Buambo-Bamanga, S F; Oyere-Moke, P; Gnekoumou, A L; Nkihouabonga, G; Ekoundzola, J R
This six-year retrospective study (1998-2003) reviewed the records of 102 women or girls examined in the hospital gynecology department at the official request of the police. We examined the following variables: social and demographic characteristics of the victim and the perpetrator (age, occupation, residence); their relationship, if any; type of contact; injuries caused by the rape. Of a total of 102 cases, we observed an important peak in 1998 (35.5%) and a significant fall in 2003 (5.9%). All age brackets were involved. 46.1% of the victims were aged 11 to 15 years, and 37.3% of the attackers from 21 to 25 years. The oldest perpetrator was 56 years; his victim was 11. The youngest victim was 4 years old and 8 months and her attacker was 14. Sexual violence reported to the police and referred to our unit involved primarily persons in the lowest socioeconomic category (86.3%). The nature of the relationship between the criminal and the victim varied: in 57.9% of cases the victim knew the attacker and in 42.1%, she did not. Offers of money preceded the rape in 40.2% of the cases, while it began with physical constraint in 47%. Rape most often involved penetration of the vagina by the penis (80.4% of cases); fellatio and sexual contact with the finger accounted for only 6.9% and 12.7%, respectively. An 11 year-old girl had vulvo-vaginal irritation without cloaca. Genital infections were observed in 15 cases (14.7%), and HIV serology present in 2 (2%). On the psychological level, two girls presented depressive syndromes and did not speak the day of their examination. Sexual violence is frequent in Brazzaville. This study, while very far from exhaustive, provides an idea about the extent of the phenomenon. Sociopolitical disorders most probably amplified this phenomenon in our society. Although physical lesions were seldom noted, the sexual aggression caused psychic damage for life and presented the risk of HIV transmission. Peace and security are the primary means
This paper examines the strategies applied by elite women in Brazzaville, Congo, to achieve lifelong financial security and independence for themselves and their children. Amongst these strategies are a woman's position in the household and women's ways of identifying themselves socially. Women's
Proximate composition, energy content and mineral concentrations of okra seeds grown in two localities of Congo Brazzaville were investigated. The paper also reports the physicochemical characteristics of the oil extracted from the seeds. Ash was highest (5.84±0. 2%) in Dolisie okra seeds (DOS) followed by Brazzaville ...
Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.
Okoko, A R; Ekouyabowassa, G; Moyen, E; Oko, A P G; Abessou, L C Togho; Mbika-Cardorelle, A; Atanda, H L; Moyen, G M
To determine the frequency of dental caries and habits that can be the cause of this disease in Brazzaville. A prospective study was conducted in primary schools between February and May 2010. This study involved a sample of 307 students of both sexes, aged 4-15 years from school in the city of Brazzaville. Prevalence of dental caries was 53.4% and the index of DMFT 2.06. Use of toothbrush was 99.4%. Two children (0.7%) brushed their teeth three times a day. There was a statistical link between regularity of brushing and occurrence of caries. The prevalence of caries was of 53% in children who brushed once a day and 12.8% in those who brushed twice a day. No decay was noted in those who brushed three times a day (p = 0.001). The DMFT was 2.06 in children who used non-fluoridated toothpaste and 1.13 in those who used the fluoridated toothpaste (p = 0.002). To ensure students a better oral hygiene and healthier teeth, a module in oral health education in schools is one of the way to fight against this public health problem.
31 janv. 2016 ... Brazzaville, Congo. (2) Équipe Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche en Alimentation et en nutrition (EPRAN), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques,. UMNG. ... The objective of the study is to provide basic information on the eating habits of households in ..... l'oseille (Hibiscus sabdariffa). La figure 5 donne les.
Full Text Available The Republic of the Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in 2006: artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line and second-line drugs, respectively. The baseline efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine was evaluated between March and July 2006 in Brazzaville, the capital city of Congo. Seventy-seven children aged between 6 months and 10 years were enrolled in a nonrandomized study. The children were treated under supervision with 6 doses of artemether-lumefantrine and followed up for 28 days in accordance with the 2003 World Health Organization guideline. Pretreatment (i.e., day 0 and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum isolates between day 14 and day 28 were compared by the polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between true recrudescence and reinfection. The overall cure rate on day 28 was 96.9% after PCR correction. Reported adverse effects included pruritus and dizziness. Artemether-lumefantrine was highly efficacious in Brazzaville.
Pendant les grandes vacances, les élèves choisissent diversement, leur manière de gérer ce temps consacré à la fin des activités scolaires. Dans la capitale congolaise et tchadienne, une catégorie d'entre eux a retenu notre attention: celle des élèves qui pratiquent « le commerce occasionnel ». Ceux de Brazzaville ...
Jean Robert Mabiala Babela MD; Evrard Romaric Nika MD; Kadidja Grâce Cléona Nkounkou Milandou MO; Steve Vassili Missambou Mandilou MD; Succes Brege Albert Bouangui Bazolana MO; Henri Germain Monabeka MD; Georges Moyen MD
The study aimed to assess obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents when facing child and adolescent obesity in order to improve the quality of care. A case-control study was conducted from February 1 to July 1, 2013. The study compared parents of obese school children (group 1 or cases; n = 254) and those school children without obesity (group 2 or controls; n = 254). These children were drawn from public and private primary schools of Brazzaville (Congo). Obesity-relate...
Carme, B; Plassart, H; Senga, P; Nzingoula, S
Current epidemiologic and clinical research on cerebral malaria is directed towards prognostic criteria and neurologic sequelae. However, the assessment of risk factors related to the environment and the socioeconomic standard of the family is of practical as well as theoretical interest. A prospective survey was carried out in March 1990 in Brazzaville, Congo by interviewing subjects in two groups: 1) 600 households representative of the Brazzaville population and 2) 84 households with a child who had been hospitalized for cerebral malaria between January 1, 1988 and June 30, 1989 (i.e., 9-27 months prior to the interview). The mothers' knowledge and attitudes with regard to the prevention and treatment of malaria in children were assessed, as was the socioeconomic standards of the households. The group in which at least one child had been hospitalized for cerebral malaria had a lower socioeconomic standard than the control group. Other differences in this group included a greater number of offspring and a higher average number of decreased children, less chemoprophylaxis, antimalarials available less often in the household, less early treatment of fever at home, and drugs bought more often at the market. There was no significant difference between the groups with regard to using the correct dosage of chloroquine, ownership of a mosquito net, or the use of insecticides or repellents.
Discrimination, Despoliation and Irreconcilable Difference: Host-Immigrant Tensions in Brazzaville, Congo Diskriminierung, Ausbeutung und unversöhnliche Differenz: Spannungen zwischen Gastland-Bevölkerung und Immigranten in Brazzaville (Kongo
Full Text Available For generations, immigrants from other African countries have comprised a significant minority of residents in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of Congo. These immigrants constitute several distinct “stranger” populations within Congolese society. While they play a significant role in the Congolese economy, they also encounter discrimination in their daily lives and face hostility from indigenous Congolese. Popular discourses in Brazzaville widely represent African foreigners as a malevolent presence and a threat to Congolese interests. Such discourses fit into broader conflicts over identity, belonging, and access to resources on the continent. This paper, based on ethnographic and survey research carried out in Brazzaville, examines the case of that city’s immigrants from the West African Sahel. It situates tensions between them and their hosts in the context of contemporary political and economic dynamics in post-colonial Congo, and specifically links them to exclusionary place-based identity as a political force in contemporary Africa. Seit Generationen stellen Immigranten aus verschiedenen afrikanischen Ländern eine wesentliche Minderheit unter den Einwohnern von Brazzaville, der Hauptstadt der Republik Kongo, dar. Diese Immigranten bilden mehrere unterschiedliche „fremde“ Einwohnergruppen in der kongolesischen Gesellschaft. Obwohl sie eine bedeutende Rolle in der kongolesischen Wirtschaft spielen, erfahren sie doch Diskriminierung im täglichen Leben und begegnen Feindseligkeiten von Seiten der einheimischen Kongolesen. In gängigen Meinungsäußerungen in Brazzaville werden afrikanische Ausländer als schädlicher Faktor und als eine Bedrohung kongolesischer Interessen dargestellt. Diese Stimmen müssen im Kontext umfassender Konflikte hinsichtlich Identität, Eigentum und Zugang zu Ressourcen auf dem Kontinent gesehen werden. Der vorliegende, auf ethnographischer Forschung und Umfragen basierende Artikel untersucht die
Bemba, E L P; Ouedraogo, A R; Ngouoni, G C; Bopaka, R G; Koumeka, P P; Ossale Abacka, K B; Mboussa, J
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is the leading sleep-related breathing disorder. Its complications and its repercussions on the quality of life of patients make the OSAS a real public health problem. The objective of this study is to both asses physicians knowledge of OSAS and describe their attitudes towards suspect subjects in Brazzaville. This was a cross-sectional study of 230 doctors practicing in various hospitals in the city of Brazzaville. The data collection was done by a self-questionnaire developed after a bibliographic analysis on the OSAS. The questionnaire was completed without recourse to a source of information. Our sample consisted of 141 (70.50%) general practitioners and 59 (29.50%) specialist physicians. The average of the knowledge score was 9.34 points±3.03 points. The general level of physician knowledge about SAS was good in 2% of cases, average in 44% of cases and low in 54% of cases. The level of knowledge was related to the number of times the OSAS diagnosis was mentioned by the physician in his practice (P<0.001), to the doctor's grade (P=0.003); to his university of origin and to the quantity of sources of information. When faced with suspects OSAS subjects, the doctor, the doctor directed the patient in 62% of the cases in ENT and in 49% in the pulmonology. The knowledge of the doctors on the OSAS are weak; this results in poor management of this pathology in the Congo. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Jean Robert Mabiala Babela MD
Full Text Available The study aimed to assess obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents when facing child and adolescent obesity in order to improve the quality of care. A case-control study was conducted from February 1 to July 1, 2013. The study compared parents of obese school children (group 1 or cases; n = 254 and those school children without obesity (group 2 or controls; n = 254. These children were drawn from public and private primary schools of Brazzaville (Congo. Obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory in 83.5% of the cases, attitudes were correct in 29% of the cases, and the practices good in 25.6% of the cases. The parents’ obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory when the socioeconomic level of the family was high (P < .02, the mothers’ educational level greater than primary (P < .001, and the fathers’ educational level was greater than primary (P < 10−4. The same observation was obtained with obesity-related attitudes and practices of the parents when correct. This influence remained after the adaptation of fathers’ educational level. In conclusion, the disease-related knowledge of parents can be considered satisfactory in the majority of the cases; however, obesity-related attitudes and practices remain incorrect in most of the cases.
Mabiala Babela, Jean Robert; Nika, Evrard Romaric; Nkounkou Milandou, Kadidja Grâce Cléona; Missambou Mandilou, Steve Vassili; Bouangui Bazolana, Succes Brege Albert; Monabeka, Henri Germain; Moyen, Georges
The study aimed to assess obesity-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices of parents when facing child and adolescent obesity in order to improve the quality of care. A case-control study was conducted from February 1 to July 1, 2013. The study compared parents of obese school children (group 1 or cases; n = 254) and those school children without obesity (group 2 or controls; n = 254). These children were drawn from public and private primary schools of Brazzaville (Congo). Obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory in 83.5% of the cases, attitudes were correct in 29% of the cases, and the practices good in 25.6% of the cases. The parents' obesity-related knowledge was satisfactory when the socioeconomic level of the family was high (P fathers' educational level was greater than primary (P obesity-related attitudes and practices of the parents when correct. This influence remained after the adaptation of fathers' educational level. In conclusion, the disease-related knowledge of parents can be considered satisfactory in the majority of the cases; however, obesity-related attitudes and practices remain incorrect in most of the cases.
Ellenga Mbolla, B F; Matingou, A R; Ikama, M S; Mongo-Ngamami, S F; Kouala Landa, C M; Gombet, T R; Kimbally-Kaky, S G
The frequency of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly as a consequence of population aging and the high prevalence of hypertension. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the cost of management of this disease in the cardiology department at University Hospital of Brazzaville. The study included 50 patients aged 67.3 ± 12.8 years (range: 34 to 88 years). Among them, 21 (42%) were unemployed, and 49 (98%) had no health insurance. Their average monthly salary was 152.8 ± 149 € (range: 0 to 686 €). The mean total cost of care was 442.4 ± 109.8 € (range: 146.6 to 646.2 €). The average monthly salary was higher than the average cost of drugs (P hospital hospitality (P <0.0001). But the overall cost of care was substantially higher than the patients' mean salary (p <0.0001). This study illustrates the increasing healthcare costs related to the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa.
