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Sample records for brazzaville

  1. Have tsetse flies disappeared from Brazzaville town?

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    Patrick Bitsindou

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: From 1980 to 1985, the zoological park of Brazzaville was the only tsetse resting site located in downtown which supplied others temporary sites. The last trapping survey carried out in this area in 1987 showed that there were no more tsetse flies. Knowing that areas free of tsetse used to be reinvaded many years later, we have carried out an entomological survey in the area with the aim to verify what has happened more than twenty years later; given that suitable environmental conditions for Glossina are still available. Methods: Sixteen pyramidal traps were set out at the edge of the forest, along paths and around animal’s cages and were examined twice a day, at 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. during four days. Results: No tsetse fly was captured. Using the formula previously described; the probability of capturing a tsetse fly is 0.002. Conclusion: The zoological park seems close to be free of tsetse flies. Long-lasting surveys within the town and around are required before stating a complete disappearance of tsetse in the town.

  2. [Twelve years of working of Brazzaville cancer registry].

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    Nsondé Malanda, Judith; Nkoua Mbon, Jean Bernard; Bambara, Augustin Tozoula; Ibara, Gérard; Minga, Benoît; Nkoua Epala, Brice; Gombé Mbalawa, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The Brazzaville cancer registry was created in 1996 with the support of the International Agency Research against Cancer (IARC) which is located in Lyon, France. The Brazzaville cancer registry is a registry which is based on population which records new cancer cases occurring in Brazzaville by using Canreg 4.0 Software. Its aim is to supply useful information to fight against cancer to physicians and to decision makers. We conducted this study whose target was to determine the incidence of cancer in Brazzaville during twelve years, from January 1st, 1998 to December 31, 2009. During that period 6,048 new cancer cases were recorded: 3,377 women (55.8%), 2,384 men (39.4%), and 287 children (4.8%) from 0 to 14 years old with an annual average of 504 cases. Middle age to the patient's diagnosis was 49.5 years in female sex and 505.5 years old for male sex. The incidence rate of cancers in Brazzaville was 39.8 or 100.000 inhabitants per year and by sex we observed 49 to female sex and 35.2 for male sex. The first cancers localizations observed to women were in order of frequency: breast, cervix uterine, liver ovaries, hematopoietic system, to men : liver, prostate, hematopoietic system, colon and stomach; to children : retina, kidney, hematopoietic system, liver and bones. These rates are the basis to know the burden of cancer among all pathologies of Brazzaville and the achievement of a national cancer control program.

  3. Working for the future : elite women's strategies in Brazzaville

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    Paravano, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the strategies applied by elite women in Brazzaville, Congo, to achieve lifelong financial security and independence for themselves and their children. Amongst these strategies are a woman's position in the household and women's ways of identifying themselves socially. Women's em

  4. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

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    Matondo, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  5. Éducation et marchés du travail à Brazzaville et Pointe Noire (Congo-Brazzaville)

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    Mathias Kuepie; Christophe Nordman

    2011-01-01

    (english) The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of education on labor market entry, particularly on earnings in the two largest cities of the Republic of Congo. We examine firsthand data from the 2009 Congo's Employment and Informal Sector Survey (Enquête sur l’emploi et le secteur informel au Congo - EESIC) from a representative sample of about 3000 households in the cities of Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire. Results indicate that education is relatively widespread in both cities, with...

  6. Impact of urban population on the environment of the city of Brazzaville

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    Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is the development of a city. It is a major phenomenon that has gained momentum in recent years and almost all key cities of the world in general and Africa in particular. Brazzaville, the political capital of the Republic of Congo and the seat of central power has not remained untouched by this phenomenon of urbanization. The increase in the population of Brazzaville predicts a rise in demand for goods and services at all levels including environmental pressures from human activities. The growth of urban population feels the pressure that it exerts on the environment that goes with multiple consequences. Brazzaville is a city in the developing world where population growth in recent years and the spatial extensions have hardly allowed the establishment of a specific framework to fight against environmental problems. This requires the implementation of an appropriate urban governance to fight against environmental pressures.

  7. Clinical Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Congolese Children with Acute Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Brazzaville

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    Mathieu Ndounga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of the Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs in 2006: artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line and second-line drugs, respectively. The baseline efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine was evaluated between March and July 2006 in Brazzaville, the capital city of Congo. Seventy-seven children aged between 6 months and 10 years were enrolled in a nonrandomized study. The children were treated under supervision with 6 doses of artemether-lumefantrine and followed up for 28 days in accordance with the 2003 World Health Organization guideline. Pretreatment (i.e., day 0 and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum isolates between day 14 and day 28 were compared by the polymerase chain reaction to distinguish between true recrudescence and reinfection. The overall cure rate on day 28 was 96.9% after PCR correction. Reported adverse effects included pruritus and dizziness. Artemether-lumefantrine was highly efficacious in Brazzaville.

  8. Clinical Efficacy of Artemether-Lumefantrine in Congolese Children with Acute Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Brazzaville

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    Mathieu Ndounga; Rachida Tahar; Prisca N. Casimiro; Dieudonné Loumouamou; Basco, Leonardo K.

    2012-01-01

    The Republic of the Congo adopted artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in 2006: artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line and second-line drugs, respectively. The baseline efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine was evaluated between March and July 2006 in Brazzaville, the capital city of Congo. Seventy-seven children aged between 6 months and 10 years were enrolled in a nonrandomized study. The children were treated under supervision with 6 doses of artemethe...

  9. Urbanization and the Risk of Flooding In the Congo; Case of The City Of Brazzaville

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    Nzoussi Hilaire Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is the process by which cities grow. For over a decade, African cities in general have had a very significant population growth. And Brazzaville, the political capital of the Republic of Congo has not remained on the sidelines of this exponential growth. This is probably due to the political and economic stability singularly marked by oil upturn. This rapid urbanization contributes to defy all the forecasts made in terms of urbanization and poses many problems. Population growth leads to an occupation with no real urbanization standards of public space in the city which causes uncontrolled building, with major flooding during rainy periods to disproportionate consequences.

  10. Discrimination, Despoliation and Irreconcilable Difference: Host-Immigrant Tensions in Brazzaville, Congo Diskriminierung, Ausbeutung und unversöhnliche Differenz: Spannungen zwischen Gastland-Bevölkerung und Immigranten in Brazzaville (Kongo

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    Bruce Whitehouse

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available For generations, immigrants from other African countries have comprised a significant minority of residents in Brazzaville, capital of the Republic of Congo. These immigrants constitute several distinct “stranger” populations within Congolese society. While they play a significant role in the Congolese economy, they also encounter discrimination in their daily lives and face hostility from indigenous Congolese. Popular discourses in Brazzaville widely represent African foreigners as a malevolent presence and a threat to Congolese interests. Such discourses fit into broader conflicts over identity, belonging, and access to resources on the continent. This paper, based on ethnographic and survey research carried out in Brazzaville, examines the case of that city’s immigrants from the West African Sahel. It situates tensions between them and their hosts in the context of contemporary political and economic dynamics in post-colonial Congo, and specifically links them to exclusionary place-based identity as a political force in contemporary Africa. Seit Generationen stellen Immigranten aus verschiedenen afrikanischen Ländern eine wesentliche Minderheit unter den Einwohnern von Brazzaville, der Hauptstadt der Republik Kongo, dar. Diese Immigranten bilden mehrere unterschiedliche „fremde“ Einwohnergruppen in der kongolesischen Gesellschaft. Obwohl sie eine bedeutende Rolle in der kongolesischen Wirtschaft spielen, erfahren sie doch Diskriminierung im täglichen Leben und begegnen Feindseligkeiten von Seiten der einheimischen Kongolesen. In gängigen Meinungsäußerungen in Brazzaville werden afrikanische Ausländer als schädlicher Faktor und als eine Bedrohung kongolesischer Interessen dargestellt. Diese Stimmen müssen im Kontext umfassender Konflikte hinsichtlich Identität, Eigentum und Zugang zu Ressourcen auf dem Kontinent gesehen werden. Der vorliegende, auf ethnographischer Forschung und Umfragen basierende Artikel untersucht die

  11. Distribution of tropospheric ozone at Brazzaville, Congo, determined from ozonesonde measurements

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    Cros, Bernard; Nganga, Dominique; Minga, Alexis; Fishman, Jack; Brackett, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of 33 ozonesonde launches in Brazzaville, Congo (4 deg S, 15 deg E), between June 1990 and May 1991 is presented. The data indicate highest tropospheric amounts between June and early October, coincident with the dry season and with the presence of enhanced widespread biomass burning. The seasonal cycle of ozone derived from the ozonesonde measurements is in good agreement with the climatological seasonal cycle inferred from the use of satellite data amd both seasonal cycles peak in September. Averaged throughout the year, the integrated amount of ozone derived from the ozonesondes is 44 Dobson units (DU) and is 39 DU using the satellite data. Within the troposphere the highest partial pressures are generally found at pressure levels near 700 mbar (about 3 km). Using simultaneous ozonesonde data from Ascension Island (8 deg S, 15 deg W), examples are presented illustrating that differences in the troposphere are primarily responsible for the observed spatial gradients of total ozone observed by TOMS.

  12. Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville

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    Loumouamou Aubin Nestor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%; giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud Stapf.

  13. Characteristics and Composition of Jatropha curcas Oils, Variety Congo-Brazzaville

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    J.M. Nzikou

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The oil from Jatropha curcas seeds variety "Congo-Brazzaville" was extracted using two oilsextraction methods w ith petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture of chloroform:methanol (1:1(Blye and Dyer. The oils were compared of Jatropha curcas other countries. The oil concentration rangedfrom 50% (Soxlhet to 47% (Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value,fatty acid methyl esters, unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differentialscanning calorimetry were determined. Jatropha curcas seeds have ash content of 4.2% (with the presence offollowing minerals: Ca, Mg, K and Na. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids,especially oleic (up to 40.10% and linoleic (up to 37.60%. Jatropha curcas oil can be classified in the oleiclinoleicacid group. The dominant saturated acids were palmitic (up to 15.63% and stearic (up to 5.78%.Jatropha curcas seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (25%. The content ofinsaponifiables is 0.89 %. Taking into account these results, Jatropha curcas can be cultivated for theproduction of oil of technical interest (biocarburant, soap, painting, lubricants, insecticides, etc.

  14. Cost of management of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in Brazzaville (Congo): preliminary findings.

