Sample records for brazzaville

  1. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

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    Matini Laurent


    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  2. Working for the future : elite women's strategies in Brazzaville

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paravano, P.


    This paper examines the strategies applied by elite women in Brazzaville, Congo, to achieve lifelong financial security and independence for themselves and their children. Amongst these strategies are a woman's position in the household and women's ways of identifying themselves socially. Women's

  3. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

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    Matondo, H.


    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  4. Cartography of Water Erosion Hazard in Brazzaville City

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    Kempena Adolfe


    Full Text Available Water erosion is the geodynamic phenomenon that most affects the city of Brazzaville (Congo. A geological engineering mapping of the city was carried out with the objective of generating a map of water erosion hazard that facilitates the territorial ordering. The methodology focused on the processing and interpretation of Landsat and Radar SRTM images. From the geological engineering survey of the city it was made the types of water erosion Map for the diagnosis of the area. Thematic maps and the total hazard map were generated through a GIS. It is concluded that the districts located to the north, northeast and northwest of the city present the highest hazard level to water erosion, associated mainly with a low vegetation cover, sandy soil poor in clay and very erodible and the mountainous relief.

  5. [Hypertensive emergencies at the University Hospital Center in Brazzaville, Congo]. (United States)

    Ellenga, Mbolla B F; Gombet, T R; Mahoungou, Guimbi K C; Otiobanda, G F; Ossou, Nguiet P M; Ikama, M S; Kimbally-Kaky, G; Etitiele, F


    The purpose of this retrospective study conducted in the emergency department of the University Hospital Center in Brazzaville, Congo was to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of hypertensive emergencies. With a total of 76 patients admitted during the study period, the prevalence of hypertensive emergency was 4%. The sex ratio was 1 and mean patient age was 57.3 years (range, 30 to 80 years). Risk factors included obesity in 62 cases (81.6%), history of hypertension in 65 (85.5%) and low socioeconomic level in 58 (76.3%). Mean delay for consultation was 50 hours (range, 1 to 240 hours). The disease underlying the hypertensive emergency was stroke with 38 cases (50%), heart failure in 20 (26.3%), hypertensive encephalopathy in 11 (14.4%), malignant hypertension in 9 (11.8%), and renal failure in 10 (13.1%). The mean length of emergency treatment was 14.7 hours (range, 5 to 48 hours). Eight deaths (10.5%) occurred during hospitalization in the emergency department.

  6. Gestion des espaces publics au Congo-Brazzaville: le cas des ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The issue of public spaces in Congo-Brazzaville is at the heart of municipal political debates. At the level of public transport, the management of public spaces remains above all in the hands of the mayor's office and municipal councillors. The agreements between these authorities and the contractors running public ...

  7. La pratique du commerce informel par les eleves de brazzaville et n ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pendant les grandes vacances, les élèves choisissent diversement, leur manière de gérer ce temps consacré à la fin des activités scolaires. Dans la capitale congolaise et tchadienne, une catégorie d'entre eux a retenu notre attention: celle des élèves qui pratiquent « le commerce occasionnel ». Ceux de Brazzaville ...

  8. Prevalence of anaemia among patients with heart failure at the Brazzaville University Hospital. (United States)

    Ikama, Méo Stéphane; Nsitou, Bernice Mesmer; Kocko, Innocent; Mongo, Ngamami Solange; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisèle; Nkoua, Jean Louis


    Heart failure (HF) is a frequent cause of ospitalisation in cardiology. Its prognosis depends on several risk factors, one of which is anaemia. We aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia in patients with heart failure, and evaluate its impact on their prognosis. This article describes a cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data, carried out from 1 January to 31 December 2010 in the Department of Cardiology at Brazzaville University Hospital, Congo. Patients admitted for heart failure were included. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin level failure, and it had a negative effect on the prognosis.

  9. Congo, Brazzaville

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dans ce contexte, elles intéressent généralement des aires assez larges et ne rapportent presque rien ...... ues. Forêt inondable. Forêt de terre ferme. Forêt marécageuse. A1. A2. B1. B2. C1. C2 ..... Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives,.

  10. Molecular Detection of Helicobacter pylori and its Antimicrobial Resistance in Brazzaville, Congo. (United States)

    Ontsira Ngoyi, Esther Nina; Atipo Ibara, Blaise Irénée; Moyen, Rachelle; Ahoui Apendi, Philestine Clausina; Ibara, Jean Rosaire; Obengui, O; Ossibi Ibara, Roland Bienvenu; Nguimbi, Etienne; Niama, Rock Fabien; Ouamba, Jean Maurille; Yala, Fidèle; Abena, Ange Antoine; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean Lee; Menard, Armelle; Benejat, Lucie; Sifre, Elodie; Lehours, Philippe; Megraud, Francis


    Helicobacter pylori infection is involved in several gastroduodenal diseases which can be cured by antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its bacterial resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline in Brazzaville, Congo, by using molecular methods. A cross- sectional study was carried out between September 2013 and April 2014. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and were sent to the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters where they were tested by molecular methods for detection of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-melting curve analysis (FRET-MCA) protocol, for detection of tetracycline resistance by real-time PCR on 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB), for detection of point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of H. pylori gyrA gene, associated with resistance to quinolones, by PCR and sequencing. This study showed a high H. pylori prevalence (89%), low rates of clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance (1.7% and 2.5%, respectively), and a high rate of quinolone resistance (50%). Therefore, the use of standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy is still possible as an empiric first-line treatment as well as prescription of bismuth-based quadruple therapy, which includes tetracycline, but not a levofloxacin-based triple therapy because of the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo]. (United States)

    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume


    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  12. Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Africa, Brazzaville, People's Republic of the Congo, 11-16 September 1976. Final Report. (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Environmental Education Section.

    This is the final report on the background and proceedings of the Regional Meeting of Experts on Environmental Education in Africa, convened by UNESCO with the collaboration of the University of Brazzaville. This meeting was one of five similar ones held throughout the world as a follow-up to the UNESCO Conference held in Belgrade, Yugoslavia.…

  13. [Arterial hypertension and control in Brazzaville (Congo): role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)]. (United States)

    Ikama, M S; Nsitou, B M; Makani, J; Nkalla-Lambi, M; Passi-Louamba, C


    To evaluate the rate control in the hypertensive patients and to identify the predictive factors of non-control. It was about a cross-sectional study with prospective collection of data over a period of 36 months. It has been held in Brazzaville, and included a consecutive series of 620 hypertensive patients known and treated for at least 6 weeks, having profited from an ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) with therapeutic aiming. We used the TONOPORT V and the software Cardiosoft 6.51 of GE Health Care, respectively for the recording and the data analysis. The threshold fixed on the average of 24-hour was BP<130/80 mmHg, and the patients divided into two groups according to whether they were or not controlled. They were 352 men (56.8%) and 268 women (43.2%), old on average of 53.8 ± 9.7 years (ranges: 29 and 89 years). The standard of living of the patients was average in 330 cases (53.2%), weak in 132 cases (21.3%), and high in 71 cases (11.5%). The other associated risk factors were sedentariness in 275 cases (44.4%), overweight/obesity in 134 cases (21.6%), dyslipidemia in 121 cases (19.5%), diabetes mellitus in 90 cases (14.5%), and tobacco addiction in 25 cases (4%). The hypertension, old of 5.8 ± 5.7 years on average, was controlled among 215 patients (34.7%). The 24- hour BP average was 139 ± 14 mmHg for the SBP and 88.2 ± 10.2 mmHg for the DBP. The awake and asleep BP averages were respectively 141 ± 14 mmHg and 133 ± 16.2 mmHg for the SBP, 90.5 ± 10.5 and 81.2 ± 11.1 mmHg for the DBP. The antihypertensive protocol used was a monotherapy in 130 cases (21%), bitherapy in 287 cases (46.3%), tritherapy in 154 cases (24.8%), quadritherapy or more in 27 cases (4.3%). Prevalence of non-dipping was 43%. Age and male gender were the significant predictors of poor control. The rate control of hypertension in our study population remains low. Its improvement passes by the education of the hypertensive patients and the improvement of their living

  14. Les pratiques de terrain en situation de tensions sociales et de guerre civile au Congo-Brazzaville

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    Abel Kouvouama


    Full Text Available Évoquer mes pratiques de terrain en situation de tensions sociales et de guerre civile au Congo-Brazzaville suppose un véritable travail critique sur le présent d’une société qui est à la fois ce monde social renfermant une pluralité des microcosmes sociaux et le champ de mes expériences de vie, d’action et de réflexion. J’ai été tenté – comme si cela allait de soi – de recourir à la méthode d’observation participante par immersion dans l’univers social où l’on est à la fois sujet et objet. J’avais conscience de cette double contrainte épistémologique et sociale dans la démarche réflexive et critique de socio-anthropologue selon laquelle le terrain d’objectivation participante est également celui de l’expérimentation sociale. Dans un premier temps, les recherches et enquêtes de terrain ont été menées, de 1990 à 1994, sur les « mouvements associatifs religieux et laïcs d'entraide sociale dans la société urbaine brazzavilloise (Congo ». Dans un second temps, de 1995 à 1998, les recherches ont été effectuées sur le mouvement matsouaniste dans le contexte paradoxal, du processus de démocratisation et de guerres civiles, en partenariat au sein d’une équipe de l’ORSTOM et du CNRS, sur le thème « Citadins et religions à Brazzaville». Cette construction scientifique du rapport au temps historique et la recherche sous tension en terrain « miné » m’ont permis d’une part, de comprendrece que travailler veut dire sur le présent et le quotidien dans des temporalités guerrières ; d’autre part, de voir également comment se sont construites les identités individuelles et collectives à travers différents processus de décomposition et de recomposition des situations urbaines.Field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-BrazzavilleReferring to my own field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-Brazzaville entails a

  15. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo (United States)

    Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry


    Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in

  16. Consommation de la viande de brousse dans la zone du Parc National de Conkouati-Douli, Congo (Brazzaville: nature du gibier et modalités de consommation

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    Makosso Vheiye, G.


