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Sample records for brazilian urban region

  1. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution

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    Jeanette Trigo Nasser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants, São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49 notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.RESULTS: Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6% aged 20-49 years old (49%. Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.CONCLUSIONS: The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  2. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jeanette Trigo; Lana, Rafael César; Silva, Claudia Maria dos Santos; Lourenço, Roberto Wagner; da Cunha e Silva, Darllan Collins; Donalísio, Maria Rita

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality. To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants), São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012. All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49) notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates) with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases. Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6%) aged 20-49 years old (49%). Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods. The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  3. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

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    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urban malaria in the Brazilian Western Amazon Region I: high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria

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    Mauro Shugiro Tada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cross sectional studies on malaria prevalence was performed in 2001, 2002, and 2004 in Vila Candelária, an urban riverside area of Porto Velho, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Western Amazon, followed by longitudinal surveys on malaria incidence. Vila Candelária is a working class district, provided with electricity, water supply, and basic sanitation. Previous preliminary surveys indicated high malaria incidence in this community. At the end of year 2000 regular diagnostic and treatment measures for malaria were introduced, with active search of febrile cases among residents. Despite of both rapid treatment of cases and relative good sanitary and housing conditions, the malaria incidence persisted at high levels during the following years with an annual parasite index of 150 to 300/1000 inhabitants. Parasite surveys in 2001, 2002, and 2004 achieved through microscopy and polymerase chain reaction to diagnose malaria showed a constant high prevalence of asymptomatic carriers for both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. It was concluded that asymptomatic carriers represent an important reservoirs of parasites and that the carriers might contribute to maintaining the high level of transmission. Comparing our findings to similar geo-demographic situations found in other important urban communities of the Brazilian Amazon, we propose that asymptomatic carriers could explain malaria's outbreaks like the one recently observed in Manaus.

  5. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis A in an urban population-based survey: a comparison of transmission patterns in Brazilian macro-regions.

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    Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar; Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Amaku, Marcos; Sartori, Ana Marli C; de Soárez, Patricia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Pereira, Leila Maria Moreira Beltrão; Moreira, Regina Célia; Figueiredo, Gerusa Maria; de Azevedo, Raymundo Soares

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the transmission pattern of hepatitis A (HA) infection based on a primary dataset from the Brazilian National Hepatitis Survey in a pre-vaccination context. The national survey conducted in urban areas disclosed two epidemiological scenarios with low and intermediate HA endemicity. A catalytic model of HA transmission was built based on a national seroprevalence survey (2005 to 2009). The seroprevalence data from 7,062 individuals aged 5-69 years from all the Brazilian macro-regions were included. We built up three models: fully homogeneous mixing model, with constant contact pattern; the highly assortative model and the highly assortative model with the additional component accounting for contacts with infected food/water. Curves of prevalence, force of infection (FOI) and the number of new infections with 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were compared between the intermediate (North, Northeast, Midwest and Federal District) and low (South and Southeast) endemicity areas. A contour plot was also constructed. The anti- HAV IgG seroprevalence was 68.8% (95% CI, 64.8%-72.5%) and 33.7% (95% CI, 32.4%-35.1%) for the intermediate and low endemicity areas, respectively, according to the field data analysis. The models showed that a higher force of infection was identified in the 10- to 19-year-old age cohort (∼9,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons) in the intermediate endemicity area, whereas a higher force of infection occurred in the 15- to 29-year-old age cohort (∼6,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons) for the other macro-regions. Our findings support the shift of Brazil toward intermediate and low endemicity levels with the shift of the risk of infection to older age groups. These estimates of HA force of infection stratified by age and endemicity levels are useful information to characterize the pre-vaccination scenario in Brazil.

  6. Modelling the force of infection for hepatitis A in an urban population-based survey: a comparison of transmission patterns in Brazilian macro-regions.

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    Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study aimed to identify the transmission pattern of hepatitis A (HA infection based on a primary dataset from the Brazilian National Hepatitis Survey in a pre-vaccination context. The national survey conducted in urban areas disclosed two epidemiological scenarios with low and intermediate HA endemicity. METHODS: A catalytic model of HA transmission was built based on a national seroprevalence survey (2005 to 2009. The seroprevalence data from 7,062 individuals aged 5-69 years from all the Brazilian macro-regions were included. We built up three models: fully homogeneous mixing model, with constant contact pattern; the highly assortative model and the highly assortative model with the additional component accounting for contacts with infected food/water. Curves of prevalence, force of infection (FOI and the number of new infections with 99% confidence intervals (CIs were compared between the intermediate (North, Northeast, Midwest and Federal District and low (South and Southeast endemicity areas. A contour plot was also constructed. RESULTS: The anti- HAV IgG seroprevalence was 68.8% (95% CI, 64.8%-72.5% and 33.7% (95% CI, 32.4%-35.1% for the intermediate and low endemicity areas, respectively, according to the field data analysis. The models showed that a higher force of infection was identified in the 10- to 19-year-old age cohort (∼9,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons in the intermediate endemicity area, whereas a higher force of infection occurred in the 15- to 29-year-old age cohort (∼6,000 infected individuals per year per 100,000 susceptible persons for the other macro-regions. CONCLUSION: Our findings support the shift of Brazil toward intermediate and low endemicity levels with the shift of the risk of infection to older age groups. These estimates of HA force of infection stratified by age and endemicity levels are useful information to characterize the pre-vaccination scenario in

  7. Brazilian urban porosity : Treat or threat?

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    Moreno Pessoa, I.; Tasan-Kok, M.T.; Korthals Altes, W.K.

    2016-01-01

    Urban areas have spatial discontinuities, such as disconnected neighbourhoods, brownfield areas and leftover places. They can be captured by the metaphor of urban porosity. This paper aims to highlight the potential social consequences of urban porosity by creating a ‘porosity index’. The authors

  8. Antimony Accumulation Risk in Lettuce Grown in Brazilian Urban Gardens

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    Silvia Mancarella

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of the Brazilian population inhabits urban areas. Diffused poverty and the lack of fresh vegetables have generated malnutrition and unbalanced diets. Thus, the interest in growing food locally, in urban allotments and community gardens, has increased. However, urban agriculture may present some risks caused by the urban pollution. Road traffic is considered the biggest source of heavy metals in urban areas. Hence, the objective of the study was the assessment of the accumulation of heavy metals in an urban garden in the city of Recife, at different distances from a road with high traffic burden. The results showed that the distance from the street decreased the accumulation of many potentially toxic elements. Furthermore, the human health risk was estimated, revealing that greater danger was associated with the accumulation of antimony. Concentration of other elements in the leaf tissues were within previously reported thresholds.

  9. Characterization of human thermal comfort in urban areas of brazilian semiarid

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    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental studies were conducted aiming to characterize the thermal conditions in urban areas of the Brazilian semiarid for identifying the level of human thermal comfort in urban areas of the municipalities of Mossoró-RN, Serra Talhada-PE, Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA. The results showed that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to human thermal discomfort index (DIT. Both the wet and dry seasons showed up an uncomfortable condition in Mossoró on May 15th and on 23rd, 2008 (rural area and on May 25rd, 2008 (urban area. By applying Thom's equation for obtaining the DIT, it was observed that the urban areas reported thermal comfort conditions always inferior to those observed in the rural areas. The results indicate conditions of partial comfort for the all areas surveyed. However, the incidence of human thermal discomfort related to the minimum, average and maximum air temperatures are, probably associated to the formation of urban heat islands. In addition, the afforestation is an effective mechanism of mitigating the adverse effects of these structures with better quality of life to the population. Therefore, it can be stated that the Brazilian semiarid region has specific urban climate, which is influenced by the design characteristics of the urban structure and buildings.

  10. Fishing effort and catch composition of urban market and rural villages in Brazilian Amazon.

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    Hallwass, Gustavo; Lopes, Priscila Fabiana; Juras, Anastacio Afonso; Silvano, Renato Azevedo Matias

    2011-02-01

    The management of small-scale freshwater fisheries in Amazon has been based usually on surveys of urban markets, while fisheries of rural villages have gone unnoticed. We compared the fishing characteristics (catch, effort and selectivity) between an urban market and five small villages in the Lower Tocantins River (Brazilian Amazon), downstream from a large reservoir. We recorded 86 and 601 fish landings in the urban market and villages, respectively, using the same methodology. The urban fishers showed higher catch per unit of effort, higher amount of ice (related to a higher fishing effort, as ice is used to store fish catches) and larger crew size per fishing trip, but village fishers had a higher estimated annual fish production. Conversely, urban and village fishers used similar fishing gear (gillnets) and the main fish species caught were the same. However, village fishers showed more diverse strategies regarding gear, habitats and fish caught. Therefore, although it underestimated the total amount of fish caught in the Lower Tocantins River region, the data from the urban market could be a reliable indicator of main fish species exploited and fishing gear used by village fishers. Monitoring and management should consider the differences and similarities between urban and rural fisheries, in Amazon and in other tropical regions.

  11. Bird-plant interaction networks: a study on frugivory in Brazilian urban areas

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    Diego Silva Freitas Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, few studies compare the consumption of native and exotic fruits, especially in an urban environment. The Network Theory may be useful in such studies, because it allows evaluating many bird and plant species involved in interactions. The goals of this study were: evaluate a bird frugivory interaction network in an urban environment; checking the role played by native and exotic plants in the network and comparing the consumer assemblies of these two plant groups. A literature review on bird frugivory in Brazilian urban areas was conducted, as well as an analysis to create an interaction network on a regional scale. The analysis included 15 papers with 70 bird species eating fruits from 15 plant species (6 exotic and 9 native. The exotic and native fruit consumers did not form different groups and the interaction network was significantly nested (NODF = 0.30; p < 0.01 and not modular (M = 0.36; p = 0.16. Two exotic plant species are in the generalist core of the frugivory network (Ficus microcarpa and Michelia champaca. The results point out that a relatively diversified bird group eats fruits in Brazilian urban areas in an opportunistic way, with no preference for native or exotic plants.

  12. Regional development through rural-urban linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Mushi, Nimrod Shitrael

    2004-01-01

    Many households have spanning livelihoods that draw on rural and urban resource opportunities. Urban and rural areas are closely linked, each contributing to the other, they therefore need to be considered jointly in development planning. The absence of rural development policies that recognise and seek to take advantage of positive aspects of rural-urban linkages in the impact regions of many cities in Developing Countries is a constraint to both rural and urban development. This policy vacu...

  13. Modeling urban and regional aerosols

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    Sun, Qing

    Aerosol particles in Earth's atmosphere have long been associated with adverse human health effects. They also play an important role in visibility reduction and global climate change. Atmospheric formation and removal of particles are governed by a number of complex dynamic processes which make the aerosol modeling a far more challenging task than the modeling of gas-phase species. Wexler et al. (1994) identified and analyzed the atmospheric aerosol processes that govern particulate mass concentrations and estimated the relative importance of each term using typical atmospheric conditions. In this thesis I start from the general dynamic equation resulted from their analysis and develop a working and optimized aerosol model that can be incorporated into a host Eulerian air quality model to simulate particulate pollution on an urban or a regional scale. Chapter 1 presents the background of the model and highlights the important issues that need to be addressed. Chapter 2 presents the mathematical representation of the aerosol model and introduces an acid equilibrium assumption, that is, when the aerosol particles are close to acid neutral the aerosol hydrogen ion concentration can be assumed to be in equilibrium with the gas-phase acidity. This assumption greatly reduced the CPU requirement of the aerosol model and hence enable us to complete the simulation of an particulate pollution episode in a reasonable time. In Chapter 3 the aerosol model IS incorporated into the Urban Airshed Model to predict the size and composition distribution of particulate matter (PM) during the June 24-25 1987 SCAQS episode. The predicted size distribution is compared to available SCAQS measurement data. In Chapter 4 the aerosol model is further optimized and incorporated into MCNC's Multiscale Air Quality Simulation Platform (MAQSIP) to investigate the particulate pollution in eastern United States using a July 9-13 1995 episode. A cloud model is modified for the sectional

  14. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

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    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  15. Livability and sustainability in large urban regions

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    Chivot, E.

    2011-01-01

    By the year 2030, five billion of us will live in cities or large urban regions, many of which will be home to more than 10 million inhabitants. This new urban world brings together a high concentration of human densities and economic activities, placing heavy demands on the environment through

  16. Mortality by skin color/race and urbanity of Brazilian cities.

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    de Oliveira, Bruno Luciano Carneiro Alves; Luiz, Ronir Raggio

    2017-08-01

    The skin color/race and urbanity are structural determinants of health. The relationship between these variables produces structure of social stratification that defines inequalities in the experiences of life and death. Thus, this study describes the characteristics of the mortality indicators by skin color/race according level of urbanity and aggregation to the metropolitan region (MR) of 5565 cities in Brazil, controlling for gender and age. Descriptive study which included the calculation of measures relating to 1,050,546 deaths in the year survey of 2010 by skin color/race White, Black, and Brown according to both sexes, for five age groups and three levels of urbanity of cities in Brazil that were aggregated or not to the MR in the year of study. The risk of death was estimated by calculating premature mortality rate (PMR) at 65 years of age, per 100,000 and age adjusted. The structure of mortality by skin color/race Black and Brown reflects worse levels of health and excessive premature deaths, with worse situation for men. The Whites, especially women, tend to live longer and in better health than other racial groups. The age-adjusted PMR indicates distinct risk of death by skin color/race, this risk was higher in men than in women and in Blacks than in other racial groups of both sexes. There have been precarious levels of health in the urban space and the MR has intensified these inequalities. The research pointed out that the racial inequality in the mortality was characterized by interaction of race with other individual and contextual determinants of health. Those Blacks and Browns are the groups most vulnerable to the iniquities associated with occurrence of death, but these differences in the profile and the risk of death depend on the level of urbanity and aggregation MR of Brazilian cities in 2010.

  17. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

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    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  18. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

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    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  19. Cooperation for Development, Brazilian Regional Leadership and Global Protagonism

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    Leticia Pinheiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze Brazil’s policy towards South America during Luiz Inácio "Lula" da Silva’s government by discussing what kind of leadership the country was able to perform in the region during this time. The authors examine the role played by the policy of International Cooperation for Development on such regional leadership. The central argument is that although Brazil has performed the role of a regional leader, there is a need for distinguishing leadership for regional matters – inwards regional leadership – from leadership for global issues – outwards regional leadership. We argue that inwards regional leadership was in fact successfully performed by Brazil in South America, mainly due to its role as a Development Leader. On the other hand, we also verified that such leadership for regional matters did not always allow Brazil to act on behalf of the entire region on the global arena. Nevertheless, we argue that Brazilian diplomacy left behind the belief that, in order to have global protagonism, the country should use South America as a regional launching platform. Instead, Brazil has been making use of global coalitions such as IBSA and BRICS to boost its global role.

  20. Sustainability and Entrepreneurship: Fostering Indigenous Entrepreneurship in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Raul Gouvea

    2014-01-01

    This article elaborates on the diverse entrepreneurial activities of indigenous communities in the Brazilian Amazon region. This article argues that further sustainability of the Brazilian Amazonian region is intrinsically linked to the entrepreneurial activities by indigenous communities in the Amazon region. Amazonian indigenous communities are under increasing economic and social pressure. Fostering sustainable indigenous entrepreneurship in these disadvantaged indigenous communities has t...

  1. DETERMININGS OF FARM WORK ALLOCATION IN BRAZILIAN REGIONS

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    Filipe de Morais Cangussu Pessoa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to analyze the determinings of farm work allocation in Brazilian regions, based on micro data of National Household Sample Survey 2009. For that, the empirical procedure consisted in the use of two models: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and the Logit Model. The model Confirmatory Factor Analysis showed good fit and defined two latent variables: qualification and income. As to the Logit Model, the results showed that the fact of a man living in rural areas increases the likelihood of being allocated in farm work, however if he is white this probability decrease. Besides, the variables qualification and income have a negative relation with farm work allocation, being the Midwest region that contributed most for people being allocated in farm work.

  2. Detection of Urban Land-cover Change in Altamira, the Brazilian Amazon With High Spatial Resolution Multi-sensor Data

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    Feng, Y.; Lu, D.; Moran, E. F.; Dutra, L. V.; Calvi, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract:The hydroelectric dam construction in Belo Monte beginning in 2011 has resulted in rapid urban land cover change in Altamira, Para State, Brazil due to boomed population from less than 80 thousand persons before 2010 to more than 150 thousand persons in 2015. The rapid urbanization has produced many problems in urban planning and environmental conditions. It is an urgent work to monitor annual urban land cover change. However, the frequent cloud cover in the moist tropical region is a big problem constraining the acquisition of cloud-free optical sensor data. Thanks to the availability of different satellite images with high spatial resolution and high temporal resolutions, we collected RapidEye imagery in 2011 and 2012, Pleiades imagery in 2013 and 2014, and SPOT 6 imagery in 2015 with spatial resolutions from 0.5 m to 5 m for this research. This research proposed a comprehensive change detection approach using very high spatial resolution multi-sensor satellite images to examine annually urban land cover change in a moist tropical region of the Brazilian Amazon. A hybrid approach consisting of decision tree and cluster analysis based on spectral signatures, segmentation, vegetation indices, and textural images was proposed to classify the images into six land cover classes: impervious surface area, bare soils, water, pasture, primary forest, and non-forest vegetation. In order to improve the classification accuracy, the classified result was visually interpreted for each land cover class and the result was modified if classification errors were identified. The classified images were converted into vector format and object-based change detection approach was used to explore the annual land cover changes. The spatial patterns and annual land cover change rates were analyzed, and they were further related to household survey data to understand the relationships between and interactions of urbanization and population migration and economic conditions

  3. Leadership capacity in two Brazilian regional tourism organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Flavio Jose; Dredge, Dianne; Lohmann, Gui

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the leadership practices of two Brazilian regional tourism organisations (RTOs) using an exploratory case study. Design/methodology/approach – The research adopts an embedded case study approach, permitting the comparison of the leadership phenomenon in the ‘‘Instituto...... at the speed required by the private sector. The IER is a market-led governance structure and its leadership practices effectively mobilised the private sector. However, it was found to operate in isolation from government and other key tourism stakeholders. Originality/value – This paper draws together....... Findings – Four leadership themes emerged: capacity to produce results, capacity to mobilise followers, articulation and communication of goals and actions, and articulation of roles and responsibilities. The findings are discussed in regards to the hierarchical and market governance structures of the two...

  4. Urbanism and energy in developing regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, R.L.; Berman, S.; Dowell, D.

    1978-03-01

    The pace of urbanization must continue, because in most parts of the world the surplus population in the countryside has nowhere else to go. The world is about 40% urban now and apparently headed for the 80 to 90% share of the total population presently exhibited by the developed countries. Thus, the 1.6 billion urban dwellers in 1978 would become about 3 billion in 1995--if major catastrophes can be avoided. Feasibility assessments for Sao Paulo-Rio de Janeiro, Calcutta, Cairo-Alexandria, Mexico City, and Seoul are presented in the appendices. This analysis-from-a-distance is insufficient to judge how much extra installed electrical generating capacity is required before 1995, the added refining capability for liquid fuels, or the uses for new LNG and coal imports due to be arranged. It is evident that energy (and perhaps also water in most regions) planning is the major determinant of the manner in which these urban areas will adapt to the extraordinary pressures for new settlement. The current round of planning in such metropolitan areas has been addressed to solving traffic-congestion problems, and reorganizing land use in central districts, as the most-pressing issues. Since energy sources and distribution systems now affect the largest and most crucial investments in urban growth it is to be expected that future metropolitan planning may concentrate upon energy efficiency. Energy supplies must be planned to meet requirements set by locally dominant values regarding human services and the environment.

  5. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area

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    Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC. Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells. E. coli was present in 5 (5.6% samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4 MPN/100mL and in 70 (39.5% well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4 MPN/100mL. Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5% samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL and in 142 (80.2% well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL. C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5% community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5% wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL. HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6% waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from <1 to 1.6x10(4 CFU/mL. The residual chlorine did not attend the standard established in the drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L, except in 20 (22.5% samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

  6. Quality of water sources used as drinking water in a Brazilian peri-urban area.

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    Razzolini, Maria Tereza Pepe; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso; Peternella, Francisca Alzira Dos Santos; Martone-Rocha, Solange; Bastos, Veridiana Karmann; Santos, Thaís Filomena da Silva; Cardoso, Maria Regina Alves

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this paper was to assess bacteriological quality of drinking water in a peri-urban area located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 89 water samples were collected from community plastic tanks and 177 water samples from wells were collected bimonthly, from September 2007 to November 2008, for evaluating bacteriological parameters including: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus and heterotrophic plate count (HPC). Clostridium perfringens was investigated in a subsample (40 samples from community plastic tank and 40 from wells). E. coli was present in 5 (5.6%) samples from community plastic tanks (2.0 - 5.1x10(4) MPN/100mL) and in 70 (39.5%) well samples (2.0 - 8.6x10(4) MPN/100mL). Thus, these samples were not in accordance with the Brazilian Regulation. Enterococcus was detected in 20 (22.5%) samples of the community plastic tanks (1 to 79 NC/100mL) and in 142 (80.2%) well samples (1 to >200 NC/100mL). C. perfringens was detected in 5 (12.5%) community plastic tanks samples and in 35 (87.5%) wells samples (2.2 to >16 MPN/100mL). HPC were above 500 CFU/mL in 5 (5.6%) waters from community plastic tanks. In wells samples, the HPC ranged from drinking water legislation (0.2 mg/L), except in 20 (22.5%) samples. These results confirm the vulnerability of the water supply systems in this peri-urban area what is clearly a public health concern.

  7. Urban competitiveness assessment in developing country urban regions: the road ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Webster, Douglas; Muller, Larissa

    2000-01-01

    The paper reviews approaches and techniques, those commonly employed, as well as newly emerging ones, to assess the competitiveness of urban regions. The relevance of these techniques to developing country regions is assessed, taking into account the fact that assessments need to reflect the population size of urban regions, and a given urban region's position on the development trajectory.

  8. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  9. Preliminary carbon isotope measurements of fossil fuel and biogenic emissions from the Brazilian Southeastern region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, F. M.; Santos, G.; Macario, K.; Muniz, M.; Queiroz, E.; Park, J.

    2014-12-01

    Researchers have confirmed that the continuing global rising of atmospheric CO2 content is caused by anthropogenic CO2 contributions. Most of those contributions are essentially associated with burning of fossil fuels (coal, petroleum and natural gas). However, deforestation, biomass burning, and land use changes, can also play important roles. Researchers have showed that 14C measurements of annual plants, such as corn leaf (Hsueh et al. 2007), annual grasses (Wang and Pataki 2012), and leaves of deciduous trees (Park et al. 2013) can be used to obtain time-integrated information of the fossil fuel ration in the atmosphere. Those regional-scale fossil fuel maps are essential for monitoring CO2 emissions mitigation efforts and/or growth spikes around the globe. However, no current data from anthropogenic contributions from both biogenic and fossil carbon has been reported from the major urban areas of Brazil. Here we make use of carbon isotopes (13C and 14C) to infer sources of CO2 in the highly populated Brazilian Southeastern region (over 80 million in 2010). This region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, vehicles, industries, and many other utilities and major infrastructures. For a starting point, we focus on collecting Ipê leaves (Tabebuia, a popular deciduous tree) from across Rio de Janeiro city and state as well as Sao Paulo city during May/June of 2014 to obtain the regional distribution of 13C and 14C of those urban domes. So far, Δ14C range from -10 to 32‰, when δ13C values are running from -26 to -35‰. The result of these preliminary investigations will be presented and discussed.Hsueh et al. 2007 Regional patterns of radiocarbon and fossil fuel-derived CO2 in surface air across North America. Geophysical Research Letters. 34: L02816. doi:10.1029/2006GL027032 Wang and Pataki 2012 Drivers of spatial variability in urban plant and soil isotopic composition in the Los Angeles Basin. Plant and Soil 350: 323

  10. Modernizing potential of urban multiculturalism: Beyond regionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Božo V.