Ontsira Ngoyi, Esther Nina; Atipo Ibara, Blaise Irénée; Moyen, Rachelle; Ahoui Apendi, Philestine Clausina; Ibara, Jean Rosaire; Obengui, O; Ossibi Ibara, Roland Bienvenu; Nguimbi, Etienne; Niama, Rock Fabien; Ouamba, Jean Maurille; Yala, Fidèle; Abena, Ange Antoine; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Goh, Khean Lee; Menard, Armelle; Benejat, Lucie; Sifre, Elodie; Lehours, Philippe; Megraud, Francis
Helicobacter pylori infection is involved in several gastroduodenal diseases which can be cured by antimicrobial treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection and its bacterial resistance to clarithromycin, fluoroquinolones, and tetracycline in Brazzaville, Congo, by using molecular methods. A cross- sectional study was carried out between September 2013 and April 2014. Biopsy specimens were obtained from patients scheduled for an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and were sent to the French National Reference Center for Campylobacters and Helicobacters where they were tested by molecular methods for detection of H. pylori and clarithromycin resistance by real-time PCR using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-melting curve analysis (FRET-MCA) protocol, for detection of tetracycline resistance by real-time PCR on 16S rRNA genes (rrnA and rrnB), for detection of point mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of H. pylori gyrA gene, associated with resistance to quinolones, by PCR and sequencing. This study showed a high H. pylori prevalence (89%), low rates of clarithromycin and tetracycline resistance (1.7% and 2.5%, respectively), and a high rate of quinolone resistance (50%). Therefore, the use of standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy is still possible as an empiric first-line treatment as well as prescription of bismuth-based quadruple therapy, which includes tetracycline, but not a levofloxacin-based triple therapy because of the high rate of resistance to fluoroquinolones. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The high line voltage passes over the head but we don’t have electricity to have our mill functioned, we continue to live without the power! In many developing countries, we have a lot of high lines voltage which cross many regions to supply electricity to the main towns or connect to networks the distanced electric stations.These booked lines for supplying electricity to big towns cross a lot of villages whose people broadly poor hope to be supplied with electricity without a suitable solution. However it seems very deplorable that the power conducted by these lines doesn’t profit to surrounding population. Unfortunately, for these villages, the use of classical stations is too expensive to the power distributors because of high cost of investment and production for these potential scattered consumers with the feeble demand of electricity.This paper presents the original solution, settled in 2002 in one of the village located in Congo Brazzaville, and continues to function correctly. It is a new power transformer with one phase called PLX which is connected on one phase of the high line voltage 220kV and which produces extraordinary the low voltage 230 V directly useful by the rural population. This conceived sample for the rural electrification has been dimensioned for the power of 50kVA. A cheap and resistant advice! It requires a large popularization and mainly in sub saharian Africa that has got many opportunities. Outside the role of conduction of the power, the high line voltage distributes it
Full Text Available Évoquer mes pratiques de terrain en situation de tensions sociales et de guerre civile au Congo-Brazzaville suppose un véritable travail critique sur le présent d’une société qui est à la fois ce monde social renfermant une pluralité des microcosmes sociaux et le champ de mes expériences de vie, d’action et de réflexion. J’ai été tenté – comme si cela allait de soi – de recourir à la méthode d’observation participante par immersion dans l’univers social où l’on est à la fois sujet et objet. J’avais conscience de cette double contrainte épistémologique et sociale dans la démarche réflexive et critique de socio-anthropologue selon laquelle le terrain d’objectivation participante est également celui de l’expérimentation sociale. Dans un premier temps, les recherches et enquêtes de terrain ont été menées, de 1990 à 1994, sur les « mouvements associatifs religieux et laïcs d'entraide sociale dans la société urbaine brazzavilloise (Congo ». Dans un second temps, de 1995 à 1998, les recherches ont été effectuées sur le mouvement matsouaniste dans le contexte paradoxal, du processus de démocratisation et de guerres civiles, en partenariat au sein d’une équipe de l’ORSTOM et du CNRS, sur le thème « Citadins et religions à Brazzaville». Cette construction scientifique du rapport au temps historique et la recherche sous tension en terrain « miné » m’ont permis d’une part, de comprendrece que travailler veut dire sur le présent et le quotidien dans des temporalités guerrières ; d’autre part, de voir également comment se sont construites les identités individuelles et collectives à travers différents processus de décomposition et de recomposition des situations urbaines.Field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-BrazzavilleReferring to my own field practices in a situation of social tension and civil war in Congo-Brazzaville entails a
Hustache, Sarah; Moro, Marie-Rose; Roptin, Jacky; Souza, Renato; Gansou, Grégoire Magloire; Mbemba, Alain; Roederer, Thomas; Grais, Rebecca F; Gaboulaud, Valérie; Baubet, Thierry
Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1) Women aged more than 15 years; 2) raped by unknown person(s) wearing military clothes; 3) admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4) living in Brazzaville. The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1%) and acute stress disorders (24.6%). One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ), the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF) and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP). Two patients (3.1%) met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3%) had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6%) after psychological care; p = 0.04). When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6%) presenting extreme or medium impairment). We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these findings in other settings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1 Women aged more than 15 years; 2 raped by unknown person(s wearing military clothes; 3 admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4 living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1% and acute stress disorders (24.6%. One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP. Two patients (3.1% met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3% had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6% after psychological care; p = 0.04. When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6% presenting extreme or medium impairment. Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these
Makosso Vheiye, G.
Full Text Available Consumption of Bushmeat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Congo (Brazzaville: Nature of Game and Characteristics of Consumption. In order to identify the species hunted in the Conkouati- Douli National Park (CDNP, Brazzaville (Congo and to appreciate the methods of consumption of the bushmeat by the bordering populations, 52 hunters from 16 to 62 years old were a surveying over a period of one month and half. The results indicate that hunt to involve rodents, bovidae, various carnivores, suidae, reptiles and birds. However, the african brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus africanus and blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola were the most appreciated animals. The modes of consumption of the bushmeat were diversified. The smoked meat was used most frequently (48.1% followed by fresh meat consumption (40.2%. All political and legislative measurements are to be necessary to preserve the resources of this protected area.
Full Text Available Socio-Demographic Characteristics in Die Cassava Paste steeped in Congo-Brazzaville. Cassava roots constitute a basic food in Congo. Its consumption in the form of foufou or chikwangue requires the transformation of the roots to steeped paste. Social dynamics related to the activity of production and marketing of the steeped paste, after investigation into 119 producers showed two markets in Brazzaville draining more than 40 % of the producers and retailers, one market in Pointe - Noire with 60 % of the producers and retailers, and the railroad importance for supplying these markets. Important activities are localised in rural zone more particularly in Mindouli and in Bouenza localities. Formerly forsaken with the women, the die of the steeped paste is more and more occupied by the men especially in Pointe - Noire, particularly in the marketing part considered to be less painful and more profitable. Production and marketing activities are carried out by the young people. Illiterates producers proportion is weak in Brazzaville, but stronger in Pointe - Noire. This study does not establish any bond associating the sex, the age, the instruction and the matrimonial statute in this activity.
Full Text Available L'œuvre théâtrale de l'auteur congolais Tchicaya U Tam'si (1931-1988 se résume à trois textes : Le Zulu, Le Destin glorieux du Maréchal Nnikon-Nniku prince qu'on sort et Le Bal de Ndinga. Cependant, les nombreuses adaptations pour la scène de romans, nouvelles et autres ensembles de poésies témoignent de la volonté qu'ont eue certains artistes congolais ou français de se réapproprier l'héritage du « père de notre rêve ». Au travers de l'examen de trois spectacles montés à Brazzaville et à Pointe-Noire, cet article tente de montrer comment la scène transforme les textes et comment l'auteur lui-même devient un personnage représenté et fantasmé.
Mbété, RA.; Banga-Mboko, H.; Njikam Nsangou, I.; Joiris Daou, V.; P. Leroy
Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central...
... under various climatic conditions in tropical Asia. III. The effects of land clearing through burning on fertility level. Agric Ecosystems Environ, 19, (1987b) 311-332.  - H.W. FASSBENDER, Experimentos de laboratorio para el estudio del efecto del fuego de la quema de restos vegetales sobre las propriedades de suelo.
Bemba, Esthel Lee Presley; Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Moyikoua, Régis; Ossibi-Ibara, Rolland; Ebenga-Somboko, Norela Bibiane; Toungou, Syn Nerval; Matondot, Paunel God’hervé; Ossale-Abacka, Boris Kevin; Okemba-Okombi, Franck Hardain; Mboussa, Joseph
L’objectif de notre étude était de décrire les différents aspects radiographiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire selon le degré de l’immunodépression chez les patients VIH. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de 80 patients VIH positif non traités présentant une tuberculose pulmonaire, hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumo-phtisiologie de Brazzaville de Janvier 2013 à Janvier 2014. Notre échantillon était composé de 44 femmes (55%) et 36 hommes (45%) soit un sex ratio de 0,81. La moyenne d’âge était de 37,5±9,17ans, la moyenne du Taux de CD4 était de 153,13±86,6cell/mm3. La microscopie des expectorations à la recherche des bacilles acido-alcoolo-résistants était positive dans 75% des cas chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4>200cell/ mm3. Les adénopathies médiastinales, les atteintes moyennes, inferieures du champ pulmonaire et la miliaire étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4tuberculose. PMID:27800112
Bemba, E L P; Moyikoua, R; Ouedraogo, A R; Bopaka, R G; Koumeka, P P; Ossale Abacka, K B; Mboussa, J
Tuberculosis is a real public health problem in Congo. Pulmonary localization can lead to sequelae of respiratory functional repercussions. Describe the spirometric and radiographic profile of patients treated with pulmonary tuberculosis treated and cured. This was a cross-sectional study that included 150 patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis with positive microscopy treated and cured in the Pulmonary Department of Brazzaville University Hospital. In which we performed a functional exploration (Spirometry) and a chest X-ray. The study took place from 1st January 2016 to 31st August 2016. The spirometry performed in all patients was pathological in 68.67% (103 cases/150) of the cases. Among them 74.76% (77 cases/103) had a restrictive profile (FEV1/FVC >70% and CVF 80%) and 15.53% (16 cases/103) a mixed syndrome (FVC <80% and FEV1/FVC <70%). Of the 150 chest radiographs performed, 120 or 80% were pathological; the degree of parenchymal stage III destruction represented 28.33%. There was a significant correlation between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the delay in treatment on the one hand and between the degree of parenchymal destruction and the different pulmonary volumes and volumes on the other hand. The prevention of these respiratory functional disorders is based on the prophylaxis of tuberculosis on early diagnosis of the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This paper’s purpose is to examine a Swedish missionary activity from a human rights perspective. As a scope I have chosen the Swedish evangelical mission to Congo-Brazzaville, from its establishment in 1909 to the congolese church's self-determination in 1961. I consider certain elements of the missionary activity that affect human rights, to discover wether the activity was in order with modern day human rights standards or not. During these years, Congo was part of the French colony Equato...