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    Ellenga Mbolla, B F; Matingou, A R; Ikama, M S; Mongo-Ngamami, S F; Kouala Landa, C M; Gombet, T R; Kimbally-Kaky, S G

    2016-05-01

    The frequency of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly as a consequence of population aging and the high prevalence of hypertension. The aim of this descriptive study was to determine the cost of management of this disease in the cardiology department at University Hospital of Brazzaville. The study included 50 patients aged 67.3 ± 12.8 years (range: 34 to 88 years). Among them, 21 (42%) were unemployed, and 49 (98%) had no health insurance. Their average monthly salary was 152.8 ± 149 € (range: 0 to 686 €). The mean total cost of care was 442.4 ± 109.8 € (range: 146.6 to 646.2 €). The average monthly salary was higher than the average cost of drugs (P hospital hospitality (P <0.0001). But the overall cost of care was substantially higher than the patients' mean salary (p <0.0001). This study illustrates the increasing healthcare costs related to the growing burden of cardiovascular disease in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:25788139

  15. [Exploratory study of road safety in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire in Republic of the Congo].

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    Batala Mpondo, Georges; Bouanga, Marianne; Saya, Yvette Marie Clarisse; Maurice, Pierre; Burigusa, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Although road accidents in the Congo are reaching alarming levels (2,720 accidents in 2010 and 3,126 accidents in 2011), especially with the massive arrival of "Jakarta" mopeds, no evaluation has been conducted to identify and understand the factors responsible for this problem. This article reports the results of an exploratory study conducted in Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire based on information collected from existing documents and by semidirective questionnaire of people from various sectors able to elucidate the problem of road safety. Using William Haddon's matrix, the parameters investigated were : road user behaviour ; environmental and technological factors ; characteristics of road accident victims ; quality of care ; intervention times and organization of prevention. This study demonstrated the absence of a road safety policy in Congo. It also showed that the main factors responsible for road accidents are behavioural (failure to wear safety belts, failure to comply with road signs, fatigue, use of a telephone while driving, etc.), followed by environmental and technological factors (insufficient traffic lights, absence of sidewalks, disorganized occupation of roads, general state of vehicles). This study shows that, in order to improve road safety in the Congo, it is essential to promote the development of national road safety policies and an action plan, intervention on the determinants of road accidents, and a change of road user behaviours (compulsory use of safety belts, ban on the use of a telephone and smoking while driving, etc.). Effective organization of the management of road accident victims and allocation of a budget to implement a road safety policy are also necessary.

  16. The High Voltage Line Becomes a Power Distributor: A Successful Test in Congo Brazzaville

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    A. Omboua

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The high line voltage passes over the head but we don’t have electricity to have our mill functioned, we continue to live without the power! In many developing countries, we have a lot of high lines voltage which cross many regions to supply electricity to the main towns or connect to networks the distanced electric stations.These booked lines for supplying electricity to big towns cross a lot of villages whose people broadly poor hope to be supplied with electricity without a suitable solution. However it seems very deplorable that the power conducted by these lines doesn’t profit to surrounding population. Unfortunately, for these villages, the use of classical stations is too expensive to the power distributors because of high cost of investment and production for these potential scattered consumers with the feeble demand of electricity.This paper presents the original solution, settled in 2002 in one of the village located in Congo Brazzaville, and continues to function correctly. It is a new power transformer with one phase called PLX which is connected on one phase of the high line voltage 220kV and which produces extraordinary the low voltage 230 V directly useful by the rural population. This conceived sample for the rural electrification has been dimensioned for the power of 50kVA. A cheap and resistant advice! It requires a large popularization and mainly in sub saharian Africa that has got many opportunities. Outside the role of conduction of the power, the high line voltage distributes it

  17. Evaluation of psychological support for victims of sexual violence in a conflict setting: results from Brazzaville, Congo

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    Mbemba Alain

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the impact of psychological support in war and transcultural contexts and in particular, whether there are lasting benefits. Here, we present an evaluation of the late effect of post-rape psychological support provided to women in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo. Methods Women who attended the Médecins Sans Frontières program for sexual violence in Brazzaville during the conflict were selected to evaluate the psychological consequences of rape and the late effect of post-rape psychological support. A total of 178 patients met the eligibility criteria: 1 Women aged more than 15 years; 2 raped by unknown person(s wearing military clothes; 3 admitted to the program between the 1/1/2002 and the 30/4/2003; and 4 living in Brazzaville. Results The initial diagnosis according to DSM criteria showed a predominance of anxious disorders (54.1% and acute stress disorders (24.6%. One to two years after the initial psychological care, 64 women were evaluated using the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (TSQ, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF and an assessment scale to address medico-psychological care in emergencies (EUMP. Two patients (3.1% met the needed criteria for PTSD diagnosis from the TSQ. Among the 56 women evaluated using GAF both as pre and post-test, global functioning was significantly improved by initial post-rape support (50 women (89.3% had extreme or medium impairment at first post-rape evaluation, and 16 (28.6% after psychological care; p = 0.04. When interviewed one to two years later, the benefit was fully maintained (16 women (28.6% presenting extreme or medium impairment. Conclusion We found the benefits of post-rape psychological support to be present and lasting in this conflict situation. However, we were unable to evaluate all women for the long-term impact, underscoring the difficulty of leading evaluation studies in unstable contexts. Future research is needed to validate these

  18. Beta-globin gene haplotypes and alpha-thalassemia analysis in Babinga pygmies from Congo-Brazzaville.

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    Mouélé, R; Bodo, J M; Mpelé, D M; Feingold, J; Galactéros, F

    2000-04-01

    We analyzed beta-globin gene cluster haplotypes and deletional alpha+-thalassemia (-alpha3.7kb) in 54 Babinga pygmy subjects from Congo-Brazzaville. The beta(S)-globin gene frequency was 0.065 and that of the deletional alpha-globin gene (-alpha3.7kb) was 0.29. Eighty-five percent of the beta(S) chromosomes and 13% of the beta(A) chromosomes were associated with the Bantu haplotype, 10% of beta(A) chromosomes with the Senegal haplotype, and the remaining beta chromosomes with atypical haplotypes. None of the chromosomes were of the Benin haplotype. These results are clearly of anthropological and evolutionary interest. They also support earlier observations that alpha+-thalassemia is prevalent at a high frequency in African populations.

  19. L'atmosphère de Brazzaville pollué par les voitures importées

    OpenAIRE

    Moumbou, Alcède; Ngoubangoyi, Jean-Valère

    2003-01-01

    Brazzaville, capitale du Congo, est devenue l'une des villes d'Afrique centrale la plus polluée. La principale source de cette pollution sont les fumées rejetées par les voitures d'occasion massivement importées d'Europe et d'Asie qui roulent avec de l'essence frelatée. Les spécialistes craignent la multiplication des cancers des voies respiratoires. Déjà on déplore la recrudescence de nombreuses maladies respiratoires. Suffoquer sous d'épaisse fumée noire qui entoure voitures, motos et piéto...

  20. Consommation de la viande de brousse dans la zone du Parc National de Conkouati-Douli, Congo (Brazzaville: nature du gibier et modalités de consommation

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    Makosso Vheiye, G.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of Bushmeat in the Conkouati-Douli National Park, Congo (Brazzaville: Nature of Game and Characteristics of Consumption. In order to identify the species hunted in the Conkouati- Douli National Park (CDNP, Brazzaville (Congo and to appreciate the methods of consumption of the bushmeat by the bordering populations, 52 hunters from 16 to 62 years old were a surveying over a period of one month and half. The results indicate that hunt to involve rodents, bovidae, various carnivores, suidae, reptiles and birds. However, the african brush-tailed porcupines (Atherurus africanus and blue duikers (Cephalophus monticola were the most appreciated animals. The modes of consumption of the bushmeat were diversified. The smoked meat was used most frequently (48.1% followed by fresh meat consumption (40.2%. All political and legislative measurements are to be necessary to preserve the resources of this protected area.

  1. Assessing Factors Controlling the Hydrochemistry and Suitability for Irrigation Purposes of Aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire, South-West Congo-Brazzaville

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    C. Tathy

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater of AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire (south-west town of Congo-Brazzaville was assessed for factors controlling the hydrochemistry and its irrigation suitability. Thirty three groundwater samples collected from 11 piezometers were analyzed for physical parameters such as: pH, temperature (T, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS; major cations: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and anions Cl- , SO42- , HCO3-. Factor analysis revealed four factors associated with the mineralization, alkalinity, temperature and pH of the groundwater. Some indexes which can influence the groundwater quality for irrigation were determined: Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR, percent of sodium (%Na, Residual Sodium Carbonate (RSC, Permeability Index (PI and Potential Salinity (PS. These indexes for water irrigation were compared with standard limits. They have been found within the safe limit suitable for irrigation. The total dissolved solids in the groundwater were lower than 1500 mg/L, this denotes that irrigation using groundwater of aquifer AQ-2 in Pointe-Noire would not cause salinity hazards.

  2. Tuberculose pulmonaire à Brazzaville en hospitalisation pneumologique: impact du diagnostic tardif à l’infection au VIH sur les anomalies radiographiques

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    Bemba, Esthel Lee Presley; Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Moyikoua, Régis; Ossibi-Ibara, Rolland; Ebenga-Somboko, Norela Bibiane; Toungou, Syn Nerval; Matondot, Paunel God’hervé; Ossale-Abacka, Boris Kevin; Okemba-Okombi, Franck Hardain; Mboussa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre étude était de décrire les différents aspects radiographiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire selon le degré de l’immunodépression chez les patients VIH. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de 80 patients VIH positif non traités présentant une tuberculose pulmonaire, hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumo-phtisiologie de Brazzaville de Janvier 2013 à Janvier 2014. Notre échantillon était composé de 44 femmes (55%) et 36 hommes (45%) soit un sex ratio de 0,81. La moyenne d’âge était de 37,5±9,17ans, la moyenne du Taux de CD4 était de 153,13±86,6cell/mm3. La microscopie des expectorations à la recherche des bacilles acido-alcoolo-résistants était positive dans 75% des cas chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4>200cell/ mm3. Les adénopathies médiastinales, les atteintes moyennes, inferieures du champ pulmonaire et la miliaire étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4< 200cell/ mm3. L’immunodépression sévère est significativement associée à la présentation radiographique atypique de la tuberculose. PMID:27800112

  3. [Infectious endocarditis in the University Hospital Center of Brazzaville. A study of 32 cases].