    Full Text Available Consumption of Bushmeat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Congo (Brazzaville: Nature of Game and Characteristics of Consumption. In order to identify the species hunted in the Conkouati- Douli National Park (CDNP, Brazzaville (Congo and to appreciate the methods of consumption of the bushmeat by the bordering populations, 52 hunters from 16 to 62 years old were a surveying over a period of one month and half. The results indicate that hunt to involve rodents, bovidae, various carnivores, suidae, reptiles and birds. However, the african brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus africanus and blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola were the most appreciated animals. The modes of consumption of the bushmeat were diversified. The smoked meat was used most frequently (48.1% followed by fresh meat consumption (40.2%. All political and legislative measurements are to be necessary to preserve the resources of this protected area.

  17. Caractéristiques socio-démographiques dans la filière pâte rouie de manioc au Congo-Brazzaville

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    Louembe, D.


    Full Text Available Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Die Cassava Paste steeped in Congo-Brazzaville. Cassava roots constitute a basic food in Congo. Its consumption in the form of foufou or chikwangue requires the transformation of the roots to steeped paste. Social dynamics related to the activity of production and marketing of the steeped paste, after investigation into 119 producers showed two markets in Brazzaville draining more than 40 % of the producers and retailers, one market in Pointe - Noire with 60 % of the producers and retailers, and the railroad importance for supplying these markets. Important activities are localised in rural zone more particularly in Mindouli and in Bouenza localities. Formerly forsaken with the women, the die of the steeped paste is more and more occupied by the men especially in Pointe - Noire, particularly in the marketing part considered to be less painful and more profitable. Production and marketing activities are carried out by the young people. Illiterates producers proportion is weak in Brazzaville, but stronger in Pointe - Noire. This study does not establish any bond associating the sex, the age, the instruction and the matrimonial statute in this activity.

  18. Réécritures posthumes de Tchicaya U Tam’si entre Brazzaville et Pointe-Noire

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    Pierre Leroux


    Full Text Available L'œuvre théâtrale de l'auteur congolais Tchicaya U Tam'si (1931-1988 se résume à trois textes : Le Zulu, Le Destin glorieux du Maréchal Nnikon-Nniku prince qu'on sort et Le Bal de Ndinga. Cependant, les nombreuses adaptations pour la scène de romans, nouvelles et autres ensembles de poésies témoignent de la volonté qu'ont eue certains artistes congolais ou français de se réapproprier l'héritage du « père de notre rêve ». Au travers de l'examen de trois spectacles montés à Brazzaville et à Pointe-Noire, cet article tente de montrer comment la scène transforme les textes et comment l'auteur lui-même devient un personnage représenté et fantasmé.

  19. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l'ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla de Lossi en République du Congo- Brazzaville: première analyse de résultats et des contraintes

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    Mbété, RA.


    Full Text Available Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and to identify the constraints linked to the participative approach. The work of primatologists allowed the habituation of the gorillas to the human presence and opened eyesight tourism of western lowland gorillas. A camp for tourists and the access road to the sanctuary have been constructed. The tourism generated jobs in favour of the local population which is also a take-partner of contracts on road repairing. The income from the tourism allowed the construction of a health centre. However, the works of researchers and tourism activities failed during the outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever and during the three civil war episodes. The consolidation and the long term of this process of co-management of natural resources of Lossi remains the establishment of a management that should include conservation, rural development and scientific research, with equitably in the distribution of gain between the partnerses.

  20. Plantes aromatiques du Plateau des Cataractes (Bassin du Congo. Caractérisation du chémotype de l'huile essentielle de Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle acclimaté au Congo-Brazzaville

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    Silou, T.


    Full Text Available Aromatic plants from the Plateau des Cataractes (Congo Basin. Chemotype characterization of essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle acclimatized in Congo-Brazzaville. Description. The essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud. Wats and Cymbopogon citratus L. (DC. Stapf (lemongrass consist of more than 80% of the following constituents: citronellal, geraniol, citral, citronellol, geranyl acetate, and limonene. For the purposes of business transactions, it is therefore important to know the exact chemical composition of the essential oils produced. Objectives. Chemotype evaluation of C. nardus acclimatized on the Plateau des Cataractes. Method. The essential oils of C. nardus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by chromatography (GC and GC/MS over a period of more than ten years. Results. Cymbopogon nardus was found to produce a Java type citronella essential oil (C. winterianus with the following profile: citronellal (40-48%, geraniol (10-22%, citronellol (10-12%, limonene (2-3%, geranyl acetate (1-2%, linalool (1%. The difference between these two types of citronella, Java and Ceylon, was based on the relative proportions of their three main constituents: citronellal, geraniol and citronellol. Cymbopogon nardus is known for its high variability, with two varieties and sept subvarieties. Conclusions. The citronella established in West and Central Africa under the name of Cymbopogon nardus (Java type could be considered a Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, based on the chemical composition of its essential oil.

  1. Depression chez l'hemiplegique vasculaire a Brazzaville | Ossou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L'évolution à 6 mois n'a pas été favorable chez 65,7 % des patients. ... Sa prise en charge permettrait assurément d'améliorer la qualité de vie des patients, ... The management of post-stroke depression certainly improves the quality of life of ...

  2. dans les ménages de Brazzaville (Congo)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 août 2016 ... RESUME. Objectif : appréhender la consommation du Dioscorea librechtsiana De Wild et ses facteurs limitatifs. Méthodologie et Résultats : L'étude a concerné 199 ménages dont un répondant par ménage. En leur absence les chefs de ménage étaient remplacés systématiquement par leurs conjoints (es) ...

  3. Refractive errors and school performance in Brazzaville, Congo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Wearing glasses before ten years is becoming more common in developed countries. In black Africa, for cultural or irrational reasons, this attitude remains exceptional. This situation is a source of amblyopia and learning difficulties. Objective: To determine the role of refractive errors in school performance in ...

  4. Etiology and Outcome of Acute Renal Failure in Children in Congo-Brazzaville

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    Assounga Alain


    Full Text Available Acute renal failure (ARF is a common problem in the Congo. This is a six-year retrospective study aiming at analyzing the etiology and the outcome of ARF at the Brazzaville′s University Hospital from 1989 through 1994. One hundred and five cases of ARF (0.99%, including 54 boys (51.4% and 51 girls (48.6%, out of 10,512 children admitted in the department of Pediatrics have been recorded. ARF represented 13.09% of the causes in 802 patients with renal disorder. The main etiologies of ARF included acute gastroenteritis with dehydration (25.7%, nephrotic syndrome (14.7%, sepsis (15.23%, malaria (12.38%, and acute glomerulonephritis (9.5%. Most cases were managed conservatively, while peritoneal dialysis (PD was used in eight cases (7.62%. The outcome of ARF was recovery in 50.5 %, death in 37 % and chronic renal failure in 12.5% of cases. Preventive measures may help in reducing the high mortality rate and the need for dialysis.

  5. [Blood transfusion assessment to 112 homozygous sickle-cell disease patients in university hospital of Brazzaville]. (United States)

    Dokekias, A Elira; Ossini, L Ngolet; Tsiba, F O Atipo; Malanda, F; Koko, I; De Montalembert, M


    Homozygous, sickle-cell disease (SCD) is responsible for acute complication, especially anaemic crisis and special situation such as acute chest syndrome, stroke and acute priapism. Pregnancy sickle-cell disease presents high risk for the mother and the fetus. In these indications, blood transfusion is the main therapy aiming to reduce anaemia in order to restore hemoglobin's rate or to increase normal Hb proportion. This study aims to assess the short-term efficiency of the red cell transfusion in SCD homozygous form. One hundred and twelve homozygous sickle-cell patients were enrolled in this prospective study: 59 females and 53 males, median age is 21,8 years (extremes: 2 and 45 years). These patients are mostly with very low income. Two groups of patients are included in this study. In the first group, patients present acute anemia crisis caused by infections disease (malaria, bacterial infections). In the second group (20 cases), SCD patients have particularly situations: pregnancy (10 cases); stroke (six cases); cardiac failure (two cases) and priapism (two cases). Transfusion treatment in first group is simple regimen. Transfusion of EC increased median Hb level at 2,9 g/dl (extremes: 1,1 and 4,7). In the second group of patients, 16 cases were transfused by manual partial exchange (1-3) and four patients received simple regimen of transfusion. Median Hb level was 3,1g/dl (extremes: 2,4-4,9 g/dl). HbS percentage reduction was after PTE between -30 and -66,8% (median: -52,6%). According to our diagnostic possibilities (blood serologic test), we have not found any contamination by HIV, HBV and HCV (virus).