Delvaux, Damien; Ganza, Gloire; Kongota, Elvis; Fukiabantu, Guilain; Mbokola, Dim; Boudzoumou, Florent; Miyouna, Timothée; Gampio, Urbain; Nkodia, Hardy
Small-scale brittle structures such as shear fractures and tension joints are well developed in the indurated Paleozoic Inkisi red sandstones of the West-Congo Supergroup in the "pool" region of Kinshasa and Brazzaville, along the Congo River. They appear to be related to the evolution of intraplate stresses during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene period, possibly related to the opening of the South Atlantic. However, inferring paleostresses from such structures is difficult due to the lack of clear kinematic indicators, so we used mainly the geometry, architecture and sequence of the joint systems to infer paleostresses. A limited number of kinematic indicators for slip sense (displaced pebbles, irregularities on striated surfaces, slickensides) or extension (plume joints) confirm the general conclusions of the joint architecture analysis. We found evidence for two major brittle deformation systems, leading to almost orthogonal fracture sets. They both started by the development of plume joints, which progressively evolved into open tension joints, isolated shear fractures and long (up to several hundred meters) brittle shear zones. The first system started to develop under NE-SW extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNW-SSE horizontal compression while the second (and later), started to develop under NW-SE extension and evolved into strike-slip with NNE-SSW horizontal compression. The second brittle deformation episode was associated with fluid flow as shown by the presence of palygorskite-calcite veins in the most prominent fractures of the second fracture system. Along the NE-SW brittle shear zones which run parallel to the Congo River, carbonate-rich fault-gauge lenses are filled by sand derived from the crushed adjacent walls and calcite vein fragments injected at a high fluid pressure, with late precipitation of palygorskite. Our study demonstrates the existence of two fault systems between Kinshasa and Brazzaville, the first one orthogonal to the trend
Full Text Available Aromatic plants from the Plateau des Cataractes (Congo Basin. Chemotype characterization of essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle acclimatized in Congo-Brazzaville. Description. The essential oils of Cymbopogon nardus (L. Rendle, Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud. Wats and Cymbopogon citratus L. (DC. Stapf (lemongrass consist of more than 80% of the following constituents: citronellal, geraniol, citral, citronellol, geranyl acetate, and limonene. For the purposes of business transactions, it is therefore important to know the exact chemical composition of the essential oils produced. Objectives. Chemotype evaluation of C. nardus acclimatized on the Plateau des Cataractes. Method. The essential oils of C. nardus were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by chromatography (GC and GC/MS over a period of more than ten years. Results. Cymbopogon nardus was found to produce a Java type citronella essential oil (C. winterianus with the following profile: citronellal (40-48%, geraniol (10-22%, citronellol (10-12%, limonene (2-3%, geranyl acetate (1-2%, linalool (1%. The difference between these two types of citronella, Java and Ceylon, was based on the relative proportions of their three main constituents: citronellal, geraniol and citronellol. Cymbopogon nardus is known for its high variability, with two varieties and sept subvarieties. Conclusions. The citronella established in West and Central Africa under the name of Cymbopogon nardus (Java type could be considered a Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt, based on the chemical composition of its essential oil.
Full Text Available Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and to identify the constraints linked to the participative approach. The work of primatologists allowed the habituation of the gorillas to the human presence and opened eyesight tourism of western lowland gorillas. A camp for tourists and the access road to the sanctuary have been constructed. The tourism generated jobs in favour of the local population which is also a take-partner of contracts on road repairing. The income from the tourism allowed the construction of a health centre. However, the works of researchers and tourism activities failed during the outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever and during the three civil war episodes. The consolidation and the long term of this process of co-management of natural resources of Lossi remains the establishment of a management that should include conservation, rural development and scientific research, with equitably in the distribution of gain between the partnerses.
to my fellow social scientists and friends in 1997's Institute (who for six very ..... prepared. That was after the elections, when they announced the results, they said: on a triché (that there had been fraud in connection with the elections). And they told us we had to .... become even more dependent on their ethnic networks and.
résistants était positive dans 75% des cas chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4>200cell/ mm3. Les adénopathies médiastinales, les atteintes moyennes, inferieures du champ pulmonaire et la miliaire étaient plus fréquentes chez ...
Background: Wearing glasses before ten years is becoming more common in developed countries. In black Africa, for cultural or irrational reasons, this attitude remains exceptional. This situation is a source of amblyopia and learning difficulties. Objective: To determine the role of refractive errors in school performance in ...
18 déc. 2009 ... 2001: p. 5-34. 9. Gaarba H, Diakite S, Haidara OC, Kane F, Konate. DK, Dicko E. Pronostic materno-foetal au cours de l'éclampsie. Livre des résumés du 5e Congrès de la SAGO, Dakar, décembre 1998, p41. 10. Mattar F, Sibat BM. Eclampsia: risk factors for maternal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 2000;.
Cette étude avait pour objectif d'améliorer la prise en charge globale des patients atteints d'accident vasculaire cérébral (AVC) en décrivant les aspects ... La dépression a été évaluée par le questionnaire de Beck ; l'autonomie fonctionnelle et la qualité de vie, respectivement par l'index de Barthel et le Stroke Impact Scale.
Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at two ends of an intra- Africa migration flow (Mali and the Republic of Congo), in this article I examine the role of childrearing practices in the maintenance of transnationalism. I consider different approaches to transnational childrearing by migrant parents and their reasons for adopting them, and delineate three common modes. The most widespread and socially validated approach is to send children home from Congo to their parents' places of origin, where child fostering is widespread, to be raised by relatives for long periods; this approach increases the durability of transnational ties. I use childrearing approaches as an analytical lens to demonstrate the complementarity of multiple forms of domestic organization, mobility and settlement in the intergenerational production and transmission of durable transnational identities. By arguing for greater focus on phenomena such as transnational childrearing, I seek to promote a broader conceptualization of transnationalism.
2 août 2011 ... par les propriétaires fonciers. Sollicitant les services des avocats dans les revendications des terrains, la rixe s'anime, dans une dimension maximaliste, entre pouvoirs publics et propriétaires fonciers10. Dans le but d'arrêter le recul spatial observé dans le périmètre urbain, depuis plus de deux décennies,.
Les différents indicateurs de risque de mort liés à la maternité montraient une variété considérable selon l'âge. En termes relatifs, l'augmentation par rapport au risque de mort était élevé en "debut" de grossesse (estimé à presque trois fois avant l'âge de 25 ans) et encore plus pour les grossesses "tardives" (presque six fois ...
Domestic violence topped trauma (31 patients I 45). Infections were dominated by ophthalmic Zona (18 patients I 25) and two rare diseases, one case of North American blastomycosis and one case of post surgical eyelid gangrene. Basal cell carcinoma was the first cancer (11 patients I 20). Conclusion: The pathologies of ...
Conclusion Aphasia is a common condition after stroke, affecting the quality of life, especially the resumption of work. The high age and low education levels contribute to mpaired quality of life. L'aphasie constitue avec le déficit moteur une source importante de handicap après un accident vasculaire cérébral. Son impact ...
Dec 18, 2006 ... Key words: Nutritive values, unconventional oilseeds, Abelomschus esculentus seeds, erucic acid, essential fatty acid, activation energy. .... ml of hexane, with three recoveries. The organic fractions containing the unsaponifiables are ... drate metabolism, nucleic acids (Russel, 1973). Calcium assists in tech ...
31 août 2016 ... ... 4 : Autres maladies traitées par la consommation du Dioscorea liebrechtsiana De Wild. Maladies n. %. Conception. 4. 19,05. Hernie. 3. 14,29. Maux d'estomac. 2. 9,5. Stérilité. 2. 9,52. Typhoïde. 2. 9,52. Asthme. 1. 4,76. Avortement. 1. 4,76. Constipation. 1. 4,76. Douleur pelvienne. 1. 4,76. Hémorroïde. 1.
31 janv. 2016 ... de la digestion des lipides (acides gras, phospholipides, etc.) et des sels biliaires pour la formation de micelles digestives favorisant la solubilisation du ..... Effectiveness : Red Palm Oil's Role in Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 29 : 302S-. 313S. Ruel MT, 2001. Can food-based strategies help ...
The occupation of the street (bus and taxi terminals and parking places) under various mobile and sedentary, temporary and permanent forms, makes parking lots a focus of study as a territory for informal activities and the continuity of traffic functions, as well as the failure to manage public spaces properly. Public transport ...
Bemba, E L P; Bopaka, R G; Ossibi-Ibara, R; Toungou, S N; Ossale-Abacka, B K; Okemba-Okombi, F H; Mboussa, J
The abandonment of TB treatment has consequences both individual by increasing the risk of drug resistance and collective seeding entourage. The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors to be lost sight of during TB treatment. He acted in a prospective cohort study of patients with microbiologically confirmed tuberculosis, beginning TB treatment and followed for six months. The comparative study between 75 patients lost (PL) and 108 no-patients lost (NPL). The presence of a large distance between the home center [OR=3.73 (1.21-11.05), P=0.022], to alcohol poisoning [OR=3.80 (3.80-11.3), P=0.031], the number of compressed high (depending on the patient) [OR=7.64 (1.96-29.8), P=0.007], stigma [OR=7.85 (1.87-33), P=0.004] were related to PL status. For against the implementation of the directly observed treatment by the community [OR=0.2 (0.03-0.92), P=0.04], be [OR=0.18 (0.05-0.63), P=0.07] were linked to reduced risk of being lost. Reducing the rate of PL requires patient compliance with good attitudes in post-education and ease of access to TB centers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
La trachéotomie d'aspiration a été effectuée dans 4 cas pour corps étrangers trachéobronchiques alimentaires (4%). La trachéotomie de sécurité a été effectuée dans 5 cas (6%). Des complications ont été observées dans cette série, Il s'agissait d'emphysèmes cervicaux dans 4%. Les bouchons muqueux obstructifs dans 8 ...
Boumba, Luc Magloire Anicet; Qmichou, Zineb; Mouallif, Mustapha; Attaleb, Mohammed; El Mzibri, Mohammed; Hilali, Lahoucine; Donatien, Moukassa; Ennaji, Moulay Mustapha
HPV infection is associated with cervical cancer, one of the major public health problems in developing countries. In the Republic of Congo, despite of the high age-standardized incidence rate estimated at 25.2 per 100,000 women, molecular epidemiology data on HPV infections are very limited. We investigated HPV genotypes distribution in cervical smears among patients attending the General Hospital of Loandjili, Southwest Congo. A cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted on 321 women. Liquid-based cytology samples were collected for cytological diagnosis and HPV detection. Nested-PCR was performed using MY09/MY11 and GP5+/GP6+ primers with genotyping by direct sequencing. Type-specific PCR for HPV-6, -11, -16, -18, -31 and -33 was also used to assess multiple infections. Out of 321 women examined, 189 (58.8%) had normal cytology, 16 (5.0%) had ASCUS and 116 (36.1%) had cytological abnormalities. HPV-DNA was detected in 22 (11.6%), 6 (37.5%), and 104 (89.6%) normal cytology, ASCUS and cytological abnormalities respectively. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype regardless of cytological status followed by HPV70 in women without lesions and HPV33 among those with lesions. HR-HPV prevalence varied significantly according to the cervical cytology (P = 0.000). Among women without lesions, two peaks of HPV infections were observed in age group less than 30 years (60.0%) and in age group 50-59 years (7.1%). Age, age of first sex, multiple sexual partners and pregnancies were the risk factors for HPV infection in women without lesions. Our findings could be used as evidence data base for future epidemiological monitoring in this region. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, L?on Herv?
Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu?il faut ?radiquer car elle alt?re souvent de fa?on significative la qualit? de la vie. L?hyst?rectomie vaginale est indiqu?e pour les patientes qui pr?sentent certaines affections gyn?cologiques graves, elle est donc b?n?fique mais, peut ?galement avoir une r?percussion n?faste sur la qualit? de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le v?cu de la maladie et de l?hyst?rectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et apr?s l?intervention chirurgicale. Nou...