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    Bouramoué, C; Azika-Mbiambina, M E

    1990-12-01

    Thirty-eight cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were observed between 1976 and 1989 (1.3% of all cardiac disease). Thirty two cases were retained for study based on Von Reyn's criteria: 28 native valve endocarditis (27 left and 1 right heart valves) of which 18 occurred on previously undiseased valves (56.3%); 4 cases of left heart prosthetic valve endocarditis. The average age of the patients was 27.5 +/- 14 years and the group comprised 24 women and 8 men (p less than 0.001). Blood cultures were negative in 13 cases, revealed a Gram negative pathogen in 8 cases, a streptoccocus in 3 cases. Blood cultures were not performed in 2 cases. The IE was acute in 18 cases (56.7%) and subacute in 14 cases (43.7%). The dominant clinical signs were of massive and sometimes acute valvular regurgitation (mitral: 21 cases; aortic: 10 cases; mitral and aortic: 3 cases; tricuspid: 1 case). Twenty-six patients had cardiac failure (81.2%): LVF: 15 cases, congestive cardiac failure: 10 cases, RVF: 1 case. The other complications were embolic: cerebral (3 cases), mesenteric (1 case), pulmonary (4 cases). Antibiotic therapy was prescribed in all patients; surgery was required in 9 cases. There were 12 fatalities (37.5%), 10 in the medically treated group and 2 in the surgical group (p less than 0.05). The results show that the prognosis of IE in underdeveloped regions remains poor. Effective strategies of early diagnosis and treatment are urgently required to reduce the high mortality. Prophylaxis of IE should commence with measures to counter the portals of entry of the pathogens and the valvular sequellae of acute rhumatic fever. PMID:2126713

  4. Solanum nigrum L. Seeds as an Alternative Source of Edible Lipids and Nutriment in Congo Brazzaville

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    Nzikou, J. M.; Mvoula-Tsieri, M.; Matos, L.; Matouba, E.; Ngakegni-Limbili, A. C.; Linder, M.; Desobry, S.

    Solanum nigrum L. seeds have been subjected to standard analytical techniques in order to evaluate proximate composition, physicochemical properties and contents of nutritional valuable elements and fatty acids of the seeds and oils. Physicochemical analysis indicate that the oil content was 37.12±0.75 and 38.88±0.4 for Bligh and Dyer and Folch method, respectively. The seeds are rich in protein (17.66±0.67 g/100 g) and carbohydrate (33.48±35.24 g/100 g). Solanum nigrum L. seeds have ash content of 7.18% (with the presence of following minerals: Ca, K, Na and Mg) moisture content is of 3.86 ±0. 97%. Of green color Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil has the fatty acid composition following: 18:2n-6 (67.77%), 18:1n-9 (14.59%), 16:0 (12.46%) and 18:0 (4.31%) and 18:3n-3(0.63%). DSC analysis shows three peaks; two at low melting point (-36 and 21.23°C) and one high melting point at 31°C. The majors TAG in Solanum nigrum L. seeds oil are Oleodilinolein (OLL) at 56.54% of total triacylglycerols followed by palmitooleo-linolein (POL) and dioleolinolein (OOL) varying between 14.79 and 22.04%. The oil extracts exhibited good physicochemical properties and could be useful as edible oils and for industrial applications.

  5. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya in Congo-Brazzaville

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    G. Bouanga-Kalou

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78% and crude fiber (21.4%. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%, while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38% in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the state to be liquid at room temperature. Carica papaya seeds have ash content of 3.2% (with the presence of following minerals: K, Na, Ca, P and Mg. However, Ca and P occur in appreciable quantities (1821±2.12 mg/100 g dry matter and 1156±1.8 mg/100 g dry mater, respectively.

  6. Extraction and characteristics of seed oil from Papaya (Carica papaya) in Congo-Brazzaville

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    G. Bouanga-Kalou; A. Kimbonguila; J.M. Nzikou; F.B. Ganongo-Po; F.E. Moutoula; E. Panyoo-Akdowa; Th. Silou and S. Desobry

    2011-01-01

    Papaya seeds were collected and dried. This study was carried out on papaya seed to clarify their proximate composition and the characteristics of the extracted oil including unsaponifiable matter and fatty acid composition. The seed is a rich source of protein (26.78%) and crude fiber (21.4%). Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (15.22%), while linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid (76.38%) in all lipid classes. The physical properties of the oil extracts showed the ...

  7. Actual evapotranspiration and canopy resistance measurement of the savannah in the Kouilou basin (Congo-Brazzaville)

    OpenAIRE

    Nizinski, Georges; Galat, Gérard; Galat-Luong, Anh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the actual evapotranspiration and surface resistance of the savannah using the Bowen-ratio method for two contrasted periods, dry and rainy season. The reliability of this method has been assessed by comparison with the Monteith equation and the soil-water balance method in a 90% Loudetia arundinacea dominated savannah (Pointe Noire, Congo). Our results relate to the period from 18 September to 11 October 1998 (24 days): (a) from 18 to 29 September (“dry...

  8. Prevalence of national treatment algorithm defined smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV positive patients in Brazzaville, Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Linguissi, Laure Stella Ghoma; Mayengue, Pembe Issamou; Sidibé, Anissa; Vouvoungui, Jeannhey C; Missontsa, Mitawa; Madzou-Laboum, Igor Kevin; Essassa, Gaston Bango; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Frank, Matthias; Penlap, Veronique; Ntoumi, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Republic in Congo, the national algorithm for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) relies on Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) sputum smear microscopy, chest X-ray radiography (CXR) and clinical symptoms. Microscopy positive pulmonary TB (MPT+) is defined as symptoms of TB and a positive ZN smear. Microscopy negative pulmonary TB (MPT-) is defined as symptoms of TB, a negative ZN smear but CXR changes consistent with TB. The present cross-sectional study was designed to determine t...

  9. Labour force participation of married women in China and Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAMITEWOKO Edwige; JIN Xiang-rong

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to find the major determinants of married women participation in the urban area labour force in Zhejiang (China) and Brazzaville (Congo). The methodology used in this study is correct and the resulting conclusion is that the participation of married women basically depends on her personal and family characteristics. Age, education,presence of additional adult in the family are important factors in Brazzaville and Zhejiang. However, the number of children significantly affects only Brazzaville urban married women.

  10. Selected French Speaking Sub-Saharan African Countries: Burundi, Cameroon (Eastern), Chad, Congo (Brazzaville), Dahomey, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Togo, Upper Volta, Zaire. A Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from These Countries in Academic Institutions of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Edouard J. C.

    The educational systems of 15 Sub-Saharan African countries are described, and guidelines concerning the academic placement of students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. Tables indicate the grades covered by primary education and secondary education (academic and technical). Burundi, Rwanda, and Zaire have followed the Belgian…

  11. Aging, female sex, migration, elevated HDL-C, and inflammation are associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome among African bank employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gombet T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thierry Gombet,1 Benjamin Longo-Mbenza,2 Bertrand Ellenga-Mbolla,1 Meo Stephane Ikama,3 Etienne Mokondjimobe,4 Gisele Kimbally-Kaky,3 Jean-Louis Nkoua,31Emergency Department, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha, Eastern Cape, South Africa; 3Department of Cardiology and Internal Medicine, University Hospital Center of Brazzaville, Brazzaville, Congo; 4Laboratory of Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, Brazzaville, CongoBackground: The objective of this study was to compare four different criteria for diagnosing metabolic syndrome (MS and to correlate sociodemographic data, liver enzymes, lipids, inflammation, and insulin resistance with MS definitions.Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random number of 126 African bank employees from Brazzaville, Congo.Results: The prevalence of MS varied according to the different definitions used: 4.8% under World Health Organization (WHO criteria, 8.7% under the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NECP-ATPIII criteria, 14.3% under the International Diabetes Federation (IDF for Europe, and 15.9% by the IDF for Central Africa. According to the IDF, specific cutoff points for the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, ≥13 mm at first hour and ≥30 mm at second hour, defined MS for Central Africa. The best agreement was observed between the IDF for Europe and the IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.938; P < 0.0001 criteria. The worst agreements were between the WHO and IDF for Central Africa (Kappa = 0.419; P < 0.0001 criteria and between the WHO and IDF for Europe (Kappa = 0.462; P < 0.0001 criteria. The NECP-ATPIII criteria did not agree with either the IDF for Europe or the IDF for Central Africa criteria. There was a significant relationship between female sex, aging, elevated liver enzymes, elevated phospholipids, high homeostasis model assessment of insulin

  12. Where does education pay off in Sub-Saharan Africa ? Evidence from two cities of teh Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Kuépié, M.; Nordman, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Using first-hand data from the 2009 Employment and Informal Sector Survey (EESIC) in the two largest cities of the Republic of Congo, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, we analyse the impact of education on labour market outcomes, and identify the segments where education pays off the most. Multivariate analyses of the risk of unemployment and sectoral choice indicate that young people face serious difficulties in the labour market: for most of them, their only choice is to remain unem...

  13. Where Does Education Pay Off in Sub-Saharan Africa? Evidence from Two Cities of the Republic of Congo

    OpenAIRE

    KUEPIE Mathias; Nordman, Christophe Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Using first-hand data from the 2009 Employment and Informal Sector Survey (EESIC) in the two largest cities of the Republic of Congo, Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire, we analyse the impact of education on labour market outcomes, and identify the segments where education pays off the most. Multivariate analyses of the risk of unemployment and sectoral choice indicate that young people face serious difficulties in the labour market: for most of them, their only choice is to remain unemployed or to...

  14. [How the Congolese young people consider their elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikouta, Firmin; Bileckot, Richard; Cauli, Marie; Massamba, Honorine; Puisieux, François

    2015-12-01

    The traditional image of the African family that has long grant a place of choice to the elderly does match maybe any more the reality of today. The WHO report on violence and health 2002 and some studies carried out in other African countries suggest that elder abuse also exists in sub-Saharan Africa. To describe how the young Congolese adults consider their elderly and mistreatments that can result. A cross sectional study was realized between January and April, 2008 with 300 youth and adults aged 15 to 55 years (203 ≤ 25 years old), living in Brazzaville or in Pointe-Noire. The sample of 300 people was constituted according to the method of non-probability sampling. The data collection was made on the ground by state employees of the Ministry of Health, social affairs and family by means of a pre-established questionnaire containing open and closed questions. Youth and adults have contrasted and contradictory representations of the elderly. In 70% of the cases they said have good relationships with the elderly and qualified them as wise persons and as models but, conversely, more than 50% of them found them unwanted and disturbing. Witchcraft accusations are frequent with often serious consequences. Social transformations dispossess little by little the elderly people of their status and their prerogatives in Congo-Brazzaville. They come along with a change of look and behavior of the young adults towards them. Elder abuse in Congo-Brazzaville is an underestimated problem insufficiently denounced and fought.