    2002-01-01

    to establish the indicators that can show the presence or absence of the need for regionalization. These indicators are in those spheres of structural-developmental processes of society, which point to the degree of its modernization. These are a entrepreneurial way of doing business at the world market, b the degree of development of civil society and c openness of the people to the values of modern urban multiculturality. The indicators in question are very complex, and they 'transcend' every regionalism and enable critical evaluation of its ability to (politically mediates the needs of a man in modern societies. Since cultural contents diffuse in all segments of social life, the presence or absence of modern urban multiculturality can be taken as a 'value-background', of regionalization. Starting from this 'background' we can more clearly see sociological limits of regionalism and to 'situate' it where it belongs legal and political frames of state organization and struggle of political elites for distribution of power and political influence. Consequently, in the sociological research of modernization potentials of urban multiculturality, one must go beyond regionalism.

  11. Urban adaptation can roll back warming of emerging megapolitan regions

    OpenAIRE

    Georgescu, Matei; Morefield, Philip E.; Bierwagen, Britta G.; Weaver, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    Conversion to urban landforms has consequences for regional climate and the many inhabitants living within the built environment. The purpose of our investigation was to explore hydroclimatic impacts of 21st century urban expansion across the United States and examine the efficacy of commonly proposed urban adaptation strategies in context of long-term global climate change. We show that, in the absence of any adaptive urban design, urban expansion across the United States imparts warming ove...

  12. Biotypology, regionalism, and the construction of a plural Brazilian bodily identity, 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimieiro-Gomes, Ana Carolina

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates regional biotypological studies and the construction of biological deterministic discourses about the Brazilian identity in the 1930s. Biotypological research was undertaken to determine the normal body type of the Brazilian man, using its peculiar classificatory lexicon. Studies into the bodily profile of specific regions, like the northeast and São Paulo state, featured in this research. In the context of the contemporary debates about race, miscegenation, and national identity, these investigations were geared towards biological determinism and the influence of the environment and social and cultural aspects on the bodily development of Brazilians. It is shown how regional biotypological studies echoed racial, normalizing, exclusive viewpoints and contributed to the construction of a miscegenated Brazilian bodily identity.

  13. Urban rivers as hotspots of regional nitrogen pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wu, Yiyun; Gu, Baojing

    2015-10-01

    Excess nitrogen inputs to terrestrial ecosystems via human activities have deteriorated water qualities on regional scales. Urban areas as settlements of over half global population, however, were usually not considered in the analysis of regional water pollution. Here, we used a 72-month monitoring data of water qualities in Hangzhou, China to test the role of urban rives in regional nitrogen pollution and how they response to the changes of human activities. Concentrations of ammonium nitrogen in urban rivers were 3-5 times higher than that in regional rivers. Urban rivers have become pools of reactive nitrogen and hotspots of regional pollution. Moreover, this river pollution is not being measured by current surface water monitoring networks that are designed to measure broader regional patterns, resulting in an underestimation of regional pollution. This is crucial to urban environment not only in China, but also in other countries, where urban rivers are seriously polluted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tošić Dragutin; Krunić Nikola

    2005-01-01

    ... of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE). In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions...

  15. Social networks and power in the Brazilian State: learning from urban policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of two researches on urban policies in different Brazilian metropolises using network analysis. Policy network studies have explored the consequences of networks over policies, but have underestimated the consequences of the structure of the network itself. The institutional and personal networks that structure state organizations internally and insert them in broader political scenarios organize a mid-level structure I call State fabric. This introduces more stability and predictability than usually considered and gives access to a specific power resource, which I call positional power, associated with the positions political actors occupy in the State fabric, influencing politics inside and around the State.

  16. A Regional Categorization for "New-Type Urbanization" in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    Full Text Available Regional differences in the character of urbanization in China are substantial. The promotion of what has been termed "new-type urbanization" cannot, as a result of these regional differences, be expected to follow a universal approach--rather, such a development must objectively adhere to locational and category-specific principles and adopt differentiated urbanization development models. Regional categorization is often used in geography, but is rarely deployed in research addressing human and social problems relating to urbanization. In March 2014, China published the National New-type Urbanization Plan (2014-2020, which calls for the scientific and reasonable planning of "new-type urbanization," and appropriate regional categorizations are urgently needed in order to guide this reform. Responding to this challenge, this research engaged in the design of a "dominantly quantitative analysis, qualitatively supplemented" method in order to divide China into 5 main regions and 47 sub-regions in terms of new-type urbanization. The paper discusses the features and key problems of each region. This study introduces a new method for regional categorization, thereby remedying the lack of regional categorization in relation to "new-type urbanization" in China, and ultimately promoting the development of regional categorization in the humanities as a valuable reference for healthy and sustainable Chinese urbanization.

  17. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...

  18. Law, Urban Violence and Order: Cop Shows as a Brazilian TV Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Lusvarghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A new type of Brazilian drama series has taken place on local  TV -  the cop shows. Although they are not popular as the telenovela (soap operas, definitively they came to stay.  International channels like Fox and HBO are benefited by Tax Benefits Rule which provides financial conditions for the production of those home market, and are now competing with the two greatest media Brazilian  groups – Record and Globo.  The worldwide success of “Cidade de Deus” (City of God, 2002, Fernando Meirelles, released abroad like a gangster movie, and “Tropa de Elite” (Elite Squad, 2005, Jose Padilha, Berlin Golden Bear Award 2008, which sequel “Elit Squad: The Enemy Within” (2010 became the biggest box office record of Brazilian Cinema, could be partially contributed to motivate that new kind of production, which mix up social exclusion, urban violence with the very known old formulas of American serials, as the franchise “Law and Order” and its various spin-offs.

  19. Lymphatic Filariasis in Brazilian Urban Area (Maceió, Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontes Gilberto

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey conducted among evening students was used to determine the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Maceió, capital of the State of Alagoas, northeast Brazil. A single thick-blood smear was used, being collected between 10 p.m. and 12 a.m. From a total of 29,551 students enrolled at evening elementary schools in the 33 city sectors, 16,569 (56.4% were random selected for inclusion in the study. From those, 10,857 (65.5% were interviewed and examined and 73 (0.7% were found to have microfilaraemia. Autochthonous W. bancrofti carriers live in 10 of the 33 city sectors, suggesting a focal distribution. Moreover, 84% of infections were diagnosed among 29% of all students examined, inhabiting three contiguous sectors at the city central area, presenting infection rates up to 5.3%. Students living in city sectors with prevalence of microfilariae carriers greater than 1% were found to have a higher risk for infection when compared to students from the rest of the town [Relative Odds (RO 12.8, 95% CI 6.7 - 25.1]. Eleven positive individuals from non endemic areas were living in Maceió for more than 10 years; time of residence in the area was a major risk factor for infection among students not born in the region (p<0.01. Regarding sex, male students presented a higher proportion of positive (RO 1.7, 95% CI 1.1 - 2.9.

  20. Urbanism, Region, and Tolerance Revisited: The Case of Racial Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Using prejudice toward blacks as the outcome measure, analysis of national survey data for 1972 and 1985 indicates that: urbanites and non-Southerners are more racially tolerant than their non-urban and Southern counterparts; the net effects of urbanism on tolerance have increased over time while region effects have decreased; and urban to…

  1. NETWORKING - THE URBAN AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of innovations embraces everything that is connected with creation and application of new knowledge in order to win competitive advantage. A traditional approach applied by organizational and management sciences are not enough to explain and manage the development of enterprises as well as that of cities, regions and countries. According to a new approach to innovativeness, creation of innovations depends on a complex/system approach. A phenomenon of particular importance is the approach to network pro-innovation structures from the urban and regional point of view. What makes a network work is a mutual relation between actors who have same rights to access and participate in the network. The whole system must be perceived by every actor. Simultaneously, every actor is partially responsible for the whole. The nature of networking can be understood as a differentiated system of relations (particularly personal ones inside the network. Tolerance and trust are other foundations of information flow and information return.

  2. Networks Versus Need: Drivers of Urban Out-Migration in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Heather F; VanWey, Leah K

    2014-12-01

    As urbanization rates rise globally, it becomes increasingly important to understand the factors associated with urban out-migration. In this paper, we examine the drivers of urban out-migration among young adults in two medium-sized cities in the Brazilian Amazon-Altamira and Santarém-focusing on the roles of social capital, human capital, and socioeconomic deprivation. Using household survey data from 1,293 individuals in the two cities, we employ an event history model to assess factors associated with migration and a binary logit model to understand factors associated with remitting behavior. We find that in Altamira, migration tends to be an individual-level opportunistic strategy fostered by extra-local family networks, while in Santarém, migration tends to be a household-level strategy driven by socioeconomic deprivation and accompanied by remittances. These results indicate that urban out-migration in Brazil is a diverse social process, and that the relative roles of extra-local networks versus economic need can function quite differently between geographically proximate but historically and socioeconomically distinct cities.

  3. Land surface temperature shaped by urban fractions in megacity region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hu, Yonghong; Jia, Gensuo; Hou, Meiting; Fan, Yanguo; Sun, Zhongchang; Zhu, Yuxiang

    2017-02-01

    Large areas of cropland and natural vegetation have been replaced by impervious surfaces during the recent rapid urbanization in China, which has resulted in intensified urban heat island effects and modified local or regional warming trends. However, it is unclear how urban expansion contributes to local temperature change. In this study, we investigated the relationship between land surface temperature (LST) change and the increase of urban land signals. The megacity of Tianjin was chosen for the case study because it is representative of the urbanization process in northern China. A combined analysis of LST and urban land information was conducted based on an urban-rural transect derived from Landsat 8 Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and QuickBird images. The results indicated that the density of urban land signals has intensified within a 1-km2 grid in the urban center with an impervious land fraction >60 %. However, the construction on urban land is quite different with low-/mid-rise buildings outnumbering high-rise buildings in the urban-rural transect. Based on a statistical moving window analysis, positive correlation ( R 2 > 0.9) is found between LST and urban land signals. Surface temperature change (ΔLST) increases by 0.062 °C, which was probably caused by the 1 % increase of urbanized land (ΔIF) in this case region.

  4. Anuran amphibians of the urban region of Altamira (Oriental Amazonia, state of Pará, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Bezerra Barros

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to take stock of the species of anurans in three localities of the urban region of Altamira, a municipal district in the west of the state of Pará (Oriental Amazonia. Collections were made between January and June of 2004. Fifteen species were recorded during the study. The family Hylidae was the most represented, with eight species. The data was compatible with the degree of conservation of the collection areas. The necessity of making new fauna inventories in all Brazilian biomes is of extreme urgency, particularly in the Amazon, given its vast extension and lack of inventories.

  5. Where Deforestation Leads to Urbanization: How Resource Extraction is Leading to Urban Growth in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; VanWey, Leah

    2015-07-01

    Developing the Amazon into a major provider of internationally traded mineral and food commodities has dramatically transformed broad expanses of tropical forests to farm and pasturelands, and to mining sites. The environmental impacts of this transformation, as well as the drivers underlying the process, have already been well documented. In this article we turn our analytical lenses to another, less examined effect of Amazon land use and environmental change, namely the creation and development of new urban areas. Here we argue that urban growth in the Amazon is a direct residual of international interest in the production of traded commodities, and of the capacity of local urban residents to capture capital and value before it is extracted from the region. Specifically, we suggest that urban growth is occurring fastest where cities have access to both rural export commodities and export corridors. We also show correlations between urban growth and lower rural population density, and cities' capacities to draw migrants from beyond their immediate rural surroundings. More broadly, we argue that urbanization in the Amazon is better interpreted as a symptom rather than a driver of the region's land use and land cover change.

  6. Evaluation of urban sprawl and urban landscape pattern in a rapidly developing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Zhi-Qiang; Dai, Fu-Qiang; Sun, Cheng

    2012-10-01

    Urban sprawl is a worldwide phenomenon happening particularly in rapidly developing regions. A study on the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban sprawl and urban pattern is useful for the sustainable management of land management and urban land planning. The present research explores the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban sprawl in the context of a rapid urbanization process in a booming economic region of southern China from 1979 to 2005. Three urban sprawl types are distinguished by analyzing overlaid urban area maps of two adjacent study years which originated from the interpretation of remote sensed images and vector land use maps. Landscape metrics are used to analyze the spatiotemporal pattern of urban sprawl for each study period. Study results show that urban areas have expanded dramatically, and the spatiotemporal landscape pattern configured by the three sprawl types changed obviously. The different sprawl type patterns in five study periods have transformed significantly, with their proportions altered both in terms of quantity and of location. The present research proves that urban sprawl quantification and pattern analysis can provide a clear perspective of the urbanization process during a long time period. Particularly, the present study on urban sprawl and sprawl patterns can be used by land use and urban planners.

  7. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  8. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  9. Projected Regional Climate in 2025 Due to Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Messen, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    By 2025, 60 to 80 percent of the world s population will live in urban environments. Additionally, the following facts published by the United Nations further illustrates how cities will evolve in the future. Urban areas in the developing world are growing very rapidly. The urban growth rate will continue to be particularly rapid in the urban areas of less developed regions, averaging 2.4 per cent per year during 2000-2030, consistent with a doubling time of 29 years. The urbanization process will continue worldwide. The concentration of population in cities is expected to continue so that, by 2030, 84 percent of the inhabitants of more developed countries will be urban dwellers. Urbanization impacts the whole hierarchy of human settlements. In 2000,24.8 per cent of the world population lived in urban settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants and by 2015 that proportion will likely rise to 27.1 per cent.

  10. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  11. Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM2.5 mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Astolfo, Rosana; Andre, Paulo Afonso de; Saldiva, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 should be below 10 μg m−3. In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM2.5 mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed grav...

  12. Understanding the dynamic changes in India's peri-urban regions ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such unplanned growth, along with environmental changes, poses serious challenges to sustainable development. Patterns of urban growth vary widely by region, with different consequences for sustainability. In South Asia, peri-urban areas are growing at a much faster pace than many core cities and towns. There is ...

  13. Urban and regional design : Making the design process explicit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dooren, E.J.G.C.; Willekens, L.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Urban and regional design are fundamental skills in the field of urban studies. Designing is a complex, personal, creative and open-ended skill. Performing a well-developed skill is mainly an implicit activity. In teaching, however, it is essential to make explicit what to do. Learning a complex

  14. VIROLOGICAL AND SEROLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF RABIES IN BATS FROM AN URBAN AREA IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Souza de OLIVEIRA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreaks of rabies in humans transmitted by Desmodus rotundus in 2004 and 2005, in the northeast of the Brazilian State of Para, eastern Amazon basin, made this a priority area for studies on this zoonosis. Given this, the present study provides data on this phenomenon in an urban context, in order to assess the possible circulation of the classic rabies virus (RABV among bat species in Capanema, a town in the Amazon basin. Bats were collected, in 2011, with mist nets during the wet and dry seasons. Samples of brain tissue and blood were collected for virological and serological survey, respectively. None of the 153 brain tissue samples analyzed tested positive for RABV infection, but 50.34% (95% CI: 45.67-55.01% of the serum samples analyzed were seropositive. Artibeus planirostris was the most common species, with a high percentage of seropositive individuals (52.46%, 95% CI: 52.31 52.60%. Statistically, equal proportions of seropositive results were obtained in the rainy and dry seasons (c2 = 0.057, d.f. = 1, p = 0.88. Significantly higher proportions of males (55.96%, 95% CI: 48.96-62.96% and adults (52.37%, 95% CI: 47.35-57.39% were seropositive. While none of the brain tissue samples tested positive for infection, the high proportion of seropositive specimens indicates that RABV may be widespread in this urban area.

  15. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center - "Health in Beagá" Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Michelle Ralil; Xavier, César Coelho; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents. Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH) utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old) who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life). Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression. The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females). The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%), followed by on the streets (28.5%), at home (9.8%), while practicing sports (7.3%), at parties (4.6%), at work (1.7%), and at other locations (1.6%). Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood. A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries.

  16. Using Local Features to Measure Land Development in Urban Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Sirmacek, Beril; Unsalan, Cem

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring urban development in a given region provides valuable information to researchers. Currently available, very high resolution satellite images can be used for this purpose. However, manually monitoring land development using these large and complex images is time consuming and prone to errors. To handle this problem, an automated system is needed to measure development in urban regions. Therefore, in this study we propose such an automated method to measure land development in a give...

  17. 752 Department of Urban and Regional P

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-09-15

    Sep 15, 2015 ... urban public transport passengers travels in Lagos metropolis. A set of structured questionnaire were administered on ... travel behaviour characteristics of 13 cities based on household interview survey in. East Asia ... dimension of overcoming space on a virtual level (Zumkeller, 1997). The results of this ...

  18. Spatial planning based on urban energy harvesting toward productive urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leduc, Wouter R. W. A.; Van Kann, Ferry M. G.

    The industrial revolution and the exploitation of fossil fuels fostered profound changes on transportation systems and infrastructure enabling unprecedented urban growth. Urban regions, which now host the majority of the world's population, resemble a linear metabolism: importing most of their raw

  19. Spatial planning based on urban energy harvesting toward productive urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leduc, W.R.W.A.; Kann, van F.M.G.

    2013-01-01

    The industrial revolution and the exploitation of fossil fuels fostered profound changes on transportation systems and infrastructure enabling unprecedented urban growth. Urban regions, which now host the majority of the world's population, resemble a linear metabolism: importing most of their raw

  20. The Challenge of Urban and Regional Development in the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tedjo Suminto

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of development is part of the overall national task carried out along governance. This task has been entrusted to the government as a gradual long-term task, planning, and sustainable. Implied in it, the intention to achieve a better state. Contained within the dimension of time setting goals, achieving goals, and overall utilization of benefits for citizens throughout the country. Enshrined also be aware that there will be found a variety of difficulties, limitations, and problems that must be solved. The problems of urban development in Indonesia can be viewed from two approaches, namely macro and micro approaches. A macro approach urban problems are reviewed in the context of the region (national scale. While the approach is seen as a micro city neighborhoods. This problem is closely related to the natural growth of the city population and population migration. Based on research on urban and regional development, it can be concluded: 1 the problem of urbanization of rural and small towns to large cities should be addressed; 2 urban spatial arrangements should be improved to do with increasingly limited land for development and urban development; 3 the provision of facilities and infrastructure of the city, city management, and financing of urban development, integration between government, society, and the private sector should be increased; 4 study of urban models that can accommodate all the problems of the city should be developed continuously.

  1. Major Sports events in Brazil: from the expression of brazilian sports policy to the urban neodevelopmentalist planning concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lino Castellani Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We will seek some considerations about the major sports events in the Brazilian  territory as  the main expression of a particular logic of urban development and less of a sports policy itself, focusing on its impact in South America. In particular, we will focus on the paradox of the official discourse centered on the recognition of the Sport as Social Right and of a practice committed to the neodevelopmentalist conception of urban planning, ratifying its apprehension as a product likely to be commercialized having high appeal in the field of business.

  2. Rehabilitation of urban identity of cities in the Banja Luka region through urban form regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonović Dijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper points to the possibility of codification of urban planning and application of physical regulation standards in urban form design to establish such instruments of guidance as will ensure the recognition, appreciation and development of local urban identity. The purpose of establishing general principles and making quality recommendations that would aim at urban form design regulation and be implemented as qualitative criteria and regulation standards is to propose a methodology for the rehabilitation of the City of Banja Luka’s identity applicable to similar cities in the region, with due adjustments to allow for contextual specificity, with the possibility of coordinated regional city development. The discontinuity in the urban development of Banja Luka and other cities in the region has jeopardised the inherent characteristics of their identities, resulting in reduced recognisability and impaired integrity. This study covers the period since the beginning of Banja Luka’s guided urban development (Austro-Hungarian administration, 1878, which should allow a review of its urban morphogenesis and an understanding of its key elements, as well as identification of the general principles and rules of urban form regulation as laid down in the local ordinance and planning legacy.

  3. Epidemiological evaluation of apical periodontitis prevalence in an urban Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa BERLINCK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP in an urban Brazilian population according to gender, age group and tooth type. Data were collected from clinical files containing the medical and dental histories and periapical radiographs of 1,126 patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro between March 2000 and December 2010. A total of 15,724 periapical radiographs were evaluated. All the radiographs were evaluated by two independent, previously calibrated endodontists (kappa = 0.88. Periapical areas on the radiographs were classified as N (normal or AR (apical radiolucency. The frequency of AP and the 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI were calculated according to gender, age group and tooth type. Differences between groups were calculated using the Z-test at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05. AP was present in 7.87% of the samples, with 16.70% occurring on previously endodontically treated teeth and 44.65% occurring on teeth referred for endodontic treatment (TR-RCT. The frequency of AP was higher among females (64% than among males (35%. The central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. The frequency of AP was higher among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age. In this population, AP was more prevalent among females and among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age, and the central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth.

  4. How to map soil carbon stocks in highly urbanized regions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, V. I.; Stoorvogel, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems and the capacity for carbon sequestration is a widely accepted soil function. For land-use planning and decision making the regional analysis of SOC stocks and their spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention. Quite a few studies focus on mapping the carbon stocks in natural and agricultural areas using digital soil mapping (DSM) techniques. Although urban areas remain almost neglected. The urban environment provides a number of specific features and processes that influence soil formation and functioning: soil sealing, functional zoning and settlement history. This not only results in a considerable urban SOC (especially in the subsoil), but also results in a unique spatial variability of SOC stocks at short distance. In contrast to the often gradual changes in natural areas, urban soils may exhibit abrupt changes due to the anthropogenic influence. Thus implementation of standard DSM methodology will result in extremely high nuggets and correspondingly low prediction accuracy. Besides, traditional regression kriging, widely-used for the case when legacy data is lacking, is often based on the correlation between SOC and dominating soil forming factors (climate, relief, parent material and vegetation). Although in urban conditions, anthropogenic influence itself turns out to be a predominant soil-forming factor. The spatial heterogeneity of urban soil carbon stocks is further complicated by a specific profile distribution with possible second SOC maximum, referred to cultural layer. Importance of urban SOC as well as specifics of urban environment requires for a specific approach to map urban SOC as part of regional analysis. Moscow region with its variability of bioclimatic conditions and high urbanization level (10 % from the total area) was chosen as an interesting case study. Random soil sampling in different soil zones (4) and land

  5. Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (a Brazilian regional center for nuclear sciences) - activities report - 1999; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares - relatorio de atividades - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    The annual activities report of 1999 of nuclear sciences regional center - Brazilian organization - introduces the next main topics: institutional relations; sectorial actions - logistic support and training, laboratory of radiation protection and dosimetry, laboratory of metrology, laboratory of chemical characterization; technical and scientific events; and financial resources and perspectives for 2000.

