great variation in this increase in risk with several genetic and non-genetic modifiers identified. The BRCA1 protein plays a central role in DNA repair, a mechanism that is particularly...

  9. 中国汉族人群中BRCA1和BRCA2基因突变携带者患乳腺癌风险的研究%Breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers in Chinese Han population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓晨; 胡震; 吴炅; 柳光宇; 沈镇宙; 邵志敏

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的:BRCA1和BRCA2基因突变携带者终生患乳腺癌和卵巢癌的风险显著增高。通过遗传咨询,突变携带者可采取适当的措施来降低相应肿瘤的发生风险。目前,相关的报道几乎均为白种人,尚缺乏中国人群的资料。该研究旨在探索中国汉族人群中BRCA1和BRCA2基因突变携带者患乳腺癌的风险。方法:回顾20个经基因检测证实携带BRCA1或BRCA2致病性基因突变的汉族乳腺癌高风险家系。利用Kaplan-Meier生存分析法对女性BRCA1/2基因突变携带者单侧乳腺癌及对侧乳腺癌的累积发病风险进行估算。结果:BRCA1和BRCA2基因突变携带者70岁时单侧乳腺癌的累积发病风险(外显率)分别为67.2%(sx 0.100)和76.8%(sx 0.079)。与BRCA1不同的是,BRCA2基因突变携带者70岁后乳腺癌累积发病率继续增加,到80岁时达93.1%。BRCA1/2基因突变携带者对侧乳腺癌10年和20年的累积发病率分别为19.4%(sx 0.089)和50.3%(sx 0.155)。结论:中国汉族人群中BRCA1和BRCA2基因突变携带者具有很高的乳腺癌发病风险。因而对中国高风险人群进行BRCA1/2基因突变检测具有重要临床意义。%Background and purpose: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers have a high lifetime risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Through genetic counseling, mutation carriers can take the appropriate measures to reduce such cancer risk. At present, almost all related studies were conducted in Caucasian, while, the studies in Chinese population were rare. This study aimed to investigate the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers in Chinese Han population. Methods:Twenty unrelated families with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were re-viewed. Kaplan-Meier analyses were used to estimate the cumulative risks of unilateral breast cancer and contralateral breast cancer for female BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Results:Breast cancer risk to 70 years (penetrance) was 67

  10. Invasive breast cancer following bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy in a BRCA2 mutation carrier: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvez Maria

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention of breast cancer through prophylactic mastectomy can reduce the risk of malignancy in high-risk individuals. No type of mastectomy completely removes all breast tissue, but a subcutaneous mastectomy leaves more tissue in situ than does a simple mastectomy. Case presentation We report a case of invasive breast cancer in a BRCA2-positive woman 33 years after bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy. To our knowledge, only one case of primary breast cancer after prophylactic mastectomy in a BRCA1-positive patient has been reported in the literature and none in BRCA2-positive individuals. Conclusion Careful documentation and long follow-up is essential to fully assess the benefits and risks of preventive surgical procedures in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley;

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a fur...

  12. Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebbeck, Timothy R; Mitra, Nandita; Wan, Fei;

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. OBJECTIVE: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Observational study of women who were ascertained...

  13. Association of type and location of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations with risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Rebbeck (Timothy); N. Mitra (Nandita); F. Wan (Fei); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Healey (Sue); L. McGuffog (Lesley); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); Y. Laitman (Yael); A. Kushnir (Anya); S. Paluch-Shimon (Shani); R. Berger (Raanan); J. Zidan (Jamal); E. Friedman (Eitan); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (Marie); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); N. Loman (Niklas); K. Harbst (Katja); J. Rantala (Johanna); B. Melin (Beatrice); D. Huo (Dezheng); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); J.L. Seldon (Joyce); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); R.L. Nussbaum (Robert L.); S. Chan (Salina); K. Odunsi (Kunle); S.A. Gayther (Simon); S.M. Domchek (Susan); B.K. Arun (Banu); K.H. Lu (Karen); G. Mitchell (Gillian); B. Karlan; C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); S.S. Pathak; E.B. Ross (Eric); M.J. Daly (Mark); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); E.M. John (Esther); A. Miron (Alexander); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); W.K. Chung (Wendy K.); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); L. Tihomirova (Laima); N. Tung (Nadine); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); L. Steele (Linda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); T. Ramon Y Cajal; A. Osorio (Ana); J. Benítez (Javier); J. Godino (Javier); M.I. Tejada; M. Duran (Mercedes); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); K.A. Bobolis (Kristie A.); S.R. Sand (Sharon); A. Fontaine (Annette); A. Savarese (Antonella); B. Pasini (Barbara); B. Peissel (Bernard); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); D. Zaffaroni (Daniela); F. Vignolo-Lutati (Francesca); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); L. Bernard (Loris); M. Genuardi (Maurizio); P. Radice (Paolo); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); V. Pensotti (Valeria); V. Gismondi (Viviana); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); F. Fostira (Florentia); J. Garber (Judy); D. Torres (Diana); M.U. Rashid (Muhammad); U. Hamann (Ute); S. Peock (Susan); D. Frost (Debra); R. Platte (Radka); D.G. Evans (Gareth); R. Eeles (Rosalind); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); T. Cole (Trevor); J. Cook (Jackie); C. Brewer (Carole); S. Hodgson (Shirley); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L.J. Walker (Lisa); M.E. Porteous (Mary); M.J. Kennedy (John); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Adlard; A. Donaldson (Alan); S.D. Ellis (Steve); P. Sharma (Priyanka); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); A. Becker (Alexandra); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); E. Hahnen (Eric); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); S. Engert (Stefanie); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); C. Mundhenke (Christoph); D. Niederacher (Dieter); M.C. Fleisch (Markus); C. Sutter (Christian); C.R. Bartram; N. Dikow (Nicola); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); D. Steinemann (Doris); K. Kast (Karin); M. Beer (Marit); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); B.H.F. Weber (Bernhard); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); M. Belotti (Muriel); M. Gauthier-Villars (Marion); F. Damiola (Francesca); N. Boutry-Kryza (N.); C. Lasset (Christine); H. Sobol (Hagay); J.-P. Peyrat; D.W. Muller (Danièle); J.P. Fricker (Jean Pierre); M.-A. Collonge-Rame; I. Mortemousque (Isabelle); C. Nogues (Catherine); E. Rouleau (Etienne); C. Isaacs (Claudine); A. de Paepe (Anne); B. Poppe (Bruce); K. Claes (Kathleen); K. De Leeneer (Kim); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G. Rodriguez (Gustavo); K. Wakely (Katie); J.F. Boggess (John); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); J. Basil (Jack); M. Azodi (Masoud); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); A. Romero (Atocha); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; J.M. Collee (Margriet); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); J.J. Gille (Johan); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); C.M. Kets; M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); P. Devilee (Peter); A.R. Mensenkamp (Arjen); A. Kwong (Ava); E. Olah; J. Papp (Janos); O. Díez (Orland); C. Lazaro (Conxi); E. Darder (Esther); I. Blanco (Ignacio); M. Salinas; A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); T. Byrski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); A. Toloczko-Grabarek (Aleksandra); E. Złowocka-Perłowska (Elzbieta); J. Menkiszak (Janusz); A. Arason (Adalgeir); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); J. Simard (Jacques); R. Laframboise (Rachel)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractImportance: Limited information about the relationship between specific mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) and cancer risk exists. Objective: To identify mutation-specific cancer risks for carriers of BRCA1/2. Design, Setting, and Participants: Observational study ofwomen whowere asce

  14. Genome-wide association study in BRCA1 mutation carriers identifies novel loci associated with breast and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergus J Couch

    Full Text Available BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer, with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7 × 10(-8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09-1.20. In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38 and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4 × 10(-8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17-1.38. The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10(-4. These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%-50% compared to 81%-100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study in BRCA1 Mutation Carriers Identifies Novel Loci Associated with Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianshu; McGuffog, Lesley; Lee, Andrew; Olswold, Curtis; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Fredericksen, Zachary; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dennis, Joe; Gaudet, Mia M.; Dicks, Ed; Kosel, Matthew; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Lee, Adam; Bacot, François; Vincent, Daniel; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Jakubowska, Anna; Investigators, kConFab; Radice, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita Katharina; Domchek, Susan M.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Friedman, Eitan; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Garber, Judy; Phelan, Catherine M.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Montagna, Marco; Olah, Edith; Andrulis, Irene L.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Goldgar, David E.; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; Terry, Mary Beth; Daly, Mary B.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Hamann, Ute; Ramus, Susan J.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Caligo, Maria A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Tung, Nadine; Claes, Kathleen; Beattie, Mary S.; Southey, Melissa C.; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Tischkowitz, Marc; Janavicius, Ramunas; John, Esther M.; Kwong, Ava; Diez, Orland; Balmaña, Judith; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Arun, Banu K.; Rennert, Gad; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Campbell, Ian; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Gómez Garcia, Encarna B.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Gille, Johannes J. P.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Blok, Marinus J.; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; Verhoef, Senno; van Os, Theo A. M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Adlard, Julian; Eccles, Diana M.; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Douglas, Fiona; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Side, Lucy E.; Donaldson, Alan; Houghton, Catherine; Rogers, Mark T.; Dorkins, Huw; Eason, Jacqueline; Gregory, Helen; McCann, Emma; Murray, Alex; Calender, Alain; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Delnatte, Capucine; Nogues, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Houdayer, Claude; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Prieur, Fabienne; Damiola, Francesca; Sobol, Hagay; Coupier, Isabelle; Venat-Bouvet, Laurence; Castera, Laurent; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Léoné, Mélanie; Pujol, Pascal; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Złowocka-Perłowska, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Huzarski, Tomasz; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Viel, Alessandra; Peissel, Bernard; Bonanni, Bernardo; Melloni, Giulia; Ottini, Laura; Papi, Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Tibiletti, Maria Grazia; Peterlongo, Paolo; Volorio, Sara; Manoukian, Siranoush; Pensotti, Valeria; Arnold, Norbert; Engel, Christoph; Deissler, Helmut; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Gehrig, Andrea; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Meindl, Alfons; Niederacher, Dieter; Ditsch, Nina; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Engert, Stefanie; Sutter, Christian; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Arver, Brita; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Blank, Stephanie V.; Cohn, David E.; Rodriguez, Gustavo C.; Small, Laurie; Friedlander, Michael; Bae-Jump, Victoria L.; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Rappaport, Christine; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Lindor, Noralane M.; Kaufman, Bella; Shimon Paluch, Shani; Laitman, Yael; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Moeller, Sanne Traasdahl; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Vijai, Joseph; Sarrel, Kara; Robson, Mark; Kauff, Noah; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Jønson, Lars; Andersen, Mette K.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Steele, Linda; Foretova, Lenka; Teulé, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Brunet, Joan; Pujana, Miquel Angel; Mai, Phuong L.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Walsh, Christine; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Narod, Steven A.; Herzog, Josef; Sand, Sharon R.; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Vaszko, Tibor; Weaver, Joellen; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Buys, Saundra S.; Romero, Atocha; de la Hoya, Miguel; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Muranen, Taru A.; Duran, Mercedes; Chung, Wendy K.; Lasa, Adriana; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; Miron, Alexander; Benitez, Javier; Senter, Leigha; Huo, Dezheng; Chan, Salina B.; Sokolenko, Anna P.; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tihomirova, Laima; Friebel, Tara M.; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Lu, Karen H.; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; James, Paul A.; Hall, Per; Dunning, Alison M.; Tessier, Daniel; Cunningham, Julie; Slager, Susan L.; Wang, Chen; Hart, Steven; Stevens, Kristen; Simard, Jacques; Pastinen, Tomi; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Offit, Kenneth; Antoniou, Antonis C.

    2013-01-01

    BRCA1-associated breast and ovarian cancer risks can be modified by common genetic variants. To identify further cancer risk-modifying loci, we performed a multi-stage GWAS of 11,705 BRCA1 carriers (of whom 5,920 were diagnosed with breast and 1,839 were diagnosed with ovarian cancer), with a further replication in an additional sample of 2,646 BRCA1 carriers. We identified a novel breast cancer risk modifier locus at 1q32 for BRCA1 carriers (rs2290854, P = 2.7×10−8, HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.20). In addition, we identified two novel ovarian cancer risk modifier loci: 17q21.31 (rs17631303, P = 1.4×10−8, HR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38) and 4q32.3 (rs4691139, P = 3.4×10−8, HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.17–1.38). The 4q32.3 locus was not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population or BRCA2 carriers, suggesting a BRCA1-specific association. The 17q21.31 locus was also associated with ovarian cancer risk in 8,211 BRCA2 carriers (P = 2×10−4). These loci may lead to an improved understanding of the etiology of breast and ovarian tumors in BRCA1 carriers. Based on the joint distribution of the known BRCA1 breast cancer risk-modifying loci, we estimated that the breast cancer lifetime risks for the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk are 28%–50% compared to 81%–100% for the 5% at highest risk. Similarly, based on the known ovarian cancer risk-modifying loci, the 5% of BRCA1 carriers at lowest risk have an estimated lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer of 28% or lower, whereas the 5% at highest risk will have a risk of 63% or higher. Such differences in risk may have important implications for risk prediction and clinical management for BRCA1 carriers. PMID:23544013

  16. Secondary BRCA1 mutations in BRCA1-mutated ovarian carcinomas with platinum resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Swisher, Elizabeth M.; Sakai, Wataru; Karlan, Beth Y.; Wurz, Kaitlyn; Urban, Nicole; Taniguchi, Toshiyasu

    2008-01-01

    Although ovarian carcinomas with mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 are sensitive to platinum compounds, such carcinomas eventually develop platinum resistance. Previously, we showed that acquired resistance to cisplatin in BRCA2-mutated tumors can be mediated by secondary intragenic mutations in BRCA2 that restore the wild-type BRCA2 reading frame. Here, we show that secondary mutations of BRCA1 also occur in BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer with platinum resistance. We evaluated 9 recurrent BRCA1-mutated o...

  17. Exposure to diagnostic radiation and risk of breast cancer among carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations : retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpe, Anouk; Andrieu, Nadine; Easton, Douglas F.; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Cardis, Elisabeth; Nogues, Catherine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Lasset, Christine; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D. Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Paterson, Joan; Manders, Peggy; van Asperen, Christi J.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Hauptmann, Michael; Goldgar, David; Rookus, Matti A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To estimate the risk of breast cancer associated with diagnostic radiation in carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. Design Retrospective cohort study (GENE-RAD-RISK). Setting Three nationwide studies (GENEPSO, EMBRACE, HEBON) in France, United Kingdom, and the Netherlands, Participants 1993 femal

  18. Haplotype analysis suggest common founders in carriers of the recurrent BRCA2 mutation, 3398delAAAAG, in French Canadian hereditary breast and/ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foulkes William D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 3398delAAAAG mutation in BRCA2 was recently found to recur in breast and/or ovarian cancer families from the French Canadian population of Quebec, a population that has genetic attributes consistent with a founder effect. To characterize the contribution of this mutation in this population, this study established the frequency of this mutation in breast and ovarian cancer cases unselected for family history of cancer, and determined if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Methods The frequency was estimated by assaying the mutation in series of French Canadian breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 41 (n = 60 or 80 (n = 127 years of age, and ovarian cancer cases (n = 80 unselected for family history of cancer by mutation analysis. Haplotype analysis was performed to determine if mutation carriers shared a common ancestry. Members from 11 families were analyzed using six polymorphic microsatellite markers (cen-D13S260-D13S1699-D13S1698-D13S1697-D13S1701-D13S171-tel spanning approximately a 3.6 cM interval at the chromosomal region 13q13.1, which contains BRCA2. Allele frequencies were estimated by genotyping 47 unaffected female individuals derived from the same population. Haplotype reconstruction of unaffected individuals was performed using the program PHASE. Results The recurrent BRCA2 mutation occurred in 1 of 60 (1.7% women diagnosed with breast cancer before 41 years of age and one of 80 (1.3% women with ovarian cancer. No mutation carriers were identified in the series of breast cancer cases diagnosed before age 80. Mutation carriers harboured one of two haplotypes, 7-3-9-3 – [3/4]-7, that varied with marker D13S1701 and which occurred at a frequency of 0.001. The genetic analysis of D13S1695, a polymorphic marker located approximately 0.3 cM distal to D13S171, did not favour a genetic recombination event to account for the differences in D13S1701 alleles within the haplotype. Although mutation carriers

  19. Refined histopathological predictors of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spurdle, Amanda B; Couch, Fergus J; Parsons, Michael T;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The distribution of histopathological features of invasive breast tumors in BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline mutation carriers differs from that of individuals with no known mutation. Histopathological features thus have utility for mutation prediction, including statistical modeling to asse...

  20. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer predisposition genes in radiation hypersensitive cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The dose intensity of radiotherapy (RT) used in cancer treatment is limited in rare individuals who display severe normal tissue reactions after standard RT treatments. Novel predictive assays are required to identify these individuals prior to treatment. The mechanisms responsible for such reactions are unknown, but may involve dysfunction of genes involved in the sensing and response of cells to DNA damage. The breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are implicated in DNA damage repair and the control of genome stability. The purpose of this study was to determine if clinical radiation hypersensitivity is related to mutations of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Such information is of potential use in the clinical management of BRCA mutation carriers and their families. Methods and Materials: Twenty-two cancer patients who developed severe normal tissue reactions after RT were screened for mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2, using various methods including protein truncation testing, direct DNA sequencing, and a PCR-based BRCA1 exon 13 duplication test. Results: No mutations were detected in the 22 patients tested, despite screening for the majority of commonly described types of mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Conclusion: These early results suggest that genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2 probably account for most cases of clinical radiation hypersensitivity, and that screening for mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is unlikely to be useful in predicting response to radiotherapy. However, it has not been excluded that some BRCA1 or BRCA2 heterozygotes might experience unexpected RT toxicity; further BRCA mutation screening on radiation sensitive individuals is warranted

  1. Exome mutation burden predicts clinical outcome in ovarian cancer carrying mutated BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria;

    2013-01-01

    Reliable biomarkers predicting resistance or sensitivity to anti-cancer therapy are critical for oncologists to select proper therapeutic drugs in individual cancer patients. Ovarian and breast cancer patients carrying germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes are often sensitive to DNA damaging......-type BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. These results suggest that in cancers with DNA repair deficiency caused by functional BRCA loss, higher versus lower Nmut may reflect the status of deficiency or rescue by alternative mechanism(s) for DNA repair, with lower Nmut predicting for resistance to DNA-damaging drugs in...... drugs and relative to non-mutation carriers present a favorable clinical outcome following therapy. Genome sequencing studies have shown a high number of mutations in the tumor genome in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations (mBRCA). The present study used exome-sequencing and SNP 6 array data of...

  2. Effects of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations on female fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ken R.; Hanson, Heidi A.; Mineau, Geraldine P; Buys, Saundra S.

    2011-01-01

    Women with BRCA1/2 mutations have a significantly higher lifetime risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer. We suggest that female mutation carriers may have improved fitness owing to enhanced fertility relative to non-carriers. Here we show that women who are carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations living in natural fertility conditions have excess fertility as well as excess post-reproductive mortality in relation to controls. Individuals who tested positive for BRCA1/2 mutations who linked into m...

  3. A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in IRS1 Modifies Risk of Developing Breast and Ovarian Cancers in BRCA1 and Ovarian Cancer in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Yuan C.; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Shani-Paluch-Shimon, [No Value; Kaufman, Bella; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Hakan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Byrski, Tomasz; Osorio, Ana; Ramony Cajal, Teresa; Stavropoulou, Alexandra V.; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; Aalfs, Cora M.; de Lange, Judith L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Jager, Agnes; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Easton, Douglas F.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Izatt, Louise; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Brewer, Carole; Tischkowitz, Marc; Godwin, Andrew K.; Pathak, Harsh; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Leone, Melanie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Hardouin, Agnes; Berthet, Pascaline; Dreyfus, Helene; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnes; Sokolowska, Johanna; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Gschwantler-Kaulich, Daphne; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar T.; Offit, Kenneth; Sarrel, Kara; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion R.; Andrews, Lesley; Cohn, David; DeMars, Leslie R.; DiSilvestro, Paul; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Isaacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Ramus, Susan J.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Meindl, Alfons; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Simard, Jacques; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Garber, Judy E.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Tung, Nadine; Blum, Joanne L.; Narod, Steven A.; Brummel, Sean; Gillen, Daniel L.; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Loud, Jennifer T.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Lee, Andrew; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Neuhausen, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were assoc

  4. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yuan C; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were associated wit...

  5. A nonsynonymous polymorphism in IRS1 modifies risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers in BRCA1 and ovarian cancer in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.C. Ding (Yuan); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); E. Friedman (Eitan); Y. Laitman (Yael); S.-P. Shimon (Shani-Paluch); B. Kaufman (Bella); A. Liljegren (Annelie); A. Lindblom (Annika); H. Olsson; U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); B. Melin (Beatrice); S.M. Domchek (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); K. Durda (Katarzyna); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); T. Byrski (Tomasz); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; A. Stavropoulou (Alexandra); J. Benítez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); M.A. Rookus (Matti); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.L. de Lange (J.); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); A. Jager (Agnes); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); D.F. Easton (Douglas); S. Peock (Susan); D. Frost (Debra); S.D. Ellis (Steve); R. Platte (Radka); E. Fineberg (Elena); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Eeles (Rosalind); J.W. Adlard (Julian); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); T.J. Cole (Trevor); J. Cook (Jackie); C. Brewer (Carole); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); S.S. Pathak; D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); M. Léone (Mélanie); M. Gauthier-Villars (Marion); V. Caux-Moncoutier (Virginie); A. de Pauw (Antoine); A. Hardouin (Agnès); P. Berthet (Pascaline); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); S.F. Ferrer; M.-A. Collonge-Rame; J. Sokolowska (Johanna); S.S. Buys (Saundra); M.B. Daly (Mary); A. Miron (Alexander); M.-B. Terry (Mary-Beth); W. Chung (Wendy); E.M. John (Esther); M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; D. Gschwantler-Kaulich (Daphne); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); O.T. Johannson (Oskar); K. Offit (Kenneth); K. Sarrel (Kara); M.M. Gaudet (Mia); J. Vijai (Joseph); M. Robson (Mark); M. Piedmonte (Marion); L. Andrews (Lesley); D.E. Cohn (David); L.R. DeMars (Leslie); P. DiSilvestro (Paul); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); C. Isaacs (Claudine); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); S.J. Ramus (Susan); L. Sucheston (Lara); B. Karlan; J. Gross (Jenny); P.A. Ganz (Patricia); M.S. Beattie (Mary); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); A. Meindl (Alfons); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Niederacher (Dieter); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); H. Deissler (Helmut); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); C. Sutter (Christian); K. Kast (Karin); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); J. Simard (Jacques); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); J. Beesley (Jonathan); X. Chen (Xiaoqing); G. Tomlinson (Gail); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); J. Garber; O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); W.S. Rubinstein (Wendy); N. Tung (Nadine); J.L. Blum (Joann); S. Narod (Steven); S. Brummel (Sean); D.L. Gillen (Daniel); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); P. Radice (Paolo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); M.H. Greene (Mark); J.T. Loud (Jennifer); P.L. Mai (Phuong); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); M. Thomassen (Mads); U.B. Jensen; A.-B. Skytte (Anne-Bine); M.A. Caligo (Maria); A. Lee (Andrew); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk inwomen carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and

  6. A Nonsynonymous Polymorphism in IRS1 Modifies Risk of Developing Breast and Ovarian Cancers in BRCA1 and Ovarian Cancer in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ding, Y.C.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Friedman, E.; Laitman, Y.; Paluch-Shimon, S.; Kaufman, B.; Liljegren, A.; Lindblom, A.; Olsson, H.; Kristoffersson, U.; Stenmark-Askmalm, M.; Melin, B.; Domchek, S.M.; Nathanson, K.L.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Jakubowska, A.; Lubinski, J.; Jaworska, K.; Durda, K.; Gronwald, J.; Huzarski, T.; Cybulski, C.; Byrski, T.; Osorio, A.; Cajal, T.R.; Stavropoulou, A.V.; Benitez, J.; Hamann, U.; Rookus, M.; Aalfs, C.M.; Lange, J.L. de; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Asperen, C.J. van; Gomez Garcia, E.B.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Jager, A.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Easton, D.F.; Peock, S.; Frost, D.; Ellis, S.D.; Platte, R.; Fineberg, E.; Evans, D.G.; Lalloo, F.; Izatt, L.; Eeles, R.; Adlard, J.; Davidson, R.; Eccles, D.; Cole, T.; Cook, J.; Brewer, C.; Tischkowitz, M.; Godwin, A.K.; Pathak, H.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Mazoyer, S.; Barjhoux, L.; Leone, M.; Gauthier-Villars, M.; Caux-Moncoutier, V.; Pauw, A. de; Hardouin, A.; Berthet, P.; Dreyfus, H.; Ferrer, S.F.; Collonge-Rame, M.A.; Sokolowska, J.; Buys, S.; Daly, M.; Miron, A.; Terry, M.B.; Chung, W.; John, E.M.; Southey, M.; Goldgar, D.; Singer, C.F.; Tea, M.K.; Gschwantler-Kaulich, D.; Fink-Retter, A.; Hansen, T.V.; Ejlertsen, B.; Johannsson, O.T.; Offit, K.; Sarrel, K.; Gaudet, M.M.; Vijai, J.; Robson, M.; Piedmonte, M.R.; Andrews, L.; Cohn, D.; Demars, L.R.; Disilvestro, P.; Rodriguez, G.; Toland, A.E.; Montagna, M.; Agata, S.; Imyanitov, E.; Isaacs, C.; Janavicius, R.; Lazaro, C.; Blanco, I.; Ramus, S.J.; Sucheston, L.; Karlan, B.Y.; Gross, J.; Ganz, P.A.; Beattie, M.S.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Meindl, A.; Arnold, N.; Niederacher, D.; Preisler-Adams, S.; Gadzicki, D.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Deissler, H.; Gehrig, A.; Sutter, C.; Kast, K.; Nevanlinna, H.; Aittomaki, K.; Simard, J.; Spurdle, A.B.; Beesley, J.; Chen, X.; Tomlinson, G.E.; Weitzel, J.; Garber, J.E.; Olopade, O.I.; Rubinstein, W.S.; Tung, N.; Blum, J.L.; Narod, S.A.; Brummel, S.; Gillen, D.L.; Lindor, N.; Fredericksen, Z.; Pankratz, V.S.; Couch, F.J.; Radice, P.; Peterlongo, P.; Greene, M.H.; Loud, J.T.; Mai, P.L.; Andrulis, I.L.; Glendon, G.; Ozcelik, H.; Gerdes, A.M.; Thomassen, M.; Jensen, U.B.; Skytte, A.B.; Caligo, M.A.; Lee, A.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Neuhausen, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously reported significant associations between genetic variants in insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) and breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 mutations. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether the IRS1 variants modified ovarian cancer risk and were assoc

  7. Effect of the MDM2 promoter polymorphisms SNP309T>G and SNP285G>C on the risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnslett Merete; Knappskog Stian; Lønning Per; Dørum Anne

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background While BRCA mutation carriers possess a 20-40% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, knowledge about genetic modifying factors influencing the phenotypic expression remains obscure. We explored the distribution of the MDM2 polymorphisms SNP309T>G and the recently discovered SNP285G>C in Norwegian patients with BRCA related ovarian cancer. Methods 221 BRCA related ovarian cancer cases (BRCA1; n = 161 and BRCA2; n = 60) were tested for the MDM2 polymorphisms. Results we...

  8. The correlation of mammographic-and histologic patterns of breast cancers in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers, compared to age-matched sporadic controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaas, R. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kroger, R.; Muller, S.H. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Peterse, J.L. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hart, A.A.M. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute / Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiotherapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    Breast cancers in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers often have specific histologic features: grade III tumors with pushing margins. Our purpose was to compare the mammographic and histologic features of breast cancers in carriers with those in age-matched sporadic controls. The features of breast cancers in 27 BRCA1 carriers found during annual surveillance were compared to those in 107 age-matched sporadic controls. The carriers had no (classic) spiculated mammographic lesions, a high percentage of well-defined masses and hardly any masses with microcalcifications, whereas the controls had significantly fewer well-defined ones and only in 27% spiculated lesions on the mammogram. The well-defined mammographic tumors correlated in 83% of the carriers and in 70% of the controls with histologic circumscribed tumor margins. Spiculated mammographic lesions in the controls were in 90% grade I or II tumors. DCIS with or without infiltration was seen in 22% of the carriers and in 45% of the controls. In conclusion, breast cancers diagnosed in BRCA1 carriers do not have classic malignant mammographic features. A minority of the young sporadic controls show the classic malignant lesion on the mammogram. Both carriers and controls generally show a good correlation between their mammographic- and histologic tumor pattern. (orig.)

  9. The correlation of mammographic-and histologic patterns of breast cancers in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers, compared to age-matched sporadic controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancers in BRCA1 gene mutation carriers often have specific histologic features: grade III tumors with pushing margins. Our purpose was to compare the mammographic and histologic features of breast cancers in carriers with those in age-matched sporadic controls. The features of breast cancers in 27 BRCA1 carriers found during annual surveillance were compared to those in 107 age-matched sporadic controls. The carriers had no (classic) spiculated mammographic lesions, a high percentage of well-defined masses and hardly any masses with microcalcifications, whereas the controls had significantly fewer well-defined ones and only in 27% spiculated lesions on the mammogram. The well-defined mammographic tumors correlated in 83% of the carriers and in 70% of the controls with histologic circumscribed tumor margins. Spiculated mammographic lesions in the controls were in 90% grade I or II tumors. DCIS with or without infiltration was seen in 22% of the carriers and in 45% of the controls. In conclusion, breast cancers diagnosed in BRCA1 carriers do not have classic malignant mammographic features. A minority of the young sporadic controls show the classic malignant lesion on the mammogram. Both carriers and controls generally show a good correlation between their mammographic- and histologic tumor pattern. (orig.)

  10. A common Greenlandic Inuit BRCA1 RING domain founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas; Ejlertsen, Bent; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We examined 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Whereas no mutations were identified in 19 families, 13 families exhibited a BRCA1 e...... possibility to reduce mortality in gene carriers, may warrant screening of the Greenlandic Inuit population. Provided screening is efficient, about 5% of breast- and 13% of ovarian cancers, respectively, may be prevented.......Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We examined 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Whereas no mutations were identified in 19 families, 13 families exhibited a BRCA1...... exon 3 nucleotide 234 T > G mutation, which has not previously been reported in the breast cancer information core (BIC) database. The mutation changes a conserved cysteine 39 to a glycine in the Zn(2+) site II of the RING domain, which is essential for BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity. Eight of the...

  11. A common Greenlandic Inuit BRCA1 RING domain founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T.v.O.; Ejlertsen, B.; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We examined 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Whereas no mutations were identified in 19 families, 13 families exhibited a BRCA1 e...... possibility to reduce mortality in gene carriers, may warrant screening of the Greenlandic Inuit population. Provided screening is efficient, about 5% of breast- and 13% of ovarian cancers, respectively, may be prevented Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5......Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. We examined 32 breast and/or ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Whereas no mutations were identified in 19 families, 13 families exhibited a BRCA1...... exon 3 nucleotide 234 T > G mutation, which has not previously been reported in the breast cancer information core (BIC) database. The mutation changes a conserved cysteine 39 to a glycine in the Zn(2+) site II of the RING domain, which is essential for BRCA1 ubiquitin ligase activity. Eight of the...

  12. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Blein (Sophie); C. Bardel (Claire); V. Danjean (Vincent); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); D. Barrowdale (Daniel); A. Lee (Andrew); J. Dennis (Joe); K.B. Kuchenbaecker (Karoline); P. Soucy (Penny); M.B. Terry (Mary Beth); W. Chung (Wendy); D. Goldgar (David); S.S. Buys (Saundra); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); L. Tihomirova (Laima); N. Tung (Nadine); C.M. Dorfling (Cecilia); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); F. Nielsen (Finn); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); A. Osorio (Ana); J. Benítez (Javier); R.A. Conejero (Raquel Andrés); E. Segota (Ena); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); M. Thelander (Margo); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); P. Radice (Paolo); V. Pensotti (Valeria); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); G. Scuvera (Giulietta); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); L. Varesco (Liliana); G.L. Capone (Gabriele L.); L. Papi (Laura); L. Ottini (Laura); D. Yannoukakos (Drakoulis); I. Konstantopoulou (I.); J. Garber (Judy); U. Hamann (Ute); A. Donaldson (Alan); A. Brady (A.); C. Brewer (Carole); C. Foo (Claire); D.G. Evans (Gareth); D. Frost (Debra); D. Eccles (Diana); F. Douglas (Fiona); J. Cook (Jackie); L. Adlard; J. Barwell (Julian); L.J. Walker (Lisa); L. Izatt (Louise); L. Side (Lucy); M.J. Kennedy (John); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); M.T. Rogers (Mark); M.E. Porteous (Mary); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); R. Platte (Radka); R. Eeles (Ros); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); S. Hodgson (Shirley); T.J. Cole (Trevor); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); C. Isaacs (Claudine); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); K. De Leeneer (Kim); A. Meindl (Alfons); P.A. Gehrig (Paola A.); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Sutter (Christian); C. Engel (Christoph); D. Niederacher (Dieter); D. Steinemann (Doris); H. Plendl (Hansjoerg); K. Kast (Karin); K. Rhiem (Kerstin); N. Ditsch (Nina); N. Arnold (Norbert); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); S. Preisler-Adams (Sabine); N.B. Markov (Nadja Bogdanova); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); A. de Pauw (Antoine); C. Lefol (Cédrick); C. Lasset (Christine); D. Leroux (Dominique); E. Rouleau (Etienne); F. Damiola (Francesca); H. Dreyfus (Hélène); L. Barjhoux (Laure); L. Golmard (Lisa); N. Uhrhammer (Nancy); V. Bonadona (Valérie); V. Sornin (Valérie); Y.-J. Bignon (Yves-Jean); J. Carter (Jonathan); L. van Le (Linda); M. Piedmonte (Marion); P. DiSilvestro (Paul); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); T. Caldes (Trinidad); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); A. Jager (Agnes); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); C.M. Kets; C.M. Aalfs (Cora); F.E. van Leeuwen (F.); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.C. Oosterwijk (Jan); K.E. van Roozendaal (Kees); M.A. Rookus (M.); P. Devilee (Peter); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); E. Olah; O. Díez (Orland); A. Teulé (A.); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); J. Del Valle (Jesús); A. Jakubowska (Anna); G. Sukiennicki (Grzegorz); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Durda (Katarzyna); K. Jaworska-Bieniek (Katarzyna); B.A. Agnarsson (Bjarni); C. Maugard; A. Amadori (Alberto); M. Montagna (Marco); P.J. Teixeira; A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); W.D. Foulkes (William); C. Olswold (Curtis); N.M. Lindor (Noralane); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); C. Szabo (Csilla); A. Lincoln (Anne); L. Jacobs (Lauren); M. Corines (Marina); M. Robson (Mark); J. Vijai (Joseph); A. Berger (Andreas); A. Fink-Retter (Anneliese); C.F. Singer (Christian); C. Rappaport (Christine); D.G. Kaulich (Daphne Gschwantler); G. Pfeiler (Georg); M.-K. Tea; M.H. Greene (Mark); P.L. Mai (Phuong); G. Rennert (Gad); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); A.M. Mulligan (Anna Marie); G. Glendon (Gord); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); S. Tchatchou (Sandrine); A.E. Toland (Amanda); I.S. Pedersen (Inge Sokilde); M. Thomassen (Mads); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; M.A. Caligo (Maria); E. Friedman (Eitan); J. Zidan (Jamal); Y. Laitman (Yael); A. Lindblom (Annika); B. Melin (Beatrice); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson); N. Loman (Niklas); R. Rosenquist (R.); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); R. Nussbaum (Robert); S.J. Ramus (Susan); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); B.K. Arun (Banu); G. Mitchell (Gillian); B. Karlan; K.J. Lester (Kathryn); S. Orsulic (Sandra); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); G. Thomas (Gilles); J. Simard (Jacques); F.J. Couch (Fergus); K. Offit (Kenneth); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); A.C. Antoniou (Antonis C.); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); C. Phelan (Catherine); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); D.G. Cox (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of whi

  13. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Goldgar, David E.; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas; Tihomirova, Laima; Tung, Nadine; Dorfling, Cecilia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C.; Hansen, Thomas V. O.; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Andres Conejero, Raquel; Segota, Ena; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Thelander, Margo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Radice, Paolo; Pensotti, Valeria; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Scuvera, Giulietta; Manoukian, Siranoush; Varesco, Liliana; Capone, Gabriele L.; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Donaldson, Alan; Brady, Angela; Brewer, Carole; Foo, Claire; Evans, D. Gareth; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Douglas, Fiona; Cook, Jackie; Adlard, Julian; Barwell, Julian; Walker, Lisa; Izatt, Louise; Side, Lucy E.; Kennedy, M. John; Tischkowitz, Marc; Rogers, Mark T.; Porteous, Mary E.; Morrison, Patrick J.; Platte, Radka; Eeles, Ros; Davidson, Rosemarie; Hodgson, Shirley; Cole, Trevor; Godwin, Andrew K.; Isaacs, Claudine; Claes, Kathleen; De Leeneer, Kim; Meindl, Alfons; Gehrig, Andrea; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Sutter, Christian; Engel, Christoph; Niederacher, Dieter; Steinemann, Doris; Plendl, Hansjoerg; Kast, Karin; Rhiem, Kerstin; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Markov, Nadja Bogdanova; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; de Pauw, Antoine; Lefol, Cedrick; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Rouleau, Etienne; Damiola, Francesca; Dreyfus, Helene; Barjhoux, Laure; Golmard, Lisa; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Bonadona, Valerie; Sornin, Valerie; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Carter, Jonathan; Van Le, Linda; Piedmonte, Marion; DiSilvestro, Paul A.; de la Hoya, Miguel; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Rookus, Matti A.; Devilee, Peter; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Olah, Edith; Diez, Orland; Teule, Alex; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Del Valle, Jesus; Jakubowska, Anna; Sukiennicki, Grzegorz; Gronwald, Jacek; Lubinski, Jan; Durda, Katarzyna; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Agnarsson, Bjarni A.; Maugard, Christine; Amadori, Alberto; Montagna, Marco; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Foulkes, William; Olswold, Curtis; Lindor, Noralane M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Szabo, Csilla I.; Lincoln, Anne; Jacobs, Lauren; Corines, Marina; Robson, Mark; Vijai, Joseph; Berger, Andreas; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Singer, Christian F.; Rappaport, Christine; Kaulich, Daphne Geschwantler; Pfeiler, Georg; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Rennert, Gad; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Thomassen, Mads; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Caligo, Maria A.; Friedman, Eitan; Zidan, Jamal; Laitman, Yael; Lindblom, Annika; Melin, Beatrice; Arver, Brita; Loman, Niklas; Rosenquist, Richard; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Ramus, Susan J.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Arun, Banu K.; Mitchell, Gillian; Karlan, Beth Y.; Lester, Jenny; Orsulic, Sandra; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Thomas, Gilles; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J.; Offit, Kenneth; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Phelan, Catherine M.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Cox, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitoc

  14. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blein, S.; Bardel, C.; Danjean, V.; McGuffog, L.; Healey, S.; Barrowdale, D.; Lee, A.; Dennis, J.; Kuchenbaecker, K.B.; Soucy, P.; Terry, M.B.; Chung, W.K.; Goldgar, D.E.; Buys, S.S.; Janavicius, R.; Tihomirova, L.; Tung, N.; Dorfling, C.M.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Neuhausen, S.L.; Ding, Y.C.; Gerdes, A.M.; Ejlertsen, B.; Nielsen, F.C.; Hansen, T.V.; Osorio, A.; Benitez, J.; Conejero, R.A.; Segota, E.; Weitzel, J.N.; Thelander, M.; Peterlongo, P.; Radice, P.; Pensotti, V.; Dolcetti, R.; Bonanni, B.; Peissel, B.; Zaffaroni, D.; Scuvera, G.; Manoukian, S.; Varesco, L.; Capone, G.L.; Papi, L.; Ottini, L.; Yannoukakos, D.; Konstantopoulou, I.; Garber, J.; Hamann, U.; Donaldson, A.; Brady, A.; Brewer, C.; Foo, C.; Evans, D.G.; Frost, D.; Eccles, D.; Douglas, F.; Cook, J.; Adlard, J.; Barwell, J.; Walker, L.; Izatt, L.; Side, L.E.; Kennedy, M.J.; Tischkowitz, M.; Rogers, M.T.; Porteous, M.E.; Morrison, P.J.; Platte, R.; Eeles, R.; Davidson, R.; Hodgson, S.; Cole, T.; Godwin, A.K.; Isaacs, C.; Claes, K.; Leeneer, K. De; Meindl, A.; Gehrig, A.; Wappenschmidt, B.; Sutter, C.; Engel, C.; Niederacher, D.; Steinemann, D.; Plendl, H.; Kast, K.; Rhiem, K.; Ditsch, N.; Arnold, N.; Varon-Mateeva, R.; Schmutzler, R.K.; Preisler-Adams, S.; Markov, N.B.; Wang-Gohrke, S.; Pauw, A. de; Lefol, C.; Lasset, C.; Leroux, D.; Rouleau, E.; Damiola, F.; Dreyfus, H.; Barjhoux, L.; Golmard, L.; Uhrhammer, N.; Bonadona, V.; Sornin, V.; Bignon, Y.J.; Carter, J.; Le, L; Piedmonte, M.; DiSilvestro, P.A.; Hoya, M. de la; Caldes, T.; Nevanlinna, H.; Aittomaki, K.; Jager, A.; Ouweland, A.M. van den; Kets, C.M.; Aalfs, C.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Hogervorst, F.B.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.E.; Oosterwijk, J.C.; Roozendaal, K.E. van; Rookus, M.A.; Devilee, P.; Luijt, R.B. van der; Olah, E.; Diez, O.; Teule, A.; Lazaro, C.; Blanco, I.; Valle, J.; Jakubowska, A.; Sukiennicki, G.; Gronwald, J.; Lubinski, J.; Durda, K.; Jaworska-Bieniek, K.; Agnarsson, B.A.; Maugard, C.; Amadori, A.; Montagna, M.; Teixeira, M.R.; Spurdle, A.B.; Foulkes, W.; Olswold, C.; Lindor, N.M.; Pankratz, V.S.; Szabo, C.I.; Lincoln, A.; Jacobs, L.; Corines, M.; Robson, M.; Vijai, J.; Berger, A.; Fink-Retter, A.; Singer, C.F.; Rappaport, C.; Kaulich, D.G.; Pfeiler, G.; Tea, M.K.; Greene, M.H.; Mai, P.L.; Rennert, G.; Imyanitov, E.N.; Mulligan, A.M.; Glendon, G.; Andrulis, I.L.; Tchatchou, S.; Toland, A.E.; Pedersen, I.S.; Thomassen, M.; Kruse, T.A.; Jensen, U.B.; Caligo, M.A.; Friedman, E.; Zidan, J.; Laitman, Y.; Lindblom, A.; Melin, B.; Arver, B.; Loman, N.; Rosenquist, R.; Olopade, O.I.; Nussbaum, R.L.; Ramus, S.J.; Nathanson, K.L.; Domchek, S.M.; Rebbeck, T.R.; Arun, B.K.; Mitchell, G.; Karlan, B.Y.; Lester, J.; Orsulic, S.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D.; Thomas, G; Simard, J.; Couch, F.J.; Offit, K.; Easton, D.F.; Chenevix-Trench, G.; Antoniou, A.C.; Mazoyer, S.; Phelan, C.M.; Sinilnikova, O.M.; Cox, D.G.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitoc

  15. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent;

    2015-01-01

    . Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals from different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to oxidative stress. Variability in mitochondrial genetic background can alter reactive oxygen...... species production, leading to cancer risk. Here we test the hypothesis that mitochondrial haplogroups modify breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We genotyped 22214 (11421 affected, 10793 unaffected) mutation carriers belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1....../2 for 129 mitochondrial polymorphisms using the iCOGS array. Haplogroup inference and association detection were performed using a phylogenetic approach. ALTree was applied to explore the reference mitochondrial evolutionary tree and detect subclades enriched for affected or unaffected individuals...

  16. High penetrances of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations confirmed in a prospective series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Møller Pål

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Penetrances of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been derived from retrospective studies, implying the possibility of ascertainment biases to influence the results. We have followed women at risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer for two decades, and report the prospectively observed age-related annual incidence rates to contract breast or ovarian cancer for women with deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations based on 4830 observation years. Patients were grouped according to mutation, age and having/not having had previous cancer. In women not having had previous cancer and aged 40-59 years, the annual incidence rate to contract breast or ovarian cancer in those having the most frequent BRCA1 founder mutations was 4.0%, for women in this age group and with less frequent BRCA1 mutations annual incidence rate was 5.9%, and for women with BRCA2 mutations 3.5%. The observed figures may be used for genetic counseling of healthy mutation carriers in the respective age groups. The results may indicate that less frequent BRCA1 mutations have higher penetrances than BRCA1 founder mutations.

  17. Telomere length shows no association with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Killick

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine whether telomere length (TL is a marker of cancer risk or genetic status amongst two cohorts of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and controls. The first group was a prospective set of 665 male BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 53 years, all healthy at time of enrollment and blood donation, 21 of whom have developed prostate cancer whilst on study. The second group consisted of 283 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 48 years, half of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer prior to enrollment. TL was quantified by qPCR from DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Weighted and unweighted Cox regressions and linear regression analyses were used to assess whether TL was associated with BRCA1/2 mutation status or cancer risk. We found no evidence for association between developing cancer or being a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carrier and telomere length. It is the first study investigating TL in a cohort of genetically predisposed males and although TL and BRCA status was previously studied in females our results don't support the previous finding of association between hereditary breast cancer and shorter TL.

  18. Telomere length shows no association with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killick, Emma; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Cieza-Borrella, Clara;

    2014-01-01

    time of enrollment and blood donation, 21 of whom have developed prostate cancer whilst on study. The second group consisted of 283 female BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and controls (mean age 48 years), half of whom had been diagnosed with breast cancer prior to enrollment. TL was quantified by qPCR from...... DNA extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes. Weighted and unweighted Cox regressions and linear regression analyses were used to assess whether TL was associated with BRCA1/2 mutation status or cancer risk. We found no evidence for association between developing cancer or being a BRCA1 or BRCA2...