  15. Prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 13- to 14-year-old children in Africa: the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Khaled, N; Odhiambo, J; Pearce, N; Adjoh, K S; Maesano, I A; Benhabyles, B; Bouhayad, Z; Bahati, E; Camara, L; Catteau, C; El Sony, A; Esamai, F O; Hypolite, I E; Melaku, K; Musa, O A; Ng'ang'a, L; Onadeko, B O; Saad, O; Jerray, M; Kayembe, J M; Koffi, N B; Khaldi, F; Kuaban, C; Voyi, K; M'Boussa, J; Sow, O; Tidjani, O; Zar, H J

    2007-03-01

    Phase I of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood has provided valuable information regarding international prevalence patterns and potential risk factors in the development of asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema. However, in Phase I, only six African countries were involved (Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Kenya, South Africa and Ethiopia). Phase III, conducted 5-6 years later, enrolled 22 centres in 16 countries including the majority of the centres involved in Phase I and new centres in Morocco, Tunisia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Togo, Sudan, Cameroon, Gabon, Reunion Island and South Africa. There were considerable variations between the various centres of Africa in the prevalence of the main symptoms of the three conditions: wheeze (4.0-21.5%), allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (7.2-27.3%) and eczema (4.7-23.0%). There was a large variation both between countries and between centres in the same country. Several centres, including Cape Town (20.3%), Polokwane (18.0%), Reunion Island (21.5%), Brazzaville (19.9%), Nairobi (18.0%), Urban Ivory Coast (19.3%) and Conakry (18.6%) showed relatively high asthma symptom prevalences, similar to those in western Europe. There were also a number of centres showing high symptom prevalences for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (Cape Town, Reunion Island, Brazzaville, Eldoret, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Casablanca, Wilays of Algiers, Sousse and Eldoret) and eczema (Brazzaville, Eldoret, Addis Ababa, Urban Ivory Coast, Conakry, Marrakech and Casablanca).

  16. Annexe I. Liste des participants aux sommets du mouvement des pays non alignés

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sommet de Belgrade, 1961 Membres (25) Afghanistan Indonésie Algérie Irak Arabie Saoudite Liban Birmanie Mali Cambodge Maroc Ceylon Népal Chypre République arabe unie Congo (Léopoldville) Somalie Cuba Soudan Ethiopie Tunisie Ghana Yémen Guinée Yougoslavie Inde Observateurs (3) Bolivie Brésil Equateur Sommet du Caire, 1964 Membres (47) Afghanistan Birmanie Algérie Burundi Angola Cambodge Arabie Saoudite Cameroun Ceylon Maroc Chypre Mauritanie Congo (Brazzaville) Népal Cuba Nigéria Dahomey Ouga...

  17. Nouvelles Acquisitions de la bibliothèque de Géographie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Joseph

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available AfriqueExploitation et gestion durable des forêts en Afrique Centrale : la quête de la durabilité, Paris, L'Harmattan, 2007.FAY, KONÉ, QUIMINAL, Décentralisation et pouvoirs en Afrique : en contrepoint, modèles territoriaux français, Paris, IRD Éditions, 2006.GASCON, Alain, Sur les hautes terres comme au ciel : identités et territoires en Éthiopie, Paris, Publications de la Sorbonne, 2006.GOULOU, Jean-Richard Armand, Infrasructuctures de transport et de communication au Congo-Brazzaville, Par...

  18. Agriculture urbaine et subsistance des ménages dans une zone de post-conflit en Afrique centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thys E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture and household subsistence in a post-confl ict zone in Central Africa. This study presents an analysis of the technical and socio-economic specifi cities of urban agriculture in a post confl ict region in Central Africa, based on a survey in Brazzaville (Congo in 2002. Hereby 710 households have been randomly selected from a previous survey data base containing 2 800 urban households. About one third of the Brazzaville households are involved in urban agriculture with 29.5% households reporting crop production activities and 8.8% animal production activities. Within animal production, aviculture activities are dominant. Gardening and vegetable production play also an important role. The confl ict situation of 1997 affected negatively urban agricultural production in particular the animal production. Although, urban agriculture is present among different social and professional categories, there is a clear dominance of subsistence and poor households, especially those already active in agriculture before. In contrast to crop production, mainly practised for subsistence reasons, the motivation for animal production is driven more by the income than by the own consumption possibilities. The results also indicate that assuring a sustainable and equitable urban development is possible by a good balance between those practising urban agriculture and those not. This requires the limitation of the negative effects (odour and other nuisances but also the removal of certain constraints limiting the productivity of urban farming, most importantly the provision of inputs, the theft of animals and soil degradation.

  19. Collective Mobilization and the Struggle for Squatter Citizenship: Rereading “Xenophobic” Violence in a South African Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamlyn Jane Monson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the association between informal residence and the occurrence of “xenophobic” violence in South Africa, this article examines “xenophobic violence” through a political account of two squatter settlements across the transition to democracy: Jeffsville and Brazzaville on the informal periphery of Atteridgeville, Gauteng. Using the concepts of political identity, living politics and insurgent citizenship, the paper mines past and present to explore identities, collective practices and expertise whose legacy can be traced in contemporary mobilization against foreigners, particularly at times of popular protest. I suggest that the category of the “surplus person”, which originated in the apartheid era, lives on in the unfinished transition of squatter citizens to formal urban inclusion in contemporary South Africa. The political salience of this legacy of superfluity is magnified at times of protest, not only through the claims made on the state, but also through the techniques for protest mobilization, which both activate and manufacture identities based on common suffering and civic labour. In the informal settlements of Jeffsville and Brazzaville, these identities polarised insurgent citizens from non-citizen newcomers, particularly those traders whose business-as-usual practices during times of protest appeared as evidence of their indifference and lack of reciprocity precisely at times when shared suffering and commitment were produced as defining qualities of the squatter community.

  20. An overview of the geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa: Explanatory note for the 1:4,000,000 map “Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, J. P.; Toteu, S. F.; Deschamps, Y.; Feybesse, J. L.; Lerouge, C.; Cocherie, A.; Penaye, J.; Tchameni, R.; Moloto-A-Kenguemba, G.; Kampunzu, H. A. B.; Nicol, N.; Duguey, E.; Leistel, J. M.; Saint-Martin, M.; Ralay, F.; Heinry, C.; Bouchot, V.; Doumnang Mbaigane, J. C.; Kanda Kula, V.; Chene, F.; Monthel, J.; Boutin, P.; Cailteux, J.

    2006-04-01

    This paper is prepared within the frameworks of IGCP Project 470 and the associated BRGM scientific project "Africa 1999-2004" to accompany the 1:4,000,000 scale map "Geology and major ore deposits of Central Africa, presented at the 20th Colloquium of African Geology in Orleans in June 2004. It incorporates geological and metallogenic data from eight countries in Central Africa (Angola, Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, Congo Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Equatorial Guinea and Zambia). The map is a harmonised and geo-referenced preliminary map, based on a GIS at 1:2,000,000 scale, and focusses on the spatial and temporal distribution of selected major deposits.

  1. Compared Ageing of Oil from Curcubitea Pepo in Two Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H.W. Nakavoua

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the oil pumkin seeds of Curcubitea pepo from Congo- Brazzaville. The ageing of oil extracted from the seeds of the pumpkin Curcubitea pepo stored at two temperatures (6 and 30ºC was monitored during storage for 11 months by comparison of physical and chemical characteristics correlated with spectroscopic data. Medium infrared spectroscopy confirmed saponification index data. Ultraviolet absorption confirmed peroxide index data. Antioxidant behaviour was monitored by fluorescence and the effect of ageing on the two major fatty acid families was analysed by a study of chemical composition correlated with differential scanning calorimetry measurements. This study showed an overall lengthening of the fatty acid carbon chains and allowed preferential storage conditions to be specified for this oil.

  2. Fonds Lomami Tchibamba

    OpenAIRE

    Kangomba, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Présentation biographique de l’auteur Né le 17 juillet 1914 à Brazzaville, d’un père originaire du Kasaï Occidental (RDC) et d’une mère originaire de Libenge, Paul Lomami arrive à Kinshasa en 1921. Après quelques années d’errance en tant qu’enfant de rue, il est scolarisé à l’institut religieux St. François-Xavier de Mbata-Kiela où, jeune séminariste, il se découvre une passion pour la lecture. Frappé subitement de surdité, il doit renoncer à son rêve de sacerdoce et se fait embaucher dans le...

  3. La crise de l’enseignement en Afrique occidentale française (1944-1950)

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Au lendemain de la Deuxième Guerre mondiale, la réforme scolaire devient un enjeu majeur en Afrique occidentale française (AOF). Les écoles coloniales de la Troisième République sont mises en cause pendant la Conférence de Brazzaville de 1944 et, dans les années qui suivent, on assiste à d’âpres luttes pour définir le sens de la réforme scolaire. Jusqu’à présent, ces luttes – qui opposent l’administration coloniale, les élus africains, et le ministère de l’Éducation nationale – n’ont pas fait...

  4. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in frugivorous Eidolon helvum bats in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleya, Walter; Sasaki, Michihito; Orba, Yasuko; Ishii, Akihiro; Thomas, Yuka; Nakagawa, Emiko; Ogawa, Hirohito; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Boniface; Mweene, Aaron; Takada, Ayato; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we describe the detection of novel paramyxoviruses from the Eidolon helvum species of fruit bats. We extracted RNA from 312 spleen samples from bats captured in Zambia over a period of 4 years (2008-2011). Semi-nested RT-PCR detected a total of 25 (8%) positive samples for paramyxoviruses which were then directly sequenced and analyzed using phylogenetic analysis. Among the positive samples, seven novel paramyxoviruses were detected. Five viruses were closely related to the genus Henipavirus, while two viruses were related to the unclassified Bat paramyxoviruses from Ghana and Congo Brazzaville. Our study identified novel Henipavirus-related and unrelated viruses using RT-PCR in fruit bats from Kansaka National Park and indicated the presence of similar Bat paramyxoviruses originating from wide geographic areas, suggesting the ability of bats to harbor and transmit viruses. The presence of these viruses in fruit bats might pose a public health risk.