  6. Commuting behaviour and urban form: a longitudinal study of a polycentric urban region in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunfelder, Julien; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2012-01-01

    This paper is an empirical investigation of the relation between urban form and commuting behaviour in a polycentric urban region. It explores to what extent urban form and location variables help to explain commuting time, distance and mode based on an empirical case, East Jutland, which....... For instance, two of the important findings are that the distance to the closest urban centre is an important factor which affects the three selected aspects of commuting, while the distance from the residence to the closest large city (i.e. second-ranked city) is associated with a relatively short commuting...... selected aspects of commuting. However, urban form variables have greater explanatory power in explaining commuting modes than commuting time and commuting distance. No general trends in commuting were detectable from the data. Finally, the empirical findings revealed specificities of the case study...

  7. Relationship between Career Decisions and School Adjustment of Japanese-Brazilian Parents and Their Children Living in Japan : Comparative Study of Three Schools in Two Regions

    OpenAIRE

    杉岡,正典

    2007-01-01

    Regional differences (based on the number of resident Japanese-Brazilians in the region) and differences in schools (Japanese public or private Brazilian schools) on the career decisions of Japanese-Brazilian parents and their children, as well as the relationship between their career decisions and school adjustment were investigated from the perspective of acculturation. A questionnaire was administered in a public school in A prefecture with a few Brazilian residents; public school in B pre...

  8. Rural-urban interlinkages and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer behovet for at udvide tilgangen i landdistriktsforskningen fra en snæver endogen og sektororienteret approach til en bredere regional orienteret tilgang med et blik for de eksogene og stedbaserede, territorielle strategier. Med udgangspunkt i Danmark vises det at globalisering...

  9. Potential antioxidant of brazilian coffee from the region of Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richtier Gonçalves da CRUZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world. Its chemical composition may have varied according to the planting site, degree of roasting, and method of preparation. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of coffee from the region of Cerrado in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The evaluation was performed with samples roasted at two different levels (traditional and extra dark and using two different preparation methods (decoction and infusion that reflect the conditions of preparing coffee. In vitro antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH radical methods and the concentration of total phenolic compounds and caffeine were determined. Samples made by decoction showed a higher content of phenolic compounds and no significant difference was observed between the degrees of roasting. However, the antioxidant activity and caffeine concentration of the extra dark samples were higher than those of the traditional samples for both preparation methods. The decoction preparation method was better for extracting phenolic compounds and the extra dark roast showed a higher concentration of caffeine and antioxidant activity. The samples showed a high antioxidant activity, indicating the coffee from Cerrado is an important source of antioxidants.

  10. Regional simulation of urban evapotranspiration over Helsinki, Finland in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.; Marras, S.; Pyles, D.

    2012-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban area evapotranspiration, surface energy budget terms, and carbon exchange estimates at a horizontal resolution of 600 meters for urban areas of roughly 20 by 20 km. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and mass and energy exchange of urban centers. Land surface-atmosphere mass and energy exchanges LE were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). The WRF-ACASA coupled model was used to scale up to a regional domain to better simulate the evolution of the urban atmosphere exchange at regional scale: we used a sequence of 6 nested domains with feedback for WRF-ACASA (dx = 48.6, 16.4, 5.2, 1.8, and 0.6 km) using NNRP reanalysis data in combination with CLC land cover data. Our results show that the model performed well compared with the observations both for the surface energy fluxes as well as the surface carbon exchange. The model can generally account for 45-72% of half-hourly variations of observed fluxes. Generally the partitioning of energy fluxes was on par with other urban model performances. On a biweekly time scale we compared the average diurnal course of LE (latent energy flux) of the model against observations. The model was able to resolve 91-92% of the variation of observed fluxes on this aggregate scale with a slope of the linear regression of 0.92 for LE. Simulations yielded spatially consistent results according to land use distribution and location of the urban center. Keywords: Urban metabolism, surface

  11. Urban adaptation can roll back warming of emerging megapolitan regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Matei; Morefield, Philip E; Bierwagen, Britta G; Weaver, Christopher P

    2014-02-25

    Modeling results incorporating several distinct urban expansion futures for the United States in 2100 show that, in the absence of any adaptive urban design, megapolitan expansion, alone and separate from greenhouse gas-induced forcing, can be expected to raise near-surface temperatures 1-2 °C not just at the scale of individual cities but over large regional swaths of the country. This warming is a significant fraction of the 21st century greenhouse gas-induced climate change simulated by global climate models. Using a suite of regional climate simulations, we assessed the efficacy of commonly proposed urban adaptation strategies, such as green, cool roof, and hybrid approaches, to ameliorate the warming. Our results quantify how judicious choices in urban planning and design cannot only counteract the climatological impacts of the urban expansion itself but also, can, in fact, even offset a significant percentage of future greenhouse warming over large scales. Our results also reveal tradeoffs among different adaptation options for some regions, showing the need for geographically appropriate strategies rather than one size fits all solutions.

  12. Fungi infection in honeybee hives in regions affected by Brazilian sac brood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Keller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Sac Brood is a disease that affects apiaries of Africanized bee hives in Brazil, thereby making them susceptible to high losses. This study investigated the pathogenicity of Africanized bee hives by the entomopathogenic fungi in a Brazilian Sac Brood endemic region. The degree of fungal contamination, presence of mycotoxins in beehive elements, and vulnerability of healthy beehives in environments subjected and not subjected to the disease were investigated. From the contaminating fungal load, species that are mycotoxin producers and pathogenic causing mortality in the bees have been isolated. The analysis of bee pollen and bee bread samples did not show the presence of the toxic pollen of Stryphnodendron (Fabaceae, which has been indicated as the causative agent of mortality in pre-pupal stage larvae. However, bee bread showed the highest correlation between substrate and fungal contamination.

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A; Guerrant, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis in Brazilians Reveals Highly Differentiated Native American Genome Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havt, Alexandre; Nayak, Uma; Pinkerton, Relana; Farber, Emily; Concannon, Patrick; Lima, Aldo A.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2017-01-01

    Despite its population, geographic size, and emerging economic importance, disproportionately little genome-scale research exists into genetic factors that predispose Brazilians to disease, or the population genetics of risk. After identification of suitable proxy populations and careful analysis of tri-continental admixture in 1,538 North-Eastern Brazilians to estimate individual ancestry and ancestral allele frequencies, we computed 400,000 genome-wide locus-specific branch length (LSBL) Fst statistics of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and a similar set of differentiation statistics for their Amerindian component compared with the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population (surprisingly, Bengalis in Bangladesh). After ranking SNPs by these statistics, we identified the top 10 highly differentiated SNPs in five genome regions in the LSBL tests of Brazilian Amerindian ancestry compared to European and African; and the top 10 SNPs in eight regions comparing their Amerindian component to the closest Asian 1000 Genomes population. We found SNPs within or proximal to the genes CIITA (rs6498115), SMC6 (rs1834619), and KLHL29 (rs2288697) were most differentiated in the Amerindian-specific branch, while SNPs in the genes ADAMTS9 (rs7631391), DOCK2 (rs77594147), SLC28A1 (rs28649017), ARHGAP5 (rs7151991), and CIITA (rs45601437) were most highly differentiated in the Asian comparison. These genes are known to influence immune function, metabolic and anthropometry traits, and embryonic development. These analyses have identified candidate genes for selection within Amerindian ancestry, and by comparison of the two analyses, those for which the differentiation may have arisen during the migration from Asia to the Americas. PMID:28100790

  15. Stroke in the rain forest: prevalence in a ribeirinha community and an urban population in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Santos, Itamar Souza; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the cerebrovascular prevalence in a town in the Brazilian Amazon basin and compare the ribeirinhos (riparians) to the urban population in the same municipality. From May to October 2011, 6,216 residents over 35 years of age in the town of Coari were interviewed using a screening questionnaire, the Stroke Symptom Questionnaire. Cerebrovascular prevalence rates (PRs) from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated according to the location of the home. Respondent totals were 4,897 in the urban area and 1,028 in the rural area. The crude prevalence of stroke was 6.3% in rural and 3.7% in urban areas with differences maintained after sex and age adjustment. Among stroke cases, the ribeirinhos were those with less access to medical care in comparison to the urban area (32.1 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.01), and a positive association between rural area and no medical care for stroke remained (PR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.71), independently of age, sex, education and functional impairment. This study provides the first population-based cerebrovascular prevalence comparison between an urban and a rural population in the Amazon rain forest. The PRs were higher in the ribeirinha compared to the urban population in the same municipality. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  17. THE CONCEPT OF IC IN REGIONAL AND URBAN SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA NOWICKA-SKOWRON

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human capital and structural capital constitute the primary assets of every organisation and more and more every territory: on urban, local, regional, national and global levels. Business practice confirms the need of developing basic organisational features that would result in creating a unique corporate image. It turns out that an individual character of a company facilitates its winning competitive advantage.

  18. Forestry serving urban societies in the north atlantic region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the North Atlantic Region, the social services provided by forests play a major role. With the high level of urbanisation in many of these countries, forests and other green areas are of great importance as recreational settings for urban dwellers. In order to ensure that forests cater for the...

  19. The emergence and consolidation of the Urban-Rural Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, urbanisation in Europe has been characterised by the development and expansion of functionally integrated urban regions. Areas around Copenhagen, Denmark, have also experienced continuous urbanisation and a considerable in-migration, which has contributed to the development of ...

  20. Temporal changes in greenspace in a highly urbanized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimer, Martin; Tang, Zhiyao; Bibby, Peter R; Brindley, Paul; Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Zoe G

    2011-10-23

    The majority of the world's population now lives in towns and cities, and urban areas are expanding faster than any other land-use type. In response to this phenomenon, two opposing arguments have emerged: whether cities should 'sprawl' into the wider countryside, or 'densify' through the development of existing urban greenspace. However, these greenspaces are increasingly recognized as being central to the amelioration of urban living conditions, supporting biodiversity conservation and ecosystem service provision. Taking the highly urbanized region of England as a case study, we use data from a variety of sources to investigate the impact of national-level planning policy on temporal patterns in the extent of greenspace in cities. Between 1991 and 2006, greenspace showed a net increase in all but one of 13 cities. However, the majority of this gain occurred prior to 2001, and greenspace has subsequently declined in nine cities. Such a dramatic shift in land use coincides with policy reforms in 2000, which favoured densification. Here, we illustrate the dynamic and policy-responsive nature of urban land use, thereby highlighting the need for a detailed investigation of the trade-offs associated with different mechanisms of urban densification to optimize and secure the diverse benefits associated with greenspaces.

  1. Regional Socioeconomic Inequalities in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Among Brazilian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Oyeyemi, Adewale L; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Romanzini, Marcelo; Ronque, Enio R V; Cyrino, Edilson S; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Danilo R

    2018-02-27

    This study aims to describe the regional prevalence and patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior among Brazilian adolescents. Data from the Brazilian Scholar Health Survey, a nationally representative survey of ninth-grade adolescents [mean age: 14.29 y (14.27-14.29)] conducted in 2015 (n = 101,445), were used. Outcomes were television viewing, sitting time (ST), total PA, and active traveling collected via self-administered questionnaire. Information on frequency of physical education classes and type of school was collected from the school's director. Frequencies with 95% confidence intervals were used to determine the prevalence and patterns of outcomes. Higher prevalence of PA (≥300 min/wk) and ST (>4 h/d) was found in Midwest (PA = 38.0%; ST = 44.5%), South (PA = 37.6%; ST = 50.1%), and Southeast (PA = 36.1%; ST = 49.3%) compared with Northeast (PA = 29.7%; ST = 36.9%) and North (PA = 34.4%; ST = 34.8%) regions of Brazil. ST was higher among adolescents from private schools (51.5%) than public schools (42.9%), whereas active traveling was greater among students of public schools than private schools (62.0% vs 34.4%). Most inequalities in outcomes between capital and interior cities were in the poorest regions. The results indicate that national plans targeting regional inequalities are needed to improve PA and to reduce sedentary behavior among Brazilian adolescents.

  2. [Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, N A; Albuquerque, M E

    1999-02-01

    The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80's. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States below Rio Grande do Norte. All the remaining states were classified as "regular" or "unsatisfactory". There was a significant improvement in the quality of the census population data and an increase in the coverage of death. It is possible to obtain get reliable mortality indicators for many Brazilian States.

  3. The historical regional studies, local history and urban history: the demarcation of subject fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Koval’s’ka­Pavelko

    2014-05-01

    It is proved that combines subject field of urban history, historical regional studies and local history in terms of research into the history of urban settlements. In historical research focus of urban history is urban lifestyle that allows you to analyze the city in their integrity – both sociocultural phenomena with their own phases of development, in the broad political and ideological context. It is noted that the historical urban studies urbanization, which are connected with the adoption of urban lifestyles as a phenomenon of culture and modern civilization. Urbanization represented in two dimensions – dynamic and static. Since urbanization is a process that characterize the dynamic parameters (rates of urbanization, while urbanization is characterized by static parameters (the number and proportion of urban population, the number of urban settlements, its area, etc.. This feature of the urban historical approaches to the historical regional studies.

  4. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  5. Pneumonia mortality trends in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire de Olanda Ferraz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the temporal trends in pneumonia mortality rates (standardized by age, using the 2010 population of Brazil as the standard in all Brazilian geographical regions between 1996 and 2012. Methods: This was an ecological time-series study examining secondary data from the Mortality Database maintained by the Information Technology Department of the Brazilian Unified Health Care System. Polynomial and joinpoint regression models, and corresponding 95% CIs, were used for trend analysis. Results: The pneumonia mortality rates in the South, Southeast, and Central-West showed a decreasing behavior until 2000, followed by increases, whereas, in the North and Northeast, they showed increasing trends virtually throughout the period studied. There was variation in annual percent change in pneumonia mortality rates in all regions except the North. The Central-West had the greatest decrease in annual percent change between 1996 and 2000, followed by an increase of the same magnitude until 2005. The 80 years and over age group was the one most influencing the trend behavior of pneumonia mortality rates in all regions. Conclusions: In general, pneumonia mortality trends reversed, with an important increase occurring in the years after 2000.

  6. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  7. From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jéssica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2015-04-01

    The symbiotic bacterium Wolbachia is currently being trialled as a biocontrol agent in several countries to reduce dengue transmission. Wolbachia can invade and spread to infect all individuals within wild mosquito populations, but requires a high rate of maternal transmission, strong cytoplasmic incompatibility and low fitness costs in the host in order to do so. Additionally, extensive differences in climate, field-release protocols, urbanization level and human density amongst the sites where this bacterium has been deployed have limited comparison and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential. We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential. We show that the wMel strain causes strong cytoplasmic incompatibility, a high rate of maternal transmission and has no evident detrimental effect on host fecundity or fertility. Next, to understand the effects of different urban landscapes on the likelihood of mosquito survival, we performed mark-release-recapture experiments using Wolbachia-uninfected Brazilian mosquitoes in two areas of Rio de Janeiro where Wolbachia will be deployed in the future. We characterized the mosquito populations in relation to the socio-demographic conditions at these sites, and at three other future release areas. We then constructed mathematical models using both the laboratory and field data, and used these to describe the influence of urban environmental conditions on the likelihood that the Wolbachia infection frequency could reach 100% following mosquito release. We predict successful invasion at all five field sites, however the conditions by which this occurs vary greatly between sites, and are strongly influenced by the size of the local mosquito population. Through analysis of laboratory, field and mathematical data, we show that the wMel strain of Wolbachia possesses the characteristics required to

  8. Comparison of the physicochemical profiles of buriti from the Brazilian Cerrado and the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita Lin Netto CÂNDIDO

    Full Text Available Abstract Demand for native fruits has been expanding, due to the increasing interest in foods with possible health benefits. The buriti (Mauritia flexuosa L. f. is a native Brazilian fruit, appreciated by local populations, and its products are already on the market. This study investigated the physical characteristics and nutritional composition of buriti pulp, obtained from typical Cerrado and Amazon regions in Brazil. These regions influenced physical parameters and chemical composition. The fruits originating in the Cerrado were bigger and heavier than the ones from the Amazon. Nevertheless, protein, fatty acid and carbohydrate contents were higher in fruits from the Amazon region. The analyzed buriti fruits presented high monounsaturated fatty acid concentration (73.03 to 79.43 g/100 g, with the predominance of oleic acid (72.21 to 78.57 g/100 g. Buriti fruits may be a promising source of good nutritional quality vegetable oil and dietary fiber.

  9. Brazilian city planners, American city planning? New perspectives on urban planning in Rio de Janeiro, 1930-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Vera F

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the connections between the ideas and principles of American city planning from 1920 with those articulated by Brazilian city planners in the 1930s and implemented by the administration of the City of Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil, notably during the period of the Estado Novo [The New State] from 1937 to 1945. In a period characterized by the centralization of political power and the concentration of decision-making in the hands of the president and the state, the City of Rio de Janeiro undertook a series of restructuring projects which utilized new forms of administration and organization. This article explores the links between urban planning in Brazil and the USA that were a notable feature of these projects. It examines particular requirements set down in city plans, city planning commissions and funding for urban activities, such as 'excess condemnation', by focusing upon articles and books written by four Brazilian engineers and proposals put forward by the American City Planning Institute, detailed in the proceedings of the National Conference on City Planning, in the periodical, City Planning and works by affiliated authors.

  10. Analyzing Flash Flood Data in an Ultra-Urban Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. K.; Rodriguez, S.

    2016-12-01

    New York City is an ultra-urban region, with combined sewers and buried stream channels. Traditional flood studies rely on the presence of stream gages to detect flood stage and discharge, but ultra-urban regions frequently lack the surface stream channels and gages necessary for this approach. In this study we aggregate multiple non-traditional data for detecting flash flood events. These data including phone call reports, city records, and, for one particular flood event, news reports and social media reports. These data are compared with high-resolution bias-corrected radar rainfall fields to study flash flood events in New York City. We seek to determine if these non-traditional data will allow for a comprehensive study of rainfall-runoff relationships in New York City. We also seek to map warm season rainfall heterogeneities in the city and to compare them to spatial distribution of reported flood occurrence.

  11. 3D Mapping for Urban and Regional Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodum, Lars

    2002-01-01

    The process of mapping in 3D for urban and regional planning purposes is not an uncomplicated matter. It involves both the construction of a new data-model and new routines for the geometric modeling of the physical objects. This is due to the fact that most of the documentation until now has been...... known as Virtual Reality system) for urban and regional planning purposes. This initiative will be implemented in a specific geographic region (North Jutland County in Denmark) by a new research centre at Aalborg University called Centre for 3D GeoInformation. The key question for this research team...... registered and georeferenced to the 2D plan. This paper will outline a new method for 3D mapping where new LIDAR (laser-scanning) technology and additional 2D maps with attributes will be combined to create a 3D map of an urban area. The 3D map will afterwards be used in a real-time simulation system (also...

  12. Using GNSS observations to investigate variations of Pluviometry in the Semi-Arid Brazilian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mario; Fernandes, Rui; Nascimento, Aderson; Petta, Reinaldo; Matschullat, Jörg; Monico, João; Bos, Machiel; Sá, Andre; Barbosa, Marx

    2014-05-01

    The Semi-Arid Brazilian region is the most densely populated, semi-arid region in the world. It is located in the Northeastern part of Brazil and corresponds to approximately 982,563 square kilometers (about 11% of the total Brazilian territory). The temperatures remain nearly uniform throughout the year and are typically tropical, often extremely hot with little interannual variability, exert a strong effect on the potential evapotranspiration, which in turn determine the annual water deficit leading to extensive droughts in some years. The annual rainfall averages between 500 and 800 millimeters and have great climatic variability and an irregular distribution in space and time. Most of the year the region is strongly influenced by the inter-tropical convergence zone which remains in the northern hemisphere near the equator most of the year due to the cold waters of the Atlantic Ocean. The GNSS technique has been established as a valid tool to sense the amount of PWV in the atmosphere. The direct estimated product is the ZTD (Zenith Troposphere Delay) that can be transformed to PWV by knowing the Pressure and Temperature at the station position. However, such values are not always collected together with the GNSS observations, which can force us to limit the analysis to the ZTD directly. In this work we have used data of the existing continuous GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations in the Semi-Arid Brazil to investigate the variability of precipitable water vapor (PWV) in the region. We firstly analysis the accuracy of using global models of pressure and temperature fields to calculate the PWV at the GNSS station locations in the Northeast of Brazil. To do such, we have estimated and compared values of PWV using both global models and local measurements at Natal city, Brazil. The differences provide us a reliable estimate of the error associated with the use of global models to compute the PWV from ZTD measurements for Northeastern Brazil. Secondly

  13. BIOFUELS AND THE INCLUSIVE GREEN ECONOMY: SEARCHING FOR SUSTAINABLE REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN LEGAL AMAZON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, some debates lead the country to develop new policies and implement the National Biodiesel Use and Production Program (PNPB, with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster sustainable regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the linkages between family farmer’s living standard and the adoption of oil seed activity in northern Brazil, in a region of transition between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Amazon rain forest. Ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among smallholders who cultivate soybean. A fuzzy logic set theory based on living standard criteria and a non-linear probit model was applied to assess the inclusion of poor rural families in the biodiesel chain. Preliminary results point towards a negative relation between the family degree of deprivation and adoption of oil seed activity, for the soybean production.

  14. Umbanda healers as effective AIDS educators: case-control study in Brazilian urban slums (favelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nations, M K; de Souza, M A

    1997-01-01

    During a 12-month period (November 1994-October 1995), Afro-Brazilian Umbanda healers (Pais-de-Santo) taught 126 fellow healers from 51 Umbanda centres (terreiros) located in seven overcrowded slums (favelas) (population 104-343) in Brazil's northeast, the biomedical prevention of AIDS, including safe sex practices, avoidance of ritual blood behaviours and sterilization of cutting instruments. A face-to-face educational intervention by healers, marginalized in society yet respected by devotees, which blended traditional healing-its language, codes, symbols and images- and scientific medicine and addressed social injustices and discrimination was utilized in this project supported by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, National Program in STDs/AIDS. Significant increases (P Afro-Brazilian Pais-de-Santo can be creative and effective partners in national HIV prevention programmes when they are equipped with biomedical information about AIDS.

  15. Probiotic potential of Lactobacillus spp. isolated from Brazilian regional ovine cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meira, Stela Maris Meister; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Velho, Renata Voltolini; Lopes, Fernanda Cortez; Brandelli, Adriano

    2012-02-01

    Twelve Lactobacillus isolates from Brazilian starter-free ovine cheeses were evaluated for their probiotic potential. The strains were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Lactobacillus plantarum (7), Lb. brevis (2), Lb. casei (2) and Lb. parabuchneri (1). All strains showed variable resistance to gastric juices and relative tolerance to pancreatin and bile salts. Only five strains of Lb. plantarum could not deconjugate the sodium salt of taurodeoxycholic acid. Autoaggregation ability after 24 h was above 50% and hydrophobicity was higher than 60% for most strains. All lactobacilli could inhibit linolenic acid oxidation, except Lb. parabuchneri strain, whereas none of them could scavenge DPPH radical. β-Galactosidase activity ranged from 47·7 to 2503 Miller units. Inhibition of food pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium was demonstrated and the production of organic acids could be associated with this effect. The Lactobacillus strains from Brazilian regional ovine cheese showed interesting functional characteristics, mainly the strains Lb. brevis SM-B and Lb. plantarum SM-I. Both presented high acid tolerance. In addition, Lb. brevis SM-B also displayed remarkable antioxidant activity and Lb. plantarum SM-I was the highest β-galactosidase producer, exhibited high autoaggregation and hydrophobicity properties.