Mbongo, Jean Alfred; Mouanga, Alain; Miabaou, Didace Massamba; Nzelie, Aya; Iloki, Léon Hervé
Toute maladie est un mal en soi qu’il faut éradiquer car elle altère souvent de façon significative la qualité de la vie. L’hystérectomie vaginale est indiquée pour les patientes qui présentent certaines affections gynécologiques graves, elle est donc bénéfique mais, peut également avoir une répercussion néfaste sur la qualité de vie de la femme. Ainsi nous avons voulu explorer le vécu de la maladie et de l’hystérectomie vaginale (HV) des femmes avant et après l’intervention chirurgicale. Nous avons effectué une étude prospective qualitative, à recueil clinique sur une période de 12 mois; qui a concerné les femmes, ayant subi une hystérectomie vaginale. Celles n’ayant pas accepté de participer à l’étude, ou n’ayant pas de contact téléphonique n’ont pas été incluses. Pendant la maladie, le vécu des femmes a été: l’inconfort sexuel 26/40 (65%); les saignements génitaux 12/40 (30%); les douleurs pelviennes 13/40 (32,5%). En Post-opératoire, ont été noté les dyspareunies transitoires30/40 (75%) ; les céphalées secondaires à l’anesthésie 4/40 (10%). Le vécu psychologique a été dominé avant l’HV par la peur de la chirurgie chez toutes les patientes, les troubles du sommeil 38/40 (95%), l’angoisse 30 /40(75%), un sentiment de honte lié aux difficultés à accomplir l’acte sexuel en raison du prolapsus 26/40(65%) et/ ou en raison des saignements génitaux, dus au fibrome utérin 14/40(35%). Le sentiment de la perte de féminité était déclaré par 26/40 femmes porteuses de prolapsus utérin (65%), la modification de l’estime de soi 26/40 (65%). Ces appréciations subjectives ont été améliorées avec l’HV, contre balançant la perte de leur organe de reproduction. Aucune information n’a été donnée par les femmes à leurs proches et aux membres de la famille avant la chirurgie, traduisant ainsi leur sentiment de gène ou de honte. L’arrêt des symptômes a été observé dans tous les cas, même si dans un cas (1,25%) un nouveau signe au titre des complications (plaie rectale) a éténoté. Concernant l’activité sexuelle, tous les couples ont déclaré leur satisfaction après le traitement. Le vécu dramatique de la maladie et de l’hystérectomie vaginale avant, est nettement amélioré après l’intervention chirurgicale. PMID:28292042
1Laboratoire de Biologie Cellulaire et Moléculaire, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques,. Université Marien NGOUABI, Brazzaville, Congo. 2Laboratoire de Biochimie et Pharmacologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé,. Université Marien NGOUABI Brazzaville, Congo. 3Laboratoire de Biologie et Physiologie Animales, ...
Ovigerous females were observed between July and September. Conclusion and application of results: These results will provide a database for management of macro invertebrates' conservation of Brazzaville Department and of the right bank Congo Basin. Keywords: Congo Brazzaville, Ngamboulou River, Brachyura, ...
, epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic compounds (58.3 ...
, epicarp and mesocarp of Annona senegalensis Pers., oulotricha Le Thomas subspecies (Annonaceae), growing in. Brazzaville (Congo), were analyzed by CG and CG-MS. These oils essentially contain sesquiterpenic.
Conservation et étude de la valeur nutritive des larves de Rhynchophorus phoenicis (Curculionidae) et Oryctes rhinoceros (Scarabeidae), deux coléoptères d'intérêt alimentaire au Congo-Brazzaville.
Conservation et étude de la valeur nutritive des larves de Rhynchophorus phoenicis (Curculionidae) et Oryctes rhinoceros (Scarabeidae), deux coléoptères d'intérêt alimentaire au Congo-Brazzaville.
Aug 17, 2006 ... 1Département des Sciences Exactes, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université Marien Ngouabi, BP 69, Brazzaville –. Congo. 2Unité de chimie du végétal et de la vie, Faculté des Sciences, Université Marien Ngouabi, BP 69, Brazzaville – Congo. 3Institut de chimie de Substances Naturelles Gif/yvette France.
Le but de se travail était de déterminer les causes de report du programme opératoire en chirurgie pédiatrique au CHU de Brazzaville. Il s'est agi d'une étude prospective descriptive réalisée dans le Service de chirurgie pédiatrique du CHU de Brazzaville entre juillet et décembre 2014, soit 6 mois. Elle a portée sur les ...
1Laboratoire de Botanique et Ecologie, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Marien Ngouabi,. BP 69 Brazzaville, Congo. 2Laboratoire d'Ecologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques, Université d'Abomey-Calavi,. BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin. 3Université de Lorraine, UMR 1137 INRA UHP Ecologie et ...
L'hygiène dans l'approvisionnement et la distribution de la viande de brousse à Brazzaville – Congo · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Nganga, D Massamba, F Mbemba, G Makosso Vheiyes, AR M'Bete, T Silou, 4448–4459.
BP 06, Brazzaville, Congo, S. Bakeera, MD, Masters in Health Management, Planning and Policy, Freelance Consultant,. P.o. Box 2762, Kampala, uganda, J. M. Kirigia Phd., Programme Manager, Health financing and social Protection and. L.G. Sambo, MD, MPH, Regional Director, WHO Regional Office for Africa, BP 06, ...
The goal of this paper was to analyze the relationship between women\\'s labor force participation and socioeconomic changes associated with structural adjustment in China and Congo Brazzaville. We conclude that structural adjustment policies have led to an increase in feminization of the labor force in these two ...
Dec 1, 2011 ... Liberation was created in Brazzaville by many nationalist leaders and Gbenye and Soumialot were charged with organising the rebellion in the Eastern regions. The Mulelist rebellion started in January 1964 and initially benefited from popular consensus and support. The reaction of the national army was.
This paper seeks to establish the impact of information and communication technologies (ICTs) on the trade in wrapper cloth in Brazzaville, Congo. The study focused on access, use and impact and concluding that the level of access is low in general and for men and women taken separately, although men have more ...
Hp 630 Dual Core
PediatrSurgInt 2006; 22: 446 8. 8. Feins NR, Dzakovic A, Papadakis K. Minimally invasive closure of pediatric umbilical hernias. 2008; 43: 127 30. 9. Massamba Miabaou D, Passi Lc, Elé N, et al. Problèmes de prise en charge des urgences chirurgicales abdominales au cHU de Brazzaville. J Afrchir Digest 2013 ; 13: 1510 4.
Minani, Donald. Vol 94 (2015) - Articles Influence d'un apport fractionné en potassium et en azote sur la croissance et le rendement de trois variétés de tomate de la zone périurbaine de Brazzaville en République du Congo Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1997-5902. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.
Amaranthus hybridus is a vegetable which is eaten in Congo Brazzaville and in other countries. Two varieties of A. hybridus seeds (var 1 and 2) were selected for this study. Average oil content varies between 11 and 14%. A. hybridus seeds are also rich in proteins (17%) and minerals. Red oils obtained have a high ...
We present the case of malignant Non-Hodgkin splenic lymphoma with villous lymphocytes regarded as atypical chronic lymphoid leukemia. This was a 62 years old male patient admitted in the Haematologic Department of Brazzaville Teaching Hospital for an enlarged spleen, anaemia and lymphocytosis. The initial ...
31 juil. 2014 ... Joseph YOKA1*, Jean Joël LOUMETO1, Julien Gaudentius DJEGO2, Parisse AKOUANGO1, Daniel. EPRON3. (1) Université Marien Ngouabi, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Botanique et Ecologie, BP: 69,. Brazzaville, Congo; Email: email@example.com ; firstname.lastname@example.org ...
... y-HCH, total chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations for Kakira were lower than those reported for Brazzaville, Lake Baikal in Russia, Southern Ontario. ln comparison with data from Senga Bay, Lake Malawi in Malawi, average DDT (total), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, lindane (y-HCH) and LHCH levels ...
Theo Vos. Utilisation of Reproductive Health Services by Adolescent Boys in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Addie Koster, Julia Kemp, Aaron Offei. Prevalence of Gardnerella vaginalis in Pregnant Nigerian Women. JIB Adinma, NR Okwoli, Agbai Unaeze, N. Unaeze. Maternal Mortality Re-Visited in the AIDS Era: Brazzaville, ...
Bouhika, Eddie Janvier; Moussouami, Simplice Innocent; Tsiama Portejoie, Jean Aimé; Bazaba Kayilou, Jean Michel; Moyen, Rachel; Mizere Moungondo, Martin; Maouene, Michel; Mbemba, François
Objective: Through an experimental study, the present work aims at testing the effectiveness of diet and mental imagery on the success of free throw in Congolese beginners Basketball Players. Method: 45 players participated in this experimental study in Brazzaville (Congo). These subjects were divided into 3 groups. Group I (n = 15), made up of…
Iloki, LH. Vol 92, No 6 (2015) - Articles Laparoscopic surgery of ovarian cyst in comparison with laparotomy at university hospital of Brazzaville Abstract. ISSN: 0012-835X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms ...
), soit 0,5 pour ... l'Internet, une diffusion à deux vitesses sur le continent : accélérée pour le portable et lente pour ...... Jeune Afrique intelligent, 2000, « La guerre du téléphone, Congo (Brazzaville) », n° 2076-2077. Khayat ...
. (Betti, 2002b), dans la région de Bipindi-. Akom II au Sud (Dijk, 1999), dans la pharmacopée camerounaise (Adjanohoun et al., 1996), et au Congo-Brazzaville (Bouquet,. 1969) ; la seconde espèce, Piptadeniastrum africanum (8 citations ...
Afghanistan. Central African Republic. Congo, Brazzaville. Congo, Democratic Republic of. Chad. Cuba. Eastern Europe, countries of. Equatorial Guinea. Eritrea. Former Soviet Union, countries of. Gabon. Guinea-Bissau. Iran. Iraq. Korea, Democratic People's Republic of. Liberia. Libya. Mali. Niger. Papua New Guinea.
Background: This study was aimed at determine the epidemiology, clinical and treatment outcome of childhood umbilical hernia at the University Hospital of Brazzaville. Methods: It was a retrospective study undertaken conducted over a 15 months period from 1st January 2014 to 31st March 2015 in the pediatric surgery ...
Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin
Full Text Available This article examines the relations between practices in informal land transactions under customary tenure and spatial differentiation among suburbs in the periphery of the city of Pointe-Noire, Congo-Brazzaville. Urban sprawl is a permanent feature of urbanisation in Congo-Brazzaville that not only propagates slums for low-income dwellers but also entails locally embedded ways of building the city in the absence of state-led planning. The case of Pointe-Noire shows that large tracts of customary land are sold without public control, a process accompanied by the emergence of new suburbs with different stylistic patterns of housing. While suburbanisation does carry the potential to improve the quality of housing by attracting wealthy residents, it exacerbates spatial fragmentation and the exclusion of certain groups in the population from access to both land for housing in upmarket suburbs and public services. Powerful actors tend to profit most from informality.
l'origine d'un enchaînement de fragmentation des écosystèmes actuellement en cours d'étude par de nombreux organismes tant nationaux qu'internationaux, à travers le réchauffement climatique dont l'influence est suspectée dans la baie de Loango à Matombi au Congo-Brazzaville. Les travaux de Sitou (1991), Batchy et.
I. Ondima. Service d'urologie–andrologie, Service de réanimation Polyvalente, Service de Pédiatrie, Service de Chirurgie. Pédiatrique, CHU de Brazzaville, 13 Boulevard Lyautey, Brazzaville–CONGO. Reçu le 7 février 2013; reçu sous la forme révisée le 13 mars 2014; accepté le 18 mars 2014. MOTS CLÉS épispadias;.
Service de Neurologie du CHU de Brazzaville, Congo. 2. Clinique Universitaire de Neurologie ... L'aphasie a un impact significatif ou sélectif sur la qualité de vie, surtout concernant la reprise d'une activité professionnelle, plus encore chez le .... Il constitue un outil francophone adapté à l'évaluation de la qualité de vie de ...
Méthodologie et résultats : L'huile essentielle obtenue par hydrodistillation des tiges feuillets sèches de Mentha piperata L. récoltées dans la partie septentrionale de Brazzaville (Poto-Poto), Congo, a été étudiée. Le rendement obtenu après extraction est de 0,52%. L'analyse par chromatographie en phase gazeuse (CPG) ...
Mauritania Zimbabwe Republic of Congo (Congo Brazzaville)(People’s Republic of Congo) Tunisia South Sudan (Sudan), Algeria Weak democracy...Accessed 1 February 2016. https://arcic.army.mil/warfightingchallenge.html. Bayer, Resat. 2010. “Peaceful Transitions and Democracy.” Journal of...Proposition.” Western Journal of Black Studies 29, no. 2 (Summer): 540-52. Accessed 2 December 2015. http://search.proquest.com.lumen. cgsccarl.com
Auxiliary Pioneer Corps; and the East African Military Labour Service in the British Army. These units saw combat in Ethiopia, Somaliland, Madagascar ...over fishermen’s claims to the small island in Lake Victoria, Migingo.188 In sum, the British exercised power in Uganda through a combination of...Niger, Ivory Coast, Benin, Mali, Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Gabon, Chad, Congo Brazzaville, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Madagascar , Somali
torpedoes, and mines .159 Evidence suggests that the directors of the navy logistics and equipment departments are one grade below the director of the...htm. 528 Center for China Studies, “Profile of Sun Jianguo.” 174 delegations to Chile, Colombia, Botswana , Congo-Brazzaville, Mauritania, Gabon, and...People’s Liberation Army Visits BDF,” Botswana Daily News, 22 October 2008; “Chinese Military Delegation Leaves for Congo (B) and Mauritania,” PLA
30 juil. 2013 ... 1 Unité de Chimie du Végétal et de la Vie (UC2V), Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Marien Ngouabi,. Brazzaville (Congo) .... potentielle pour le colorant textile (Wanyama et al, 2011). Au. Cameroun, le colorant obtenu à partir de la décoction de l'écorce sert à teindre les tissus et les nattes.