  19. Increased Chromosomal Radiosensitivity in Women Carrying BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations Assessed With the G2 Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Several in vitro studies suggest that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers present increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Different assays for the assessment of deoxyribonucleic acid double-strand break repair capacity have been used, but results are rather inconsistent. Given the concerns about the possible risks of breast screening with mammography in mutation carrier women and the potentially damaging effects of radiotherapy, the purpose of this study was to further investigate the radiosensitivity of this population. Methods and Materials: The G2 chromosomal radiosensitivity assay was used to assess chromosomal breaks in lymphocyte cultures after exposure to 1 Gy. A group of familiar breast cancer patients carrying a mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene (n = 15) and a group of healthy mutation carriers (n = 5) were investigated and compared with a reference group of healthy women carrying no mutation (n = 21). Results: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers had a significantly higher number of mean chromatid breaks per cell (p = 0.006) and a higher maximum number of breaks (p = 0.0001) as compared with their matched controls. Both healthy carriers and carriers with a cancer history were more radiosensitive than controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.025, respectively). Age was not associated with increased radiosensitivity (p = 0.868). Conclusions: Our results indicate that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers show enhanced radiosensitivity, presumably because of the involvement of the BRCA genes in deoxyribonucleic acid repair and cell cycle control mechanisms.

  20. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in central and southern Italian patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    family history [one to two first-/second-degree relative(s), n = 55]; breast cancer diagnosed before age 40 years (no breast/ovarian cancer family history, n = 28); bilateral breast cancer (regardless of age and family history, n =10); breast cancer associated with gastrointestinal, pancreatic or uterine cancers [synchronous/metachronous or in first-degree relative(s), n = 9]; breast or ovarian cancer with family history of breast-ovarian/ovarian cancer (at least 1 first-/ second-degree relative, n = 10); and ovarian cancer with no breast/ovarian cancer family history (n = 5). Males with breast cancer were recruited regardless of age and family history. BRCA1 exon 11 and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11 were screened by PTT. Coding BRCA1 exons 2, 3, 5-10 and 12-24 and BRCA2 exons 2-9 and 12-27 were screened by SSCP. Primers are listed in Table 1. In 27 cases, analyzed by PTT along the entire BRCA1 coding sequence, BRCA1 SSCP analysis was limited to exons 2, 5, 20 and 24. Mutations were verified by sequence analysis on two independent blood samples. Deleterious germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations were detected in 11 out of 136 cases (8%). Only three BRCA2 mutations were novel. One BRCA2 mutation recurred in two unrelated probands. Table 2 shows the mutations and data concerning carriers and their families. Table 3 shows correlations between BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and sex, age at disease diagnosis and familial clustering of breast/ovarian cancer in the total patient population. Table 4 shows the proportions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in females with site-specific breast and breast-ovarian/ovarian cancer. Table 5 shows the frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in males. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, respectively, accounted for four out of 68 (6%) and one out of 68 (1%) cases diagnosed before age 50 years, and for one out of 68 (1%) and five out of 68 (7%) cases diagnosed after age 50 years. BRCA1 mutations were found in five out of 117 females (4%) and in none of 19 males (0%), and BRCA2

  1. Recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast cancer patients of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Fackenthal, James D; Zheng, Yonglan; Huo, Dezheng; Hou, Ningqi; Niu, Qun; Zvosec, Cecilia; Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Hennis, Anselm J; Leske, Maria Cristina; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I

    2012-07-01

    Recurrent mutations constituted nearly three quarters of all BRCA1 mutations and almost half of all BRCA2 mutations identified in the first cohort of the Nigerian Breast Cancer Study. To further characterize breast/ovarian cancer risks associated with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the African diaspora, we genotyped recurrent mutations among Nigerian, African American, and Barbadian breast cancer patients. A replication cohort of 356 Nigerian breast cancer patients was genotyped for 12 recurrent BRCA1/2 mutant alleles (Y101X, 1742insG, 4241delTG, M1775R, 4359insC, C64Y, 1623delTTAAA, Q1090X, and 943ins10 from BRCA1, and 1538delAAGA, 2630del11, and 9045delGAAA from BRCA2) by means of SNaPshot followed by direct sequencing or by direct sequencing alone. In addition, 260 African Americans and 118 Barbadians were genotyped for six of the recurrent BRCA1 mutations by SNaPshot assay. Of all the BRCA1/2 recurrent mutations we identified in the first cohort, six were identified in 11 patients in the replication study. These mutation carriers constitute 3.1 % [95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.6-5.5 %] of the replication cohort. By comparison, 6.9 % (95 % CI 4.7-9.7 %) of the discovery cohort carried BRCA1/2 recurrent mutations. For the subset of recurrent mutations we tested in breast cancer cases from Barbados or the United States, only two 943ins10 carriers were identified in African Americans. Nigerian breast cancer patients from Ibadan carry a broad and unique spectrum of BRCA1/2 mutations. Our data suggest that BRCA1/2 mutation testing limited to recurrent mutations is not sufficient to understand the BRCA1/2-associated breast cancer risk in African populations in the diaspora. As the cost of Sanger sequencing is considerably reduced, deploying innovative technologies such as high throughput DNA sequencing of BRCA1/2 and other cancer susceptibility genes will be essential for identifying high-risk individuals and families to reduce the burden of aggressive early onset breast

  2. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their meta...

  3. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metab...

  4. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double-strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals with different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their meta...

  5. Will Chinese ovarian cancer patients benefit from knowing the BRCA2 mutation status?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Guo-Yan; Zhang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries, the mutation status of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is commonly determined for genetic counseling among members of families with a history of breast or ovarian cancer, especially for women of the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity. Recent studies in the Cancer Genome Atlas project have demonstrated that BRCA2 mutation carriers are more responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy among high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients. Thus, in Western countries, the mutation status of BRCA1 ...

  6. The CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Ghadirian, Parviz; El-Sohemy, Ahmed; Lynch, Henry T; Snyder, Carrie; Daly, Mary; Domchek, Susan; Randall, Susan; Karlan, Beth; Zhang, Phil; Zhang, Shiyu; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2007-05-01

    We have recently reported that, among BRCA1 mutation carriers, the consumption of caffeinated coffee was associated with a significant reduction in breast cancer risk. Because the metabolism of caffeine is primarily by CYP1A2, we examined whether or not the CYP1A2 genotype modifies the association between a history of coffee consumption and the risk of breast cancer. A common A to C polymorphism in the CYP1A2 gene is associated with decreased enzyme inducibility and impaired caffeine metabolism. Information regarding coffee consumption habits and the CYP1A2 genotype was available for 411 BRCA1 mutation carriers (170 cases and 241 controls). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for breast cancer associated with the CYP1A2 genotype and a history of coffee consumption before age 35, adjusting for potential confounders. The CYP1A2 genotype did not affect breast cancer risk. Among women with at least one variant C allele (AC or CC), those who consumed coffee had a 64% reduction in breast cancer risk, compared with women who never consumed coffee (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.18-0.73). A significant protective effect of coffee consumption was not observed among women with the CYP1A2 AA genotype (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.49-1.77). Similar results were obtained when the analysis was restricted to caffeinated coffee. This study suggests that caffeine protects against breast cancer in women with a BRCA1 mutation and illustrates the importance of integrating individual genetic variability when assessing diet-disease associations. PMID:17507615

  7. Prostate screening uptake in Australian BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinley Joanne M

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Men who carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at increased risk for prostate cancer. However the efficacy of prostate screening in this setting is uncertain and limited data exists on the uptake of prostate screening by mutation carriers. This study prospectively evaluated uptake of prostate cancer screening in a multi-institutional cohort of mutation carriers. Subjects were unaffected male BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, aged 40–69 years, enrolled in the Kathleen Cuningham Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab and who had completed a mailed, self-report follow-up questionnaire 3 yearly after study entry. Of the 75 male carriers in this study, only 26 (35% had elected to receive their mutation result. Overall, 51 (68% did not recall having received a recommendation to have prostate screening because of their family history, but 41 (55% had undergone a prostate specific antigen (PSA test and 32 (43% a digital rectal examination (DRE in the previous 3 years. Those who were aware of their mutation result were more likely to have received a recommendation for prostate screening (43 vs. 6%, p = 0.0001, and to have had a PSA test (77 vs. 43%, p = 0.005 and a DRE (69 vs. 29%, p = 0.001 in the previous 3 years. The majority of unaffected males enrolled in kConFab with a BRCA1/2 mutation have not sought out their mutation result. However, of those aware of their positive mutation status, most have undergone at least one round of prostate screening in the previous 3 years.

  8. KOHBRA BRCA risk calculator (KOHCal): a model for predicting BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Korean breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Zisun; Noh, Woo-Chul; Jung, Yongsik; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Sung Hoo; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-05-01

    The widely used Western BRCA mutation prediction models underestimated the risk of having a BRCA mutation in Korean breast cancer patients. This study aimed to identify predictive factors for BRCA1/2 mutations and to develop a Korean BRCA risk calculator. The model was constructed by logistic regression model, and it was based on the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study, in which 1669 female patients were enrolled between May 2007 and December 2010. A separate data set of 402 patients, who were enrolled from Jan 2011 to August 2012, was used to test the performance of our model. In total, 264 (15.8%) and 67 (16.7%) BRCA mutation carriers were identified in the model and validation set, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age at breast cancer diagnosis, bilateral breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and the number of relatives with breast or ovarian cancer within third-degree relatives were independent predictors of the BRCA mutation among familial breast cancer patients. An age cancer, both breast and ovarian cancer and TNBC remained significant predictors in non-familial breast cancer cases. Our model was developed based on logistic regression models. The validation results showed no differences between the observed and expected carrier probabilities. This model will be a useful tool for providing genetic risk assessments in Korean populations. PMID:26763880

  9. Presymptomatic breast cancer in Egypt: role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumor suppressor genes mutations detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashishe Mervat M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the most common diseases affecting women. Inherited susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are considered in breast, ovarian and other common cancers etiology. BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been identified that confer a high degree of breast cancer risk. Objective Our study was performed to identify germline mutations in some exons of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer in females. Methods This study was applied on Egyptian healthy females who first degree relatives to those, with or without a family history, infected with breast cancer. Sixty breast cancer patients, derived from 60 families, were selected for molecular genetic testing of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The study also included 120 healthy first degree female relatives of the patients, either sisters and/or daughters, for early detection of presymptomatic breast cancer mutation carriers. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes of all the studied subjects. Universal primers were used to amplify four regions of the BRCA1 gene (exons 2,8,13 and 22 and one region (exon 9 of BRCA2 gene using specific PCR. The polymerase chain reaction was carried out. Single strand conformation polymorphism assay and heteroduplex analysis were used to screen for mutations in the studied exons. In addition, DNA sequencing of the normal and mutated exons were performed. Results Mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were detected in 86.7% of the families. Current study indicates that 60% of these families were attributable to BRCA1 mutations, while 26.7% of them were attributable to BRCA2 mutations. Results showed that four mutations were detected in the BRCA1 gene, while one mutation was detected in the BRCA2 gene. Asymptomatic relatives, 80(67% out of total 120, were mutation carriers. Conclusions BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer. BRCA mutations

  10. An original phylogenetic approach identified mitochondrial haplogroup T1a1 as inversely associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Blein, Sophie; Bardel, Claire; Danjean, Vincent; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; Goldgar, David E; Buys, Saundra S.; Janavicius, Ramunas

    2015-01-01

    Individuals carrying pathogenic mutations in BRCA1/2 genes have a high lifetime risk of breast cancer. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are involved in DNA double strand break repair, DNA alterations that can be caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species, a main source of which are mitochondria. Mitochondrial genome variations affect electron transport chain efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. Individuals from different mitochondrial haplogroups differ in their metabolism and sensitivity to ...

  11. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk of cancer of the ovary , fallopian tube , peritoneum , and pancreas. Men who have a BRCA1 or ... one of the previous criteria? *Cancer of the peritoneum and fallopian tubes should be considered a part ...

  12. Effect of the MDM2 promoter polymorphisms SNP309T>G and SNP285G>C on the risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørnslett Merete

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While BRCA mutation carriers possess a 20-40% lifetime risk of developing ovarian cancer, knowledge about genetic modifying factors influencing the phenotypic expression remains obscure. We explored the distribution of the MDM2 polymorphisms SNP309T>G and the recently discovered SNP285G>C in Norwegian patients with BRCA related ovarian cancer. Methods 221 BRCA related ovarian cancer cases (BRCA1; n = 161 and BRCA2; n = 60 were tested for the MDM2 polymorphisms. Results were compared to healthy controls (n = 2,465. Results The SNP309G allele was associated with elevated OR for ovarian cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers (SNP309TG: OR 1.53; CI 1.07-2.19; p = 0.020; SNP309GG: OR 1.92; CI 1.19-3.10; p = 0.009; SNP309TG+GG combined: OR 1.61; CI 1.15-2.27; p = 0.005. In contrast, the SNP285C allele reduced risk of BRCA1 related ovarian cancer in carriers of the SNP309G allele (OR 0.50; CI 0.24-1.04; p = 0.057. Censoring individuals carrying the SNP285C/309G haplotype from the analysis elevated the OR related to the SNP309G allele (OR 1.73; CI 1.23-2.45; p = 0.002. The mean age at disease onset was 3.1 years earlier in carriers of SNP309TG+GG as compared to carriers of SNP309TT (p = 0.068. No such associations were found in BRCA2 related ovarian cancer. Conclusions Our results indicate the SNP309G allele to increase and the SNP285C allele to reduce the risk of BRCA1 related ovarian cancer. If confirmed in independent studies, this finding may have implications to counseling and decision-making regarding risk reducing measures in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

  13. Reproductive Endocrinologists' Utilization of Genetic Counselors for Oncofertility and Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) Treatment of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetsch, Allison L; Wicklund, Catherine; Clayman, Marla L; Woodruff, Teresa K

    2016-06-01

    Genetic counselors believe fertility preservation and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) discussions to be a part of their role when counseling BRCA1/2 mutation-positive patients. This study is the first to explore reproductive endocrinologists' (REI) practices and attitudes regarding involvement of genetic counselors in the care of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers seeking fertility preservation and PGD. A survey was mailed to 1000 REIs from Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility (SREI), an American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) affiliate group. A 14.5 % response rate was achieved; data was analyzed using SPSS software. The majority of participating REIs were found to recommend genetic counseling to cancer patients considering fertility preservation (82 %) and consult with a genetic counselor regarding PGD for hereditary cancer syndromes (92 %). Additionally, REIs consult genetic counselors regarding PGD patient counseling (88 %), genetic testing (78 %), and general genetics questions (66 %). Two areas genetic counselors may further aid REIs are: elicitation of family history, which is useful to determine fertility preservation and PGD intervention timing (32 % of REIs utilize a cancer family history to determine intervention timing); and, interpretation of variants of uncertain significance (VOUS) as cancer panel genetic testing becomes more common (36 % of REIs are unfamiliar with VOUS). Given our findings, the Oncofertility Consortium® created an online resource for genetic counselors focused on fertility preservation education and communication strategies. PMID:26567039

  14. Association of PHB 1630 C>T and MTHFR 677 C>T polymorphisms with breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakubowska, A; Rozkrut, D; Antoniou, A;

    2012-01-01

    The variable penetrance of breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers suggests that other genetic or environmental factors modify breast cancer risk. Two genes of special interest are prohibitin (PHB) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), both of which are important either directly or...

  15. Detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation in Egyptian females with breast cancer and their relatives by PCR-SSCP method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattouh, Mona; Ahmed, Hydi; Hafez, Elsayed El-Sayed

    2011-01-01

    Germline mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes predispose their carriers to breast or/and ovarian cancers during their lifetime. This study was performed to identify germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for the early detection of pre-symptomatic mutation carriers in Egyptian healthy females who were first-degree relatives of affected women from families with and without family history of breast cancer. Sixty-two patients (index cases) with invasive breast cancer belonging to sixty families and their asymptomatic female first-degree relatives (300 cases) were studied for germline mutations of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Five mutations were detected in 52 families (86.7%) with inherited mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2. Sixty percent of these families had BRCA1 mutation and 26.7% had BRCA2 mutations. They were identified by using the combination of SSCP and heteroduplex analysis. All but one of the mutations were detected within the BRCA1 gene in addition to one mutation in the BRCA2 gene. PMID:23082475

  16. BRCA2 Mutations in 154 Finnish Male Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Syrjäkoski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology and pathogenesis of male breast cancer (MBC are poorly known. This is due to the fact that the disease is rare, and large-scale genetic epidemiologic studies have been difficult to carry out. Here, we studied the frequency of eight recurrent Finnish BRCA2 founder mutations in a large cohort of 154 MBC patients (65% diagnosed in Finland from 1967 to 1996. Founder mutations were detected in 10 patients (6.5%, eight of whom carried the 9346(-2 A>G mutation. Two novel mutations (4075 delGT and 5808 del5 were discovered in a screening of the entire BRCA2 coding region in 34 samples. However, these mutations were not found in the rest of the 120 patients studied. Patients with positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer were often BRCA2 mutation carriers (44%, whereas those with no family history showed a low frequency of involvement (3.6%; P < .0001. Finally, we found only one Finnish MBC patient with 999 dell, the most common founder mutation in Finnish female breast cancer (FBC patients, and one that explains most of the hereditary FBC and MBC cases in Iceland. The variation in BRCA2 mutation spectrum between Finnish MBC patients and FBC patients in Finland and breast cancer patients in Iceland suggests that modifying genetic and environmental factors may significantly influence the penetrance of MBC and FBC in individuals carrying germline BRCA2 mutations in some populations.

  17. Germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and ten-year survival for women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candido-dos-Reis, Francisco J; Song, Honglin; Goode, Ellen L; Cunningham, Julie M; Fridley, Brooke L; Larson, Melissa C; Alsop, Kathryn; Dicks, Ed; Harrington, Patricia; Ramus, Susan J; de Fazio, Anna; Mitchell, Gillian; Fereday, Sian; Bolton, Kelly L; Gourley, Charlie; Michie, Caroline; Karlan, Beth; Lester, Jenny; Walsh, Christine; Cass, Ilana; Olsson, Håkan; Gore, Martin; Benitez, Javier J; Garcia, Maria J; Andrulis, Irene; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Glendon, Gord; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Montagna, Marco; Alducci, Elisa; Sadetzki, Siegal; Chetrit, Angela; Kwong, Ava; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Neuhausen, Susan; Nussbaum, Robert; Daly, Mary; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Loud, Jennifer T; Moysich, Kirsten; Toland, Amanda E; Lambrechts, Diether; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Brenton, James D; Tischkowitz, Marc; Easton, Douglas F; Antoniou, Antonis; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Gayther, Simon A; Bowtell, David; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on mortality in patients with ovarian cancer up to 10 years after diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used unpublished survival time data for 2,242 patients from two case-control studies and extended survival time data for 4......,314 patients from previously reported studies. All participants had been screened for deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Survival time was analyzed for the combined data using Cox proportional hazard models with BRCA1 and BRCA2 as time-varying covariates. Competing risks were analyzed using...... Fine and Gray model. RESULTS: The combined 10-year overall survival rate was 30% [95% confidence interval (CI), 28%-31%] for non-carriers, 25% (95% CI, 22%-28%) for BRCA1 carriers, and 35% (95% CI, 30%-41%) for BRCA2 carriers. The HR for BRCA1 was 0.53 at time zero and increased over time becoming...

  18. Anti-Müllerian hormone serum concentrations of women with germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Collins, Ian M.; Milne, Roger L.; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Friedlander, Michael; Hickey, Martha; Stern, Catharyn; Hopper, John L.; Fisher, Richard; Kannemeyer, Gordon; Picken, Sandra; Smith, Charmaine D.; Kelsey, Thomas W.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations have reduced ovarian reserve, as measured by circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) concentration? SUMMARY ANSWER Women with a germline mutation in BRCA1 have reduced ovarian reserve as measured by AMH. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The DNA repair enzymes encoded by BRCA1 and BRCA2 are implicated in reproductive aging. Circulating AMH is a biomarker of ovarian reserve and hence reproductive lifespan. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This was a cross-sectional study of AMH concentrations of 693 women at the time of enrolment into the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for research in the Familial Breast Cancer (kConFab) cohort study (recruitment from 19 August 1997 until 18 September 2012). AMH was measured on stored plasma samples between November 2014 and January 2015 using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay platform. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Eligible women were from families segregating BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations and had known mutation status. Participants were aged 25–45 years, had no personal history of cancer, retained both ovaries and were not pregnant or breastfeeding at the time of plasma storage. Circulating AMH was measured for 172 carriers and 216 non-carriers from families carrying BRCA1 mutations, and 147 carriers and 158 non-carriers from families carrying BRCA2 mutations. Associations between plasma AMH concentration and carrier status were tested by linear regression, adjusted for age at plasma storage, oral contraceptive use, body mass index and cigarette smoking. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Mean AMH concentration was negatively associated with age (P IVF outside the submitted work. The remaining authors have nothing to declare and no conflicts of interest. PMID:27094481

  19. Impact of heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. Sensitivity to genotoxic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carriers of heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 / 2 have a high risk of developing breast cancer. The loss of the normal allele with consequent loss of function is frequently observed in tumor level. Since these genes involved in the cellular response to genetic damage, loss of function can determine differences in sensitivity to genotoxic agents. In this study investigated whether heterozygous mutations in BRCA1 / 2 modify the sensitivity to genotoxic drugs using lymphoblastic cell lines developed from individuals who carry no mutation carriers and heterozygous for BRCA1 / 2. Materials and methods. Chemo sensitivity of the cell lines was compared lymphoblastoid GM13709 (mutation in exon 11 of BRCA1 2187delA), GM14622 (level 607stop mutation in exon 11 of BRCA2) and GM 14453 (normal BRCA1 / 2) from exposure to Adriamycin (0.2-2.5 mM) and Cisplatin (0.625- 80mM) through the test of cell viability based on MTT reduction. It determined the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) from curves regression dose-response obtained after 24 hours of drug exposure. It 5 independent experiments performed in triplicate. Results. The line GM14622 was significantly (P = 0.003) more sensitive to Adriamycin (IC50: 0.585 mM) than the Control GM14453 (IC50: 1.364 mM) online while GM13709 was similar to the control (IC50: 1.324 mM) response. Turn the line GM14622 was also significantly (P = 0.01) more sensitive cisplatin (IC50: 12.7 mM) than the line GM14453 (IC50: 28.6mm) and GM13709 had the same response as the (IC50: 28.6 mM) control. Discussion and Conclusions. Our results suggest that mutations deleterious heterozygous BRCA2 may confer increased sensitivity to drugs genotoxic, which may have implications in the management of patients carrying or BRCA2 mutations in women with sporadic breast cancer exhibit low expression of BRCA2

  20. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francke, Uta; Dijamco, Cheri; Kiefer, Amy K; Eriksson, Nicholas; Moiseff, Bianca; Tung, Joyce Y; Mountain, Joanna L

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service(®) report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation-positive participants

  1. Dealing with the unexpected: consumer responses to direct-access BRCA mutation testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uta Francke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inherited BRCA gene mutations convey a high risk for breast and ovarian cancer, but current guidelines limit BRCA mutation testing to women with early-onset cancer and relatives of mutation-positive cases. Benefits and risks of providing this information directly to consumers are unknown. Methods. To assess and quantify emotional and behavioral reactions of consumers to their 23andMe Personal Genome Service® report of three BRCA mutations that are common in Ashkenazi Jews, we invited all 136 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation-positive individuals in the 23andMe customer database who had chosen to view their BRCA reports to participate in this IRB-approved study. We also invited 160 mutation-negative customers who were matched for age, sex and ancestry. Semi-structured phone interviews were completed for 32 mutation carriers, 16 women and 16 men, and 31 non-carriers. Questions addressed personal and family history of cancer, decision and timing of viewing the BRCA report, recollection of the result, emotional responses, perception of personal cancer risk, information sharing, and actions taken or planned. Results. Eleven women and 14 men had received the unexpected result that they are carriers of a BRCA1 185delAG or 5382insC, or BRCA2 6174delT mutation. None of them reported extreme anxiety and four experienced moderate anxiety that was transitory. Remarkably, five women and six men described their response as neutral. Most carrier women sought medical advice and four underwent risk-reducing procedures after confirmatory mutation testing. Male carriers realized that their test results implied genetic risk for female relatives, and several of them felt considerably burdened by this fact. Sharing mutation information with family members led to screening of at least 30 relatives and identification of 13 additional carriers. Non-carriers did not report inappropriate actions, such as foregoing cancer screening. All but one of the 32 mutation

  2. A BRCA2 mutation incorrectly mapped in the original BRCA2 reference sequence, is a common West Danish founder mutation disrupting mRNA splicing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Vogel, Ida;

    2011-01-01

    Inherited mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The authors have identified a mutation in BRCA2, 7845+1G>A (c.7617+1G>A), not previously regarded as deleterious because of incorrect mapping of the splice junction in the originally......, loss of exon 15 in the final transcript interrupting the open reading frame was demonstrated. Furthermore, the mutation segregates with a cancer phenotype in 18 Danish families. By genetic analysis of more than 3,500 Danish breast/ovarian cancer risk families, the mutation was identified as the most...

  3. Role of BRCA2 mutation status on overall survival among breast cancer patients from Sardinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Conversely, the impact of BRCA mutations on prognosis and survival of breast cancer patients is still debated. In this study, we investigated the role of such mutations on breast cancer-specific survival among patients from North Sardinia. Among incident cases during the period 1997–2002, a total of 512 breast cancer patients gave their consent to undergo BRCA mutation screening by DHPLC analysis and automated DNA sequencing. The Hakulinen, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression methods were used for both relative survival assessment and statistical analysis. In our series, patients carrying a germline mutation in coding regions and splice boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were 48/512 (9%). Effect on overall survival was evaluated taking into consideration BRCA2 carriers, who represented the vast majority (44/48; 92%) of mutation-positive patients. A lower breast cancer-specific overall survival rate was observed in BRCA2 mutation carriers after the first two years from diagnosis. However, survival rates were similar in both groups after five years from diagnosis. No significant difference was found for age of onset, disease stage, and primary tumour histopathology between the two subsets. In Sardinian breast cancer population, BRCA2 was the most affected gene and the effects of BRCA2 germline mutations on patients' survival were demonstrated to vary within the first two years from diagnosis. After a longer follow-up observation, breast cancer-specific rates of death were instead similar for BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers

  4. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Wardle, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the...

  5. Tumor Mutation Burden Forecasts Outcome in Ovarian Cancer with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Kochupurakkal, Bose; Gonzalez-Izarzugaza, Jose Maria;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased number of single nucleotide substitutions is seen in breast and ovarian cancer genomes carrying disease-associated mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. The significance of these genome-wide mutations is unknown. We hypothesize genome-wide mutation burden mirrors deficiencies in DNA ...... cancer is a genomic marker of prognosis and predictor of treatment response. This marker may reflect the degree of deficiency in BRCA-mediated pathways, or the extent of compensation for the deficiency by alternative echanisms....... repair and is associated with treatment outcome in ovarian cancer. Methods and Results: The total number of synonymous and non-synonymous exome mutations (Nmut), and the presence of germline or somatic mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (mBRCA) were extracted from whole-exome sequences of high-grade serous...... mutations. In cancers with wild-type BRCA, tumor Nmut was associated with treatment response in patients with no residual disease after surgery. Conclusions: Tumor Nmut was associated with treatment response and with both PFS and OS in patients with highgrade serous ovarian cancer carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2...

  6. BRCA Genetic Screening in Middle Eastern and North African: Mutational Spectrum and Founder BRCA1 Mutation (c.798_799delTT in North African

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Laraqui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The contribution of BRCA1 mutations to both hereditary and sporadic breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC has not yet been thoroughly investigated in MENA. Methods. To establish the knowledge about BRCA1 mutations and their correlation with the clinical aspect in diagnosed cases of HBOC in MENA populations. A systematic review of studies examining BRCA1 in BC women in Cyprus, Jordan, Egypt, Lebanon, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia was conducted. Results. Thirteen relevant references were identified, including ten studies which performed DNA sequencing of all BRCA1 exons. For the latter, 31 mutations were detected in 57 of the 547 patients ascertained. Familial history of BC was present in 388 (71% patients, of whom 50 were mutation carriers. c.798_799delTT was identified in 11 North African families, accounting for 22% of total identified BRCA1 mutations, suggesting a founder allele. A broad spectrum of other mutations including c.68_69delAG, c.181T>G, c.5095C>T, and c.5266dupC, as well as sequence of unclassified variants and polymorphisms, was also detected. Conclusion. The knowledge of genetic structure of BRCA1 in MENA should contribute to the assessment of the necessity of preventive programs for mutation carriers and clinical management. The high prevalence of BC and the presence of frequent mutations of the BRCA1 gene emphasize the need for improving screening programs and individual testing/counseling.

  7. Relationship Between Mutations In BRCA1 And BRCA2 Genes And Breast Cancer Prevalence Among Egyptian Women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer represents the most common cancer of women in the world and it is a biologically heterogeneous disease influenced by complex interactions between multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. In Egypt, breast cancer is classified as the first rank cancer case among women. The present study included 55 patients with breast cancer from Upper Egypt of which 40 patients had sporadic and 15 had familial breast cancers. Mutations in DNA of exons 10 and 11 of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were detected by single strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCPs) and sequencing. Moreover, BRCA1 protein expression was detected by immunostaining technique and correlation between risk factors and incidence rate of breast cancer. The results revealed 5 mutations (unclassified variants); three mutations (60%) were recorded internationally in Breast Information Cancer (BIC), one of them was 1767 C→T(550 Asn→His) and previously recorded in the Arabic world and the other 2 novel mutations were 1663 T→ C(479 Asp→Gly) and del AG 6079. The results obtained in the present study also demonstrated that the increase of the negative immunostaining of ''BRCA1'' protein in the tumour cells of BRCA1 mutation carriers was comparable to familial and sporadic breast cancer non-carrier. Accurate estimation of the relative frequency of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Egyptian breast cancer patients could not be deduced from the results of this relatively small pilot study. More studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to clarify the relation between BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and the prediction of breast cancer in Egypt.

  8. Data mining approach to predict BRCA1 gene mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olegas Niakšu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent women cancer form and one of the leading mortality causes among women around the world. Patients with pathological mutation of a BRCA gene have 65% lifelong breast cancer probability. It is known that such patients have different cause of illness. In this study, we have proposed a new approach for the prediction of BRCA mutation carriers by methodically applying knowledge discovery steps and utilizing data mining methods. An alternative BRCA risk assessment model has been created utilizing decision tree classifier model. The biggest challenge was a very small size and imbalanced nature of the initial dataset, which have been collected by clinicians during 4 years of clinical trial. Iterative optimization of initial dataset, optimal algorithms selection and their parameterization have resulted in higher classifier model performance, with acceptable prediction accuracy for the clinical usage. In this study, three data mining problems have been analyzed using eleven data mining algorithms.

  9. A BRCA1-mutation associated DNA methylation signature in blood cells predicts sporadic breast cancer incidence and survival.

    OpenAIRE

    Anjum, S; Fourkala, E O; Zikan, M.; Wong, A.; Gentry-Maharaj, A.; Jones, A.; HARDY, R.; Cibula, D.; Kuh, D.; Jacobs, I. J.; Teschendorff, A.E.; Menon, U; Widschwendter, M

    2014-01-01

    Background BRCA1 mutation carriers have an 85% risk of developing breast cancer but the risk of developing non-hereditary breast cancer is difficult to assess. Our objective is to test whether a DNA methylation (DNAme) signature derived from BRCA1 mutation carriers is able to predict non-hereditary breast cancer. Methods In a case/control setting (72 BRCA1 mutation carriers and 72 BRCA1/2 wild type controls) blood cell DNA samples were profiled on the Illumina 27 k methylation array. Using th...

  10. A locus on 19p13 modifies risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers and is associated with hormone receptor–negative breast cancer in the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S; McGuffog, Lesley; Tarrell, Robert; Sinilnikova, Olga M; Healey, Sue; Morrison, Jonathan; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Lesnick, Timothy; Ghoussaini, Maya; Barrowdale, Daniel; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Eccles, Diana; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Chu, Carol; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Houdayer, Claude; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Giraud, Sophie; Lasset, Christine; Remenieras, Audrey; Caron, Olivier; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Rookus, Matti A; Jager, Agnes; van den Ouweland, Ans; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; García, Encarna B Gómez; Devilee, Peter; Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; Lubinski, Jan; Jakubowska, Anna; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Górski, Bohdan; Cybulski, Cezary; Spurdle, Amanda B; Holland, Helene; Goldgar, David E; John, Esther M; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa; Buys, Saundra S; Daly, Mary B; Terry, Mary-Beth; Schmutzler, Rita K; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Arnold, Norbert; Niederacher, Dieter; Sutter, Christian; Domchek, Susan M; Nathanson, Katherine L; Rebbeck, Timothy; Blum, Joanne L; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo C; Wakeley, Katie; Boggess, John F; Basil, Jack; Blank, Stephanie V; Friedman, Eitan; Kaufman, Bella; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Andrulis, Irene L; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Vijai, Joseph; Gaudet, Mia M; Altshuler, David; Guiducci, Candace; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Rantala, Johanna; Ehrencrona, Hans; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Thomassen, Mads; Sunde, Lone; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Bonanni, Bernardo; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Singer, Christian F; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Loud, Jennifer T; Guidugli, Lucia; Lindor, Noralane M; Hansen, Thomas V O; Nielsen, Finn C; Blanco, Ignacio; Lazaro, Conxi; Garber, Judy; Ramus, Susan J; Gayther, Simon A; Phelan, Catherine; Narod, Stephen; Szabo, Csilla I; Benitez, Javier; Osorio, Ana; Nevanlinna, Heli; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Caligo, Maria A; Beattie, Mary S; Hamann, Ute; Godwin, Andrew K; Montagna, Marco; Casella, Cinzia; Neuhausen, Susan L; Karlan, Beth Y; Tung, Nadine; Toland, Amanda E; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Olopade, Olofunmilayo; Simard, Jacques; Soucy, Penny; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Brauch, Hiltrud; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Miron, Penelope; Gerty, Sue M; Tapper, William; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Fountzilas, George; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Peto, Julian; Lambrechts, Diether; Paridaens, Robert; Rüdiger, Thomas; Försti, Asta; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Diasio, Robert B; Lee, Adam M; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette; Vachon, Celine; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Dunning, Alison; Pharoah, Paul P D; Offit, Kenneth; Pankratz, V Shane; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F; Couch, Fergus J

    2011-01-01

    Germline BRCA1 mutations predispose to breast cancer. To identify genetic modifiers of this risk, we performed a genome-wide association study in 1,193 individuals with BRCA1 mutations who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer under age 40 and 1,190 BRCA1 carriers without breast cancer diagnosis over age 35. We took forward 96 SNPs for replication in another 5,986 BRCA1 carriers (2,974 individuals with breast cancer and 3,012 unaffected individuals). Five SNPs on 19p13 were associated with breast cancer risk (Ptrend = 2.3 × 10−9 to Ptrend = 3.9 × 10−7), two of which showed independent associations (rs8170, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17–1.35; rs2363956 HR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80–0.89). Genotyping these SNPs in 6,800 population-based breast cancer cases and 6,613 controls identified a similar association with estrogen receptor–negative breast cancer (rs2363956 per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.83, 95% CI 0.75–0.92, Ptrend = 0.0003) and an association with estrogen receptor–positive disease in the opposite direction (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.14, Ptrend = 0.016). The five SNPs were also associated with triple-negative breast cancer in a separate study of 2,301 triple-negative cases and 3,949 controls (Ptrend = 1 × 10−7 to Ptrend = 8 × 10−5; rs2363956 per-allele OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.74–0.87, Ptrend = 1.1 × 10−7). PMID:20852631

  11. Oncotype-DX recurrence score distribution in breast cancer patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, R; Sulkes, A; Shochat, T; Tsoref, D; Rizel, S; Liebermann, N; Hendler, D; Neiman, V; Ben-Aharon, I; Friedman, E; Paluch-Shimon, S; Margel, D; Kedar, I; Yerushalmi, R

    2016-06-01

    Oncotype-DX assay has never been validated for BRCA mutation carriers. This study compares the recurrence score (RS) distribution in BRCA-positive breast cancer patients with that of a general population (GP) of patients and reports their outcomes. Eligible patients were BRCA carriers who performed the Oncotype-DX assay. Two sets of databases were cross-linked: BRCA carriers at Rabin Medical Center and Sheba Medical Center with Oncotype-DX tests performed through Clalit Health Services HMO, from 2003 to 2015. Fifty-eight BRCA patients were included (20 BRCA1, 38 BRCA2). The GP included 1020 patients. Compared to the GP, BRCA1 patients were younger, had higher rate of grade three tumors, and higher Ki67. BRCA2 patients had lower PR index, higher rate of grade three tumors, and higher Ki67. Among the GP, 52.9, 37.9, and 9.1 % had low, intermediate, and high risk RS, respectively. Corresponding rates were 15, 35, and 50 % in BRCA1 patients, and 18.4, 52.6, and 29 % in BRCA2 patients. Subgroup analysis revealed a similar RS distribution pattern regardless of the nodal status. Median follow-up was 45 months. Four BRCA patients (7 %) developed disease recurrence. RS of these patients were in the intermediate and low range. All recurrences occurred in chemo-naïve patients who had not undergone bilateral oophorectomy. This study revealed significantly different RS distributions between BRCA patients and the GP. RS values shifted toward high and intermediate risk categories. This pattern held regardless of the nodal status and was more pronounced in the BRCA1 group. PMID:27225387

  12. Parity and the risk of breast and ovarian cancer in and mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Durán, Mercedes; Velasco, Eladio,

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Environmental or lifestyle factors are likely to explain part of the heterogeneity in breast and ovarian cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We assessed parity as a risk modifier in 515 and 503 Spanish female carriers of mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. Hazard ratios (HR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using weighted Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for year of birth and study centre. The result...

  13. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Iranian breast cancer patients: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Neamatzadeh; Seyed Mostafa Shiryazdi; Seyed Mahdi Kalantar

    2015-01-01

    Background: BRCA1/2 genes mutation prevalence varies among ethnic groups and may be influenced by founder mutations. Understanding BRCA1/2 genes mutations is important for reducing breast cancer (BC) incidence, accurate risk assessment and counseling. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to addressing BRCA1/2 mutations in Iranian BC patients. Materials and Methods: A search for relevant articles was run on before January 2014 using MedLine, PubMed, Science Iranian Database, ...

  14. Oral contraceptives and breast cancer risk in the international BRCA1/2 carrier cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohet, Richard M; Goldgar, David E; Easton, Douglas F;

    2007-01-01

    oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer among BRCA1/2 carriers. PATIENTS AND METHODS In the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort study (IBCCS), a retrospective cohort of 1,593 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers was analyzed with a weighted Cox regression analysis. Results We found an increased risk of...... breast cancer for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who ever used oral contraceptives (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.87). HRs did not vary according to time since stopping use, age at start, or calendar year at start. However, a longer duration of use, especially before first full...... found among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers that current use of oral contraceptives is associated with risk of breast cancer more strongly than is past use, as is found in the general population. However, duration of use, especially before first full-term pregnancy, may be associated with an increasing risk...

  15. Role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Julia B; David C. Whitcomb

    2006-01-01

    Germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes breast cancer antigen gene (BRCA)1 and BRCA2 have been proven to portend a drastically increased lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancers in the individuals who carry them. A number of studies have shown that the third most common cancer associated with these mutations is pancreatic cancer. BRCA1/2 mutations are characterised by “allelic” or “phenotypic” heterogeneity, in that they demonstrate differing cancer expressivity between and withi...

  16. Will Chinese ovarian cancer patients benefit from knowing the BRCA2 mutation status?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Yan Liu; Wei Zhang

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries,the mutation status of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes is commonly determined for genetic counseling among members of families with a history of breast or ovarian cancer,especially for women of the Ashkenazi Jewish ethnicity.Recent studies in the Cancer Genome Atlas project have demonstrated that BRCA2 mutation carriers are more responsive to platinum-based chemotherapy among high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients.Thus,in Western countries,the mutation status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 is recognized to have an important value with which to assess cancer risk and therapeutic response.However,very limited studies of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and their implications for counseling and therapeutic prediction have been conducted in China.Therefore,a potentially important genetic test that is technically simple has not benefited Chinese women with an increased risk of breast or ovarian cancer.This article summarizes the current progress in the study of BRCA1/2 mutation in China and recommends an increased effort in applying advances in genetic testing to the clinical management of Chinese patients with ovarian cancer.

  17. RANKL/RANK control Brca1 mutation-driven mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Verena; Owusu-Boaitey, Kwadwo; Joshi, Purna A; Kavirayani, Anoop; Wirnsberger, Gerald; Novatchkova, Maria; Kozieradzki, Ivona; Schramek, Daniel; Edokobi, Nnamdi; Hersl, Jerome; Sampson, Aishia; Odai-Afotey, Ashley; Lazaro, Conxi; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Pujana, Miguel A; Cimba, For; Heyn, Holger; Vidal, Enrique; Cruickshank, Jennifer; Berman, Hal; Sarao, Renu; Ticevic, Melita; Uribesalgo, Iris; Tortola, Luigi; Rao, Shuan; Tan, Yen; Pfeiler, Georg; Lee, Eva Yhp; Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Kenner, Lukas; Popper, Helmuth; Singer, Christian; Khokha, Rama; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer, affecting approximately one in eight women during their life-time. Besides environmental triggers and hormones, inherited mutations in the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) or BRCA2 genes markedly increase the risk for the development of breast cancer. Here, using two different mouse models, we show that genetic inactivation of the key osteoclast differentiation factor RANK in the mammary epithelium markedly delayed onset, reduced incidence, and attenuated progression of Brca1;p53 mutation-driven mammary cancer. Long-term pharmacological inhibition of the RANK ligand RANKL in mice abolished the occurrence of Brca1 mutation-driven pre-neoplastic lesions. Mechanistically, genetic inactivation of Rank or RANKL/RANK blockade impaired proliferation and expansion of both murine Brca1;p53 mutant mammary stem cells and mammary progenitors from human BRCA1 mutation carriers. In addition, genome variations within the RANK locus were significantly associated with risk of developing breast cancer in women with BRCA1 mutations. Thus, RANKL/RANK control progenitor cell expansion and tumorigenesis in inherited breast cancer. These results present a viable strategy for the possible prevention of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutant patients. PMID:27241552

  18. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 Uruguayan families with breast / ovarian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with susceptibility hereditary to breast (CM) and ovarian cancer (OC). The proportion of high risk families carrying mutations in BRCA1 / 2 (20% -70%) and the spectrum of mutations are variable and dependent on the location and type of families studied. In this communication we update our results on the frequency and type of mutations in BRCA1 / 2 families in Uruguayan breast / ovarian cancer. Patients and methods. 39 selected families were included in the study from patients referred to the Unit of the Hospital de Clinicas Oncogene tics for genetic risk assessment and who had at least 3 cases of CM (at least one diagnosed before age 50) or 2 cases with any of the following sub: Parental transmittance, bilateral breast cancer, breast cancer male, ovarian cancer. Results. 8 8 families different mutations (20%), 6 were identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 2, all resulting in premature termination codon. Regarding family history, 33 families had history of CM and 6 remaining history of CM and CO. Among the first 6 mutations diagnosed (Five in BRCA1 and one in BRCA2) and between the latter 2 mutations (1 in BRCA1 and 1 in BRCA2). Regarding the index cases, all BRCA2 mutations were detected in patients in whom the disease was diagnosed before the 50, 5 of them carrying CM and CO. The BRCA1 were found in a patient with CO diagnosed at age 55 and a patient with CM diagnosed before 50 years. Conclusions. The proportion of flamilies with BRCA1 / 2 is of agreement with that reported in previous studies involving selected families based on similar criteria, but the relative frequency of engagement

  19. Recurrent germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in high risk families in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitman, Yael; Simeonov, Monica; Herskovitz, Liron; Kushnir, Anya; Shimon-Paluch, Shani; Kaufman, Bella; Zidan, Jamal; Friedman, Eitan

    2012-06-01

    The spectrum of germline mutations among Jewish non Ashkenazi high risk breast/ovarian cancer families includes a few predominant mutations in BRCA1 (185delAG and Tyr978X) and BRCA2 (8765delAG). A few additional recurring mutations [A1708E, 981delAT, C61G (BRCA1) R2336P, and IVS2 + 1G > A (BRCA2)] have been reported in Jewish non Ashkenazi families. The 4153delA*BRCA1 C61G*BRCA1 and the 4075delGT*BRCA2 has been reported to recur in Russian/Polish non Jews and Ashkenazim, respectively. The rate of these recurring mutations has not been reported in Israeli high risk families. Genotyping for these recurring mutations by restriction enzyme digest and sequencing method was applied to high risk, predominantly cancer affected, unrelated Israeli individuals of Ashkenazi (n = 827), non Ashkenazi (n = 2,777), non Jewish Caucasians (n = 193), and 395 of mixed ethnicity. Jewish participants included 827 Ashkenazi, 804 Balkans, 847 North Africans, 234 Yemenites, and 892 Asians (Iraq and Iran). Age at diagnosis of breast cancer (median ± SD) (n = 2,484) was 47.2 ± 9.6 for all women participants. Males (n = 236) were also included, of whom 24 had breast cancer and 35 had pancreatic cancer. Overall, 8/282 (2.8%) of the Balkan cases carried the BRCA1*A1708E mutation, 4/180 (2.2%) the R2336P mutation, and 0/270 the IVS2 + 1G > A BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Of North Africans, 7/264 (2.65%) carried the BRCA1*981delAT mutation. The BRCA1*C61G mutation was detected in 3/269 Ashkenazi, non Ashkenazi, and non Jewish Russians; the BRCA1*Tyr978X mutation was detected in 23/3220 individuals of non Ashkenazi origin, exclusively of Asian ethnicity (23/892, 2.6% of the Asians tested). The BRCA1*4153delA mutation was noted in 2/285 non Jewish Caucasians, and none of the Ashkenazim (n = 500) carried the BRCA2*4075delGT mutation. Jewish high risk families of North African, Asian, and Balkan descent should be screened for the 981delAT, Tyr978X, A1708E BRCA1, and the R2336P BRCA2 mutations

  20. Comprehensive analysis of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutation and tumor characterization: a portrait of early-onset breast cancer in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Maria Carraro

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 genes have been identified as one of the most important disease-causing issues in young breast cancer patients worldwide. The specific defective biological processes that trigger germline mutation-associated and -negative tumors remain unclear. To delineate an initial portrait of Brazilian early-onset breast cancer, we performed an investigation combining both germline and tumor analysis. Germline screening of the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (c.1100delC and TP53 genes was performed in 54 unrelated patients <35 y; their tumors were investigated with respect to transcriptional and genomic profiles as well as hormonal receptors and HER2 expression/amplification. Germline mutations were detected in 12 out of 54 patients (22% [7 in BRCA1 (13%, 4 in BRCA2 (7% and one in TP53 (2% gene]. A cancer familial history was present in 31.4% of the unrelated patients, from them 43.7% were carriers for germline mutation (37.5% in BRCA1 and in 6.2% in the BRCA2 genes. Fifty percent of the unrelated patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors carried BRCA1 mutations, percentage increasing to 83% in cases with familial history of cancer. Over-representation of DNA damage-, cellular and cell cycle-related processes was detected in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-associated tumors, whereas cell and embryo development-related processes were over-represented in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-negative tumors, suggesting distinct mechanisms driving the tumorigenesis. An initial portrait of the early-onset breast cancer patients in Brazil was generated pointing out that hormone receptor-negative tumors and positive familial history are two major risk factors for detection of a BRCA1 germline mutation. Additionally, the data revealed molecular factors that potentially trigger the tumor development in young patients.