  16. Weekend-weekday lightning variability for an urban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, M. L.; Stallins, J. A.; Ashley, W. S.

    2011-12-01

    We characterized differences in warm-season weekday and weekend aerosol conditions and cloud-to- ground (CG) flashes (1995-2008) for an 80,000 square kilometer region around Atlanta, Georgia. Under weekday aerosol concentrations, a greater augmentation of CG flash activity within a 100 km radius around Atlanta was found. On weekends these effects contracted toward the city. This minimized any weekly anthropogenic cycle over the more densely populated urban center even though this location had a higher flash density, a higher percentage of days with flashes, and stronger peak currents over the course of a week compared to the surrounding region. The sharper contrasts in weekday and weekend lightning regime developed outside the perimeter of the city over non urban land uses. Here lightning on weekend and weekdays differed more in its density, frequency, polarity, and peak current. Across the full extent of the study region, weekday peak currents were stronger and flash days more frequent, suggesting that weekly CG lightning signals have a regional component not tied to a single city source.

  17. Anomalous lightning activity over the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo due to urban effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, W. R. G.; Pinto, O., Jr.; Naccarato, K. P.; Pinto, I. R. C. A.

    2009-02-01

    A significant enhancement in the number of negative cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning and a decrease in the percentage of positive CG flashes are observed over the city of São Paulo, similar to observations in other large urban areas. Strong evidence indicates that this anomalous behavior results from several mechanisms related to the urban effect. In this paper, we investigated the importance of the air pollution using CG lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) for a 6-year period (1999-2004). Due to the large variations in the CG lightning activity in response to different meteorological processes, it is not an easy task to infer the contribution of air pollution to the enhancement in the lightning activity. In order to overcome such difficulty, two approaches were considered: (1) the weekly variation of the number of days with lightning in comparison to the mean concentration of particulate matter (PM 10), as well as other thermodynamical parameters; (2) the variation of the number of CG flashes and the maximum storm flash rate per individual thunderstorm for different levels of pollution. The results of both analyses suggest that: first, the enhancement in the CG lightning activity during the week days over São Paulo metropolitan region is related to the PM 10 concentration (pollution); second, the PM 10 concentration tends to increase the lifetime of the storms and, in consequence, the number of flashes per storm, and not the flash rate of the thunderstorm; and third, the effect of the pollution in the enhancement of the CG lightning activity is probably less significant compared to the effect of the urban heat island.

  18. Brazilian Policy and the Creation of a Regional Security Complex in the South Atlantic: Pax Brasiliana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rodrigues Bessa Mattos

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the past five years, the South Atlantic region has become a central element of Brazilian security policy, with Brazil actively supporting the notion of a trans-oceanic security consciousness involving African littoral states. It has invested in diplomatic initiatives such as the Zone of Peace and Cooperation of the South Atlantic (ZPCSA, or ZOPACAS, and extensive military co-operation with West African states such as São Tomé e Príncipe, Namibia and Cape Verde. Its internal security and defence policy documents have repeatedly been updated to reflect this dimension, and now provide the foundation for advancing these initiatives. This policy thrust is directed at securing Brazil’s offshore oil assets, and limiting the influence of what it has termed ‘extra-regional powers’ such as the P-5. This article highlights these initiatives and reviews the prospects for this policy by examining the plausibility of the South Atlantic region as a regional security complex in the sense coined by Buzan and Wæver. The analysis is based on the role of geographical and linguistic proximity in international relations, and the impact of multilateral bodies on building support for a regional approach to security governance.

  19. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Urbanization in a Developed Region of Eastern Coastal China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiadan Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a practical methodology to monitor the spatiotemporal characteristics of urban expansion in response to rapid urbanization at the provincial scale by integrating remote sensing, urban built-up area boundaries, spatial metrics and spatial regression. Sixty-seven cities were investigated to examine the differences of urbanization intensity, urbanization patterns and urban land use efficiency in conjunction with the identification of socio-economic indicators and planning strategies. Planning proposals to allocate the urbanization intensity among different-sized cities by considering sustainable urban development were also explored. The results showed that the urban area of Zhejiang Province expanded from 31,380 ha in 1980 to 415,184 ha in 2010, indicating that the area of the urban region expanded to more than 13-times the initial urban area. The urban built-up area boundaries became more complex and irregular in shape as the urban area expanded throughout the entire study period. Rapid urban population growth and economic development were identified as significant in stimulating the urban expansion process. However, different-sized cities exhibited marked differences in urban development. Small cities experienced the rapidest urbanization before 2000. Large cities, which are estimated to have the highest urban land use efficiency, had the most dramatic sprawl in urban area at the beginning of the 21st century. Promoting the development of large cities to mega-cities is recommended in Zhejiang Province to ensure sustainable urban development with consideration of land resource preservation.

  20. Vermiculites of the Northeast Brazilian region: comparative analysis; Vermiculitas da regiao do nordeste brasileiro: analise comparativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, P.S.; Hanken, R.B.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Raposo, C.M.O., E-mail: raposo@dmg.ufcg.edu.b [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAMG/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Mineracao e Geologia

    2009-07-01

    Vermiculites are clay minerals similar to montmorillonites differing for crystalline structures. The product exfoliated is odorless, hydrophobic, not irritate the skin and not the lungs. These properties provide the modified thermally vermiculite a product of broad application in the sectors of construction, agriculture and industry. The aim this work is the comparative analysis between two vermiculites micron fractions from different localities of the northeastern Brazilian region, UBM/PB and EUCATEX/PI. Samples exfoliated to 950 deg C were leached for removal of organic matter by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. The spectroscopy in the infrared, FTIR and X-ray diffraction, XRD, were used to characterize the samples. Data from X-ray diffraction showed that the structural characteristics of the mineral samples were not significantly altered with the process of leaching and the IR spectra proved the efficiency of procedure for removal of organic impurities (author)

  1. [Pedagogical position adopted in nursing and health education in the Brazilian South Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Mônica Motta; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; Ferraz, Fabiene; Reibnitz, Kenia Schmidt; Martini, Jussara Gue

    2011-01-01

    Literature review that aimed at analyzing the pedagogy positions in nursing education of the South Region of Brazil, through the means of production of scientific articles published in the last five years (2004-2008) by the research groups in Education of Nursing. The emerging categories were based on different pedagogical positions of the teaching-learning process. The research groups has designed the teaching-learning process while liberating/creative practice, which thematic side supports the question curriculum/formation and popular education. The intention and the transformation, in which exists interaction between individuals guided in the dialogue, the cooperation and participative form. In concentrating efforts in this perspective, it will be possible to give visibility to the sector in the scope Brazilian and Latin-American.

  2. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  3. What do urbanized regions contribute to the global C balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, J.; Riemann, R.; Groffman, P.; Pouyat, R.; Grove, J. M.; Nowak, D.; Birdsey, R.

    2001-05-01

    Urbanized land (i.e. "developed" land) covers 98.3 million acres in the United States, and the acreage in this category increased by 25% between 1982 and 1997, based on statistics from the 1997 USDA Natural Resource Inventory (this "developed" category includes "large urban built-up areas," "small urban built-up areas," and "rural transportation land"). Despite this large and growing land base, studies using land-based approaches to quantify land-atmosphere C exchange in the US have overlooked urbanized areas as potential contributors to national and global C cycles. From an inventory of vegetation on "nonforest" (predominantly urbanized) land in and around Baltimore, MD conducted in 1999 by the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program, we found that annual wood production and tree biomass values on nonforest land were approximately 22% and 25%, respectively, of corresponding values on land classified as forest. We estimate that vegetation on nonforest land in Maryland currently stores 25.9 x 106 Mg C, while urban soils in Maryland store an additional 119 x 106 Mg C. Annual gross C sequestration in vegetation on nonforest land in Maryland is approximately 0.6 x 106 Mg C yr-1. Extrapolating this result to the northeastern US, we estimate that vegetation on developed land in the northeastern US currently stores 280.2 x 106 Mg C, with an additional 1372 x 106 Mg C stored in developed soils. Vegetation on developed land in the northeastern US sequesters 14.5 x 106 Mg C annually. Extrapolating further to the rest of the United States, we suggest that vegetation on developed land could store an additional 0.03 to 0.04 Pg C yr-1 in the US, which could be as much as 10% of the existing "missing" North American terrestrial sink of 0.35 to 0.90 Pg C yr-1. We recognize, of course, that substantial regional variability is likely to exist in ratios of nonforest: forest wood production and nonforest: forest land area. Additional research on the dynamics of

  4. Urban agglomerations in the function of regional integration of Serbia in South-Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is analyzed the importance of urban agglomerations in the regional organization of Serbian space at one side, and on the other side they are taken as carriers of the future integration of the Serbian urban system into the urban of the South-Eastern Europe (SEE. In the regional configuration of Serbia, more different forms of territorial impacts of urbanization, urban areas and urban regions. High level of urban centralization is formed under the influence of the population density and functions of the metropolitan area of Belgrade. The problems of unbalanced disposition of population growth and qualitative transformation of urban centers are stressed and analyzed. Based on the role in integration process in the SEE, the metropolitan region of Belgrade is pointed out as its principal carrier and the metropolitan region of Niš as its secondary carrier, as well as the urban centers of importance for the cross-border regional cooperation. As the most suitable instrument of internal regional integration the model of Functional Urban Regions (FURs or Functional Urban Areas (FUAs is proposed, and for external regional integration is proposed the model of Metropolitan European Growth Areas (MEGAs. The coherent short-term and long-term development strategies for Serbian towns and their regions seem absent.

  5. Terrestrial Carbon Sinks in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Region Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2004. Pr...

  6. Combining remote sensing and household level data for regional scale analysis of land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souza Soler, de L.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Land cover change in the Brazilian Amazon depends on the spatial variability of political, socioeconomic and biophysical factors, as well as on the land use history and its actors. A regional scale analysis was made in Rondônia State to identify possible differences in land cover change connected to

  7. New Publications for Planning Libraries (List No. 18: Urban and Regional Planning). Exchange Bibliography 905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Mary, Comp.

    This general bibliography contains current sources on urban and regional planning. Most citations date from 1973 through 1975, and some are annotated. The bulk of the documents are commercially published books, bulletins, project reports, and studies on urban studies, urban planning, regional planning, and city planning and problems. Citations are…

  8. Inequalities in healthy life expectancy by Brazilian geographic regions: findings from the National Health Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Souza Júnior, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Marques, Aline Pinto; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Montilla, Dalia Elena Romero

    2016-11-17

    The demographic shift and epidemiologic transition in Brazil have drawn attention to ways of measuring population health that complement studies of mortality. In this paper, we investigate regional differences in healthy life expectancy based on information from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013. In the survey, a three-stage cluster sampling (census tracts, households and individuals) with stratification of the primary sampling units and random selection in all stages was used to select 60,202 Brazilian adults (18 years and over). Healthy life expectancies (HLE) were estimated by Sullivan's method according to sex, age and geographic region, using poor self-rated health for defining unhealthy status. Logistic regression models were used to investigate socioeconomic and regional inequalities in poor self-rated health, after controlling by sex and age. Wide disparities by geographic region were found with the worst indicators in the North and Northeast regions, whether considering educational attainment, material deprivation, or health care utilization. Life expectancy at birth for women and men living in the richest regions was 5 years longer than for those living in the less wealthy regions. Modeling the variation across regions for poor self-rated health, statistically significant effects (p < 0.001) were found for the North and Northeast when compared to the Southeast, even after controlling for age, sex, diagnosis of at least one non-communicable chronic disease, and schooling or socioeconomic class. Marked regional inequalities in HLE were found, with the loss of healthy life much higher among residents of the poorest regions, especially among the elderly. By combining data on self-rated health status and mortality in a single indicator, Healthy Life Expectancy, this study demonstrated the excess burden of poor health experienced by populations in the less wealthy regions of Brazil. To mitigate the effects of social exclusion, the development of strategies

  9. Urban and regional heat island adaptation measures in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Echevarria Icaza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The urban planner´s role should be adapted to the current globalised and overspecialised economic and environmental context, envisioning a balance at the regional scale, apprehending not only new technologies, but also new mapping principles, that allow obtaining multidisciplinary integral overviews since the preliminary stages of the design process. The urban heat Island (UHI is one of the main phenomena affecting the urban climate. In the Netherlands, during the heat wave of 2006, more than 1,000 extra deaths were registered. UHI-related parameters are an example of new elements that should be taken into consideration since the early phases of the design process. Problem statement Thus, the development of urban design guidelines to reduce the heat islands in Dutch cities and regions requires first an overall reflection on the heat island phenomenom (relevance of the large scale assessment, existing tools, instruments and proposal of integrative and catalysing mapping strategies and then a specific assessment of the phenomenom at the selected locations in The Netherlands (testing those principles. Main research question Could the use of satellite imagery help analyse the UHI in the Netherlands and contribute to suggest catalysing mitigation acions actions implementable in the existing urban context of the cities, regions and provinces assessed? Method The development of urban design principles that aim at reaching a physical balance at the regional scale is critical to ensure a reduction of the UHI effect. Landsat and Modis satellite imagery can be analysed and processed using ATCOR 2/3, ENVI 4.7 and GIS, allowing not only a neighbourhood, city and regional scale assessment, but also generating holistic catalysing mapping typologies: game-board, rhizome, layering and drift, which are critical to ensure the integration of all parameters. The scientific inputs need to be combined not only with other disciplines but often also with existing urban

  10. Automatically identification of Equatorial Spread-F on ionograms recorded in the Brazilian Equatorial region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillat, V. G.; Fagundes, P. R.; Guimarães, L. N. F.

    2016-12-01

    The most interesting equatorial ionospheric phenomena are the F-region large-scale irregularities and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). F-region large-scale irregularity is a night-time phenomenon and its signature is multiples echoes recorded on ionograms, usually called Spread-F. These irregularities are generated in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. Whereas the irregularity gets high altitude they end up extending to lower latitudes and usually drift eastward. With advancement of digital ionosonde, it is now possible to carry out an ionospheric sounding with a 5 minutes cadence or even with 1-minute cadence. To understand season and solar cycle Spread-F variation in several stations it is necessary deal with a large number of ionograms. Therefore, more sophisticated analysis tools are needed. Thus, development of algorithms to identify and analyse different aspects of ionograms have become very important to ionospheric physics researchers. The main objective of this paper is to present the performance of a computational tool, called UDIDA-scaling. This tool is based on fuzzy relation, in the identification of Spread-F on ionograms recorded in the Brazilian Equatorial sector (Manaus (2.9° S, 60.0° W, dip latitude 6.4° S) and Palmas (10.2° S, 48.2° W, dip latitude 5.5° S)), during a geomagnetic disturbed and a quiet period.

  11. Regional and Socioeconomic Differences in the Coverage of the Papanicolau Test in Brazil: Data from the Brazilian Health Survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Isabelle Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To evaluate the coverage of the Papanicolaou test in Brazil and the associated factors. Methods Cross-sectional study based on data from the Brazilian Health Survey 2013 comprising the proportion of 25- to 64-year-old women who had undergone a Papanicolaou test within the previous 3 years, categorized by sociodemographic variables and access to healthcare services. Results The screening coverage in Brazil was of 79.4% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 78.4-80.3), showing significant differences between the different states of the country, with the highest rate in the state of Roraima (86.5; 95%CI: 83.5-89.4), and the lowest one in the state of Maranhão (67.7; 95%CI: 61.3-74.0). Undergoing the test was significantly more frequent among married women (83.6%; 95%CI: 82.4-84.8), those with higher educational levels (88.7%; 95%CI: 87.0-90.5), of white ethnicity (82.6%; 95%CI: 81.3-83.9) and who reside in urban areas (80.1%; 95%CI: 79.1-81.2). Those who had undergone the test more than three years prior to the survey and the ones who had never undergone it were associated with a lower level of education, being of black or brown ethnicity, single or divorced, and rural dwellers. Conclusions The coverage of cervical cancer screening in Brazil is below the recommended rate and presents regional and sociodemographic disparities. Thieme Revinter Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  12. Rope Transport Systems as Elements for Urban and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Simeone

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accessibility and mobility have an important role in urban and regional development strategies, in a particular way for the touristic uses of territories. Transport infrastructures constitute in fact necessary elements for the use of urban areas, but assume an extra function related to the valorization of the territory. Furthermore structures for mobility are a component of the touristic supply system especially the rope transport structures that offer dynamic and unique point of views. Cable ways in urban area have this characteristic more than other rope transport systems. Starting from this assume, the article describes four projects developed in the last years in Campania Region and a transport system carry out in Perugia. The five study cases demonstrate how an increasing attention rope transport technology is diffusing in different contest especially for tourism uses. The first case is the Giffoni Valle Piana inclined lift that should connect the city centre in the valley with the medieval Castle. This project is strictly related to a general touristic strategy of the whole municipality. The second project regards the Ravello-Minori cable way and the objective to offer a sustainable alternative to the private car for travelling around two of the most beautiful areas in the Amalfi coast. The third project is located in the centre of the city of Naples and regards a cable way for the connection between the principal museums of the metropolitan area: the National and the Capodimonte museums. The new infrastructure is well integrated in the multimodal transport network and will offer spectacular visuals for tourists and residents. The Perugia Minimetro is the fourth study case and constitute an example of good integration between sustainable transport and urban planning development. The last project is the Fisciano people mover that has the aim of connecting two university campus with the interchange station of the National rail network. The

  13. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

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    Elisabeth Tölke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n3p1 The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  14. Leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae Schrad. from the Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Emília Augusta Dantas Tölke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The family Heliotropiaceae has more than 450 species, mainly distributed in the tropics and subtropics. In Brazil, it is represented by the genera Euploca Nutt., Heliotropium L., Myriopus Small and Tournefortia L. The aim of this study was to describe the leaf anatomy of six species of Heliotropiaceae recorded in the semi-arid region of Brazil: E. polyphylla (Lehm. J.I.M. Melo & Semir, E. procumbens (Mill. Diane & Hilger, H. angiospermum Murray, H. curassavicum L., M. rubicundus (Salzm. ex DC. Luebert and M. salzmannii (DC. Diane & Hilger. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the anatomy of the representatives of the family in the Caatinga (Brazilian savannah, we also sought to determine and highlight the anatomical features adaptive to the region and to identify features with potential diagnostic value. Leaf structures were analyzed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additional tests were also carried out to detect starch and total lipids. The morphological variation and the distribution of trichomes were the most relevant features for species diagnosis. The distribution of stomata in M. salzmannii and H. angiospermum differed from that described in other papers, which demonstrates the anatomical plasticity of these species. This is the first report describing the leaf blade of M. rubicundus.

  15. Terrestrial Carbon Fluxes from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado Regions Predicted from MODIS Satellite Data and Ecosystem Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klooster, S.; Potter, C.; Genovese, V.

    2008-12-01

    The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation cover from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate tropical forest and savanna (Cerrado) carbon pools for the Brazilian Amazon region over the period 2000-2004. Adjustments for mean age of forest stands were carried out across the region, resulting in a new mapping of aboveground biomass pools based on MODIS satellite data. Yearly maps of newly deforested lands from the Brazilian PRODES (Programa de calculo do desflorestamento da Amazonia ) project were combined with these NASA-CASA biomass predictions to generate seasonal budgets of potential carbon and nitrogen trace gas losses from biomass burning events. Simulations of plant residue and soil carbon decomposition were conducted in the NASA-CASA model during and following deforestation events to track the fate of aboveground biomass pools that were cut and burned each year across the region.

  16. Warming effects on the urban hydrology in cold climate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvi, L; Grimmond, C S B; McFadden, J P; Christen, A; Strachan, I B; Taka, M; Warsta, L; Heimann, M

    2017-07-19

    While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces. However in winter, the presence of snow masks the influence of the built and vegetated fractions. We show how inter-year variability of wintertime temperature can modify this effect of snow. With increasing temperatures, these cities could be pushed towards very different partitioning between runoff and evapotranspiration. We derive the dependency of wintertime runoff on this warming effect in combination with the effect of urban densification.

  17. G6PD deficiency alleles in a malaria-endemic region in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jamille G; Souza, Rodrigo M; Curry, Jonathan; Hinton, Laura; Silva, Natercia R M; Grignard, Lynn; Gonçalves, Ligia A; Gomes, Ana Rita; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Drakeley, Chris; Huggett, Jim; Clark, Taane G; Campino, Susana; Marinho, Claudio R F

    2017-06-15

    Plasmodium vivax parasites are the predominant cause of malaria infections in the Brazilian Amazon. Infected individuals are treated with primaquine, which can induce haemolytic anaemia in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient individuals and may lead to severe and fatal complications. This X-linked disorder is distributed globally and is caused by allelic variants with a geographical distribution that closely reflects populations exposed historically to endemic malaria. In Brazil, few studies have reported the frequency of G6PD deficiency (G6PDd) present in malaria-endemic areas. This is particularly important, as G6PDd screening is not currently performed before primaquine treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PDd in the region of Alto do Juruá, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, an area characterized by a high prevalence of P. vivax infection. Five-hundred and sixteen male volunteers were screened for G6PDd using the fluorescence spot test (Beutler test) and CareStart™ G6PD Biosensor system. Demographic and clinical-epidemiological data were acquired through an individual interview. To assess the genetic basis of G6PDd, 24 SNPs were genotyped using the Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR assay. Twenty-three (4.5%) individuals were G6PDd. No association was found between G6PDd and the number of malaria cases. An increased risk of reported haemolysis symptoms and blood transfusions was evident among the G6PDd individuals. Twenty-two individuals had the G6PDd A(-) variant and one the G6PD A(+) variant. The Mediterranean variant was not present. Apart from one polymorphism, almost all SNPs were monomorphic or with low frequencies (0-0.04%). No differences were detected among ethnic groups. The data indicates that ~1/23 males from the Alto do Juruá could be G6PD deficient and at risk of haemolytic anaemia if treated with primaquine. G6PD A(-) is the most frequent deficiency allele in this population. These results concur

  18. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

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    Thanadorn Phuttharak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  19. Surveillance, health promotion and control of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region--Medical attention in the Brazilian Amazon Region: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Junqueira, Angela C V

    2015-11-01

    We refer to Oswaldo Cruz's reports dating from 1913 about the necessities of a healthcare system for the Brazilian Amazon Region and about the journey of Carlos Chagas to 27 locations in this region and the measures that would need to be adopted. We discuss the risks of endemicity of Chagas disease in the Amazon Region. We recommend that epidemiological surveillance of Chagas disease in the Brazilian Amazon Region and Pan-Amazon region should be implemented through continuous monitoring of the human population that lives in the area, their housing, the environment and the presence of triatomines. The monitoring should be performed with periodic seroepidemiological surveys, semi-annual visits to homes by health agents and the training of malaria microscopists and healthcare technicians to identify Trypanosoma cruzi from patients' samples and T. cruzi infection rates among the triatomines caught. We recommend health promotion and control of Chagas disease through public health policies, especially through sanitary education regarding the risk factors for Chagas disease. Finally, we propose a healthcare system through base hospitals, intermediate-level units in the areas of the Brazilian Amazon Region and air transportation, considering the distances to be covered for medical care.