  6. Pratiques urbaines et imbroglio spatial : Brazzaville de la fin de la ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    2 août 2011 ... Dans la rhétorique marxiste, le concept « populaire » est très caractéristique. ... En marge de la Constitution de 1969, la loi N° 52/83 du 21 avril 1983 .... mairie et d'autres secteurs administratifs congolais dans la vulgarisation.

  7. Étude des habitudes alimentaires des ménages de Brazzaville en ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 janv. 2016 ... de se souvenir et de décrire son plat consommé les 24 heures puis les 48 heures ayant précédé l'enquête. Le code 1 a été utilisé pour la réponse oui” et 2 pour non”. Les enquêtes sur la fréquence de consommation ont été réalisées dans le but de confirmer les résultats obtenus par les rappels de 24 et de ...

  8. The pathology of the eyelid at the University Hospital of Brazzaville ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic violence topped trauma (31 patients I 45). Infections were dominated by ophthalmic Zona (18 patients I 25) and two rare diseases, one case of North American blastomycosis and one case of post surgical eyelid gangrene. Basal cell carcinoma was the first cancer (11 patients I 20). Conclusion: The pathologies of ...

  9. A study on gumbo seed grown in Congo Brazzaville for its food and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 18, 2006 ... Ibadan, Nigeria: Ibadan University Press. Pavlos A, Karakoltsidis SM. Constantinides. (1975).Okra Seeds: A New. Protein Source. J. Agric. Food Chem. 23(6): 1204-1207. Romanchik-Cerpovicz JE, Tilmon RW, Baldree KA (2002). Moisture. Retention and Consumer Acceptability of Chocolate Bar Cookies.

  10. Gilbertiodendron grandistipulatum (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae), a singular species from West Central Africa and new record for Congo (Brazzaville)


    De La Estrella, Manuel; Devesa, Juan Antonio


    Gilbertiodendron (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) is an endemic tropical African genus of ca. 30 species, most of which are trees of primary forest. The highest concentration of species and morphological variation is found in the Guineo-Congolian region, particularly in Gabon. One of those species is G. grandistipulatum, which is easily recognized by its stipules (up to 18 cm long) and flowers (adaxial petal up to 12.5 × 14 cm). The taxonomy, habitat and distribution of G. grandistipultaum are ...

  11. Fatty acids isolated from Milletia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Aug 17, 2006 ... anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Rev. Méd. Pharm. Afr. 18: 161-167. Ongoka PR (2005). Etude Ethnobotanique, Pharmacologique et chimique des plantes. Anthelminthiques du Congo Brazzaville. Thèse de Doctorat d'Etat, Faculté lira des Sciences. Université Marien. Ngouabi, Brazzaville – Congo.

  12. Evaluation des conditions de germination des noyaux de Grewia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    31 janv. 2014 ... 1Laboratoire de Physiologie et Production Végétales, Université Marien NGOUABI,. Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP.69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo. 2Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Agronomie et Forestérie, Université Marien NGOUABI,. BP. 69. Brazzaville, Republique du Congo.

  13. 2586-IJBCS-Article-Felix Koubouana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Félix KOUBOUANA1*, Suspense Averti IFO2, Lydie Blanche Mayitoukou LOUPET2 et. Eddie NDINGA2. 1Laboratoire d'Ecologie Appliquée et Environnement, ENSAF, Université Marien Ngouabi,. Brazzaville, Congo. 2Laboratoire d'Ecologie Appliquée et Environnement, ENS, Université Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville, ...

  14. 6291 Volume 12 No. 4 June 2012 DEVELOPING AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 4, 2012 ... WHO, Regional Office for Africa, Djoue, P.O.Box 06 Brazzaville, Congo. 3 ... (b) Emphasis on development of integrated and holistic food safety .... activities and epidemiological networks and ensure risk communication [16]. In.

  15. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 6, No 2 (2009), L'eclampsie au centre hospitalier et Universitaire de Brazzaville, Congo, Abstract PDF .... AL Bella, LE Mama, MC Ebana, P Ndom ... MSSACCWG Members Of The Sub-Saharan Africa Cervical Cancer Working Group.

  16. Comparative study of the chemical composition of the essential oils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...

  17. Characterization of a Freshwater Crab Sudanonautes aubryi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jan 31, 2014 ... 2Faculty of Sciences and Techniques, University Marien Ngouabi - PoB 69 Congo Brazzaville ... to collect and realize a biometric characterization of this common freshwater ... information, which will be used by conservation.

  18. Causes de report d'intervention chirurgicale en chirurgie pédiatrique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le but de se travail était de déterminer les causes de report du programme opératoire en chirurgie pédiatrique au CHU de Brazzaville. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective descriptive réalisée dans le Service de chirurgie pédiatrique du CHU de Brazzaville entre juillet et décembre 2014, soit 6 mois. Elle a portée sur les ...

  19. Extraction, chemical composition and nutrional characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amaranthus hybridus is a vegetable which is eaten in Congo Brazzaville and in other countries. Two varieties of A. hybridus seeds (var 1 and 2) were selected for this study. Average oil content varies between 11 and 14%. A. hybridus seeds are also rich in proteins (17%) and minerals. Red oils obtained have a high ...

  20. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Itoua, C. Vol 92, No 4 (2015) - Articles Ophthalmoplegia, Dysphonia and Tetraparesis Due to Guillain-Barre's Syndrome in Pregnant at 14 Weeks of Gestation: Case Report Abstract · Vol 92, No 5 (2015) - Articles Retinoblastoma: Assessing the Level of Knowledge of Tumour By Midwives in Brazzaville Abstract · Vol 92, No 6 ...

  1. African Journal of Neurological Sciences - 2009 Vol. 28 No 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of our study was to evaluate, in the absence of a neuropsychological rehabilitation, the impact of gnostic disorders on the functional outcome of patients after left hemiplegic stroke. This is a longitudinal study in two functional rehabilitation centers in Brazzaville, from 1st December 2011 to. 1st October 2012.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ngouma, Amour. Vol 36, No 1 (2017) - Articles Depression chez l'hemiplegique vasculaire a Brazzaville Abstract. ISSN: 1015-8618. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...

  3. 8 CFR 1212.1 - Documentary requirements for nonimmigrants. (United States)


    ... admissible. A passport is also required. (5) Aliens entering pursuant to International Boundary and Water... functions of the International Boundary and Water Commission, and entering the United States temporarily in... Republic, People's Republic of China, Colombia, Congo (Brazzaville), Cuba, India, Iran, Iraq, Libya...

  4. Women\\'s Labor Force Participation and Introduction of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women\\'s labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two ...

  5. Eales' Disease: Case report | Atipo-Tsiba | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eales' disease is a retinal vasculopathy of unknown origin. Ischaemic step associated retinal perivasculitis. Neovascularisation step after the previous one, characterised by vitreous haemorrhage in relation with retinal neo vessels. This observation presents the first reported case of this pathology in Brazzaville. A man of 32 ...

  6. Wolfram syndrome: Case report | Atipo-Tsiba | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The third type or Wolfram-like syndrome is autosomal dominant, differs from the first two by the late onset of optic atrophy and diabetes mellitus type 1 (after adolescence) and hearing impairment is not always present. We report the first documented case of Wolfram syndrome at the University Hospital of Brazzaville in a nine ...

  7. List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    List of Higher Risk Countries and Territories (IDRC, July 2013). Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's ...

  8. 123 East and Central African Journal of Surgery Volume 12 Number ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Josephine Nakato

    limb associated with avascular necrosis of the head of femur. [Table 2]. Discussion. Our study involved 165 patients hospitalized in surgical ward of BUTH. Male were slightly more than female. The male predominance was previously reported by Boukinda et al2 in. Brazzaville and Cacala et al3 in South. Africa. In this study ...

  9. 1661-IJBCS-Article-Victor Kimpouni

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Victor KIMPOUNI *, Paul MBOU,Gabriel GAKOSSO et Marcel MOTOM. École Normale Supérieure, Université Marien ...... Kinshasa- Brazzaville. Jardin Botanique. National de Belgique : Bruxelles. Peters CM. 1997. Exploitation soutenue de produits forestiers autres que le bois en forêt tropicale humide : manuel d'initiation ...