  1. Comprehensive analysis of BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 germline mutation and tumor characterization: a portrait of early-onset breast cancer in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, Dirce Maria; Koike Folgueira, Maria Aparecida Azevedo; Garcia Lisboa, Bianca Cristina; Ribeiro Olivieri, Eloisa Helena; Vitorino Krepischi, Ana Cristina; de Carvalho, Alex Fiorini; de Carvalho Mota, Louise Danielle; Puga, Renato David; do Socorro Maciel, Maria; Michelli, Rodrigo Augusto Depieri; de Lyra, Eduardo Carneiro; Grosso, Stana Helena Giorgi; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Achatz, Maria Isabel Alves de Souza Waddington; Brentani, Helena; Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Brentani, Maria Mitzi

    2013-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and TP53 genes have been identified as one of the most important disease-causing issues in young breast cancer patients worldwide. The specific defective biological processes that trigger germline mutation-associated and -negative tumors remain unclear. To delineate an initial portrait of Brazilian early-onset breast cancer, we performed an investigation combining both germline and tumor analysis. Germline screening of the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2 (c.1100delC) and TP53 genes was performed in 54 unrelated patients profiles as well as hormonal receptors and HER2 expression/amplification. Germline mutations were detected in 12 out of 54 patients (22%) [7 in BRCA1 (13%), 4 in BRCA2 (7%) and one in TP53 (2%) gene]. A cancer familial history was present in 31.4% of the unrelated patients, from them 43.7% were carriers for germline mutation (37.5% in BRCA1 and in 6.2% in the BRCA2 genes). Fifty percent of the unrelated patients with hormone receptor-negative tumors carried BRCA1 mutations, percentage increasing to 83% in cases with familial history of cancer. Over-representation of DNA damage-, cellular and cell cycle-related processes was detected in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-associated tumors, whereas cell and embryo development-related processes were over-represented in the up-regulated genes of BRCA1/2-negative tumors, suggesting distinct mechanisms driving the tumorigenesis. An initial portrait of the early-onset breast cancer patients in Brazil was generated pointing out that hormone receptor-negative tumors and positive familial history are two major risk factors for detection of a BRCA1 germline mutation. Additionally, the data revealed molecular factors that potentially trigger the tumor development in young patients. PMID:23469205

  2. Screening of 1331 Danish breast and/or ovarian cancer families identified 40 novel BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Steffensen, Ane Y; Andersen, Mette K; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C

    2011-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Since 1999 we have performed mutational screening of breast and/or ovarian cancer patients in East Denmark. During this period we have identified 40 novel sequence variations in BRCA1 and...... BRCA2 in high risk breast and/or ovarian cancer families. The mutations were detected via pre-screening using dHPLC or high-resolution melting and direct sequencing. We identified 16 variants in BRCA1, including 9 deleterious frame-shift mutations, 2 intronic variants, 4 missense mutations, and 1......, the presumed significance of the missense mutations was predicted in silico using the align GVGD algorithm. In conclusion, the mutation screening identified 40 novel variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and thereby extends the knowledge of the BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation spectrum. Nineteen of the mutations...

  3. Screening of 1331 Danish breast and/or ovarian cancer families identified 40 novel BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Steffensen, Ane Y; Andersen, Mette K; Kjaergaard, Susanne; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Finn C

    2011-01-01

    Germ-line mutations in the tumour suppressor genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Since 1999 we have performed mutational screening of breast and/or ovarian cancer patients in East Denmark. During this period we have identified 40 novel sequence variations in BRCA1 and...... BRCA2 in high risk breast and/or ovarian cancer families. The mutations were detected via pre-screening using dHPLC or high-resolution melting and direct sequencing. We identified 16 variants in BRCA1, including 9 deleterious frame-shift mutations, 2 intronic variants, 4 missense mutations, and 1......, the presumed significance of the missense mutations was predicted in silico using the align GVGD algorithm. In conclusion,the mutation screening identified 40 novel variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes and thereby extends the knowledge of the BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation spectrum. Nineteen of the mutations...

  4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Danish families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas V O; Borg, Ake;

    2008-01-01

    A national study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in Danish HBOC (Hereditary Breast Ovarian Cancer) families revealed a total number of 322 mutation positive families, 206 (64%) BRCA1 and 116 (36%) BRCA2 positive families from a population of 5.5 million inhabitants. Seven hundred and twenty six muta...

  5. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Mutations Screening In Sporadic Breast Cancer Patients In Kazakhstan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur R. Akilzhanova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A large number of distinct mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been reported worldwide, but little is known regarding the role of these inherited susceptibility genes in breast cancer risk among Kazakhstan women. Aim: To evaluate the role of BRCA1/2 mutations in Kazakhstan women presenting with sporadic breast cancer. Methods: We investigated the distribution and nature of polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 entire coding regions in 156 Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer cases and 112 age-matched controls using automatic direct sequencing. Results: We identified 22 distinct variants, including 16 missense mutations and 6 polymorphisms in BRCA1/2 genes. In BRCA1, 9 missense mutations and 3 synonymous polymorphisms were observed. In BRCA2, 7 missense mutations and 3 polymorphisms were detected. There was a higher prevalence of observed mutations in Caucasian breast cancer cases compared to Asian cases (p<0.05; higher frequencies of sequence variants were observed in Asian controls. No recurrent or founder mutations were observed in BRCA1/2 genes. There were no statistically significant differences in age at diagnosis, tumor histology, size of tumor, and lymph node involvement between women with breast cancer with or without the BRCA sequence alterations. Conclusions: Considering the majority of breast cancer cases are sporadic, the present study will be helpful in the evaluation of the need for the genetic screening of BRCA1/2 mutations and reliable genetic counseling for Kazakhstan sporadic breast cancer patients. Evaluation of common polymorphisms and mutations and breast cancer risk in families with genetic predisposition to breast cancer is ongoing in another current investigation. 

  6. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  7. A high-throughput protocol for mutation scanning of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detection of mutations by DNA sequencing can be facilitated by scanning methods to identify amplicons which may have mutations. Current scanning methods used for the detection of germline sequence variants are laborious as they require post-PCR manipulation. High resolution melting (HRM) is a cost-effective rapid screening strategy, which readily detects heterozygous variants by melting curve analysis of PCR products. It is well suited to screening genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 as germline pathogenic mutations in these genes are always heterozygous. Assays for the analysis of all coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were designed, and optimised. A final set of 94 assays which ran under identical amplification conditions were chosen for BRCA1 (36) and BRCA2 (58). Significant attention was placed on primer design to enable reproducible detection of mutations within the amplicon while minimising unnecessary detection of polymorphisms. Deoxyinosine residues were incorporated into primers that overlay intronic polymorphisms. Multiple 384 well plates were used to facilitate high throughput. 169 BRCA1 and 239 BRCA2 known sequence variants were used to test the amplicons. We also performed an extensive blinded validation of the protocol with 384 separate patient DNAs. All heterozygous variants were detected with the optimised assays. This is the first HRM approach to screen the entire coding region of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes using one set of reaction conditions in a multi plate 384 well format using specifically designed primers. The parallel screening of a relatively large number of samples enables better detection of sequence variants. HRM has the advantages of decreasing the necessary sequencing by more than 90%. This markedly reduced cost of sequencing will result in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing becoming accessible to individuals who currently do not undergo mutation testing because of the significant costs involved

  8. Identification of a Danish breast/ovarian cancer family double heterozygote for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Ane Y; Jønson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Nielsen, Finn C; Hansen, Thomas V O

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the two breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Patients with mutations in both genes are rarely reported and often involve Ashkenazi founder mutations. Here we report the first identification of a Danish...... breast and ovarian cancer family heterozygote for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The BRCA1 nucleotide 5215G > A/c.5096G > A mutation results in the missense mutation Arg1699Gln, while the BRCA2 nucleotide 859 + 4A > G/c.631 + 4A > G is novel. Exon trapping experiments and reverse transcriptase...... (RT)-PCR analysis revealed that the BRCA2 mutation results in skipping of exon 7, thereby introducing a frameshift and a premature stop codon. We therefore classify the mutation as disease causing. Since the BRCA1 Arg1699Gln mutation is also suggested to be disease-causing, we consider this family...

  9. Risk modeling and screening for BRCA1 mutations among Filipino breast cancer patients

    CERN Document Server

    Nato, A Q J

    2003-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1(BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for approx 45% of families with multiple breast carcinomas and for approx 80% of breast and ovarian cancer families. In this study, we investigated 34 familial Filipino breast cancer (BC) patients to: (a) estimate breast cancer risks and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities using risk assessment and prior probability models, respectively; (b) screen for putative polymorphisms at selected smaller exons of BRCA1 by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis; (c) screen for truncated mutations at BRCA1 exon 11 by radioactive protein truncation test (PTT); and (d) estimate posterior probabilities upon incorporation of screening results. SSCP analysis revealed 8 unique putative polymorphisms. Low prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exon 2, 5, 17, and 22 may indicate probable mutations. Contrastingly, high prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exons 13, 15, and 16 may suggest true polymorphisms whi...

  10. A Rapid and Reliable Test for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Founder Mutation Analysis in Paraffin Tissue Using Pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Liying; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Yee, Cindy J; Offit, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    The founder mutations in BRCA (BRCA1*185delAG, BRCA1*5382insC, and BRCA2*6174delT) account for 95% of the detectable BRCA mutations in breast and ovarian cancer families of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry. Optimal clinical management of individuals from these high-risk families relies on the identification of BRCA founder mutations in the laboratory. We have therefore developed a rapid and reliable approach using pyrosequencing, which allows for the detection of these frequent frameshift mutations ...

  11. Contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations to Early Algerian Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henouda, Sarra; Bensalem, Assia; Reggad, Rym; Serrar, Nedda; Rouabah, Leila; Pujol, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and the leading cancer mortality cause among Algerian women. Germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with early-onset breast cancer have not been clearly identified within the Algerian population. It is necessary to study the BRCA1/2 genes involvement in the Algerian breast cancer occurrence. We performed this study to define germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and their implication in breast cancer among young women from eastern Algeria diagnosed or treated with primary invasive breast cancer at the age of 40 or less who were referred to Anti-Cancer Center of Setif, Algeria. Case series were unselected for family history. Eight distinct pathogenic mutations were identified in eight unrelated families. Three deleterious mutations and one large genomic rearrangement involving deletion of exon 2 were found in BRCA1 gene. In addition, four mutations within the BRCA2 gene and one large genomic rearrangement were identified. Novel mutation was found among Algerian population. Moreover, five variants of uncertain clinical significance and favor polymorphisms were identified. Our data suggest that BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for a significant proportion of breast cancer in Algerian young women. PMID:26997744

  12. Association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and survival in women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolton, Kelly L; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Goh, Cindy; Sadetzki, Siegal; Ramus, Susan J; Karlan, Beth Y; Lambrechts, Diether; Despierre, Evelyn; Barrowdale, Daniel; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Easton, Douglas F; Sinilnikova, Olga; Benítez, Javier; García, María J; Neuhausen, Susan; Gail, Mitchell H; Hartge, Patricia; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Evans, D Gareth; Eeles, Rosalind; Godwin, Andrew K; Daly, Mary B; Kwong, Ava; Ma, Edmond S K; Lázaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Nicoletto, Maria Ornella; Johnatty, Sharon E; Kjær, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Høgdall, Estrid; Goode, Ellen L; Fridley, Brooke L; Loud, Jennifer T; Greene, Mark H; Mai, Phuong L; Chetrit, Angela; Lubin, Flora; Hirsh-Yechezkel, Galit; Glendon, Gord; Andrulis, Irene L; Toland, Amanda E; Senter, Leigha; Gore, Martin E; Gourley, Charlie; Michie, Caroline O; Song, Honglin; Tyrer, Jonathan; Whittemore, Alice S; McGuire, Valerie; Sieh, Weiva; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Olsson, Håkan; Borg, Åke; Levine, Douglas A; Steele, Linda; Beattie, Mary S; Chan, Salina; Nussbaum, Robert L; Moysich, Kirsten B; Gross, Jenny; Cass, Ilana; Walsh, Christine; Li, Andrew J; Leuchter, Ronald; Gordon, Ora; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Gayther, Simon A; Chanock, Stephen J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Pharoah, Paul D P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 10% of women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) carry deleterious germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. A recent article suggested that BRCA2-related EOC was associated with an improved prognosis, but the effect of BRCA1 remains unclear....

  13. BRCA1/2 mutation analysis in 41 ovarian cell lines reveals only one functionally deleterious BRCA1 mutation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stordal, Britta

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in BRCA1\\/2 increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Germline BRCA1\\/2 mutations occur in 8.6-13.7% of unselected epithelial ovarian cancers, somatic mutations are also frequent. BRCA1\\/2 mutated or dysfunctional cells may be sensitive to PARP inhibition by synthetic lethality. The aim of this study is to comprehensively characterise the BRCA1\\/2 status of a large panel of ovarian cancer cell lines available to the research community to assist in biomarker studies of novel drugs and in particular of PARP inhibitors. The BRCA1\\/2 genes were sequenced in 41 ovarian cell lines, mRNA expression of BRCA1\\/2 and gene methylation status of BRCA1 was also examined. The cytotoxicity of PARP inhibitors olaparib and veliparib was examined in 20 cell lines. The cell line SNU-251 has a deleterious BRCA1 mutation at 5564G > A, and is the only deleterious BRCA1\\/2 mutant in the panel. Two cell lines (UPN-251 and PEO1) had deleterious mutations as well as additional reversion mutations that restored the protein functionality. Heterozygous mutations in BRCA1\\/2 were relatively common, found in 14.6% of cell lines. BRCA1 was methylated in two cell lines (OVCAR8, A1847) and there was a corresponding decrease in gene expression. The BRCA1 methylated cell lines were more sensitive to PARP inhibition than wild-type cells. The SNU-251 deleterious mutant was more sensitive to PARP inhibition, but only in a long-term exposure to correct for its slow growth rate. Cell lines derived from metastatic disease are significantly more resistant to veliparib (2.0 fold p = 0.03) compared to those derived from primary tumours. Resistance to olaparib and veliparib was correlated Pearsons-R 0.5393, p = 0.0311. The incidence of BRCA1\\/2 deleterious mutations 1\\/41 cell lines derived from 33 different patients (3.0%) is much lower than the population incidence. The reversion mutations and high frequency of heterozygous mutations suggest that there is a selective

  14. A role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in breast cancer susceptibility within Sardinian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, numerous studies have assessed the prevalence of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in various cohorts. We here extensively investigated the prevalence and geographical distribution of BRCA1-2 mutations in the entire genetically-homogeneous Sardinian population. The occurrence of phenotypic characteristics which may be predictive for the presence of BRCA1-2 germline mutations was also evaluated. Three hundred and forty-eight breast cancer patients presenting a familial recurrence of invasive breast or ovarian carcinoma with at least two affected family members were screened for BRCA1-2 mutations by DHPLC analysis and DNA sequencing. Association of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutational status with clinical and pathological parameters was evaluated by Pearson's Chi-Squared test. Overall, 8 BRCA1 and 5 BRCA2 deleterious mutations were detected in 35/348 (10%) families; majority (23/35;66%) of mutations was found in BRCA2 gene. The geographical distribution of BRCA1-2 mutations was related to three specific large areas of Sardinia, reflecting its ancient history: a) the Northern area, linguistically different from the rest of the island (where a BRCA2 c.8764-8765delAG mutation with founder effect was predominant); b) the Middle area, land of the ancient Sardinian population (where BRCA2 mutations are still more common than BRCA1 mutations); and c) the South-Western area, with many Phoenician and Carthaginian locations (where BRCA1 mutations are prevalent). We also found that phenotypic features such as high tumor grading and lack of expression of estrogen/progesterone receptors together with age at diagnosis and presence of ovarian cancer in the family may be predictive for the presence of BRCA1-2 germline mutations

  15. The Icelandic founder mutation BRCA2 999del5: analysis of expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A founder mutation in the BRCA2 gene (BRCA2 999del5) accounts for 7–8% of female breast cancers and for 40% of male breast cancers in Iceland. If expressed, the mutant gene would encode a protein consisting of the first 256 amino acids of the BRCA2 protein. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this mutant protein is produced in heterozygous individuals and, if so, what might be the functional consequences of mutant protein production. The presence of BRCA2 999del5 transcripts in fibroblasts from heterozygous individuals was assayed by cDNA synthesis and sequencing. The potential protein-coding portion of BRCA2 999del5 was cloned into the pIND(SP1)/V5-His vector and expressed in COS7 cells. The presence of the mutant protein in cell lysates from heterozygous fibroblasts and from COS7 cells was tested by a number of methods including immunoprecipitation, affinity purification with nickel-coated agarose beads, Western blotting and ELISA, using antibodies to the N-terminal end of BRCA2, antiserum specific for the 16 nonrelevant amino acids at the carboxyl end and antibodies to fusion partners of recombinant proteins. The frequency of the BRCA2 999del5 transcript in heterozygous fibroblasts was about one-fifth of the wild-type transcript; however, no mutant protein could be detected. Overexpression of BRCA2 999del5 mRNA in COS7 cells failed to produce a mutant protein unless degradation by proteasomes was blocked. Our results show that the protein product of BRCA2 999del5 is extremely unstable. Therefore, an increase in breast cancer risk in BRCA2 999del5 carriers is due to haploinsufficiency at the BRCA2 locus

  16. Dysfunctional telomeres in human BRCA2 mutated breast tumors and cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodvarsdottir, Sigridur K., E-mail: skb@hi.is [Cancer Research Laboratory, BioMedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmyrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland); Steinarsdottir, Margret [Chromosome Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik (Iceland); Bjarnason, Hordur; Eyfjord, Jorunn E. [Cancer Research Laboratory, BioMedical Centre, Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmyrarvegi 16, 101 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-01-03

    In the present study the possible involvement of telomeres in chromosomal instability of breast tumors and cell lines from BRCA2 mutation carriers was examined. Breast tumors from BRCA2 mutation carriers showed significantly higher frequency of chromosome end-to-end fusions (CEFs) than tumors from non-carriers despite normal telomere DNA content. Frequent CEFs were also found in four different BRCA2 heterozygous breast epithelial cell lines, occasionally with telomere signal at the fusion point, indicating telomere capping defects. Extrachromosomal telomeric repeat (ECTR) DNA was frequently found scattered around metaphase chromosomes and interstitial telomere sequences (ITSs) were also common. Telomere sister chromatid exchanges (T-SCEs), characteristic of cells using alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), were frequently detected in all heterozygous BRCA2 cell lines as well as the two ALT positive cell lines tested. Even though T-SCE frequency was similar in BRCA2 heterozygous and ALT positive cell lines they differed in single telomere signal loss and ITSs. Chromatid type alterations were more prominent in the BRCA2 heterozygous cell lines that may have propensity for telomere based chromosome healing. Telomere dysfunction-induced foci (TIFs) formation, identified by co-localization of telomeres and {gamma}-H2AX, supported telomere associated DNA damage response in BRCA2 heterozygous cell lines. TIFs were found in interphase nuclei, at chromosome ends, ITSs and ECTR DNA. In conclusion, our results suggest that BRCA2 has an important role in telomere stabilization by repressing CEFs through telomere capping and the prevention of telomere loss by replication stabilization.

  17. Germline ATM mutational analysis in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative hereditary breast cancer families by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graña, B; Fachal, L; Darder, E; Balmaña, J; Ramón Y Cajal, T; Blanco, I; Torres, A; Lázaro, C; Diez, O; Alonso, C; Santamariña, M; Velasco, A; Teulé, A; Lasa, A; Blanco, A; Izquierdo, A; Borràs, J; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, S; Vega, A; Brunet, J

    2011-07-01

    Biallelic inactivation of ATM gene causes the rare autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Female relatives of A-T patients have a two-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer (BC) compared with the general population. ATM mutation carrier identification is laborious and expensive, therefore, a more rapid and directed strategy for ATM mutation profiling is needed. We designed a case-control study to determine the prevalence of 32 known ATM mutations causing A-T in Spanish population in 323 BRCA1/BRCA2 negative hereditary breast cancer (HBC) cases and 625 matched Spanish controls. For the detection of the 32 ATM mutations we used the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique. We identified one patient carrier of the c.8264_8268delATAAG ATM mutation. This mutation was not found in the 625 controls. These results suggest a low frequency of these 32 A-T causing mutations in the HBC cases in our population. Further case-control studies analyzing the entire coding and flanking sequences of the ATM gene are warranted in Spanish BC patients to know its implication in BC predisposition. PMID:21445571

  18. High response rates to neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy in ovarian cancer patients carrying germ-line BRCA mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnova, Tatiana V; Sokolenko, Anna P; Ivantsov, Alexandr O; Iyevleva, Aglaya G; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Aleksakhina, Svetlana N; Yanus, Grigory A; Togo, Alexandr V; Maximov, Sergey Ya; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2015-12-28

    Preoperative therapy provides an advantage for clinical drug assessment, as it involves yet untreated patients and facilitates access to the post-treatment biological material. Testing for Slavic founder BRCA mutations was performed for 225 ovarian cancer (OC) patients, who were treated by platinum-based neoadjuvant therapy. 34 BRCA1 and 1 BRCA2 mutation carriers were identified. Complete clinical response was documented in 12/35 (34%) mutation carriers and 8/190 (4%) non-carriers (P = 0.000002). Histopathologic response was observed in 16/35 (46%) women with the germ-line mutation versus 42/169 (25%) patients with the wild-type genotype (P = 0.02). Somatic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for the remaining wild-type BRCA1 allele was detected only in 7/24 (29%) post-neoadjuvant therapy residual tumor tissues as compared to 9/11 (82%) BRCA1-associated OC, which were not exposed to systemic treatment before the surgery (P = 0.009). Furthermore, comparison of pre- and post-treatment tumor material obtained from the same patients revealed restoration of BRCA1 heterozygosity in 2 out of 3 sample pairs presenting with LOH at diagnosis. The obtained data confirm high sensitivity of BRCA-driven OC to platinating agents and provide evidence for a rapid selection of tumor cell clones without LOH during the course of therapy. PMID:26342406

  19. Risk factors for endometrial cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Yakir; Rosen, Barry; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Lynch, Henry T; Moller, Pal; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Karlan, Beth; Eng, Charis; Gilchrist, Dawna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eisen, Andrea; Friedman, Eitan; Euhus, David; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    BRCA mutation carriers may use tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after surgical menopause and oral contraceptives are recommended for ovarian cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of these medications and other risk factors on endometrial cancer risk in BRCA carriers. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from a registry of mutation carriers. Cases were 83 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Controls were 1027 matched women who did not develop endometrial cancer and who had an intact uterus. All women completed a baseline questionnaire, which included questions about ages at menarche and menopause, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, breast cancer history and tamoxifen use. We estimated the odds ratio associated with each risk factor in a multivariate analysis. No differences were found between cases and controls in terms of age at menarche, BMI, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. In a multivariate analysis, for women taking estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy, the odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03-1.78, p = 0.16), and for women taking progesterone-only hormone replacement therapy the odds ratio was 6.91 (95% CI 0.99-98.1, p = 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for endometrial cancer associated with a history of tamoxifen use was 3.50 (95% CI 1.51-8.10, p = 0.003). The observed increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with progesterone-only therapy merits further study. PMID:25838159

  20. Blocking DNA Repair in Advanced BRCA-Mutated Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with relapsed or refractory advanced cancer and confirmed BRCA mutations who have not previously been treated with a PARP inhibitor will be given BMN 673 by mouth once a day in 28-day cycles.

  1. Evidence of a founder BRCA1 mutation in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Liede, A; Cohen, B.; Black, D. M.; Davidson, R H; Renwick, A; Hoodfar, E; Olopade, O.I.; Micek, M; Anderson, V.; Mey, R De; Fordyce, A; Warner, E.; Dann, J L; King, M-C; Weber, B.

    2000-01-01

    BRCA1 mutations have been identified in breast and ovarian cancer families from diverse ethnic backgrounds. We studied 17 different families with the BRCA1 2800delAA mutation; seven were ascertained in Scotland (Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, St Andrews), five in Canada (Toronto, Victoria) and five in the United States (Chicago, Philadelphia, Seattle). Overall there was a clear preponderance of Scottish ancestry. Genotype analysis performed on key members from 17 families was consistent with a c...

  2. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this group. Previous investigations into this topic have relied on participants recalling lifetime weight changes and subjective methods of recording physical activity. The influence of obesity-related biomarkers, which may explain the link between obesity, physical activity and breast cancer risk, has not been investigated prospectively in this group. This paper describes the design of a prospective cohort study investigating the role of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Participants will be recruited from breast cancer family risk clinics and genetics clinics. Lifestyle risk factors that will be investigated will include body composition, metabolic syndrome and its components, physical activity and dietary intake. PBMC telomere length will be measured as a potential predictor of breast cancer occurrence. Measurements will be completed on entry to the study and repeated at two years and five years. Participants will also be followed annually by questionnaire to track changes in risk factor status and to record cancer occurrence. Data will be analysed using multiple regression models. The study has an accrual target of 352 participants. The results from this study will provide valuable information regarding the role of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer in women with a deleterious mutation in the BRCA gene. Additionally, the study will attempt to identify potential blood biomarkers which may be predictive

  3. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kast Karin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. Case presentation We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Conclusions Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes.

  4. Germline truncating-mutations in BRCA1 and MSH6 in a patient with early onset endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome (HBOCS) and Hereditary Non-Polyposis Colorectal Cancer Syndrome (HNPCC, Lynch Syndrome) are two tumor predisposition syndromes responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and colorectal cancers. Carriers of both germline mutations in breast cancer genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 and in mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2 are very rare. We identified germline mutations in BRCA1 and in MSH6 in a patient with increased risk for HBOC diagnosed with endometrial cancer at the age of 46 years. Although carriers of mutations in both MMR and BRCA genes are rare in Caucasian populations and anamnestical and histopathological findings may guide clinicians to identify these families, both syndromes can only be diagnosed through a complete gene analysis of the respective genes

  5. A Study on BRCA1/2 Mutations, Hormone Status and HER-2 Status in Korean Women with Early-onset Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women with breast cancer diagnosed at an age of 40 years or younger have a greater prevalence of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations than the prevalence of women with breast cancer diagnosed at older ages. Several immunohistochemical characteristics have been identified in breast cancers from studies of Caucasian women with BRCA1/2 mutations having familial or early-onset breast cancers. The aim of this study is to determine whether early-onset breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, who were not selected from a family history, could be distinguished by the use of immunohistochemical methods and could be distinguished from breast cancer in women of a similar age without a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We also analyzed the prognostic difference between BRCA1/2 related and BRCA1/2 non-related patients by the use of univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer tissue specimens from Korean women with early-onset breast cancers were studied using a tumor tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2, as well as the histology and grade of these specimens, were compared. The prognostic impact of immunohistochemical and histological factors as well as the BRCA1/2 mutation status was investigated separately. There were 14 cases and 16 deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations among 101 patients tested. A family history (4/14) and bilateral breast cancers (3/9) were high risk factors for BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2- associated cancers demonstrated more expression of ER-negative (19.4% versus 5.1%, p=0.038) and HER-2 negative than BRCA1/2 negative tumors, especially for tumors with BRCA1 tumors The BRCA1/2 mutation rate for patients with triple negative tumors (negative expression of ER, PR and HER-2) was 24.2%. Tumor size, nodal status, and HER-2 expression status were significantly associated with disease free survival, as determined by univariate and multivariate analysis, but the BRCA1/2 status was

  6. A Study on BRCA1/2 Mutations, Hormone Status and HER-2 Status in Korean Women with Early-onset Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Doo Ho; Jin, So Young; Lee, Dong Wha; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Yong Ho [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-03-15

    Women with breast cancer diagnosed at an age of 40 years or younger have a greater prevalence of germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations than the prevalence of women with breast cancer diagnosed at older ages. Several immunohistochemical characteristics have been identified in breast cancers from studies of Caucasian women with BRCA1/2 mutations having familial or early-onset breast cancers. The aim of this study is to determine whether early-onset breast cancer in BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers, who were not selected from a family history, could be distinguished by the use of immunohistochemical methods and could be distinguished from breast cancer in women of a similar age without a germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation. We also analyzed the prognostic difference between BRCA1/2 related and BRCA1/2 non-related patients by the use of univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer tissue specimens from Korean women with early-onset breast cancers were studied using a tumor tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER-2, as well as the histology and grade of these specimens, were compared. The prognostic impact of immunohistochemical and histological factors as well as the BRCA1/2 mutation status was investigated separately. There were 14 cases and 16 deleterious BRCA1/2 mutations among 101 patients tested. A family history (4/14) and bilateral breast cancers (3/9) were high risk factors for BRCA1/2 mutations. BRCA1/2- associated cancers demonstrated more expression of ER-negative (19.4% versus 5.1%, p=0.038) and HER-2 negative than BRCA1/2 negative tumors, especially for tumors with BRCA1 tumors The BRCA1/2 mutation rate for patients with triple negative tumors (negative expression of ER, PR and HER-2) was 24.2%. Tumor size, nodal status, and HER-2 expression status were significantly associated with disease free survival, as determined by univariate and multivariate analysis, but the BRCA1/2 status was

  7. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, L.S.; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning {approximately}850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset bilateral breast cancer and ovarian cancer to late-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3{prime}-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. 57 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, L S; Szabo, C I; Ostermeyer, E A; Dowd, P; Butler, L; Park, T; Lee, M K; Goode, E L; Rowell, S E; King, M C

    1995-12-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning approximately 850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset breast cancer without ovarian cancer. Mutation 4184delTCAA occurred independently in two families. In one family, penetrance was complete, with females developing early-onset breast cancer or ovarian cancer and the male carrier developing prostatic cancer, whereas, in the other family, penetrance was incomplete and only breast cancer occurred, diagnosed at ages 38-81 years. Two novel nonsense mutations led to the loss of mutant BRCA1 transcript in families with 10 and 6 cases of early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer. A 665-nt segment of the BRCA1 3'-UTR and 1.3 kb of genomic sequence including the putative promoter region were invariant by single-strand conformation analysis in 13 families without coding-sequence mutations. Overall in our series, BRCA1 mutations have been detected in 26 families: 16 with positive BRCA1 lod scores, 7 with negative lod scores (reflecting multiple sporadic breast cancers), and 3 not tested for linkage. Three other families have positive lod scores for linkage to BRCA2, but 13 families without detected BRCA1 mutations have negative lod scores for both BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:8533757

  9. Germline BRCA1/2 mutation testing is indicated in every patient with epithelial ovarian cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts-de Jong, Marieke; de Bock, Geertruida H; van Asperen, Christi J; Mourits, Marian J E; de Hullu, Joanne A; Kets, C Marleen

    2016-07-01

    The presence of a germline BRCA1/2 mutation improves options for tailored risk-reducing strategies and treatment in both breast and ovarian cancer patients and their relatives. Currently, referral for germline BRCA1/2 mutation testing of women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) varies widely, based on different criteria, such as age of onset, family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and histological type of EOC. The overall probability of a germline BRCA1/2 mutation in women with EOC is above 10%, and a substantial part of the germline BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is missed when applying these criteria for referral. Therefore, we strongly recommend referral of all women with EOC for genetic counselling and DNA analysis. PMID:27209246

  10. Analysis of Founder Mutations in Rare Tumors Associated With Hereditary Breast/Ovarian Cancer Reveals a Novel Association of BRCA2 Mutations with Ampulla of Vater Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Pedro; Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Pinheiro, Manuela; Leça, Luís; Martins, Ana Teresa; Ferreira, Verónica; Bartosch, Carla; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations are responsible for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, but they also confer an increased risk for the development of rarer cancers associated with this syndrome, namely, cancer of the pancreas, male breast, peritoneum, and fallopian tube. The objective of this work was to quantify the contribution of the founder mutations BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu and BRCA1 c.3331_3334del for cancer etiology in unselected hospital-based cohorts of Portuguese patients diagnosed with these rarer cancers, by using a strategy that included testing of archival tumor tissue. A total of 102 male breast, 68 pancreatic and 33 peritoneal/fallopian tube carcinoma cases were included in the study. The BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation was observed with a frequency of 7.8% in male breast cancers, 3.0% in peritoneal/fallopian tube cancers, and 1.6% in pancreatic cancers, with estimated total contributions of germline BRCA2 mutations of 14.3%, 5.5%, and 2.8%, respectively. No carriers of the BRCA1 c.3331_3334del mutation were identified. During our study, a patient with an ampulla of Vater carcinoma was incidentally found to carry the BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu mutation, so we decided to test a consecutive series of additional 15 ampullary carcinomas for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations using a combination of direct founder mutation testing and full gene analysis with next generation sequencing. BRCA2 mutations were observed with a frequency of 14.3% in ampulla of Vater carcinomas. In conclusion, taking into account the implications for both the individuals and their family members, we recommend that patients with these neoplasias should be offered BRCA1/BRCA2 genetic testing and we here show that it is feasible to test for founder mutations in archival tumor tissue. Furthermore, we identified for the first time a high frequency of germline BRCA2 mutations in ampullary cancers. PMID:27532258

  11. BRCA1 5272-1G>A and BRCA2 5374delTATG are founder mutations of high relevance for genetic counselling in breast/ovarian cancer families of Spanish origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, M; Durán, M; Acedo, A; Pérez-Cabornero, L; Sanz, D J; García-González, M; Beristain, E; Esteban-Cardeñosa, E; de la Hoya, M; Teulé, A; Vega, A; Tejada, M-I; Lastra, E; Miner, C; Velasco, E A

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ line mutations in breast/ovarian cancer families varies among different populations, which typically present a wide spectrum of unique mutations. Splicing mutation 5272-1G>A of BRCA1 and frameshift mutation 5374delTATG of BRCA2 are highly prevalent mutations in Castilla-León (Spain), accounting for 18.4% and 13.6% of BRCA1 and BRCA2 positive families, respectively. To test the presence of founder effects, 9 Spanish 5272-1G>A and 13 5374delTATG families were genotyped with polymorphic markers linked to BRCA1 or BRCA2. All the 5272-1G>A families shared a common haplotype in eight markers (1.1 Mb region) and the mutation age was estimated in 15 generations (approximately 380 years). A conserved haplotype associated to 5374delTATG was observed in four markers (0.82 Mb). The mutation occurred approximately 48 generations ago (approximately 1200 years). Each mutation likely arose from a common ancestor that could be traced to a small area of Castilla-León and expanded to other Spanish regions. They can have a significant impact on the clinical management of asymptomatic carriers as well as on the genetic screening strategy to be followed in populations with Spanish ancestries. PMID:19912264

  12. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caporale DA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery of these two genes in the mid-1990s, several other breast cancer predisposition genes have been identified, such as the CHEK2 gene encoding a regulator of BRCA1. Recently, studies have begun investigating the roles of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene expression in lung cancer. We conducted a family-based case study that included a bloodline of Italian heritage with several cases of breast cancer and associated cancers (prostate and stomach through multiple generations and on a nonblood relative of Scottish/Irish descent who was consecutively diagnosed with breast and lung cancer. Cancer history and environmental risk factors were recorded for each family member. To investigate possible genetic risks, we screened for mutations in specific hypervariable regions of the BRCA1, BRCA2, and CHEK2 genes. DNA was extracted and isolated from the individuals' hair follicles and cheek cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR, allele-specific PCR, and DNA sequencing were performed to identify and verify the presence or absence of mutations in these regions. Genotypes of several family members were determined and carriers of mutations were identified. Here we report for the first time the occurrence of two different BRCA2 frameshift mutations within the same family. Specifically, three Italian family members were found to be carriers of the BRCA2-c.2808_2811delACAA (3036delACAA mutation, a 4-nucleotide deletion in exon 11, which is a truncated mutation that causes deleterious function of

  13. Breast cancer treatment in mutation carriers: surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglia, Nicoletta; D'Alonzo, Marta; Sgro, Luca G; Tomasi Cont, Nicoletta; Bounous, Valentina; Robba, Elisabetta

    2016-10-01

    The surgical option which should be reserved for patients with BRCA1/2 mutation and breast cancer diagnosis is still debated. Several aspects should be considered before the surgical decision-making: the risk of ipsilateral breast recurrence (IBR), the risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC), the potential survival benefit of prophylactic mastectomy, and the possible risk factors that could either increase or decrease the risk for IBR or CBC. Breast conservative treatment (BCT) does not increase the risk for IBR in BRCA mutation carriers compared to non-carriers in short term follow-up; however, an increased risk for IBR in carriers was observed in studies with long follow-up. In spite of the increased risk for IBR in patients who underwent BCT than patients with mastectomy, no significant difference in breast-cancer specific or overall survival was observed by local treatment type at 15 years. Patients with BRCA mutation had a higher risk for CBC compared with non-carriers and BRCA1-mutation carriers had an increased risk for CBC compared to BRCA2-mutation carriers. Bilateral mastectomy is intended to prevent CBC in BRCA mutation carriers, however, no difference in survival was found if a contralateral prophylactic mastectomy was performed or not. For higher-risk groups of BRCA mutated patients, a more-aggressive surgical approach may be preferable, but there are some aspects that should be considered in the surgical decision-making process. The use of adjuvant chemotherapy and performing oophorectomy are associated with a decreased risk for IBR. When considering the risk for CBC, three risk factors were associated with significantly decreased risk: the use of adjuvant tamoxifen, performing oophorectomy and older age at first breast cancer diagnosis. As a result, we could identify a group of patients that might benefit from a more aggressive surgical approach (unilateral mastectomy or unilateral therapeutic mastectomy with concomitant contralateral prophylactic

  14. Risk modeling and screening for BRCA1 mutations among Filipino breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1(BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for ∼45% of families with multiple breast carcinomas and for ∼80% of breast and ovarian cancer families. In this study, we investigated 34 familial Filipino breast cancer (BC) patients to: (a) estimate breast cancer risks and BRCA1/2 mutation carrier probabilities using risk assessment and prior probability models, respectively; (b) screen for putative polymorphisms at selected smaller exons of BRCA1 by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis; (c) screen for truncated mutations at BRCA1 exon 11 by radioactive protein truncation test (PTT); and (d) estimate posterior probabilities upon incorporation of screening results. SSCP analysis revealed 8 unique putative polymorphisms. Low prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exon 2, 5, 17, and 22 may indicate probable mutations. Contrastingly, high prevalence of unique putative polymorphisms at exons 13, 15, and 16 may suggest true polymorphisms which are biologically insignificant. PTT, DHPLC, and sequence analyses revealed a novel mutation in exon 11 involving GT insertion that resulted to a stop codon which generated a 29.7 kDa truncated protein product. This is the second documented mutation in BRCA1 exon 11 in a Filipino BC patient since 1998. Initial genotype-phenotype correlations in Filipino BC patients may be elucidated based on screening tests performed. Our results corroborate the findings of a study on unselected incident Filipino BC cases where the reported prevalence of BRCA1 mutation is low. The higher prevalence of putative polypmorphisms may be attributed to the increased stringency in patient prospecting. The Gail, Claus, and BRCAPRO models can be utilized to estimate BC risk in unaffected high-risk individuals but validation is needed. Most of the BRCAPRO and Myriad.com prior probability estimates coincide with the presence of BRCA1 mutation and/or putative polymorphisms. This pioneering

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutation analysis among Indian women from south India: identification of four novel mutations and high-frequency occurrence of 185delAG mutation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kannan Vaidyanathan; Smita Lakhotia; H M Ravishankar; Umaira Tabassum; Geetashree Mukherjee; Kumaravel Somasundaram

    2009-09-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes profoundly increase the risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer among women. To explore the contribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in the development of hereditary breast cancer among Indian women, we carried out mutation analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 61 breast or ovarian cancer patients from south India with a positive family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Mutation analysis was carried out using conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis (CSGE) followed by sequencing. Mutations were identified in 17 patients (28.0%); 15 (24.6%) had BRCA1 mutations and two (3.28%) had BRCA2 mutations. While no specific association between BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations with cancer type was seen, mutations were more often seen in families with ovarian cancer. While 40% (4/10) and 30.8% (4/12) of families with ovarian or breast and ovarian cancer had mutations, only 23.1% (9/39) of families with breast cancer carried mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In addition, while BRCA1 mutations were found in all age groups, BRCA2 mutations were found only in the age group of ≤ 40 years. Of the BRCA1 mutations, there were three novel mutations (295delCA; 4213T → A; 5267T → G) and three mutations that have been reported earlier. Interestingly, 185delAG, a BRCA1 mutation which occurs at a very high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews, was found at a frequency of 16.4% (10/61). There was one novel mutation (4866insT) and one reported mutation in BRCA2. Thus, our study emphasizes the importance of mutation screening in familial breast and/or ovarian cancers, and the potential implications of these findings in genetic counselling and preventive therapy.

  16. Histopathological features of breast tumours in BRCA1, BRCA2 and mutation-negative breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Histopathological features of BRCA1 and BRCA2 tumours have previously been characterised and compared with unselected breast tumours; however, familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours are less well known. The aim of this study was to characterise familial non-BRCA1/2 tumours and to evaluate routine immunohistochemical and pathological markers that could help us to further distinguish families carrying BRCA1/2 mutations from other breast cancer families. Breast cancer tissue specimens (n = 262) from 25 BRCA1, 20 BRCA2 and 74 non-BRCA1/2 families were studied on a tumour tissue microarray. Immunohistochemical staining of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR) and p53 as well as the histology and grade of these three groups were compared with each other and with the respective information on 862 unselected control patients from the archives of the Pathology Department of Helsinki University Central Hospital. Immunohistochemical staining of erbB2 was also performed among familial cases. BRCA1-associated cancers were diagnosed younger and were more ER-negative and PgR-negative, p53-positive and of higher grade than the other tumours. However, in multivariate analysis the independent factors compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours were age, grade and PgR negativity. BRCA2 cases did not have such distinctive features compared with non-BRCA1/2 tumours or with unselected control tumours. Familial cases without BRCA1/2 mutations had tumours of lower grade than the other groups. BRCA1 families differed from mutation-negative families by age, grade and PgR status, whereas ER status was not an independent marker

  17. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this ...

  18. Evaluation of two different models to predict BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in a cohort of Danish hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Cruger, D G; Thomassen, M; Kruse, T A

    2006-01-01

    To meet the increasing demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis, a robust system for selecting families who have a higher chance of a mutation has become important. Several models have been developed to help predict which samples are more likely to be mutation positive than others. We have...... undertaken a complete BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation analysis in 267 Danish families with high-risk family history. We found deleterious mutations in 28% (76) of the families, 68% (52) of those in BRCA1 and 32% (24) in BRCA2. We compared our results with two popular manual models developed to estimate the chance...

  19. BRCA1-mutated and basal-like breast cancers have similar aCGH profiles and a high incidence of protein truncating TP53 mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) are aggressive breast cancers for which, so far, no targeted therapy is available because they typically lack expression of hormone receptors and HER2. Phenotypic features of BLBCs, such as clinical presentation and early age of onset, resemble those of breast tumors from BRCA1-mutation carriers. The genomic instability of BRCA1-mutated tumors can be effectively targeted with DNA-damaging agents and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors. Molecular similarities between BLBCs and BRCA1-mutated tumors may therefore provide predictive markers for therapeutic response of BLBCs. There are several known molecular features characteristic for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors: 1) increased numbers of genomic aberrations, 2) a distinct pattern of genomic aberrations, 3) a high frequency of TP53 mutations and 4) a high incidence of complex, protein-truncating TP53 mutations. We compared the frequency of TP53 mutations and the pattern and amount of genomic aberrations between BRCA1-mutated breast tumors, BLBCs and luminal breast tumors by TP53 gene sequencing and array-based comparative genomics hybridization (aCGH) analysis. We found that the high incidence of protein truncating TP53 mutations and the pattern and amount of genomic aberrations specific for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors are also characteristic for BLBCs and different from luminal breast tumors. Complex, protein truncating TP53 mutations in BRCA1-mutated tumors may be a direct consequence of genomic instability caused by BRCA1 loss, therefore, the presence of these types of TP53 mutations in sporadic BLBCs might be a hallmark of BRCAness and a potential biomarker for sensitivity to PARP inhibition. Also, our data suggest that a small subset of genomic regions may be used to identify BRCA1-like BLBCs. BLBCs share molecular features that were previously found to be specific for BRCA1-mutated breast tumors. These features might be useful for the identification of tumors with

  20. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, Charlene; Zhang, Junran, E-mail: Junran.zhang@case.edu

    2015-10-01

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations.