  20. Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean Urban Regions in Europe and the Crisis Effect on the Urban Land Development: Madrid as Study Case

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Palomares, Juan Carlos; Díaz Pacheco, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The middle of 2007 saw the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis that led to a sharp reduction in investment based on construction and urban development. This new situation is generating a new process, characterised by a slowdown that has almost reached a standstill when compared with the frenzied development of previous decades. In order to analyse these processes, this study examines urban land use changes and the urban growth rate and spatial dynamics of the metropolitan region of Madr...

  1. Powerful and large regional autorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, C.B.E.M.; Pauleit, S.

    2013-01-01

    Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use

  2. How to map soil organic carbon stocks in highly urbanized regions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, V.I.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Vasenev, I.I.; Valentini, R.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization is among the most impetuous current land-use change trends, resulting in a permanently increasing role of urban ecosystems in regional and global environments. Urban soil organic carbon (SOC) is probably the least understood stocks because of the lack of appropriate methodology to

  3. Regional disparities in mortality after ischemic heart disease in a Brazilian state from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano; Zanini, Vanessa; Batilana, Adelia Portero; de Carvalho, Elias Cesar Araujo; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2013-01-01

    High technology in the field of interventional cardiology applied in tertiary hospitals has brought enormous benefits in the treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, IHD mortality rates remain high. We analyzed the relationship between IHD mortality rate and the socioeconomic, demographic, and geographic conditions in 399 cities in Parana state, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010. Data were obtained from the Mortality Information System and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and evaluated through Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis. GeoDa™ was used to analyze 29.351 deaths across 399 cities. We found a positive spatial autocorrelation regarding IHD mortality (I = 0.5913, p = 0.001). There was a significant positive association between each of three socioeconomic and demographic indicators and IHD mortality rate: Population Elderly Index (I = 0.3436), Illiteracy Rate (I = 0.1873) and City Development Index (I = 0.0900). In addition, two indicators presented significant negative association with IHD mortality rate: Adjusted Population Size (I = -0.1216) and Gross Domestic Product (I = -0.0864). We also found a positive association between IHD mortality rates and the geographic distances between patients' city of residence and their corresponding regional referral centers in interventional cardiology (I = 0.3368). Cities located within Regional Health Units with Reference Interventional Cardiology Center presented a significantly lower average specific mortality rate by IHD. The high mortality rate by IHD within the Regional Health Units was not restricted to socioeconomic and demographic variables, but dependent on the distance between each city and their reference interventional cardiology center. We conclude that geographic factors play a significant role in IHD mortality within cities. These findings have important policy implications regarding the geographic distribution of cardiac health care networks in Latin

  4. Were Equatorial Regions Less Affected by the 2009 Influenza Pandemic? The Brazilian Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Viboud, Cécile; Simonsen, Lone; Miller, Mark A.; Moura, Fernanda E. A.; Fernandes, Roberto M.; Carvalho, Marcia L.; Alonso, Wladimir J.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5°N to −35°S) by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the assessment of the

  5. Were equatorial regions less affected by the 2009 influenza pandemic? The Brazilian experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Schuck-Paim

    Full Text Available Although it is in the Tropics where nearly half of the world population lives and infectious disease burden is highest, little is known about the impact of influenza pandemics in this area. We investigated the mortality impact of the 2009 influenza pandemic relative to mortality rates from various outcomes in pre-pandemic years throughout a wide range of latitudes encompassing the entire tropical, and part of the subtropical, zone of the Southern Hemisphere (+5(°N to -35(°S by focusing on a country with relatively uniform health care, disease surveillance, immunization and mitigation policies: Brazil. To this end, we analyzed laboratory-confirmed deaths and vital statistics mortality beyond pre-pandemic levels for each Brazilian state. Pneumonia, influenza and respiratory mortality were significantly higher during the pandemic, affecting predominantly adults aged 25 to 65 years. Overall, there were 2,273 and 2,787 additional P&I- and respiratory deaths during the pandemic, corresponding to a 5.2% and 2.7% increase, respectively, over average pre-pandemic annual mortality. However, there was a marked spatial structure in mortality that was independent of socio-demographic indicators and inversely related with income: mortality was progressively lower towards equatorial regions, where low or no difference from pre-pandemic mortality levels was identified. Additionally, the onset of pandemic-associated mortality was progressively delayed in equatorial states. Unexpectedly, there was no additional mortality from circulatory causes. Comparing disease burden reliably across regions is critical in those areas marked by competing health priorities and limited resources. Our results suggest, however, that tropical regions of the Southern Hemisphere may have been disproportionally less affected by the pandemic, and that climate may have played a key role in this regard. These findings have a direct bearing on global estimates of pandemic burden and the

  6. Dermatophilosis in sheep raised under rotational grazing systems on irrigated pastures in the Brazilian semiarid region

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    Vanessa Diniz Vieira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Seventeen outbreaks of dermatophilosis are reported from three farms affecting Santa Inês and Santa Inês x Dorper sheep that were reared in irrigated areas with rotational grazing at a stocking rate of 50 to 100 sheep per hectare, in the Brazilian semiarid region. Most outbreaks occurred after rains and affected sheep of different ages, with morbidity rates of 0.77% to 31%. Clinical signs were dermatitis with crusts that stood out easily and left areas of alopecia. Dermatophilus congolensis was isolated in cultures in 5% sheep blood agar by means of Haalstra’s method. Histologically, the epidermis showed extensive multifocal areas of ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis with intracorneal microabscesses and presence of D. congolensis. Sheep affected were isolated from the flocks and they recovered after treatment with 70,000IU of procaine penicillin G and 70mg of dihydrostreptomycin sulphate per kg of bodyweight. Dermatophilosis is a frequent endemic disease in rotational grazing systems with irrigated pastures and high stocking rates, which occurs with higher frequency after rains and can be controlled efficiently through isolation of the affected sheep, followed by application of a single dose of penicillin and streptomycin.

  7. TANNIN POTENCIAL EVALUATION OF SIX FOREST SPECIES OF BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID REGION

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The hide tanners of Brazil Northeast region have in Anadenanthera colubrina (Vell. Brenan var. cebil (Gris. Alts. their only source of tannins. As the activity of exploration is extractiviste without the concern of recovery of explored trees and the absence of other tannin sources, exposes the specie to exhaustion and the tanners and extractivistes family to go bankruptcy. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the tanin potential of Prosopis juliflora, Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa tenuiflora, Mimosa arenosa and Croton sonderianus. These species, Anacardium occidentale, Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa temuiflora showed, respectively, 19.83%, 18.11% and 17.74% of tannins. The Anadenanthera colubrina showed 11.89% and was inferior them mentioned species. The Prosopis juliflora and Croton sonderianus showed 3.02% and 6.62%, respectively. The abundance of Mimosa arenosa and Mimosa tenuiflora in the Brazilian Semi-arid proposes them as potential of tannin production. However, there is need of researches to verify their technical viability for skins, as well as for other uses for tannins.

  8. Regional assessment of North America: Urbanization trends, biodiversity patterns, and ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhearson, Timon; Auch, Roger F.; Alberti, Marina

    2013-01-01

    North America contains some of the most urbanized landscapes in the world. In the United States (U.S.) and Canada, approximately 80 % of the population is urban, with Mexico slightly less (Kaiser Family Foundation 2013). Population growth combined with economic growth has fueled recent urban land expansion in North America. Between 1970 and 2000, urban land area expanded at a rate of 3.31 % (Seto et al. 2011) creating unique challenges for conserving biodiversity and maintaining regional and local ecosystem services.

  9. URBAN LANDSCAPE QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON LANDSCAPE QUALITY IN LATGALE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...

  10. Urban Outdoor Thermal Comfort of The Hot-Humid Region

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    Abu Bakar A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study on outdoor comfort is becoming popular due to the fact that the thermoregulatory model is seen as inadequate in explaining outdoor thermal comfort conditions. Hot-humid region can be said as experiencing a critical environmental condition because of its constantly high temperature and humidity throughout the year. Thus, this study focus on the assessment of thermal comfort of outdoor urban spaces in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (3° 9’N and 101° 44’E. Survey on human response towards outdoor thermal comfort in hot-humid climate of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was carried out during day time between 0900h to 1800h along with measurement of environmental parameters such as air temperature (°C, wind velocity (m/s, radiant temperature (°C, relative humidity (% and solar radiation (lux. A total of 123 samples were involved in this study which took place within four sites around Kuala Lumpur. Survey results were then correlated with the environmental parameters to further develop the comfort zone for hot-humid outdoor environment specifically for Kuala Lumpur and, generally, for hot-humid regions.

  11. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    this paper our proposition is to present the mathematical models implemented in the PPP_RT software and some proposal to accomplish the PPP in real time as for example using tropospheric model from Brazilian Numerical Weather Forecast Model (BNWFM) and estimating the ionosphere using stochastic process. GPS data sample from the Brazilian region was processed using the PPP_RT software considering periods under low and high ionospheric activities and the results estimating the ionosphere were compared with the ion-free combination. The PPP results also were analyzed considering the strategy of the troposphere estimation, Hopfield model or using the BNWFM. For the troposphere case, the values from BNWFM can reach similar results when estimating the troposphere. For the ionosphere case, the results have shown that ionosphere estimation can improve the time convergence of the PPP processing what is very important for PPP in real time.

  12. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  13. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Michelle Ralil; Xavier, César Coelho; Andrade, Amanda Cristina de Souza; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH) utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old) who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life). Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression. RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females). The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%), followed by on the streets (28.5%), at home (9.8%), while practicing sports (7.3%), at parties (4.6%), at work (1.7%), and at other locations (1.6%). Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood. CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries. PMID:26274869

  14. Bullying among adolescents in a Brazilian urban center – “Health in Beagá” Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Ralil da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the prevalence of bullying and its associated factors in Brazilian adolescents.METHODS Data were used from a population-based household survey conducted by the Urban Health Observatory (OSUBH utilizing probability sampling in three stages: census tracts, residences, and individuals. The survey included 598 adolescents (14-17 years old who responded questions on bullying, sociodemographic characteristics, health-risk behaviors, educational well-being, family structure, physical activity, markers of nutritional habits, and subjective well-being (body image, personal satisfaction, and satisfaction with their present and future life. Univariate and multivariate analysis was done using robust Poisson regression.RESULTS The prevalence of bullying was 26.2% (28.0% among males, 24.0% among females. The location of most bullying cases was at or on route to school (70.5%, followed by on the streets (28.5%, at home (9.8%, while practicing sports (7.3%, at parties (4.6%, at work (1.7%, and at other locations (1.6%. Reports of bullying were associated with life dissatisfaction, difficulty relating to parents, involvement in fights with peers and insecurity in the neighborhood.CONCLUSIONS A high prevalence of bullying among participating adolescents was found, and the school serves as the main bullying location, although other sites such as home, parties and workplace were also reported. Characteristics regarding self-perception and adolescent perceptions of their environment were also associated with bullying, thus advancing the knowledge of this type of violence, especially in urban centers of developing countries.

  15. Spatial vulnerability to dengue in a Brazilian urban area during a 7-year surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Almeida, Maria Cristina; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Assunção, Renato Martins; Proietti, Fernando Augusto

    2007-05-01

    This study considers the vulnerability of the urban area of the City of Belo Horizonte to dengue. A total number of 89,607 cases registered in the surveillance system from 1996 to 2002 were analyzed. Seven epidemic waves were identified during this period. Cases were grouped into 2,563 census areas, and three risk categories were proposed based on how many times each area reached a threshold established for each epidemic wave. The association between the risk categories and the socioeconomic, demographic and urban-infrastructure characteristics was evaluated. Analysis included Kruskal-Wallis test variance comparisons and multivariate regression using multinomial models. Incidence rates differed significantly among the three risk categories in most of the epidemic waves. The factors that best characterized the areas were low educational level (vulnerable to vector infestation yielded questionable results. It is important to consider different levels of exposure of the population to explain the heterogeneous pattern of distribution of dengue cases in an urban setting. Understanding the dynamics of dengue fever is essential for surveillance purposes, to improve control measures and to avoid epidemics of this disease.

  16. East Asia and the Pacific Region Urban Sanitation Review : Philippines Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Philippines country study forms part of the East Asia and the Pacific region urban sanitation review that focuses on three of the emerging middle income countries of East Asia: Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam. The regional review aims to develop a strategic framework to help guide national urban sanitation programs and their implementation in these emerging middle income countries...

  17. First detection of Leishmania spp. DNA in Brazilian bats captured strictly in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Fernanda Müller; Costa, Luis Henrique Camargo; de Barros, Thainá Landim; Ito, Pier Kenji Rauschkolb Katsuda; Colombo, Fábio Antonio; de Carvalho, Cristiano; Pedro, Wagner André; Queiroz, Luzia Helena; Nunes, Cáris Maroni

    2015-10-01

    Leishmania spp. is a protozoan that maintains its life cycle in domestic and wild animals and it may include bats, a population that has increased in urban environments. This study aimed to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. in bats captured strictly in urban areas that are endemic for visceral leishmaniasis. The spleen and skin samples of 488 bats from 21 endemic cities in northwestern São Paulo State, Brazil, were tested for the presence of Leishmania kDNA using real-time PCR. Differentiation from Trypanosoma spp. was achieved by amplifying a DNA fragment of the ribosomal RNA gene. The presence of Leishmania spp. kDNA was verified in 23.9% of bats and Trypanosoma spp. DNA was identified in 3.9%. Leishmania species differentiation revealed the presence of Leishmania amazonensis in 78.3% of the bats; L. infantum in 17.4%, and 1 sample (4.3%) showed a mix pattern of L. infantum and L. amazonensis. We also detected, for the first time, L. infantum and L. amazonensis DNA in Desmodus rotundus, the hematophagous bat. The presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in bats strictly from urban areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in the State of São Paulo, Brazil indicates that these wild and abundant animals are capable of harboring Leishmania spp. in this new scenario. Due to their longevity, high dispersion capacity and adaptability to synanthropic environments, they may play a role in the maintenance of the life cycle of Leishmania parasites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Vulnerability to the transmission of human visceral leishmaniasis in a Brazilian urban area

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    Celina Roma Sánchez de Toledo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the determinants for the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis linked to the conditions of vulnerability. METHODS This is an ecological study, whose spatial analysis unit was the Territorial Analysis Unit in Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. We have carried out an analysis of the sociodemographic and urban infrastructure situation of the municipality. Normalized primary indicators were calculated and used to construct the indicators of vulnerability of the social structure, household structure, and urban infrastructure. From them, we have composed a vulnerability index. Kernel density estimation was used to evaluate the density of cases of human visceral leishmaniasis, based on the coordinates of the cases. Bivariate global Moran’s I was used to verify the existence of spatial autocorrelation between the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis and the indicators and index of vulnerability. Bivariate local Moran’s I was used to identify spatial clusters. RESULTS We have observed a pattern of centrifugal spread of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality, where outbreaks of the disease have progressively reached central and peri-urban areas. There has been no correlation between higher incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis and worse living conditions. Statistically significant clusters have been observed between the incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis in both periods analyzed (2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012 and the indicators and index of vulnerability. CONCLUSIONS The environment in circumscribed areas helps as protection factor or increases the local vulnerability to the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis. The use of methodology that analyzes the conditions of life of the population and the spatial distribution of human visceral leishmaniasis is essential to identify the most vulnerable areas to the spread/maintenance of the disease.

  19. Trend analysis of the quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme by region and state from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ricardo Filipe Alves; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; de Lima Vazquez, Fabiana; Pinheiro, Céline; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos; Fregnani, José Humberto Tavares Guerreiro

    2018-02-02

    Quality indicators for the Brazilian cervical cancer screening programme can provide a perspective on its effectiveness in Brazilian macro-regions and states. The aim of this study was to perform a trend analysis of the cervical cancer screening program's quality indicators, according to Brazilian regions and states, from 2006 to 2013. Using information from approximately 62,000,000 exams obtained from the Information System of Cervical Cancer Screening (SISCOLO), joinpoint analysis was used to calculate the Annual Percentage Change (APC). The estimated number of women in the target age group (25-64 years) who underwent Pap testing over a three-year interval was lower than that recommended by international guidelines in the North, Northeast and Midwest regions, and the trends for this indicator remained stationary over the years in all regions of Brazil. Overall, the index of positivity in Brazilian regions and states is below that preconized by the Brazilian National Cancer Institute (INCA). Additionally, the frequencies of unsatisfactory cases are in line with international guidelines but above those preconized by INCA guidelines. All positive cytological diagnoses were lower than those preconized by INCA. The results show that the cervical cancer screening programme is still far from efficient because most of the quality indicators in Brazilian regions and states are outside of the parameters preconized by national and international organizations.

  20. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josafá Gonçalves Barreto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children. METHODOLOGY: We applied geographic information systems and spatial analysis to determine the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy cases in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region (Castanhal. Moreover, we performed active surveillance to collect clinical, epidemiological and serological data of the household contacts of people affected by leprosy and school children in the general population. The occurrence of subclinical infection and overt disease among the evaluated individuals was correlated with the spatio-temporal pattern of leprosy. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The pattern of leprosy cases showed significant spatio-temporal heterogeneity (p<0.01. Considering 499 mapped cases, we found spatial clusters of high and low detection rates and spatial autocorrelation of individual cases at fine spatio-temporal scales. The relative risk of contracting leprosy in one specific cluster with a high detection rate is almost four times the risk in the areas of low detection rate (RR = 3.86; 95% CI = 2.26-6.59; p<0.0001. Eight new cases were detected among 302 evaluated household contacts: two living in areas of clusters of high detection rate and six in hyperendemic census tracts. Of 188 examined students, 134 (71.3% lived in hyperendemic areas, 120 (63.8% were dwelling less than 100 meters of at least one reported leprosy case, 125 (66.5% showed immunological evidence (positive anti-PGL-I IgM titer of subclinical infection, and 9 (4.8% were diagnosed with leprosy (8 within 200 meters of a case living in the same area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Spatial analysis provided a better understanding of the high rate of early childhood leprosy transmission in this region. These findings can be applied to guide

  1. Normative evaluation of blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region in respect to the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM). This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points), 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points), or 'inadequate' (banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum=16; maximum=32). The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum=0; maximum=32). Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria. Malaria is neglected as a blood-borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship Between Edaphic Factors and Vegetation in Savannas of the Brazilian Midwest Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michellia Pereira Soares

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian savanna is a mosaic of phytophysiognomies influenced by edaphic and topographic factors that range from the occurrence of fires to anthropic disturbance. The goal of this study was a comparative analysis between two cerrado areas in southeastern Goiás, relating the floristic composition and structure of the vegetation to soil properties to better understand the physiognomic characteristics of the region. Twenty-five 20 × 20 m plots were used. All plants with circumference at breast height of more than 15 cm were measured. Soil samples collected at a depth of 0-20 cm were subjected to physical and chemical analyses. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA was used to detect possible correlations between the soil properties and species abundance and distribution. The density and total basal area were 1,647 ind/ha and 15.57 m2/ha, respectively, in Ouroana. At this site, 107 species were sampled. In Montes Claros de Goiás, the density and total basal area were 781 ind/ha and 17.62 m2/ha, and 120 species were sampled. The soil texture of Ouroana was sandy and significantly different from the medium to clayey texture of Montes Claros. The soils of both areas are dystrophic, however, more fertile in Montes Claros and aluminum-toxic in Ouroana. The species of vegetation were distributed according to soil fertility levels. The CCAs grouped species according to soil properties that defined location and abundance as well as the phytophysiognomies of the studied areas.

  3. Association of Moderate Coffee Intake with Self-Reported Diabetes among Urban Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo F. Da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Coffee has been associated with reductions in the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCCD, including diabetes mellitus. Because differences in food habits are recognizable modifying factors in the epidemiology of diabetes, we studied the association of coffee consumption with type-2 diabetes in a sample of the adult population of the Federal District, Brazil. This cross-sectional study was conducted by telephone interview (n = 1,440. A multivariate analysis was run controlling for socio-behavioural variables, obesity and family antecedents of NCCD. A hierarchical linear regression model and a Poisson regression were used to verify association of type-2 diabetes and coffee intake. The independent variables which remained in the final model, following the hierarchical inclusion levels, were: first level—age and marital status; second level—diabetes and dyslipidaemias in antecedents; third level—cigarette smoking, supplement intake, body mass index; and fourth level—coffee intake (£100 mL/d, 101 to 400 mL/day, and >400 mL/day. After adjusting hierarchically for the confounding variables, consumers of 100 to 400 mL of coffee/day had a 2.7% higher (p = 0.04 prevalence of not having diabetes than those who drank less than 100 mL of coffee/day. Compared to coffee intake of £100 mL/day, adults consuming >400 mL of coffee/day showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of diabetes. Thus, moderate coffee intake is favourably associated with self-reported type-2 diabetes in the studied population. This is the first study to show a relationship between coffee drinking and diabetes in a Brazilian population.

  4. The inhabited environment, infrastructure development and advanced urbanization in China’s Yangtze River Delta Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqing; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Kammen, Daniel M.; Wu, Yiqun; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Wei

    2016-12-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship among the inhabited environment, infrastructure development and environmental impacts in China’s heavily urbanized Yangtze River Delta region. Using primary human environment data for the period 2006-2014, we examine factors affecting the inhabited environment and infrastructure development: urban population, GDP, built-up area, energy consumption, waste emission, transportation, real estate and urban greenery. Then we empirically investigate the impact of advanced urbanization with consideration of cities’ differences. Results from this study show that the growth rate of the inhabited environment and infrastructure development is strongly influenced by regional development structure, functional orientations, traffic network and urban size and form. The effect of advanced urbanization is more significant in large and mid-size cities than huge and mega cities. Energy consumption, waste emission and real estate in large and mid-size cities developed at an unprecedented rate with the rapid increase of economy. However, urban development of huge and mega cities gradually tended to be saturated. The transition development in these cities improved the inhabited environment and ecological protection instead of the urban construction simply. To maintain a sustainable advanced urbanization process, policy implications included urban sprawl control polices, ecological development mechanisms and reforming the economic structure for huge and mega cities, and construct major cross-regional infrastructure, enhance the carrying capacity and improvement of energy efficiency and structure for large and mid-size cities.