  10. Food Ration and Mental Training for the Improvement of the Free Throw Performance in Congolese Beginners Basketball Players (United States)

    Bouhika, Eddie Janvier; Moussouami, Simplice Innocent; Tsiama Portejoie, Jean Aimé; Bazaba Kayilou, Jean Michel; Moyen, Rachel; Mizere Moungondo, Martin; Maouene, Michel; Mbemba, François


    Objective: Through an experimental study, the present work aims at testing the effectiveness of diet and mental imagery on the success of free throw in Congolese beginners Basketball Players. Method: 45 players participated in this experimental study in Brazzaville (Congo). These subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 15), made up of…

  11. Afican Health Sciences Vol 9 No 2.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    consciousness, posture, motor function, deep tendon reflexes and abnormal movements. A detailed neurologic examination using a standardised questionnaire was performed by ..... Dec;85(6):718-22. 26. Carme B, Bouquety JC, Plassart H. Mortality and sequelae due to cerebral malaria in African children in Brazzaville,.

  12. Commerce et système d'information : le cas des vendeurs de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper seeks to establish the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the trade in wrapper cloth in Brazzaville, Congo. The study focused on access, use and impact and concluding that the level of access is low in general and for men and women taken separately, although men have more ...

  13. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 601 - 650 of 808 ... ... Reponse A L\\'alimentation Calcique Separee De Lignees Commerciales De Poules Pondeuses Shaver Dans Les Conditions Tropicales Du Congo Brazzaville, Abstract. H Banga-Mboko, B Mabanza – Mbandza, PP Adzona, C Batessana. Vol 61, No 3 (2013), Reproductive Performance in Response ...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batessana, C. Vol 55, No 1 (2007) - Articles Reponse A L\\'alimentation Calcique Separee De Lignees Commerciales De Poules Pondeuses Shaver Dans Les Conditions Tropicales Du Congo Brazzaville Abstract. ISSN: 0378-9721. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  15. Minority representation in a semi-democratic regime: the Georgian case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zollinger, Daniel; Bochsler, Daniel


    Guinea, Tanzania, Gabon, Kenya, Mauritania, and Congo (Brazzaville). This article highlights the impact of the electoral system and the importance of political plurality and electoral district design in such contexts. The article argues that the interests of minorities are best protected if they can...

  16. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombet T


    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  17. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.


    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  18. Monitoring Forest Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in the Congo Basin



    The Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC) and its partners (OFAC, USAID, EC-JRC, OSFAC, WWF, WRI, WCS, GOFC-GOLD, START, UN-FAO) organized an international conference on "Monitoring of Carbon stocks and fluxes in the Congo Basin" in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo, 2-4 February 2010. The conference brought together leading international specialists to discuss approaches for quantifying stocks and flows of carbon in tropical forests of the Congo Basin. The conference provided a unique op...

  19. Nouvelles Acquisitions de la bibliothèque de Géographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Joseph


    Full Text Available AfriqueExploitation et gestion durable des forêts en Afrique Centrale : la quête de la durabilité, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007.FAY, KONÉ, QUIMINAL, Décentralisation et pouvoirs en Afrique : en contrepoint, modèles territoriaux français, Paris, IRD Éditions, 2006.GASCON, Alain, Sur les hautes terres comme au ciel : identités et territoires en Éthiopie, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2006.GOULOU, Jean-Richard Armand, Infrasructuctures de transport et de communication au Congo-Brazzaville, Par...

  20. The identification of Lynch syndrome in Congolese colorectal cancer patients. (United States)

    Poaty, Henriette; Aba Gandzion, Chandra; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Gassaye, Déby; Peko, Jean Félix; Nkoua Bon, Jean Bernard; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles


    We aimed to investigate the prevalence of Lynch syndrome as one of hereditary causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) among young Congolese individuals affected by the CRC, and to define methods for diagnosis in Congo Brazzaville. We conducted a transversal cohort study of 34 patients having a CRC with a family history for a period of eight years. They were selected among 89 CRCs of any type from the Bethesda guidelines criteria combined with pedigrees. Mismatch repair (MMR) genes alterations were researched by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified with the Bethesda criteria a total of 38.2% (34/89) patients having familial CRC with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%=[0.34-0.41]. Only 14.7% (5/34) 95% CI=[0.34-2.32] patients showed MMR immunodeficiency involving firstly MLH1 protein then MSH2 protein. These data account for 5.6% (5/89) 95% CI=[0.15-0.33] of patients affected by Lynch syndrome with an earlier median age of 35 years (range 20 to 47 years). The prevalence of Lynch syndrome found in Brazzaville is comparable to that is found in northern countries. The combined Bethesda guidelines, pedigree and IHC is an accessible and good alternative method for the positive diagnosis of Lynch syndrome in current practice in Congo. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Agriculture urbaine et subsistance des ménages dans une zone de post-conflit en Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys E.


    Full Text Available Urban agriculture and household subsistence in a post-confl ict zone in Central Africa. This study presents an analysis of the technical and socio-economic specifi cities of urban agriculture in a post confl ict region in Central Africa, based on a survey in Brazzaville (Congo in 2002. Hereby 710 households have been randomly selected from a previous survey data base containing 2 800 urban households. About one third of the Brazzaville households are involved in urban agriculture with 29.5% households reporting crop production activities and 8.8% animal production activities. Within animal production, aviculture activities are dominant. Gardening and vegetable production play also an important role. The confl ict situation of 1997 affected negatively urban agricultural production in particular the animal production. Although, urban agriculture is present among different social and professional categories, there is a clear dominance of subsistence and poor households, especially those already active in agriculture before. In contrast to crop production, mainly practised for subsistence reasons, the motivation for animal production is driven more by the income than by the own consumption possibilities. The results also indicate that assuring a sustainable and equitable urban development is possible by a good balance between those practising urban agriculture and those not. This requires the limitation of the negative effects (odour and other nuisances but also the removal of certain constraints limiting the productivity of urban farming, most importantly the provision of inputs, the theft of animals and soil degradation.

  2. Collective Mobilization and the Struggle for Squatter Citizenship: Rereading “Xenophobic” Violence in a South African Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Jane Monson


    Full Text Available Given the association between informal residence and the occurrence of “xenophobic” violence in South Africa, this article examines “xenophobic violence” through a political account of two squatter settlements across the transition to democracy: Jeffsville and Brazzaville on the informal periphery of Atteridgeville, Gauteng. Using the concepts of political identity, living politics and insurgent citizenship, the paper mines past and present to explore identities, collective practices and expertise whose legacy can be traced in contemporary mobilization against foreigners, particularly at times of popular protest. I suggest that the category of the “surplus person”, which originated in the apartheid era, lives on in the unfinished transition of squatter citizens to formal urban inclusion in contemporary South Africa. The political salience of this legacy of superfluity is magnified at times of protest, not only through the claims made on the state, but also through the techniques for protest mobilization, which both activate and manufacture identities based on common suffering and civic labour. In the informal settlements of Jeffsville and Brazzaville, these identities polarised insurgent citizens from non-citizen newcomers, particularly those traders whose business-as-usual practices during times of protest appeared as evidence of their indifference and lack of reciprocity precisely at times when shared suffering and commitment were produced as defining qualities of the squatter community.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Andrzejczak


    Full Text Available The majority of the population in Sub-Saharan Africa is employed in agriculture. Nevertheless, the productivity of the sector is relatively low in comparison with other regions of the world. Based on convergence theory, technology transfer can enhance growth. However, the effective transfer of technology requires a certain absorption capacity from the recipient. Based on the qualitative research on cassava production in Congo Brazzaville, we identified key factors that influence the transfer process. These factors have been divided into four key areas: market, institutions, technology, and social capability. Cassava production value chain in Ignie region served as a case study for the evaluation of technology transfer absorptive capacity in Congo agriculture. We learned that the lack of agro-technical education, shortages in infrastructure, unavailability of business services, and market structure are among the main barriers of the intensification of technology use in agriculture.

  4. [Socio-entomologic survey in human trypanosomiasis focus of Yamba (Peoples Republic of Congo)]. (United States)

    Gouteux, J P; Malonga, J R


    A study carried out at villagers level in a focus infected by human trypanosomiasis (Yamba, Bouenza region, Congo, Mikengue ethnic group) revealed that modern medicin is recognized by them as the sole possibility to treat the sleeping sickness. The witch doctor, if he cannot transmit the sickness, is perfectly able to aggravate it. He is considered as the responsible for any fatal issue. Tsetse flies are charged of transmitting the sickness as well as other biting insects (black flies, ceratopogonidae). The elders give an historical role to pigs in spreading the sickness. Villagers seem very determined to assume themselves fighting against the tsetse fly by trapping, but impregnation of traps by an insecticide got some problems (technical know-how, equipment) which have been solved by a new model of trap designed by the ORSTOM Center in Brazzaville.