  1. BRCA1 Mutation: A Predictive Marker for Radiation Therapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA repair, in particular, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, is essential for the survival of both normal and cancer cells. An elaborate repair mechanism has been developed in cells to efficiently repair the damaged DNA. The pathways predominately involved in DSB repair are homologous recombination and classic nonhomologous end-joining, although the alternative NHEJ pathway, a third DSB repair pathway, could also be important in certain contexts. The protein of BRCA1 encoded by the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 regulates all DSB repair pathways. Given that DSBs represent the most biologically significant lesions induced by ionizing radiation and that impaired DSB repair leads to radiation sensitivity, it has been expected that cancer patients with BRCA1 mutations should benefit from radiation therapy. However, the clinical data have been conflicting and inconclusive. We provide an overview about the current status of the data regarding BRCA1 deficiency and radiation therapy sensitivity in both experimental models and clinical investigations. In addition, we discuss a strategy to potentiate the effects of radiation therapy by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, the pharmacologic drugs being investigated as monotherapy for the treatment of patients with BRCA1/2 mutations

  2. Cluster-randomised non-inferiority trial comparing DVD-assisted and traditional genetic counselling in systematic population testing for BRCA1/2 mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, R.; Burnell, M.; Loggenberg, K.; Desai, R.; Wardle, J.; Sanderson, S.C.; Gessler, S.; Side, L.; Balogun, N.; Kumar, A.(State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, USA); Dorkins, H.; Wallis, Y; Chapman, C; Tomlinson, I; Taylor, R.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Newer approaches to genetic counselling are required for population-based testing. We compare traditional face-to-face genetic counselling with a DVD-assisted approach for population-based BRCA1/2 testing. METHODS: A cluster-randomised non-inferiority trial in the London Ashkenazi Jewish population. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Ashkenazi Jewish men/women >18 years; exclusion criteria: (a) known BRCA1/2 mutation, (b) previous BRCA1/2 testing and (c) first-degree relative of BRCA1/2 carrier....

  3. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Germline Mutations in Breast Cancer Women of Multiple Ethnic Region in Northwest China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ou, Jianghua; Wu, Tao; Sijmons, Rolf; Ni, Duo; Xu, Wenting; Upur, Halmurat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to further understand the status of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation among Chinese high-risk breast cancer patients in multiple-ethnic regions of China. Methods: A total of 79 blood samples of high-risk breast cancer patients from Xinjiang Uyghur autonomous region were anal

  4. Phenotypic features and genetic characterization of male breast cancer families: identification of two recurrent BRCA2 mutations in north-east of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miolo GianMaria

    2006-06-01

    , which were common to all three cases. Conclusion The 9106C>T and the IVS16-2A>G mutations constitute recurrent BRCA2 mutations in MBC cases from the North-East of Italy and may be associated with a founder effect. Knowledge of these two recurrent BRCA2 mutations predisposing to MBC may facilitate the analyses aimed at the identification of mutation carriers in our geographic area.

  5. [BRCA mutations: from Angelina Jolie to specific therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Veronica Aedo; Stravodimou, Athina; Unger, Sheila; Perey, Lucien; Zaman, Khalil

    2016-05-18

    While mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are found in only a minority of breast cancer patients, their impact for those patients is important. It is a powerful risk factor for this disease with respectively 65% and 45% of the women developing breast cancer. It requires a specific screening program starting at age of 25 that includes magnetic resonance imaging and risk reduction measures such as bilateral mastectomy and oophorectomy can be proposed. The psychological impacts of the mutation and its implications are not negligible. The testimony of Angelina Jolie in 2013 certainly contributed to public awareness and helped the affected women to cope better with the situation. Cancer treatments are also influenced by detection of a mutation with an increased role for platinum derivatives and the recently developed specific therapies, such as PARP inhibitors. PMID:27424423

  6. Novel mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Iranian women with early-onset breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy and a major cause of death in middle-aged women. So far, germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in patients with early-onset breast and/or ovarian cancer have not been identified within the Iranian population. With the collaboration of two main centres for cancer in Iran, we obtained clinical information, family history and peripheral blood from 83 women under the age of 45 with early-onset breast cancer for scanning of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. We analysed BRCA1 exons 11 and BRCA2 exons 10 and 11 by the protein truncation test, and BRCA1 exons 2, 3, 5, 13 and 20 and BRCA2 exons 9, 17, 18 and 23 with the single-strand conformation polymorphism assay on genomic DNA amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Ten sequence variants were identified: five frameshifts (putative mutations – four novel); three missense changes of unknown significance and two polymorphisms, one seen commonly in both Iranian and British populations. Identification of these novel mutations suggests that any given population should develop a mutation database for its programme of breast cancer screening. The pattern of mutations seen in the BRCA genes seems not to differ from other populations studied. Early-onset breast cancer (less than 45 years) and a limited family history is sufficient to justify mutation screening with a detection rate of over 25% in this group, whereas sporadic early-onset breast cancer (detection rate less than 5%) is unlikely to be cost-effective

  7. BRCA somatic and germline mutation detection in paraffin embedded ovarian cancers by next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafficini, Andrea; Simbolo, Michele; Parisi, Alice; Rusev, Borislav; Luchini, Claudio; Cataldo, Ivana; Piazzola, Elena; Sperandio, Nicola; Turri, Giona; Franchi, Massimo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bovo, Chiara; Lawlor, Rita T; Scarpa, Aldo

    2016-01-12

    BRCA mutated ovarian cancers respond better to platinum-based therapy and to the recently approved PARP-inhibitors. There is the need for efficient and timely methods to detect both somatic and germline mutations using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues and commercially available technology. We used a commercial kit exploring all exons and 50bp exon-intron junctions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, and semiconductor next-generation sequencing (NGS) on DNA from 47 FFPE samples of high-grade serous ovarian cancers. Pathogenic mutations were found in 13/47 (28%) cancers: eight in BRCA1 and five in BRCA2. All BRCA1 and two BRCA2 mutations were germline; three BRCA2 mutations were somatic. All mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. To evaluate the performance of the NGS panel, we assessed its capability to detect the 6,953 variants described for BRCA1 and BRCA2 in ClinVar and COSMIC databases using callability analysis. 6,059 (87.1%) variants were identified automatically by the software; 829 (12.0%) required visual verification. The remaining 65 (0.9%) variants were uncallable, and would require 15 Sanger reactions to be resolved. Thus, the sensitivity of the NGS-panel was 99.1%. In conclusion, NGS performed with a commercial kit is highly efficient for detection of germline and somatic mutations in BRCA genes using routine FFPE tissue. PMID:26745875

  8. Age and Geographical Distribution in Families with BRCA1/BRCA2 Mutations in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciernikova Sona

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular diagnostics of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer is mainly based on detection of BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations in suspected families. The aim of the study was to determine the frequency, age and geographical distribution in 130 Slovak hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC families diagnosed within the years 2000-2004. Mutation screening was performed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP, heteroduplex analysis (HDA and sequencing of PCR products showing an abnormal migration pattern. Twenty of 130 (15.6% HBOC suspected families were found to carry mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. The glossary data from the National Cancer Registry of Slovakia (NCRS were compared with the results from HBOC suspected kindreds. Age distribution of breast cancer onset in our study group showed the highest proportion of onset in HBC families within the 5th decade of life, while NCRS reports at least a ten year later onset. These findings confirmed that cases of breast cancer under 50 years of age can be used as one of the principal criteria to assign a family as a hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer kindred. In contrast with unselected ovarian cancer cases, about 75% of all HOC index cases were diagnosed between 40 and 49 years of age. To study the geographical distribution of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer, Slovakia was divided into three parts. The distribution of HBOC suspected families approximately follows this division, with an increasing number in the western area of the country.

  9. The biological effects and clinical implications of BRCA mutations: where do we go from here?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour-suppressor genes encoding proteins that are essential for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination (HR). Cells that lack either BRCA1 or BRCA2 repair these lesions by alternative, more error-prone mechanisms. Individuals carrying germline pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are at highly elevated risk of developing breast and/or ovarian cancer. Genetic testing for germline pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 has proved to be a valuable tool for determining eligibility for cancer screening and prevention programmes. In view of increasing evidence that the HR DNA repair pathway can also be disrupted by sequence variants in other genes, screening for other BRCA-like defects has potential implications for patient care. Additionally, there is a growing argument for directly testing tumours for pathogenic mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and other genes involved in HR-DNA repair as inactivation of these genes may be strictly somatic. Tumours in which HR-DNA repair is altered are most likely to respond to emerging targeted therapies, such as inhibitors of poly-ADP ribose polymerase. This review highlights the biological role of pathogenic BRCA mutations and other associated defects in DNA damage repair mechanisms in breast and ovarian cancer, with particular focus on implications for patient management strategies. PMID:27514841

  10. Low frequency of large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Cruger, Dorthe; Jensen, Peter K A; Kruse, Torben A

    2006-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose female carriers to breast and ovarian cancer. The majority of mutations identified are small deletions or insertions or are nonsense mutations. Large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 are found with varying frequencies in different populations, but...... BRCA2 rearrangements have not been investigated thoroughly. The objective in this study was to determine the frequency of large genomic rearrangements in BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a large group of Danish families with increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. A total of 617 families previously tested...... negative for mutations involving few bases were screened with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Two deletions in BRCA1 were identified in three families; no large rearrangements were detected in BRCA2. The large deletions constitute 3.8% of the BRCA1 mutations identified, which is...

  11. Prospective Study of Breast Cancer Incidence in Women With a BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutation Under Surveillance With and Without Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Ellen; Hill, Kimberley; Causer, Petrina; Plewes, Donald; Jong, Roberta; Yaffe, Martin; Foulkes, William D.; Ghadirian, Parviz; Lynch, Henry; Couch, Fergus; Wong, John; Wright, Frances; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for breast cancer screening exceeds that of mammography. If MRI screening reduces mortality in women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, it is expected that the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancers should be reduced in women undergoing MRI screening compared with those undergoing conventional screening. Patients and Methods We followed 1,275 women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation for a mean of 3.2 years. In total, 445 women were enrolled in an MRI screening trial in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and 830 were in the comparison group. The cumulative incidences of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), early-stage, and late-stage breast cancers were estimated at 6 years in the cohorts. Results There were 41 cases of breast cancer in the MRI-screened cohort (9.2%) and 76 cases in the comparison group (9.2%). The cumulative incidence of DCIS or stage I breast cancer at 6 years was 13.8% (95% CI, 9.1% to 18.5%) in the MRI-screened cohort and 7.2% (95% CI, 4.5% to 9.9%) in the comparison group (P = .01). The cumulative incidence of stages II to IV breast cancers was 1.9% (95% CI, 0.2% to 3.7%) in the MRI-screened cohort and 6.6% (95% CI, 3.8% to 9.3%) in the comparison group (P = .02). The adjusted hazard ratio for the development of stages II to IV breast cancer associated with MRI screening was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.12 to 0.72; P = .008). Conclusion Annual surveillance with MRI is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of advanced-stage breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. PMID:21444874

  12. Mutation Analysis in the BRCA1 Gene in Chinese Breast Cancer Families

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUZhengyan; ZHENLinlin; FANPing

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the mutation of BRCA1 gene in Chinese breast cancer families. Methods:Fifteen families were selected, involving 41 members, consisting of 23 breast cancer patients. Using poly-merase chain reaction and single stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), and subsequent DNA sequencing, the mutation of BRCA1 genes were analyzed. Results: Four mutations were found in all fam-ilies, and the proportion of mutation was 26.7% (4/15) in breast cancer families. One of the 4 mutations was 2228 insC, resulting in chain termination at codon 711. The remaining 3 mutations were 1884A→T and 3232A→G, resulting in single amino acid change respectively. Conclusion: BRCA1 is a breast cancer susceptibility gene. The relatively low proportion and frequency of BRCA1 mutations in our study hints additional BRCA genes existed.

  13. Mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in Breast cancer Families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in two genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, are responsible for approximately two thirds of all hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. In this study, we have examined patients from breast and/or ovarian cancer families in BRCA1, using the protein truncation test. The protein truncation test was used to screen for mutations leading to premature translational termination. The PCR-products were added to the TnT/T7 coupled reticulocyte lysate system (Promega) and the 35S-Met-labelled proteins were analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. In a group of 26 tested patients we have detected one mutation affecting exon 11 in one of the BRCA1 alleles because, in addition to the normal product, a truncated protein was found after in vitro transcription and translation. The low frequency of BRCA1 mutations in the present study could be explained by the role of additional genes (e.g. BRCA2) in predisposed families. (authors)

  14. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence and clinical characteristics of a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Cox, M.; Wozniak, E.; Hogdall, E.; Blaakaer, J.; Jacobs, I.J.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Høgdall, Claus Kim

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and associations with clinical correlates of disease in a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark. METHODS: DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to analyze the...... BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for coding sequence mutations and large genomic rearrangements in 445 confirmed cases of ovarian cancer. We evaluated associations between mutation status and clinical characteristics, including cancer risks for first-degree relatives and clinicopathologic features of tumors....... RESULTS: Deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were identified in 26 cases; thus, mutations in these genes are responsible for at least 5.8% of ovarian cancer cases in this population. Five different mutations were identified in more than one individual, suggesting that they may be founder mutations in...

  15. Is there a correlation between the structure of hair and breast cancer or BRCA1/2 mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaziri, Khalid; Sutton, M.; Ghadirian, P.; Scott, A. S.; Paradis, A.-J.; Tonin, P. N.; Foulkes, W. D.

    2002-05-01

    It has been suggested that the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) pattern of human hair can be used to diagnose breast cancer and possibly to identify BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, who are at significantly elevated risk for developing breast cancer. In particular, the presence of a diffuse ring in the SAXS pattern was said to be diagnostic of either breast cancer or an increased risk thereof. To test this hypothesis, we measured SAXS from the pubic hair of 56 subjects with known BRCA1/2 and breast cancer status. We found that there is no clear association between the pattern of SAXS seen in human pubic hair and the risk of breast cancer or the presence of BRCA1/2 mutations. The possible use of SAXS to diagnose cancer remains conjectural, but this and previous studies do not suggest that SAXS can be used as a reliable method of identifying either BRCA1/2 mutation carriers or women who have had breast cancer.

  16. Exome sequencing in a breast canner family without BRCA mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Myoung; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, amsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hun; Cho, Dae Yeon [LabGenomics Clinical Research Institute, LabGenomics, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We performed exome sequencing in a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. A family that three sisters have a history of breast cancer was selected for analysis. There were no family members with breast cancer in the previous generation. Genetic testing for BRCA mutation was negative, even by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Two sisters with breast cancer were selected as affected members, while the mother of the sisters was a non-affected member. Whole exome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2000 platform with paired-end reads of 101 bp in the three members. We identified 19,436, 19,468, and 19,345 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions. Among them, 8,759, 8,789, and 8,772 were non-synonymous SNPs, respectively. After filtering out 12,843 synonymous variations and 12,105 known variations with indels found in the dbSNP135 or 1000 Genomes Project database, we selected 73 variations in the samples from the affected sisters that did not occur in the sample from the unaffected mother. Using the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), PolyPhen-2, and MutationTaster algorithms to predict amino acid substitutions, the XCR1, DLL1, TH, ACCS, SPPL3, CCNF, and SRL genes were risky among all three algorithms, while definite candidate genes could not be conclusively determined. Using exome sequencing, we found 7 variants for a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. Genetic evidence of disease association should be confirmed by future studies.

  17. Exome sequencing in a breast canner family without BRCA mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed exome sequencing in a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. A family that three sisters have a history of breast cancer was selected for analysis. There were no family members with breast cancer in the previous generation. Genetic testing for BRCA mutation was negative, even by the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. Two sisters with breast cancer were selected as affected members, while the mother of the sisters was a non-affected member. Whole exome sequencing was performed on the HiSeq 2000 platform with paired-end reads of 101 bp in the three members. We identified 19,436, 19,468, and 19,345 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding regions. Among them, 8,759, 8,789, and 8,772 were non-synonymous SNPs, respectively. After filtering out 12,843 synonymous variations and 12,105 known variations with indels found in the dbSNP135 or 1000 Genomes Project database, we selected 73 variations in the samples from the affected sisters that did not occur in the sample from the unaffected mother. Using the Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant (SIFT), PolyPhen-2, and MutationTaster algorithms to predict amino acid substitutions, the XCR1, DLL1, TH, ACCS, SPPL3, CCNF, and SRL genes were risky among all three algorithms, while definite candidate genes could not be conclusively determined. Using exome sequencing, we found 7 variants for a breast cancer family without BRCA mutations. Genetic evidence of disease association should be confirmed by future studies

  18. Immunolocalization of BRCA1 protein in tumor breast tissue: prescreening of BRCA1 mutation in Tunisian patients with hereditary breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Troudi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene which is inactivated by mutation in familial breast and ovarian cancers. Over 300 different disease causing germ-line mutations have been described; 60% are unique to an individual family. This diversity and the large size of the gene lead us to search for a prescreening method for BRCA1 mutations. Since BRCA1 is a nuclear protein in normal cells, but reported by some authors to be cytoplasmic in breast tumor cells of patients with BRCA1 mutation, we evaluated immunohistochemistry as a prescreening technique to identify BRCA1 mutations in patients with familial presentation of breast cancer. Using a monoclonal antibody against the carboxy-terminal region of BRCA1, we performed immunohistochemistry on 18 tumor samples from patients with hereditary breast cancer. Cytoplasmic staining of BRCA1 was observed in 10 cases. Of the 18 tumors, 12 (66% showed either BRCA mutation or BRCA1 accumulation or both, indicating that BRCA1 function might be lost in breast tumor cells not only through mutation, but also via abnormal cytoplasmic location. The immunohistochemical test used in this study would not be efficient as a pre-screening method of deleterious mutations, but it appeared useful to investigate tumor physiology.

  19. A high frequent BRCA1 founder mutation identified in the Greenlandic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Theresa Larriba; Eiberg, Hans; Kern, Peder;

    2009-01-01

    carrying a BRCA1 mutation known to trigger the development of potentially lethal diseases leads us to recommend an offer of genetic counselling and test for the mutation to all females of Inuit origin, thereby hopefully preventing a number of breast and ovarian cancer deaths.......Approximately 10% of all breast and ovarian cancers are dominantly inherited and mutations are mainly found in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes. The penetrance of BRCA1 mutations is reported to be between 68 and 92% and confers a 36-92% life time risk of breast cancer. Most mutations in BRCA1 are uniquely...... clinical relevance of the mutation, we have examined ten breast cancer patients and nine ovarian cancer patients from Greenland for the presence of the p.Cys39Gly mutation. We found three ovarian cancer patients (33%) and one breast cancer patient (10%) carrying the mutation. The high number of women...

  20. Ovarian cancer treatment in mutation carriers/BRCAness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorusso, Domenica; Perotto, Stefania

    2016-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy. During the last 15 years, there has been only marginal improvement in 5-year overall survival. These daunting statistics are compounded by the fact that despite all subtypes exhibiting striking heterogeneity, their systemic management remains identical. Retrospective studies have shown an improved prognosis, higher response rates to platinum-containing regimens, and longer treatment-free intervals between relapses in patients with BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 (BRCA1/2)-mutated ovarian cancer (BMOC) compared with patients who are not carriers of this mutation. These features of BMOC are attributed to homologous-recombination repair deficiency in the absence of BRCA1/2 function, which results in an impaired ability of tumor cells to repair platinum-induced double-strand breaks, thereby conferring increased chemosensitivity and increased sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase enzyme inhibition and other DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents such as pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). Therefore, the chemotherapeutic approach for patients with BMOC should focus on treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy at first-line and recurrent-disease settings and measures to increase the platinum-free interval following early platinum-resistant relapse by using non-platinum cytotoxic agents, with the aim of reintroducing platinum again at a later date. The role of first-line intraperitoneal platinum-based therapy in the specific context of BMOC also merits further analysis. Other than platinum, alternative DNA-damaging agents (including PLD and trabectedin) also may have a therapeutic role in patients with recurrent BMOC. The approval of olaparib for clinical use in Europe and the United States will also affect chemotherapeutic strategies for these patients. Further work to clarify the precise relationship between BRCA1/2 mutation genotype and clinical phenotype is crucial to delineating the optimal therapeutic

  1. BRCA1 185delAG MUTATION CAN BE EASILY DETECTED BY AN ADAPTED ALLELE-SPECIFIC PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Negura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 gene accounts for a majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Germinal deleteriousmutations within this gene are directly responsible for the disease, with a lifetime risk of cancer for mutations carriers ofabout 80%. While outbred and western populations usually show a heterogeneous profile of unique and familialmutations, in isolated and eastern European populations some recurrent mutations can be afforded the most responsibilityfor familial hereditary cases. In Ashkenazi Jewish and most Slavic eastern population, the BRCA1 185delAG is one of themost frequent mutations. Therefore, rapid screening by PCR-based methods can be useful in oncogenetic diagnosis. Herewe present implementation of an adapted allele-specific PCR for the detection of 185delAG, with wide applications indiagnosis and genotyping for large population groups.

  2. International distribution and age estimation of the Portuguese BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Pinheiro, Manuela;

    2011-01-01

    total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four...... individuals requesting predictive testing living in France and in the USA, all being Portuguese immigrants. After performing an extensive haplotype study in carrier families, we estimate that this founder mutation occurred 558 +/- 215 years ago. We further demonstrate significant quantitative differences...

  3. International distribution and age estimation of the Portuguese BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu founder mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peixoto, Ana; Santos, Catarina; Pinheiro, Manuela;

    2011-01-01

    total of 5,443 suspected HBOC families from several countries. Whereas the c.156_157insAlu BRCA2 mutation was detected in 11 of 149 suspected HBOC families from Portugal, representing 37.9% of all deleterious mutations, in other countries it was detected only in one proband living in France and in four...... individuals requesting predictive testing living in France and in the USA, all being Portuguese immigrants. After performing an extensive haplotype study in carrier families, we estimate that this founder mutation occurred 558 ± 215 years ago. We further demonstrate significant quantitative differences...

  4. Characteristics of BRCA1/2 Mutation-Positive Breast Cancers in Korea: A Comparison Study Based on Multicenter Data and the Korean Breast Cancer Registry

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Jong-Han; Lee, Jong Won; Son, Byung Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Sue K.; Lee, Min Hyuk; Kim, Lee Su; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Jung, Jin Hyang; Jung, Sang Seol; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). R...

  5. Effects on human transcriptome of mutated BRCA1 BRCT domain: A microarray study

    OpenAIRE

    Iofrida Caterina; Melissari Erika; Mariotti Veronica; Guglielmi Chiara; Guidugli Lucia; Caligo Maria; Pellegrini Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) missense mutations have been detected in familial breast and ovarian cancers, but the role of these variants in cancer predisposition is often difficult to ascertain. In this work, the molecular mechanisms affected in human cells by two BRCA1 missense variants, M1775R and A1789T, both located in the second BRCT (BRCA1 C Terminus) domain, have been investigated. Both these variants were isolated from familial breast cancer patients and t...

  6. Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Green, Todd;

    2010-01-01

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carri...

  7. Group medical visits in the follow-up of women with a BRCA mutation: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoogerbrugge Nicoline

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA mutation carriers have a 40-80% life-time risk of developing breast cancer. They may opt for yearly breast cancer surveillance or for prophylactic mastectomy. Both options show increased survival rates. It is a complex choice to be made between these two options. As a result most women experience high levels of distress and high needs for information. To fulfill the needs for psychosocial support and information we have introduced group medical consultations (GMCs. A GMC provides individual medical visits conducted within a group. This 90 minute group-visit with 8-12 patients gives patients the opportunity to spend more time with their clinician and a behavioral health professional and learn from other patients experiencing similar topics. However, it should be noted that group sessions may increase fear in some patients or influence their decision making. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, 160 BRCA mutation carriers diagnosed maximally 2 years ago are recruited from the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre. Participants are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either the GMC intervention group (onetime participation in a GMC instead of a standard individual visit or to a usual care control group. Primary outcome measures are empowerment and psychological distress (SCL 90. Secondary outcome measures are fear of cancer, information needs before the consultation and the received information, self-examination of the breasts, patient satisfaction, quality of life and cost-effectiveness. Data are collected via self-reported questionnaires 1 week before the visit, and at 1 week and at 3 months follow-up. A pilot study was conducted to test all procedures and questionnaires. Discussion The possibility for interaction with other BRCA mutation carriers within a medical visit is unique. This study will assess the effectiveness of GMCs for BRCA mutation carriers to improve empowerment and decrease distress compared

  8. BRCA-Associated Ovarian Cancer: From Molecular Genetics to Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Girolimetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer (OC mostly arises sporadically, but a fraction of cases are associated with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The presence of a BRCA mutation in OC patients has been suggested as a prognostic and predictive factor. In addition, the identification of asymptomatic carriers of such mutations offers an unprecedented opportunity for OC prevention. This review is aimed at exploring the current knowledge on epidemiological and molecular aspects of BRCA-associated OC predisposition, on pathology and clinical behavior of OC occurring in BRCA mutation carriers, and on the available options for managing asymptomatic carriers.

  9. Optimal selection for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation testing using a combination of ' easy to apply ' probability models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodmer, D.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; van der Hout, A. H.; Gloudemans, S.; Ansink, K.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; Hoogerbrugge, N.

    2006-01-01

    To establish an efficient, reliable and easy to apply risk assessment tool to select families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients for BRCA mutation testing, using available probability models. In a retrospective study of 263 families with breast and/or ovarian cancer patients, the utility of

  10. BRCA1 mutations in Algerian breast cancer patients: high frequency in young, sporadic cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Uhrhammer, Amina Abdelouahab, Laurence Lafarge, Viviane Feillel, Ahmed Ben Dib, Yves-Jean Bignon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer rates and median age of onset differ between Western Europe and North Africa. In Western populations, 5 to 10 % of breast cancer cases can be attributed to major genetic factors such as BRCA1 and BRCA2, while this attribution is not yet well defined among Africans. To help determine the contribution of BRCA1 mutations to breast cancer in a North African population, we analysed genomic DNA from breast cancer cases ascertained in Algiers. Both familial cases (at least three breast cancers in the same familial branch, or two with one bilateral or diagnosed before age 40 and sporadic cases less than 38 years of age were studied. Complete sequencing plus quantitative analysis of the BRCA1 gene was performed. 9.8 % (5/51 of early-onset sporadic and 36.4 % (4/11 of familial cases were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. This is in contrast 10.3 % of French HBOC families exhibiting a BRCA1 mutation. One mutation, c.798_799delTT, was observed in two Algerian families and in two families from Tunisia, suggesting a North African founder allele. Algerian non-BRCA1 tumors were of significantly higher grade than French non-BRCA tumors, and the age at diagnosis for Algerian familial cases was much younger than that for French non-BRCA familial cases. In conclusion, we observed a much higher frequency of BRCA1 mutations among young breast cancer patients than observed in Europe, suggesting biological differences and that the inclusion criterea for analysis in Western Europe may not be applicable for the Northern African population.

  11. Population testing for cancer predisposing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in the Ashkenazi-Jewish community: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Manchanda, R.; Loggenberg, K.; Sanderson, S.; Burnell, M.; Wardle, J; Gessler, S.; Side, L.; Balogun, N.; Desai, R; Kumar, A.; Dorkins, H.; Wallis, Y; Chapman, C; Taylor, R.; Jacobs, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Technological advances raise the possibility of systematic population-based genetic testing for cancer-predisposing mutations, but it is uncertain whether benefits outweigh disadvantages. We directly compared the psychological/quality-of-life consequences of such an approach to family history (FH)–based testing. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial of BRCA1/2 gene-mutation testing in the Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) population, we compared testing all participants in the population ...

  12. High rate of mutations in the BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, and BLM genes in Russian ovarian cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Bateneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The early diagnosis of ovarian cancer (OC is an important problem in modern gynecological oncology due to significant detection rates for late-stage tumors. Intensive screening of patients from high-risk groups that include OC predisposition gene mutation carriers is indicated.Subjects and methods. An unselected group of 202 patients with OC and two control groups of blood donors: 591 healthy females; 1197 persons (including 591 females, 606 males were examined. Patients and healthy individuals who identified themselves as ethnic Russians and residents of the Russian Federation participated in the study. Whole peripheral blood samples were collected at the Clinical Subdivisions of the N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center and at the Department of Transfusiology of the Acad. B.V. Petrovsky Russian Research Center of Surgery in 2012–2013. Informed consent was obtained from all the participants. DNA was extracted using a Prep-GS-Genetics reagent kit. Real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping assay was carried out by melting-curve analysis employing an BRCA SNP genotyping kit(BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and original oligonucleotides (CHEK2, NBN, and BLM gene mutations. Thirteen population-specific mutations, including 7 (185delAG, 4153delA, 5382insC, 3819delGTAAA, 3875delGTCT, 300T>G, and 2080delA in the BRCA1 gene, 1 (6174delT in the BRCA2 gene, 3 (1100delC, IVS2+1G>A, and 470T>C in the CHEK2 gene, 1 (657delACAAA in the NBN gene, and 1 (1642C>T in the BLM gene, were genotyped. Polymerase chain reaction was performed using a DTprime real-time detection thermal cycler.Results and discussion. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations were detected in 46 (22.8 % patients with OC; the prevailing mutation in the BRCA1 gene was 5382insC (58.7 %. OC was diagnosed in 32.6 % of the patients aged 51 years or older. The rate of moderate-penetrance mutations (1100delC and IVS2+1G>A in the CHEK2 gene, 657del5 in the NBN gene, and 1642

  13. BRCA1 and BRCA2 Unclassified Variants and Missense Polymorphisms in Algerian Breast/Ovarian Cancer Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Cherbal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations predispose heterozygous carriers to hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. However, unclassified variants (UVs (variants with unknown clinical significance and missense polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes pose a problem in genetic counseling, as their impact on risk of breast and ovarian cancer is still unclear. The objective of our study was to identify UVs and missense polymorphisms in Algerian breast/ovarian cancer patients and relatives tested previously for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes germline mutations analysis.

  14. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER IN BREAST CANCER (BRCA) GENE CARRIER FEMALE IN- THE 30-60 YEARS AGE GROUP: A META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire S, Shrestha N, BK Baral

    2015-01-01

    The literature linking breast cancer with oral contraceptives and BRCA mutation as possible risk factors is equivocal. Hence, to account for these conflicting results in the existing literature and to observe the net effect, this meta-analysis aims to investigate whether oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA) gene carrier female in the 30-60 years age group. Method: Systematic review of the literature, both published and unpublished, and met...

  15. Detection of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations in ovarian cancer - next-generation sequencing analysis of 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczkowska, Magdalena; Zuk, Monika; Gorczynski, Adam; Ratajska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Marzena; Biernat, Wojciech; Limon, Janusz; Wasag, Bartosz

    2016-07-01

    The overall prevalence of germline BRCA1/2 mutations is estimated between 11% and 15% of all ovarian cancers. Individuals with germline BRCA1/2 alterations treated with the PARP1 inhibitors (iPARP1) tend to respond better than patients with wild-type BRCA1/2. Additionally, also somatic BRCA1/2 alterations induce the sensitivity to iPARP1. Therefore, the detection of both germline and somatic BRCA1/2 mutations is required for effective iPARP1 treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the frequency and spectrum of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 alterations in a group of Polish patients with ovarian serous carcinoma. In total, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ovarian serous carcinoma tissues were enrolled to the study. Mutational analysis of BRCA1/2 genes was performed by using next-generation sequencing. The presence of pathogenic variants was confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In addition, to confirm the germline or somatic status of the mutation, the nonneoplastic tissue was analyzed by bidirectional Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 (28% of patient samples) mutations (20 in BRCA1 and 7 in BRCA2) were identified. For 22 of 27 patients, nonneoplastic cells were available and sequencing revealed the somatic character of two BRCA1 (2/16; 12.5%) and two BRCA2 (2/6; 33%) mutations. Notably, we identified six novel frameshift or nonsense BRCA1/2 mutations. The heterogeneity of the detected mutations confirms the necessity of simultaneous analysis of BRCA1/2 genes in all patients diagnosed with serous ovarian carcinoma. Moreover, the use of tumor tissue for mutational analysis allowed the detection of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:27167707

  16. Modification of BRCA1-Associated Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk by BRCA1 Interacting Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Mitra, Nandita; Domchek, Susan M.; Wan, Fei; Friebel, Tara M.; Tran, Teo V.; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng Maria; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Garber, Judy E.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited BRCA1 mutations confer elevated breast cancer risk. Recent studies have identified genes that encode proteins that interact with BRCA1 as modifiers of BRCA1-associated breast cancer. We evaluated a comprehensive set of genes that encode most known BRCA1 interactors to evaluate the role of these genes as modifiers of cancer risk. A cohort of 2,825 BRCA1 mutation carriers was used to evaluate the association of haplotypes at ATM, BRCC36, BRCC45 (BRE), BRIP1 (BACH1/FANCJ), CTIP, ABRA1 ...

  17. Novel de novo BRCA2 mutation in a patient with a family history of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Jønson, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA2 germ-line mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Mutations are widespread and unclassified splice variants are frequently encountered. We describe the parental origin and functional characterization of a novel de novo BRCA2 splice site mutation found in a patient...... whole blood. The paternity was determined by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray analysis. Parental origin of the de novo mutation was determined by establishing mutation-SNP haplotypes by variant specific PCR, while de novo and mosaic status was investigated by sequencing of DNA from...

  18. Breast and ovarian cancer risk evaluation in families with a disease-causing mutation in BRCA1/2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, Elena; Ibáñez, Berta; Vergara, Itziar; Martínez-Bouzas, Cristina; Guerra, Isabel; Tejada, Maria Isabel

    2010-06-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, and their identification allows genetic testing of at-risk relatives. However, estimates of these risks illustrate controversies, depending on the published series. The penetrance, the earlier onset of the disease and the effect of mutations on the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer were evaluated in 344 females belonging to 34 families from the Basque Country in Spain, in which BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were transmitted. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to derive cumulative probability curves for breast and ovarian cancer by mutation status, birth cohort and mutation position, and significance of the differences was assessed using the log-rank test. The estimated probability for breast cancer by age 70 is about 64% in BRCA1 and 69% in BRCA2, whereas the probability of developing ovarian cancer is about 37% and 25% for BRCA1 and BRCA2, respectively. There is a marginally significant higher risk of developing ovarian cancer in BRCA1 families than in BRCA2 families. The effect of birth cohort on breast cancer cumulative incidence presents an increased risk for females born after 1966 and a decreased risk for those born before 1940. There is no association between mutation position and breast cancer; however, ovarian cancer is associated to BRCA1, presenting exon 11 as an ovarian cluster. These results are important for the breast and ovarian cancer diagnosis and prevention in at-risk families. PMID:22460208

  19. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prophylactic oophorectomy the risk of dying of breast cancer is reduced by 90%, the risk of dying of ovarian cancer is reduced by 95%, and the risk of dying of any cause is reduced by 77%. The risk of breast cancer is further reduced by prophylactic mastectomy. Prophylactic oophorectomy and prophylactic mastectomy pose several challenges within Jewish law that call into question the permissibility of surgery, including mutilation of a healthy organ, termination of fertility, self-wounding, and castration. A growing number of Jewish legal scholars have found grounds to permit prophylactic surgery among BRCA carriers, with some even obligating prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy. Conclusion: Current data suggest a significant reduction in mortality from prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy in BRCA carriers. While mutilation of healthy organs is intrinsically forbidden in Jewish law, the ability to preserve human life may contravene and even mandate prophylactic surgery.

  20. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in families with medium and high risk of breast and ovarian cancer in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.F. Esteves

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Of all malignant neoplasias affecting women, breast cancer has the highest incidence rate in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of genetic modifications in families with medium and high risk for breast and ovarian cancer from different regions of Brazil. An exploratory, descriptive study was carried out on the prevalence of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in case series of high-risk families for breast and/or ovarian cancer. After heredogram construction, a blood sample was taken and DNA extraction was performed in all index cases. The protein truncation test was used to screen for truncated mutations in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene and in exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene. Of the 612 individuals submitted to genetic testing, 21 (3.4%, 19 women and 2 men, had mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Of the 19 BRCA1 mutations found in the 18 participants, 7 consisted of ins6kb mutations, 4 were 5382insC, 3 were 2156delGinsCC, 2 were 185delAG, 1 was C1201G, 1 was C3522T, and 1 was 3450del4. With respect to the BRCA2 gene, 3 mutations were found: 5878del10, 5036delA and 4232insA (one case each. The prevalence of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes found in the present study was lower than reported by other studies on high-risk Brazilian populations. The inclusion of individuals with medium risk may have contributed to the lower prevalence observed.

  1. A multi-case report of the pathways to and through genetic testing and cancer risk management for BRCA mutation-positive women aged 18-25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Lindsey M; Werner-Lin, Allison

    2013-02-01

    Much of the extant literature addressing the psychosocial aspects of BRCA1/2 mutation testing and risk management aggregates mutation carriers of all ages in study recruitment, data analysis, and interpretation. This analytic strategy does not adequately address the needs of the youngest genetic testing consumers, i.e., women aged 18-25. Despite low absolute cancer risk estimates before age 30, BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women aged 18-25 feel vulnerable to a cancer diagnosis but find themselves in a management quandary because the clinical utility of screening and prevention options are not yet well defined for such young carriers. We present three cases, selected from a larger study of 32 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women who completed or considered genetic testing before age 25, to demonstrate the unique developmental, relational and temporal influences, as well as the challenges, experienced by very young BRCA mutation-positive women as they complete genetic testing and initiate cancer risk management. The first case describes the maturation of a young woman whose family participated in a national cancer registry. The second addresses the experiences and expectations of a young woman who completed genetic testing after learning that her unaffected father was a mutation carrier. The third case highlights the experiences of a young woman parentally bereaved in childhood, who presented for genetic counseling and testing due to intense family pressure. Together, these cases suggest that BRCA1/2-positive women aged 18-25 are challenged to reconcile their burgeoning independence from their families with risk-related support needs. Loved ones acting in ways meant to care for these young women may inadvertently apply pressure, convoluting family support dynamics and autonomous decision-making. Ongoing support from competent healthcare professionals will enable these young women to remain informed and receive objective counsel about their risk-management decisions. PMID

  2. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2). The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT) and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%). Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer

  3. The prevalence of BRCA1 mutations among young women with triple-negative breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeSai Damini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular screening for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is now an established component of risk evaluation and management of familial breast cancer. Features of hereditary breast cancer include an early age-of-onset and over-representation of the 'triple-negative' phenotype (negative for estrogen-receptor, progesterone-receptor and HER2. The decision to offer genetic testing to a breast cancer patient is usually based on her family history, but in the absence of a family history of cancer, some women may qualify for testing based on the age-of-onset and/or the pathologic features of the breast cancer. Methods We studied 54 women who were diagnosed with high-grade, triple-negative invasive breast cancer at or before age 40. These women were selected for study because they had little or no family history of breast or ovarian cancer and they did not qualify for genetic testing using conventional family history criteria. BRCA1 screening was performed using a combination of fluorescent multiplexed-PCR analysis, BRCA1 exon-13 6 kb duplication screening, the protein truncation test (PTT and fluorescent multiplexed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. All coding exons of BRCA1 were screened. The two large exons of BRCA2 were also screened using PTT. All mutations were confirmed with direct sequencing. Results Five deleterious BRCA1 mutations and one deleterious BRCA2 mutation were identified in the 54 patients with early-onset, triple-negative breast cancer (11%. Conclusion Women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer are candidates for genetic testing for BRCA1, even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.

  4. Identification of novel BRCA founder mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients using capture and Sanger sequencing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Rong; Siraj, Abdul K; Al-Obaisi, Khadija A S; Beg, Shaham; Al Hazmi, Mohsen; Ajarim, Dahish; Tulbah, Asma; Al-Dayel, Fouad; Al-Kuraya, Khawla S

    2016-09-01

    Ethnic differences of breast cancer genomics have prompted us to investigate the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. The prevalence and effect of BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations in Middle Eastern population is not fully explored. To characterize the prevalence of BRCA mutations in Middle Eastern breast cancer patients, BRCA mutation screening was performed in 818 unselected breast cancer patients using Capture and/or Sanger sequencing. 19 short tandem repeat (STR) markers were used for founder mutation analysis. In our study, nine different types of deleterious mutation were identified in 28 (3.4%) cases, 25 (89.3%) cases in BRCA 1 and 3 (10.7%) cases in BRCA 2. Seven recurrent mutations identified accounted for 92.9% (26/28) of all the mutant cases. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm c.1140 dupG and c.4136_4137delCT mutations as novel putative founder mutation, accounting for 46.4% (13/28) of all BRCA mutant cases and 1.6% (13/818) of all the breast cancer cases, respectively. Moreover, BRCA 1 mutation was significantly associated with BRCA 1 protein expression loss (p = 0.0005). Our finding revealed that a substantial number of BRCA mutations were identified in clinically high risk breast cancer from Middle East region. Identification of the mutation spectrum, prevalence and founder effect in Middle Eastern population facilitates genetic counseling, risk assessment and development of cost-effective screening strategy. PMID:27082205

  5. Targeted prostate cancer screening in men with mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 detects aggressive prostate cancer: preliminary analysis of the results of the IMPACT study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Anita V; Bancroft, Elizabeth K; Barbachano, Yolanda;

    2011-01-01

    Study Type - Diagnostic (validating cohort)
Level of Evidence 1b OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of targeted prostate cancer screening in men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations, an international study, IMPACT (Identification of Men with a genetic predisposition to ProstAte Cancer: Targeted screening ...

  6. Cross-species comparison of aCGH data from mouse and human BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, H.; Van Beers, E.; Velds, A.; Liu, X.; Joosse, S.A.; Klarenbeek, S.; Schut, E.; Kerkhoven, R.; Klijn, C.N.; Wessels, L.F.A.; Nederlof, P.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Genomic gains and losses are a result of genomic instability in many types of cancers. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are associated with increased amounts of chromosomal aberrations, presumably due their functions in genome repair. Some of these genomic aberrations may harbor g

  7. Incidence and Outcome of BRCA Mutations in Unselected Patients with Triple Receptor-Negative Breast Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the incidence of germline and somatic BRCA1\\/2 mutations in unselected patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and determine the prognostic significance of carrying a mutation. Methods: DNA was obtained from 77 TNBC and normal tissues. BRCA1\\/2 exons\\/flanking regions were sequenced from tumor and patients classified as mutant or wild type (WT). Sequencing was repeated from normal tissue to identify germline and somatic mutations. Patient characteristics were compared with chi-square. Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank. Cox proportional hazards models were fit to determine the independent association of mutation status with outcome.

  8. Mutational analysis of the BRCA1 gene in 30 Czech ovarian cancer patients

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Zikan; P. Pohlreich; J. Stribrna

    2005-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is one of the most severe of oncological diseases. Inherited mutations in cancer susceptibility genes play a causal role in 5–10% of newly diagnosed tumours. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene alterations are found in the majority of these cases. The aim of this study was to analyse the BRCA1 gene in the ovarian cancer risk group to characterize the spectrum of its mutations in the Czech Republic. Five overlapping fragments amplified on both genomic DNA and cDNA were used to screen for the whole protein-coding sequence of the BRCA1 gene. These fragments were analysed by the protein truncation test (PTT) and direct sequencing. Three inactivating mutations were identified in the group of 30 Czech ovarian cancer patients: the 5382insC mutation in two unrelated patients and a deletion of exons 21 and 22 in another patient. In addition, we have found an alternatively spliced product lacking exon 5 in two other unrelated patients. The 5382insC is the most frequent alteration of the BRCA1 gene in Central and Eastern Europe. The deletion of exons 21 and 22 affects the BRCT functional domain of the BRCA1 protein. Although large genomic rearragements are known to be relatively frequent in Western European populations, no analyses have been performed in our region yet.

  9. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin Hang Lee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine.

  10. Sanger Sequencing for BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del Mutation Screen on Pap Smear Cytology Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sin Hang; Zhou, Shaoxia; Zhou, Tianjun; Hong, Guofan

    2016-01-01

    Three sets of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed for heminested PCR amplification of the target DNA fragments in the human genome which include the site of BRCA1 c.68_69del, BRCA1 c.5266dup and BRCA2 c.5946del respectively, to prepare the templates for direct Sanger sequencing screen of these three founder mutations. With a robust PCR mixture, crude proteinase K digestate of the fixed cervicovaginal cells in the liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap) cytology specimens can be used as the sample for target DNA amplification without pre-PCR DNA extraction, purification and quantitation. The post-PCR products can be used directly as the sequencing templates without further purification or quantitation. By simplifying the frontend procedures for template preparation, the cost for screening these three founder mutations can be reduced to about US $200 per test when performed in conjunction with human papillomavirus (HPV) assays now routinely ordered for cervical cancer prevention. With this projected price structure, selective patients in a high-risk population can be tested and each provided with a set of DNA sequencing electropherograms to document the absence or presence of these founder mutations in her genome to help assess inherited susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer in this era of precision molecular personalized medicine. PMID:26867194

  11. Spectrum and characterisation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in high-risk Czech patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosinova Veronika

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of breast cancer has doubled over the past 20 years in the Czech Republic. Hereditary factors may be a cause of young onset, bilateral breast or ovarian cancer, and familial accumulation of the disease. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations account for an important fraction of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer cases. One thousand and ten unrelated high-risk probands with breast and/or ovarian cancer were analysed for the presence of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation at the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (Czech Republic during 1999–2006. Methods The complete coding sequences and splice sites of both genes were screened, and the presence of large intragenic rearrangements in BRCA1 was verified. Putative splice-site variants were analysed at the cDNA level for their potential to alter mRNA splicing. Results In 294 unrelated families (29.1% of the 1,010 probands pathogenic mutations were identified, with 44 different BRCA1 mutations and 41 different BRCA2 mutations being detected in 204 and 90 unrelated families, respectively. In total, three BRCA1 founder mutations (c.5266dupC; c.3700_3704del5; p.Cys61Gly and two BRCA2 founder mutations (c.7913_7917del5; c.8537_8538del2 represent 52% of all detected mutations in Czech high-risk probands. Nine putative splice-site variants were evaluated at the cDNA level. Three splice-site variants in BRCA1 (c.302-3C>G; c.4185G>A and c.4675+1G>A and six splice-site variants in BRCA2 (c.475G>A; c.476-2>G; c.7007G>A; c.8755-1G>A; c.9117+2T>A and c.9118-2A>G were demonstrated to result in aberrant transcripts and are considered as deleterious mutations. Conclusion This study represents an evaluation of deleterious genetic variants in the BRCA1 and 2 genes in the Czech population. The classification of several splice-site variants as true pathogenic mutations may prove useful for genetic counselling of families with high risk of breast and ovarian cancer.