  5. Fonds Lomami Tchibamba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Kangomba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Présentation biographique de l’auteur Né le 17 juillet 1914 à Brazzaville, d’un père originaire du Kasaï Occidental (RDC et d’une mère originaire de Libenge, Paul Lomami arrive à Kinshasa en 1921. Après quelques années d’errance en tant qu’enfant de rue, il est scolarisé à l’institut religieux St. François-Xavier de Mbata-Kiela où, jeune séminariste, il se découvre une passion pour la lecture. Frappé subitement de surdité, il doit renoncer à son rêve de sacerdoce et se fait embaucher dans le...

  6. Chordodes ferox, a new record of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha, Gordiida) from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Rhaesa, Andreas; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three females and one male specimen of a previously unconfirmed species of horsehair worms (Nematomorpha) from South Africa are described using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The females correspond to the description of Chordodes ferox Camerano, 1897, a species previously described from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa) and an adjacent, not further specified region of the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville). Characteristic is the presence of enlarged and elevated simple areoles around the base of a thorn areole, in combination with further cuticular characters. This is the latest of a total of six species of horsehair worms reported from South Africa so far. Two species of praying mantids, Polyspilota aeruginosa (Goeze, 1778) and Sphodromantis gastrica Stål, 1858, have been identified as hosts of Chordodes ferox, while its distribution range in the region and the period of adult emergence from the host remain largely unknown. PMID:27047243

  7. La Gestion des Ressources Naturelles dans les Zones Périurbaines d’Afrique Centrale : une approche privilégiant les parties prenantes Natural resources management in the peri-urban zones of Central Africa: an approach privileging the receiving parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Trefon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo apresenta o quadro conceptual e os primeiros resultados de um es­tudo em curso sobre processos de gestão de recursos naturais, em espaços peri-urbanos da África Central. Com base em dados etnográficos das realidades empíricas de Kinshasa e Lubumbashi (República Democrática do Congo e de Brazzaville (República do Congo, o texto analisa sobretudo os conceitos de «governação ambiental» e de «espaço peri-urbano», partindo das lógicas dos próprios protagonistas envolvidos na gestão dos re­cursos naturais. Deste modo, são exploradas as ambiguidades, ambivalências, relações de poder e tensões sociais geradas ou sustentadas por certas peculiaridades dos jogos de poder que envolvem os diferentes actores sociais considerados.The article presents a conceptual framework and the first results of an ongoing research on processes of natural resources management in peri-urban areas of Central Africa. Based on ethnographic data from the empirical realities of Kinshasa and Lubumbashi (Democratic Republic of Congo and of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo, the text analyses especially the concepts of «environmental governance» and «peri-urban spaces», based on the logics of the very protagonists involved in the natural resources management. This way, the text explores the ambiguities, ambivalences, power relations and social tensions generated or sustained by certain peculiarities of the power strategies in which these social actors are involved.

  8. Chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite : à propos d’un cas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PW. Atipo-Tsiba

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Le chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite est une tumeur très rare. Seule une trentaine de cas ont été publiés à ce jour. Cette observation rapporte un cas vu au CHU de Brazzaville. Méthode : Une patiente de 33 ans avait consulté notre département pour une exophtalmie gauche. Résultats : On notait une exophtalmie, un important chémosis et une nécrose cornéenne complète. Le scanner avait objectivé une masse orbitaire ovoïde, multilobée avec une zone centrale calcifie. L’histopathologie avait mis en évidence un aspect dit "bi-phasique", faite d’une mosaïque de petites cellules fusiformes associées à des hémangiopericytomes au sein d’une matrice cartilagineuse. Conclusion : Le chondrosarcome mésenchymateux de l’orbite est une tumeur exceptionnelle. Son aspect histopathologique particulier permet aisément de le différentier des autres lésions calcifies de l’orbite.

  9. Cittadini sospesi: violenza e istituzioni nell’esperienza dei richiedenti asilo in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Vacchiano

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Le parole di Richard, richiedente asilo proveniente dalla Repubblica del Congo – nota anche come Congo-Brazzaville – condensano in poche frasi tutta la problematica quotidianità di un richiedente asilo in Italia. Le parole chiave “militari”, “permesso di soggiorno”, “dormitorio”, “paura”, “gocce”, restituiscono meglio di molte riflessioni il senso complesso di un’esperienza che si produce nei nodi critici e liminari di un percorso di faticoso transito, in cui egli è al contempo vittima e artefice di un processo di attraversamento di tempi, trame e contesti: “Africa” ed “Europa”, passato e futuro, vicende individuali e collettive, storia e memoria. La paura di cui egli racconta è certo il prodotto della sedimentazione del dolore nel suo personale bagaglio di viaggio, vissuto e incorporato nel corso del suo itinerario esistenziale, ma è anche al contempo molto più di un’idiosincrasia corporea: è la risultante di una stratificazione di eventi in cui la sua vicenda è caratterizzata dall’intersezione fra processi storici e opzioni individuali, che si manifestano nella capacità di scegliere, raccontare e agire.

  10. Large Vesicomyidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from cold seeps in the Gulf of Guinea off the coasts of Gabon, Congo and northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Cosel, Rudo; Olu, Karine

    2009-12-01

    Two new genera and three new species of large Vesicomyidae are described from cold-seep sites on pockmarks and other sulfide-rich environments in the Gulf of Guinea (tropical east Atlantic) off Gabon, Congo (Brazzaville) and northern Angola, from 500 to 4000 m depth: " Calyptogena" (s.l.) regab n. sp., Wareniconcha (n.g.) guineensis (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931), Elenaconcha guiness n.g. n. sp., and Isorropodon atalantae n. sp. For two other species already taken by the R/V Valdivia in 1898, Calyptogena valdiviae (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) and Isorropodon striatum (Thiele and Jaeckel 1931) new localities were discovered, and the species are rediscussed. E. guiness n.g. n.sp. is also recorded from off Banc d'Arguin, Mauritania, collected by commercial fishing vessels. The vesicomyid species here treated were encountered in different depth ranges along the Gabon-Congo-Angola margin, between 500 and 4000 m depth, and it was found that, in comparison with the dredge samples taken by the Valdivia expedition off southern Cameroon and off Rio de Oro (both at 2500 m), the same species occur in other depth ranges, in some cases with a vertical difference of more than 1000 m. .That means that the species are not confined to a given depth thought being typical for them and that the characteristics of the biotope are likely to play a major role in the distribution of the vesicomyids associated to cold seeps or other reduced environments along the West African margin.

  11. Insecticidal Activities of Bark, Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae

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    Hans J. Overgaard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The olon tree, Zanthoxylum heitzii (syn. Fagara heitzii is commonly found in the central-west African forests. In the Republic of Congo (Congo-Brazzaville its bark is anecdotally reported to provide human protection against fleas. Here we assess the insecticidal activities of Z. heitzii stem bark, seed and leaf extracts against Anopheles gambiae s.s, the main malaria vector in Africa. Extracts were obtained by Accelerated Solvent Extraction (ASE using solvents of different polarity and by classical Soxhlet extraction using hexane as solvent. The insecticidal effects of the crude extracts were evaluated using topical applications of insecticides on mosquitoes of a susceptible reference strain (Kisumu [Kis], a strain homozygous for the L1014F kdr mutation (kdrKis, and a strain homozygous for the G119S Ace1R allele (AcerKis. The insecticidal activities were measured using LD50 and LD95 and active extracts were characterized by NMR spectroscopy and HPLC chromatography. Results show that the ASE hexane stem bark extract was the most effective compound against An. gambiae (LD50 = 102 ng/mg female, but was not as effective as common synthetic insecticides. Overall, there was no significant difference between the responses of the three mosquito strains to Z. heitzii extracts, indicating no cross resistance with conventional pesticides.

  12. Nutritive Composition and Properties Physico-chemical of gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Seed and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Nzikou

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and physical properties of mature gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds fromImpfondo, in North Congo-Brazzaville were evaluated. The chemical properties evaluated were moisture, crudeprotein, crude oil, crude ash, crude fiber, and crude energy. The oil from A.esculentus seeds was extracted usingtwo oils extraction methods with petroleum ether (Soxlhet and extraction with a mixture ofchloroform:methanol (1:1 (Blye and Dyer.The oil concentration ranged from 24.90% (Soxlhet to 21.98%(Blye & Dyer. The minerals, viscosity, acidity, saponification value, iodine value, fatty acid methyl esters,unsaponifiable matter content, peroxide value, activation energy and differential scanning calorimetry w eredetermined. Abelmoschus esculentus L. seeds have ash content of 5.68% (with the presence of followingminerals: Ca, M g, K and N a. The oil was found to contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids, especiallyoleic (up to 24.89% and linoleic (up to 42.78%. Abelmoschus esculentus L. oil can be classified in theoleic-linoleic acid group. The dominant saturated acid w as palmitic (up to 25.79%. Abelmoschus esculentusL. seeds were also founded to contain high levels of crude protein (24.85%. The content of insaponifiables is1.53%. Taking into account these results, the gumbo (Abelmoschus esculentus L. finds its applications in thefood and cosmetic industry.

  13. Review of the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892 and Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Rojkoff

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available New material collected recently throughout the Afrotropical region has led to a major reassessment of taxa within the genera Anelaphinis Kolbe, 1892, Atrichelaphinis Kraatz, 1898 and other closely related genera. As a result, the name Megalleucosma Antoine, 1989 is here synonymised with Anelaphinis and a lectotype is designated for the type species, Cetonia dominula Harold, 1879. The genus Atrichelaphinis is redefined and a new subgenus, A. (Eugeaphinis, is proposed for Elaphinis simillima Ancey, 1883, Elaphinis vermiculata Fairmaire, 1894, Niphetophora rhodesiana Péringuey, 1907, Atrichelaphinis deplanata Moser, 1907 (with Anelaphinis kwangensis Burgeon, 1931 as junior synonym and Anelaphinis sternalis Moser, 1914. Additionally, three new species and one new subspecies are recognised and described in this new subgenus: A. (Eugeaphinis bomboesbergica sp. n. from South Africa; A. (Eugeaphinis bjornstadi sp. n. from Tanzania; A. (Eugeaphinis garnieri sp. n. from south–east Africa (Tanzania, Zimbabwe; and A. (Eugeaphinis deplanata minettii ssp. n. from central Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, Congo-Kinshasa, Congo-Brazzaville, South Africa, Rwanda, Zambia, Zimbabwe. The genus Atrichelaphinis is compared to its closest relatives and two separate keys are proposed, one for Atrichelaphinis and one for the sub-Saharan genera exhibiting completely or partially fused parameres.