  5. [Precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in Pointe-Noire, Congo]. (United States)

    Moukassa, D; N'Golet, A; Lingouala, L G; Eouani, M L; Samba, J B; Mambou, J V; Ompaligoli, S; Moukengue, L F; Taty-Pambou, E


    The purpose of this study was to determine the cytological profile and risk factors for intraepithelial precancerous lesions of the uterine cervix in an urban community of Pointe-Noire, an industrialized seaport located in the southeast region of Congo-Brazzaville. A transverse study was carried out over a period of 18 months (January 2003 to July 2004) in the Center for the Study of Human and Animal Diseases (CSHAD) at the General Adolphe Sie Hospital in Pointe-Noire. A total of 1347 files of women benefiting from cervico-vaginal smears were included in the study. Testing was undertaken either at the request of the patient (voluntary screening) or at the request of a health care provider (physician, midwife or nurse) in relation with various gynecological problems. The relative frequency of intraepithelial lesions was estimated to be 15.36% including 9.17% of low-grade intraepithelial lesions (Ig IEL) and 6.19% of high-grade intraepithelial lesions (hg IEL). The mean age of patients with hg IEL was 42.25 years (range, 12 to 17). Study of the interval between actual age at the time of sample collection and age of first sexual relations showed that women presenting IEL had an interval of at least 20 years. This interval probably corresponds to the time necessary for the interaction between human papillomavirus (HPV) and epithelial cells of the uterine cervix to induce intraepithelial lesions that lead to development of cancer of the uterine cervix. Comparative analysis of the number of sexual partners between the group of women with normal smears and the group with smears showing hg IEL indicated a clear predominance of the mean number of partners in the latter group, i.e., 2 +/- 1,2 versus 5 +/- 1,8 (p cervix in the Kouilou department of Congo-Brazzaville. These data will serve as benchmarks and guidance for forthcoming screening campaigns for early detection of uterine cervix cancer.

  6. Plasmodium falciparum infection in febrile Congolese children: prevalence of clinical malaria 10 years after introduction of artemisinin-combination therapies. (United States)

    Etoka-Beka, Mandingha Kosso; Ntoumi, Francine; Kombo, Michael; Deibert, Julia; Poulain, Pierre; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Kobawila, Simon Charles; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix


    To investigate the proportion of malaria infection in febrile children consulting a paediatric hospital in Brazzaville, to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection, to characterise Plasmodium falciparum infection and compare the prevalence of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria according to haemoglobin profiles. Blood samples were collected from children aged <10 years with an axillary temperature ≥37.5 °C consulting the paediatric ward of Marien Ngouabi Hospital in Brazzaville. Parasite density was determined and all samples were screened for P. falciparum by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the P. falciparum msp-2 marker to detect submicroscopic infections and characterise P. falciparum infection. Sickle cell trait was screened by PCR. A total of 229 children with fever were recruited, of whom 10% were diagnosed with uncomplicated malaria and 21% with submicroscopic infection. The mean parasite density in children with uncomplicated malaria was 42 824 parasites/μl of blood. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 1.59 in children with uncomplicated malaria and 1.69 in children with submicroscopic infection. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.1 ± 1.7 for children with uncomplicated malaria and 12.0 ± 8.6 for children with submicroscopic infection. About 13% of the children harboured the sickle cell trait (HbAS); the rest had normal haemoglobin (HbAA). No difference in prevalence of uncomplicated malaria and submicroscopic infection, parasite density, haemoglobin level, MOI and P. falciparum genetic diversity was observed according to haemoglobin type. The low prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in febrile Congolese children indicates the necessity to investigate carefully other causes of fever. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Global funding trends for malaria research in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic analysis. (United States)

    Head, Michael G; Goss, Sian; Gelister, Yann; Alegana, Victor; Brown, Rebecca J; Clarke, Stuart C; Fitchett, Joseph R A; Atun, Rifat; Scott, J Anthony G; Newell, Marie-Louise; Padmadas, Sabu S; Tatem, Andrew J


    Total domestic and international funding for malaria is inadequate to achieve WHO global targets in burden reduction by 2030. We describe the trends of investments in malaria-related research in sub-Saharan Africa and compare investment with national disease burden to identify areas of funding strength and potentially neglected populations. We also considered funding for malaria control. Research funding data related to malaria for 1997-2013 were sourced from existing datasets, from 13 major public and philanthropic global health funders, and from funding databases. Investments (reported in US$) were considered by geographical area and compared with data on parasite prevalence and populations at risk in sub-Saharan Africa. 45 sub-Saharan African countries were ranked by amount of research funding received. We found 333 research awards totalling US$814·4 million. Public health research covered $308·1 million (37·8%) and clinical trials covered $275·2 million (33·8%). Tanzania ($107·8 million [13·2%]), Uganda ($97·9 million [12·0%]), and Kenya ($92·9 million [11·4%]) received the highest sum of research investment and the most research awards. Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda remained highly ranked after adjusting for national gross domestic product. Countries with a reasonably high malaria burden that received little research investment or funding for malaria control included Central African Republic (ranked 40th) and Sierra Leone (ranked 35th). Congo (Brazzaville) and Guinea had reasonably high malaria mortality, yet Congo (Brazzaville) ranked 38th and Guinea ranked 25th, thus receiving little investment. Some countries receive reasonably large investments in malaria-related research (Tanzania, Kenya, Uganda), whereas others receive little or no investments (Sierra Leone, Central African Republic). Research investments are typically highest in countries where funding for malaria control is also high. Investment strategies should consider more equitable

  8. First reported chikungunya fever outbreak in the republic of Congo, 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011.We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2% lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area. Amongst them, 37 (11.7% were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay, of whom 36 (97.3% had fever, 22 (66.7% myalgia and 32 (86.5% arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors, providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2% with sensitivity (78.6% and specificity (72.4% values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%, but the positive predictive value (45% indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1 demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis.We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and

  9. Espaces, formes et enjeux identitaires dans Les petits-fils nègres de Vercingétorix de A. Mabanckou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrien Snoeck


    Full Text Available Dans l’œuvre romanesque de A. Mabanckou, le roman Les petits-fils nègres de Vercingétorix occupe une place particulière. Avec sobriété, l’auteur guide la plume de son héroïne, Hortense Iloki, pour peindre la violence aveugle à laquelle les hommes de son pays, le Viétongo, en proie à leurs démons identitaires, se livrent sans retenue. Tandis que la guerre civile fait rage, les femmes résistent à la haine tribale, s’organisent même pour témoigner de l’horreur dont elles sont les premières victimes. Viétongo ou Congo ? Ce qui se veut fictionnel rejoint la brutale réalité de la guerre civile de 1997 au Congo Brazzaville. En dénonçant l’instrumentalisation de questions identitaires par des hommes politiques africains à des fins personnelles, ce roman inscrit son auteur parmi les grands romanciers engagés de la sous-région.

  10. [Medical transportation of Congolese children by the Foundation "Terre des hommes" Netherlands (1989--1998)]. (United States)

    Cardorelle, A Mbika; Okoko, A R; Perez, A Cosio; Moyen, G


    We report the 10 year assessment of collaboration with the Foundation "Terre des hommes" concerning the medical transfer in the Netherlands of 41 children carrying pathologies which couldn't be treated or operated on in Brazzaville. The average age was 3 years and 6 months old (extremes: 2 months - 15 years). 33 non-cyanotic cardiopathies dominated by ventricular septal defect (VSD) (n = 10) and 11 cyanotic cardiopathies among them the tetralogy of Fallot (n = 5) were admitted. The other pathologies were respectively: osseous (n = 3), vesical (n = 2), pulmonary tumoral, ophthalmic in 1 case. The surgery consisted in a complete repair in 19 cases, palliative in 9 cases. Two children proved to be inoperable. Eight other extra-cardiac pathologies had a specific surgery for each case. The average stay in the Netherlands was 1 month 13 days (extremes: 1 - 12 months). The evolution was favourable for 35 children all pathologies included. Four deaths occurred in the Netherlands and 2 in Congo. The organization of the technology transfer would be probably a better choice in the future.

  11. Performance of Using Cascade Forward Back Propagation Neural Networks for Estimating Rain Parameters with Rain Drop Size Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddi Tengeleng


    Full Text Available The aim of our study is to estimate the parameters M (water content, R (rain rate and Z (radar reflectivity with raindrop size distribution by using the neural network method. Our investigations have been conducted in five African localities: Abidjan (Côte d’Ivoire, Boyele (Congo-Brazzaville, Debuncha (Cameroon, Dakar (Senegal and Niamey (Niger. For the first time, we have predicted the values of the various parameters in each locality after using neural models (LANN which have been developed with locally obtained disdrometer data. We have shown that each LANN can be used under other latitudes to get satisfactory results. Secondly, we have also constructed a model, using as train-data, a combination of data issued from all five localities. With this last model called PANN, we could obtain satisfactory estimates forall localities. Lastly, we have distinguished between stratiform and convective rain while building the neural networks. In fact, using simulation data from stratiform rain situations, we have obtained smaller root mean square errors (RMSE between neural values and disdrometer values than using data issued from convective situations.