Following the fall of the Taliban in 2001, Afghanistan has entered a process of physical and political reconstruction. The an- nual per capita income...hospitals (Brazzaville, Point Noire , and Dolosie), establishing 3 integrated counseling and testing (CT) centers, training CT counselors, conducting an HIV...sion. Additionally, DHAPP has provided funds for the pur- chase of a TV and VCR so that films can be shown at training seminars and to prepare troops
1Laboratoire de Chimie minérale et appliquée, Faculté des Sciences, U.M.NG. B.P 69. Brazzaville, Congo. 2Département des Sciences Naturelles, E.N.S, .... conductivité électrique (C.E), les solides totaux dissous (TDS) ont été mesurés sur site à l'aide du multi paramètres Consort type C933. Ca2+, Mg2+, la dureté totale ...
Full Text Available AfriqueExploitation et gestion durable des forêts en Afrique Centrale : la quête de la durabilité, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007.FAY, KONÉ, QUIMINAL, Décentralisation et pouvoirs en Afrique : en contrepoint, modèles territoriaux français, Paris, IRD Éditions, 2006.GASCON, Alain, Sur les hautes terres comme au ciel : identités et territoires en Éthiopie, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2006.GOULOU, Jean-Richard Armand, Infrasructuctures de transport et de communication au Congo-Brazzaville, Par...
La qualité physico-chimique des eaux souterraines au sud-ouest de Brazzaville a été évaluée pour l'usage eau de boisson. Les eaux de 27 puits et 1 source ont été prélevées entre mars et avril 2007 (saison des pluies) puis analysées. 16 paramètres ont été déterminés dans les échantillons d'eau: pH, conductivité ...
unarmed civilians in CAR surpasses even that of the Democratic Republic of Congo . A contributing factor to the levels of violence is the weak...apparent effect, a second ceasefire agreement was signed in Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo , on 23rd July 2014 between the Séléka, the Anti-Balaka and...Rights Watch, 2014). This has led to reprisal attacks on the part of the Séléka, and targeting by both groups now frequent- ly focuses on the religion
Poaty, Henriette; Aba Gandzion, Chandra; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Gassaye, Déby; Peko, Jean Félix; Nkoua Bon, Jean Bernard; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of Lynch syndrome as one of hereditary causes of colorectal cancer (CRC) among young Congolese individuals affected by the CRC, and to define methods for diagnosis in Congo Brazzaville. We conducted a transversal cohort study of 34 patients having a CRC with a family history for a period of eight years. They were selected among 89 CRCs of any type from the Bethesda guidelines criteria combined with pedigrees. Mismatch repair (MMR) genes alterations were researched by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We identified with the Bethesda criteria a total of 38.2% (34/89) patients having familial CRC with a confidence interval (CI) of 95%=[0.34-0.41]. Only 14.7% (5/34) 95% CI=[0.34-2.32] patients showed MMR immunodeficiency involving firstly MLH1 protein then MSH2 protein. These data account for 5.6% (5/89) 95% CI=[0.15-0.33] of patients affected by Lynch syndrome with an earlier median age of 35 years (range 20 to 47 years). The prevalence of Lynch syndrome found in Brazzaville is comparable to that is found in northern countries. The combined Bethesda guidelines, pedigree and IHC is an accessible and good alternative method for the positive diagnosis of Lynch syndrome in current practice in Congo. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tamlyn Jane Monson
Full Text Available Given the association between informal residence and the occurrence of “xenophobic” violence in South Africa, this article examines “xenophobic violence” through a political account of two squatter settlements across the transition to democracy: Jeffsville and Brazzaville on the informal periphery of Atteridgeville, Gauteng. Using the concepts of political identity, living politics and insurgent citizenship, the paper mines past and present to explore identities, collective practices and expertise whose legacy can be traced in contemporary mobilization against foreigners, particularly at times of popular protest. I suggest that the category of the “surplus person”, which originated in the apartheid era, lives on in the unfinished transition of squatter citizens to formal urban inclusion in contemporary South Africa. The political salience of this legacy of superfluity is magnified at times of protest, not only through the claims made on the state, but also through the techniques for protest mobilization, which both activate and manufacture identities based on common suffering and civic labour. In the informal settlements of Jeffsville and Brazzaville, these identities polarised insurgent citizens from non-citizen newcomers, particularly those traders whose business-as-usual practices during times of protest appeared as evidence of their indifference and lack of reciprocity precisely at times when shared suffering and commitment were produced as defining qualities of the squatter community.
Full Text Available Urban agriculture and household subsistence in a post-confl ict zone in Central Africa. This study presents an analysis of the technical and socio-economic specifi cities of urban agriculture in a post confl ict region in Central Africa, based on a survey in Brazzaville (Congo in 2002. Hereby 710 households have been randomly selected from a previous survey data base containing 2 800 urban households. About one third of the Brazzaville households are involved in urban agriculture with 29.5% households reporting crop production activities and 8.8% animal production activities. Within animal production, aviculture activities are dominant. Gardening and vegetable production play also an important role. The confl ict situation of 1997 affected negatively urban agricultural production in particular the animal production. Although, urban agriculture is present among different social and professional categories, there is a clear dominance of subsistence and poor households, especially those already active in agriculture before. In contrast to crop production, mainly practised for subsistence reasons, the motivation for animal production is driven more by the income than by the own consumption possibilities. The results also indicate that assuring a sustainable and equitable urban development is possible by a good balance between those practising urban agriculture and those not. This requires the limitation of the negative effects (odour and other nuisances but also the removal of certain constraints limiting the productivity of urban farming, most importantly the provision of inputs, the theft of animals and soil degradation.
Zhao, Xianfu; Wang, Zongqi; Liu, Chenglin; Li, Chao; Jiao, Pengcheng; Zhao, Yanjun; Zhang, Fan
Evaporite dating has been an open problem. The study investigates the Re-Os isotopic system in the organic-rich sedimentary rocks to constrain the infilling of sedimentary basin and related geological events. In the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville) in West Africa, several layers of organic-rich dark shale were found in the evaporite series. Through drilling core, the dark shale in the evaporite is found to satisfy the requirements of Re-Os isotope test. The result shows that the Re-Os isochron age of the dark shale in the study area ranges from 78.7 ± 1.1 to 96 ± 7 Ma, which is the first precise age of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville), West Africa. Therefore, the age of deposition of this set of evaporite may be Cenomanian-Turonian, which is younger than the age previously thought (around 113-125Ma, Aptian). The Re-Os isotopic dating technique used for the pioneering study on the precise dating of the Mboukoumassi potash deposit provides a new approach to the study of the sedimentary age of ancient evaporite deposits. The initial 187Os/188Os value decreasing from 2.02 ± 0.21 to 0.982 ± 0.03 for the core sample reflects the source rock chang along the core, and this is consistent with the geological evolution of the basin.
Doumtsop, Jean Gérard Tatou; Khalef, Ishagh; Diakite, Med Lemine Brahim; Boubker, Naouri
Introduction La Commission Régionale de Certification de l'Eradication de la poliomyélite pour l'Afrique(CRCA) en session à Brazzaville du 8 au 10 octobre 2007 avait déclaré la Mauritanie « libérée de la poliomyélite ». Objectif Décrire l’épidémiologie des PFA (Paralysies flasques aigues) et évaluer les indicateurs de performance du système de surveillance pour la période de 2008 à 2012 ayant suivi cette déclaration. Méthodes Les données du service de surveillance épidémiologique ont été nett...
Full Text Available Brazzaville est une poudrière qui se nourrit depuis de longues décennies des mots de feu. Des mots en cartouches. Longtemps, ici, les mots ont porté les voix révolutionnaires du Camarade Graille, du Frère Président Massamba-Débat, du Camarade Commandant-Président Marien Ngouabi, des Camarades Généraux-Présidents Joachim Yombi-Opango et Denis Sassou Nguesso , du Camarade Castro de Bac-City à Bacongo, et d’autres qui vivaient sur le carburant des espérances socialistes soulevées, des rêves comm...
Schwartz, Dominique; Guillet, B.; Villemin, G.; Toutain, F.
Les podzols développés sur sables Batéké sont caractérisés par d'épais horizons spodiques indurés en alios qui accumulent d'importantes quantités de substances humiques à C/N élévé. Dans cet article les auteurs présentent les caractéristiques chimiques et physiques d'un profil situé à Gangolingalo (région de Brazzaville); la matière organique est, dans l'ensemble des horizons spodiques, monomorphe, elle tapisse les grains du squelette et comble les pores. Les traits ultra-structuraux observés...
Full Text Available Présentation biographique de l’auteur Né le 17 juillet 1914 à Brazzaville, d’un père originaire du Kasaï Occidental (RDC et d’une mère originaire de Libenge, Paul Lomami arrive à Kinshasa en 1921. Après quelques années d’errance en tant qu’enfant de rue, il est scolarisé à l’institut religieux St. François-Xavier de Mbata-Kiela où, jeune séminariste, il se découvre une passion pour la lecture. Frappé subitement de surdité, il doit renoncer à son rêve de sacerdoce et se fait embaucher dans le...
Moyen, Nanikaly; Thiberville, Simon-Djamel; Pastorino, Boris; Nougairede, Antoine; Thirion, Laurence; Mombouli, Jean-Vivien; Dimi, Yannick; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Lepfoundzou, Amelia Dzia; de Lamballerie, Xavier
Chikungunya is an Aedes -borne disease characterised by febrile arthralgia and responsible for massive outbreaks. We present a prospective clinical cohort study and a retrospective serological study relating to a CHIK outbreak, in the Republic of Congo in 2011. We analysed 317 suspected cases, of which 308 (97.2%) lived in the city of Brazzaville (66.6% in the South area). Amongst them, 37 (11.7%) were CHIKV+ve patients (i.e., biologically confirmed by a real-time RT-PCR assay), of whom 36 (97.3%) had fever, 22 (66.7%) myalgia and 32 (86.5%) arthralgia. All tested negative for dengue. The distribution of incident cases within Brazzaville districts was compared with CHIKV seroprevalence before the outbreak (34.4% in 517 blood donors), providing evidence for previous circulation of CHIKV. We applied a CHIK clinical score to 126 patients recruited within the two first day of illness (including 28 CHIKV+ves (22.2%)) with sensitivity (78.6%) and specificity (72.4%) values comparing with those of the referent study in Reunion Island. The negative predictive value was high (92%), but the positive predictive value (45%) indicate poor potential contribution to medical practice to identify CHIKV+ve patients in low prevalence outbreaks. However, the score allowed a slightly more accurate follow-up of the evolution of the outbreak than the criterion "fever+arthralgia". The complete sequencing of a Congolase isolate (Brazza_MRS1) demonstrated belonging to the East/Central/South African lineage and was further used for producing a robust genome-scale CHIKV phylogenetic analysis. We describe the first Chikungunya outbreak declared in the Republic of Congo. The seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors before outbreak provided evidence for previous CHIKV circulation. We suggest that a more systematic survey of the entomological situation and of arbovirus circulation is necessary in Central Africa for better understanding the environmental, microbiological and
Ndounga, Mathieu; Pembe Issamou Mayengue; Casimiro, Prisca Nadine; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Félix; Bitemo, Michel; Diassivy Matondo, Brunelle; Ndounga Diakou, Lee Aymar; Basco, Leonardo K; Ntoumi, Francine
The Republic of Congo adopted a new anti-malarial treatment policy in 2006, with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as the first- and second-line anti-malarial drugs, respectively. Only three clinical studies had been conducted before the policy change. A randomized study on these two artemisinin-based combinations was conducted, and the effect that sickle cell trait may have on treatment outcomes was evaluated in children under 10 years old followed during 12 months in Brazzaville in 2010-2011. A cohort of 330 children under 10 years of age living in a suburban area in the south of Brazzaville were passively followed for registration of malaria episodes. Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum episodes were randomly treated with co-formulated ASAQ (Coarsucam(®)) or AL (Coartem(®)). Patients were followed according to the 2009 World Health Organization protocol for the evaluation of anti-malarial drug efficacy. Plasmodium falciparum recrudescent isolates were compared to pre-treatment isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. PCR-uncorrected and PCR-corrected responses to treatment were determined using per protocol analysis. Haemoglobin type (AA, AS, SS) was determined by PCR. Of 282 clinical malaria episodes registered during 1-year follow-up period, 262 children with uncomplicated malaria were treated with ASAQ (129 patients) or AL (133 patients). The PCR-corrected efficacy, expressed as the percentage of adequate clinical and parasitological response, was 97.0 % for ASAQ and 96.4 % for AL. Among ASAQ-treated patients, 112 (86.8 %) carried AA genotype and 17 (13.2 %) were AS carriers. The PCR-corrected efficacy was 96.4 % for AA-carriers and 100 % for AS-carriers treated with ASAQ [relative risk (RR) = 0.96; 95 % confidence interval, 0.93-1.00, p = 0.5]. Among 133 AL-treated children, 109 (82 %) carried AA, and 24 (18 %) AS genotypes. The PCR-corrected efficacy was 96.7 % among AA
Alvarez, Philippe; Maurin, Jean-Christophe; Vicat, Jean-Paul
The Inkisi Formation (West Congolian Supergroup) corresponds to a large deltaic body, which extends through Congo, Lower Zaire and Angola. In the Congo and Lower Zaire areas, the lower part of this formation is characterized by a fluvial conglomerate with elliptic pebbles. The red arkosic, channelized series from the Brazzaville-Kinshasa area involves delta plain distributary channels and delta front sequences. The transport direction of continental material is from north to south and the source area is the Chaillu basement. Glacial quartzitic pebbles are probably reworked from the fluvio-lacustrine Upper Diamictite Formation. The classical subdivisions of the Inkisi Formation - basal conglomerate (I 0), Lower part (I 1) and Upper part (I 2) - are not used. These subdivisions correspond to a fluvial conglomerate and to delta front and delta plain facies. The coastal onlap progressively covered the conglomerate and the distributary channels in the delta plain was prograding onto the delta front. The prodelta sequence could correspond to the Upper level of the Mpioka molassic Formation. The Inkisi delta was on the northern edge of an extensional basin controlled by NE-SW normal faults. The extension phase is dearly post Pan-African and occurred during the Palaeozoic, probably in relation to the Permian Karoo phase, and is also known in Angola.