  12. Removal of Ovaries and Fallopian Tubes Cuts Cancer Risk for BRCA1/2 Carriers | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery that removes the ovaries and fallopian tubes, called salpingo-oophorectomy, is one of the most effective ways to decrease a woman's risk of breast and gynecologic cancer if she carries aBRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation. However, the true degree of risk reduction has not been precisely defined. |

  13. De novo recurrent germline mutation of the BRCA2 gene in a patient with early onset breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    van der Luijt, R. B.; van Zon, P. H A; Jansen, R.; van der Sijs-Bos, C. J M; Warlam-Rodenhuis, C.; Ausems, M.

    2001-01-01

    Germline mutations in either of the two major breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, account for a significant proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer. Identification of breast cancer patients carrying mutations of these genes is primarily based on a positive family history of breast/ovarian cancer or early onset of the disease or both. In the course of mutation screening of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in a hospital based series of patients with risk factors for hereditary ...

  14. Analysis of SLX4/FANCP in non-BRCA1/2-mutated breast cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genes that, when mutated, cause Fanconi anemia or greatly increase breast cancer risk encode for proteins that converge on a homology-directed DNA damage repair process. Mutations in the SLX4 gene, which encodes for a scaffold protein involved in the repair of interstrand cross-links, have recently been identified in unclassified Fanconi anemia patients. A mutation analysis of SLX4 in German or Byelorussian familial cases of breast cancer without detected mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 has been completed, with globally negative results. The genomic region of SLX4, comprising all exons and exon-intron boundaries, was sequenced in 94 Spanish familial breast cancer cases that match a criterion indicating the potential presence of a highly-penetrant germline mutation, following exclusion of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. This mutational analysis revealed extensive genetic variation of SLX4, with 21 novel single nucleotide variants; however, none could be linked to a clear alteration of the protein function. Nonetheless, genotyping 10 variants (nine novel, all missense amino acid changes) in a set of controls (138 women and 146 men) did not detect seven of them. Overall, while the results of this study do not identify clearly pathogenic mutations of SLX4 contributing to breast cancer risk, further genetic analysis, combined with functional assays of the identified rare variants, may be warranted to conclusively assess the potential link with the disease

  15. "Social separation" among women under 40 years of age diagnosed with breast cancer and carrying a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenen, Regina; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Eeles, Rosalind

    2006-06-01

    We conducted an exploratory, qualitative study investigating experiences of women who had developed breast cancer under the age of 40 and who were identified as BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation carriers. These germline mutation carriers face an increased lifetime risk of a second primary breast cancer and an increased risk for a primary ovarian cancer. Thirteen women who fit this criteria participated in three focus groups conducted at a major cancer center in the UK during Spring 2003. We asked broad, open-ended questions that allowed for a wide range of responses about their cancer and genetic testing experiences, physical and psycho-social concerns, family and partner reactions and their need for social support. The women expressed feelings of devastation, loneliness, feeling different and isolation, ambivalence about having to support family members, worries about partner's anxiety and depression, and anxiety about talking to family members, especially children. These feelings were stronger after the cancer diagnosis and compounded by the genetic test results that occurred at a later time. We also found that, at least temporarily, the women experienced what we call "social separation"--emotional distance from, or dissonance with groups they interact with or are part of, e.g., family and friends, frequently leading to a reduction in communication or a change in previously unstated, but accepted normal interaction. We concentrate on a few characteristics of social separation-feelings of aloneness, isolation and separation, use of silence and verbal discretion, the relationship between estrangement and kinship interaction and norm disruption, and are looking at social patterns of interpersonal relationships that may occur when risk and illness statuses are new and framing and feeling rules have not as yet been clearly developed due to a cultural lag. PMID:16724273

  16. Optimization of heteroduplex analysis for the detection of BRCA mutations and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 and BRCA2 are tumour suppressor genes whose mutant phenotypes predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Screening for mutations in these genes is now standard practice for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC cases in Europe, and permits medical follow-up and genetic counselling adapted to the needs of individuals in such families. Currently, most laboratories performing diagnostic analysis of the BRCA genes use PCR of exons and intron-exon boundaries coupled to a pre-screening step to identify anomalous amplicons. The techniques employed for the detection of mutations and SNPs have evolved over time and vary in sensitivity, specificity and cost-effectiveness. As a variant for pre-screening techniques, we chose the recently developed Surveyor® heteroduplex cleavage method as a sensitive and specific technique to reveal anomalous amplicons of the BRCA genes, using only basic laboratory equipment and agarose gel electrophoresis. Here we present the detection of either mutations or SNPs within the BRCA1 exon 7, using heteroduplex analysis (HA by mismatch-specific endonuclease, confirmed by dideoxy sequencing.

  17. Cross-species comparison of aCGH data from mouse and human BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genomic gains and losses are a result of genomic instability in many types of cancers. BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers are associated with increased amounts of chromosomal aberrations, presumably due their functions in genome repair. Some of these genomic aberrations may harbor genes whose absence or overexpression may give rise to cellular growth advantage. So far, it has not been easy to identify the driver genes underlying gains and losses. A powerful approach to identify these driver genes could be a cross-species comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) data from cognate mouse and human tumors. Orthologous regions of mouse and human tumors that are commonly gained or lost might represent essential genomic regions selected for gain or loss during tumor development. To identify genomic regions that are associated with BRCA1- and BRCA2-mutated breast cancers we compared aCGH data from 130 mouse Brca1Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ, Brca2Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ and p53Δ/Δ mammary tumor groups with 103 human BRCA1-mutated, BRCA2-mutated and non-hereditary breast cancers. Our genome-wide cross-species analysis yielded a complete collection of loci and genes that are commonly gained or lost in mouse and human breast cancer. Principal common CNAs were the well known MYC-associated gain and RB1/INTS6-associated loss that occurred in all mouse and human tumor groups, and the AURKA-associated gain occurred in BRCA2-related tumors from both species. However, there were also important differences between tumor profiles of both species, such as the prominent gain on chromosome 10 in mouse Brca2Δ/Δ;p53Δ/Δ tumors and the PIK3CA associated 3q gain in human BRCA1-mutated tumors, which occurred in tumors from one species but not in tumors from the other species. This disparity in recurrent aberrations in mouse and human tumors might be due to differences in tumor cell type or genomic organization between both species. The selection of the oncogenome during mouse and

  18. Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiksiri, S.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer Susceptibility Gene1 (BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene for breast and ovarian cancers. The gene locates at chromosome 17q21 and encodes for 1863 amino acids protein. It is believed that BRCA1 protein is involved in many functions such as DNA repair, centrosome replication, cell cycle checkpoint and replication of other genes. More than 800 mutations have been found in the population with an increased risk of cancer incidence in their families. Germ-line mutation of BRCA1 accounts for 5-10 percent of all breast cancer cases. Epigenetic modifications also reduce the function of normal BRCA1 gene. Several methods are used for laboratory diagnosis of cancer-related mutations. The development of breast cancer in carriers at risk with BRCA1 mutations may be prevented by suitable prevention plans such as breast cancer screening, ovarian cancer screening, surgery and cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Mutation analysis of breast cancer gene BRCA among breast cancer Jordanian females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To screen mutations of the tumor suppressor breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) within 3 exons among Jordanian breast cancer females. A total of 135 Jordanian breast cancer females were genetically analyzed by denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) for mutation detection in 3 BRCA1 exons (2, 11 and 20) between 2000-2002 in Al-Basheer Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Of the studied patients 50 had a family history of breast cancer, 28 had a family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and 57 had no family history of any cancer. Five germline mutations were detected among breast cancer females with a family history of breast cancers (one in exon 2 and 4 mutations in exon 11). Another germline mutation (within exon 11) was detected among breast cancer females with family history of cancer other than breast cancer, and no mutation was detected among breast cancer females with no family history of any cancer or among normal control females. Screening mutations within exon 2, exon 11 and exon 20 showed that most screened mutations were within BRCA1 exon 11 among breast cancer Jordanian families with a family history of breast cancer. (author)

  20. A germline mutation in the BRCA1 3’UTR predicts Stage IV breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A germline, variant in the BRCA1 3’UTR (rs8176318) was previously shown to predict breast and ovarian cancer risk in women from high-risk families, as well as increased risk of triple negative breast cancer. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this variant predicts tumor biology, like other 3’UTR mutations in cancer. The impact of the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant on BRCA1 gene expression, and altered response to external stimuli was tested in vitro using a luciferase reporter assay. Gene expression was further tested in vivo by immunoflourescence staining on breast tumor tissue, comparing triple negative patient samples with the variant (TG or TT) or non-variant (GG) BRCA1 3’UTR. To determine the significance of the variant on clinically relevant endpoints, a comprehensive collection of West-Irish breast cancer patients were tested for the variant. Finally, an association of the variant with breast screening clinical phenotypes was evaluated using a cohort of women from the High Risk Breast Program at the University of Vermont. Luciferase reporters with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant (T allele) displayed significantly lower gene expression, as well as altered response to external hormonal stimuli, compared to the non-variant 3’UTR (G allele) in breast cancer cell lines. This was confirmed clinically by the finding of reduced BRCA1 gene expression in triple negative samples from patients carrying the homozygous TT variant, compared to non-variant patients. The BRCA1-3’UTR-variant (TG or TT) also associated with a modest increased risk for developing breast cancer in the West-Irish cohort (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.1-1.8, p = 0.033). More importantly, patients with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant had a 4-fold increased risk of presenting with Stage IV disease (p = 0.018, OR = 3.37, 95% CI 1.3-11.0). Supporting that this finding is due to tumor biology, and not difficulty screening, obese women with the BRCA1-3’UTR-variant had significantly less dense breasts (p = 0.0398) in the

  1. Mutation Screening of the BRCA1 Gene in Early Onset and Familial Breast/Ovarian Cancer in Moroccan Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah Laraqui, Nancy Uhrhammer, Idriss Lahlou-Amine, Hicham EL Rhaffouli, Jamila El Baghdadi, Mohamed Dehayni, Rahali Driss Moussaoui, Mohamed Ichou, Yassir Sbitti, Abderrahman Al Bouzidi, Said Amzazi, Yves-Jean Bignon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide variation in the distribution of BRCA mutations is well recognised, and for the Moroccan population no comprehensive studies about BRCA mutation spectra or frequencies have been published. We therefore performed mutation analysis of the BRCA1 gene in 121 Moroccan women diagnosed with breast cancer. All cases completed epidemiology and family history questionnaires and provided a DNA sample for BRCA testing. Mutation analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing of all coding exons and flanking intron sequences of the BRCA1 gene. 31.6 % (6/19 of familial cases and 1 % (1/102 of early-onset sporadic (< 45 years were found to be associated with BRCA1 mutations. The pathogenic mutations included two frame-shift mutations (c.798_799delTT, c.1016dupA, one missense mutation (c.5095C>T, and one nonsense mutation (c.4942A>T. The c.798_799delTT mutation was also observed in Algerian and Tunisian BC families, suggesting the first non-Jewish founder mutation to be described in Northern Africa. In addition, ten different unclassified variants were detected in BRCA1, none of which were predicted to affect splicing. Most unclassified variants were placed in Align-GVGD classes suggesting neutrality. c.5117G>C involves a highly conserved amino acid suggestive of interfering with function (Align-GVGD class C55, but has been observed in conjunction with a deleterious mutation in a Tunisian family. These findings reflect the genetic heterogeneity of the Moroccan population and are relevant to genetic counselling and clinical management. The role of BRCA2 in BC is also under study.

  2. Prospective study of high-risk, BRCA1/2-mutation negative women: the ‘negative study’

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Metcalfe, Kelly; Alston, Jill; Nikitina, Dina; Ginsburg, Ophira; Eisen, Andrea; Demsky, Rochelle; Akbari, Mohammad; Zbuk, Kevin; Narod, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Background We previously reported that women from high-risk families who tested negative for a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation were four times more likely to develop breast cancer compared to women in the general population. Preventive measures and risk factors for breast cancer development in these high-risk women have not been evaluated to the same extent as BRCA1/2 positive women. Further, there is virtually no scientific evidence about best practices in their management and care. The pr...

  3. Germline ATM mutational analysis in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative hereditary breast cancer families by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Biallelic inactivation of ATM gene causes the rare autosomal recessive disorder Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T). Female relatives of A-T patients have a two-fold higher risk of developing breast cancer (BC) compared with the general population. ATM mutation carrier identification is laborious and expensive, therefore, a more rapid and directed strategy for ATM mutation profiling is needed. We designed a case?control study to determine the prevalence of 32 known ATM mutations c...

  4. Mammographic and sonomammographic patterns of breast cancer in women belonging to a genetically confirmed risk group with a detected BRCA1 gene mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carriers of the BRCA1 mutation have 50-80% increased risk of breast cancer. Therefore it is necessary to perform screening examinations regularly, more frequently than in the normal population. We suggest beginning mammography at 35 years of age, which significantly increases the chance of early detection of the cancer. A total of 293 women aged 20 - 60 years were analyzed. All the women were examined at the Hereditary Cancer Center. Mammography and sonomammography were performed on all patients. Mammograms of women who had undergone mastectomy were evaluated retrospectively. Benign-like changes, such as dense cysts or fibroadenomas, in the carrier group of the BRCA1 gene mutation were found in 40.5% of the women. Dynamic growth of the tumor was symptomatic. In the remaining group of women, morphology of the detected cancers revealed large, staging-dependent variability. On the basis of these findings we can conclude that cancer in women with the BRCA1 gene mutation can have a benign-like morphology, but with rapid tumor growth. Therefore all suspicious or atypical changes should be verified histopathologically. (author)

  5. Breast cancer in a male-to-female transsexual patient with a BRCA2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Vinciane; Potorac, Iulia; Manto, Florence; Dassy, Sarah; Segers, Karin; Thiry, Albert; Bours, Vincent; Daly, Adrian F; Beckers, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Breast cancer is rare in male patients. Certain predisposing factors, be they genetic (e.g., BRCA2 gene mutations) or hormonal (imbalance between estrogen and androgen levels), have been implicated in male breast cancer pathophysiology. Male-to-female (MtF) transsexualism is a condition that generally involves cross-sex hormone therapy. Anti-androgens and estrogens are used to mimic the female hormonal environment and induce the cross-sex secondary characteristics. In certain situations, the change in the hormonal milieu can be disadvantageous and favor the development of hormone-dependent pathologies, such as cancer. We report a case of a MtF transgender patient who developed breast cancer after 7 years of cross-sex hormonal therapy. The patient was found to be BRCA2 positive, and suffered recurrent disease. The patient was unaware of being a member of an established BRCA2 mutation-positive kindred. This represents the first case of a BRCA2 mutation predisposing to breast cancer in a MtF transgender patient. PMID:27000661

  6. BRCA1/BRCA2-deficient cells are sensitive to mitomycin C and tirapazamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: BRCA1- and BRCA2- deficient cells have defective repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination (HR). The toxicity profiles of these cells is of interest in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer arising in mutation carriers. We focused on Mitomycin C (MMC), which produces DNA interstrand crosslinks, and Tirapazamine (TPZ), which is activated by hypoxia, and inhibits DNA replication and topoisomerase II. BRCA1-deficient HCC1937 cells, derived from a breast cancer in a BRCA1 carrier, were compared to cells corrected with wild-type (wt) BRCA1. BRCA2-deficient Capan-1 cells, derived from a pancreatic cancer in a BRCA2 carrier, were compared to a wt BRCA2-corrected clone. Expressing the BRC4 peptide in MCF-7 cells disrupted the association of BRCA2 with Rad51, thereby inactivating the function of BRCA2. Clonogenic cell survival was measured in response to X-rays, MMC, and TPZ (under hypoxia). BRCA1- and BRCA2-deficient cells were moderately sensitive to X-rays, consistent with defective DSB repair. Sensitivity to MMC often reveals cells with a defect in HR, but also defines the phenotype of Fanconi anemia, which has no major HR defect. Both BRCA1 and BRCA2 deficiency resulted in marked MMC sensitivity. After 0.5μM MMC, survival was reduced >100-fold without wt BRCA1 and 10-fold in BRCA2-inactivated MCF-7 cells. Based on a screen of yeast mutants that showed HR-deficient yeast were sensitive to TPZ, TPZ hypersensitivity was also observed in BRCA1/2-deficient cells. After 5μM TPZ, wt BRCA1 survival was 0.3, whereas BRCA1-deficient survival was <0.001. Similarly, BRCA2-deficient Capan-1 cells showed a ∼100-fold increased sensitivity to TPZ. The marked sensitivity of BRCA-deficient cancer cells to MMC and TPZ has important implications for the optimum systemic therapy of these tumors in the clinic. The critical damage that leads to this marked sensitivity, and how it depends on HR, is the subject of ongoing studies

  7. Effects on human transcriptome of mutated BRCA1 BRCT domain: A microarray study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA1 (breast cancer 1, early onset) missense mutations have been detected in familial breast and ovarian cancers, but the role of these variants in cancer predisposition is often difficult to ascertain. In this work, the molecular mechanisms affected in human cells by two BRCA1 missense variants, M1775R and A1789T, both located in the second BRCT (BRCA1 C Terminus) domain, have been investigated. Both these variants were isolated from familial breast cancer patients and the study of their effect on yeast cell transcriptome has previously provided interesting clues to their possible role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. We compared by Human Whole Genome Microarrays the expression profiles of HeLa cells transfected with one or the other variant and HeLa cells transfected with BRCA1 wild-type. Microarray data analysis was performed by three comparisons: M1775R versus wild-type (M1775RvsWT-contrast), A1789T versus wild-type (A1789TvsWT-contrast) and the mutated BRCT domain versus wild-type (MutvsWT-contrast), considering the two variants as a single mutation of BRCT domain. 201 differentially expressed genes were found in M1775RvsWT-contrast, 313 in A1789TvsWT-contrast and 173 in MutvsWT-contrast. Most of these genes mapped in pathways deregulated in cancer, such as cell cycle progression and DNA damage response and repair. Our results represent the first molecular evidence of the pathogenetic role of M1775R, already proposed by functional studies, and give support to a similar role for A1789T that we first hypothesized based on the yeast cell experiments. This is in line with the very recently suggested role of BRCT domain as the main effector of BRCA1 tumor suppressor activity

  8. Increased risk of male cancer and identification of a potential prostate cancer cluster region in BRCA2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed Nielsen, Henriette; Petersen, Janne; Therkildsen, Christina; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Nilbert, Mef

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of cancer in men from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families is relevant to define to motivate genetic testing and optimize recommendations for surveillance. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We assessed the risk of cancer in male mutation carriers and their first-degree relatives in 290 BRCA1 and BRC...

  9. Disseminated medulloblastoma in a child with germline BRCA2 6174delT mutation and without Fanconi anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Jingying eXu; Ashley Sloane Margol; Anju eShukla; Xiuhai eRen; Finlay, Jonathan L.; Krieger, Mark D.; Gilles, Floyd H.; Couch, Fergus J.; Meraj eAziz; Fung, Eric T; Shahab eAsgharzadeh; Barrett, Michael T.; Anat eErdreich-Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant brain tumor in children, occurs with increased frequency in individuals with Fanconi anemia who have biallelic germline mutations in BRCA2. We describe an 8 year old child who had disseminated anaplastic medulloblastoma and a deleterious heterozygous BRCA2 6174delT germline mutation. Molecular profiling was consistent with Group 4 medulloblastoma. The posterior fossa mass was resected and the patient received intensive chemotherapy and craniospinal i...

  10. Identification of BRCA1/2 founder mutations in Southern Chinese breast cancer patients using gene sequencing and high resolution DNA melting analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Kwong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ethnic variations in breast cancer epidemiology and genetics have necessitated investigation of the spectra of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in different populations. Knowledge of BRCA mutations in Chinese populations is still largely unknown. We conducted a multi-center study to characterize the spectra of BRCA mutations in Chinese breast and ovarian cancer patients from Southern China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 651 clinically high-risk breast and/or ovarian cancer patients were recruited from the Hong Kong Hereditary Breast Cancer Family Registry from 2007 to 2011. Comprehensive BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation screening was performed using bi-directional sequencing of all coding exons of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Sequencing results were confirmed by in-house developed full high resolution DNA melting (HRM analysis. Among the 451 probands analyzed, 69 (15.3% deleterious BRCA mutations were identified, comprising 29 in BRCA1 and 40 in BRCA2. The four recurrent BRCA1 mutations (c.470_471delCT, c.3342_3345delAGAA, c.5406+1_5406+3delGTA and c.981_982delAT accounted for 34.5% (10/29 of all BRCA1 mutations in this cohort. The four recurrent BRCA2 mutations (c.2808_2811delACAA, c.3109C>T, c.7436_7805del370 and c.9097_9098insA accounted for 40% (16/40 of all BRCA2 mutations. Haplotype analysis was performed to confirm 1 BRCA1 and 3 BRCA2 mutations are putative founder mutations. Rapid HRM mutation screening for a panel of the founder mutations were developed and validated. CONCLUSION: In this study, our findings suggest that BRCA mutations account for a substantial proportion of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer in Southern Chinese population. Knowing the spectrum and frequency of the founder mutations in this population will assist in the development of a cost-effective rapid screening assay, which in turn facilitates genetic counseling and testing for the purpose of cancer risk assessment.

  11. Evidence for a pathogenic role of BRCA1 L1705P and W1837X germ-line mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Anna P; Volkov, Nikita M; Preobrazhenskaya, Elena V; Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Garifullina, Aigul R; Ivantsov, Alexandr V; Togo, Alexandr V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2016-05-01

    BRCA1 L1705P (c.5114T>C) has been classified in the NCBI SNP database as the variant with uncertain significance and is absent in major BRCA1 databases. BRCA1 W1837X (c.5511G>A) results in a loss of only last 27 residues of BRCA1 protein, thus its pathogenic role still requires a confirmation. This report describes two breast cancer (BC) patients carrying BRCA1 L1705P and W1837X germ-line mutations, respectively. Significant evidence for BC-predisposing impact of the mentioned mutations have been obtained: (1) both index cases presented with the triple-negative receptor status of BC disease; (2) complete segregation with BRCA1-related cancers was observed in the families of these patients; (3) somatic loss of the remaining (wild-type) BRCA1 allele was detected in tumor tissues of the affected women. The results of this study have to be taken into account while providing genetic counseling to cancer patients and while considering the use of BRCA1-specific therapeutic compounds for BC treatment. PMID:26951538

  12. Five recurrent BRCA1/2 mutations are responsible for cancer predisposition in the majority of Slovenian breast cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novakovic Srdjan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both recurrent and population specific mutations have been found in different areas of the world and more specifically in ethnically defined or isolated populations. The population of Slovenia has over several centuries undergone limited mixing with surrounding populations. The current study was aimed at establishing the mutation spectrum of BRCA1/2 in the Slovenian breast/ovarian cancer families taking advantage of a complete cancer registration database. A second objective was to determine the cancer phenotype of these families. Methods The original population database was composed of cancer patients from the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana in Slovenia which also includes current follow-up status on these patients. The inclusion criteria for the BRCA1/2 screening were: (i probands with at least two first degree relatives with breast and ovarian cancer; (ii probands with only two first degree relatives of breast cancer where one must be diagnosed less than 50 years of age; and (iii individual patients with breast and ovarian cancer, bilateral breast cancer, breast cancer diagnosed before the age of 40 and male breast cancer without any other cancer in the family. Results Probands from 150 different families met the inclusion criteria for mutation analysis of which 145 consented to testing. A BRCA1/2 mutation was found in 56 (39%. Two novel large deletions covering consecutive exons of BRCA1 were found. Five highly recurrent specific mutations were identified (1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 5382insC in the BRCA1 gene and IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene. The IVS16-2A>G in the BRCA2 gene appears to be a unique founder mutation in the Slovenian population. A practical implication is that only 4 PCR fragments can be used in a first screen and reveal the cancer predisposing mutation in 67% of the BRCA1/2 positive families. We also observed an exceptionally high frequency of 4 different pathogenic missense mutations, all affecting one of

  13. A screen for germline mutations in the gene encoding CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in familial non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), known as a versatile transcription factor and chromatin insulator and to be involved in X inactivation, has also been suggested to be a tumour suppressor on 16q. We investigated 153 patients with familial non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer for germline mutations in the CTCF gene. Mutation screening of CTCF was performed by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography followed by cycle sequencing. We found two sequence variants, 240G→A in the 5' untranslated region and 1455C→T (S388S) in exon 4, in five familial breast cancer cases. Three of these five cases had both variants. Cases and controls showed the same prevalence for the two variants, which were found in linkage disequilibrium in most cases and controls. The present study suggests that germline mutations in CTCF are not important as a risk factor for breast cancer

  14. Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis from Pancreatic Cancer Associated With Germline BRCA Mutations: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Amico, Andrea L; Lukas, Rimas V.; Kindler, Hedy L.

    2016-01-01

    Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from pancreatic cancer is a rare finding thought to occur late in the natural history of the disease. Here we present two cases of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from BRCA mutation-associated pancreatic cancer including one patient in whom it developed during treatment with a PARP-inhibitor. We review the literature and discuss the possibility that BRCA-associated pancreatic cancer may have a natural history that is distinct from sporadic cases.

  15. Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis from Pancreatic Cancer Associated With Germline BRCA Mutations: Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Amico

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from pancreatic cancer is a rare finding thought to occur late in the natural history of the disease. Here we present two cases of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis from BRCA mutation-associated pancreatic cancer including one patient in whom it developed during treatment with a PARP-inhibitor. We review the literature and discuss the possibility that BRCA-associated pancreatic cancer may have a natural history that is distinct from sporadic cases.

  16. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale DA; Swenson EE

    2014-01-01

    Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the discovery...

  17. Two different BRCA2 mutations found in a multigenerational family with a history of breast, prostate, and lung cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Diane A Caporale, Erica E SwensonDepartment of Biology, University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Stevens Point, WI, USAAbstract: Breast and lung cancer are two of the most common malignancies in the United States, causing approximately 40,000 and 160,000 deaths each year, respectively. Over 80% of hereditary breast cancer cases are due to mutations in two breast cancer predisposition genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These are tumor-suppressor genes associated with DNA repair. Since the disco...

  18. No germline mutations in the histone acetyltransferase gene EP300 in BRCA1 and BRCA2 negative families with breast cancer and gastric, pancreatic, or colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, ATM, TP53, CHK2 and PTEN account for many, but not all, multiple-case breast and ovarian cancer families. The histone acetyltransferase gene EP300 may function as a tumour suppressor gene because it is sometimes somatically mutated in breast, colorectal, gastric and pancreatic cancers, and is located on a region of chromosome 22 that frequently undergoes loss of heterozygosity in many cancer types. We hypothesized that germline mutations in EP300 may account for some breast cancer families that include cases of gastric, pancreatic and/or colorectal cancer. We screened the entire coding region of EP300 for mutations in the youngest affected members of 23 non-BRCA1/BRCA2 breast cancer families with at least one confirmed case of gastric, pancreatic and/or colorectal cancer. These families were ascertained in Australia through the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer. Denaturing HPLC analysis identified a heterozygous alteration at codon 211, specifically a GGC to AGC (glycine to serine) alteration, in two individuals. This conservative amino acid change was not within any known functional domains of EP300. The frequency of the Ser211 variant did not differ significanlty between a series of 352 breast cancer patients (4.0%) and 254 control individuals (2.8%; P = 0.5). The present study does not support a major role for EP300 mutations in breast and ovarian cancer families with a history of gastric, pancreatic and/or colorectal cancer

  19. BRCA1: a movement toward cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Elizabeth; Ford, James M

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) was first identified in 1994 and has since been shown to encode a tumor suppressor protein that maintains genetic stability through DNA damage response pathways. Carriers of mutations in BRCA1 are predisposed to breast and ovarian cancer; however, their cancers lack the targets for existing anticancer drugs. We describe a novel chemoprevention approach that uses DNA repair-activating agents to enhance the repair of oxidative DNA damage and, in turn, prevent tumorigenesis in the presence of mutant BRCA1. PMID:27308455

  20. Screening for Del 185 AG and 4627C>A BRCA1 Mutations in Breast Cancer Patients from Lahore, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faiza; Fatima, Warda; Mahmood, Saqib; Khokher, Samina

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer contributes to approximately 23% of the cancer cases identified and 14% of cancer related deaths worldwide. Including a strong association between genetic and environmental factors, breast cancer is a complex and multi factorial disorder. Two high penetration breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) have been identified, and germ line mutations in these are thought to account for between 5% and 10% of all breast cancer cases. The human BRCA1 gene, located on 17q, is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation by aiding in DNA repair, transcriptional responses to DNA damage and cell cycle check points. Mutations in this gene enhance cell proliferation and facilitate formation of tumors. Two mutations, the 185 deletion of AG and the 4627 substitution from C to A, are founder mutations in the BRCA1 gene for breast cancer in Asian populations. Allele specific PCR was performed to detect these selected mutations in 120 samples. No mutation of 4627 C to A was detected in the samples and only one of the patients had the 185 del AG mutation in the heterozygous condition. Our collected samples had lower consanguinity and family history indicating the greater involvement of environmental as compared to genetic factors. PMID:27221844

  1. Cancer risk management decision making for BRCA+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonarczyk, Terri Jabaley; Mawn, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Women with pathogenic BRCA genetic mutations face high risks for cancer development. Estimates vary among mutation carriers, with lifetime risks ranging from 41% to 90% for breast cancer and 8% to 62% for ovarian cancer. Cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation positive (BRCA+) women have life-altering implications. This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the experience of cancer risk management decision making for women who are unaffected carriers of a BRCA mutation (previvors). Fifteen previvors recruited from Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), an online informational and support group, were interviewed. Findings consisted of four major themes: the early previvor experience, intense emotional upheaval; the decisional journey, navigating a personal plan for survival; lack of knowledge and experience among health care providers; and support is essential. Findings highlight the different decisional perspectives of previvors based on age and individual factors and the need for increased competence among health care providers. PMID:24470135

  2. Risk of cancer other than breast or ovarian in Chinese Han women with BRCA1/2 mutations%中国汉族BRCA1/2突变的乳腺癌家系中其他肿瘤发病风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 张娟; 欧阳涛; 李金峰; 王天峰; 范照青; 范铁; 林本耀; 解云涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of cancer other than breast or ovarian in Chinese Han women with family breast cancer who carried a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation.Methods Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 genes in the cohort of 465 Chinese Han patients with familial breast cancer were screened using a PCR-sequencing assay.The proportion of cancer other than breast or ovarian was compared in mutantion group and non mutation group.Results Among the 465 familial breast cancer patients,47 (10.1%) were BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and 418 (89.9%) were non-carriers.There was no significant difference in the total proportion of cancers other than breast or ovarian in the family between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers (27.7% ∶29.9%,x2 =0.10,P=0.75).But the tumor spectrum was different between the BRCA1/2 carriers and non-carriers.In the family of BRCA1/2 carriers,the most common cancers were gastric cancer,pancreatic cancer,and prostate cancer; while in the non-carriers,the most common cancers were lung cancer,gastric cancer,and esophageal cancer.The relative risk of gastric cancer,pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer was significantly higher in the families of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers than that of non-carriers (17%∶7.7%,odd ratio:2.47,95% CI:1.07-5.74,P =O.048).Conclusion This study suggests that the relative risk of gastric cancer,pancreatic cancer and prostate cancer in BRCA1/2 carriers is moderate higher than in non-carriers in Chinese Han women.%目的 研究携带BRCA1/2突变的中国汉族家族性乳腺癌家系中非乳腺癌和卵巢癌的其他肿瘤发病风险.方法 采用聚合酶链反应(PCR)-直接测序法检测465个汉族家族性乳腺癌家系中先证者的BRCA1/2基因胚系突变,比较突变组与非突变组有非乳腺癌和卵巢癌的其他肿瘤家族史的比例.结果 在465例汉族家族性乳腺癌先证者中,BRCA1/2突变者47例(10.1%),非突变者418例(89.9%).在BRCA1/2突变组和非突变组中,两者总

  3. Novel inherited mutations and variable expressivity of BRCA1 alleles, including the founder mutation 185delAG in Ashkenazi Jewish families.

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, L S; Szabo, C.I.; Ostermeyer, E A; Dowd, P; Butler, L; Park, T.; Lee, M K; Goode, E.L.; Rowell, S E; King, M C

    1995-01-01

    Thirty-seven families with four or more cases of breast cancer or breast and ovarian cancer were analyzed for mutations in BRCA1. Twelve different germ-line mutations, four novel and eight previously observed, were detected in 16 families. Five families of Ashkenazi Jewish descent carried the 185delAG mutation and shared the same haplotype at eight polymorphic markers spanning approximately 850 kb at BRCA1. Expressivity of 185delAG in these families varied, from early-onset breast cancer with...

  4. Multifactorial likelihood assessment of BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense variants confirms that BRCA1:c.122A>G(p.His41Arg is a pathogenic mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip J Whiley

    Full Text Available Rare exonic, non-truncating variants in known cancer susceptibility genes such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 are problematic for genetic counseling and clinical management of relevant families. This study used multifactorial likelihood analysis and/or bioinformatically-directed mRNA assays to assess pathogenicity of 19 BRCA1 or BRCA2 variants identified following patient referral to clinical genetic services. Two variants were considered to be pathogenic (Class 5. BRCA1:c.4484G> C(p.Arg1495Thr was shown to result in aberrant mRNA transcripts predicted to encode truncated proteins. The BRCA1:c.122A>G(p.His41Arg RING-domain variant was found from multifactorial likelihood analysis to have a posterior probability of pathogenicity of 0.995, a result consistent with existing protein functional assay data indicating lost BARD1 binding and ubiquitin ligase activity. Of the remaining variants, seven were determined to be not clinically significant (Class 1, nine were likely not pathogenic (Class 2, and one was uncertain (Class 3.These results have implications for genetic counseling and medical management of families carrying these specific variants. They also provide additional multifactorial likelihood variant classifications as reference to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of bioinformatic prediction tools and/or functional assay data in future studies.

  5. The Angelina Jolie Effect in Jewish Law: Prophylactic Mastectomy and Oophorectomy in BRCA Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Galper Grossman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following the announcement of actress Angelina Jolie’s prophylactic bilateral mastectomies and subsequent prophylactic oophorectomy, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in BRCA testing and prophylactic surgery. Objective: To review current medical literature on the benefits of prophylactic mastectomy and oophorectomy among BRCA-positive women and its permissibility under Jewish law. Results: Recent literature suggests that in BRCA-positive women who undergo prop...

  6. Presymptomatic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2: how distressing are the pre-test weeks? Rotterdam/Leiden Genetics Working Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.N. Lodder; P. Devilee (Peter); M.F. Niermeijer (Martinus); C.J. Cornelisse (Cees); P.G. Frets; R.W. Trijsburg (Wim); E.J. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); J.G.M. Klijn (Jan); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); A. Tibben (Arend); A. Wagner (Anja); C.A. van der Meer

    1999-01-01

    textabstractPresymptomatic DNA testing for autosomal dominant hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (HBOC) became an option after the identification of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in 1994-1995. Healthy female mutation carriers have a high lifetime risk for breast cancer (56-87

  7. Does tumorigenesis select for or against mutations of the DNA repair-associated genes BRCA2 and MRE11?: Considerations from somatic mutations in microsatellite unstable (MSI gastrointestinal cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elghalbzouri-Maghrani Elhaam

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The BRCA2 and MRE11 proteins participate in the repair of double-strand DNA breaks by homologous recombination. Germline BRCA2 mutations predispose to ovarian, breast and pancreatic cancer, while a germline MRE11 mutation is associated with an ataxia telangiectasia-like disorder. Somatic mutations of BRCA2 are rare in typical sporadic cancers. In tumors having microsatellite instability (MSI, somatic truncating mutations in a poly [A] tract of BRCA2 are reported on occasion. Results We analyzed gastrointestinal MSI cancers by whole gene BRCA2 sequencing, finding heterozygous truncating mutations in seven (47% of 15 patients. There was no cellular functional defect in RAD51 focus-formation in three heterozygously mutated lines studied, although other potential functions of the BRCA2 protein could still be affected. A prior report of mutations in primary MSI tumors affecting the IVS5-(5–15 poly [T] tract of the MRE11 gene was confirmed and extended by analysis of the genomic sequence and protein expression in MSI cancer cell lines. Statistical analysis of the published MRE11 mutation rate in MSI tumors did not provide evidence for a selective pressure favoring biallelic mutations at this repeat. Conclusion Perhaps conflicting with common suspicions, the data are not compatible with selective pressures during tumorigenesis promoting the functional loss of BRCA2 and MRE11 in MSI tumors. Instead, these data fit closely with an absence of selective pressures acting on BRCA2 and MRE11 gene status during tumorigenesis.

  8. BRCA mutations in women from Belarus exposed to radiation from Chernobyl compared to controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: There are several reports of studies that suggest a causal association between exposure to ionizing radiation and the subsequent development of breast cancer. Since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, there has been a dramatic increase in thyroid cancer after radiation exposure, especially among those who were exposed as young children and living in the areas with the greatest contamination. One early report found that women exposed to radiation from Chernobyl had a slight, but significant increase in the incidence of breast cancer. No other data are reported about additional risks for the development of breast cancer in this population. With funding from a NIH R03 grant application and the Child Health International Foundation, we are investigating the molecular epidemiology of breast cancer in Belarusian women exposed at ages < 40 years to high radiation doses from the Chernobyl accident compared to controls for the common Eastern European BRCA 1/2 mutations. As occurred 20+ years after exposure of Japanese women exposed to radiation fallout from atomic bombs in 1945, we expect to find a sustained increase in breast cancer for the coming decade and longer. We accomplished nearly all of the following objectives in the evaluation of Belarusian women with breast cancer and controls who were exposed to sustained high doses of ionizing radiation in 1986. When our US collaborators visited the Republic of Belarus, they (a) met with Belarusian consultants, co-investigators, other health care professionals and administrators and developed a formal collaboration to study breast cancer, BRCA mutations and radiation exposure; (b) recruited Belarusian cancer epidemiologists, Chernobyl radiation dosimetrists, and cancer registry/database management personnel; (c) began a collaboration with the Director of Breast Cancer Surgery for the Republic of Belarus and met several breast cancer specialists in surgery and oncology under his direction; and (d) met medical directors

  9. Low incidence of germline mutation in BRCA1 Exon 11 among early-onset and familial Filipino breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer susceptibility gene, type 1 (BRCA1) has been thought to be responsible for about 45% of families with multiple breast carcinoma cases and for more than 80% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. About 61-75% of the reported distinct alterations that result in truncated protein products have been found in exon 11 which comprises 61% (3427bp) of the coding sequence of BRCA1(5592bp). Protein truncation test (PTT) has become a popular method as an efficient means of screening mutations in a coding sequence that lead to a truncated protein product. In this study, 34 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (FBC) patients were investigated. Twenty-six patients are early-onset B(o)C cases (diagnosed≤40 years old), 14 of which have familiality of the disease. Among the 8 patients that have been diagnosed above 40 years old, 7 have familial clustering. Through radioactive PTT analysis of the 34 BC cases in a 5-20% denaturing gradient polyacrylamide gel, we found only one mutation in exon 11 having a 29.7 kDa truncated protein product. Our results corroborate the findings of a recently reported study of unselected incident breast cancer cases in the Philippines where the prevalence of BRCA1 mutation is also low. This would, however, be the second documented mutation in BRCA1 exon 11 in a Filipino BC patient since 1998. (author)

  10. Survival benefit in women with BRCA1 mutation or familial risk in the MRI screening study (MRISC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saadatmand, Sepideh; Obdeijn, Inge-Marie; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Tollenaar, Rob A.; Woldringh, Gwendolyn H.; Bergers, Elisabeth; Verhoef, Cornelis; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; de Koning, Harry J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M.

    2015-01-01

    Adding MRI to annual mammography screening improves early breast cancer detection in women with familial risk or BRCA1/2 mutation, but breast cancer specific metastasis free survival (MFS) remains unknown. We compared MFS of patients from the largest prospective MRI Screening Study (MRISC) with 1:1

  11. Evaluation of the Dutch BRCA1/2 clinical genetic center referral criteria in an unselected early breast cancer population

    OpenAIRE

    van den Broek, Alexandra J.; de Ruiter, Karen; Van 't Veer, Laura J; Tollenaar, Rob A.E.M.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Verhoef, Senno; Schmidt, Marjanka K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic value of the Dutch Clinical Genetic Center (CGC) referral guidelines for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in 903 early breast cancer patients, unselected for family history, diagnosed in a cancer hospital before the age of 50 years in 1974–2002; most prevalent Dutch pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutations had been analyzed on coded DNA in a research setting. Forty-nine (5.4%) of the patients were proven to be BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. We found that 78% and 69% of BRCA...

  12. DNA damage induces p53-dependent BRCA1 nuclear export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Carriers of BRCA1 mutations have an 85% risk of developing breast cancer by age 70. This risk is about 20-fold higher than the general population. BRCA1 functions in multiple DNA damage response pathways, and its functions are regulated by a variety of mechanisms including transcription control, phosphorylation, and protein-protein interactions. Given the critical role of BRCA1 in nucleus, its sub-cellular localization could be an important mechanism in regulating its function. Recent studies showed that BRCA1 is a nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttle protein. It is imported to the nucleus through a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-mediated importing receptor pathway, and exported to cytoplasm via a nuclear export signal (NES)-facilitated CRM1 pathway. However, little is known on how BRCA1 shuttling between the nucleus and cytoplasm is controlled, what cellular process(s) or environmental insult(s) triggers cell to import BRCA1 protein to nucleus and verse visa. In view of the fact that BRCA1 plays critical roles in several DNA damage response pathways, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage may affect BRCA1 shuttling. We found that ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage promotes BRCA1 nuclear export in human breast cancer cells through a CRM1-dependent mechanism. We further found that DNA damage-induced BRCA1 nuclear export is dependent on wild-type p53 function. These results suggest that p53-dependent BRCA1 nucleus export might be an alternative mechanism for BRCA1 functional regulation in cellular response to DNA damage. Interruption of BRCA1 shuttling in breast cancer cells that do not have functional p53 may compromise the precise regulation of BRCA1 function timely and spatially, resulting in aberrant DNA repair and increased genetic instability in surviving cells

  13. Experience of BRCA1/2 mutation-negative young women from families with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Macrae, Lynn; de Souza, Alicia Navarro; Loiselle, Carmen G.; Wong, Nora

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the experience of young women who become aware of their parent’s BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA) mutation status as adolescents or young adults. There is also currently a gap in the literature pertaining to those who are found to be negative for their familial mutation. We aimed to investigate the experience of these mutation-negative young women from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Methods Using a semi-structured questionnaire we interviewed 8 wom...