  12. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Shingles Associated with a Combined Paralysis of Three Oculomotor Nerves: A Case Report. (United States)

    Atipo-Tsiba, P W; Kombo Bayonne, E S


    In countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection, particularly in black Africa, shingles is one of the main opportunistic infections during immunosuppression due to AIDS in young patients. If immunological weakness is important, usually when the CD4 cell count is less than 100 cells/mm(3), the risk of inflammatory reactions in the first three months after initiating of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is very high. This inflammatory reaction is called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This observation reports the first documented case of IRIS with V1 shingles in a young HIV patient at University Hospital of Brazzaville. A 40 years old patient was seen for a pain of the right side of the face and a complete immobility of the eyeball. The diagnosis of V1 shingles with a pan uveitis, and a paralysis of III, IV and VI nerves was made. The patiants HIV status was positive and CD4 cell count was 150 cells/mm(3). After two months of evolution under ART with a CD4 count of 850 cells /mm(3), the symptomatology was quickly complicated by significant inflammation causing a phtisis bulbi. CD4 cells count is an important indicator in the HIV/AIDS therapy. In some major forms of IRIS, momentary pause of anti retroviral treatment is sometimes necessary.

  13. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa. (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc


    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects.

  14. Predictors of HIV Testing among Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Asaolu, Ibitola O; Gunn, Jayleen K; Center, Katherine E; Koss, Mary P; Iwelunmor, Juliet I; Ehiri, John E


    In spite of a high prevalence of HIV infection among adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth in the region remains sub-optimal. The objective of this study was to assess factors that influence uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth aged 15-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa. This study used the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from countries that represent four geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa: Congo (Brazzaville), representing central Africa (DHS 2011-2012); Mozambique, representing southern Africa (DHS 2011); Nigeria, representing western Africa (DHS 2013); and Uganda, representing eastern Africa (DHS 2011). Analyses were restricted to 23,367 male and female respondents aged 15-24 years with complete data on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of HIV testing. Statistical significance was set at psub-Saharan Africa for HIV testing continues to be a challenge. Public health programs that seek to increase HIV counseling and testing among youth should pay particular attention to efforts that target high-risk subpopulations of youth. The results further suggest that these initiatives would be strengthened by including strategies to increase HIV comprehensive knowledge.

  15. Socio-economic risk factors of foreign land acquisition in a developing country

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    Ujunwa Augustine


    Full Text Available Large investment in African land has generated serious interest among academicians, policy makers, international and local development agencies as well as civil organization. The debates centre on the phenomenal trajectory and the drivers of this investment in Africa. The inaccuracy or ambiguities in number of deals and institutional specificities has brought in the main, the need to undertake country by country study of foreign land deals in agricultural investment. To suggest vital information that will aid policy formulation and deliberation at country level, the study is on Congo-Brazzaville. This paper explores the factors that influenced foreign land acquisition in Congo, the impact of such investment on the host communities, and faults the decision of the government to make the attraction of foreign investment in agriculture a priority without fashioning out institutional framework that will regulate the investors and promote market discipline. Based on the above, the paper recommends strategies the government should earnestly pursue to mitigate the negativities of the investment and leverage on the benefits of commercial farming in the country, especially, in the area of skill transfer

  16. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Hans J. Overgaard


    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  17. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

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    Marie-Soleil Frère


    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  18. Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Fishman, Jack; Brackett, Vincent G.; Veiga, Robert E.; Nganga, Dominique; Minga, A.; Cros, Bernard; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.


    The large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol formed in the stratosphere by conversion of sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.14 deg N, 120.35 deg E) in the Philippines around June 15, 1991, has had a pronounced effect on lower stratospheric ozone in the tropics. Measurements of stratospheric ozone in the tropics using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sondes before and after the eruption and the airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) measurements from several years before the eruption and ECC sonde measurements from the year prior to the eruption to determine the resulting changes. Ozone decreases of up to 33 % compared with SAGE II climatological values were found to be directly correlated with altitude regions of enhanced aerosol loading in the 16- to 28-km range. A maximum partial-column decrease of 29 +/- Dobson units (DU) was found over the 16- to 28-km range in September 1991 along with small increases (to 5.9 +/- 2 DU) from 28 to 31.5 km. A large decrease of ozone was also found at 4 deg to 8 deg S from May to August 1992, with a maximum decrease of 33 +/- 7 DU found above Brazzaville in July. Aerosol data form the visible channel of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible wavelength of the UV DIAL system were used to examine the relationship between aerosol (surface area) densities and ozone changes. The tropical stratospheric ozone changes we observed in 1991 and 1992 are likely be explained by a combination of dynamical (vertical transport) perturbations, radiative perturbations on ozone photochemistry, and heterogeneous chemistry.

  19. Mapping Water Level Dynamics over Central Congo River Using PALSAR Images, Envisat Altimetry, and Landsat NDVI Data (United States)

    Kim, D.; Lee, H.; Jung, H. C.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Tshimanga, R.; Alsdorf, D. E.


    Rivers and wetlands are very important for ecological habitats, and it plays a key role in providing a source of greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). The floodplains ecosystems depend on the process between the vegetation and flood characteristics. The water level is a prerequisite to an understanding of terrestrial water storage and discharge. Despite the lack of in situ data over the Congo Basin, which is the world's third largest in size ( 3.7 million km2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge ( 40,500 m3 s-1 annual average between 1902 and 2015 in the main Brazzaville-Kinshasa gauging station), the surface water level dynamics in the wetlands have been successfully estimated using satellite altimetry, backscattering coefficients (σ0) from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images and, interferometric SAR technique. However, the water level estimation of the Congo River remains poorly quantified due to the sparse orbital spacing of radar altimeters. Hence, we essentially have limited information only over the sparsely distributed the so-called "virtual stations". The backscattering coefficients from SAR images have been successfully used to distinguish different vegetation types, to monitor flood conditions, and to access soil moistures over the wetlands. However, σ0 has not been used to measure the water level changes over the open river because of very week return signal due to specular scattering. In this study, we have discovered that changes in σ0 over the Congo River occur mainly due to the water level changes in the river with the existence of the water plants (macrophytes, emergent plants, and submersed plant), depending on the rising and falling stage inside the depression of the "Cuvette Centrale". We expand the finding into generating the multi-temporal water level maps over the Congo River using PALSAR σ0, Envisat altimetry, and Landsat Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. We also present preliminary estimates of the river

  20. Renewed mobilization against malaria. (United States)


    1 million people die in the world from malaria annually, 800,000 of whom are 5 year old children in Sub-Sahara Africa. Further it affects 270 million people. In fact, 110 million develop malaria, 90 million of whom are from Sub-Saharan Africa. Thus WHO has introduced a new world initiative for malaria control to reverse the worsening trend that began in the mid 1970s. In October 1991, 150 officials from 50 African, Asian, and Latin American countries and participants from UN cooperation and development agencies and bilateral agencies attended an interregional conference at the WHO Regional office for Africa in Brazzaville, Congo. It strove to evaluate malaria situations specific to Africa, to update the malaria control plan in Africa, and to contribute to the development of an implementable world strategy. This world strategy needs to consider the local situation and encourage participation of the government and people of affected countries. Further individuals, communities, and various sectors of the national economy including those involved in health, education, development, and agriculture need to participate in malaria control. In addition, for this strategy to work, most countries must strengthen the management and financing of health services to meet their needs. For example, local populations must share local operating costs such as those for essential drugs and mosquito control operations. Community participation must also include personal protection such as impregnated bed nets and environmental measures. Besides malaria control must be integrated into the existing health system at country, provincial, and peripheral levels. In sum, improved case management, control of malaria transmission, and prevention and control of epidemics form the basis for the new strategy.

  1. On the effects of wildfires on precipitation in Southern Africa (United States)

    De Sales, Fernando; Okin, Gregory S.; Xue, Yongkang; Dintwe, Kebonye


    This study investigates the impact of wildfire on the climate of Southern Africa. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer derived burned area fraction data was implemented in a set of simulations to assess primarily the role of wildfire-induced surface changes on monthly precipitation. Two post-fire scenarios are examined namely non-recovering and recovering vegetation scenarios. In the former, burned vegetation fraction remains burned until the end of the simulations, whereas in the latter it is allowed to regrow following a recovery period. Control simulations revealed that the model can dependably capture the monthly precipitation and surface temperature averages in Southern Africa thus providing a reasonable basis against which to assess the impacts of wildfire. In general, both wildfire scenarios have a negative impact on springtime precipitation. September and October were the only months with statistically significant precipitation changes. During these months, precipitation in the region decreases by approximately 13 and 9% in the non-recovering vegetation scenario, and by about 10 and 6% in the recovering vegetation wildfire scenario, respectively. The primary cause of precipitation deficit is the decrease in evapotranspiration resulting from a reduction in surface net radiation. Areas impacted by the precipitation reduction includes the Luanda, Kinshasa, and Brazzaville metropolitan areas, The Angolan Highlands, which are the source of the Okavango Rive, and the Okavango Delta region. This study suggests that a probable intensification in wildfire frequency and extent resulting from projected population increase and global warming in Southern Africa could potentially exacerbate the impacts of wildfires in the region's seasonal precipitation.