Kibadi, K; Aujoulat, I; Meyers, W M; Mokassa, L; Muyembe, T; Portaels, F
The purpose of this article is to present names used for Mycobacterium ulcerans infection (Buruli ulcer) and explain their meanings in various African languages. Representations associated with the disease were also studied. The study approach involved qualitative analysis of information from interviews and literature. Interviews were conducted with the directors of various programs and management centers. Findings from 9 African countries where Buruli ulcer is known to be endemic, i.e., Benin, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Uganda, Democratic Republic of Congo, Southern Sudan and Togo, showed that the names used for the disease could be classified into three categories based on the geographical origin of infection, the features of the observed lesions, and aspects of ost often associated with belief in witch-craft, i.e., bad luck, fetishes, and curses. Representation of the disease in different African languages were similar and appear to demonstrate a good understanding of the disease in the countries where Buruli ulcer is prevalent. The impact of the representations of the disease on therapeutic choices and itineraries is also discussed.
Full Text Available Physico-chemical Characteristics and Fatty Acids Composition of Raphia sese and Raphia laurentii Oils. In the sight of the diversification of sources of lipids consumed by the congolese populations and of the valorization of the vast marshes of north of the Congo (Brazzaville, it was carried out a physico-chemical study of the oils extracted from the raphia palm trees which abundantly populate the flooded forests of the Congo basin. Two species were studied here : Raphia sese and Raphia Laurentii. The local oil process, which includes a stage of fermentation of the fruits before oil extraction leads to bad quality products than those extracted at the laboratory from fresh fruits. Raphia nut pulps are 40-52 % oil content (mainly : 32-34 %, of palmitic acid ; 8-11 % of stearicacid ; 15-19 % of oleic acid, 33-39 % of linolenic acid. The linolenic acid content is less than 2 %. These characteristics confer on raphia oils a statute of frying oil with high value of essential fatty acid content.
Pineda-Peña, Andrea-Clemencia; Varanda, Jorge; Sousa, João Dinis; Theys, Kristof; Bártolo, Inês; Leitner, Thomas; Taveira, Nuno; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Abecasis, Ana B
Angola borders and has long-term links with Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as well as high levels of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) genetic diversity, indicating a potential role in the initial spread of the HIV-1 pandemic. Herein, we analyze 564 C2V3 and 354 pol publicly available sequences from DRC, Republic of Congo (RC) and Angola to better understand the initial spread of the virus in this region. Phylogeographic analyses were performed with the BEAST software. While our results pinpoint the origin of the pandemic to Kinshasa (DRC) around 1906, the introduction of HIV-1 to Angola could have occurred early between the 1910s and 1940s. Furthermore, most of the HIV-1 migrations out of Kinshasa were directed not only to Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi (DRC), but also to Luanda and Brazzaville. Kinshasa census records corroborate these findings, indicating that the early exportation of the virus to Angola might be related to the high number of Angolans in Kinshasa at that time, originated mostly from the North of Angola. In summary, our results place Angola at the epicenter of the early HIV dissemination, together with DRC and RC. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Brncic, Terry M; Willis, Katherine J; Harris, David J; Washington, Richard
This paper presents the results from a palaeoecological study to establish the impact of prehistoric human activity and climate change on the vegetation and soils of the Goualougo area of the Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park, in the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). This is a region that is known from previous work (through evidence of pottery, furnaces and charcoal layers beneath the present day rainforest vegetation) to have had prehistoric settlement dating back to at least 2000 calibrated years before present. In addition, there is climatic evidence to suggest that significant variations in precipitation have occurred in central Africa over the last few millennia. Presently, the region is covered in uninhabited moist semi-evergreen rainforest. Key research questions addressed in this paper include the extent to which the present-day composition of rainforest in this region is as a result of processes of the past (climate change and/or human activity), and the resilience of the rainforest to these perturbations. Statistical analyses of pollen, microscopic charcoal and geochemical data are used to determine the relationship over time between vegetation dynamics and climate change, anthropogenic burning and metal smelting. Significant changes in forest composition are linked to burning and climate change but not metallurgy. The strongest influence on the present day composition appears to be related to the increased anthropogenic burning that started approximately 1000 years ago. Results from this study are discussed in terms of their implications for the present and future management of this globally important forested region.
Hans J. Overgaard
Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.
Isabela de Aranzadi
Full Text Available In the multiple paths in the slave Atlantic with forced displacement during and after trade we find how culture and identity is re-interpreted through African legacies resulting in different genres of African urban popular music. Congolese rumba, belong to an Atlantic dialogue beginning in other African areas two centuries ago, the evolution of this language and its sound through recordings taking place in the twentieth century. Living dialogue between Africa and its diaspora has produced a series of new identity and expressive narratives and with regard to African popular music is produced in a space of complex relationships back and forth through the creativity of diasporic processes. In the writings repeatedly we found the link with the Cuban rumba, considered as "raw material" of the Congolese rumba. In this article we want to emphasize how the influence of the Cuban rumba in the city of Brazzaville and Kinshasa sits and flourishes because of a previous Africanization (of Caribbean influence and a interethnic musical language -in confluence with local languages-, through to the thousands of workers taking a creolized music, reflection of his own condition as a people at cultural crossroads caused by slavery and its abolition, beginning their journey in the early colonization.
Etoka-Beka, Mandingha Kosso; Ntoumi, Francine; Kombo, Michael; Deibert, Julia; Poulain, Pierre; Vouvoungui, Christevy; Kobawila, Simon Charles; Koukouikila-Koussounda, Felix
To investigate the proportion of malaria infection in febrile children consulting a paediatric hospital in Brazzaville, to determine the prevalence of submicroscopic malaria infection, to characterise Plasmodium falciparum infection and compare the prevalence of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria according to haemoglobin profiles. Blood samples were collected from children aged malaria and 21% with submicroscopic infection. The mean parasite density in children with uncomplicated malaria was 42 824 parasites/μl of blood. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was 1.59 in children with uncomplicated malaria and 1.69 in children with submicroscopic infection. The mean haemoglobin level was 10.1 ± 1.7 for children with uncomplicated malaria and 12.0 ± 8.6 for children with submicroscopic infection. About 13% of the children harboured the sickle cell trait (HbAS); the rest had normal haemoglobin (HbAA). No difference in prevalence of uncomplicated malaria and submicroscopic infection, parasite density, haemoglobin level, MOI and P. falciparum genetic diversity was observed according to haemoglobin type. The low prevalence of uncomplicated malaria in febrile Congolese children indicates the necessity to investigate carefully other causes of fever. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
De Rouvray, C; Jésus, P; Guerchet, M; Fayemendy, P; Mouanga, A M; Mbelesso, P; Clément, J P; Preux, P M; Desport, J C
To determine the nutritional status of elderly African people and to investigate the association between undernutrition and dementia. Door-to-door cross-sectional surveys in the general population. Representative districts of Bangui (Central African Republic) and Brazzaville (Republic of Congo). Population aged over 65 years. Undernutrition was defined as a body mass index nutritional habits. PARTICIPANTS underwent cognitive screening using the Community Screening Interview for Dementia (CSI-D) and the Five-Word Test. After further neuropsychological testing and neurological examination, the diagnosis of dementia was confirmed according to DSM-IV criteria. Multivariate logistic regression models were applied in order to identify factors associated with undernutrition in populations with or without dementia. 1016 people were included. In the general population, the prevalence of undernutrition was 19.2%. Dementia was found in 7.4% of elderly people. Compared with healthy people, patients with dementia had an increased prevalence of undernutrition (32.0% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.002), lower weight (49.3 ± 10.5 kg vs. 58.4 ± 13.5 kg ; p older population. The nutritional status of patients with dementia is more impaired than that of healthy patients. However, they are less often malnourished than in French home care settings. This study is the first to look at the nutritional status of at-home patients with dementia in Africa. These comparative data will eventually be used in the development of new nutritional intervention strategies.
Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser
Ikama, Méo Stéphane; Nsitou, Bernice Mesmer; Loumouamou, Mpouoni; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisèle; Nkoua, Jean Louis
L'objectif de ce travail était d’évaluer le niveau d'observance des patients hypertendus et identifier les facteurs prédictifs de mauvaise observance. Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale à recueil de données prospectif sur une période de six mois. Elle s'est déroulée dans les services de consultations externes de cardiologie dans trois hôpitaux: le CHU de Brazzaville, l'hôpital central des armées de Brazzaville, et l'hôpital général de Loandjili (Pointe-Noire). Cette étude a concerné 212 patients dont 122 femmes (57.5%) et 90 hommes (42.5%), âgés de plus de 18ans, hypertendus traités depuis au moins six mois. Le questionnaire à six questions conçu par Girerd a été utilisé pour évaluer l'observance médicamenteuse. Une régression logistique a été utilisée pour rechercher les facteurs de mauvaise observance. L'observance était considérée comme bonne chez 45 patients soit 21.2%, et mauvaise chez 69 patients soit 32.5%. Dans 98 cas soit 46.2% il y avait un minime problème d'observance. Une HTA ancienne de plus de 5 ans, la présence des complications évolutives de l'HTA ainsi que les niveaux élevés de la PAS et de la PAD étaient liés à la mauvaise observance. Par contre aucune relation statistique n'a été retrouvée entre la mauvaise observance et l'existence d'une co-morbidité, la fréquence des prises médicamenteuses, le nombre de comprimés par jour et une pression artérielle non contrôlée. Les patients non observant étaient en moyenne plus âgés que les autres. Une mauvaise connaissance du traitement et des complications de l'HTA, le fait de ne pas acheter soi-même ses médicaments, l'ignorance de la gravité de l'HTA, et le coût élevé du traitement étaient prédictifs d'une mauvaise observance. La possession d'un tensiomètre électronique d'auto mesure tensionnelle ainsi que le rappel des prises médicamenteuses par les parents étaient liés à une bonne observance. Après ajustement par une r
Marcel, Andzouana; Bievenu, Mombouli Jean
The vegetal materials were bought on 20th October, 2010 at the local Total market from Bacongo, South-Brazzaville. The proximate and phytochemical compositions of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and calorimetry. The proximate analysis revealed high moisture (62.90%), crude protein (24.18%) and energy content values (562.19 kJ/100 g) in U. trinervis leaves while the carbohydrate (06.07%), crude fat (1.32%) and ash content (5.54%) were low. Similarly H. myriantha showed a high content of crude protein (25.37%), energy (1508.32 kJ/100 g) and carbohydrate (60.02%) however, the moisture (6.93%), crude fat (1.54%) and ash content (6.14%) were low. The minerals present in both plant leaves were phosphorus (18.97 and 18.73% for H. myriantha and U. trinervis, respectively), followed by potassium (1.25 and 1.29%), calcium and magnesium, which were found in very low concentrations (0.21-0.29%). While sodium, iron and manganese were present as trace elements (0.02-0.09%), aluminum was not detected. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. Flavonoids were absent solely in H. myriantha while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected in both samples. The study showed that these vegetables contained nutrients, mineral elements and phytochemicals that were nutritionally important for body health. Thus they could be recommended in Congolese nutrition with nutrient and non-nutrient supplementation to help in various protective and therapeutic actions for consumers.