  14. Limited family structure and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype as predictors of BRCA mutations in a genetic counseling cohort of early-onset sporadic breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zugazagoitia, Jon; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Manzano, Arancha; Blanco, Ignacio; Vega, Ana; Custodio, Ana; Teulé, Alex; Fachal, Laura; Martínez, Beatriz; González-Sarmiento, Rogelio; Cruz-Hernández, Juan Jesús; Chirivella, Isabel; Garcés, Vicente; Garre, Pilar; Romero, Atocha; Caldés, Trinidad; Díaz-Rubio, Eduardo; de la Hoya, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Early-onset diagnosis is an eligibility criterion for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) testing in sporadic breast cancer patients. Limited family structure has been proposed as a predictor of BRCA mutation status in this group of patients. An overwhelming amount of data supports a strong association between BRCA1 mutations and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we analyze the feasibility of using limited family structure and TNBC as predictors of BRCA mutation status in early-onset breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. We have conducted the study in a cohort of sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients (N = 341) previously selected for BRCA genetic testing in Academic Hereditary Cancer Clinics from Spain. A retrospective review of medical records available at the time of risk assessment allowed us classifying patients according to family structure and TNBC. In addition, BRCAPRO score was calculated for all patients. Association between categorical variables was investigated using the Fisher's exact test. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Limited family structure (OR 3.61, p = 0.013) and TNBC (OR 3.14, p = 0.013) were independent predictors of BRCA mutation status. Mutation prevalence in the subgroup of patients with at least one positive predictor was 14%, whereas it dropped to 3% in non-TNBCs with adequate family history (OR 5.31, 95% CI 1.38-23.89, p = 0.006). BRCAPRO correctly discerned between limited and adequate family structures. Limited family structure and TNBC are feasible predictors of BRCA mutation status in sporadic early-onset (≤35 years) breast cancer patients attending genetic counseling units. The low prevalence of mutations observed in non-TNBCs with adequate family structure suggests that this subgroup of patients might be excluded from genetic testing. PMID:25342642

  15. Rapid detection of most frequent Slovenian germ-line mutations in BRCA1 gene using real-time PCR and melting curve analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Detection of inherited mutations in cancer susceptibility genes is of great importance in some types of cancers including the colorectal cancer (mutations of APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis - FAP, mutations in mismatch repair genes in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer - HNPCC), malignant melanoma (mutations in CDKN2A and CDK4 genes) and breast cancer (mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes). Methods. This article presents the technical data for the detection of five mutations in BRCA1 gene in breast cancer patients and their relatives. The mutations - 1806C>T, 300T>G, 300T>A, 310G>A, 5382insC - were determined by the real-time PCR and the melting curve analysis. Results and conclusion. In comparison to direct sequencing, this method proved to be sensitive and rapid enough for the routine daily determination of mutations in DNA isolated from the peripheral blood. (author)

  16. Risk of breast cancer among French-Canadian women, noncarriers of more frequent BRCA1/2 mutations and consumption of total energy, coffee, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissonauth, Vishnee; Shatenstein, Bryna; Fafard, Eve; Maugard, Christine; Robidoux, André; Narod, Steven; Ghadirian, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    Although the connection between diet, lifestyle and hormones suggests that nutritional and lifestyle factors may exert an influence in the etiology of breast cancer, it is not clear whether these factors operate in the same way in women without BRCA gene mutations. A nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of French-Canadian women, with 560 members involving 280 nongene carriers of mutated BRCA gene affected by breast cancer and 280 nonaffected and nongene carriers of mutated BRCA gene. A validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to ascertain dietary intake, and a core questionnaire, to gather information on lifestyle risk factors. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in logistic regression models. It was found that energy intake >2,057 Kcal/day was significantly and positively related to breast cancer risk (OR = 2.54; 95% CI: 1.67-3.84; p = 0.01). Women who drank more than eight cups of coffee per day had an increased risk of breast cancer: OR = 1.40 (95% CI: 1.09-2.24; p = 0.03). Subjects who drank >9 g of alcohol (ethanol) per day had an increased risk of breast cancer: OR = 1.55 (95% CI: 1.02-2.37; p = 0.04). In addition, a positive and significant association was noted between the consumption of beer, wine and spirits, and breast cancer risk. The ORs were 1.34 (95% CI: 1.28-2.11; p = 0.04) for more than two bottles of beer per week, OR = 1.16 (95% CI: 1.08-2.58; p = 0.05) for >10 oz of wine per week and OR = 1.09 (95% CI: 1.02-2.08; p = 0.05) for >6 oz of spirit per week, respectively. Intakes of other nutrients and dietary components were not significantly associated with nongene carrier breast cancer risk. This study provides evidence that total energy intake, coffee, and alcohol consumption may play a role in breast cancer risk. PMID:19775332

  17. Prevalence of the BRCA1 founder mutation c.5266dupin Brazilian individuals at-risk for the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewald Ingrid P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract About 5-10% of breast and ovarian carcinomas are hereditary and most of these result from germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. In women of Ashkenazi Jewish ascendance, up to 30% of breast and ovarian carcinomas may be attributable to mutations in these genes, where 3 founder mutations, c.68_69del (185delAG and c.5266dup (5382insC in BRCA1 and c.5946del (6174delT in BRCA2, are commonly encountered. It has been suggested by some authors that screening for founder mutations should be undertaken in all Brazilian women with breast cancer. Thus, the goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of three founder mutations, commonly identified in Ashkenazi individuals in a sample of non-Ashkenazi cancer-affected Brazilian women with clearly defined risk factors for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC syndrome. Among 137 unrelated Brazilian women from HBOC families, the BRCA1c.5266dup mutation was identified in seven individuals (5%. This prevalence is similar to that encountered in non-Ashkenazi HBOC families in other populations. However, among patients with bilateral breast cancer, the frequency of c.5266dup was significantly higher when compared to patients with unilateral breast tumors (12.1% vs 1.2%, p = 0.023. The BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del mutations did not occur in this sample. We conclude that screening non-Ashkenazi breast cancer-affected women from the ethnically heterogeneous Brazilian populations for the BRCA1 c.68_69del and BRCA2 c.5946del is not justified, and that screening for BRCA1c.5266dup should be considered in high risk patients, given its prevalence as a single mutation. In high-risk patients, a negative screening result should always be followed by comprehensive BRCA gene testing. The finding of a significantly higher frequency of BRCA1 c.5266dup in women with bilateral breast cancer, as well as existence of other as yet unidentified founder mutations in this population, should be

  18. Roles of DNA mutation in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hengbin; Lin, Deigui

    2016-07-01

    The Breast cancer 1, early onset gene (BRCA1) is known to be significantly associated with human familial breast cancer and is identified to play an important role in canine mammary tumors. Here, genetic variations in the coding region and DNA methylation in the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumor samples, 15 each of benign and malignant against 10 normal canine mammary tissue samples, were analyzed using the direct sequencing method. The results indicated two point mutations each in the coding region of canine BRCA1 in one benign mammary tumor sample (4702G >T and 4765G >T) and in one malignant canine mammary tumor sample (3619A >G and 4006G >A). No mutations were detected in the normal canine mammary tissue samples. The 4702G >T mutation was found to terminate further translation. The physical effect of the 4765G >T mutation was found to be the repalacement of the glutamate residue with glutamine. The physical effect of the 3619A >G mutation was found to be the replacement of the threonine residue with alanine, and that of mutation 4006G >A was the replacement of the valine residue with isoleucine in the BRCA1 protein. Bisulfite sequencing detected methylated CpG sites in one canine malignant mammary tumor sample. In conclusion, the present study elucidated the mutational status of the BRCA1 coding region and methylation status of the 5' flanking region of BRCA1 in canine mammary tumors. PMID:26888582

  19. Characterization of a novel large deletion and single point mutations in the BRCA1 gene in a Greek cohort of families with suspected hereditary breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. A multitude of mutations have been described and are found to be scattered throughout these two large genes. We describe analysis of BRCA1 in 25 individuals from 18 families from a Greek cohort. Methods The approach used is based on dHPLC mutation screening of the BRCA1 gene, followed by sequencing of fragments suspected to carry a mutation including intron – exon boundaries. In patients with a strong family history but for whom no mutations were detected, analysis was extended to exons 10 and 11 of the BRCA2 gene, followed by MLPA analysis for screening for large genomic rearrangements. Results A pathogenic mutation in BRCA1 was identified in 5/18 (27.7 % families, where four distinct mutations have been observed. Single base putative pathogenic mutations were identified by dHPLC and confirmed by sequence analysis in 4 families: 5382insC (in two families, G1738R, and 5586G > A (in one family each. In addition, 18 unclassified variants and silent polymorphisms were detected including a novel silent polymorphism in exon 11 of the BRCA1 gene. Finally, MLPA revealed deletion of exon 20 of the BRCA1 gene in one family, a deletion that encompasses 3.2 kb of the gene starting 21 bases into exon 20 and extending 3.2 kb into intron 20 and leads to skipping of the entire exon 20. The 3' breakpoint lies within an AluSp repeat but there are no recognizable repeat motifs at the 5' breakpoint implicating a mechanism different to Alu-mediated recombination, responsible for the majority of rearrangements in the BRCA1 gene. Conclusions We conclude that a combination of techniques capable of detecting both single base mutations and small insertions / deletions and large genomic rearrangements is necessary in order to accurately analyze the BRCA1 gene in patients at high risk of carrying a germline mutation as determined by their family history. Furthermore, our

  20. A whole-genome massively parallel sequencing analysis of BRCA1 mutant oestrogen receptor negative and positive breast cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Britta; Wilkerson, Paul M; Manie, Elodie; Grigoriadis, Anita; A’Hern, Roger; van der Groep, Petra; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Popova, Tatiana; Mariani, Odette; Turaljic, Samra; Furney, Simon J; Marais, Richard; Rodruigues, Daniel-Nava; Flora, Adriana C; Wai, Patty; Pawar, Vidya; McDade, Simon; Carroll, Jason; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Green, Andrew R; Ellis, Ian O; Swanton, Charles; van Diest, Paul; Delattre, Olivier; Lord, Christopher J; Foulkes, William D; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Ashworth, Alan; Stern, Marc Henri; Reis-Filho, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    BRCA1 encodes a tumour suppressor protein that plays pivotal roles in homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and transcriptional regulation. BRCA1 germline mutations confer a high risk of early-onset breast and ovarian cancer. In >80% of cases, tumours arising in BRCA1 germline mutation carriers are oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative, however up to 15% are ER-positive. It has been suggested that BRCA1 ER-positive breast cancers constitute sporadic cancers arising in the context of a BRCA1 germline mutation rather than being causally related to BRCA1 loss-of-function. Whole-genome massively parallel sequencing of ER-positive and ER-negative BRCA1 breast cancers, and their respective germline DNAs, was used to characterise the genetic landscape of BRCA1 cancers at base-pair resolution. Only BRCA1 germline mutations and somatic loss of the wild-type allele, and TP53 somatic mutations were recurrently found in the index cases. BRCA1 breast cancers displayed a mutational signature consistent with that caused by lack of HR DNA repair in both ER-positive and ER-negative cases. Sequencing analysis of independent cohorts of hereditary BRCA1 and sporadic non-BRCA1 breast cancers for the presence of recurrent pathogenic mutations and/or homozygous deletions found in the index cases revealed that DAPK3, TMEM135, KIAA1797, PDE4D and GATA4 are potential additional drivers of breast cancers. This study demonstrates that BRCA1 pathogenic germline mutations coupled with somatic loss of the wild-type allele are not sufficient for hereditary breast cancers to display an ER-negative phenotype, and has led to the identification of three potential novel breast cancer genes (i.e. DAPK3, TMEM135 and GATA4). PMID:22362584

  1. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in familial breast cancer%家族性乳腺癌家系成员乳腺癌易感基因突变的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军改; 回天立; 李峥; 白杨; 马国明; 孙玉巧; 李春晓; 耿翠芝

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究河北省地区家族性乳腺癌家系中的患者及健康一级亲属乳腺癌易感基因1(BRCA1)和乳腺癌易感基因2(BRCA2)突变位点及携带情况.方法 研究对象为2002年6月至2008年5月河北医科大学第四医院接诊的乳腺癌患者及其亲属,分别来自12个独立的汉族家族性乳腺癌家系,该家系中有2个及2个以上一级或二级亲属乳腺癌患病史,研究病例包括13例患者及46例健康一级亲属,共59例样本.由外周血提取基因组DNA,采用聚合酶链反应-单链构象多态性分析(PCR-SSCP)和基因测序技术对国内外报告中常见的4个BRCA1/BRCA2突变热点区域(BRCA1:外显子2、11、20;BRCA2外显子11)进行检测.结果 发现1个BRCA1突变位点(4193insA)和1个BRCA2突变位点(5329insT),全部为移码突变;发现4个变异位点(BRCA1:4165T>A 、287G>C,BRCA2:6251G>T、5416C>A),4193insA、5329insT、287G>C携带者的家系中均有3例乳腺癌患者.结论 BRCA1(4193insA)、BRCA2(5329insT)以及BRCA1:4165T>A 、287G>C和BRCA2:6251G>T、5416C>A可能是河北省家族性乳腺癌相关性突变位点,其携带者家系中乳腺癌发病率明显升高,建议对其一级亲属密切随访或尽早进行手术或药物干预.%Objectiff To investigate mutations and the carrying of breast cancer susceptibility gene ( BRCA) 1 and BRCA2 among patients and their healthy first degree relatives in family constellation of breast cancer in Hebei province . Mtehods This study involved breast cancer patients treated in the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Hebei Medical University from June, 2002to May, 2008 and their relative, including 59 samples (13 patients and 46 healthy first degree relatives from 12 independent families of Han Nationality in which 2 or more first or second degree relatives had breast cancer history . Four BRCA1/ BRCA2 mutation hot spots ( BRCA1; Exon2,11,20 ; BRCA2; Exonl 1) commonly reported in literature were detected by extracting DNA from

  2. Differences in the frequency and distribution of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in breast/ovarian cancer cases from the Basque country with respect to the Spanish population: implications for genetic counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, E; Martínez-Bouzas, C; Guerra, I; Viguera, N; Moreno, J; Ibañez, E; Díez, J; Rodríguez, F; Mallabiabarrena, G; Luján, S; Gorostiaga, J; De Pablo, J L; Mendizabal, J L; Tejada, M I

    2007-12-01

    The prevalence of unique and recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations and unclassified variants varies among different populations. Two hundred and thirty-six breast and/or ovarian cancer patients were analysed to clarify the role of these genes in the Basque Country. We also studied 130 healthy women from the general population from the same region. Fifteen different pathological mutations were found in 16 index cases: 10 truncating mutations, 4 missense mutations and 1 splicing mutation. c.3002_3003insT and c.5788_5789delGT, both in exon 11 of BRCA2 have not previously been described. No pathological mutations were found in cases of sporadic juvenile breast cancer. There are no recurrent mutations in our population; apart from the mutation c.9254_9258del5, which appears in only two index cases. We have also found a lot of variants whose effect is unknown. From these variants, 17 have not previously been described: 6 missenses, 6 synonymous and 5 alterations in intronic regions. We would like to highlight the fact that 14.3% of patients with 3 or more cases of breast cancer in the family, and 16.7% of patients with family history of breast and ovarian cancer, present a pathological mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. This manuscript demonstrates that each population can have different mutations and due to this, Genetic Counselling and selection criteria must be different for each population. Furthermore, this article describes for the first time some new mutations and unclassified variants found in our population. PMID:17262179

  3. Large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among patients referred for genetic analysis in Galicia (NW Spain): delimitation and mechanism of three novel BRCA1 rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachal, Laura; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Vega, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainly Spain and Portugal, large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have respectively been found in up to 2.33% and 8.4% of families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) that lack point mutations and small indels. In Galicia (Northwest Spain), the spectrum and frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations differs from the rest of the Iberian populations. However, to date there are no Galician frequency reports of BRCA1/BRCA2 LGRs. Here we used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) to screen 651 Galician index cases (out of the 830 individuals referred for genetic analysis) without point mutations or small indels. We identified three different BRCA1 LGRs in four families. Two of them have been previously classified as pathogenic LGRs: the complete deletion of BRCA1 (identified in two unrelated families) and the deletion of exons 1 to 13. We also identified the duplication of exons 1 and 2 that is a LGR with unknown pathogenicity. Determination of the breakpoints of the BRCA1 LGRs using CNV/SNP arrays and sequencing identified them as NG_005905.2:g.70536_180359del, NG_005905.2:g.90012_97270dup, and NC_000017.10:g.41230935_41399840delinsAluSx1, respectively; previous observations of BRCA1 exon1-24del, exon1-2dup, and exon1-13del LGRs have not characterized them in such detail. All the BRCA1 LGRs arose from unequal homologous recombination events involving Alu elements. We also detected, by sequencing, one BRCA2 LGR, the Portuguese founder mutation c.156_157insAluYa5. The low frequency of BRCA1 LGRs within BRCA1 mutation carriers in Galicia (2.34%, 95% CI: 0.61-7.22) seems to differ from the Spanish population (9.93%, 95% CI: 6.76-14.27, P-value = 0.013) and from the rest of the Iberian population (9.76%, 95% CI: 6.69-13.94, P-value = 0.014). PMID:24686251

  4. Incorporating information about pre-implantation genetic diagnosis into discussions about testing and risk-management for BRCA1/2 mutations: A qualitative study of patient preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Karen; Rubin, Lisa; Werner-Lin, Allison; Sagi, Michal; Kemel, Yelena; Stern, Rikki; Phillips, Aliza; Cholst, Ina; Kauff, Noah; Offit, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show that BRCA1/2 mutation carriers are interested in learning about reproductive options such as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to prevent passing their risk onto their children. However, attitudes vary widely, and the procedure raises complex ethical and psychosocial issues. This complexity, plus the highly technical nature of PGD, makes it difficult to integrate PGD information into genetic counseling sessions that already cover probabilistic, emotionally-charged risk information. Method Thirty-three reproductive age BRCA1/2 mutation carriers who had previously undergone genetic counseling viewed a tutorial about PGD and were interviewed about attitudes towards PGD, and preferences about how to include PGD information in genetic counseling. Results Most participants preferred to be briefly informed of availability of PGD information, and to receive written materials about PGD, but with the option of deferring detailed discussion if they already feel overloaded or perceive that PGD is not immediately relevant to their risk management and/or childbearing plans. For some, the stress of testing temporarily interfered with information processing, producing states of cognitive avoidance (“in a fog,” “tuning out”). Some preferred to discuss PGD with a physician with whom they had an ongoing relationship (e.g., OB/GYN, primary care provider, oncologist). Conclusions Providers offering cancer genetic testing can consider indicating availability of PGD information, while attending to patients’ level of interest and ability to absorb information. Research is needed to link patient responses to information overload to psychosocial outcomes (e.g., distress, decision quality). Continuing medical education is needed to support providers in facilitating informed decisions about PGD. PMID:22736296

  5. The impact of risk information exposure on women's beliefs about direct-to-consumer genetic testing for BRCA mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, S W; Hornik, R C; Schwartz, J S; Armstrong, K

    2012-01-01

    Despite an increase in direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing, little is known about how variations in website content might alter consumer behavior. We evaluated the impact of risk information provision on women's attitudes about DTC BRCA testing. We conducted a randomized experiment; women viewed a 'mock' BRCA testing website without [control group (CG)] or with information on the potential risks of DTC testing [RG; framed two ways: unattributed risk (UR) information and risk information presented by experts (ER)]. Seven hundred and sixty-seven women participated; mean age was 37 years, mean education was 15 years, and 79% of subjects were white. Women in the RG had less positive beliefs about DTC testing (mean RG = 23.8, CG = 25.2; p = 0.001), lower intentions to get tested (RG = 2.8, CG = 3.1; p = 0.03), were more likely to prefer clinic-based testing (RG = 5.1, CG = 4.8; p = 0.03) and to report that they had seen enough risk information (RG = 5.3, CG = 4.7; p risks of DTC BRCA testing altered their beliefs, preferences, and intentions. Risk messages appear to be salient to women irrespective of their chance of having a BRCA mutation. PMID:21992449

  6. Average Risks of Breast and Ovarian Cancer Associated with BRCA1 or BRCA2 Mutations Detected in Case Series Unselected for Family History: A Combined Analysis of 22 Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniou, A; Pharoah, P. D. P.; Narod, S.; Risch, H A; Eyfjord, J. E.; Hopper, J L; Loman, N.; Olsson, H; Johannsson, O.; Borg, Å.; Pasini, B; Radice, P.; Manoukian, S; Eccles, D M; N. Tang

    2003-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer high risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but the average magnitude of these risks is uncertain and may depend on the context. Estimates based on multiple-case families may be enriched for mutations of higher risk and/or other familial risk factors, whereas risk estimates from studies based on cases unselected for family history have been imprecise. We pooled pedigree data from 22 studies involving 8,139 index case patients unselected for family his...

  7. First application of next-generation sequencing in Moroccan breast/ovarian cancer families and report of a novel frameshift mutation of the BRCA1 gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouali, Farah; Laarabi, Fatima-Zahra; Marchoudi, Nabila; Ratbi, Ilham; Elalaoui, Siham Chafai; Rhaissi, Houria; Fekkak, Jamal; Sefiani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    At present, breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in females. The majority of cases are sporadic, but 5–10% are due to an inherited predisposition to develop breast and ovarian cancers, which are transmitted as an autosomal dominant form with incomplete penetrance. The beneficial effects of clinical genetic testing, including next generation sequencing (NGS) for BRCA1/2 mutations, is major; in particular, it benefits the care of patients and the counseling of relatives that are at risk of breast cancer, in order to reduce breast cancer mortality. BRCA genetic testing was performed in 15 patients with breast cancer and a family with positivity for the heterozygous c.6428C>A mutation of the BRCA2 gene. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects. Genomic DNAs were extracted and the NGS for genes was performed using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) with a 316 chip. The reads were aligned with the human reference HG19 genome to elucidate variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Mutations detected by the PGM platform were confirmed by target direct Sanger sequencing on a second patient DNA sample. In total, 4 BRCA variants were identified in 6 families by NGS. Of these, 3 mutations had been previously reported: c.2126insA of BRCA1, and c.1310_1313delAAGA and c.7235insG of BRCA2. The fourth variant, c.3453delT in BRCA1, has, to the best of our knowledge, never been previously reported. The present study is the first to apply NGS of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to a Moroccan population, prompting additional investigation into local founder mutations and variant characteristics in the region. The variants with no clear clinical significance may present a diagnostic challenge when performing targeted resequencing. These results confirm that an NGS approach based on Ampliseq libraries and PGM sequencing is a highly efficient, speedy and high-throughput mutation detection method, which may be preferable in lower income countries.

  8. NGS-based BRCA1/2 mutation testing of high-grade serous ovarian cancer tissue: results and conclusions of the first international round robin trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endris, Volker; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Pfarr, Nicole; Penzel, Roland; Möbs, Markus; Lenze, Dido; Darb-Esfahani, Silvia; Hummel, Michael; Sabine-Merkelbach-Bruse; Jung, Andreas; Lehmann, Ulrich; Kreipe, Hans; Kirchner, Thomas; Büttner, Reinhard; Jochum, Wolfram; Höfler, Gerald; Dietel, Manfred; Weichert, Wilko; Schirmacher, Peter

    2016-06-01

    With the approval of olaparib as monotherapy treatment in platinum-sensitive, relapsed high-grade serous ovarian cancer by the European Medical Agency (EMA), comprehensive genotyping of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in tumor tissue has become a mandatory pre-therapeutic test. This requires significant advances in routine tumor test methodologies due to the large size of both genes and the lack of mutational hot spots. Classical focused screening approaches, like Sanger sequencing, do not allow for a sensitive, rapid, and economic analysis of tumor tissue. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches employing targeted panels for BRCA1/2 to interrogate formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor samples from either surgical resection or biopsy specimens can overcome these limitations. Although focused NGS methods have been implemented by few centers in routine molecular diagnostics for the analysis of some druggable oncogenic mutations, the reliable diagnostic testing of the entire coding regions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 was a new challenge requiring extensive technological improvement and quality management. Here, we describe the implementation and results of the first round robin trial for BRCA1/2 mutation testing in tumor tissue that was conducted in central Europe on May 2015, shortly after the approval and prior to the official release of olaparib. The high success rate of 81 % (21/26 test centers) demonstrates that BRCA1/2 multicenter mutation testing is well feasible in FFPE tumor tissue, extending to other tumor entities beyond ovarian cancer. The high number of test centers passing the trial demonstrates the success of the concerted efforts by German, Swiss, and Austrian pathology centers to ensure quality-controlled NGS-based testing and proves the potential of this technology in routine molecular pathology. On the basis of our results, we provide recommendations for predictive testing of tumor tissue for BRCA1/2 to clinical decision making in ovarian cancer patients. PMID

  9. In their own words: treating very young BRCA1/2 mutation-positive women with care and caution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey M Hoskins

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Young women who have been identified as carrying a deleterious mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 face a unique set of challenges related to managing cancer risk during a demographically-dense stage of life. They may struggle with decision-making in the absence of clear age-specific guidelines for medical management and because they have not yet fully developed the capacity to make life-altering decisions confidently. This study sought a patient-centered perspective on the dilemmas faced by 18-24 year olds who completed BRCA1/2 gene mutation testing prior to their 25(th birthdays. PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study integrated qualitative data from three independent investigations of BRCA1/2-positive women recruited through cancer risk clinics, hospital-based research centers, and online organizations. All 32 participants were women aged 21-25 who tested positive for a BRCA1/2 gene mutation between 2 and 60 months prior to data collection. Investigators used techniques of grounded theory and interpretive description to conduct both within and cross-study analysis. RESULTS: Participants expressed needs for (1 greater clarity in recommendations for screening and prevention before age 25, especially with consideration of early and regular exposure to radiation associated with mammography or to hormones used in birth control, and (2 ongoing contact with providers to discuss risk management protocols as they become available. CONCLUSIONS: Health care needs during the young adult years evolve with the cognitive capacity to address abrupt and pressing change. Specific needs of women in this population include a desire to balance autonomous decision-making with supportive guidance, a need for clear, accurate and consistent medical recommendations. Optimally, these women are best cared for by a team of genetically-oriented providers as part of a sustained program of ongoing support, rather than seen in an episodic, crisis-driven fashion. A discussion of

  10. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaudet, Mia M; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Vijai, Joseph;

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation...... carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of...... a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer...

  11. No evidence of increased breast cancer risk for proven noncarriers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Petersen, Janne; Krogh, Lotte; Nilbert, Mef; Skytte, Anne-Bine

    2016-01-01

    In families screened for mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes and found to have a segregating mutation the breast cancer risk for women shown not to carry the family-specific mutation might be at above "average" risk. We assessed the risk of breast cancer in a clinic based cohort of 725 female...... proven noncarriers in 239 BRCA1 and BRCA2 families compared with birth-matched controls from the Danish Civil Registration System. Prospective analysis showed no significantly increased risk for breast cancer in noncarriers with a hazard ratio of 0.67 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.32-1.42, p = 0.......29] for all family members who tested negative and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.38-1.97, p = 0.73) for non-carries who were first-degree relatives of mutation carriers. Proven noncarriers from BRCA1 and BRCA2 families have no markedly increased risk for breast cancer compared to the general population, and our data do...

  12. Prevalence and Prognostic Role of BRCA1/2 Variants in Unselected Chinese Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiayuan; Peng, Zuxiang; Deng, Ling; Zhu, Xuehua; Sun, Yun; Lu, Xuesong; Shen, Fuxiao; Su, Xinying; Zhang, Liying; Gu, Yi; Zheng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of BRCA1/2 variants in Chinese breast cancer patients varies among studies. Germline or somatic BRCA1/2 mutations are associated with sensitivity to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitors and DNA-damaging agents. We aimed to investigate the distribution of both somatic and germline BRCA1/2 variants in unselected Chinese breast cancer patients, and explore their roles in tumor phenotype and disease prognosis. Methods 507 breast cancer patients, unselected for family history of breast cancer or age at diagnosis, were prospectively enrolled from West China Hospital between Feb. 2008 and Feb. 2014. BRCA1/2 variants in the exons/flanking regions were detected in fresh-frozen tumors using next-generation sequencing and confirmed by independent methods. Germline/somatic status was validated by Sanger sequencing in paired blood/normal tissue. Results BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were detected in 50 patients (9.9%), including 40 germline carriers (18 in BRCA1, 22 in BRCA2), 9 patients with somatic variants (3 in BRCA1, 6 in BRCA2), and 1 patient with concurrent germline/somatic variants in BRCA2. The triple-negative (21.4%) and Luminal B (9.7%) subtypes had higher rates of BRCA1/2 variants. In patients with disease stage 0~II, presence of a germline or somatic BRCA1 P/LP variant increased the risk of relapse as compared to non-carriers [univariate hazard ratio (HR): 3.70, P = 0.04]. Germline BRCA1 P/LP variants, which were associated with aggressive tumor phenotypes, predicted worse disease-free survival in the subgroup of stage 0~II (HR: 4.52, P = 0.02) and N0 (HR: 5.4, P = 0.04) compared to non-carriers. Conclusion A high frequency of germline and somatic BRCA1/2 P/LP variants was detected in unselected Chinese breast cancer patients. Luminal B subtype should be considered as a high-risk population of BRCA1/2 mutation, in addition to triple-negative breast cancer. BRCA1 status was associated with aggressive tumor

  13. Identification of rare intronic variants defining novel BRCA haplotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Negura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sanger DNA sequencing is widely used nowadays to identify germ-line alterations of cancerpredisposition genes. Molecular diagnosis of hereditary risk of breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC is mainly targetingBRCA1 and BRCA2, as carriers of deleterious mutations in any of these genes are at significantly higher risk ofdeveloping cancer than general population. Usual diagnosis performs a pre-screening step, followed by systematicsequencing of exons and exon/intron boundaries. Unfortunately, not all sequence variations found by sequencing arepathogenic. About one half of identified variants are of unclear clinical significance. Common single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs are also usually detected, either heterozygous or homozygous. When systematically detected,SNPs can be used to define haplotypes, which are particularly useful in population disease studies or ethnogenomics.Frequent BRCA1 SNPs are well known, as well as associated haplotypes. Here we present some rare intronic variantsdefining novel BRCA1 haplotypes.

  14. A retrospective study to rule out possible association of genetic and non-genetic risk factors with specific brca mutation positive breast cancers is some Pakistani females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among Asian women including Pakistan where recurrent mutations among certain sub-ethnic groups predisposing to breast cancer have recently been established. Study Design: The current retrospective study involves identification of genetic and non-genetic risk factors in 27 specific mutation positive females out of a. total of 100 females diagnosed with breast cancer, representing a sample from the Punjabi ethnic population of the city of Lahore. The study has been carried out by telephonic communication with the mutation positive patients or their relatives. Results: Out of the total 27% patients positive for specific BRCA mutations, 23% were positive for BRCAI mutations and 4% for BRCA2. Among a total of 100 breast cancer patients the BRCAI-IVS14, lG>A mutation was identified in 5 Punjabi ethnic females with Rajput sub ethnicity, BRCAI-3889delAG in 10 (8 with Mughal and 2 with Khan sub ethnicity), BRCAI-2080insA in 8 (Rajput sub ethnics) and BRCA2-3337C>T in 4 (Minhas sub ethnic) subjects. Two BRCAI mutations, namely 3889delAG and 2080insA were found to coexist in only one study case (with Mughal sub ethnicity). All the mutation positive breast cancers had unilateral ductal carcinoma. Of the 23 cases positive for screened BRCAI mutations, 17 were diagnosed for breast cancer at a relatively early age (age<40) and 6 were diagnosed at late age (age<41) whereas all cases positive for single BRCA2 mutation under consideration were diagnosed at late age. Furthermore, 24 of 27 patients with specific BRCA mutations had a positive family history of breast cancer. The high prevalence of the screened BRCA mutations in certain Punjabi sub-ethnicities indicates the importance of counseling. It is suggested that consanguinity may be a risk factor for recurrent population specific mutations. Hormonal factors including use of oral contraceptives, polycystic ovaries, central obesity, nulliparity, late age at first pregnancy, lack of

  15. BRCA1 185delAG Mutation Enhances Interleukin-1β Expression in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolery, Kamisha T; Mohamed, Mai; Linger, Rebecca J; Dobrinski, Kimberly P; Roman, Jesse; Kruk, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Familial history remains the strongest risk factor for developing ovarian cancer (OC) and is associated with germline BRCA1 mutations, such as the 185delAG founder mutation. We sought to determine whether normal human ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells expressing the BRCA1 185delAG mutant, BRAT, could promote an inflammatory phenotype by investigating its impact on expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Cultured OSE cells with and without BRAT were analyzed for differential target gene expression by real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA, luciferase reporter, and siRNA assays. We found that BRAT cells expressed increased cellular and secreted levels of active IL-1β. BRAT-expressing OSE cells exhibited 3-fold enhanced IL-1β mRNA expression, transcriptionally regulated, in part, through CREB sites within the (-1800) to (-900) region of its promoter. In addition to transcriptional regulation, BRAT-mediated IL-1β expression appears dualistic through enhanced inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 cleavage and activation of IL-1β. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) of BRAT-mediated IL-1β expression since increased IL-1β expression may represent an early step contributing to OC. PMID:26357657

  16. BRCA1 185delAG Mutation Enhances Interleukin-1β Expression in Ovarian Surface Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamisha T. Woolery

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial history remains the strongest risk factor for developing ovarian cancer (OC and is associated with germline BRCA1 mutations, such as the 185delAG founder mutation. We sought to determine whether normal human ovarian surface epithelial (OSE cells expressing the BRCA1 185delAG mutant, BRAT, could promote an inflammatory phenotype by investigating its impact on expression of the proinflammatory cytokine, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β. Cultured OSE cells with and without BRAT were analyzed for differential target gene expression by real-time PCR, western blot, ELISA, luciferase reporter, and siRNA assays. We found that BRAT cells expressed increased cellular and secreted levels of active IL-1β. BRAT-expressing OSE cells exhibited 3-fold enhanced IL-1β mRNA expression, transcriptionally regulated, in part, through CREB sites within the (−1800 to (−900 region of its promoter. In addition to transcriptional regulation, BRAT-mediated IL-1β expression appears dualistic through enhanced inflammasome-mediated caspase-1 cleavage and activation of IL-1β. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s of BRAT-mediated IL-1β expression since increased IL-1β expression may represent an early step contributing to OC.

  17. Identification of a BRCA2-Specific Modifier Locus at 6p24 Related to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijai, Joseph; Klein, Robert J.; Kirchhoff, Tomas; McGuffog, Lesley; Barrowdale, Daniel; Dunning, Alison M.; Lee, Andrew; Dennis, Joe; Healey, Sue; Dicks, Ed; Soucy, Penny; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Wang, Xianshu; Eldridge, Ronald C.; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Peock, Susan; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Peterlongo, Paolo; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Piedmonte, Marion; Singer, Christian F.; Thomassen, Mads; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Blanco, Ignacio; Greene, Mark H.; Garber, Judith; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Goldgar, David E.; D'Andrea, Emma; Caldes, Trinidad; Nevanlinna, Heli; Osorio, Ana; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Arason, Adalgeir; Rennert, Gad; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; van der Hout, Annemarie H.; Kets, Carolien M.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Wijnen, Juul T.; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve; Fineberg, Elena; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Jacobs, Chris; Adlard, Julian; Tischkowitz, Marc; Porteous, Mary E.; Damiola, Francesca; Golmard, Lisa; Barjhoux, Laure; Longy, Michel; Belotti, Muriel; Ferrer, Sandra Fert; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Genuardi, Maurizio; Arnold, Norbert; Meindl, Alfons; Sutter, Christian; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Domchek, Susan M.; Pfeiler, Georg; Friedman, Eitan; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Robson, Mark; Shah, Sohela; Lazaro, Conxi; Mai, Phuong L.; Benitez, Javier; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Fasching, Peter A.; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Bojesen, Stig E.; Milne, Roger L.; Brenner, Hermann; Lochmann, Magdalena; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Dörk, Thilo; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Lambrechts, Diether; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Radice, Paolo; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Winqvist, Robert; Devillee, Peter; García-Closas, Montserrat; Schoof, Nils; Hooning, Maartje J.; Cox, Angela; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jakubowska, Anna; Orr, Nick; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Hall, Per; Couch, Fergus J.; Simard, Jacques; Altshuler, David; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS). To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH) identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80–0.90, P = 3.9×10−8). This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for medical

  18. Identification of a BRCA2-specific modifier locus at 6p24 related to breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M Gaudet

    Full Text Available Common genetic variants contribute to the observed variation in breast cancer risk for BRCA2 mutation carriers; those known to date have all been found through population-based genome-wide association studies (GWAS. To comprehensively identify breast cancer risk modifying loci for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we conducted a deep replication of an ongoing GWAS discovery study. Using the ranked P-values of the breast cancer associations with the imputed genotype of 1.4 M SNPs, 19,029 SNPs were selected and designed for inclusion on a custom Illumina array that included a total of 211,155 SNPs as part of a multi-consortial project. DNA samples from 3,881 breast cancer affected and 4,330 unaffected BRCA2 mutation carriers from 47 studies belonging to the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 were genotyped and available for analysis. We replicated previously reported breast cancer susceptibility alleles in these BRCA2 mutation carriers and for several regions (including FGFR2, MAP3K1, CDKN2A/B, and PTHLH identified SNPs that have stronger evidence of association than those previously published. We also identified a novel susceptibility allele at 6p24 that was inversely associated with risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers (rs9348512; per allele HR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.90, P = 3.9 × 10(-8. This SNP was not associated with breast cancer risk either in the general population or in BRCA1 mutation carriers. The locus lies within a region containing TFAP2A, which encodes a transcriptional activation protein that interacts with several tumor suppressor genes. This report identifies the first breast cancer risk locus specific to a BRCA2 mutation background. This comprehensive update of novel and previously reported breast cancer susceptibility loci contributes to the establishment of a panel of SNPs that modify breast cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers. This panel may have clinical utility for women with BRCA2 mutations weighing options for

  19. Deficiency of human BRCA2 leads to impaired homologous recombination but maintains normal nonhomologous end joining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, F; Taghian, D G; DeFrank, J S; Zeng, Z C; Willers, H; Iliakis, G; Powell, S N

    2001-07-17

    Carriers of BRCA2 germline mutations are at high risk to develop early-onset breast cancer. The underlying mechanisms of how BRCA2 inactivation predisposes to malignant transformation have not been established. Here, we provide direct functional evidence that human BRCA2 promotes homologous recombination (HR), which comprises one major pathway of DNA double-strand break repair. We found that up-regulated HR after transfection of wild-type (wt) BRCA2 into a human tumor line with mutant BRCA2 was linked to increased radioresistance. In addition, BRCA2-mediated enhancement of HR depended on the interaction with Rad51. In contrast to the tumor suppressor BRCA1, which is involved in multiple DNA repair pathways, BRCA2 status had no impact on the other principal double-strand break repair pathway, nonhomologous end joining. Thus, there exists a specific regulation of HR by BRCA2, which may function to maintain genomic integrity and suppress tumor development in proliferating cells. PMID:11447276

  20. BRCA1 Protein Expression Level and CD44+ Phenotype in Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadat Molanae

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: CD44+/CD24-/low breast cancer cells have tumour-initiating properties with stemcell-like features. Breast cancer gene 1 (BRCA1 is a tumour suppressor gene that playsa crucial role in DNA repair and maintenance of chromosome stability. The clinicopathologicalfeatures of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers suggest that BRCA1 mayfunction as a stem-cell regulator.Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study we examined the expressionand localization of the BRCA1 protein and investigated the prognostic value aswell as its relationship with the putative cancer stem cell (CSC marker (CD44 in 156tumour samples from a well-characterized series of unselected breast carcinomas usingimmunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSSsoftware version 16 (Chicago, IL, USA.Results: In breast tumours, the loss of nuclear expression was detected in 23 cases(15%, whereas cytoplasmic expression of BRCA1 was observed in 133 breast carcinomas(85%. Altered BRCA1 expression was significantly associated with high grade and poorprognosis breast tumours (p=0.006. We further established an inverse significant correlationbetween BRCA1 expression levels and CD44+ cancer cell phenotype (p=0.02Conclusion: Loss of BRCA1 expression is a marker of tumour aggressiveness andcorrelates with CD44+ tumour cell phenotype. Taken together, the present study supportsthe idea that the loss of BRCA1 results in persistent errors in DNA replication inbreast stem cells and provides targets for additional carcinogenic events.

  1. Experiences of Women Who Underwent Predictive BRCA 1/2 Mutation Testing Before the Age of 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Kate; Murray, Alexandra; McAllister, Marion

    2016-02-01

    This qualitative interview study focuses on the experiences of a sample of British female BRCA 1/2 carriers who had predictive testing before the age of 30, which is the minimum age for breast screening in the UK. Following appropriate informed consent procedures participants were recruited through the Cancer Genetics Service for Wales. Semi-structured interviews were conducted face-to-face with seven participants, transcribed in full and analyzed using thematic analysis. The motives for testing and perceived advantages described by participants were similar to those identified in previous studies with older participants, such as increased awareness and knowledge and feeling more in control. However some of the perceived disadvantages were specific to younger women, including feeling pressured to make important life decisions earlier than they would have liked, such as about family planning and risk reducing surgery. Participants also reported feeling abandoned or forgotten because of lack of ongoing clinical contact, or feeling "stuck waiting" for screening to begin. However, none felt that these disadvantages were a reason to regret having testing. Findings in this small study suggest that having BRCA 1/2 predictive testing can have positive outcomes for young women even though they may be unable to access interventions such as breast screening. However it may be helpful to encourage young women during pre-test counseling to explore the decisions and choices they may face. These young women could benefit from ongoing support and follow up and increased interaction with healthcare professionals. PMID:25983051

  2. Large BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in Danish high risk breast-ovarian cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas v O; Jønson, Lars; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 germ-line mutations predispose to breast and ovarian cancer. Large genomic rearrangements of BRCA1 account for 0-36% of all disease causing mutations in various populations, while large genomic rearrangements in BRCA2 are more rare. We examined 642 East Danish breast and/or ovarian...

  3. Interplay between BRCA1 and RHAMM regulates epithelial apicobasal polarization and may influence risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Maxwell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated mammary epithelium shows apicobasal polarity, and loss of tissue organization is an early hallmark of breast carcinogenesis. In BRCA1 mutation carriers, accumulation of stem and progenitor cells in normal breast tissue and increased risk of developing tumors of basal-like type suggest that BRCA1 regulates stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the function of BRCA1 in this process and its link to carcinogenesis remain unknown. Here we depict a molecular mechanism involving BRCA1 and RHAMM that regulates apicobasal polarity and, when perturbed, may increase risk of breast cancer. Starting from complementary genetic analyses across families and populations, we identified common genetic variation at the low-penetrance susceptibility HMMR locus (encoding for RHAMM that modifies breast cancer risk among BRCA1, but probably not BRCA2, mutation carriers: n = 7,584, weighted hazard ratio ((wHR = 1.09 (95% CI 1.02-1.16, p(trend = 0.017; and n = 3,965, (wHR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.94-1.16, p(trend = 0.43; respectively. Subsequently, studies of MCF10A apicobasal polarization revealed a central role for BRCA1 and RHAMM, together with AURKA and TPX2, in essential reorganization of microtubules. Mechanistically, reorganization is facilitated by BRCA1 and impaired by AURKA, which is regulated by negative feedback involving RHAMM and TPX2. Taken together, our data provide fundamental insight into apicobasal polarization through BRCA1 function, which may explain the expanded cell subsets and characteristic tumor type accompanying BRCA1 mutation, while also linking this process to sporadic breast cancer through perturbation of HMMR/RHAMM.

  4. Distribution of three alpha-chain beta-hexosaminidase A mutations among Tay-Sachs carriers.

    OpenAIRE

    Grebner, E E; Tomczak, J

    1991-01-01

    DNA from 176 carriers of the Tay-Sachs gene was tested for the presence of the three mutations most commonly found among Ashkenazi Jews: the so-called insertion, splice junction, and adult mutations. Among 148 Ashkenazi Jews tested, 108 had the insertion mutation, 26 had the splice junction mutation, five had the adult mutation, and nine had none of the three. Among 28 non-Jewish carriers tested, most of whom were obligate carriers, four had the insertion mutation, one had the adult mutation,...

  5. Risk assessment for breast cancer and BRCA mutations in women with personal and familial history - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.12134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Silva Clementino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Risk estimation tools can be used in clinical practice to promote the counseling, prevention, or increase the surveillance against breast cancer development. The present study aimed to estimate the risk for breast cancer and the odds for BRCA1/2 mutations, and to correlate the values found by the different models. Breast cancer risk was determined by the models of Gail, Claus, BRCAPRO and Boadicea; and for the mutations, Myriad II, Penn II BRCAPRO, and Boadicea models were utilized, in women who have or had the disease (n = 16 and their respective first degree female relatives unaffected (n = 25. Considering non affected women 16% were categorized as high risk for breast cancer development in five years by the Gail model, and all values presented significant correlation among the models (p < 0.05. Among the participants, 12% (5/41 were considered high risk for BRCA mutations. All the models presented significant correlation between the odds of BRCA1/2 mutation risk, except between Myriad II and Boadicea models. Since there is no model that includes all the variables influencing the development of this disease, it is essential to estimate the risk by more than one model before initiating any clinical intervention.

  6. Characterization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 splicing variants: a collaborative report by ENIGMA consortium members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Mads; Blanco, Ana; Montagna, Marco; Hansen, Thomas V O; Pedersen, Inge S; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Menéndez, Mireia; Fachal, Laura; Santamariña, Marta; Steffensen, Ane Y; Jønson, Lars; Agata, Simona; Whiley, Phillip; Tognazzo, Silvia; Tornero, Eva; Jensen, Uffe B; Balmaña, Judith; Kruse, Torben A; Goldgar, David E; Lázaro, Conxi; Diez, Orland; Spurdle, Amanda B; Vega, Ana

    2012-04-01

    Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose carriers to early onset breast and ovarian cancer. A common problem in clinical genetic testing is interpretation of variants with unknown clinical significance. The Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium was initiated to evaluate and implement strategies to characterize the clinical significance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. As an initial project of the ENIGMA Splicing Working Group, we report splicing and multifactorial likelihood analysis of 25 BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants from seven different laboratories. Splicing analysis was performed by reverse transcriptase PCR or mini gene assay, and sequencing to identify aberrant transcripts. The findings were compared to bioinformatic predictions using four programs. The posterior probability of pathogenicity was estimated using multifactorial likelihood analysis, including co-occurrence with a deleterious mutation, segregation and/or report of family history. Abnormal splicing patterns expected to lead to a non-functional protein were observed for 7 variants (BRCA1 c.441+2T>A, c.4184_4185+2del, c.4357+1G>A, c.4987-2A>G, c.5074G>C, BRCA2 c.316+5G>A, and c.8754+3G>C). Combined interpretation of splicing and multifactorial analysis classified an initiation codon variant (BRCA2 c.3G>A) as likely pathogenic, uncertain clinical significance for 7 variants, and indicated low clinical significance or unlikely pathogenicity for another 10 variants. Bioinformatic tools predicted disruption of consensus donor or acceptor sites with high sensitivity, but cryptic site usage was predicted with low specificity, supporting the value of RNA-based assays. The findings also provide further evidence that clinical RNA-based assays should be extended from analysis of invariant dinucleotides to routinely include all variants located within the donor and acceptor consensus splicing sites. Importantly, this study demonstrates the added value of

  7. Response to a Third-Line Mitomycin C (MMC-Based Chemotherapy in a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Carrying Germline BRCA2 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavani Chalasani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Gemcitabine remains the mainstay of palliative chemotherapy for those patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer. Objective radiological responses to gemcitabine are rare and reported median survival is only about six months. New therapeutic concepts and strategies are needed in order to improve those dismal statistics. Case report We report here a case of a patient with metastatic pancreatic cancer responding to a third-line therapy with combination of mitomycin C and capecitabine. Interestingly, the patient had a strong family history of breast cancer and tested positive to germline BRCA2 mutation. Conclusion We feel that this is of interest because of preclinical reports of increased sensitivity of pancreatic cells carrying BRCA2 mutations to DNA-intercalating agents such as mitomycin C. Further research and clinical trials are warranted to support this novel concept.

  8. BRCA and Pancreatic Cancer: Selection of Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in BRCA genes are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer. There are pre clinical data which suggests that DNA cross linking agents should be used in pancreatic cancer patients with BRCA mutations. This review is an update from the 2012 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium regarding recent developments in the treatment of pancreatic cancer with BRCA mutation. Only one study (Abstracts #217 was presented and it is described here.

  9. IMPLICATION DE CERTAINES MUTATIONS DANS LES GENES BRCA1 ET BRCA2 SUR LA PRÉDISPOSITION AU CANCER DU SEIN ET AU CANCER OVARIEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Negura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Le cancer du sein, ainsi que celui ovarien, est une maladie fréquente chez les femmes, ayant un traitement assez difficile et, malheureusement, de sérieuses répercutions sur le physique ; c’est pourquoi il s’avère essentiel que la maladie soit dépistée dès les phases précoces. La prédisposition génétique est responsable de 5% des cancers et de 25% des cas apparus avant l’age de 30 ans [Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium, 1997]. Nous présentons ici l’implication des gènes suppresseurs des tumeurs BRCA1 et BRCA2 sur cette prédisposition.