  14. Is body mass index sensitively related to socio-economic status and to economic adjustment? A case study from the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpeuch, F; Cornu, A; Massamba, J P; Traissac, P; Maire, B

    1994-11-01

    Several nutritional surveys based on representative samples from various urban and rural situations show that the Congo presents a situation of nutritional transition. There is a large prevalence of low body mass index (BMI) in adults from rural zones and this increases with age. There is, however, a large prevalence of high BMI in urban populations despite the persistence of some degree of chronic energy deficiency (CED), particularly at younger ages. Correspondence analysis and logistic regression were used to construct a socio-economic index and measure adjusted risk factors for CED. In rural areas, the major risk factors were old age, sex (women) and the absence of schooling; low economic status, a commonly shared factor, did not differentiate between households for CED. In Brazzaville, CED was linked to a young age (poverty. The change in the prevalence of CED in mothers from the capital city during a period of economic adjustment showed an increased incidence in young mothers, and also showed that the disparity between low and high economic levels regarding CED had grown. Finally, there was a high level of correspondence between the mean values for the weight-for-height of children and the BMI categories of the mothers. There is a parallel evolution during the period of economic adjustment between the increase of wasting in infants and the increase of CED in mothers. Therefore BMI appears to be a potential core indicator for use in nutritional surveillance in the Congo. PMID:7843151

  15. Human Factors Predicting Failure and Success in Hospital Information System Implementations in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Frank; Karara, Gustave; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    From 2007 through 2014, the authors participated in the implementation of open source hospital information systems (HIS) in 19 hospitals in Rwanda, Burundi, DR Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, and Mali. Most of these implementations were successful, but some failed. At the end of a seven-year implementation effort, a number of risk factors, facilitators, and pragmatic approaches related to the deployment of HIS in Sub-Saharan health facilities have been identified. Many of the problems encountered during the HIS implementation process were not related to technical issues but human, cultural, and environmental factors. This study retrospectively evaluates the predictive value of 14 project failure factors and 15 success factors in HIS implementation in the Sub-Saharan region. Nine of the failure factors were strongly correlated with project failure, three were moderately correlated, and one weakly correlated. Regression analysis also confirms that eight factors were strongly correlated with project success, four moderately correlated, and two weakly correlated. The study results may help estimate the expedience of future HIS projects. PMID:26262097

  16. Covering Post-Conflict Elections: Challenges for the Media in Central Africa Wahlberichterstattung in Post-Konflikt-Phasen: Herausforderungen für die Medien in Zentralafrika

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    Marie-Soleil Frère

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past ten years, elections were held in six countries of Central Africa experiencing “post-conflict” situations. The polls that took place in Burundi (2005, the Central African Republic (2005, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2006, Congo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, Chad (1996, 2001, 2006 and Rwanda (2003 were crucial for peace-building. In some cases, they were widely supported and supervised by the international community, being considered the last step of a peace process and the first step toward establishing a truly representative “post-conflict” regime. The media were expected to play a large part in supporting these elections, both to inform the citizens, so they could make an educated choice, and to supervise the way the electoral administration was organizing the polls. This paper attempts to show the many challenges faced by the media while covering these post-conflict electoral processes. In a context of great political tension, in which candidates are often former belligerents who have just put down their guns to go to the polls, the media operate in an unsafe and economically damaged environment, suffering from a lack of infrastructure, inadequate equipment and untrained staff. Given those constraints, one might wonder if the media should be considered actual democratic tools in Central Africa or just gimmicks in a “peace-building kit” (including “free and fair” elections, multipartism and freedom of the press with no real impact on the democratic commitment of the elite or the political participation of the population.In den letzten zehn Jahren wurden in sechs zentralafrikanischen Ländern, die sich in einer Post-Konflikt-Phase befanden, Wahlen abgehalten. Die Wahlgänge in Burundi (2005, der Zentralafrikanischen Republik (2005, der Demokratischen Republik Kongo (2006, Kongo-Brazzaville (2002, 2007, dem Tschad (1996, 2001, 2006 und Ruanda (2003 waren entscheidend für die Friedenskonsolidierung. Einige dieser

  17. Aerosol-associated changes in tropical stratospheric ozone following the eruption of Mount Pinatubo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Browell, Edward V.; Fishman, Jack; Brackett, Vincent G.; Veiga, Robert E.; Nganga, Dominique; Minga, A.; Cros, Bernard; Butler, Carolyn F.; Fenn, Marta A.

    1994-01-01

    The large amount of sulfuric acid aerosol formed in the stratosphere by conversion of sulfur dioxide emitted by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo (15.14 deg N, 120.35 deg E) in the Philippines around June 15, 1991, has had a pronounced effect on lower stratospheric ozone in the tropics. Measurements of stratospheric ozone in the tropics using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) sondes before and after the eruption and the airborne UV differential absorption lidar (DIAL) system after the eruption are compared with Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II (SAGE II) measurements from several years before the eruption and ECC sonde measurements from the year prior to the eruption to determine the resulting changes. Ozone decreases of up to 33 % compared with SAGE II climatological values were found to be directly correlated with altitude regions of enhanced aerosol loading in the 16- to 28-km range. A maximum partial-column decrease of 29 +/- Dobson units (DU) was found over the 16- to 28-km range in September 1991 along with small increases (to 5.9 +/- 2 DU) from 28 to 31.5 km. A large decrease of ozone was also found at 4 deg to 8 deg S from May to August 1992, with a maximum decrease of 33 +/- 7 DU found above Brazzaville in July. Aerosol data form the visible channel of the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) and the visible wavelength of the UV DIAL system were used to examine the relationship between aerosol (surface area) densities and ozone changes. The tropical stratospheric ozone changes we observed in 1991 and 1992 are likely be explained by a combination of dynamical (vertical transport) perturbations, radiative perturbations on ozone photochemistry, and heterogeneous chemistry.

  18. SURVEY OF THE NOCUITÉ OF THE CONTRAPTIONS AND TECHNIQUES OF ARTISANAL FISHING ON THE POPULATIONS OF NAVY TURTLES OF THE BAY OF LOANGO (CONGO

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    Parisse Akouango

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chelonia marine turtle species preservation is one of the international community challenges through the world. In Congo-Brazzaville, the Renatura organization (ONG is engage to the biodiversity marine turtle species protection. Among the five of seven marine turtle species encountered in the coast, Turtle lute (Dermochelys coriacea; Green turtle (Chelonia mydas; Olive turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea; Turtle caouanne (Caretta caretta and Turtle overlapped (Eretmochelys imbricata. All these species of navy turtles well that protected by different international conventions, undergo several threats among which the nets and contraptions of traditional fishing constitute one of the main reasons of their decline. Indeed the accidental captures in the nets of the traditional fishers represent a serious threat for the navy turtles. This problem is delicate to manage because these holds don't depend directly on the will of the fishers. Indeed the turtles take themselves inauspiciously in the nets and entangle themselves of it while trying to clear itself/themselves of the net. To remedy this situation, Renatura Congo has, in 2005, initiated a program of liberation of the accidental captures of navy turtles in the nets of traditional fishing. About 1500 liberations are done annually by the agents of Renatura Congo. The liberation of these turtles doesn't constitute a long-term solution. Also, before the size of their accidental captures, it appeared to us necessary to bring our contribution in the survey of the nocuité of the contraptions and techniques of traditional fishing used to the bay of Loango in order to meter in evidence those that are more harmful. Such an objective reaches once, will allow us to improve these contraptions and techniques in order to reduce the risks of accidental captures while maintaining the level of the holds of fish and other aquatic organisms.

  19. Opportunities for hydrologic research in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Douglas; Beighley, Ed; Laraque, Alain; Lee, Hyongki; Tshimanga, Raphael; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Mahé, Gil; Dinga, Bienvenu; Moukandi, Guy; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2016-06-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and summarize the historic and ongoing research. Annual rainfall is ~1900 mm/yr along an east-west trend across the basin, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. Historic studies using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential evapotranspiration varies little across the basin at 1100 to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data have been collected at hundreds of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Congo River discharge at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during the 1960-1970 decade in comparison to most other decades. Satellite altimetry measurements of high and low flows show that water levels in the "Cuvette Centrale" wetland are 0.5 m to 3.0 m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about a meter and there does not appear to be many sizable channels across the "Cuvette"; thus, wetland flows are diffusive. Cuvette waters alone are estimated to emit about 0.5 Pg CH4 and CO2 equivalents/yr, an amount that is significant compared to global carbon evasions. Using these results, we suggest seven hypotheses that focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how these leave the wetland, on the river discharge generated by historic rainfall, on the connection between climate change and the rainfall-runoff generated by the migrating "tropical rainbelt," on deforestation and hydroelectric power generation, and on the amount of carbon emitted from Congo waters.

  20. Proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcel, Andzouana; Bievenu, Mombouli Jean

    2012-06-01

    The vegetal materials were bought on 20th October, 2010 at the local Total market from Bacongo, South-Brazzaville. The proximate and phytochemical compositions of the leaves of H. myriantha and Urera trinervis were investigated in accordance with standard procedures. Mineral concentrations were determined by using flame photometer, atomic absorption spectrophotometer and calorimetry. The proximate analysis revealed high moisture (62.90%), crude protein (24.18%) and energy content values (562.19 kJ/100 g) in U. trinervis leaves while the carbohydrate (06.07%), crude fat (1.32%) and ash content (5.54%) were low. Similarly H. myriantha showed a high content of crude protein (25.37%), energy (1508.32 kJ/100 g) and carbohydrate (60.02%) however, the moisture (6.93%), crude fat (1.54%) and ash content (6.14%) were low. The minerals present in both plant leaves were phosphorus (18.97 and 18.73% for H. myriantha and U. trinervis, respectively), followed by potassium (1.25 and 1.29%), calcium and magnesium, which were found in very low concentrations (0.21-0.29%). While sodium, iron and manganese were present as trace elements (0.02-0.09%), aluminum was not detected. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, triterpenoids and steroids. Flavonoids were absent solely in H. myriantha while saponins and anthraquinones were not detected in both samples. The study showed that these vegetables contained nutrients, mineral elements and phytochemicals that were nutritionally important for body health. Thus they could be recommended in Congolese nutrition with nutrient and non-nutrient supplementation to help in various protective and therapeutic actions for consumers.