  2. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan


    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  3. Sony Labou Tansi, afflux des écrits et flux de l’écriture

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    Nicolas Martin-Granel


    Full Text Available Cet état des lieux des archives laissées par Sony Labou Tansi comprend deux volets. Le premier se présente comme un historique de la sauvegarde et de la valorisation des écrits qui constituent un continent immense et inédit. Leur histoire mouvementée est racontée à partir du moment où l’écriture s’arrête, lors la disparition de l’écrivain en 1995. Matériellement, les écrits sont couchés, pour la plupart, dans des cahiers d’écolier jetés en vrac au fond de la petite bibliothèque de sa maison de Makélékélé à Brazzaville. Sans date, parfois sans titre, ils représentent un véritable défi à la critique génétique qui cherche à les classer, les inventorier, les numériser et enfin à les éditer. Reconstituer leur parcours, au fil des multiples versions et transformations successives, aboutit à dresser la cartographie du labyrinthe textuel constitué non seulement du fonds SLT séparé entre la France et le Congo mais aussi des cahiers et lettres disséminés par l’auteur auprès de ses nombreux amis lecteurs et éditeurs. Dans le second volet, on s’attache à retrouver le fil conducteur de l’écriture, à en restituer la logique vitaliste et hypertextuelle. Si SLT écrivait comme on respire, son écriture, d’allure improvisée, décrite par la génétique comme « à processus », relève, du point de vue anthropologique, du prophétisme scripturaire : un dire-écrire en progression continue – contre le progrès, sans jamais se retourner vers la lecture.

  4. Opportunities for Hydrologic Research in the Congo Basin (United States)

    Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E., II; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; Spencer, R. G.; O'Loughlin, F.


    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and find that there are historic data, ongoing measurement recording efforts, and important model results. Annual rainfall is ~2000 mm/yr along an east-west trend, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. While some studies show rain gauges at specific locations with declines in P greater than 10% from 1960 to 1990, other studies suggest that basin wide decreases from 1951 to 1993 are modest at 4.5% or that the trend is minimal. Studies during the 1950s using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential ET varies little across the basin at a 1100 mm/yr to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data has been collected at 100s of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Discharge of the Congo River at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during 1960-1970 in comparison to background values of the previous decades and of today. There does not appear to be a long-term discharge trend over the century of record. Satellite altimetry measurements collected during high and low flows show that the Cuvette Centrale wetland water levels are consistently 0.5m to 3m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about 1m whereas the Congo is typically less than 15m deep everywhere upstream of Kinshasa. The wetlands do not appear to be marked by sizable channels such that the flows are diffusive. CO2 and CH4 evasion from the Congo waters directly to the atmosphere are estimated at 1.6 to 3.2 Tg/yr for CH4 from the Cuvette wetland waters and 105 to 204 g C/m2/yr for CO2 from waters of the Oubangui River. Using these published results, we suggest seven hypotheses that may lead to important water and carbon cycle discoveries. These hypotheses focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how those waters leave the wetland; on river discharge generated by historic

  5. Chad. (United States)


    Focus in this discussion of Chad is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between Chad and the US. In 1987 the population was estimate to be 4.5 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. Chad is the largest country of former French Equatorial Africa. There are more than 200 ethnic groups in Chad. Ancient Arab manuscripts and modern archeological investigations document that well-developed societies flourished around Lake Chad over 1000 years ago. The French first penetrated Chad in 1891, establishing their authority through military expeditions. In 1959, the territory of French Equatorial Africa was dissolved and 4 states -- Gabon, the Central African Republic, Congo (Brazzaville), and Chad -- became autonomous members of the French Community. In 1960, Chad became an independent nation under its 1st president, Francois Tombalbaye. The Chadian government, announced in October 1982, is organized according to the Fundamental Act proclaimed by the Command Council of the Armed Forces of the North (CCFAN). The act provides for a president and head of state, a Council of Ministers, and a 30-member National Consultative Council. President Habre has sought to bring about national reconciliation by winning the allegiance of Chad's disaffected groups. He has offered any opponents or exiles who want to rejoin the Chadian polity the opportunity to do so without fear of recrimination or punishment. The primary political vehicle for the Habre government, the National Union for Independence and Revolution (UNIR), was established in June 1984, and efforts are underway to enlist members into UNIR and establish committees from the village and block level through regional committees. Most of the population earns their living from subsistence agriculture, fishing, and stock raising, with past Chadian participation in these essentially subsistence activities reaching 96%. Cotton has

  6. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes from soil of a burned grassland in Central Africa

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    R. Valentini


    Full Text Available The impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a tropical grassland in Congo Brazzaville during two field campaigns in 2007–2008. The first campaign was conducted in the middle of the dry season and the second at the end of the growing season, respectively one and eight months after burning. Gas fluxes and several soil parameters were measured in each campaign from burned plots and from a close-by control area preserved from fire. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate the magnitude and duration of the generated gas flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, soil samples from field plots were analysed for microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions under different water and temperature soil regimes. One month after burning, field CO2 emissions were significantly lower in burned plots than in the control plots, the average daily CH4 flux shifted from net emission in the unburned area to net consumption in burned plots, no significant effect of fire was observed on soil N2O fluxes. Eight months after burning, the average daily fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O measured in control and burned plots were not significantly different. In laboratory, N2O fluxes from soil of burned plots were significantly higher than fluxes from soil of unburned plots only above 70% of maximum soil water holding capacity; this was never attained in the field even after rain simulation. Higher NO emissions were measured in the lab in soil from burned plots at both 10% and 50% of maximum soil water holding capacity. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 °C to 37 °C negatively affected microbial growth, mineralization and nitrification activities but enhanced N2O and CO2 production. Results indicate that fire did not increase post-burning soil GHG emissions in this tropical grasslands characterized by acidic, well drained and nutrient-poor soil.

  7. Predictors of HIV Testing among Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Ibitola O Asaolu

    Full Text Available In spite of a high prevalence of HIV infection among adolescents and young adults in sub-Saharan Africa, uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth in the region remains sub-optimal. The objective of this study was to assess factors that influence uptake of HIV testing and counseling among youth aged 15-24 years in sub-Saharan Africa.This study used the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS data from countries that represent four geographic regions of sub-Saharan Africa: Congo (Brazzaville, representing central Africa (DHS 2011-2012; Mozambique, representing southern Africa (DHS 2011; Nigeria, representing western Africa (DHS 2013; and Uganda, representing eastern Africa (DHS 2011. Analyses were restricted to 23,367 male and female respondents aged 15-24 years with complete data on the variables of interest. Chi-square tests and logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of HIV testing. Statistical significance was set at p< 0.01.The analysis revealed that a majority of the respondents were female (78.1% and aged 20-24-years (60.7%. Only a limited proportion of respondents (36.5% had ever tested for HIV and even fewer (25.7% demonstrated comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS. There was a significant association between HIV testing and respondents' gender, age, age at sexual debut, and comprehensive knowledge of HIV in the pooled sample. Older youth (adjusted OR (aOR = 2.19; 99% CI = 1.99-2.40 and those with comprehensive knowledge of HIV (aOR = 1.98; 1.76-2.22 had significantly higher odds of ever being tested for HIV than younger respondents and those with limited HIV/AIDS knowledge respectively. Furthermore, men had lower odds of HIV testing than women (aOR = 0.32; 0.28-0.37.Reaching youth in sub-Saharan Africa for HIV testing continues to be a challenge. Public health programs that seek to increase HIV counseling and testing among youth should pay particular attention to efforts that target high-risk subpopulations of youth

  8. Optimizing the management of acute coronary syndromes in sub-Saharan Africa: A statement from the AFRICARDIO 2015 Consensus Team. (United States)

    Kakou-Guikahue, Maurice; N'Guetta, Roland; Anzouan-Kacou, Jean-Baptiste; Kramoh, Euloge; N'Dori, Raymond; Ba, Serigne Abdou; Diao, Maboury; Sarr, Moustapha; Kane, Abdoul; Kane, Adama; Damorou, Findide; Balde, Dadhi; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary; Djiddou, Mohamed; Kimbally-Kaki, Gisèle; Zabsonre, Patrice; Toure, Ibrahim Ali; Houénassi, Martin; Gamra, Habib; Chajai, Bachir; Gerardin, Benoit; Pillière, Rémy; Aubry, Pierre; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Isnard, Richard; Leprince, Pascal; Cottin, Yves; Bertrand, Edmond; Juillière, Yves; Monsuez, Jean-Jacques