  10. Medullary carcinoma of breast with a novel germline mutation 1123>g in 11 of brca1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in females, has an estimated 5-10% hereditary predisposition BRCAI is a tumor suppressor gene and is known to be responsible for breast cancer and breast-ovarian cancers running in families. In breast caner patients, several mutations in BRCAI have been reported throughout the gene. This report describes identification of a mutation in BRCAI gene using protein truncation (PTT) assay in a patient with medullary carcinoma of breast who also had a family history of breast cancer. Following DNA sequencing, the mutation was confirmed as substituation of thymine at position 1123 with guanine of exon 11 (1123 T>G). This mutation can be added to the pool of known BRCAI mutations in Pakistani population, which will help in developing a local screening panel of BRCAI mutations. (author)

  11. BRCA Families in Western Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed

    2015-01-01

    Formålet med ph.d. afhandlingen BRCA-familier i Vestdanmark; cancer risiko og genetiske profiler var at bidrage til at optimere den genetiske rådgivning af familier med mutationer i BRCA1 og BRCA2 generne ved at præcisere risikoestimater og identificere sammenhænge mellem mutation og...... sygdomsforekomst. De 3 studier er baseret på en Vestdansk kohorte der blev etableret som en del af ph.d. projektet. Kohorten består af 183 BRCA1 og 118 BRCA2 familier med i alt 10 508 individer, hvoraf 2619 var mutationsbære. Mutationerne fordelte sig på 47 og 48 forskellige i henholdsvis BRCA1 og BRCA2. Studie I...... I studie I undersøgtes kræftrisikoen for mænd fra BRCA-familier med fokus på alle kræfttyper samlet, for brystkræft og for prostatakræft hos mutationsbærer, deres 1.grads slægtninge og hos mænd uden mutation. Desuden undersøgtes forholdet mellem sygdomsrisiko og mutationstypen. Mænd fra BRCA1...

  12. Risk-Reducing Salpingo-oophorectomy and Ovarian Cancer Screening in 1077 Women After BRCA Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannis, Gabriel N.; Fehniger, Julia E.; Creasman, Jennifer S.; Jacoby, Vanessa L.; Beattie, Mary S.

    2016-01-01

    Background For women at potentially increased risk for ovarian cancer, data regarding screening and risk reduction are limited. Previous studies have reported on the behaviors of BRCA mutation carriers, but less is known about the behaviors of non-BRCA carriers. We surveyed a large cohort of women after BRCA testing to identify the prevalence and posttest predictors of risk-reducing and screening interventions. Methods A median of 3.7 years after BRCA testing, 1447 women who received genetic counseling and BRCA testing at 2 hospital sites were surveyed, with a 77.6% response rate. We analyzed data from 1077 survey respondents. We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify predictors of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), screening transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS), and screening serum cancer antigen 125 (CA-125). Results Among the respondents, 201 women (18.7%) received positive test results for a deleterious mutation, 103 women (9.6%) received true-negative results, and 773 women (71.8%) received uninformative results. Overall, 19.1% of eligible women underwent RRSO and 39.6% used screening procedures. A positive BRCA result predicted RRSO (odds ratio [OR], 28.1; 95% CI, 16.2-48.6), TVUS (9.5 [4.3-21.0]), and serum CA-125 (13.0 [5.5-29.0]). Similarly, a true-negative BRCA result reduced the OR for RRSO (0.1 [0.0-0.6]), TVUS (0.2 [0.1-0.5]), and serum CA-125 (0.3 [0.1-0.7]). Of the 71.8% of women who received uninformative results after BRCA testing, 12.3% subsequently underwent RRSO, 33.8% reported ever having undergone screening serum CA-125 since BRCA testing, and 37.3% reported ever having undergone screening TVUS since BRCA testing. Conclusions Results of BRCA testing strongly predict RRSO and ovarian cancer screening. Use of RRSO and ovarian screening was reported in a sizable percentage of non-BRCA carriers despite insufficient data to determine the effectiveness of these interventions. PMID:23247828

  13. Mitochondrial localization, ELK-1 transcriptional regulation and Growth inhibitory functions of BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Maniccia, Anna W.; Lewis, Catherine; BEGUM, NURJAHAN; Xu, Jingyao; Cui, Jianqi; Chipitsyna, Galina; AYSOLA, KARTIK; REDDY, VAISHALI; Bhat, Ganapathy; Fujimura, Yasuo; Henderson, Beric; Reddy, E. Shyam P; Rao, Veena N.

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in families with breast and ovarian cancer. Several BRCA1 splice variants are found in different tissues, but their subcellular localization and functions are poorly understood at the moment. We previously described BRCA1 splice variant BRCA1a to induce apoptosis and function as a tumor suppressor of triple negative breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study we have analyzed the function of BRCA1 isoforms (BRCA1a and BRCA1b) and compar...

  14. Fanconi anemia with biallelic FANCD1/BRCA2 mutations - Case report of a family with three affected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svojgr, Karel; Sumerauer, David; Puchmajerova, Alena; Vicha, Ales; Hrusak, Ondrej; Michalova, Kyra; Malis, Josef; Smisek, Petr; Kyncl, Martin; Novotna, Drahuse; Machackova, Eva; Jencik, Jan; Pycha, Karel; Vaculik, Miroslav; Kodet, Roman; Stary, Jan

    2016-03-01

    Fanconi anemia, complementation group D1 with bi-allelic FANCD1 (BRCA2) mutations, is a very rare genetic disorder characterized by early onset of childhood malignancies, including acute leukemia, brain cancer and nephroblastoma. Here, we present a case report of a family with 3 affected children in terms of treatment outcome, toxicity and characterization of the malignancies using comprehensive cytogenetic analysis. The first child was diagnosed with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia when he was 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from repeated pancytopenia, sepsis and severe vincristine polyneuropathy, and 18 months after primary diagnosis, he succumbed to secondary acute monocytic leukemia. The second child was diagnosed with stage 2 triphasic nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor), when he was 3 years and 11 months old. During chemotherapy, he suffered from vincristine polyneuropathy. Currently, he is in complete remission, 29 months following the initial diagnosis. The third child was diagnosed with medulloblastoma with classical histology, when she was 4 years and 5 months old. After the first cycle of chemotherapy, she suffered from prolonged pancytopenia, sepsis and severe skin and mucosal toxicity. Six weeks after primary diagnosis, a first relapse in the posterior fossa was diagnosed, and at 7 and half months after primary diagnosis, a second relapse was diagnosed that led to the patient's death. Our case report underscores tumor heterogeneity, treatment toxicity and poor outcome in Fanconi anemia patients of complementation group D1. PMID:26657402

  15. Selecting for BRCA1 testing using a combination of homogeneous selection criteria and immunohistochemical characteristics of breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA1 gene-related tumours are more frequently estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) negative with a lower prevalence of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression or amplification. We evaluated the effectiveness of a combination of homogeneously selected criteria and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics of Familial Breast Cancers (FBCs) in detecting BRCA1 mutation carriers. Primary breast tumours from 93 FBC patients defined by specific eligibility criteria, based on personal and familial tumour history, were evaluated by Allred's method. The BRCA1 molecular analysis, including Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), was considered as the gold standard assay. A total of 10 BRCA1 pathogenetic mutations was found. With the exclusion of the tumours characterized by double positive receptorial status and/or strong HER2 positivity (3+), we identified 22 patients, 10 of whom resulted as BRCA1 mutation carriers. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 100%, 83.3%, 45.4% and 100% respectively. Our findings suggest that the IHC analysis by Allred's method improves our ability to select patients for BRCA1 testing

  16. Analysis of BRIP1 Variants among Korean Patients with BRCA1/2 Mutation-Negative High-Risk Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Haeyoung; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Choi, Doo Ho; Jung, Gee Hue; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Gil, Won Ho; Kim, Seok Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the current study is to assess the spectrum of genetic variation in the BRIP1 gene among Korean high-risk breast cancer patients who tested negative for the BRCA1/2 mutation. Materials and Methods Overall, 235 Korean patientswith BRCA1/2 mutation–negative high-risk breast cancerwere screened for BRIP1 mutations. The entire BRIP1 gene was analyzed using fluorescent-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis. In silico analysis of BRIP1 variants was performed using PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. Results A total of 20 sequence alterations including 12 exonic and eight intronic variantswere found. Among the 12 exonic variants, 10 were missense and two were silent mutations. No protein-truncating mutation was found among the tested patients. Among the 10 missense variants, four (p.L263F, p.L340F, p.L474P, and p.R848H) were predicted to be pathogenic by both PolyPhen-2 and SIFT, and these variants were found in five patients. Of the four missense variants, p.L263F, p.L474P, and p.R848H localize to regions between the helicase motifs, while p.L340F resides in an iron-sulfur domain of BRIP1. Conclusion No protein-truncating mutation in BRIP1 was found among the tested patients. The contribution of BRIP1 variants is thought to be minor in Korean non-BRCA1/2 high-risk breast cancer. PMID:26790966

  17. Durable Clinical Benefit of Pertuzumab in a Young Patient with BRCA2 Mutation and HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Involving the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koumarianou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with HER2-positive breast cancer and brain metastases have limited treatment options, and, as a result of their poor performance status and worse prognosis, they are underrepresented in clinical trials. Not surprisingly, these patients may not be fit enough to receive any active treatment and are offered supportive therapy. BRCA2 mutations are reported to be rarely associated with HER2-overexpressing advanced breast cancer and even more rarely with brain metastases at diagnosis. We report on a BRCA2-positive breast cancer patient with metastatic disease in multiple sites, including the brain, and poor performance status who exhibited an extraordinary clinical and imaging response to the novel anti-HER2 therapy pertuzumab after multiple lines of therapy including anti-HER2 targeting. To our knowledge, the clinicopathologic and therapeutic characteristics of this patient point to a unique case and an urgent need for further investigation of pertuzumab in patients with brain metastases.

  18. Distinct functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in double-strand break repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individuals carrying BRCA mutations are predisposed to breast cancer. The BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are required for homologous recombination and DNA break repair, leading to the suggestion that they act in concert. However, direct evidence of a stable BRCA1/BRCA2 complex has not been demonstrated. Rather, the two proteins have been found as constituents of discrete, but perhaps nonexclusive complexes that are critical for repair. We discuss the interaction of BRCA1 with the BACH1 and BARD1 proteins, and suggest that the pleiotropic nature of mutations in BRCA1 may be associated with defects in protein–protein interactions. In contrast, the role of BRCA2 in DNA repair may be more defined by its direct interaction with the RAD51 recombinase

  19. Large Genomic Rearrangements of BRCA1 and BRCA2 among Patients Referred for Genetic Analysis in Galicia (NW Spain): Delimitation and Mechanism of Three Novel BRCA1 Rearrangements

    OpenAIRE

    Fachal, Laura; Blanco, Ana; Santamariña, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Vega, Ana

    2014-01-01

    In the Iberian Peninsula, which includes mainly Spain and Portugal, large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 and BRCA2 have respectively been found in up to 2.33% and 8.4% of families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) that lack point mutations and small indels. In Galicia (Northwest Spain), the spectrum and frequency of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations differs from the rest of the Iberian populations. However, to date there are no Galician frequency reports of BRCA1/BRCA2 LGR...

  20. BRCA1, Hormone, and Tissue-Specific Tumor Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Hu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations of BRCA1 predispose women to breast and ovarian cancers. Elucidating molecular mechanism of tissue- and gender-specific phenomena in BRCA1-related tumors is a key to our understanding of BRCA1 function in tumor suppression. This review summarizes studies in recent years on the link between BRCA1 and estrogen/progesterone signaling pathways, as well as discusses various models underscoring a triangle relationship among BRCA1, estrogen and genome instability.

  1. Sleep Disorders in Parkinsonian and Nonparkinsonian LRRK2 Mutation Carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claustre Pont-Sunyer

    Full Text Available In idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD sleep disorders are common and may antedate the onset of parkinsonism. Based on the clinical similarities between IPD and Parkinson disease associated with LRRK2 gene mutations (LRRK2-PD, we aimed to characterize sleep in parkinsonian and nonmanifesting LRRK2 mutation carriers (NMC.A comprehensive interview conducted by sleep specialists, validated sleep scales and questionnaires, and video-polysomnography followed by multiple sleep latency test (MSLT assessed sleep in 18 LRRK2-PD (17 carrying G2019S and one R1441G mutations, 17 NMC (11 G2019S, three R1441G, three R1441C, 14 non-manifesting non-carriers (NMNC and 19 unrelated IPD.Sleep complaints were frequent in LRRK2-PD patients; 78% reported poor sleep quality, 33% sleep onset insomnia, 56% sleep fragmentation and 39% early awakening. Sleep onset insomnia correlated with depressive symptoms and poor sleep quality. In LRRK2-PD, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS was a complaint in 33% patients and short sleep latencies on the MSLT, which are indicative of objective EDS, were found in 71%. Sleep attacks occurred in three LRRK2-PD patients and a narcoleptic phenotype was not observed. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD was diagnosed in three LRRK2-PD. EDS and RBD were always reported to start after the onset of parkinsonism in LRRK2-PD. In NMC, EDS was rarely reported and RBD was absent. When compared to IPD, sleep onset insomnia was more significantly frequent, EDS was similar, and RBD was less significantly frequent and less severe in LRRK2-PD. In NMC, RBD was not detected and sleep complaints were much less frequent than in LRRK2-PD. No differences were observed in sleep between NMC and NMNC.Sleep complaints are frequent in LRRK2-PDand show a pattern that when compared to IPD is characterized by more frequent sleep onset insomnia, similar EDS and less prominent RBD. Unlike in IPD, RBD and EDS seem to be not markers of the prodromal stage of LRRK2-PD.

  2. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene test is a blood test that can tell you if you have a higher ... BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress malignant tumors (cancer) in humans. When these genes change (become ...

  3. Hormone therapy and the risk of breast cancer in BRCA1 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Eisen (Andrea); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); P. Moller (Pal); H. Lynch (Henry); J. Klijn (Jan); C. Kim-Sing (Charmaine); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); L. Gilbert (Lucy); P. Ghadirian (Parviz); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); G. Rennert (Gad); E. Friedman (Eitan); C. Isaacs (Claudine); B. Rosen (Barry); M.J. Daly (Mark); P. Sun (Ping); S. Narod (Steven); O.I. Olopade (Olofunmilayo); S. Cummings (Shelly); N. Tung (Nadine); F.J. Couch (Fergus); W.D. Foulkes (William); S.M. Domchek (Susan); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); R. Gershoni-Baruch (Ruth); D. Horsman (David); H. Saal (Howard); E. Warner (Ellen); W. Meschino (Wendy); K. Offit (Kenneth); A. Trivedi (Amber); M. Robson (Mark); M. Osborne (Michael); D. Gilchrist (Dawna); J.N. Weitzel (Jeffrey); W. McKinnon (Wendy); M. Wood (Marie); C. Maugard (Christine); B. Pasini (Barbara); T. Wagner (Teresa); K. Sweet; B. Pasche (Boris); T. Fallen (Taya); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C. Eng (Charis); R.N. Kurz; S. Armel (Susan); A. Tulman (Anna); P.J. Ainsworth (Peter); E. Lemire (Edmond); J. McLennan; G. Evans (Gareth); T. Byrski (Tomas); T. Huzarski (Tomas); L. Shulman (Lee)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hormone therapy (HT) is commonly given to women to alleviate the climacteric symptoms associated with menopause. There is concern that this treatment may increase the risk of breast cancer. The potential association of HT and breast cancer risk is of particular interest to wo

  4. Electrocardiographic features of sarcomere mutation carriers with and without clinically overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakdawala, Neal K; Thune, Jens Jakob; Maron, Barry J;

    2011-01-01

    In hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), electrocardiographic (ECG) changes have been postulated to be an early marker of disease, detectable in sarcomere mutation carriers when left ventricular (LV) wall thickness is still normal. However, the ECG features of mutation carriers have not been fully...

  5. Discovery – BRCA Connection to Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI-funded research helped identify inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic mutations and their connection to breast and ovarian cancer. From this research, a screening test was also developed to help patients make informed decisions about their health.

  6. BRCA1/2 testing in newly diagnosed breast and ovarian cancer patients without prior genetic counselling: the DNA-BONus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høberg-Vetti, Hildegunn; Bjorvatn, Cathrine; Fiane, Bent E; Aas, Turid; Woie, Kathrine; Espelid, Helge; Rusken, Tone; Eikesdal, Hans Petter; Listøl, Wenche; Haavind, Marianne T; Knappskog, Per M; Haukanes, Bjørn Ivar; Steen, Vidar M; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-06-01

    Germline BRCA1/2 testing of breast and ovarian cancer patients is growing rapidly as the result affects both treatment and cancer prevention in patients and relatives. Through the DNA-BONus study we offered BRCA1/2 testing and familial risk assessment to all new patients with breast (N=893) or ovarian (N=122) cancer diagnosed between September 2012 and April 2015, irrespective of family history or age, and without prior face-to-face genetic counselling. BRCA1/2 testing was accepted by 405 (45.4%) and 83 (68.0%) of the patients with breast or ovarian cancer, respectively. A pathogenic BRCA1/2 variant was found in 7 (1.7%) of the breast cancer patients and 19 (22.3%) of the ovarian cancer patients. In retrospect, all BRCA1/2 mutation carriers appeared to fulfill current criteria for BRCA1/2 testing. Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores showed that the mean levels of anxiety and depression were comparable to those reported for breast and gynecological cancer patients in general, with a significant drop in anxiety symptoms during a 6-month follow-up period, during which the test result was forwarded to the patients. These results show that BRCA1/2 testing is well accepted in newly diagnosed breast and ovarian cancer patients. Current test criteria based on age and family history are sufficient to identify most BRCA1/2 mutation carriers among breast cancer patients. We recommend germline BRCA1/2 testing in all patients with epithelial ovarian cancer because of the high prevalence of pathogenic BRCA1/2 variants. PMID:26350514

  7. Glucocorticoid receptor repression mediated by BRCA1 inactivation in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA mutations are the main known hereditary factor for ovarian cancer. Notably, emerging evidence indicates that the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) has drawn considerable interest in ovarian cancer development. However, dynamic cross-talk between BRCA1 and GR signaling pathways are poorly understood. The regulatory effects of BRCA on GR were assessed in 146 serous ovarian cancer patients (28 pairs of BRCA1-mutated or not, 23 pairs of BRCA2-mutated or not, and 22 pairs with hypermethylated BRCA1 promoter or not). BRCA1 promoter methylation was analyzed by bisulfite sequencing using primers flanking the core promoter region. Expression levels of BRCA1 and GR were assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Regression analysis was used to examine the possible relationship between BRCA1 and GR expression levels. The knockdown and overexpression of BRCA1 were achieved using a lentiviral vector in 293 T cells, SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells, and primary non-mutated and BRCA1-mutated ovarian cancer cells. GR expression levels were unchanged in non-BRCA1-mutated, non-BRCA2-mutated and BRCA2-mutated ovarian cancer compared to their normal tissues; BRCA1 repression (BRCA1 mutation or BRCA1 promoter hypermethylation) ovarian cancer showed decreased GR levels compared to normal tissue; there was a positive correlation between BRCA1 and GR expression in human ovarian cancer specimens; BRCA1 knockdown was effective at inhibiting GR expression, and overexpression of BRCA1 induces an increase in GR levels in ovarian cancer cells. These results suggest that GR may be a potential target for BRCA1 in ovarian cancer progression

  8. BRCA1 and BRCA2 protein expressions in an ovotestis of a 46, XX true hermaphrodite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer susceptibility genes encode proteins, the normal cellular functions of which are complex and multiple, and germ-line mutations in individuals predispose both to breast and to ovarian cancer. There is nevertheless substantial evidence linking BRCA1 and BRCA2 to homologous recombination and DNA repair, to transcriptional control and to tissue proliferation. There is controversy regarding the localization of BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins to either nucleus or cytoplasm and whether the expression is present in premeiotic germ cells or can still be expressed in mitotic spermatogonia. We report herein an immunohistochemical study of BRCA1 and BRCA2 distribution in a rather unsual tissue (an ovotestis), which addresses this issue

  9. High Satisfaction and Low Distress in Breast Cancer Patients One Year after BRCA-Mutation Testing without Prior Face-to-Face Genetic Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sie, Aisha S; Spruijt, Liesbeth; van Zelst-Stams, Wendy A G; Mensenkamp, Arjen R; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Brunner, Han G; Prins, Judith B; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-06-01

    According to standard practice following referral to clinical genetics, most high risk breast cancer (BC) patients in many countries receive face-to-face genetic counseling prior to BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-intake). We evaluated a novel format by prospective study: replacing the intake consultation with telephone, written and digital information sent home. Face-to-face counseling then followed BRCA-mutation testing (DNA-direct). One year after BRCA-result disclosure, 108 participants returned long-term follow-up questionnaires, of whom 59 (55 %) had previously chosen DNA-direct (intervention) versus DNA-intake (standard practice i.e., control: 45 %). Questionnaires assessed satisfaction and psychological distress. All participants were satisfied and 85 % of DNA-direct participants would choose this procedure again; 10 % would prefer DNA-intake and 5 % were undecided. In repeated measurements ANOVA, general distress (GHQ-12, p = 0.01) and BC-specific distress (IES-bc, p = 0.03) were lower in DNA-direct than DNA-intake at all time measurements. Heredity-specific distress (IES-her) did not differ significantly between groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that choice of procedure did not significantly contribute to either general or heredity-specific distress. BC-specific distress (after BC diagnosis) did contribute to both general and heredity-specific distress. This suggests that higher distress scores reflected BC experience, rather than the type of genetic diagnostic procedure. In conclusion, the large majority of BC patients that used DNA-direct reported high satisfaction without increased distress both in the short term, and 1 year after conclusion of genetic testing. PMID:26531312

  10. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Dianne M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH, and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. Methods A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Results Eighteen (37% of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumours were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n = 5, clear cell (n = 4, or low grade serous (n = 2 carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumours with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. Conclusion High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic, BRCA1 loss (epigenetic, and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.

  11. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilks, C. Blake; Press, Joshua Z.; De Luca, Alessandro; Boyd, Niki; Young, Sean; Troussard, Armelle; Ridge, Yolanda; Kaurah, Pardeep; Kalloger, Steve E.; Blood, Katherine A.; Smith, Margaret; Spellman, Paul T.; Wang, Yuker; Miller, Dianne M.; Horsman, Doug; Faham, Malek; Gilks, C. Blake; Gray, Joe; Huntsman, David G.

    2008-05-02

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteen (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumors were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n=5), clear cell (n=4), or low grade serous (n=2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumors with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.

  12. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss havedistinct molecular abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Press, Joshua Z.; De Luca, Alessandro; Boyd, Niki; Young, Sean; Troussard, Armelle; Ridge, Yolanda; Kaurah, Pardeep; Kalloger, Steve E.; Blood, Katherine A.; Smith, Margaret; Spellman, Paul T.; Wang, Yuker; Miller, Dianne M.; Horsman, Doug; Faham, Malek; Gilks, C. Blake; Gray,Joe; Huntsman, David G.

    2007-07-23

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteen (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumors were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n = 5), clear cell (n = 4), or low grade serous (n = 2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumors with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.

  13. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteen (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumours were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n = 5), clear cell (n = 4), or low grade serous (n = 2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumours with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways

  14. Features of 152 families eligible for the investigation of mutations in BRCA1 / 2, evaluated Onco genetics unit Clinics Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the prevalence of BRCA2 mutations in familial breast cancer in our country, previously reported by our group. With respect to biological subtype although the number of patients analyzed is small, it is noteworthy the high proportion of He r2 positive patients, which justifies the study of the biological profile of a greater number of patients with a history compatible with Uruguayan hereditary predisposition

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence variations detected with next-generation sequencing in patients with premature ovarian insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Nafiye Karakaş; Karagin, Peren Hatice; Terzi, Yunus Kasım; Kahyaoğlu, İnci; Yılmaz, Saynur; Erkaya, Salim; Şahin, Feride İffet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although the association between BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and breast and ovarian cancer is known, there is insufficient data about premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). However, several studies have reported that there might be a relationship between POI and BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations in the etiology of POI in a Turkish population. Material and Methods The cohort was classified into two groups: a study group, consisting of 56 individuals diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (and who were younger than 40 years of age, had an antral follicle count 12 IU/I), and a control group, consisting of 45 fertile individuals. A total of 101 individuals were analyzed by next-generation sequencing to detect BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. Results We detected four new variations (p.T1246N and p.R1835Q in BRCA1 and p.I3312V and IVS-7T>A in BRCA2) that had not been reported before. Conclusion We did not find an association between the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations and premature ovarian insufficiency. However, larger, functional studies are needed to clarify the association.

  16. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.; Nilbert, M.; Wiebe, T.; Olsson, H.; Magnusson, Susanne; Borg, Ake; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Nilbert, Mef; Wiebe, Thomas; Olsson, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r...

  17. The Metabolome in Finnish Carriers of the MYBPC3-Q1061X Mutation for Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliö, Tiina; Jääskeläinen, Pertti; Laine, Mika; Hilvo, Mika; Nieminen, Markku S.; Laakso, Markku; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Orešič, Matej; Kuusisto, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Aims Mutations in the cardiac myosin-binding protein C gene (MYBPC3) are the most common genetic cause of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) worldwide. The molecular mechanisms leading to HCM are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic profiles of mutation carriers with the HCM-causing MYBPC3-Q1061X mutation with and without left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and non-affected relatives, and the association of the metabolome to the echocardiographic parameters. Methods and Results 34 hypertrophic subjects carrying the MYBPC3-Q1061X mutation, 19 non-hypertrophic mutation carriers and 20 relatives with neither mutation nor hypertrophy were examined using comprehensive echocardiography. Plasma was analyzed for molecular lipids and polar metabolites using two metabolomics platforms. Concentrations of branched chain amino acids, triglycerides and ether phospholipids were increased in mutation carriers with hypertrophy as compared to controls and non-hypertrophic mutation carriers, and correlated with echocardiographic LVH and signs of diastolic and systolic dysfunction in subjects with the MYBPC3-Q1061X mutation. Conclusions Our study implicates the potential role of branched chain amino acids, triglycerides and ether phospholipids in HCM, as well as suggests an association of these metabolites with remodeling and dysfunction of the left ventricle. PMID:26267065

  18. Clinical and pathological characteristics of Hispanic BRCA-associated breast cancers in the American-Mexican border city of El Paso, TX

    OpenAIRE

    Nahleh, Zeina; Otoukesh, Salman; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Sanchez, Luis; Saldivar, J. Salvador; Cataneda, Kayla; Heydarian, Rosalinda

    2014-01-01

    Hispanics in El Paso, TX, a large American-Mexican border city constitute 85% of the population. Limited cancer research has been conducted in this population. We sought to study the prevalence of BRCA mutations among Hispanic patients of Mexican origin, identify reported Mexican founder or recurrent mutations, and study the breast cancer characteristics in mutation carriers. Methods: Hispanic women of Mexican descent with a personal history of breast cancer, who presented consecutively for g...

  19. Persistent Activation of NF-κB in BRCA1-Deficient Mammary Progenitors Drives Aberrant Proliferation and Accumulation of DNA Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Andrea; Lau, Rosanna; Cabrita, Miguel A; Nolan, Emma; Crooks, Peter A; Visvader, Jane E; Pratt, M A Christine

    2016-07-01

    Human BRCA1 mutation carriers and BRCA1-deficient mouse mammary glands contain an abnormal population of mammary luminal progenitors that can form 3D colonies in a hormone-independent manner. The intrinsic cellular regulatory defect in these presumptive breast cancer precursors is not known. We have discovered that nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) (p52/RelB) is persistently activated in a subset of BRCA1-deficient mammary luminal progenitors. Hormone-independent luminal progenitor colony formation required NF-κB, ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM), and the inhibitor of kappaB kinase, IKKα. Progesterone (P4)-stimulated proliferation resulted in a marked enhancement of DNA damage foci in Brca1(-/-) mouse mammary. In vivo, NF-κB inhibition prevented recovery of Brca1(-/-) hormone-independent colony-forming cells. The majority of human BRCA1(mut/+) mammary glands showed marked lobular expression of nuclear NF-κB. We conclude that the aberrant proliferative capacity of Brca1(-/-) luminal progenitor cells is linked to the replication-associated DNA damage response, where proliferation of mammary progenitors is perpetuated by damage-induced, autologous NF-κB signaling. PMID:27292187

  20. BRCA1 loses the ring but lords over resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Simon N

    2016-08-01

    Germline breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) variants are associated with a high risk of breast and ovarian cancers. Many BRCA1-mediated cancers are initially responsive to platinum-based therapy; however, resistance commonly develops. The BRCA1185delAG mutation is common in the Ashkenazi Jewish population and has been thought to result in loss of function due to the introduction of a stop codon in the 5' region of the BRCA1 transcript. Two studies in this issue of the JCI reveal that the BRCA1185delAG mutation results in the production of BRCA1 that lacks the N-terminal really interesting new gene (RING) domain. RING-less BRCA1 was shown to directly mediate chemoresistance, while maintaining some homologous recombination function. These results provide important insight into BRCA1 function and indicate that other truncated proteins could arise through similar alterations in codon usage. PMID:27454288

  1. Do Breast Cancer Patients Tested in the Oncology Care Setting Share BRCA Mutation Results with Family Members and Health Care Providers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan T. Vadaparampil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA genetic test results provide important information to manage cancer risk for patients and their families. Little is known on the communication of genetic test results by mutation status with family members and physicians in the oncology care setting. As part of a longitudinal study evaluating the impact of genetic counseling and testing among recently diagnosed breast cancer patients, we collected patients' self-reported patterns of disclosure. Descriptive statistics characterized the sample and determined the prevalence of disclosure of BRCA test results to family members and physicians. Of 100 patients who completed the baseline and the 6-month followup survey, 77 reported pursuing testing. The majority shared test results with female first-degree relatives; fewer did with males. Participants were more likely to share results with oncologists compared to surgeons, primary care physicians, or other specialty physicians. These findings suggest that while breast cancer patients may communicate results to at-risk female family members and their medical oncologist, they may need education and support to facilitate communication to other first-degree relatives and providers.

  2. Missense polymorphisms in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and risk of breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dombernowsky, Sarah Louise; Weischer, Maren; Freiberg, Jacob Johannes;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are key tumor suppressors with a role in cellular DNA repair, genomic stability, and checkpoint control. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 often cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; however, missense polymorphisms in these genes pose a problem in genetic counseling, as...... and/or ovarian cancer. Therefore, genetic counseling of such families safely can disregard findings of these missense polymorphisms....... their impact on risk of breast and ovarian cancer is unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We resequenced BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 194 women with a familial history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified nine possibly biologically relevant polymorphisms (BRCA1 Gln356Arg, Pro871Leu, Glu1038Gly, Ser1613Gly, and...

  3. BRCA1 — EDRN Public Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    BRCA1 is a nuclear phosphoprotein that functions as a tumor suppressor. BRCA1 combines with other tumor suppressors, DNA damage sensors, and signal transducers to form a large multi-subunit protein complex known as the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC). BRCA1 associates with RNA polymerase II, and through the C-terminal domain, also interacts with histone deacetylase complexes. This protein thus plays a role in transcription, DNA repair of double-stranded breaks, and recombination. Mutations in this gene are responsible for approximately 40% of inherited breast cancers and more than 80% of inherited breast and ovarian cancers.

  4. Is thyroidectomy necessary in RET mutations carriers of the familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H S; Torring, H; Godballe, C;

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The results and consequences of genetic testing in a family with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are described. METHODS: In the screening of relatives, serum calcitonin is replaced by RET mutation analysis that was performed in families suspected of hereditary medullary...... codon 611 mutation and lived without any sign of MTC. One is aged 79 years, and the other died at the age of 71 of other causes. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that the gene carrier in families with MTC without other endocrine tumors (FMTC) exhibits a highly variable disease course. A 611 codon...... mutation is most often a rather mild and slow progression form of MTC. Because 2 gene carriers were still alive at age 70 years without showing any sign of the disease, it is tempting to ask if all gene carriers with a 611 codon mutation without other endocrine tumors should be operated on, and if so, at...

  5. Increased oxidative damage in carriers of the germline TP53 p.R337H mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel S Macedo

    Full Text Available Germline mutations in TP53 are the underlying defect of Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS and Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL Syndrome, autosomal dominant disorders characterized by predisposition to multiple early onset cancers. In Brazil, a variant form of LFS/LFL is commonly detected because of the high prevalence of a founder mutation at codon 337 in TP53 (p.R337H. The p53 protein exerts multiple roles in the regulation of oxidative metabolism and cellular anti-oxidant defense systems. Herein, we analyzed the redox parameters in blood samples from p.R337H mutation carriers (C, n = 17 and non-carriers (NC, n = 17. We identified a significant increase in erythrocyte GPx activity and in plasma carbonyl content,an indicator of protein oxidative damage, in mutation carriers compared to non-carriers (P = 0.048 and P = 0.035, respectively. Mutation carriers also showed a four-fold increase in plasma malondialdehyde levels, indicating increased lipid peroxidation (NC = 40.20±0.71, C = 160.5±0.88, P<0.0001. Finally, carriers showed increased total antioxidant status but a decrease in plasma ascorbic acid content. The observed imbalance could be associated with deregulated cell bioenergetics and/or with increased inflammatory stress, two effects that may result from loss of wild-type p53 function. These findings provide the first evidence that oxidative damage occurs in carriers of a germline TP53 mutation, and these may have important implications regarding our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for germline TP53 p.R337H mutation-associated carcinogenesis.

  6. Common Genetic Variants and Modification of Penetrance of BRCA2-Associated Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiducci, Candace; Segrè, Ayellet V.; McGee, Kate; McGuffog, Lesley; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Morrison, Jonathan; Healey, Sue; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Sobol, Hagay; Longy, Michel; Frenay, Marc; GEMO Study Collaborators; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Rookus, Matti A.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Roozendaal, Kees E. P.; Piedmonte, Marion; Rubinstein, Wendy; Nerenstone, Stacy; Van Le, Linda; Blank, Stephanie V.; Caldés, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Arason, Adalgeir; Johannsson, Oskar T.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Devilee, Peter; Olopade, Olofunmilayo I.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Wang, Xianshu; Fredericksen, Zachary S.; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Viel, Alessandra; Radice, Paolo; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven; Rennert, Gad; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Flugelman, Anath; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Toland, Amanda E.; Montagna, Marco; D'Andrea, Emma; Friedman, Eitan; Laitman, Yael; Borg, Ake; Beattie, Mary; Ramus, Susan J.; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Tim; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Chen, Xiaoqing; Holland, Helene; John, Esther M.; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Daly, Mary B.; Southey, Melissa C.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tung, Nadine; Overeem Hansen, Thomas V.; Nielsen, Finn C.; Greene, Mark I.; Mai, Phuong L.; Osorio, Ana; Durán, Mercedes; Andres, Raquel; Benítez, Javier; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Garber, Judy; Hamann, Ute; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Oliver, Clare; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Walker, Lisa; Eason, Jacqueline; Barwell, Julian; Godwin, Andrew K.; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engert, Stefanie; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Dean, Michael; Gold, Bert; Klein, Robert J.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Daly, Mark J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Altshuler, David M.; Offit, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years) affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ) was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10−5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10−4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499) and chromosome 10 (rs16917302). The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66–0.86, ) and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61–0.85, ). FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18–1.39, ). These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer. PMID:21060860

  7. Common genetic variants and modification of penetrance of BRCA2-associated breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia M Gaudet

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The considerable uncertainty regarding cancer risks associated with inherited mutations of BRCA2 is due to unknown factors. To investigate whether common genetic variants modify penetrance for BRCA2 mutation carriers, we undertook a two-staged genome-wide association study in BRCA2 mutation carriers. In stage 1 using the Affymetrix 6.0 platform, 592,163 filtered SNPs genotyped were available on 899 young (<40 years affected and 804 unaffected carriers of European ancestry. Associations were evaluated using a survival-based score test adjusted for familial correlations and stratified by country of the study and BRCA2*6174delT mutation status. The genomic inflation factor (λ was 1.011. The stage 1 association analysis revealed multiple variants associated with breast cancer risk: 3 SNPs had p-values<10(-5 and 39 SNPs had p-values<10(-4. These variants included several previously associated with sporadic breast cancer risk and two novel loci on chromosome 20 (rs311499 and chromosome 10 (rs16917302. The chromosome 10 locus was in ZNF365, which contains another variant that has recently been associated with breast cancer in an independent study of unselected cases. In stage 2, the top 85 loci from stage 1 were genotyped in 1,264 cases and 1,222 controls. Hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for stage 1 and 2 were combined and estimated using a retrospective likelihood approach, stratified by country of residence and the most common mutation, BRCA2*6174delT. The combined per allele HR of the minor allele for the novel loci rs16917302 was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.86, and for rs311499 was 0.72 (95% CI 0.61-0.85, . FGFR2 rs2981575 had the strongest association with breast cancer risk (per allele HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.18-1.39, . These results indicate that SNPs that modify BRCA2 penetrance identified by an agnostic approach thus far are limited to variants that also modify risk of sporadic BRCA2 wild-type breast cancer.

  8. Heterozygous carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation share a common functional endophenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Nuenen, BF; Siebner, Hartwig; Weiss, MM; Bloem, BR; Reetz, K; van Eimeren, T; Lohmann, K; Hagenah, J; Pramstaller, PP; Binkofski, F; Klein, C

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To use a combined neurogenetic-neuroimaging approach to examine the functional consequences of preclinical dopaminergic nigrostriatal dysfunction in the human motor system. Specifically, we examined how a single heterozygous mutation in different genes associated with recessively......MRI, participants performed simple sequences of three thumb-to-finger opposition movements with their right dominant hand. Since heterozygous Parkin and PINK1 mutations cause a latent dopaminergic nigrostriatal dysfunction, we predicted a compensatory recruitment of those rostral premotor areas that are normally...... rostral dorsal premotor cortex in mutation carriers but not in controls. Task-related activation of these premotor areas was similar in carriers of a Parkin or PINK1 mutation. CONCLUSION: Mutations in different genes linked to recessively inherited Parkinson disease are associated with an additional...

  9. BRCA1 gene expression and promoter methylation patterns in early-onset breast cancers among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Early-onset breast cancer is one of the most obviously radiogenic cancers among A-bomb survivors. Our initial hypothesis was that A-bomb radiation exposure might have enhanced the risk of early-onset breast cancer in initially heterozygous BRCA1 mutation carriers by mutationally inactivating the normal copy of the BRCA1 gene. To test this hypothesis, we began by examining the changes in BRCA1 expression immunohistochemically using the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded breast cancer tissues that had been stored at various hospitals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki for several decades. We then developed a highly-sensitive methylation-specific PCR method to test for hypermethylation of the BRCA1 gene promoter as a possible explanation for BRCA1 expression having been reduced in breast cancer cases. The breast cancer tissues studied so far were from a group of A-bomb survivors who were <45 years of age at diagnosis (31cases), and from a non-exposed group who were also <45 (21 cases). Our observations indicate that BRCA1 protein expression levels were reduced by ∼90% in many tumor tissues from both groups. Review of these reduced cases indicated that methylation silencing of the BRCA1 gene promoter was present in 40-50% of both exposed and unexposed cases. By contrast, fully unmethylated BRCA1 promoter sequences were present in as few as 15-20% of cases in the non-exposed group and 30-35% in the exposed group. Clearly we need to examine many more of the 700 samples that we aim to collect before we will be able to draw any conclusions about the possible role of methylation silencing in the development of early-onset breast cancers among A-bomb survivors

  10. Anatomical patterns of dermatitis in adult filaggrin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Nina G; Thyssen, Jacob P; Thuesen, Betina H; Linneberg, Allan; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Common filaggrin (FLG) null mutations are associated with severe and early onset of atopic dermatitis (AD). To date, few studies have investigated anatomical patterns of dermatitis and none has been conducted in the general population. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated patterns of dermatitis in...... obtained by use of questionnaires. Participants were genotyped for common FLG mutations. A history of AD was defined by the United Kingdom Working Party's diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: The frequency of foot dermatitis in the general population was associated with FLG genotype (P = .014). However, when...... stratification of FLG genotype and AD was performed, we found that FLG mutations increased the prevalence (odds ratios) of foot dermatitis (odds ratio 10.41; 95% confidence interval 5.27-20.60) and persistent hand dermatitis (odds ratio 17.57; 95% confidence interval 8.60-35.89) only in participants with AD...

  11. A novel crosstalk between BRCA1 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Da; Bi, Fang-Fang; Chen, Na-Na; Cao, Ji-Min; Sun, Wu-Ping; Zhou, Yi-Ming; Li, Chun-Yan; Yang, Qing

    2014-01-01

    BRCA mutations are the main known hereditary factor for breast cancer. Notably, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) expression status plays a critical role in breast cancer progression and the clinical development of PARP1 inhibitors to treat BRCA-mutated breast cancer has advanced rapidly. However, dynamic crosstalk between BRCA1 and PARP1 remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that: (i) BRCA1 inactivation events (mutation, promoter methylation, or knockdown) were accompanied by increas...

  12. Motor pathway excitability in ATP13A2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zittel, S; Kroeger, J; van der Vegt, J P M;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe excitability of motor pathways in Kufor-Rakeb syndrome (PARK9), an autosomal recessive nigro-striatal-pallidal-pyramidal neurodegeneration caused by a mutation in the ATP13A2 gene, using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). METHODS: Five members of a Chilean family with...

  13. Identification of a novel BRCA1 nucleotide 4803delCC/c.4684delCC mutation and a nucleotide 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in two Greenlandic Inuit families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Jønson, Lars; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    >A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in another Greenlandic individual with ovarian cancer. This patient share a 1-2 Mb genomic fragment, containing the BRCA1 gene, with four Danish families harbouring the same mutation, suggesting that the 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation originates from a Danish...

  14. Identification of a novel BRCA1 nucleotide 4803delCC/c.4684delCC mutation and a nucleotide 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in two Greenlandic Inuit families: implications for genetic screening of Greenlandic Inuit families with high risk for breast and/or ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas V O; Jønson, Lars; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    >A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation in another Greenlandic individual with ovarian cancer. This patient share a 1-2 Mb genomic fragment, containing the BRCA1 gene, with four Danish families harbouring the same mutation, suggesting that the 249T>A/c.130T>A (p.Cys44Ser) mutation originates from a Danish...

  15. Utility of MLPA in mutation analysis and carrier detection for Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Multiplex ligation probe amplification (MLPA is a new technique to identify deletions and duplications and can evaluate all 79 exons in dystrophin gene in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Being semi-quantitative, MLPA is also effective in detecting duplications and carrier testing of females; both of which cannot be done using multiplex PCR. It has found applications in diagnostics of many genetic disorders. Aim: To study the utility of MLPA in diagnosis and carrier detection for DMD. Materials and Methods: Mutation analysis and carrier detection was done by multiplex PCR and MLPA and the results were compared. Results and Conclusions: We present data showing utility of MLPA in identifying mutations in cases with DMD/BMD. In the present study using MLPA, we identified mutations in additional 5.6% cases of DMD in whom multiplex PCR was not able to detect intragenic deletions. In addition, MLPA also correctly confirmed carrier status of two obligate carriers and revealed carrier status in 6 of 8 mothers of sporadic cases.

  16. Platelet hexosaminidase a enzyme assay effectively detects carriers missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Sachiko; Zhan, Jie; Sun, Wei; Ferreira, Jose Carlos; Keiles, Steven; Hambuch, Tina; Kammesheidt, Anja; Mark, Brian L; Schneider, Adele; Gross, Susan; Schreiber-Agus, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Biochemical testing of hexosaminidase A (HexA) enzyme activity has been available for decades and has the ability to detect almost all Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) carriers, irrespective of ethnic background. This is increasingly important, as the gene pool of those who identify as Ashkenazi Jewish is diversifying. Here we describe the analysis of a cohort of 4,325 individuals arising from large carrier screening programs and tested by the serum and/or platelet HexA enzyme assays and by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Our results continue to support the platelet assay as a highly effective method for TSD carrier screening, with a low inconclusive rate and the ability to detect possible disease-causing mutation carriers that would have been missed by targeted DNA mutation analysis. Sequence analysis performed on one such platelet assay carrier, who had one non-Ashkenazi Jewish parent, identified the amino acid change Thr259Ala (A775G). Based on crystallographic modeling, this change is predicted to be deleterious, as threonine 259 is positioned proximal to the HexA alpha subunit active site and helps to stabilize key residues therein. Accordingly, if individuals are screened for TSD in broad-based programs by targeted molecular testing alone, they must be made aware that there is a more sensitive and inexpensive test available that can identify additional carriers. Alternatively, the enzyme assays can be offered as a first tier test, especially when screening individuals of mixed or non-Jewish ancestry. PMID:23430931

  17. Structure-Function Of The Tumor Suppressor BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena L. Clark

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1, a multi-domain protein, is mutated in a large percentage of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA1 is most often mutated in three domains or regions: the N-terminal RING domain, exons 11-13, and the BRCT domain. The BRCA1 RING domain mediates interactions between BRCA1 and other proteins and is responsible for the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of BRCA1. BRCA1 ubiquitinates several proteins with various functions. The BRCA1 BRCT domain binds to phosphoproteins with specific sequences recognized by both BRCA1 and ATM/ATR kinases. Structural studies of the RING and BRCT domains have revealed the molecular basis by which cancer causing mutations impact the functions of BRCA1. While no structural data is available for the amino acids encoded by exons 11-13, multiple binding sites and functional domains exist in this region. Many mutations in exons 11-13 have deleterious effects on the function of these domains. In this mini-review, we examine the structure-function relationships of the BRCA1 protein and the relevance to cancer progression.

  18. Targeted Sequencing of the Mitochondrial Genome of Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer without Detectable Mutations in BRCA1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Blein

    Full Text Available Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk.