  1. Past Hydrological Variability in the Congo Basin inferred from Neodymium Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, G.

    2015-12-01

    Major events of vegetation changes and soil erosion occurred in Central Africa during the last few millennia, at a time when the first farmers settled in the rainforest. The palaeoclimatic context in which these environmental changes took place still remains poorly constrained. Improving our knowledge on the drivers of past hydrological variability in Central Africa is important to further evaluate the relative role of climate versus humans in shaping late Holocene African landscapes. In this study, we have used neodymium (Nd) isotopes in a marine sediment core to reconstruct the composition of the sediment load exported from the Congo Basin during the Holocene. Core KZR23 was recovered at 2200 m water depth from within the Congo submarine canyon and is characterized by high sedimentation rates (about 2m/kyr), thereby allowing reconstruction of past river sediment discharge at an unprecedented high temporal resolution. A suite of river particulate samples collected from the main tributaries within the Congo watershed was analyzed in order to tag each major sub-basin with the characteristic geochemical and Nd isotopic signatures of its source region. In parallel, an annual series of suspended particles sampled on a monthly basis at the Congo River ORE-HYBAM station (Brazzaville) was also analyzed to characterize the seasonality of sediment provenance in relation with present hydrological cycle. Using Nd isotopes as tracers for sediment provenance together and other proxy data for past erosion, vegetation and rainfall patterns (i.e. bulk sediment radiocarbon data, pollens, biomarkers, compound-specific isotope analyses), we will provide a more comprehensive picture of past hydrological variability in the Congo Basin for the Holocene period.

  2. From self-identity to universality: a reading of Henri Lopes’ works

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    P.K. Mwepu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Born in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, yet a citizen of Congo-Brazzaville, Henri Lopes is one of those African writers who were not only educated in Europe (France but also lived there while writing a certain portion of their literary work. Being an influential political figure in his country, the author expresses his vision of an independent Africa through his literary works such as “Tribaliques” 1 (1971, “La nouvelle romance” (1976, “Sans tam-tam” (1977 and “Le pleurer-rire” (1982. However, from 1990, Lopes distances his writings from general political issues. In “Le chercheur d’Afriques” (1990 and “Le lys et le flamboyant” (1997, he veers into a new ideological direction, predominantly embedded in issues pertaining to existence: the quest for identity and issues related to hybridisation are recurrent themes and objects of scrutiny. It is clear that this biological approach serves as a pretext for the author to perform an in-depth interrogation of the complex issues of the universal in the context of a modern and globalising world. In his works, human blood and race represent an important aspect of culture; the blending of different cultures is an essential element for the construction of society. A community founded on cultural diversity is thus depicted as dynamic, strong and sustainable. One wonders whether the author is not describing his own life experiences through fiction. This might indeed be the case, considering that Lopes himself is a person of mixed origins, herein referred to as a “métis”. However, the experience described by the author, who lives in France, transcends race; it addresses the modern debate on the issue of cultural hybridisation.

  3. 西非某区块E-1井稠油人工举升测试实践%Testing practice of heavy oil artiifcial lift in Well E-1 of a block in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任金山; 吴艳华; 关利军; 金颢; 何玉发

    2015-01-01

    Deepwater heavy oil testing is usually done by artiifcial lift means using electric submersible pump and gas lift. Consid-ering the characteristics of deepwater heavy oil reservoir in a block of Congo (Brazzaville) and the failure to perform sophisticated test-ing design due to extremely scarce information, the surfacedriven screw pump is selected as the artiifcial lift means based on the in-depth research on the reservoir characteristics, the physical properties of crude oil, and the operating environment of the formation to be tested. Finally, the testing process perforating gun + sand liner + DST + screw pump coupling is adopted and viscosity reduction measures such as cable heating and insulation of insulating tubing inside the hollow sucker rod are taken to successfully overcome the dififculties caused by heavy oil, sand production, and deepwater low temperature for the testing. Satisfactory results are ultimately achieved and the technology provides a useful reference for the testing of similar blocks.%深水稠油测试一般采取电潜泵、气举等作为人工举升手段。针对西非某区块深水稠油油藏的特点以及资料极其匮乏而无法做好精细测试设计的实际情况,通过对拟测试层的储层特征、原油物性、作业环境等的深入研究,优选出地面杆驱螺杆泵作为人工举升手段,最终采用射孔枪+防砂管+DST+螺杆泵联作测试工艺,以及空心抽油杆内电缆加热、保温油管保温的降黏措施,成功克服了稠油、出砂以及水深低温对测试造成的困难,最终取得了较为理想的效果,为同类区块的测试作业提供了有益的借鉴。

  4. Testing practice of heavy oil artiifcial lift in Well E-1 of a block in West Africa%西非某区块E-1井稠油人工举升测试实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任金山; 吴艳华; 关利军; 金颢; 何玉发

    2015-01-01

    深水稠油测试一般采取电潜泵、气举等作为人工举升手段。针对西非某区块深水稠油油藏的特点以及资料极其匮乏而无法做好精细测试设计的实际情况,通过对拟测试层的储层特征、原油物性、作业环境等的深入研究,优选出地面杆驱螺杆泵作为人工举升手段,最终采用射孔枪+防砂管+DST+螺杆泵联作测试工艺,以及空心抽油杆内电缆加热、保温油管保温的降黏措施,成功克服了稠油、出砂以及水深低温对测试造成的困难,最终取得了较为理想的效果,为同类区块的测试作业提供了有益的借鉴。%Deepwater heavy oil testing is usually done by artiifcial lift means using electric submersible pump and gas lift. Consid-ering the characteristics of deepwater heavy oil reservoir in a block of Congo (Brazzaville) and the failure to perform sophisticated test-ing design due to extremely scarce information, the surfacedriven screw pump is selected as the artiifcial lift means based on the in-depth research on the reservoir characteristics, the physical properties of crude oil, and the operating environment of the formation to be tested. Finally, the testing process perforating gun + sand liner + DST + screw pump coupling is adopted and viscosity reduction measures such as cable heating and insulation of insulating tubing inside the hollow sucker rod are taken to successfully overcome the dififculties caused by heavy oil, sand production, and deepwater low temperature for the testing. Satisfactory results are ultimately achieved and the technology provides a useful reference for the testing of similar blocks.

  5. Monitoring the use of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the treatment of second stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis

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    Franco JR

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Jose R Franco,1 Pere P Simarro,1 Abdoulaye Diarra,2 Jose A Ruiz-Postigo,3 Mireille Samo,1 Jean G Jannin11World Health Organization, Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases, Innovative and Intensified Disease Management, Geneva, Switzerland; 2World Health Organization, Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo; 3World Health Organization, Communicable Disease Control, Control of Tropical Diseases and Zoonoses Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, EgyptAbstract: After inclusion of the nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT in the Model List of Essential Medicines for the treatment of second-stage gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, the World Health Organization, in collaboration with National Sleeping Sickness Control Programs and nongovernmental organizations set up a pharmacovigilance system to assess the safety and efficacy of NECT during its routine use. Data were collected for 1735 patients treated with NECT in nine disease endemic countries during 2010–2011. At least one adverse event (AE was described in 1043 patients (60.1% and a total of 3060 AE were reported. Serious adverse events (SAE were reported for 19 patients (1.1% of treated, leading to nine deaths (case fatality rate of 0.5%. The most frequent AE were gastrointestinal disorders (vomiting/nausea and abdominal pain, followed by headache, musculoskeletal pains, and vertigo. The most frequent SAE and cause of death were convulsions, fever, and coma that were considered as reactive encephalopathy. Two hundred and sixty-two children below 15 years old were treated. The characteristics of AE were similar to adults, but the major AE were less frequent in children with only one SAE and no deaths registered in this group. Gastrointestinal problems (vomiting and abdominal pain were more frequent than in adults, but musculoskeletal pains, vertigo, asthenia, neuropsychiatric troubles (headaches, seizures, tremors, hallucinations, insomnia were less

  6. An initial investigation into the organic matter biogeochemistry of the Congo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G.M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Aufdenkampe, Anthony K.; Baker, Andy; Gulliver, Pauline; Stubbins, Aron; Aiken, George R.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Butler, Kenna D.; Mwamba, Vincent L.; Mangangu, Arthur M.; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Six, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The Congo River, which drains pristine tropical forest and savannah and is the second largest exporter of terrestrial carbon to the ocean, was sampled in early 2008 to investigate organic matter (OM) dynamics in this historically understudied river basin. We examined the elemental (%OC, %N, C:N), isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C, δ15N) and biochemical composition (lignin phenols) of coarse particulate (>63 μm; CPOM) and fine particulate (0.7–63 μm; FPOM) OM and DOC, δ13C, Δ14C and lignin phenol composition with respect to dissolved OM (14C = -62.2 ± -13.2‰, n = 5) compared to CPOM and DOM (mean Δ14C = 55.7 ± 30.6‰, n = 4 and 73.4 ± 16.1‰, n = 5 respectively). The modern radiocarbon ages for DOM belie a degraded lignin compositional signature (i.e. elevated acid:aldehyde ratios (Ad:Al) relative to CPOM and FPOM), and indicate that the application of OM degradation patterns derived from particulate phase studies to dissolved samples needs to be reassessed: these elevated ratios are likely attributable to fractionation processes during solubilization of plant material. The relatively low DOM carbon-normalized lignin yields (Λ8; 0.67–1.12 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) could also reflect fractionation processes, however, they have also been interpreted as an indication of significant microbial or algal sources of DOM. CPOM appears to be well preserved higher vascular plant material as evidenced by its modern radiocarbon age, elevated C:N (17.2–27.1) and Λ8 values (4.56–7.59 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)). In relation to CPOM, the aged FPOM fraction (320–580 ybp 14C ages) was comparatively degraded, as demonstrated by its nitrogen enrichment (C:N 11.4–14.3), lower Λ8 (2.80–4.31 (mg(100 mg OC)-1)) and elevated lignin Ad:Al values similar to soil derived OM. In this study we observed little modification of the OM signature from sample sites near the cities of Brazzaville and Kinshasa to the head of the estuary (~350 km) highlighting the potential for future studies to