    Whereas the coronary artery disease death rate has declined in high-income countries, the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, where their management remains a challenge. To propose a consensus statement to optimize management of ACS in sub-Saharan Africa on the basis of realistic considerations. The AFRICARDIO-2 conference (Yamoussoukro, May 2015) reviewed the ongoing features of ACS in 10 sub-Saharan countries (Benin, Burkina-Faso, Congo-Brazzaville, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo), and analysed whether improvements in strategies and policies may be expected using readily available healthcare facilities. The outcome of patients with ACS is affected by clearly identified factors, including: delay to reaching first medical contact, achieving effective hospital transportation, increased time from symptom onset to reperfusion therapy, limited primary emergency facilities (especially in rural areas) and emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital management, and hence limited numbers of patients eligible for myocardial reperfusion (thrombolytic therapy and/or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]). With only five catheterization laboratories in the 10 participating countries, PCI rates are very low. However, in recent years, catheterization laboratories have been built in referral cardiology departments in large African towns (Abidjan and Dakar). Improvements in patient care and outcomes should target limited but selected objectives: increasing awareness and recognition of ACS symptoms; education of rural-based healthcare professionals; and developing and managing a network between first-line healthcare facilities in rural areas or small cities, emergency rooms in larger towns, the EMS, hospital-based cardiology departments and catheterization laboratories. Faced with the increasing prevalence of ACS in sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare policies should be developed to overcome the multiple

  9. [Population planning unit is developed in the Congo]. (United States)

    Amouali, C; Poukouta, P


    This article is an update on the demographic situation in the Congo and the institutionalization of a population unit in The Ministry of Plan. From 1974-84 the population increased 44.9% going from 1,319,790 to 1,912,429 at a growth rate of 3.48% and possibly doubling in 20 years (2005). However, the major transformation has been the growth of the urban areas over the rural. From 1974-84 the rural population went from 819,430 to 934,849 while the urban population went from 500,360 in 1974 to 977,580 in 1984. The growth rate of the rural areas was 1.22% while that for the urban was 6.38% Infant mortality rate stands at 73/1000; life expectancy is 46.9 for men and 50.0 for women. The average fertility rate is 6. This demographic situation with the inherent problems of the rapidly growing urbanization of the 2 principal cities, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, has led to problems in health services and high morbidity and mortality rates. The Government has created 3 national organizations to coordinate population activities in the country: 1) The National Council on Population, (1988) an interministerial council, presided over by the Prime Minister, that defines and formulates national population policies as integral components to the country's socioeconomic development plans; 2) The National Commission on Population (CONAPO), headed by the Minister of Plan, Finance and Economics as the administrative organ of The National Council on Population, and responsible for the technical and evaluation activities of The National Council on Population; and 3) The Population Planning Unit headed by the Director of Human Resources in the Ministry of Plan responsible for identifying, formulating and evaluating population policies in the Congo. These institutions were created as a result of the 1974 Bucharest Conference and the 1984 Arusha Conference were population and development were considered integral components, and of results of 2 censuses and population surveys highlighting

  10. Monitoring the use of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the treatment of second stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis

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    Franco JR


    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less

  11. Classification of very high resolution satellite remote sensing data in a pilot phase of the forest cover classification of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Forêts d'Afrique Central Evaluées par Télédetection (FACET) product (United States)

    Singa Monga Lowengo, C.


    The Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) based in Kinshasa, serves as the focal point of the GOFC-GOLD network for Central Africa. OSFAC's long term objective is building regional capacity to use remotely sensed data to map forest cover and forest cover change across Central Africa. OSFAC archives and disseminates satellite data, offers training in geospatial data applications in coordination with the University of Kinshasa, and provides technical support to CARPE partners. Forêts d'Afrique Centrale Évaluées par Télédétection (FACET) is an OSFAC initiative that implements the UMD/SDSU methodology at the national level and quantitatively evaluates the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest cover in Central Africa. The multi-temporal series of FACET data is a useful contribution to many projects, such as biodiversity monitoring, climate modeling, conservation, natural resource management, land use planning, agriculture and REDD+. I am working as Remote Sensing and GIS Officer in various projects of OSFAC. My activities include forest cover and lands dynamics monitoring in Congo Basin. I am familiar with the use of digital mapping software, GIS and RS (Arc GIS, ENVI and PCI Geomatica etc.), classification and spatial Analysis of satellite images, 3D modeling, etc. I started as an intern at OSFAC, Assistant Trainer (Professional Training) and Consultant than permanent employee since October 2009. To assist in the OSFAC activities regarding the monitoring of forest cover and the CARPE program in the context of natural resources management, I participated in the development of the FACET Atlas (Republic of Congo). I received data from Matt Hansen (map.img), WRI and Brazzaville (shapefiles). With all these data I draw maps of the ROC Atlas and statistics of forest cover and forest loss. We organize field work on land to collect data to validate the FACET product. Therefore, to assess forest cover in the region of Kwamouth and Kahuzi-Maiko Biega

  12. [New statuses of women and urbanization in Africa]. (United States)

    Antoine, P; Nanitelamio, J


    Statistical representations of demographic phenomena are imperfect mirrors of social practices at a given time. In Africa, where traditional marital customs are influenced by western ways and where new modes of male-female relations are becoming established, the classic demographic categories of marital status do not reflect the diversity of forms of union encountered in large cities. Data from Brazzaville, Abidjan, and Dakar are the basis for some hypotheses concerning the development of new statuses of women. The discussion of female statuses is conducted in terms of an analysis of the different markets, or places of exchange, where women compete: the labor market, the marriage market, and the sexual market. In the labor market, most African women are in occupations that are directly related to traditional sexual division of labor. But the modern sector offers women the means of achieving a more independent economic status, although the proportion of women with high salaries is still small. The marriage market has been strongly influenced by changes underway in African cities. The status of single, which used to be a status of waiting, has become definitive for some women. The number of women living alone or heads of households has become high in some African cities. Increasing age at marriage and female employment opportunities in cities have increased the phenomenon of relations between men and women not dictated by the family group. Polygamy is still found at all social levels. A debate is underway in the Abidjan press concerning the new status "mistress", which is sometimes interpreted as a western form of polygamy. The practice exists in all social categories; what changes is the nature and value of the gifts given to the woman. The 2 defining features of the mistress phenomenon are its economic aspects and its existence at the margin of the matrimonial system. It can be said to belong to the sexual market, which includes all physical and affective relations

  13. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo]. (United States)

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D


    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  14. Epidémiologie des PFA et les performances du système de surveillance en Mauritanie de 2008 à 2012 (United States)

    Doumtsop, Jean Gérard Tatou; Khalef, Ishagh; Diakite, Med Lemine Brahim; Boubker, Naouri


    Introduction La Commission Régionale de Certification de l'Eradication de la poliomyélite pour l'Afrique(CRCA) en session à Brazzaville du 8 au 10 octobre 2007 avait déclaré la Mauritanie « libérée de la poliomyélite ». Objectif Décrire l’épidémiologie des PFA (Paralysies flasques aigues) et évaluer les indicateurs de performance du système de surveillance pour la période de 2008 à 2012 ayant suivi cette déclaration. Méthodes Les données du service de surveillance épidémiologique ont été nettoyées et analysées à l'aide du logiciel Epi-infoversion 3.4.3 (CDC Atlanta). Résultats 319 cas de PFA ont été notifié soit une incidence moyenne de 4.61/100000 enfants de moins de 15 ans par an. La distribution des cas cumulés par mois montre une importante notification des cas PFA pendant la période de Février à Juillet et à la suite de l’épidémie de 2009 alors que l'incidence des cas confirmés a été plus importante entre Novembre et Février. L’âge moyen était de 4ans (E.T. ±4ans) et 77.4% avaient un âge = 5ans. 18 cas de PFA ont été confirmés poliovirus sauvage(PVS) dont 6 en 2009 et 12 en 2010 et tous d'importation. L’âge moyen était de 3.4 ans (E.T ±2.6 ans). 44,4% étaient des filles et 55.5% garçons. Cette proportion était proche de celle des PFA non polio (45.1% versus 54.9%). 61% avaient reçu au plus une dose de vaccin polio orale (VPO) pour les cas de PFA polio contre 7.4% pour les PFA non polio. Aucune discrimination de genre n'a été observé sur la population des PFA ayant reçu une dose au plus (ratio-sexe= 16/17=0.94). La fièvre était présente pour 90%des cas de PFA non polio contre 85% pour les cas PVS. Cette fièvre à progresser en 3 jours pour tous les cas de PVS et pour 82,7% des cas de PFA non polio. Le taux d'hospitalisation était de 13.6% pour les cas de PFA non polio contre 89% pour les PFA polio. Dans tous les deux groupes, les membres de prédilection étaient d'abord l'un des 2 membres