  19. Targeted Sequencing of the Mitochondrial Genome of Women at High Risk of Breast Cancer without Detectable Mutations in BRCA1/2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blein, Sophie; Barjhoux, Laure; Damiola, Francesca; Dondon, Marie-Gabrielle; Eon-Marchais, Séverine; Marcou, Morgane; Caron, Olivier; Lortholary, Alain; Buecher, Bruno; Berthet, Pascaline; Noguès, Catherine; Lasset, Christine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Andrieu, Nadine; Cox, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a complex multifactorial disease for which high-penetrance mutations have been identified. Approaches used to date have identified genomic features explaining about 50% of breast cancer heritability. A number of low- to medium penetrance alleles (per-allele odds ratio < 1.5 and 4.0, respectively) have been identified, suggesting that the remaining heritability is likely to be explained by the cumulative effect of such alleles and/or by rare high-penetrance alleles. Relatively few studies have specifically explored the mitochondrial genome for variants potentially implicated in breast cancer risk. For these reasons, we propose an exploration of the variability of the mitochondrial genome in individuals diagnosed with breast cancer, having a positive breast cancer family history but testing negative for BRCA1/2 pathogenic mutations. We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of 436 index breast cancer cases from the GENESIS study. As expected, no pathogenic genomic pattern common to the 436 women included in our study was observed. The mitochondrial genes MT-ATP6 and MT-CYB were observed to carry the highest number of variants in the study. The proteins encoded by these genes are involved in the structure of the mitochondrial respiration chain, and variants in these genes may impact reactive oxygen species production contributing to carcinogenesis. More functional and epidemiological studies are needed to further investigate to what extent variants identified may influence familial breast cancer risk. PMID:26406445

  20. The BRCA1 Ashkenazi founder mutations occur on common haplotypes and are not highly correlated with anonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms likely to be used in genome-wide case-control association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jinghui

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We studied linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns at the BRCA1 locus, a susceptibility gene for breast and ovarian cancer, using a dense set of 114 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 population groups. We focused on Ashkenazi Jews in whom there are known founder mutations, to address the question of whether we would have been able to identify the 185delAG mutation in a case-control association study (should one have been done using anonymous genetic markers. This mutation is present in approximately 1% of the general Ashkenazi population and 4% of Ashkenazi breast cancer cases. We evaluated LD using pairwise and haplotype-based methods, and assessed correlation of SNPs with the founder mutations using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results BRCA1 is characterized by very high linkage disequilibrium in all populations spanning several hundred kilobases. Overall, haplotype blocks and pair-wise LD bins were highly correlated, with lower LD in African versus non-African populations. The 185delAG and 5382insC founder mutations occur on the two most common haplotypes among Ashkenazim. Because these mutations are rare, even though they are in strong LD with many other SNPs in the region as measured by D-prime, there were no strong associations when assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, r (maximum of 0.04 for the 185delAG. Conclusion Since the required sample size is related to the inverse of r, this suggests that it would have been difficult to map BRCA1 in an Ashkenazi case-unrelated control association study using anonymous markers that were linked to the founder mutations.

  1. Cognitive impairment in the preclinical stage of dementia in FTD-3 CHMP2B mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Teasdale, Thomas W; Johannsen, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    -3). Subjects were assessed with neuropsychological tests in 2002, 2005 and 2010. RESULTS: Cross-sectional analyses showed that the mutation carriers scored lower on tests of psychomotor speed, working memory, executive functions and verbal memory than a control group consisting of not-at-risk family...... members and spouses. Longitudinal analyses showed a gradual decline in psychomotor speed, working memory capacity and global executive measures in the group of non-demented mutation carriers that was not found in the control group. In contrast, there were no significant group differences in domain scores...... on memory or visuospatial functions. On an individual level the cognitive changes over time varied considerably. CONCLUSION: Subjects with CHMP2B mutation show cognitive changes dominated by executive dysfunctions, years before they fulfil diagnostic criteria of FTD. However, there is great...

  2. BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing in young Black women with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Johnson, Sharland; Akbari, Mohammad; Servais, Lily; Narod, Steven; Vadaparampil, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women in the United States are disproportionately afflicted with breast cancer, a proportion of which may be due to BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) gene mutations. In a cancer registry-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer, we evaluated: (1) the prevalence of BRCA mutations detected through full gene sequencing and large rearrangements testing and (2) proportions that accessed genetic services pre-dating study enrollment. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer ≤ag...

  3. Whole exome sequencing reveals recurrent mutations in BRCA2 and FAT genes in acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Toru Furukawa; Hitomi Sakamoto; Shoko Takeuchi; Mitra Ameri; Yuko Kuboki; Toshiyuki Yamamoto; Takashi Hatori; Masakazu Yamamoto; Masanori Sugiyama; Nobuyuki Ohike; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Michio Shimizu; Noriyuki Shibata; Kyoko Shimizu; Keiko Shiratori

    2015-01-01

    Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare tumor with a poor prognosis. Compared to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, its molecular features are poorly known. We studied a total of 11 acinar cell carcinomas, including 3 by exome and 4 by target sequencing. Exome sequencing revealed 65 nonsynonymous mutations and 22 indels with a mutation rate of 3.4 mutations/Mb per tumor, on average. By accounting for not only somatic but also germline mutations with loss of the wild-type allele, we ide...

  4. Sequence Variants of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genes in Four Iranian Families with Breast and Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Keshavarzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have been recognized to be responsible for 20-30% of hereditary breast can­cers and approximately 50% of familial breast and ovarian cancers. Therefore, the demand for BRCA1 and BRCA2 muta­tion screening is rapidly increasing as their identification will affect medical management of people at increased risk. Because of high costs involved in analysis of BRCA1 and 2 genes, contribution of different mutation types in BRCA1 and 2 and not knowing who should be tested has hampered wide spread use of molecular testing of high -risk fami­lies. There is a need to identify the genes and types of mutations involved in breast or ovarian cancers at different age of onsets and polymorphism and polymorphic variations in our population."nMethods: Twenty-seven patients with either early onset breast cancer (at age≤ 35 years or a personal and/or family his­tory of breast or ovarian cancer and 50 control subjects participated in this study. After collecting blood samples and extract­ing DNA, BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were fully sequenced."nResults: Thirteen missense substitutions in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (9 and 4, respectively were revealed. Two nucleotide substitu­tions were novel (Gly1140Ser in BRCA1 and Glu1391Gly in BRCA2. The Glu1038Pro and Gly1140Ser were found in large series of breast and ovarian cancer and matched controls."nConclusion: Some nucleotide substitutions were seen only in single families and other in several. In other cases, muta­tions were seen in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Clinical significance of these mutations was evaluated comparing with normal controls.  

  5. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer : Identification of mutation carriers and assessing pathogenicity of mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, RC; Sijmons, RH; Berends, MJW; Ou, J; Hofstra, RNW; Kleibeuker, JH

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), also referred to as Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder that is characterized by susceptibility to colorectal cancer and extracolonic malignancies, in particular endometrial cancer. HNPCC is caused by pathogenic mutations

  6. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M;

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs...

  7. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Soucy, Penny; McGuffog, Lesley; Healey, Sue; Lee, Andrew; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Cattaneo, Elisa; Barile, Monica; Pensotti, Valeria; Pasini, Barbara; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Giannini, Giuseppe; Putignano, Anna Laura; Varesco, Liliana; Radice, Paolo; Mai, Phuong L.; Greene, Mark H.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Crueger, Dorthe G.; Caligo, Maria A.; Laitman, Yael; Milgrom, Roni; Kaufman, Bella; Paluch-Shimon, Shani; Friedman, Eitan; Loman, Niklas; Harbst, Katja; Lindblom, Annika; Arver, Brita; Ehrencrona, Hans; Melin, Beatrice; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Domchek, Susan M.; Rebbeck, Timothy; Jakubowska, Ania; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Gorski, Bohdan; Osorio, Ana; Ramon y Cajal, Teresa; Fostira, Florentia; Andres, Raquel; Benitez, Javier; Hamann, Ute; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Rookus, Matti A.; Hooning, Maartje J.; Nelen, Marcel R.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; van Os, Theo A. M.; van Asperen, Christi J.; Devilee, Peter; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Garcia, Encarna B. Gomez; Peock, Susan; Cook, Margaret; Frost, Debra; Platte, Radka; Leyland, Jean; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Eeles, Ros; Izatt, Louise; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Ong, Kai-ren; Cook, Jackie; Douglas, Fiona; Paterson, Joan; Kennedy, M. John; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Godwin, Andrew; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Buecher, Bruno; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Barjhoux, Laure; Lasset, Christine; Leroux, Dominique; Faivre, Laurence; Bronner, Myriam; Prieur, Fabienne; Nogues, Catherine; Rouleau, Etienne; Pujol, Pascal; Coupier, Isabelle; Frenay, Marc; Hopper, John L.; Daly, Mary B.; Terry, Mary B.; John, Esther M.; Buys, Saundra S.; Yassin, Yosuf; Miron, Alexander; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Dressler, Anne Catharina; Hansen, Thomas v. O.; Jonson, Lars; Ejlertsen, Bent; Barkardottir, Rosa Bjork; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Offit, Kenneth; Piedmonte, Marion; Rodriguez, Gustavo; Small, Laurie; Boggess, John; Blank, Stephanie; Basil, Jack; Azodi, Masoud; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Agata, Simona; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Sucheston, Lara; Karlan, Beth Y.; Walsh, Christine S.; Olah, Edith; Bozsik, Aniko; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Seldon, Joyce L.; Beattie, Mary S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Sluiter, Michelle D.; Diez, Orland; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ruehl, Ina; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Kast, Karin; Deissler, Helmut; Niederacher, Dieter; Arnold, Norbert; Gadzicki, Dorothea; Schoenbuchner, Ines; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Dumont, Martine; Chiquette, Jocelyne; Tischkowitz, Marc; Chen, Xiaoqing; Beesley, Jonathan; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Fredericksen, Zachary; Wang, Xianshu; Pankratz, Vernon S.; Couch, Fergus; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility variants: rs112

  8. Common alleles at 6q25.1 and 1p11.2 are associated with breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Antoniou (Antonis); C. Kartsonaki (Christiana); O. Sinilnikova (Olga); P. Soucy (Penny); L. McGuffog (Lesley); S. Healey (Sue); A. Lee (Andrew); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); S. Manoukian (Siranoush); B. Peissel (Bernard); D. Zaffaroni (D.); E. Cattaneo (Elisa); M. Barile (Monica); V. Pensotti (Valeria); B. Pasini (Barbara); R. Dolcetti (Riccardo); G. Giannini (Giuseppe); A.L. Putignano; L. Varesco (Liliana); P. Radice (Paolo); P.L. Mai (Phuong); M.H. Greene (Mark); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); G. Glendon (Gord); H. Ozcelik (Hilmi); M. Thomassen (Mads); A-M. Gerdes (Anne-Marie); T.A. Kruse (Torben); U.B. Jensen; D. Cruger (Dorthe); M.A. Caligo (Maria); Y. Laitman (Yael); R. Milgrom (Roni); B. Kaufman (Bella); S. Paluch-Shimon (Shani); E. Friedman (Eitan); N. Loman (Niklas); K. Harbst (Katja); A. Lindblom (Annika); B. Melin (Beatrice); K.L. Nathanson (Katherine); S.M. Domchek (Susan); R. Rebbeck (Timothy); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); T. Huzarski (Tomasz); T. Byrski (Tomasz); C. Cybulski (Cezary); B. Górski (Bohdan); A. Osorio (Ana); T.R. Cajal; F. Fostira (Florentia); R. Andres (Raquel); J. Benitez (Javier); U. Hamann (Ute); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); M.A. Rookus (Matti); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); M.R. Nelen (Marcel); R.B. van der Luijt (Rob); T.A.M. van Os (Theo); C.J. van Asperen (Christi); P. Devilee (Peter); H. Meijers-Heijboer (Hanne); E.B.G. Garcia; S. Peock (Susan); M. Cook (Margaret); D. Frost; R. Platte (Radka); J. Leyland (Jean); D.G. Evans (Gareth); F. Lalloo (Fiona); R. Eeles (Rosalind); L. Izatt (Louise); R. Davidson (Rosemarie); D. Eccles (Diana); K.-R. Ong; F. Douglas (Fiona); J. Paterson (Joan); M.J. Kennedy (John); Z. Miedzybrodzka (Zosia); A.K. Godwin (Andrew); D. Stoppa-Lyonnet (Dominique); B. Buecher (Bruno); M. Belotti (Muriel); C. Tirapo (Carole); S. Mazoyer (Sylvie); L. Barjhoux (Laure); C. Lasset (Christine); D. Leroux (Dominique); L. Faivre (Laurence); M. Bronner (Myriam); F. Prieur (Fabienne); C. Nogues (Catherine); E. Rouleau (Etienne); P. Pujol (Pascal); I. Coupier (Isabelle); M. Frenay (Marc); J. Hopper (John); M.J. Daly (Mark); M-B. Terry (Mary-beth); E.M. John (Esther); S.S. Buys (Saundra); Y. Yassin (Yosuf); A. Miron (Alexander); D. Goldgar (David); C.F. Singer (Christian); M.-K. Tea; G. Pfeiler (Georg); C. Dressler (Catherina); T.V.O. Hansen (Thomas); L. Jønson (Lars); B. Ejlertsen (Bent); R.B. Barkardottir (Rosa); T. Kircchoff (Tomas); K. Offit (Kenneth); M. Piedmonte (Marion); G.C. Rodriguez (Gustavo); L. Small (Laurie); J.F. Boggess (John); S.V. Blank (Stephanie); J. Basil (Jack); M. Azodi (Masoud); A.E. Toland (Amanda); M. Montagna (Marco); S. Tognazzo (Silvia); S. Agata (Simona); E.N. Imyanitov (Evgeny); R. Janavicius (Ramunas); C. Lazaro (Conxi); I. Blanco (Ignacio); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); L. Sucheston (Lara); B.Y. Karlan (Beth); C.S. Walsh (Christine); E. Olah (Edith); A. Bozsik (Aniko); S.-H. Teo; J.L. Seldon (Joyce); M.S. Beattie (Mary); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); M.D. Sluiter (Michelle); O. Diez (Orland); R.K. Schmutzler (Rita); B. Wapenschmidt (Barbara); C. Engel (Christoph); A. Meindl (Alfons); I. Ruehl (Ina); R. Varon-Mateeva (Raymonda); K. Kast (Karin); H. Deissler (Helmut); D. Niederacher (Dieter); N. Arnold (Norbert); D. Gadzicki (Dorothea); I. Schönbuchner (Ines); T. Caldes (Trinidad); M. de La Hoya (Miguel); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); M. Dumont (Martine); J. Chiquette (Jocelyne); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); J. Beesley (Jonathan); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); Y.C. Ding (Yuan); Z. Fredericksen (Zachary); X. Wang (Xing); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J. Simard (Jacques); D.F. Easton (Douglas); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); P. Karlsson (Per); M. Nordling (Margareta); A. Bergman (Annika); Z. Einbeigi (Zakaria); M. Stenmark-Askmalm (M.); S. Liedgren (Sigrun); Å. Borg (Åke); H. Olsson (Hans); U. Kristoffersson (Ulf); H. Jernström (H.); K. Henriksson (Karin); A. von Wachenfeldt (Anna); A. Liljegren (Annelie); G. Barbany-Bustinza (Gisela); J. Rantala (Johanna); H. Grönberg (Henrik); E.-L. Stattin; M. Emanuelsson (Monica); R.R. Brandell; N. Dahl (Niklas); S. Verhoef; M. Verheus (Martijn); L.v. Veer; F.E. van Leeuwen; J.M. Collee (Margriet); A.M.W. van den Ouweland (Ans); A. Jager; M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); J.T. Wijnen (Juul); M.P. Vreeswijk (Maaike); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); M.J. Ligtenberg (Marjolijn); N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline); M.G.E.M. Ausems (Margreet); C.M. Aalfs (Cora); J.J.P. Gille (Jan); Q. Waisfisz (Quinten); E.B. Gómez García (Encarna); C.E. van Roozendaal (Cees); M.J. Blok (Marinus); B. Caanen; J.C. Oosterwijk; A.H. van der Hout (Annemarie); M.J. Mourits; H.F. Vasen (Hans); H. Gregory (Helen); P.J. Morrison (Patrick); L. Jeffers (Lisa); T.J. Cole (Trevor); C. McKeown (Carole); J. Hoffman (Jonathan); A. Donaldson (Alan); S. Downing (Sarah); A. Taylor (Amy); A. Murray (Alexandra); M.T. Rogers (Mark); E. McCann (Emma); M.E. Porteous (Mary); S. Drummond (Sarah); C. Brewer (Carole); E. Kivuva (Emma); A. Searle (Anne); S. Goodman (Selina); K. Hill (Kathryn); V. Murday (Victoria); N. Bradshaw (Nicola); L. Snadden (Lesley); M. Longmuir (Mark); C. Watt (Catherine); S. Gibson (Sarah); E. Haque (Eshika); E. Tobias (Ed); A. Duncan (Alexis); C. Jacobs (Chris); C. Langman (Caroline); A. Whaite (Anna); H. Dorkins (Huw); J. Barwell (Julian); C. Chu (Chengbin); J. Miller (Julie); I.O. Ellis (Ian); C. Houghton (Catherine); L. Side (Lucy); A. Male (Alison); C. Berlin (Cheryl); J. Eason (Jacqueline); R. Collier (Rebecca); O. Claber (Oonagh); I. Jobson (Irene); L.J. Walker (Lisa); D. McLeod (Diane); D. Halliday (Dorothy); S. Durell (Sarah); B. Stayner (Barbara); S. Shanley; N. Rahman (Nazneen); R. Houlston (Richard); E. Bancroft (Elizabeth); L. D'Mello (Lucia); E. Page (Elizabeth); A. Ardern-Jones (Audrey); K. Kohut (Kelly); J. Wiggins (Jennifer); E. Castro (Elena); A. Mitra (Anita); L. Robertson (Lisa); O. Quarrell (Oliver); C. Bardsley (Cathryn); H. Ehrencrona (Hans); S.V. Hodgson (Shirley); D.E. Barton (David); S. Goff (Sheila); G. Brice (Glen); L. Winchester (Lizzie); C. Eddy (Charlotte); V. Tripathi (Vishakha); V. Attard (Virginia); A. Lucassen (Anneke); G. Crawford (Gillian); D. McBride (Donna); S. Smalley (Sarah); J.W. Adlard (Julian); B. Arver (Brita Wasteson)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTwo single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 6q25.1, near the ESR1 gene, have been implicated in the susceptibility to breast cancer for Asian (rs2046210) and European women (rs9397435). A genome-wide association study in Europeans identified two further breast cancer susceptibility var

  9. Screening of BRCA1 sequence variants within exon 11 by heteroduplex analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Negura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Germ-line mutations of either BRCA1 or BRCA2 represents the major hereditary risk to breast and ovariancancer. Screening for mutations in these genes is now standard practice in molecular diagnosis, opening the way tooncogenetic counselling and follow-up. Because mutations in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 are distributed throughout theloci, accepted clinical protocols involve screening their entire coding regions. Systematic Sanger sequencing is time andmoney consuming. Therefore, a lot of pre-screening techniques evolved over time in order to identify anomalousamplicons prior to sequencing. Because BRCA mutations are always heterozygous, heteroduplex analysis proved to be asuitable pre-screening step. We previously implemented mismatch specific endonuclease heteroduplex analysis forBRCA1 exon7. Here we show the utility of the same method for mutations and SNPs found in BRCA1 exon 11

  10. Are Trp53 rescue of Brca1 embryonic lethality and Trp53/Brca1 breast cancer association related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brca1 is involved in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcriptional regulation, and cell-cycle progression. A complex pattern of interactions of Brca1 with Trp53 has also emerged. Xu and coworkers found that haploid loss of Trp53 significantly reduces the embryonic lethality observed in mice with a homozygous in-frame deletion of Brca1 exon 11. They report that widespread apoptosis correlates with the embryonic lethality resulting from this homozygous Δ11 Brca1 mutation. A mechanism responsible for Brca1-associated carcinogenesis is proposed. These experiments extend our knowledge of a complex Brca1/Trp53 relationship. However, the precise mechanisms through which Brca1 interacts with Trp53 to suppress mammary tumor formation have yet to be elucidated

  11. Rare mutations in RINT1 predispose carriers to breast and Lynch Syndrome-spectrum cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Daniel J.; Tao, Kayoko; Le Calvez-Kelm, Florence; Nguyen-Dumont, Tu; Robinot, Nivonirina; Hammet, Fleur; Odefrey, Fabrice; Tsimiklis, Helen; Teo, Zhi L; Thingholm, Louise B.; Young, Erin L.; Voegele, Catherine; Lonie, Andrew; Pope, Bernard J; Roane, Terrell C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of the familial aggregation of breast cancer remains unexplained. A multiple-case breast cancer family exome sequencing study identified three likely pathogenic mutations in RINT1 (NM_021930.4) not present in public sequencing databases: RINT1 c.343C>T (p.Q115X), c.1132_1134del (p.M378del) and c.1207G>T (p.D403Y). Based on this finding, a population-based case-control mutation-screening study was conducted and identified 29 carriers of rare (MAF < 0.5%), likely pathogenic v...

  12. Novel mutations and DNA-based screening in non-Jewish carriers of Tay-Sachs disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Akerman, B R; Natowicz, M R; Kaback, M M; Loyer, M.; Campeau, E; Gravel, R A

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using PCR-based mutation screening for non-Jewish enzyme-defined carriers identified through Tay-Sachs disease-prevention programs. Although Tay-Sachs mutations are rare in the general population, non-Jewish individuals may be screened as spouses of Jewish carriers or as relatives of probands. In order to define a panel of alleles that might account for the majority of mutations in non-Jewish carriers, we investigated 26 independent alleles from 20 obligat...

  13. Obtaining insurance after DNA diagnostics: a survey among hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Christiaans, Imke; Kok, Tjitske M; van Langen, Irene M.; Birnie, Erwin; Bonsel, Gouke J.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common hereditary heart disease associated with increased mortality. Disclosure of DNA test results may have social implications such as low access to insurance. In the Netherlands, insurance companies are restricted in the use of genetic information of their clients by the Medical Examination Act. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess the frequency and type of problems encountered by HCM mutation carriers applying for insurance, and associations w...

  14. Detection of mismatch repair gene germline mutation carrier among Chinese population with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recommended the Revised Bethesda guidelines for screening HNPCC. There has been a great deal of research on the value of these tests in other countries. However, literature about the Chinese population is scarce. Our objective is to detect and study microsatellite instability (MSI) and mismatch repair (MMR) gene germline mutation carriers among a Chinese population with colorectal cancer. In 146 prospectively recruited consecutive patients with clinically proven colorectal cancer, MSI carriers were identified by analysis of tumor tissue using multiplex fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the NCI recommended panel and classified into microsatellite instability-low (MSI-L), microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) and microsatellite stable (MSS) groups. Immunohistochemical staining for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 on tissue microarrays (TMAs) was performed, and methylation of the MLH1 promoter was analyzed by quantitative methylation specific PCR (MSP). Germline mutation analysis of blood samples was performed for MSH2, MSH6 and MLH1 genes. Thirty-four out of the 146 colorectal cancers (CRCs, 23.2%) were MSI, including 19 MSI-H CRCs and 15 MSI-L CRCS. Negative staining for MSH2 was found in 8 CRCs, negative staining for MSH6 was found in 6 CRCs. One MSI-H CRC was negative for both MSH6 and MSH2. Seventeen CRCs stained negatively for MLH1. MLH1 promoter methylation was determined in 34 MSI CRCs. Hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter occurred in 14 (73.7%) out of 19 MSI-H CRCs and 5 (33.3%) out of 15 MSI-L CRCs. Among the 34 MSI carriers and one MSS CRC with MLH1 negative staining, 8 had a MMR gene germline mutation, which accounted for 23.5% of all MSI colorectal cancers and 5.5% of all the colorectal cancers. Five patients harbored MSH2 germline mutations, and three patients harbored MSH6 germline mutations. None of the patients had an MLH

  15. Manifestations of juvenile polyposis syndrome in SMAD4 mutation carriers of a kindred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwetz, Verena; Uhrig, Sabine; Spuller, Ekkehard; Deutschmann, Andrea; Högenauer, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The autosomal dominantly inherited juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS) leads to the development of multiple hamartomatous polyps in the gastrointestinal tract and is a precancerous condition. In a large family with a newly identified SMAD4 mutation (c.543delC), we describe the clinical manifestations of JPS. Nine affected SMAD4 mutation-positive family members were screened and treated for manifestations of JPS. Two family members were symptomatic at the time of diagnosis; seven were asymptomatic - independent of the severity of the manifestation. Each mutation carrier presented with colonic juvenile polyps, seven out of nine with additional gastric manifestations. One asymptomatic patient had early gastric cancer; another patient had a villous adenoma with high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia in the colon. Three patients had biliary lesions including a bile duct hamartoma in one and gallbladder polyps in two. Three patients had gastrointestinal vascular malformations. All mutation carriers were affected by JPS. Interestingly, the manifestations and their severity differed considerably between the patients, suggesting secondary factors influencing JPS manifestations such as Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:22617360

  16. Predicting the Pathogenic Potential of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Gene Variants Identified in Clinical Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Brookes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Missense variants are very commonly detected when screening for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Pathogenic mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes lead to an increased risk of developing breast, ovarian, prostate and/or pancreatic cancer. This study aimed to assess the predictive capability of in silico programmes and mutation databases in assisting diagnostic laboratories to determine the pathogenicity of sequence-detectable mutations. Methods: Between July 2011 and April 2013, an analysis was undertaken of 13 missense BRCA gene variants that had been detected in patients referred to the Genetic Health Services New Zealand (Northern Hub for BRCA gene analysis. The analysis involved the use of 13 in silico protein prediction programmes, two in silico transcript analysis programmes and the examination of three BRCA gene databases. Results: In most of the variants, the analysis showed different in silico interpretations. This illustrates the interpretation challenges faced by diagnostic laboratories. Conclusion: Unfortunately, when using online mutation databases and carrying out in silico analyses, there is significant discordance in the classification of some missense variants in the BRCA genes. This discordance leads to complexities in interpreting and reporting these variants in a clinical context. The authors have developed a simple procedure for analysing variants; however, those of unknown significance largely remain unknown. As a consequence, the clinical value of some reports may be negligible.

  17. Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BRCA-related cancer. Recommendations have letter grades. The grades are based on the quality and strength of the evidence about the potential ... harmful mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. Grade ... two tubes connect a woman’s ovaries to her uterus. peritoneal Cancer that develops in ...

  18. Responsiveness to distracting stimuli, though increased in Parkinson's disease, is decreased in asymptomatic PINK1 and Parkin mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verleger, Rolf; Hagenah, Johann; Weiss, Manuel;

    2010-01-01

    reduced internal motor drive. Of interest in this context is whether responsiveness is already enhanced in the presymptomatic stage of PD. To address these questions, we studied a group of non-manifesting carriers of heterozygous Parkin and PINK1 mutations while they performed a choice-response task with...... healthy persons age-matched to the mutation carriers and to the patients. Measurements of reaction time, error rate, and the lateralized readiness potential of the EEG provided converging evidence that the mutation carriers were less responsive to distracting flankers than their healthy control group. In...... contrast, PD patients were more distractible by flankers than their control group, which replicated previous results. Mutation carriers also showed a smaller N2 component of the event-related EEG potential in trials with incompatible flankers relative to their control group, which might indicate reduced...

  19. Meta-analysis of clinical characteristics of 299 carriers of LMNA gene mutations : do lamin A/C mutations portend a high risk of sudden death?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogt, WG; van der Kooi, AJ; van Tintelen, JP; Bonne, G; Ben Yaou, R; Duboc, D; Rossenbacker, T; Heidbuchel, H; de Visser, M; Crijns, HJGM; Pinto, YM; van Berlo, Jop H.

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated common clinical characteristics of patients with lamin A/C gene mutations that cause either isolated dilated cardiornyopathy or dilated cardiomyopathy in association with skeletal muscular dystrophy. We pooled clinical data of all published carriers of lamin A/C gene mutations a

  20. Analysis of large deletions in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes in Finnish breast and ovarian cancer families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sólyom Szilvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two most important genes associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. In addition, PALB2 has recently been identified as a breast cancer susceptibility gene in several populations. Here we have evaluated whether large genomic rearrangement in these genes could explain some of Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families. Methods Altogether 61 index patients of Northern Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families were analyzed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA method in order to identify exon deletions and duplications in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. The families have been comprehensively screened for germline mutation in these genes by conventional methods of mutation analysis and were found negative. Results We identified one large deletion in BRCA1, deleting the most part of the gene (exon 1A-13 in one family with family history of ovarian cancer. No large genomic rearrangements were identified in either BRCA2 or PALB2. Conclusion In Finland, women eligible for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation screening, when found negative, could benefit from screening for large genomic rearrangements at least in BRCA1. On the contrary, the genomic rearrangements in PALB2 seem not to contribute to the hereditary breast cancer susceptibility.

  1. Analysis of large deletions in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes in Finnish breast and ovarian cancer families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two most important genes associated with familial breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility. In addition, PALB2 has recently been identified as a breast cancer susceptibility gene in several populations. Here we have evaluated whether large genomic rearrangement in these genes could explain some of Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families. Altogether 61 index patients of Northern Finnish breast and/or ovarian cancer families were analyzed by Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method in order to identify exon deletions and duplications in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2. The families have been comprehensively screened for germline mutation in these genes by conventional methods of mutation analysis and were found negative. We identified one large deletion in BRCA1, deleting the most part of the gene (exon 1A-13) in one family with family history of ovarian cancer. No large genomic rearrangements were identified in either BRCA2 or PALB2. In Finland, women eligible for BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation screening, when found negative, could benefit from screening for large genomic rearrangements at least in BRCA1. On the contrary, the genomic rearrangements in PALB2 seem not to contribute to the hereditary breast cancer susceptibility

  2. Evidence for a Chk2-BRCA1-BRCA2 pathway in controlling homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The BRCA2 protein is thought to play a role as a supportive protein for the assembly of Rad51 filaments at the sites of DNA damage or stalled DNA replication, and thereby facilitates the process of homologous recombination (HR). We provide direct evidence that the interaction of BRCA2 and Rad51, via the BRC repeat motifs of BRCA2, is the key to its function in HR. Furthermore, the BRCA2's role to facilitate HR is dependent on a replicating DNA template, closely linking the process of HR to DNA replication. To date, no other role for BRCA2 has been elucidated in-vivo. BRCA1, by contrast, has a complex series of functions including a supportive role in HR, a possible role in non-homologous recombination (NHR), transcriptional co-activation and E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. The protein undergoes extensive post-translational modification, principally by phosphorylation, in both S-phase and in response to DNA damage. We show that ATM-dependent modifications of BRCA1 are important for S-phase and G2/M checkpoints, but have no direct impact on DNA repair. However, a chk2 dependent modification of BRCA1 at serine-988, appears critical for the promotion of Rad51-dependent HR and the inhibition of Mre11/Rad50/NBS1- dependent repair. Direct modification of chk2 kinase activity, by over-expression of a kinase-dead chk2, results in an identical phenotype as seen with the S988A mutation of BRCA1. Taken together, these results suggest that a chk2-BRCA1-BRCA2 dependent pathway promotes error-free HR, suppresses error-prone NHR and thereby maintains genomic stability

  3. Prediction of Cancer Prevention: From Mammogram Screening to Identification of BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers in Underserved Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S. Robinson

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Screening for women at risk for HBOC syndrome in mammogram populations will only prevent cancers if we can increase compliance with management guidelines. This study provides prototypic baseline data for step-wise analysis of the efficacy of the use of family history analysis in the mammography setting for detection and management of HBOC syndrome.

  4. Predictive Factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 Genetic Testing in an Asian Clinic-Based Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward S Y Wong

    Full Text Available The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN has proposed guidelines for the genetic testing of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, based on studies in western populations. This current study assessed potential predictive factors for BRCA mutation probability, in an Asian population.A total of 359 breast cancer patients, who presented with either a family history (FH of breast and/or ovarian cancer or early onset breast cancer, were accrued at the National Cancer Center Singapore (NCCS. The relationships between clinico-pathological features and mutational status were calculated using the Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis.Of 359 patients, 45 (12.5% had deleterious or damaging missense mutations in BRCA1 and/or BRCA2. BRCA1 mutations were more likely to be found in ER-negative than ER-positive breast cancer patients (P=0.01. Moreover, ER-negative patients with BRCA mutations were diagnosed at an earlier age (40 vs. 48 years, P=0.008. Similarly, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC patients were more likely to have BRCA1 mutations (P=0.001 and that these patients were diagnosed at a relatively younger age than non-TNBC patients (38 vs. 46 years, P=0.028. Our analysis has confirmed that ER-negative status, TNBC status and a FH of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC are strong factors predicting the likelihood of having BRCA mutations.Our study provides evidence that TNBC or ER-negative patients may benefit from BRCA genetic testing, particularly younger patients (<40 years or those with a strong FH of HBOC, in Asian patients.

  5. Mitochondrial localization, ELK-1 transcriptional regulation and Growth inhibitory functions of BRCA1, BRCA1a and BRCA1b proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniccia, Anna W; Lewis, Catherine; Begum, Nurjahan; Xu, Jingyao; Cui, Jianqi; Chipitsyna, Galina; Aysola, Kartik; Reddy, Vaishali; Bhat, Ganapathy; Fujimura, Yasuo; Henderson, Beric; Reddy, E. Shyam P.; Rao, Veena N.

    2009-01-01

    BRCA1 is a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in families with breast and ovarian cancer. Several BRCA1 splice variants are found in different tissues, but their subcellular localization and functions are poorly understood at the moment. We previously described BRCA1 splice variant BRCA1a to induce apoptosis and function as a tumor suppressor of triple negative breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study we have analyzed the function of BRCA1 isoforms (BRCA1a and BRCA1b) and compared them to the wild type BRCA1 protein using several criteria like studying expression in normal and tumor cells by RNase protection assays, sub cellular localization/fractionation by immunofluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis, transcription regulation of biological relevant proteins and growth suppression in breast cancer cells. We are demonstrating for the first time that ectopically expressed GFP-tagged BRCA1, BRCA1a, and BRCA1b proteins are localized to the mitochondria, repress ELK-1 transcriptional activity and possess antiproliferative activity on breast cancer cells. These results suggest that the exon 9,10 and 11 sequences (aa 263 – 1365) which contain two nuclear localization signals, p53, Rb, c-Myc, γ- tubulin, Stat, Rad 51, Rad 50 binding domains, angiopoietin-1 repression domain are not absolutely required for mitochondrial localization and growth suppressor function of these proteins. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is a hallmark of cancer, we can speculate that the mitochondrial localization of BRCA1 proteins may be functionally significant in regulating both the mitochondrial DNA damage as well as apoptotic activity of BRCA1 proteins and mislocalization causes cancer. PMID:19170108

  6. Diltiazem Treatment for Preclinical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Mutation Carriers: A Pilot Randomized Trial to Modify Disease Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Carolyn Y.; Lakdawala, Neal K.; Cirino, Allison L.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Sparks, Elizabeth; Abbasi, Siddique A.; Kwong, Raymond Y.; Antman, Elliott M.; Semsarian, Christopher; González, Arantxa; López, Begoña; Diez, Javier; Orav, E. John; Colan, Steven D.; Seidman, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is caused by sarcomere mutations and characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with increased risk of heart failure and sudden death. HCM typically cannot be diagnosed early in life, although subtle phenotypes are present. Animal studies indicate alterations in intracellular calcium handling before LVH develops. Furthermore, early treatment with diltiazem appeared to attenuate disease emergence. Objectives To assess the safety, feasibility, and effect of diltiazem as disease-modifying therapy for at-risk HCM mutation carriers. Methods In a pilot, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 38 sarcomere mutation carriers without LVH (mean age 15.8 years) to therapy with diltiazem 360 mg/day (or 5 mg/kg/day) or placebo. Treatment duration ranged from 12 to 42 months (median 25 months). Study procedures included electrocardiography, echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and serum biomarker measurement. Results Diltiazem was not associated with serious adverse events. Heart rate and blood pressure did not differ significantly between groups. However, mean left ventricular end diastolic diameter improved towards normal in the diltiazem group but decreased further in controls (change in z-scores, +0.6 vs. −0.5; P<0.001). Mean LV thickness-to-dimension ratio was stable in the diltiazem group, but increased in controls (−0.02 vs. +0.15; P=0.04). Among MYBPC3 mutation carriers, LV wall thickness and mass, diastolic filling, and cardiac troponin I levels improved in those taking diltiazem compared with controls. Four participants developed overt HCM, two in each treatment group. Conclusions Preclinical administration of diltiazem is safe and may improve early LV remodeling in HCM. This novel strategy merits further exploration. PMID:25543971

  7. BRCA1 in the DNA damage response and at telomeres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Michael Rosen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Mutations of the breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1 account for about 40-45% of hereditary breast cancer cases. Moreover, a significant fraction of sporadic (non-hereditary breast and ovarian cancers exhibit reduced or absent expression of the BRCA1 protein, suggesting an additional role for BRCA1 in sporadic cancers. BRCA1 follows the classic pattern of a highly penetrant Knudsen-type tumor suppressor gene in which one allele is inactivated through a germ-line mutation and the other is mutated or deleted within the tumor. BRCA1 is a multi-functional protein but it is not fully understood which function(s is (are most important for tumor suppression, nor is it clear why BRCA1 mutations confer a high risk for breast and ovarian cancers and not a broad spectrum of tumor types. Here, we will review BRCA1 functions in the DNA damage response (DDR, which are likely to contribute to tumor suppression. In the process, we will highlight some of the controversies and unresolved issues in the field. We will also describe a recently identified and under-investigated role for BRCA1 in the regulation of telomeres and the implications of this role in the DDR and cancer suppression.

  8. Changes in Cerebral Blood Flow in Presymptomatic Mutation Carriers of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD-3), Measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders;

    presymptomatic stage of the disease as indicated by local changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF). Methods: Presymptomatic mutation carriers and first-degree related non-carriers were MRI-scanned with a spin-echo sequence sensitive mainly to CBF in capillaries. CBF images were co-registered to structural T1-images...

  9. Regulation of BRCA1, BRCA2 and BARD1 intracellular trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Beric R

    2005-09-01

    The subcellular location and function of many proteins are regulated by nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. BRCA1 and BARD1 provide an interesting model system for understanding the influence of protein dimerization on nuclear transport and localization. These proteins function predominantly in the nucleus to regulate cell cycle progression, DNA repair/recombination and gene transcription, and their export to the cytoplasm has been linked to apoptosis. Germ-line mutations in the BRCA1/BRCA2 and BARD1 genes predispose to risk of breast/ovarian cancer, and certain mutations impair protein function and nuclear accumulation. BRCA1 and BARD1 shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm; however heterodimerization masks the nuclear export signals located within each protein, causing nuclear retention of the BRCA1-BARD1 complex and potentially influencing its role in DNA repair, cell survival and regulation of centrosome duplication. This review discusses BRCA1, BRCA2 and BARD1 subcellular localization with emphasis on regulation of transport by protein dimerization and its functional implications. PMID:16108063

  10. Risk of Non-Melanoma Cancers in First-Degree Relatives of CDKN2A Mutation Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Bhramar; DeLancey, John Oliver; Raskin, Leon; Everett, Jessica; Jeter, Joanne; Begg, Colin B; Orlow, Irene; Berwick, Marianne; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Kricker, Anne; Marrett, Loraine D; Millikan, Robert C.; Culver, Hoda Anton; Rosso, Stefano; Zanetti, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the risk of cancers other than melanoma among family members of CDKN2A mutation carriers using data from the Genes, Environment and Melanoma study. Relative risks (RRs) of all non-melanoma cancers among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of melanoma patients with CDKN2A mutations (n = 65) and FDRs of melanoma patients without mutations (n = 3537) were calculated as the ratio of estimated event rates (number of cancers/total person-years) in FDRs of carrier...

  11. Characterization of BRCA1 Protein Targeting, Dynamics, and Function at the Centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Kirsty M.; Henderson, Beric R.

    2012-01-01

    BRCA1 is a DNA damage response protein and functions in the nucleus to stimulate DNA repair and at the centrosome to inhibit centrosome overduplication in response to DNA damage. The loss or mutation of BRCA1 causes centrosome amplification and abnormal mitotic spindle assembly in breast cancer cells. The BRCA1-BARD1 heterodimer binds and ubiquitinates γ-tubulin to inhibit centrosome amplification and promote microtubule nucleation; however regulation of BRCA1 targeting and function at the centrosome is poorly understood. Here we show that both N and C termini of BRCA1 are required for its centrosomal localization and that BRCA1 moves to the centrosome independently of BARD1 and γ-tubulin. Mutations in the C-terminal phosphoprotein-binding BRCT domain of BRCA1 prevented localization to centrosomes. Photobleaching experiments identified dynamic (60%) and immobilized (40%) pools of ectopic BRCA1 at the centrosome, and these are regulated by the nuclear export receptor CRM1 (chromosome region maintenance 1) and BARD1. CRM1 mediates nuclear export of BRCA1, and mutation of the export sequence blocked BRCA1 regulation of centrosome amplification in irradiated cells. CRM1 binds to undimerized BRCA1 and is displaced by BARD1. Photobleaching assays implicate CRM1 in driving undimerized BRCA1 to the centrosome and revealed that when BRCA1 subsequently binds to BARD1, it is less well retained at centrosomes, suggesting a mechanism to accelerate BRCA1 release after formation of the active heterodimer. Moreover, Aurora A binding and phosphorylation of BRCA1 enhanced its centrosomal retention and regulation of centrosome amplification. Thus, CRM1, BARD1 and Aurora A promote the targeting and function of BRCA1 at centrosomes. PMID:22262852

  12. Presymptomatic cerebral blood flow changes in CHMP2B mutation carriers of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD-3), measured with MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunau, Line Andersen; Mouridsen, Kim; Rodell, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess functional changes measured by cerebral blood flow (CBF) in the presymptomatic stage of frontotemporal dementia linked to chromosome 3 (FTD-3) caused by a truncating mutation in CHMP2B. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: A memory clinic and tertiary referrals centre for......1 images. Perfusion data were then extracted from seven regions-of-interest, normalised to white matter and statistically compared between carriers and non-carriers. RESULTS: For SE, contrasts between carriers and non-carriers showed significant differences in temporal, occipital and parietal lobes...

  13. Gross genomic alterations and gene expression profiles of high- grade serous carcinoma of the ovary with and without BRCA1 inactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRCA1 gene inactivation causes chromosomal instability, leading to rapid accumulation of chromosomal rearrangements and mutations. The loss of BRCA1 function due to either germline/somatic mutation or epigenetic silencing is observed in most high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary. DNA ploidy and gene expression profile were used in order to compare gross genomic alteration and gene expression pattern between cases with BRCA1 loss through mutation, BRCA1 epigenetic loss, and no BRCA1 loss in cases of high-grade serous carcinoma with known BRCA1 and BRCA 2 status. Using image cytometry and oligonucleotide microarrays, we analyzed DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction and gene expression profile of 28 consecutive cases of ovarian high-grade serous adenocarcinomas, which included 8 tumor samples with BRCA1 somatic or germline mutation, 9 samples with promoter hypermethylation of BRCA1, and 11 samples with no BRCA1 loss. None had BRCA2 mutations. The prevalence of aneuploidy and tetraploidy was not statistically different in the three groups with different BRCA1 status. The gene expression profiles were also very similar between the groups, with only two genes showing significant differential expression when comparison was made between the group with BRCA1 mutation and the group with no demonstrable BRCA1 loss. There were no genes showing significant differences in expression when the group with BRCA1 loss through epigenetic silencing was compared to either of the other two groups. In this series of 28 high-grade serous carcinomas, gross genomic alteration characterized by aneuploidy did not correlate with BRCA1 status. In addition, the gene expression profiles of the tumors showed negligible differences between the three defined groups based on BRCA1 status. This suggests that all ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas arise through oncogenic mechanisms that result in chromosomal instability, irrespective of BRCA status; the molecular abnormalities underlying this in the BRCA

  14. A human BRCA2 complex containing a structural DNA binding component influences cell cycle progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmorstein, L Y; Kinev, A V; Chan, G K; Bochar, D A; Beniya, H; Epstein, J A; Yen, T J; Shiekhattar, R

    2001-01-26

    Germline mutations of the human BRCA2 gene confer susceptibility to breast cancer. Although the function of the BRCA2 protein remains to be determined, murine cells homozygous for BRCA2 inactivation display chromosomal aberrations. We have isolated a 2 MDa BRCA2-containing complex and identified a structural DNA binding component, designated as BRCA2-Associated Factor 35 (BRAF35). BRAF35 contains a nonspecific DNA binding HMG domain and a kinesin-like coiled coil domain. Similar to BRCA2, BRAF35 mRNA expression levels in mouse embryos are highest in proliferating tissues with high mitotic index. Strikingly, nuclear staining revealed a close association of BRAF35/BRCA2 complex with condensed chromatin coincident with histone H3 phosphorylation. Importantly, antibody microinjection experiments suggest a role for BRCA2/BRAF35 complex in modulation of cell cycle progression. PMID:11207365

  15. The BRCA1-Interacting Protein Abraxas Is Required for Genomic Stability and Tumor Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Castillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Germline mutations of BRCA1 confer hereditary susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer. However, somatic mutation of BRCA1 is infrequent in sporadic breast cancers. The BRCA1 protein C terminus (BRCT domains interact with multiple proteins and are required for BRCA1’s tumor-suppressor function. In this study, we demonstrated that Abraxas, a BRCA1 BRCT domain-interacting protein, plays a role in tumor suppression. Abraxas exerts its function through binding to BRCA1 to regulate DNA repair and maintain genome stability. Both homozygous and heterozygous Abraxas knockout mice exhibited decreased survival and increased tumor incidence. The gene encoding Abraxas suffers from gene copy loss and somatic mutations in multiple human cancers including breast, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, suggesting that mutation and loss of function of Abraxas may contribute to tumor development in human patients.

  16. The expanding phenotypic spectrum of female SLC9A6 mutation carriers: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinajon, Pierre; Verbaan, Deborah; So, Joyce

    2016-08-01

    Christianson syndrome (OMIM 300243), caused by mutations in the X-linked SLC9A6 gene, is characterized by severe global developmental delay and intellectual disability, developmental regression, epilepsy, microcephaly and impaired ocular movements. It shares many common features with Angelman syndrome. Carrier females have been described as having learning difficulties with mild to moderate intellectual disability, behavioural issues and psychiatric illnesses. There is little literature on the carrier female phenotype of Christianson syndrome. We describe a large extended family with three affected males, four carrier females, one presumed carrier female and one obligate carrier female with a c.190G>T, p.E64X mutation known to cause a premature stop codon in SLC9A6. We characterize and expand the clinical phenotype of female SLC9A6 mutation carriers by comparing our described family with female carriers previously discussed in the literature. In particular, we highlight the neurodevelopmental and psychiatric phenotypes