Buguet, A; Bert, J; Tapie, P; Bogui, P; Doua, F; Mouanga, G; Stanghellini, A; Sarda, J; Tabaraud, F; Gati, R
Last century, patients with human African trypanosomiasis were described as sleepy by day and restless by night, and physicians referred to this condition as sleeping sickness. Such a description could have evoked a disturbance of circadian rhythms. However, it is only in 1989 that the first 24-hour recording was performed by our team in Niamey (Niger) in a patient with sleeping sickness. The patient was a Niger-born farm worker who had contracted the disease near Gagnoa (Côte d'Ivoire). Polysomnographic recordings (electroencephalogram, EEG, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, buccal and nasal airflow, and chest respiratory movements) showed a disappearance of the circadian distribution of sleep and wakefulness, which tended to occur evenly throughout day and night, with a sleep-wake alternation of approximately 80 minutes. Two investigations were conducted thereafter. The first one was done at Daloa (Côte d'Ivoire) in 8 patients who were recorded during two 24-hour periods, with and without hourly blood samples; the second at Brazzaville (Congo) in 10 patients recorded for 24 hours before and after treatment with melarsoprol. All patients were at the stage of early meningoencephalitis. At Daloa, polysomnographic recordings were taken on two 8-channel EEG machines (Alvar Minihuit, and T3-ECEM), as well as on a portable Oxford Medilog 9000 system from the same electrodes. Sleep and wake structure was altered in the most severely sick patient, the EEG trace being loaded with slow waves. Stages 1 and 2, and stages 3 and 4 could not be distinguished from one another. In the other patients, all sleep stages were easily scored. No difference was seen between recordings, regarding blood collection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Vouvoungui, Christevy Jeannhey; Poulain, Pierre; Essassa, Gaston Bango; Kwedi, Sylvie; Ntoumi, Francine
The diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (SNPT) in resource-limited countries is often solely based on clinical signs, chest X-ray radiography and sputum smear microscopy. We investigated currently used methods for the routine diagnosis of SNPT in the Republic of Congo (RoC) among TB suspected patients. The specific case of HIV positive patients was also studied. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the anti-tuberculosis center (CAT) of Brazzaville, RoC. Tuberculosis suspects were examined for physical signs of TB. Clinical signs, results from sputum smear microscopy, tuberculin skin test (TST) and chest X-ray were recorded. Of the 772 enrolled participants, 372 were diagnosed PTB. Cough was a common symptom for PTB and no PTB patients. Pale skin, positive TST, weight loss and chest X-ray with abnormalities compatible with PTB (PTB-CXR) were significant indicators of PTB. Thirty-six percent of PTB patients were diagnosed SNPT. This category of patients presented less persistent cough and less PTB-CXR. Anorexia and asthenia were significant indicators of SNPT. In the case of HIV+ patients, 57% were SNPT with anorexia, asthenia and shorter cough being strong indicators of SNPT. Chest X-ray abnormalities, weight loss, pale skin and positive TST were significant indicators of PTB. Anorexia and asthenia showed good diagnostic performance for SNPT, which deserve to be recommended as index indicators of SNPT diagnosis. Duration of cough is also a relevant indicator, especially for HIV+ patients.
Gombet, Thierry; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ellenga-Mbolla, Bertrand; Ikama, Meo Stephane; Mokondjimobe, Etienne; Kimbally-Kaky, Gisele; Nkoua, Jean-Louis
The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS) and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions. This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo. THE PREVALENCE OF MS VARIED ACCORDING TO THE DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS USED: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO) criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII) criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and MS defined by the IDF for Central Africa. The IDF definition of the MS modified for Central Africa provides higher prevalence estimates of MS than the estimates based on the NECP-ATPIII and IDF for Europe criteria. Liver enzymes, phospholipids, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance should be included in clinical practice to stratify cardiovascular disease risk among Africans.
Full Text Available Born in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, yet a citizen of Congo-Brazzaville, Henri Lopes is one of those African writers who were not only educated in Europe (France but also lived there while writing a certain portion of their literary work. Being an influential political figure in his country, the author expresses his vision of an independent Africa through his literary works such as “Tribaliques” 1 (1971, “La nouvelle romance” (1976, “Sans tam-tam” (1977 and “Le pleurer-rire” (1982. However, from 1990, Lopes distances his writings from general political issues. In “Le chercheur d’Afriques” (1990 and “Le lys et le flamboyant” (1997, he veers into a new ideological direction, predominantly embedded in issues pertaining to existence: the quest for identity and issues related to hybridisation are recurrent themes and objects of scrutiny. It is clear that this biological approach serves as a pretext for the author to perform an in-depth interrogation of the complex issues of the universal in the context of a modern and globalising world. In his works, human blood and race represent an important aspect of culture; the blending of different cultures is an essential element for the construction of society. A community founded on cultural diversity is thus depicted as dynamic, strong and sustainable. One wonders whether the author is not describing his own life experiences through fiction. This might indeed be the case, considering that Lopes himself is a person of mixed origins, herein referred to as a “métis”. However, the experience described by the author, who lives in France, transcends race; it addresses the modern debate on the issue of cultural hybridisation.
Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E.; Laraque, A.; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; O'Loughlin, F.; Mahe, G. M.; Dinga, B. J.; Moukandi, G.; Spencer, R.
We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and summarize the historic and ongoing research. Annual rainfall is 1900 mm/yr along an east-west trend across the basin, decreasing northward and southward to 1100 mm/yr. Historic studies using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential evapotranspiration varies little across the basin at 1100 to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data have been collected at hundreds of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Congo River discharge at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during the 1960-1970 decade in comparison to most other decades. Satellite altimetry measurements of high and low flows show that water levels in the "Cuvette Centrale" wetland are 0.5m to 3.0m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about a meter and there does not appear to be many sizable channels across the "Cuvette"; thus, wetland flows are diffusive. Cuvette waters alone are estimated to emit about 0.5 Pg CH4 and CO2 equivalents/yr, an amount that is significant compared to global carbon evasions. Using these results, we suggest seven hypotheses that focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how these leave the wetland, on the river discharge generated by historic rainfall, on the connection between climate change and the rainfall-runoff generated by the migrating "tropical rainbelt," on deforestation and hydroelectric power generation, and on the amount of carbon emitted from Congo waters.
Plana, Vanessa; Gascoigne, Angus; Forrest, Laura L; Harris, David; Pennington, R Toby
This paper presents a historical biogeographic analysis of African Begonia based on combined internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and trnL intron sequences. Age range estimates for Begonia in Africa ranged from only 1.5 Ma for some terminal nodes to 27 Ma for basal nodes when the ages of Réunion (2 Ma) andMayotte (5.4 Ma) were used to date the split between Begonia salaziensis and Begonia comorensis. Assuming a more recent origin age for Begonia salaziensis (2 Ma) provided age estimates in other parts of the phylogeny which agreed with patterns observed in other African organisms. A large proportion of the Begonia diversity seen today in Africa is of pre-Pleistocene origin. Species of Pleistocene origin are concentrated in species-rich groups such as sections Loasibegonia, Scutobegonia, and Tetraphila, which have their centre of diversity in western Central Africa. Phylogenetically isolated taxa such as Begonia longipetiolata, Begonia iucunda, and Begonia thomeana date to the late Miocene, a period of extended aridification on the African continent that had severe effects on African rain forest species. A general pattern is identified where phylogenetically isolated species occur outside the main identified rain forest refuges. Endemic species on the island of São Tomé such as Begonia baccata, Begonia molleri, and Begonia subalpestris appear to be palaeoendemics. Of these species, the most recent age estimate is for B. baccata, which is dated at ca. 3 Ma. Therefore, São Tomé appears to have functioned as an important (if previously unrecognised) pre-Pleistocene refuge. On the mainland, areas such as the Massif of Chaillu in Gabon, southern Congo (Brazzaville), and far western areas of Congo (Kinshasa) have played similar roles to São Tomé.
Classification of very high resolution satellite remote sensing data in a pilot phase of the forest cover classification of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Forêts d'Afrique Central Evaluées par Télédetection (FACET) product
Singa Monga Lowengo, C.
The Observatoire Satellital des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (OSFAC) based in Kinshasa, serves as the focal point of the GOFC-GOLD network for Central Africa. OSFAC's long term objective is building regional capacity to use remotely sensed data to map forest cover and forest cover change across Central Africa. OSFAC archives and disseminates satellite data, offers training in geospatial data applications in coordination with the University of Kinshasa, and provides technical support to CARPE partners. Forêts d'Afrique Centrale Évaluées par Télédétection (FACET) is an OSFAC initiative that implements the UMD/SDSU methodology at the national level and quantitatively evaluates the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest cover in Central Africa. The multi-temporal series of FACET data is a useful contribution to many projects, such as biodiversity monitoring, climate modeling, conservation, natural resource management, land use planning, agriculture and REDD+. I am working as Remote Sensing and GIS Officer in various projects of OSFAC. My activities include forest cover and lands dynamics monitoring in Congo Basin. I am familiar with the use of digital mapping software, GIS and RS (Arc GIS, ENVI and PCI Geomatica etc.), classification and spatial Analysis of satellite images, 3D modeling, etc. I started as an intern at OSFAC, Assistant Trainer (Professional Training) and Consultant than permanent employee since October 2009. To assist in the OSFAC activities regarding the monitoring of forest cover and the CARPE program in the context of natural resources management, I participated in the development of the FACET Atlas (Republic of Congo). I received data from Matt Hansen (map.img), WRI and Brazzaville (shapefiles). With all these data I draw maps of the ROC Atlas and statistics of forest cover and forest loss. We organize field work on land to collect data to validate the FACET product. Therefore, to assess forest cover in the region of Kwamouth and Kahuzi-Maiko Biega
Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less
Full Text Available The impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a tropical grassland in Congo Brazzaville during two field campaigns in 2007–2008. The first campaign was conducted in the middle of the dry season and the second at the end of the growing season, respectively one and eight months after burning. Gas fluxes and several soil parameters were measured in each campaign from burned plots and from a close-by control area preserved from fire. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate the magnitude and duration of the generated gas flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, soil samples from field plots were analysed for microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions under different water and temperature soil regimes. One month after burning, field CO2 emissions were significantly lower in burned plots than in the control plots, the average daily CH4 flux shifted from net emission in the unburned area to net consumption in burned plots, no significant effect of fire was observed on soil N2O fluxes. Eight months after burning, the average daily fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O measured in control and burned plots were not significantly different. In laboratory, N2O fluxes from soil of burned plots were significantly higher than fluxes from soil of unburned plots only above 70% of maximum soil water holding capacity; this was never attained in the field even after rain simulation. Higher NO emissions were measured in the lab in soil from burned plots at both 10% and 50% of maximum soil water holding capacity. Increasing the incubation temperature from 25 °C to 37 °C negatively affected microbial growth, mineralization and nitrification activities but enhanced N2O and CO2 production. Results indicate that fire did not increase post-burning soil GHG emissions in this tropical grasslands characterized by acidic, well drained and nutrient-poor soil.
Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan
The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to
Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for
Kakou-Guikahue, Maurice; N'Guetta, Roland; Anzouan-Kacou, Jean-Baptiste; Kramoh, Euloge; N'Dori, Raymond; Ba, Serigne Abdou; Diao, Maboury; Sarr, Moustapha; Kane, Abdoul; Kane, Adama; Damorou, Findide; Balde, Dadhi; Diarra, Mamadou Bocary; Djiddou, Mohamed; Kimbally-Kaki, Gisèle; Zabsonre, Patrice; Toure, Ibrahim Ali; Houénassi, Martin; Gamra, Habib; Chajai, Bachir; Gerardin, Benoit; Pillière, Rémy; Aubry, Pierre; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Isnard, Richard; Leprince, Pascal; Cottin, Yves; Bertrand, Edmond; Juillière, Yves; Monsuez, Jean-Jacques
Whereas the coronary artery disease death rate has declined in high-income countries, the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, where their management remains a challenge. To propose a consensus statement to optimize management of ACS in sub-Saharan Africa on the basis of realistic considerations. The AFRICARDIO-2 conference (Yamoussoukro, May 2015) reviewed the ongoing features of ACS in 10 sub-Saharan countries (Benin, Burkina-Faso, Congo-Brazzaville, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Togo), and analysed whether improvements in strategies and policies may be expected using readily available healthcare facilities. The outcome of patients with ACS is affected by clearly identified factors, including: delay to reaching first medical contact, achieving effective hospital transportation, increased time from symptom onset to reperfusion therapy, limited primary emergency facilities (especially in rural areas) and emergency medical service (EMS) prehospital management, and hence limited numbers of patients eligible for myocardial reperfusion (thrombolytic therapy and/or percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]). With only five catheterization laboratories in the 10 participating countries, PCI rates are very low. However, in recent years, catheterization laboratories have been built in referral cardiology departments in large African towns (Abidjan and Dakar). Improvements in patient care and outcomes should target limited but selected objectives: increasing awareness and recognition of ACS symptoms; education of rural-based healthcare professionals; and developing and managing a network between first-line healthcare facilities in rural areas or small cities, emergency rooms in larger towns, the EMS, hospital-based cardiology departments and catheterization laboratories. Faced with the increasing prevalence of ACS in sub-Saharan Africa, healthcare policies should be developed to overcome the multiple
Diouf, S; Folquet, M; Mbofung, K; Ndiaye, O; Brou, K; Dupont, C; N'dri, D; Vuillerod, M; Azaïs-Braesco, V; Tetanye, E
Anemia and iron deficiency are major public health issues worldwide and particularly in Africa. Reliable information about their prevalence and associated factors is required to allow for effective actions. In this study, we used data from recent (2006-2012) large population health surveys, carried out in 11 French-speaking African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal). Hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed and demographic and health-related parameters were obtained from nation-representative samples of children aged 6-59 months. Anemia (Hbaffected by location (75.5% in rural areas versus 67.3% in towns), income (79.8% in lower quintile of income versus 62.3% in higher quintile), or maternal education (74.1% in children from non-educated mothers versus 62.4% in children whose mothers had secondary education). Nearly 50% of women of child-bearing age had anemia. In the countries that report this information, less than 50% (17-65%) of children consumed iron-rich foods regularly and only 12% (7.4-20.5%) received iron supplementation. Infection and parasitism are known to affect some markers of iron status, because of the inflammatory reaction, thereby making the diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. In the study countries, acute respiratory diseases and diarrhea affected 6.2 and 15.6% of children aged between 6 and 59 months, respectively; their distribution according to age and location is very different from the one of anemia, which is also the case for the distribution of malaria. It is thus likely that a large part of the anemia observed in young children is due to iron deficiency, although further research is needed to confirm this. This fully justifies the nationwide programs of iron fortification of flour, currently undergoing in most countries of French-speaking Africa. Their formal evaluation is still pending but the initial data suggest some efficacy, although
Alsdorf, D. E.; Beighley, E., II; Lee, H.; Tshimanga, R.; Spencer, R. G.; O'Loughlin, F.
We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and find that there are historic data, ongoing measurement recording efforts, and important model results. Annual rainfall is ~2000 mm/yr along an east-west trend, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. While some studies show rain gauges at specific locations with declines in P greater than 10% from 1960 to 1990, other studies suggest that basin wide decreases from 1951 to 1993 are modest at 4.5% or that the trend is minimal. Studies during the 1950s using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential ET varies little across the basin at a 1100 mm/yr to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data has been collected at 100s of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Discharge of the Congo River at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during 1960-1970 in comparison to background values of the previous decades and of today. There does not appear to be a long-term discharge trend over the century of record. Satellite altimetry measurements collected during high and low flows show that the Cuvette Centrale wetland water levels are consistently 0.5m to 3m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about 1m whereas the Congo is typically less than 15m deep everywhere upstream of Kinshasa. The wetlands do not appear to be marked by sizable channels such that the flows are diffusive. CO2 and CH4 evasion from the Congo waters directly to the atmosphere are estimated at 1.6 to 3.2 Tg/yr for CH4 from the Cuvette wetland waters and 105 to 204 g C/m2/yr for CO2 from waters of the Oubangui River. Using these published results, we suggest seven hypotheses that may lead to important water and carbon cycle discoveries. These hypotheses focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how those waters leave the wetland; on river discharge generated by historic
Cornu, A.; Delpeuch, F.; Simondon, F.; Goma, I.; Massamba, J. P.; Tchibindat, F.; Bailey, K. V.
The objective was to evaluate the nutritional status of preschool children in the rural areas in order to establish a baseline for the measurement of the impact of a Government Nutrition Education Project (NUTED) in forthcoming years. The household cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative sample of the rural population. The sample was stratified in order to portray the nutritional status of the children in the northern regions (more thinly populated) and in the southern regions: one stratum for small towns (between 2000 and 30,000 inhabitants) and 4 strata for rural localities. The sampling method used was by clusters of 30 children, distributed randomly in 20 zones per stratum. The nutritional indices of 2429 children were calculated and analysed according to WHO recommendations. The prevalence of the different types of malnutrition was 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 24.2-30.8) for stunting (height-for-age retardation) and 5.5% (CI = 4.2-6.8) for wasting (weight-for-height retardation). Both types coexisted among 1.9% of the children; 23% of children were underweight for their age (CI = 21.6-26.2), and 15.8% (CI = 14.7-16.9) aged greater than 12 months had a mid-arm circumference below 135 mm. No sex difference was observed in the results. Stunting seems to appear in the second trimester of life (3-5 months), and wasting appeared between 9 and 23 months (highest rate between 12 and 17 months: 14.0% (CI = 9.3-18.8], which presents a real public health problem. The stratification did not show any significant differences in nutritional status among the children living in rural zones and those living in the small towns. However, the prevalence of malnutrition in the rural zones was 2 or 3 times higher than that observed in 1986 in Brazzaville. The division of the country into five main ecological zones allows some useful comparisons, e.g., the prevalence of stunting ranges from 15.5% (CI = 12.8-18.2) in the northern inundated forest zone to 38
植民者サヴオノレニヤン・ドゥ・プラザ(Savorgnan de Brazza) がコンゴに足を踏み入れてからちょうど20 年後の1899 年、彼の名前に由来するプラザピル(Brazzaville) (現コンゴ共和田の首都)から西へ約60 回離れたキンカラという町で、アンドレ・マツワ(Andre Matsoua) が生まれた。カトリックの教育を受けた彼は教理問答の教師となるが、仕事を求めてプラザピノレへ出る。さらに渡仏を果たし従軍をするのだが、その後は逮捕、本国送還、投獄、脱獄などといった波澗万丈の生涯が彼を待ち受けていた。彼が立ち上げた在仏黒人のための相互扶助を目的とした組織「アミカル(Amicale)」が、植民地統治に対する抵抗運動と発展していったためである。彼は1942年、出生地の近くで獄中死をするが、彼の死後その活動は一つの宗教へと発展していき、その中で彼は黒人のメシアとして崇められるようになる。本稿では、このアンドレ・マツワの生涯と彼が組織したアミカルを検証しつつ、アフジカに見る他の黒人メシア宗教とは異なり、本来、政治的であった組織がどのような過程を経て宗教となっていった...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knockdown resistance (kdr caused by a single base pair mutation in the sodium channel gene is strongly associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae in West-Central Africa. Recently, various molecular techniques have been developed to screen for the presence of the kdr mutations in vector populations with varying levels of accuracy. In this study, the results of the hydrolysis probe analysis for detecting the kdr mutations in An. gambiae s.s. from the Republic of the Congo were compared with DNA sequence analysis. Methods A total of 52 pyrethroid and DDT resistant An. gambiae from Pointe-Noire (Congo-Brazzaville were tested for detection of the two kdr mutations (kdr-e and kdr-w that are known to occur in this species. Results from the hydrolysis probe analysis were compared to DNA sequencing to verify the accuracy of the probe analysis for this vector population. Results Fifty-one specimens were found to be An. gambiae S-form and one was a M/S hybrid. DNA sequencing revealed that more than half of the specimens (55.8% carried both the kdr-e and kdr-w resistance mutations, seven specimens (13.5% were homozygous for the kdr-e mutation, and 14 specimens (26.9% were homozygous for the kdr-w mutation. A single individual was genotyped as heterozygous kdr-e mutation (1.9% only and another as heterozygous kdr-w mutation (1.9% only. Analysis using hydrolysis probe analysis, without adjustment of the allelic discrimination axes on the scatter plots, revealed six specimens (11.5% carrying both mutations, 30 specimens (57.8% as homozygous kdr-w, six specimens (11.5% homozygous for the kdr-e mutation, one specimen (1.9% heterozygous for the kdr-w mutation and one specimen (1.9% present in wild type form. Eight of the specimens (15.4% could not be identified using unadjusted hydrolysis probe analysis values. No heterozygous kdr-e mutations were scored when adjustment for the allelic discrimination axes was
Doumtsop, Jean Gérard Tatou; Khalef, Ishagh; Diakite, Med Lemine Brahim; Boubker, Naouri
Introduction La Commission Régionale de Certification de l'Eradication de la poliomyélite pour l'Afrique(CRCA) en session à Brazzaville du 8 au 10 octobre 2007 avait déclaré la Mauritanie « libérée de la poliomyélite ». Objectif Décrire l’épidémiologie des PFA (Paralysies flasques aigues) et évaluer les indicateurs de performance du système de surveillance pour la période de 2008 à 2012 ayant suivi cette déclaration. Méthodes Les données du service de surveillance épidémiologique ont été nettoyées et analysées à l'aide du logiciel Epi-infoversion 3.4.3 (CDC Atlanta). Résultats 319 cas de PFA ont été notifié soit une incidence moyenne de 4.61/100000 enfants de moins de 15 ans par an. La distribution des cas cumulés par mois montre une importante notification des cas PFA pendant la période de Février à Juillet et à la suite de l’épidémie de 2009 alors que l'incidence des cas confirmés a été plus importante entre Novembre et Février. L’âge moyen était de 4ans (E.T. ±4ans) et 77.4% avaient un âge = 5ans. 18 cas de PFA ont été confirmés poliovirus sauvage(PVS) dont 6 en 2009 et 12 en 2010 et tous d'importation. L’âge moyen était de 3.4 ans (E.T ±2.6 ans). 44,4% étaient des filles et 55.5% garçons. Cette proportion était proche de celle des PFA non polio (45.1% versus 54.9%). 61% avaient reçu au plus une dose de vaccin polio orale (VPO) pour les cas de PFA polio contre 7.4% pour les PFA non polio. Aucune discrimination de genre n'a été observé sur la population des PFA ayant reçu une dose au plus (ratio-sexe= 16/17=0.94). La fièvre était présente pour 90%des cas de PFA non polio contre 85% pour les cas PVS. Cette fièvre à progresser en 3 jours pour tous les cas de PVS et pour 82,7% des cas de PFA non polio. Le taux d'hospitalisation était de 13.6% pour les cas de PFA non polio contre 89% pour les PFA polio. Dans tous les deux groupes, les membres de prédilection étaient d'abord l'un des 2 membres