  5. The mental health care gap among children and adolescents: data from an epidemiological survey from four Brazilian regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S Paula

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, a minority of disordered children/adolescents receives mental health assistance. In order to improve service access, it is important to investigate factors that influence the process leading to receiving care. Data on frequency and barriers for mental health service use (MHSU among Brazilian children/adolescents are extremely scarce and are needed to guide public policy. OBJECTIVES: To establish the frequency of MHSU among 6-to-16-year-old with psychiatric disorders from four Brazilian regions; and to identify structural/psychosocial/demographic barriers associated with child/adolescent MHSU. METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional-study involving four towns from four out of five Brazilian regions. In each town, a representative sample of elementary public school students was randomly selected (sample: 1,721. Child/adolescent MHSU was defined as being seen by a psychologist/psychiatrist/neurologist in the previous 12 months. Standardized instruments measured: (1 children/adolescent characteristics [(1.1 Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL-psychiatric disorders; (1.2 Ten Questions Screen-neurodevelopment problems; (1.3 two subtests of WISC-III-estimated IQ; (1.4 Academic Performance Test-school performance], (2 factors related to mothers/main caregivers (Self-Reporting Questionnaire-anxiety/depression, (3 family (Brazilian Research-Companies-Association's Questionnaire-SES. RESULTS: Only 19.8% of children/adolescents with psychiatric disorder have used mental health services in the previous 12 months. Multiple logistic regression modeling identified five factors associated with lower rates of MHSU (female gender, adequate school performance, mother/main caregiver living with a partner, lower SES, residing in deprived Brazilian regions regardless of the presence of any psychiatric disorders/neurodevelopmental problems. CONCLUSIONS: Only a small proportion of children

  6. Theory and implementation of urban planning: spatial development of towns and urban regions in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Rebernik

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the results of research project Linking policies and criteria for achieving the sustainable spatial development of towns and other settlements in functional urban areas. The main goal is to describe the main process in spatial urban and suburban development in Slovenia and at the same time to highlight the discordance between the goals and objectives of spatial policies and actual urban development. In this context reasons for poor and inadequate implementation of European and national strategic policies of urban development at local (municipal level are presented.

  7. Urban Growth Projection for Southeast Regional Assessment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents the extent of urbanization (for the year indicated) predicted by the model SLEUTH, developed by Dr. Keith C. Clarke, at the University of...

  8. Urban Sprawl in the Mediterranean Urban Regions in Europe and the Crisis Effect on the Urban Land Development: Madrid as Study Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Díaz-Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The middle of 2007 saw the beginning of a worldwide financial crisis that led to a sharp reduction in investment based on construction and urban development. This new situation is generating a new process, characterised by a slowdown that has almost reached a standstill when compared with the frenzied development of previous decades. In order to analyse these processes, this study examines urban land use changes and the urban growth rate and spatial dynamics of the metropolitan region of Madrid. The analysis has been carried out on a large scale between two periods (2000–2006 and 2006–2009 using a regional land use geodatabase. The results show the changes in the urban land use dynamics that took place over these two periods that could characterise the cities of Mediterranean Europe, where contrarily to the general pattern in Europe built-up areas are combining scattered built-up areas with new aggregated compact developments.

  9. [Common mental disorders and use of psychotropic medications in women consulting at primary care units in a Brazilian urban area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Tatiana Longo; Hegadoren, Kathleen Mary; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) in women consulting at primary health care units in a Brazilian urban area, as well as to determine the impact of CMD on quality of life (QoL), the association of sociodemographic factors with CMD and QoL, and the prevalence and pattern of psychotropic medication use in the study sample. In this quantitative, cross-sectional, correlational-descriptive study, a stratified sample of 365 women was interviewed between May 2012 and January 2013 in five primary health care units in Brazil. Data were collected using sociodemographic and drug use questionnaires. The self-reporting questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to estimate the prevalence of CMD; and the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL)-bref instrument was used to assess quality of life. To evaluate the impact of CMD on QoL, the t test and linear regression models were employed. The chi-square test was used to verify associations between CMD and sociodemographic variables. Descriptive analysis was used for psychotropic drug use. The prevalence of CMD was 44.1%. The prevalence of psychotropic medication use was 27.1%. Only 5.6% of participants had a psychiatric diagnosis recorded in their medical chart. Psychotropic drugs were used by 41.6% of participants with CMD according to the SRQ-20 and by 15.7% of those without CMD. There was no association between CMD and sociodemographic variables, but CMD and QoL were significantly associated. Women with CMD had the worst QoL, without impact of sociodemographic variables. Further attention should be given to the pattern of psychotropic medication use and prescription in primary care settings. Women with CMD had functional impairment, as shown by significantly lower QoL scores. The fact that sociodemographic factors did not impact the present results seems to support the notion of a different basis for CMD in women.

  10. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  11. Socioenvironmental conditions and intestinal parasitic infections in Brazilian urban slums: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Caroline Ferraz; Silva, Milena Enderson Chagas da; Handam, Natasha Berendonk; Alencar, Maria de Fatima Leal; Sotero-Martins, Adriana; Barata, Martha Macedo de Lima; Moraes, Antonio Henrique Almeida de

    2017-08-07

    A cross-sectional study covering an agglomeration of urban slums was conducted between 2015 and 2016 using participants observation, a socioeconomic survey, and the spontaneous sedimentation method with three slides per sample to analyze fresh stool specimens ( n =595) searching for intestinal parasites. Endolimax nana ( n =95, 16.0%) and Entamoeba coli ( n =65, 10.9%) were the most frequently identified agents, followed by Giardia intestinalis ( n =24, 4.0%) and Ascaris lumbricoides ( n =11, 1.8%). Coinfections caused by E. nana and E. histolytica/dispar and by Entamoeba coli/A. lumbricoides were significant. The use of piped water as drinking water, the presence of A. lumbricoides , and contamination with coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli were more common in major area (MA) 1. Children (0-19 years) had a greater chance of living in poverty (OR 3.36; 95% CI: 2.50- 4.52; p slums when assessing intestinal parasitic infections for disease control and health promotion initiatives.

  12. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  13. Influence of urban morphometric modification on regional boundary-layer dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Allen; Fung, Jimmy C. H.; Lau, Alexis K. H.

    2013-04-01

    Fidelity in simulating urban boundary-layer (UBL) physics is recognized to prescribe the prognostic skill of subsequent regional air pollutant transport modeling. Conventional mesoscale meteorological models (MMM) deployed over the South China coast among urban locales have often yielded positive bias in surface wind speed. This bias has been hypothetically attributed to model parameterizations that yield inaccurate meteorological predictions due to underrepresentation of urban aerodynamic roughness. Chemical transport model (CTM) simulations that are forced by the overestimated UBL wind field may undergo excessive advection which results in negative bias in predicted pollutant concentration. This study aimed to corroborate the proposed causality between parameterized urban morphometry and UBL meteorology. Focus was placed on the urban meteorological adjustments induced by urban morphometry modifications rather than prediction improvements attributable to urban canopy parameterization (UCP). Case studies were devised to assess the sensitivity of an urban-meteorology model to a pervasive, region-wide urban morphometry modification. Performance of a UCP scheme was evaluated for the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, a meso- β-scale subtropical coastal megalopolis. To benchmark the limits of UBL adjustments that were predominantly attributable to urban morphometric transformation, numerical experiments were conducted against two urban fabrics of vastly dissimilar morphometric compositions, each occupying identical topographic tracts. Differences in the diurnal evolution of UBL structure and in the mean and turbulent flow characteristics were analyzed. This UCP sensitivity study suggests that improved urban morphological realism is able to reduce positive wind speed bias observed in conventional mesoscale meteorological models when applied to the PRD region.

  14. Association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder among Brazilian victims of urban violence: a cross-sectional case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teche, Stefania Pigatto; Barros, Alcina Juliana Soares; Rosa, Regis Goulart; Guimarães, Luciano Pinto; Cordini, Kariny Larissa; Goi, Julia Domingues; Hauck, Simone; Freitas, Lucia Helena

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the association between resilience and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Brazilian victims of urban violence. It also compared defense mechanisms, parental bonding, and childhood trauma between those who developed PTSD and those who did not. This cross-sectional case-control study included 66 adult subjects exposed to recent urban violence in southern Brazil - 33 with PTSD and 33 healthy controls matched by sex and age - who were administered the Resilience Scale, Defense Style Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The statistical tests used were the McNemar test for categorical variables, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for continuous asymmetric variables, and the paired Student t-test for continuous symmetric variables. The PTSD group showed lower total Resilience Scale scores compared with controls (128.4±20.7 vs. 145.8±13.1, respectively; p = 0.01), along with a lower ability to solve situations and lower personal values that give meaning to life (p = 0.019). They also had lower rates of mature defense mechanisms (p resilience, especially the ability to solve situations and having personal values that give meaning to life, immature defense mechanisms, and emotional and physical abuse in childhood are associated with PTSD in adult Brazilian victims of urban violence.

  15. Vulnerability to the transmission of human visceral leishmaniasis in a Brazilian urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Celina Roma Sánchez de; Almeida, Andréa Sobral de; Chaves, Sergio Augusto de Miranda; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Toledo, Luciano Medeiros; Caldas, Jefferson Pereira

    2017-05-15

    To analyze the determinants for the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis linked to the conditions of vulnerability. This is an ecological study, whose spatial analysis unit was the Territorial Analysis Unit in Araguaína, State of Tocantins, Brazil, from 2007 to 2012. We have carried out an analysis of the sociodemographic and urban infrastructure situation of the municipality. Normalized primary indicators were calculated and used to construct the indicators of vulnerability of the social structure, household structure, and urban infrastructure. From them, we have composed a vulnerability index. Kernel density estimation was used to evaluate the density of cases of human visceral leishmaniasis, based on the coordinates of the cases. Bivariate global Moran's I was used to verify the existence of spatial autocorrelation between the incidence of human visceral leishmaniasis and the indicators and index of vulnerability. Bivariate local Moran's I was used to identify spatial clusters. We have observed a pattern of centrifugal spread of human visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality, where outbreaks of the disease have progressively reached central and peri-urban areas. There has been no correlation between higher incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis and worse living conditions. Statistically significant clusters have been observed between the incidences of human visceral leishmaniasis in both periods analyzed (2007 to 2009 and 2010 to 2012) and the indicators and index of vulnerability. The environment in circumscribed areas helps as protection factor or increases the local vulnerability to the occurrence of human visceral leishmaniasis. The use of methodology that analyzes the conditions of life of the population and the spatial distribution of human visceral leishmaniasis is essential to identify the most vulnerable areas to the spread/maintenance of the disease. Analisar determinantes para a ocorrência da leishmaniose visceral humana vinculados

  16. Spoliation and exception in brazilian metropolises: the PAC case in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Oliveira Lima Matiolli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection that is the result of a survey which intended to monitor the works of the Growth Acceleration Program (PAC in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ. After two years of research and from this empirical object, we intend to think the management of Brazilian cities over the past decade in the context of the Lula Government, in particular, whose performance is considered in a discussion about the possibility of a New-Developmentalism, since this government is marked by a strong presence of the state in the construction of economic infrastructure and efforts to combat social inequalities.

  17. Impacts of Urbanization on River Systems in the Taihu Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Deng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available River systems are valuable to human beings; meanwhile, they are intensively influenced by human activities, especially urbanization. In this study, based on the data derived from topographic maps and remote sensing images, the temporal and spatial change of river system geomorphology in the Taihu Region over the past 50 years was investigated in conjunction with urbanization. Results demonstrated that the number of river systems decreased drastically, that the morphology of river channels changed into wider and straighter and that the structure of river network tended to simplify in the Taihu Region in recent 50 years. Meanwhile, the changes in river density, the water surface ratio, the river development coefficient, the main river area length ratio and the box dimension in the rapid urbanization period were much greater than those in the slow urbanization period, but the decrease of river sinuosity in the slow urbanization period was more intense. Moreover, the spatial differences of the changes in the river development coefficient were the largest, and the changes in the river indicators in the low-urbanized regions were the most intense. In addition, the changes in the water surface ratio had the closest correlation with urbanization, and the relational degrees between population urbanization and the changes in river systems were the largest. The results can provide a reliable basis to determine reasonable management and conservation strategies of river systems in the Taihu Region.

  18. Accident prediction models for urban and rural carriageways : based on data from The Hague region Haaglanden.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurings, M.C.B. & Janssen, S.T.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this report accident prediction models are discussed for carriageways of urban and rural distributor roads in the region Haaglanden. They express the number of injury accidents on a carriageway in its length and its average amount of daily traffic. Not only distinction is made between urban and

  19. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    OpenAIRE

    Annamaria Giorgi; Pietro De Marinis; Giuseppe Granelli; Luca Maria Chiesa; Sara Panseri

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae), also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled), dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headsp...

  20. Interactions Between Urban Vegetation and Surface Urban Heat Islands: A Case Study in the Boston Metropolitan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melaas, E. K.; Miller, D. L.; Wang, J.; Friedl, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many studies have used thermal data from remote sensing to characterize how land use and surface properties modify the climate of cities. However, relatively few studies have examined the impact of elevated temperature on ecophysiological processes in urban areas. In this paper, we use time series of Landsat data to characterize and quantify how geographic variation in Boston's surface urban heat island (SUHI) affects the growing season of vegetation in and around the city, and explore how the quality and character of vegetation patches in Boston affect local heat island intensity. Results from this analysis show strong coupling between Boston's SUHI and vegetation phenology at the scale of both individual landscape units and for the region as a whole, with significant detectable signatures in both surface temperature and growing season length extending 15 km from Boston's urban core. On average, land surface temperatures were about 7 °C warmer and the growing season was 18-22 days longer in Boston relative to adjacent rural areas. Within Boston's urban core, patterns of temperature and timing of phenology in areas with higher vegetation amounts (e.g., parks) were similar to those in adjacent rural areas, suggesting that vegetation patches provide an important ecosystem service that offsets the urban heat island at local scales. Local relationships between phenology and temperature were affected by the intensity of urban land use surrounding vegetation patches and possibly by the presence of exotic tree species that are common in urban areas. Results from this analysis show how species composition, land cover configuration, and vegetation patch sizes jointly influence the nature and magnitude of coupling between vegetation phenology and SUHIs, and demonstrate that urban vegetation provides a significant ecosystem service in cities by decreasing the local intensity of SUHIs.

  1. Biomass burning losses of carbon estimated from ecosystem modeling and satellite data analysis for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Bobo, Matthew; Torregrosa, Alicia

    To produce a new daily record of gross carbon emissions from biomass burning events and post-burning decomposition fluxes in the states of the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica (IBGE), 1991. Anuario Estatistico do Brasil, Vol. 51. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil pp. 1-1024). We have used vegetation greenness estimates from satellite images as inputs to a terrestrial ecosystem production model. This carbon allocation model generates new estimates of regional aboveground vegetation biomass at 8-km resolution. The modeled biomass product is then combined for the first time with fire pixel counts from the advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) to overlay regional burning activities in the Amazon. Results from our analysis indicate that carbon emission estimates from annual region-wide sources of deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s are apparently three to five times higher than reported in previous studies for the Brazilian Legal Amazon (Houghton et al., 2000. Nature 403, 301-304; Fearnside, 1997. Climatic Change 35, 321-360), i.e., studies which implied that the Legal Amazon region tends toward a net-zero annual source of terrestrial carbon. In contrast, our analysis implies that the total source fluxes over the entire Legal Amazon region range from 0.2 to 1.2 Pg C yr -1, depending strongly on annual rainfall patterns. The reasons for our higher burning emission estimates are (1) use of combustion fractions typically measured during Amazon forest burning events for computing carbon losses, (2) more detailed geographic distribution of vegetation biomass and daily fire activity for the region, and (3) inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. The total area of rainforest estimated annually to be deforested did not differ substantially among the previous analyses cited and our own.

  2. Urbanization-induced urban heat island and aerosol effects on climate extremes in the Yangtze River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Ruby; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Fan, Jiwen; Yan, Huiping; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Liu, Dongqing

    2017-04-01

    The WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) is integrated for 5 years at convection-permitting scale to investigate the individual and combined impacts of urbanization-induced changes in land cover and pollutant emissions on regional climate in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in eastern China. Simulations with the urbanization effects reasonably reproduced the observed features of temperature and precipitation in the YRD region. Urbanization over the YRD induces an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which increases the surface temperature by 0.53 °C in summer and increases the annual heat wave days at a rate of 3.7 d yr-1 in the major megacities in the YRD, accompanied by intensified heat stress. In winter, the near-surface air temperature increases by approximately 0.7 °C over commercial areas in the cities but decreases in the surrounding areas. Radiative effects of aerosols tend to cool the surface air by reducing net shortwave radiation at the surface. Compared to the more localized UHI effect, aerosol effects on solar radiation and temperature influence a much larger area, especially downwind of the city cluster in the YRD. Results also show that the UHI increases the frequency of extreme summer precipitation by strengthening the convergence and updrafts over urbanized areas in the afternoon, which favor the development of deep convection. In contrast, the radiative forcing of aerosols results in a surface cooling and upper-atmospheric heating, which enhances atmospheric stability and suppresses convection. The combined effects of the UHI and aerosols on precipitation depend on synoptic conditions. Two rainfall events under two typical but different synoptic weather patterns are further analyzed. It is shown that the impact of urban land cover and aerosols on precipitation is not only determined by their influence on local convergence but also modulated by large-scale weather systems. For the case with a strong synoptic forcing

  3. Urbanization-induced urban heat island and aerosol effects on climate extremes in the Yangtze River Delta region of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Shi; Qian, Yun; Zhao, Chun; Leung, Ruby; Wang, Hailong; Yang, Ben; Fan, Jiwen; Yan, Huiping; Yang, Xiu-Qun; Liu, Dongqing

    2017-01-01

    The WRF-Chem model coupled with a single-layer urban canopy model (UCM) is integrated for 5 years at convection-permitting scale to investigate the individual and combined impacts of urbanization-induced changes in land cover and pollutant emissions on regional climate in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in eastern China. Simulations with the urbanization effects reasonably reproduced the observed features of temperature and precipitation in the YRD region. Urbanization over the YRD induces an urban heat island (UHI) effect, which increases the surface temperature by 0.53 °C in summer and increases the annual heat wave days at a rate of 3.7 d yr-1 in the major megacities in the YRD, accompanied by intensified heat stress. In winter, the near-surface air temperature increases by approximately 0.7 °C over commercial areas in the cities but decreases in the surrounding areas. Radiative effects of aerosols tend to cool the surface air by reducing net shortwave radiation at the surface. Compared to the more localized UHI effect, aerosol effects on solar radiation and temperature influence a much larger area, especially downwind of the city cluster in the YRD.

    Results also show that the UHI increases the frequency of extreme summer precipitation by strengthening the convergence and updrafts over urbanized areas in the afternoon, which favor the development of deep convection. In contrast, the radiative forcing of aerosols results in a surface cooling and upper-atmospheric heating, which enhances atmospheric stability and suppresses convection. The combined effects of the UHI and aerosols on precipitation depend on synoptic conditions. Two rainfall events under two typical but different synoptic weather patterns are further analyzed. It is shown that the impact of urban land cover and aerosols on precipitation is not only determined by their influence on local convergence but also modulated by large-scale weather systems. For the case with a

  4. Socio-spatial transformations, suburbanisation, and voting behaviour in the Vilnius urban region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubarevi?ien?, R.; Burneika, D.; Van Ham, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the interrelationship between the process of suburbanisation and a changing political and ethnic landscape in the Vilnius urban region. The region sur-rounding Vilnius city is dominated by Polish identity residents while those who suburbanise into the region are mainly ethnic

  5. Impacts of Future Urban Expansion on Regional Climate in the Northeast Megalopolis, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhi Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, evidences for influences of future urban expansion on regional climate in the Northeast megalopolis, USA, are presented. The model-based analysis shows that future urban expansion will significantly result in regional climate change. An average annual temperature increase ranging from 2°C to 5°C in new urban area and an average annual temperature decrease ranging from 0.40°C to 1.20°C in the south of the megalopolis will be caused by future urban expansion. The average annual precipitation of the simulation area will decrease due to future urban expansion by 5.75 mm, 7.10 mm, and 8.35 mm in the periods of 2010–2020, 2040–2050, and 2090–2100, respectively. The warming effect of future urban expansion in original and new urban area and drought effects in nonurban area will be more serious in summer than in winter. A cooling effect will turn up in original urban area in winter. This research further shows that a study at the scale of megalopolis helps to understand the integrated effect of combination and interaction of multiple cities and their surrounding areas which may crucially determine regional climate pattern and should be highly valued in the future.

  6. Frontiers of land and water governance in urban regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, Thomas; Spit, Tejo

    2014-01-01

    A society that intensifies and expands the use of land and water in urban areas needs to rethink the relation between spatial planning and water management. The traditional strategy to manage land and water under different governance regimes no longer suits the rapidly changing environmental

  7. Storm Drainage and Urban Region Flood Control Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    detention storage and pumping facilities. It has been reported that the investment in storm drains is three times the investment in works to protect the...flood plain and the annual damages from inadequate storm drains may well exceed the damage inflicted upon urban flood plains. Formulation of

  8. Urban anglers in the Great Lakes region: Fish consumption patterns, influences, and responses to advisory messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Lauber, T; Connelly, Nancy A; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2017-07-15

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and many state advisory programs consider urban anglers at high risk of being exposed to contaminants through fish consumption because the urban poor may be dependent on fish they catch for food and lack access to non-contaminated fishing sites. Past research has supported this characterization of urban anglers, but most studies have been site-specific and limited to subsets of urban anglers. We used a mail survey and focus groups to (a) explore how urban anglers living in the Great Lakes region of the United States differed from rural and suburban anglers and (b) characterize their fishing patterns, fish consumption, factors influencing their fish consumption, and response to fish consumption advisory messages. Although we detected some differences between licensed urban, suburban, and rural anglers, their magnitude was not striking. Lower income urban anglers tended to consume less purchased and sport-caught fish than higher income urban anglers and were not at high risk as a group. Nevertheless, focus group data suggested there may be subpopulations of urban anglers, particularly from immigrant populations, that consume higher amounts of potentially contaminated fish. Although urban anglers in general may not require a special approach for communicating fish consumption advice, subpopulations within this group may be best targeted by using community-based programs to communicate fish consumption advice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying hotspots and management of critical ecosystem services in rapidly urbanizing Yangtze River Delta Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenbo; Gibbs, David; Zhang, Lang; Ferrier, Graham; Cai, Yongli

    2017-04-15

    Rapid urbanization has altered many ecosystems, causing a decline in many ecosystem services, generating serious ecological crisis. To cope with these challenges, we presented a comprehensive framework comprising five core steps for identifying and managing hotspots of critical ecosystem services in a rapid urbanizing region. This framework was applied in the case study of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) Region. The study showed that there was large spatial heterogeneity in the hotspots of ecosystem services in the region, hotspots of supporting services and regulating services aggregately distributing in the southwest mountainous areas while hotspots of provisioning services mainly in the northeast plain, and hotspots of cultural services widespread in the waterbodies and southwest mountainous areas. The regionalization of the critical ecosystem services was made through the hotspot analysis. This study provided valuable information for environmental planning and management in a rapid urbanizing region and helped improve China's ecological redlines policy at regional scale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. From lab to field: the influence of urban landscapes on the invasive potential of Wolbachia in Brazilian Aedes aegypti mosquitoes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dutra, Heverton Leandro Carneiro; Dos Santos, Lilha Maria Barbosa; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Silva, Jéssica Barreto Lopes; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2015-01-01

    ... and analysis of Wolbachia's invasive potential. We examined key phenotypic effects of the wMel Wolbachia strain in laboratory Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with a Brazilian genetic background to characterize its invasive potential...