  7. [Prevalence and determinants of anemia in young children in French-speaking Africa. Role of iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, S; Folquet, M; Mbofung, K; Ndiaye, O; Brou, K; Dupont, C; N'dri, D; Vuillerod, M; Azaïs-Braesco, V; Tetanye, E

    2015-11-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are major public health issues worldwide and particularly in Africa. Reliable information about their prevalence and associated factors is required to allow for effective actions. In this study, we used data from recent (2006-2012) large population health surveys, carried out in 11 French-speaking African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal). Hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed and demographic and health-related parameters were obtained from nation-representative samples of children aged 6-59 months. Anemia (HbAnemia was only slightly but significantly affected by location (75.5% in rural areas versus 67.3% in towns), income (79.8% in lower quintile of income versus 62.3% in higher quintile), or maternal education (74.1% in children from non-educated mothers versus 62.4% in children whose mothers had secondary education). Nearly 50% of women of child-bearing age had anemia. In the countries that report this information, less than 50% (17-65%) of children consumed iron-rich foods regularly and only 12% (7.4-20.5%) received iron supplementation. Infection and parasitism are known to affect some markers of iron status, because of the inflammatory reaction, thereby making the diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. In the study countries, acute respiratory diseases and diarrhea affected 6.2 and 15.6% of children aged between 6 and 59 months, respectively; their distribution according to age and location is very different from the one of anemia, which is also the case for the distribution of malaria. It is thus likely that a large part of the anemia observed in young children is due to iron deficiency, although further research is needed to confirm this. This fully justifies the nationwide programs of iron fortification of flour, currently undergoing in most countries of French-speaking Africa. Their formal evaluation is still pending but the

  8. First evaluation of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from Congo revealed misdetection of fluoroquinolone resistance by line probe assay due to a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Aubry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB is one of the major public health problems in Congo. However, data concerning Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance are lacking because of the insufficient processing capacity. So, the aim of this study was to investigate for the first time the resistance patterns and the strain lineages of a sample of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC isolates collected in the two main cities of Congo. METHODS: Over a 9-day period, 114 smear-positive sputa isolated from 114 patients attending centers for the diagnosis and treatment of TB in Brazzaville and Pointe Noire were collected for culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST. Detection of mutations conferring drug resistance was performed by using line probe assays (GenoType MTBDRplus and MTBDRsl and DNA sequencing. Strain lineages were determined by MIRU-VNTR genotyping. RESULTS: Of the 114 sputa, 46 were culture positive for MTBC. Twenty-one (46% were resistant to one or more first-line antiTB drugs. Of these, 15 (71% were multidrug resistant (MDR. The most prevalent mutations involved in rifampin and isoniazid resistance, D516V (60% in rpoB and S315T (87% in katG respectively, were well detected by MTBDRplus assay. All the 15 MDR strains were susceptible to fluoroquinolone and injectable second-line drug. No mutation was detected in the rrs locus involved in resistance to amikacin and capreomycin by both the MTBDRsl assay and DNA sequencing. By contrast, 9 MDR strains belonging to the same cluster related to T-family were identified as being falsely resistant to fluoroquinolone by the MTBDRsl assay due to the presence of a double substitution T80A-A90G in GyrA. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data revealed a possible spread of a particular MDR clone in Congo, misidentified as fluoroquinolone resistant by MTBDRsl assay. Thus, this test cannot replace gold-standard culture method and should be interpreted carefully in view of the patient's native land.

  9. [Prevalence and determinants of anemia in young children in French-speaking Africa. Role of iron deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diouf, S; Folquet, M; Mbofung, K; Ndiaye, O; Brou, K; Dupont, C; N'dri, D; Vuillerod, M; Azaïs-Braesco, V; Tetanye, E

    2015-11-01

    Anemia and iron deficiency are major public health issues worldwide and particularly in Africa. Reliable information about their prevalence and associated factors is required to allow for effective actions. In this study, we used data from recent (2006-2012) large population health surveys, carried out in 11 French-speaking African countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Congo Brazzaville, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Senegal). Hemoglobin (Hb) was assessed and demographic and health-related parameters were obtained from nation-representative samples of children aged 6-59 months. Anemia (Hbchildren (60.2-87.8%), with no gender difference but a slightly lower incidence in older children (62% at age 4-5 years versus 85% at age 9 months), especially for the more severe forms (2.1% versus 8.7%, respectively). Anemia was only slightly but significantly affected by location (75.5% in rural areas versus 67.3% in towns), income (79.8% in lower quintile of income versus 62.3% in higher quintile), or maternal education (74.1% in children from non-educated mothers versus 62.4% in children whose mothers had secondary education). Nearly 50% of women of child-bearing age had anemia. In the countries that report this information, less than 50% (17-65%) of children consumed iron-rich foods regularly and only 12% (7.4-20.5%) received iron supplementation. Infection and parasitism are known to affect some markers of iron status, because of the inflammatory reaction, thereby making the diagnosis of iron deficiency difficult. In the study countries, acute respiratory diseases and diarrhea affected 6.2 and 15.6% of children aged between 6 and 59 months, respectively; their distribution according to age and location is very different from the one of anemia, which is also the case for the distribution of malaria. It is thus likely that a large part of the anemia observed in young children is due to iron deficiency, although further research

  10. 2例输入性卵形疟的实验室检测%Laboratory Detection on Two Cases with Imported Plasmodium ovale Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周瑞敏; 张红卫; 邓艳; 钱丹; 刘颖; 陈伟奇; 颜秋叶; 苏云普; 赵旭东

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the laboratory tests of the imported Plasmodium ovale infection and analyse the genetic character. Methods After Giemsa staining and microscopy, CareStartTM rapid detection and nested PCR were used to detect two cases with P. ovale infection returning from Congo (Brazzaville) in Henan Province. Sequencing was performed after PCR amplification using the 18S rRNA genus-specific primers. Their genetic characteristics were analyzed and the sequence homology analysis was performed in the NCBI. Results The two cases were confirmed as P. ovale infection by morphological examination microscopically. Amplified bands were produced by 18S rRNA nested PCR, which was the same with P. ovale in size, whereas the results of CareStart? rapid detection test were all negative. A sequence of 906 bp in length was obtained by sequencing their 18S rRNA genes in which GC accounted for 35.4%, and the sequence showed 99% homology to the corresponding part of the known P. ovale 18S rRNA gene (GenBank accession No. AB182492). Conclusion Both the nested PCR and microscopy confirm the infection of P. ovale. A negative result of CareStartTM rapid detection can not ruled out the Plasmodium infection.%目的 比较输入性卵形疟实验室检测方法,分析他们的基因特征.方法 分别用吉氏染色镜检、CareStartTM疟疾快速诊断试剂盒和巢式PCR等3种方法.对2例河南省自刚果(布)务工归来的输入性卵形疟病例进行检测,并比较检测结果.对2例外周血中疟原虫的18S rRNA基因进行测序、基因特征和同源性分析.结果 2例患者均通过吉氏染色镜检观察到典型的卵形疟原虫形态,巢氏PCR均扩增出与卵形疟预期一致的特异性条带,但CareStartTM疟疾快速诊断试剂盒检测结果均为阴性.对2例外周血中疟原虫的18S rRNA基因测序,获得一条长度均为906 bp的序列,GC含量为35.4%,与已知卵形疟18S rRNA的基因序列(GenBank登录号为AB182492)同源性为99

  11. Fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from soil of burned grassland savannah of central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Valentini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Grassland savannah ecosystems subject to frequent fires are considered to have an almost neutral carbon balance, as the C released during burning mostly balance the C fixed by the photosynthetic process. However, burning might modify the net soil-atmosphere exchange of GHGs in the post burning phase so that the radiative balance of the site might shift from neutrality. In the present study the impact of fire on soil fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O was investigated in a grassland savannah (Congo Brazzaville where high frequency burning is the typical management form of the region. An area was preserved for one season from annual burning and was used as "unburned" treatment. Two field campaigns were carried on at different time length from the fire event, 1 month, in the middle of the dry season, and 8 months after, at the end of the growing season. CO2, CH4 and N2O fluxes, as well as several soil parameters, were measured in each campaign from burned and unburned plots. Rain events were simulated at each campaign to evaluate magnitude and length of the generated GHG flux pulses. In laboratory experiments, on soil samples from the two treatments, microbial biomass, net N mineralization, net nitrification, N2O, NO and CO2 emissions were analyzed in function of soil water and/or temperature variations. Results showed that fire had a significant effect on GHG fluxes but the effect was transient, as after 8 months differences between treatments were no longer significant. One month after burning CO2 soil emissions were significantly lower in the burned plots, CH4 fluxes were dominated by net emissions rather than net consumption in the unburned area and fire shifted the CH4 flux distribution towards more negative values. No significant effect of fire was observed in the field on N2O fluxes. It was assumed that the low water content was the main limiting factor as in fact laboratory data showed that only above 75% of water saturation, N2O emissions

  12. Repli sur soi et ouverture vers l’autre dans l’Afrique du Sud contemporaine Withdrawing into oneself and opening up to others in contemporary South Africa. Representation(s of mobility and integration of Senegalese and Malian migrants in Johannesburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Ludl

    2010-12-01

    la poursuite d’objectifs liés à leurs représentations de la réussite.This article compares two studies carried out in the Johannesburg suburb of Yeoville, which has undergone major urban and social transformations since apartheid was abolished. New African migrants from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Congo-Brazzaville, Cameroon, Senegal, Mali, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda, Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea live and pass through this area, as they do in most other central Johannesburg suburbs. These foreigners are omnipresent in media discussions and representations, as well as conversations between South Africans, especially after they were subject to violent attacks last May. They are set apart by their clothing, stalls, shops, languages, and the places they socialise in. The aim of this article is to shed light on the relationships between migrants – and between foreigners and South Africans – in this urban context. Here, the classic opposition between insiders and outsiders is complicated by the fact that some migrants see Johannesburg as a temporary halt, and some South Africans have only recently arrived in the city (previously reserved for Whites from the countryside and former bantustans. Ludl’s article, carried out as part of the MITRANS Research Project, builds on her research on migrants from the Senegal River valley. Combining an ethnographic field study and unstructured interviews, she describes Senegalese and Malian representations of South Africa, the suburb and its residents, and how they use this information to create strategies controlling areas and social relations. Some migrants develop these strategies even as they seek to move elsewhere to pursue goals linked to their ideas of success.