  11. Calculation of economic viability and environmental costs of biomass from dende oil for small communities of Brazilian northeast region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecher, Luiza C.; Pacheco, Rafael R.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: luizastecher@usp.br, E-mail: rafaelrade@gmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The current environmental problems caused by human activity has been gaining attention in society, i.e., as it has influenced in the growth and development of the global economic. The availability of energy resources is central point to economic development and the generation of energy is responsible for a significant portion of the emissions causing the greenhouse effect nowadays. The Brazil, a developing country, still has a large number of people without access to electricity, which affects the quality of life of individuals. In this context, it should think in the sustainable economic development, so the alternative energy sources emerge as an option for power generation. Can highlight biomass as a source in the Brazilian scenario by its wide availability and variety. Therefore, the objective of this work is to estimate the economic viability of the decentralized generation of electricity based on the use of biomass from dende oil in small communities in the Brazilian Northeast considering the environmental costs involved for the source in question. The methodology is based on economic concepts and economic evaluation of environmental resources. The biomass from dende oil was adopted in this work by its characteristics and availability in the studied region. The results show that the generation of energy by biomass from dende oil, it will contribute significantly to the sustainable development of the region, already that it will bring gains environmental, social and financial to society. (author)

  12. ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS OF AN IRRIGATED OXISOL UNDER NO - TILL AND CONVENTIONAL TILLAGE IN THE BRAZILIAN SEMI - ARID REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAFAEL PEREIRA SALES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of natural vegetation by crop systems directly impacts the soil organic matter fractions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the total organic carbon (TOC and nitrogen (TN contents in different fractions of the soil organic matter (SOM of an Oxisol of the Brazilian semiarid region under different irrigated crops and different soil management systems. Seven treatments were evaluated, which consisted of two soil management systems (no - till and conventional tillage and three crops (maize, sunflower and sorghum, using as reference the soil under a native forest (NF. The summer crops preceded common bean crops in the autumn - winter. The total organic carbon content, total nitrogen, carbon content in humic substances and their constituents (fulvic acids, humic acids and humin and labile, non - labile and water - soluble carbon contents were evaluated two years and three months after the experiment implementation to determine the carbon lability (L lability index (LI, partitioning index (CPI and management index (CMI. The greatest carbon, nitrogen and organic matter contents in the soil surface layer (0.00 - 0.05 m were found in crops under no - till system (NTS, especially maize. The crops under NTS presented greater carbon content in humic substances than the conventional tillage system (CTS ones in the layer 0.05 - 0.10 m. The crops under NTS presented greater sustainability in the Brazilian semiarid region compared with those under CTS, as shown by their higher CMI in the soil surface layer.

  13. A Regional Study of Urban Fluxes from a Coupled WRF-ACASA Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Snyder, R. L.; Paw U, K.

    2010-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 10 by 10 km. As part of the European Project “BRIDGE”, these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers.Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. In order to more accurately simulate the mass and energy exchanges across larger urban regions, ACASA was coupled with a mesoscale weather model (WRF). Here we present ACASA-WRF simulations of mass and energy fluxes over over two different urban regions: a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic European city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage, a huge tourist flow, and an architectural footprint that remains comparatively constant in time. The in-situ ACASA model was tested over the urban environment at local point scale with very promising results when validated against urban flux measurements. This study shows the application of this methodology at a regional scale with high spatial

  14. A community study of factors related to poorly controlled asthma among Brazilian urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Magalhães Simões

    Full Text Available Asthma constitutes a serious public health problem in many regions of the world, including the city of Salvador, State of Bahia-Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyse the factors associated with poor asthma control.Two definitions were used for asthma: 1 wheezing in the last 12 months; 2 wheezing in the last 12 months plus other asthma symptoms or asthma diagnosis ever. The definition of poorly controlled asthma was: at least one reported hospitalisation due to asthma and/or high frequency of symptoms, in the last year. Children with poorly controlled asthma (N = 187/374 were compared with wheezing children with controlled asthma regarding age, gender, atopy, parental asthma, rhinitis, eczema, exposure to second hand tobacco smoke, presence of moulds, pets and pests in the house, helminth infections and body mass index. Crude and logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. There was a higher proportion of poorly controlled asthma among children with eczema (OR = 1.55; 95% CI 1.02; 2.37. The strength of the association was greater among children with eczema and rhinitis (42.6%, 53.4% and 57.7%, respectively, in children who had no rhinitis nor eczema, had only one of those, and had both (p = 0.02 for trend test. The presence of mould in the houses was inversely associated with poorly controlled asthma (OR = 0.54; 95% CI 0.34; 0.87.Our results indicate an association between eczema and poor asthma control in this environment, but emphasize the role of various other individual and environmental factors as determinants of poor control.

  15. Assessing the impact of urbanization on regional net primary productivity in Jiangyin County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C; Liu, M; An, S; Chen, J M; Yan, P

    2007-11-01

    Urbanization is one of the most important aspects of global change. The process of urbanization has a significant impact on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle. The Yangtze Delta region has one of the highest rates of urbanization in China. In this study, carried out in Jiangyin County as a representative region within the Yangtze Delta, land use and land cover changes were estimated using Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. With these satellite data and the BEPS process model (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator), the impacts of urbanization on regional net primary productivity (NPP) and annual net primary production were assessed for 1991 and 2002. Landsat-based land cover maps in 1991 and 2002 showed that urban development encroached large areas of cropland and forest. Expansion of residential areas and reduction of vegetated areas were the major forms of land transformation in Jiangyin County during this period. Mean NPP of the total area decreased from 818 to 699 gCm(-2)yr(-1) during the period of 1991 to 2002. NPP of cropland was only reduced by 2.7% while forest NPP was reduced by 9.3%. Regional annual primary production decreased from 808 GgC in 1991 to 691 GgC in 2002, a reduction of 14.5%. Land cover changes reduced regional NPP directly, and the increasing intensity and frequency of human-induced disturbance in the urbanized areas could be the main reason for the decrease in forest NPP.

  16. Changes to urban form and commuting patterns: trends in two Danish city regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares indicators of polycentricity in a monocentric (MUR) and a polycentric urban region (PUR) in Denmark at two points in time (1982 and 2002). It describes how population, jobs and commuting indicators of polycentricity develop and interact over time. Both the MUR and the PUR tend...... towards more balanced development. The increasing size of the main node in the PUR is the only deviation from the general trend. The general tendency towards a more polycentric regional structure was most marked in changing interaction and commuting patterns. Inter-urban commuting increased, while intra......-urban commuting decreased, leading to dispersion of commuters and a rapid increase in commuting across the region. Commuting distances were shortest in the polycentric region, but it also had the highest growth rates. In both regions, the balancing trend leads to a dispersal of commuting demand over...

  17. Loxosceles niedeguidonae (Araneae, Sicariidae a new species of brown spider from Brazilian semi-arid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Gonçclves-de-Andrade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonae sp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967 due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to L. chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented.

  18. Loxosceles niedeguidonae (Araneae, Sicariidae) a new species of brown spider from Brazilian semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-de-Andrade, Rute Maria; Bertani, Rogério; Nagahama, Roberto Hiroaki; Barbosa, Maria Fatima Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of recluse spider, Loxosceles niedeguidonae sp. n., is described from the Parque Nacional Serra da Capivara, State of Piauí, Brazil. This is the first endemic species described from Brazilian semi-arid environment. The species is included in gaucho group of Gertsch (1967) due to its spermathecal shape and is considered close to Loxosceles chapadensis Bertani, Fukushima & Nagahama, 2010 by the unusual long male palpal tibia, a character not common for species of this group. An updated key for Loxosceles species of gaucho group is presented. PMID:22451789

  19. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Lima, Rita de Cássia de; Barbosa, Maria das Graças Vale; Coura, José Rodrigues; Arcanjo, Ana Ruth Lima; Nascimento, Adelaide da Silva; Ferreira, João Marcos Bemfica Barbosa; Magalhães, Laylah Kelre; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio de; Araújo, Guilherme Alfredo Novelino; Guerra, Jorge Augusto de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years), all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  20. AFLP estimation of the outcrossing rate of Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae, an endemic species to the Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Antonio Fernandes Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa is one of the most important endemic species to the Brazilian tropical semiarid region. The umbu tree has edible fruits with a peculiar flavor that are consumed in natura or in a semi-industrialized form, such as jams, candies and juices. The majority of endemic species to Brazilian semiarid region have not been studied or sampled to form germ- plasm collections, which increases the risk of losing genetic variability of the adapted species to xerophytic conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate outcrossing rates in S. tuberosa using a multilocus mixed model in order to guide genetic resources and breeding programs of this species. DNA samples were extracted from 92 progenies of umbu trees, which were distributed among 12 families. These trees were planted by seed in 1991 in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block, with a total of 42 progenies sampled in three regions. The experimental units were composed by five plants and five replications. The out- crossing rate was estimated by the multilocus model, which is available in the MLTR software, and was based on 17 polymorphic AFLP bands obtained from AAA_CTG and AAA_CTC primer combinations. The observed heterozygotes ranged from 0.147 to 0.499, with a maximum frequency estimated for the AAA_CTC_10 ampli- con. The multilocus outcrossing estimation ( was 0.804±0.072, while the single-locus ( was 0.841±0.079, which suggests that S. tuberosa is predominantly an outcrossing species. The difference between and was -0.037±0.029, which indicates that biparental inbreeding was nearly absent. The mean inbreeding coefficient or fixation index ( among maternal plants was - 0.103±0.045, and the expected was 0.108, which indicates that there was no excess of heterozygotes in the maternal population. The outcrossing estimates obtained in the present study indicate that S. tuberosa is an open-pollinated species. Biometrical models applied

  1. An AFLP estimation of the outcrossing rate of Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae), an endemic species to the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Santos, Carlos Antonio; de Souza Gama, Renata Natália Cândido

    2013-06-01

    The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa) is one of the most important endemic species to the Brazilian tropical semiarid region. The umbu tree has edible fruits with a peculiar flavor that are consumed in natura or in a semi-industrialized form, such as jams, candies and juices. The majority of endemic species to Brazilian semiarid region have not been studied or sampled to form germ-plasm collections, which increases the risk of losing genetic variability of the adapted species to xerophytic conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate outcrossing rates in S. tuberosa using a multilocus mixed model in order to guide genetic resources and breeding programs of this species. DNA samples were extracted from 92 progenies of umbu trees, which were distributed among 12 families. These trees were planted by seed in 1991 in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block, with a total of 42 progenies sampled in three regions. The experimental units were composed by five plants and five replications. The outcrossing rate was estimated by the multilocus model, which is available in the MLTR software, and was based on 17 polymorphic AFLP bands obtained from AAA_CTG and AAA_CTC primer combinations. The observed heterozygotes ranged from 0.147 to 0.499, with a maximum frequency estimated for the AAA_CTC 10 amplicon. The multilocus outcrossing estimation (t(m)) was 0.804 +/- 0.072, while the single-locus (t(s)) was 0.841 +/- 0.079, which suggests that S. tuberosa is predominantly an outcrossing species. The difference between t(m) and t(s) was -0.037 +/- 0.029, which indicates that biparental inbreeding was nearly absent. The mean inbreeding coefficient or fixation index (F) among maternal plants was--0.103 +/- 0.045, and the expected F was 0.108, which indicates that there was no excess of heterozygotes in the maternal population. The outcrossing estimates obtained in the present study indicate that S. tuberosa is an open-pollinated species. Biometrical

  2. Regional impacts of urbanization on stream channel geometry: A case study in semiarid southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kristine T.; Biggs, Trent W.

    2015-11-01

    Urbanization often increases storm runoff, peak discharges and rates of stream channel erosion. Coastal California has experienced rapid urbanization over the past several decades and has the potential for stream channel degradation. Several counties in California have implemented Hydromodification Management Plans (HMPs) to protect channels from erosion, but few studies have quantified the impact of urbanization on channel geometry in diverse geological settings at the county scale. A synoptic survey of field sites (N = 56) by the California Environmental Data Exchange Network (CEDEN) and additional field surveys (N = 24) were used to develop regional hydraulic geometry curves relating bankfull cross-sectional area (Axs), width (w), mean depth (d), and discharge (Qbf) to watershed area (Aw) in San Diego County. Regional curves were compared for urban and reference sites and to other regional curves developed for southern California. Multiple regression models were used to identify dominant watershed and channel controls on geometry, including Aw, percent impervious cover (I%), mean annual precipitation, underlying geology, longitudinal slope, hydrologic soil group, and channel particle size. For the reference streams, regional curves were statistically significant for w and Axs (p 20%) had significantly larger w, d, Axs, and Qbf for a given watershed size. A majority (68%) of the urban channels and 78% of the small urban channels (Aw differed by channel substrate: sand-bedded channels incised and experienced extreme enlargement of up to 115 × the Axs of reference sites, while gravel-bedded channels widened and showed less enlargement (< 7 × reference Axs). Diverse channel responses to urbanization were observed at the county scales with significant scatter about the regional curves and regression equations. Urban channels have a high probability of enlargement, with greater risk for sand-bedded streams, but the magnitude of enlargement was not predictable from

  3. Regional Urban Extent Extraction Using Multi-Sensor Data and One-Class Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiya Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable night-time light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP Operational Line-scan System (OLS provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper presents a regional urban extent extraction method using a one-class classifier and combinations of DMSP/OLS stable night-time light (NTL data, MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data, and land surface temperature (LST data. We first analyzed how well MODIS NDVI and LST data quantify the properties of urban areas. Considering that urban area is the only class of interest, we applied the one-class support vector machine (OCSVM to classify different combinations of the three datasets. We evaluated the effectiveness of the proposed method and compared with the locally optimized threshold method in regional urban extent mapping in China. The experimental results demonstrate that DMSP/OLS NTL data, MODIS NDVI and LST data provide different but complementary information sources to quantify the urban extent at a regional scale. The results also indicate that the OCSVM classification of the combination of all three datasets generally outperformed the locally optimized threshold method. The proposed method effectively and efficiently extracted the urban extent at a regional scale, and is applicable to other study areas.

  4. Urban trees and forests of the Chicago region

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Robert E. III Hoehn; Allison R. Bodine; Daniel E. Crane; John F. Dwyer; Veta Bonnewell; Gary. Watson

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of trees in the Chicago region of Illinois reveals that this area has about 157,142,000 trees with tree and shrub canopy that covers 21.0 percent of the region. The most common tree species are European buckthorn, green ash, boxelder, black cherry, and American elm. Trees in the Chicago region currently store about 16.9 million tons of carbon (61.9 million...

  5. Practice of walking and its association with perceived environment among elderly Brazilians living in a region of low socioeconomic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Rodrigo S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was analyze associations between the practice of walking and environmental perception among elderly Brazilians in a region of low socioeconomic level. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 385 elderly people aged 60 years and over. To evaluate walking, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, long version (leisure and transport modules was used. The environment was evaluated by means of the Neighborhood Environmental Walkability Scale (NEWS (adapted Brazilian version. For the statistical analysis, multiple logistic regression models were created separately for men and women. The practice of at least 150 minutes a week of walking was the dependent variable, and the variables of environmental perception were the independent variables. All the models were controlled for schooling level and age. Results The proportion of elderly people active in walking was 56.9% for the men and 26.4% for the women. The perception of the presence of soccer fields (OR = 4.12 and their proximity, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.43, were associated with the practice of walking among the men. The perception of the presence of public squares (OR = 4.70 and the proximity of primary healthcare units, within ten minutes' walk from home (OR = 3.71, were associated with the practice of walking among the women. An association with adequate perception of vehicle traffic remained at the threshold of significance for the women. Conclusion Accessibility of leisure structures such as football fields and public squares and of health services such as primary healthcare units were important environmental variables associated with the practice of walking among elderly people living in a region of low socioeconomic level in Brazil. These variables need to be taken into consideration when aiming to promote the practice of walking among elderly people living in similar regions.

  6. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Brazilian Populations of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, from Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P.; Nava, Dori E.; Loeck, Alci E.; Donatti, Michele G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions. PMID:22963468

  7. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  8. Chicago Wilderness region urban forest vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Urban Forestry Climate Change Response Framework Chicago Wilderness pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Brandt; Abigail Derby Lewis; Lydia Scott; Lindsay Darling; Robert T. Fahey; Louis Iverson; David J. Nowak; Allison R. Bodine; Andrew Bell; Shannon Still; Patricia R. Butler; Andrea Dierich; Stephen D. Handler; Maria K. Janowiak; Stephen N. Matthews; Jason W. Miesbauer; Matthew Peters; Anantha Prasad; P. Danielle Shannon; Douglas Stotz; Christopher W. Swanston

    2017-01-01

    The urban forest of the Chicago Wilderness region, a 7-million-acre area covering portions of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin, will face direct and indirect impacts from a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of urban trees and natural and developed landscapes within the Chicago Wilderness region to a range of...

  9. Urbanization has a positive net effect on soil carbon stocks: modelling outcomes for the Moscow region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Viacheslav; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Leemans, Rik; Valentini, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Urbanization is responsible for large environmental changes worldwide. Urbanization was traditionally related to negative environmental impacts, but recent research highlights the potential to store soil carbon (C) in urban areas. The net effect of urbanization on soil C is, however, poorly understood. Negative influences of construction and soil sealing can be compensated by establishing of green areas. We explored possible net effects of future urbanization on soil C-stocks in the Moscow Region. Urbanization was modelled as a function of environmental, socio-economic and neighbourhood factors. This yielded three alternative scenarios: i) including neighbourhood factors; ii) excluding neighbourhood factors and focusing on environmental drivers; and iii) considering the New Moscow Project, establishing 1500km2 of new urbanized area following governmental regulation. All three scenarios showed substantial urbanization on 500 to 2000km2 former forests and arable lands. Our analysis shows a positive net effect on SOC stocks of 5 to 11 TgC. The highest increase occurred on the less fertile Orthic Podzols and Eutric Podzoluvisols, whereas C-storage in Orthic Luvisols, Luvic Chernozems, Dystric Histosols and Eutric Fluvisols increased less. Subsoil C-stocks were much more affected with an extra 4 to 10 TgC than those in the topsoils. The highest increase of both topsoil and subsoil C stocks occurred in the New Moscow scenario with the highest urbanization. Even when the relatively high uncertainties of the absolute C-values are considered, a clear positive net effect of urbanization on C-stocks is apparent. This highlights the potential of cities to enhance C-storage. This will progressively become more important in the future following the increasing world-wide urbanization.

  10. Urban Growth and Land-Use Structure in Two Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study develops an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA with the aim to assess changes over time in the distribution of selected uses of land in two Mediterranean urban regions (Rome and Athens with different morphology and economic functions. The study uses global and local Moran’s indexes of spatial autocorrelation to describe the land-use structure observed in the two cities in mid-1970s and late-2000s, and debates on the divergent contribution of compact growth and scattered urban expansion to changes in land use. The analysis identifies fringe landscapes as a key target for urban containment policies in sprawling cities.

  11. Urban and regional planning proposal no. Y-10-066-001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An investigation is underway to determine the applicability of ERTS-1 data to urban and regional planning problems, using data for East Central Florida. Small scale land use mapping is feasible. Urban and commercial areas are sufficiently distinguishable that ERTS-1 appears to be a useful tool for monitoring urban and commercial growth. Development patterns of cities, growth patterns of cities, and distribution and changes in certain sectors within cities can be analyzed effectively. Digital analysis methods are proving useful.

  12. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Souza-Lima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  13. Outbreak of acute Chagas disease associated with oral transmission in the Rio Negro region, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cassia de Souza-Lima

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Chagas disease is considered as emerging in the Brazilian Amazon, usually occurring in acute outbreaks. Methods We describe 17 cases of acute Chagas disease in Rio Negro, Amazonas. Results There were 15 males (average age, 31.3 years, all positive for Trypanosoma cruzi in fresh blood smear examination, and 14 positive by xenodiagnosis and PCR. The top clinical manifestations were fever, asthenia, abdominal pain, and palpitations. Electrocardiograms featured low-voltage QRS, anterosuperior divisional block, and right bundle branch block associated with anterosuperior divisional block. Conclusions All patients had consumed açaí products from Monte Alegre in the rural area around Santa Izabel do Rio Negro, Brazil.

  14. Landscape structure planning and the urban forest in polycentric city regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simson, A. J.

    2017-04-01

    The World is continuing to urbanise at an increasing and some say alarming rate, and although urbanism is not uniform in all countries, without a doubt the 21st century is the century of the Polycentric City Region. By the year 2007, for the first time in history, the world hosted more urban dwellers than rural, and in order to deal with this urban expansion in an environmentally acceptable way, the concept of the “sustainable compact city” was advocated. There is now an increasing canon of research however that suggests that such cities may not be quite as sustainable as they are claimed to be. As a consequence, the concept of “urban green infrastructure”, which includes the concept of urban forestry, is being incorporated into new thinking on the landscape structure planning of expanding cities and city regions to ensure that they provide an acceptable quality of life for their inhabitants. The environmental, economic, social, health, well-being and cultural benefits that emanate from such an approach to promoting resilient landscape structure planning are considerable. Such an approach to landscape structure planning is well-able to repair the beneficial relationship that people once had with their landscapes, a relationship that has arguably suffered as our scientific and economic cultures have tended to gain the upper hand in the post-industrial times in which we live. Human beings have had a long, deep, cultural relationship with trees, woodlands and the landscape - a relationship which transcends national cultures. The use of the term “landscape” does not refer to the rather shallow modern concept of ‘the landscape as a view”, but to the more fundamental concept of “landscape as the composition of our world”. Thus it refers to both urban, peri-urban and rural areas, and the urban forest is the prime spatial articulator of a landscape structure plan. Although the words “forest” and “forestry” are now generally understood to be

  15. The impact of urban land expansion on soil quality in rapidly urbanizing regions in China: Kunshan as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Pu, Lijie; Peng, Buzhuo; Gao, Zhonggui

    2011-04-01

    At a stage of rapid economic development and urbanization in China, most cities are faced with serious problems caused by environment deterioration such as pollution, space press, afforestation degradation, and disordering. Kunshan City, one of the most economically vigorous regions in China, has suffered a more prominent conflict between urbanization and environmental safety. In this paper, urban land expansion in Kunshan City in the Yangtze River Delta was measured with reference to the Landsat data recorded in 1982, 1991, 1995, and 2003 and change in land-use pattern in 1981, 1991, 1995, and 2004 as well as that in nutrients in soils of different purposes between the periods were analyzed to study the effect of urban land-use expansion on soil characteristics. To get a better understanding of soil nutrients, heavy metal content, and pollution, on-the-spot investigation, sampling and laboratory analysis were all conducted, and the geo-accumulation factors and revised Nemerow comprehensive index method were adopted for evaluation of the findings. The results show that the content of organic matter, total nitrogen, rapidly available nitrogen, and available phosphorus in the soil (except available potassium) all increased, and the average content of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, Hg, Se, and Zn prove to be 8.61, 0.12, 83.53, 32.49, 29.93, 30.45, 0.27, 0.24, and 93.3 mg kg(-1), respectively, showing degradation in soil quality.

  16. Regional Differences in Food Consumption in Urban Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barslund, Mikkel Christoffer

    with a recently suggested quasi maximum likelihood estimator. Augmenting the system with demographic and geographical variables in a theoretically consistent way, I find that differences in elasticities between regions are significant. The results show that regional variation has to be taken into account when...... evaluating policies or employing CGE models. Further, the approach employed here can be applied to a number of developing countries with varying geographic conditions...

  17. Regional differences in clinical care among patients with type 1 diabetes in Brazil: Brazilian Type 1 Diabetes Study Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Marília B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the characteristics of clinical care offered to type 1 diabetic patients across the four distinct regions of Brazil, with geographic and contrasting socioeconomic differences. Glycemic control, prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, screening for chronic complications and the frequency that the recommended treatment goals were met using the American Diabetes Association guidelines were evaluated. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted from December 2008 to December 2010 in 28 secondary and tertiary care public clinics in 20 Brazilian cities in north/northeast, mid-west, southeast and south regions. The data were obtained from 3,591 patients (56.0% females and 57.1% Caucasians aged 21.2 ± 11.7 years with a disease duration of 9.6 ± 8.1 years ( Results Overall, 18.4% patients had HbA1c levels Conclusions A majority of patients, mainly in the north/northeast and mid-west regions, did not meet metabolic control goals and were not screened for diabetes-related chronic complications. These results should guide governmental health policy decisions, specific to each geographic region, to improve diabetes care and decrease the negative impact diabetes has on the public health system.

  18. Impact of Bolsa Família Program on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from two Brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiara SPERANDIO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess and compare the impact of the Bolsa Família Program (Family Allowance on the nutritional status of children and adolescents from the Brazilian Northeastern and Southeastern regions. Methods: The study used data from a database derived from a subsample of the Family Budget Survey conducted from 2008 to 2009. The ratios of underweight, stunted, and overweight children were calculated. Impact measurement analysis was preceded by propensity score matching, which matches beneficiary and non-beneficiary families in relation to a set of socioeconomic features. The nearest-neighbor matching algorithm estimated the program impact. Results: The ratio of underweight children and adolescents was, on average, 1.1% smaller in the beneficiary families than in the non-beneficiary families in the Northeastern region. As for the Southeastern region, the ratio of overweight children and adolescents was, on average, 4.2% smaller in the beneficiary families. The program did not affect stunting in either region. Conclusion: The results showed the positive impact and good focus of the program. Thus, once linked to structural actions, the program may help to improve the nutritional status and quality of life of its beneficiaries.

  19. Population-Based Regional Cancer Incidence in Korea: Comparison between Urban and Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Haa-Na; Go, Se-Il; Lee, Won Sup; Kim, Yire; Choi, Hye Jung; Lee, Un Seok; Kang, Myoung Hee; Lee, Gyeong-Won; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Jung Hun; Kang, Yune Sik; Lee, Jeong-Hee; Jung, Jin-Myung; Hong, Soon Chan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in organ-specific cancer incidence according to the region and population size in Korea. Materials and Methods We reviewed the data of the cancer registration program of Gyeongnam Regional Cancer Center between 2008 and 2011. Age-standardized rates of cancer incidence were analyzed according to population size of the region and administrative zone. Results Incidence of thyroid cancer has been increasing rapidly in both urban and ...

  20. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region with reference studies from Europe and the USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...... transformed from natural to urban land in Denmark. A driving force behind this is the emergence of metropolitan regions, which integrate vast parts of rural areas into the urban system. Peri-urban areas are one of the hot spots of change. Agricultural and nature areas are under significant transformation...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...

  1. City Size, Density and Sectoral Structure: Exploring Urban Sustainability in the Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirejeva-Hopkins, Anastasia

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in history, the Global population is more urban than rural and the trend is obvious at various scales. Cities do not serve just as dynamic centres of activities, jobs and consumption markets, social interactions and cultural expressions, but also carry the weight of the main environmental problems of current times and the near future. Global Warming, air and water pollution, population growth and recourse constraints, i.e. reduction of carrying capacity of the environment are among the well known ones. The overall aim of this research is to develop mitigation (at various scales) and adaptation systems, tailored to urban settlements. They should be effective at the very local as well as regional levels, assess and introduce innovative urban technologies and policies, reduce ecological footprint of cities and increase recycling efficiency. We propose the empirical method of urban sustainability assessment, that supports our hypothesis that city functioning, the changes in its population and area growth depends on the size, average and internal densities and the geographical form. The existing cities of three regions are examined: Western and Eastern Europe (incl. Russia), Latin America and China. There are fundamental urban developmental differences and also within the first region, namely between EU countries and the Eastern part of European geographical region. The cities are considered not only as some agglomerates of areas with dense population but from the ecological point of view, namely examining inflow of food and energy and outflow of waste products across the boundaries. There are major differences between the patterns of urbanisation in the studied regions, urban systems functioning and resilience. Continuous investigation of these differenced helps building regional scenarios of cities development, population allocation and pollution management for the 21st century.

  2. Regional planning and urban infrastructure development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In North-eastern Nigeria, the Gongola region has been one of the least developed since independence. The series of geopolitical reorganizations since 1967 which lead to the gradual and consistent decentralization of the processes of social, economic and political transformation and the reduction of spatial inequalities in ...

  3. Factors associated with low levels of physical activity among elderly residents in a small urban area in the interior of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Junior, Renato Campos; Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Borges, Grasiely Faccin; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira; de Abreu, Daniela Cristina Carvalho

    2017-11-21

    The aim of the present study was to investigate levels of physical activity and risk factors for inactivity in older adults living in an urban area in the interior of the Amazonas state, Brazil. Data were collected between 2013 and 2015 from 274 individuals 60 years of age or older who resided in the interior of the Brazilian Amazon. Sociodemographic, general health, functional capacity and physical performance were associated with self-referred physical activity level. A multivariate analysis, after adjustment, showed that being a man, having a body mass index above 27kg/m2, never having lived in riverside communities and having less than three associated chronic diseases were independent risk factors for low levels of physical activity among elderly residing in the interior of the Brazilian Amazon. Few studies have been conducted about the characteristics that are singular to this population. Our results suggest that the physical activity level and, consequently, the aging process of the elderly is influenced by where they have resided throughout their lives. Additionally, the results showed particular risk factors associated with low physical activity level among older adults residing in the interior of the state of Amazonas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simulation of the Impacts of Urbanization on Winter Meteorological Fields over the Pearl River Delta Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixing Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of urbanization on weather in Guangdong Province, China, were studied using the Weather Research and Forecasting model from 31 December 2009 through 3 January 2010. Model outputs were compared with extensive monitoring of meteorological data to examine the simulation ability. Model results between tests (with and without land-use change show that the urbanization had major effects on meteorological fields across nearly the entire Pearl River Delta region and particularly in urban areas. Studied fields (wind speed, temperature, precipitation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes were affected by the urbanization of the PRD region. The major influences occurred in urban areas, where wind speeds decreased greatly, while the daytime surface upward sensible heat flux clearly increased. Unlike the sensible heat flux, the latent heat flux had a nonmonotonic increase or decrease. As a consequence of the two heat fluxes, 2-m temperature varied with location and time. Change of precipitation was complex. The main rain band became more concentrated, while precipitation decreased upwind of the urban area and increased downwind.

  5. A spatial equilibrium model for region size, urbanization ratio, and rural structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, F; Guldmann J--

    1997-05-01

    "Earlier economic models of city size have either focused on urban agglomeration effects while ignoring the spatial structure of the rural hinterland, or made unrealistic assumptions (for example, uniform rural population distribution) so as to simplify the problem. Following the classic von Thunen framework, we present a two-sector spatial equilibrium model of a city located at the center of an agricultural hinterland. The city produces industrial goods, and the rural area produces agricultural goods. Both goods are consumed both by urban and by rural residents. Market equilibrium for these goods determines: (1) the spatial size of the region, (2) the urbanization ratio (urban to total population) and the population size of the city, and (3) the rural spatial structure (wage, population distribution, land rent, and agricultural yield). Given various sets of exogenous parameters pertaining to the industrial, agricultural, and transportation production functions and to population preferences, the model is solved numerically, and response functions are estimated and analyzed." excerpt

  6. Green Infrastructure as a tool to support spatial planning in European urban regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafortezza, Raffaele; Davies, Clive; Sanesi, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    services''. Secondly, drawing on the principles of landscape ecology linkages between ecosystems are being stressed through the concept of ``ecological networks''. Thirdly, there is increasing recognition of the beneficial relationship between access to green space and improved public ``health and well......-being''. These services and relationships are being linked together in both academic literature and policy practice in what is termed the Green Infrastructure (GI) approach. It is argued that GI networks are discernible at different scales, and across urban, peri-urban and rural landscapes. Furthermore, GI is considered...... as supportive of ecological processes whilst simultaneously contributing to better human health and well-being. Moreover, especially in urban regions, GI is being placed at the same level as other essential urban infrastructure. Recognising these developments the authors have devised an updated conceptual...

  7. ENVIRONMENT DEGRADING AGENTS AT THE BRAZILIAN NORTHEAST: A STUDY OF CASE AT THE SERIDÓ POTIGUAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Fransualdo de Azevedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The occupation and settlement of the Brazilian geographical space by the European settlers happened in a quite anachronic and heterogeneous way, in the historical and space point of view. In what it refers to the northeast of the Brazil, two settlement fronts stood out with base mainly on two primary economical activities: at the Atlantic forest zone the sugar-cane planters dropped the forest and there the farmers implanted the sugar plantations, totally linked to the economical market of the European metropolis, all this in the centuries XVI and XVII; in the backland central the cattle creators that ventured to penetrate the interiorsexpanding your flocks Caatinga biome inside were aiming at gives support to the animal driving force of the mills of sugar-cane at forest zone, as well as to provision with meat the population. Several conflicts were observed between the cane planters and the cattle creators because they disputed for lands for the development of your activities at the forest zone. After years of conflicts the delimitation behind space and territorial was established for the sameones. Now, Atlantic Forest remainder serve as ecological refuges for the fauna that still resists to the devastation caused by the man. The soil was indeed quite cultivated, in some cases in a disordered way, what provoked a considerable loss of your production potential, it’s presented a several focuses erosion and degradation, although the activity of sugar-cane is still strong at that area.

  8. Secondary Metabolite Profile, Antioxidant Capacity, and Mosquito Repellent Activity of Bixa orellana from Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian flora was widely used as source of food and natural remedies to treat various diseases. Bixa orellana L. (Bixaceae, also known as annatto, urucù, or achiote, is a symbol for the Amazonian tribes that traditionally use its seeds as coloured ink to paint their bodies for religious ceremonies. The aim of this study was to investigate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs profile of B. orellana fresh fruits (in vivo sampled, dried seeds, wood, bark, and leaves analyzed with Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. A screening on phenolic content (the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and antiradical activity (DPPH assay of seeds was also conducted. In addition, the repellent properties of seed extracts against Aedes aegypti L. were investigated. Volatile compounds detected in B. orellana samples consisted mainly of sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, and arenes: α-humulene is the major volatile compound present in seed extracts followed by D-germacrene, γ-elemene, and caryophyllene. B. orellana proved to be a good source of antioxidants. Preliminary data on repellency against A. aegypti of three different dried seed extracts (hexane, ethanol, and ethanol/water indicated a significant skin protection activity. A protection of 90% and 73% for hexane and ethanol/water extracts was recorded.

  9. Urban land use in Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius Region, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva; Depellegrin, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Urban development is one of the major causes of land degradation and pressure on protected areas. (Hansen and DeFries, 2007; Salvati and Sabbi, 2011). The urban areas in the fringe of the protected areas are a source of pollutants considered a negative disturbance to the ecosystems services and biodiversity within the protected areas. The distance between urban and protected areas is decreasing and in the future it is estimated that 88% of the world protected areas will be affected by urban growth (McDonald et al., 2008). The surrounding or buffer areas, are lands adjacent to the Natura 2000 territories, which aim to reduce the human influence within the protected areas. Presently there is no common definition of buffer area it is not clear among stakeholders (Van Dasselaar, 2013). The objective of this work is to identify the urban land use in the Natura 2000 areas in Vilnius region, Lithuania. Data from Natura 2000 areas and urban land use (Corine Land Cover 2006) in Vilnius region were collected in the European Environmental Agency website (http://www.eea.europa.eu/). In the surroundings of each Natura 2000 site, we identified the urban land use at the distances of 500, 1000 and 1500 m. The Natura 2000 sites and the urban areas occupied a total of 13.2% and 3.4% of Vilnius region, respectively. However, the urban areas are very dispersed in the territory, especially in the surroundings of Vilnius, which since the end of the XX century is growing (Pereira et al., 2014). This can represent a major threat to Natura 2000 areas ecosystem services quality and biodiversity. Overall, urban areas occupied approximately 50 km2, in the buffer area of 500 m, 95 km2 in buffer area of 1000 m and 131 km2 in the buffer area of 1500 km2. This shows that Natura 2000 surrounding areas in Vilnius region are subjected to a high urban pressure. This is especially evident in the Vilnius city and is a consequence of the uncontrolled urban development. The lack of a clear legislation

  10. Contribution of foods consumed away from home to energy intake in Brazilian urban areas: the 2008-9 Nationwide Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2013-04-14

    The objectives of the present study were to estimate the dietary contribution of away-from-home food consumption, to describe the contribution of away-from-home foods to energy intake, and to investigate the association between eating away from home and total energy intake in Brazilian urban areas. In the first Brazilian Nationwide Dietary Survey, conducted in 2008-9, food records were collected from 25 753 individuals aged 10 years or older, living in urban areas of Brazil. Foods were grouped into thirty-three food groups, and the mean energy intake provided by away-from-home food consumption was estimated. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between away-from-home food consumption and total energy intake. All analyses considered the sample design effect. Of the total population, 43 % consumed at least one food item away from home. The mean energy intake from foods consumed away from home was 1408 kJ (337 kcal), averaging 18 % of total energy intake. Eating away from home was associated with increased total energy intake, except for men in the highest income level. The highest percentage of away-from-home energy sources was for food with a high content of energy, such as alcoholic beverages (59 %), baked and deep-fried snacks (54 %), pizza (42 %), soft drinks (40 %), sandwiches (40 %), and sweets and desserts (30 %). The consumption of foods away from home was related to a greater energy intake. The characterisation of away-from-home food habits is necessary in order to properly design strategies to promote healthy food consumption in the away-from-home environment.

  11. Urban effects on regional climate: a case study in the Phoenix and Tucson ‘sun’ corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao Yang,; Francina Dominguez,; Hoshin Gupta,; Xubin Zeng,; Norman, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) due to urban expansion alter the surface albedo, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity of the surface. Consequently, the energy balance in urban regions is different from that of natural surfaces. To evaluate the changes in regional climate that could arise due to projected urbanization in the Phoenix-Tucson corridor, Arizona, we applied the coupled WRF-NOAH-UCM (which includes a detailed urban radiation scheme) to this region. Land cover changes were represented using land cover data for 2005 and projections to 2050, and historical North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data were used to specify the lateral boundary conditions. Results suggest that temperature changes will be well defined, reflecting the urban heat island (UHI) effect within areas experiencing LULCC. Changes in precipitation are less robust, but seem to indicate reductions in precipitation over the mountainous regions northeast of Phoenix and decreased evening precipitation over the newly-urbanized area.

  12. Simulation of urban and regional air pollution in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntaseer Billah Ibn Azkar, M. A.; Chatani, Satoru; Sudo, Kengo

    2012-04-01

    We have developed a regional scale air quality simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) - Community Multiscale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) to assess the suitability of such an advanced modeling system for predicting the air quality of Bangladesh and its surrounding region. The Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) was used as the emission input in this modeling approach. Both meteorological and chemical model performance were evaluated with observations including satellite data. Comparison between simulated and observed meteorological parameters revealed that the WRF can generate the necessary meteorological inputs for CMAQ. Comparison of observed and simulated concentrations of different air pollutants revealed that CMAQ greatly underestimates the concentrations of key pollutants. Comparison with satellite observations revealed that CMAQ reproduces the spatial distribution of NO2with some underestimation in Bangladesh and India. The simulated AOD and satellite-retrieved AOD showed good temporal and spatial agreement mutually, with a correlation coefficient of 0.58. Sensitivity simulation using higher horizontal resolution emission data made by re-gridding the REAS inventory with the population distribution improved the CMAQ performance. Nevertheless, CMAQ underestimated the pollutant concentrations in Dhaka. Uncertainties in the emission inventory and in the lack of time variation in emissions input mainly contributed to the model underestimation. Model predictions show that 36-72% PM10 and 15-60% PM2.5 in Dhaka might be contributed from brick kiln emissions in monthly average of January 2004. The chemical composition of PM2.5showed that the considerable amounts of secondary aerosols in Dhaka and carbonaceous components (particularly organic carbon) are most responsible for the model underestimation. Results suggest that improvements of emission inputs and more detailed sensitivity analysis of CMAQ model are important to assess the reliability

  13. Effects Of Urbanization On Interconnected Water Cycle, Microclimate And Energy Usage In Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyachandran, I.; Burian, S. J.; Pardyjak, E.

    2008-12-01

    Landscape changes induced by urbanization have been found to influence urban water cycle components including evapotranspiration (ET), runoff and water use. For instance, residential areas in semi-arid regions with vegetation subjected to lawn watering have higher ET rates when compared to the other areas in an urban environment. This increase associated with lawn irrigation can contribute to water scarcity problems. Conversely, development of more built surfaces with reduced vegetation leads to increased temperatures and Urban Heat Islands. This increase in temperature, can lead to an increase in energy usage. In order, to quantify the relationship of interconnected landscape, water cycle, microclimate and energy usage there is a need for a modeling system to represent landscape and surface characteristics specific to location and time. A methodology capable of modeling the interconnected urban scenario via a three-step process is presented in this paper. To account for the variability of urban form, the roughness length variation should be represented. An approach to estimate roughness length from Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been introduced and the results are included in this paper. The effect of varying urban form and lawn irrigation practices on latent and sensible heat fluxes is represented and modeled by the Urban Heat Flux Model introduced in this paper. The Urban Heat Flux (UHFL) model has the capability to model the sensible and latent heat fluxes spatially and temporally by being able to represent varying conditions of roughness length, surface resistance and lawn irrigation patterns (soil moisture). The UHFL model has an advantage over the existing models by being driven by easily acquirable meteorological data and remote sensing data (which are available for all regions). The overall modeling framework consists of three sub-models: UHFL, the urban climate model (to simulate urban microclimate) and the energy and water usage simulation

  14. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials...... of the experience economy approach as a new perspective on economic phenomena as well as on territorial development....

  15. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  16. Lean diesel technology and human health: a case study in six Brazilian metropolitan regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Afonso de André

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Due to their toxicity, diesel emissions have been submitted to progressively more restrictive regulations in developed countries. However, in Brazil, the implementation of the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy (Euro IV standards for vehicles produced in 2009 and low-sulfur diesel with 50 ppm of sulfur was postponed until 2012 without a comprehensive analysis of the effect of this delay on public health parameters. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy on health indicators and monetary health costs in Brazil. METHODS: The primary estimator of exposure to air pollution was the concentration of ambient fine particulate matter (particles with aerodynamic diameters <2.5 μm, [PM2.5]. This parameter was measured daily in six Brazilian metropolitan areas during 2007-2008. We calculated 1 the projected reduction in the PM2.5 that would have been achieved if the Euro IV standards had been implemented in 2009 and 2 the expected reduction after implementation in 2012. The difference between these two time curves was transformed into health outcomes using previous dose-response curves. The economic valuation was performed based on the DALY (disability-adjusted life years method. RESULTS: The delay in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy will result in an estimated excess of 13,984 deaths up to 2040. Health expenditures are projected to be increased by nearly US$ 11.5 billion for the same period. CONCLUSIONS: The present results indicate that a significant health burden will occur because of the postponement in implementing the Cleaner Diesel Technologies policy. These results also reinforce the concept that health effects must be considered when revising fuel and emission policies.

  17. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca +2 , Mg +2 , and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg +2 than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  18. Preserving ecosystem services in urban regions: challenges for planning and best practice examples from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Silvia

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a literature review that explores the challenges for planning in urban regions in connection with the preservation of ecosystem services. It further presents some best practice examples for meeting these challenges. The demand for the provision of ecosystem services within urban regions changed during the transition from a largely agrarian society to an industrial society and, most recently, to a service society. Although in the past, provisioning services such as food production or the provision of raw material were decisive for urban development, today cultural services, e.g., clear views or nearby recreation areas, have become increasingly important. According to the literature, soil sealing is the greatest threat urbanization poses toward ecosystem services, as it compromises all of them. Spatially extensive cities with a high building density particularly inhibit regulating services like the regulation of temperature or water surface runoff. Conversely, scattered settlement patterns may lead to very small remnants of open space that cannot reasonably serve as natural habitat, agricultural land, or recreation area. The challenges for planning in urban regions are: 1) specifying regulations that define outer limits to the development of each settlement unit, 2) comprehensive planning with focal points for development, and limiting access and development at other places, and 3) compensating for new soil sealing by restoring nearby sealed areas. The article presents 3 best-practice examples that support these principles: designating areas with a particular soil quality that should not be built over, offering incentives for corporate planning in urban regions, and restoring a country road in connection with a motorway construction. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  19. Preserving Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: Challenges for Planning and Best Practice Examples from Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a literature review that explores the challenges for planning in urban regions in connection with the preservation of ecosystem services. It further presents some best practice examples for meeting these challenges. The demand for the provision of ecosystem services within urban regions changed during the transition from a largely agrarian society to an industrial society and, most recently, to a service society. Although in the past, provisioning services such as food production or the provision of raw material were decisive for urban development, today cultural services, e.g., clear views or nearby recreation areas, have become increasingly important. According to the literature, soil sealing is the greatest threat urbanization poses toward ecosystem services, as it compromises all of them. Spatially extensive cities with a high building density particularly inhibit regulating services like the regulation of temperature or water surface runoff. Conversely, scattered settlement patterns may lead to very small remnants of open space that cannot reasonably serve as natural habitat, agricultural land, or recreation area. The challenges for planning in urban regions are: 1) specifying regulations that define outer limits to the development of each settlement unit, 2) comprehensive planning with focal points for development, and limiting access and development at other places, and 3) compensating for new soil sealing by restoring nearby sealed areas. The article presents 3 best-practice examples that support these principles: designating areas with a particular soil quality that should not be built over, offering incentives for corporate planning in urban regions, and restoring a country road in connection with a motorway construction. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2013; 9: 243–251. © 2013 SETAC PMID:23307283

  20. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production along railway tracks: a case study from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA contributes to food security, serves as an opportunity for income generation, and provides recreational services to urban citizens. With a population of 21 Million people, of which 60 % live in slums, UPA activities can play a crucial role in supporting people’s livelihoods in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR. This study was conducted to characterize the railway gardens, determine their role in UPA production, and assess potential risks. It comprises a baseline survey among 38 railway gardeners across MMR characterized by different demographic, socio-economic, migratory, and labour characteristics. Soil, irrigation water, and plant samples were analyzed for nutrients, heavy metals, and microbial load. All the railway gardeners practiced agriculture as a primary source of income and cultivated seasonal vegetables such as lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., and white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus which were irrigated with waste water. This irrigation water was loaded with 7–28 mg N l^(−1, 0.3–7 mg P l^(−1, and 8–32 mg K l^(−1, but also contained heavy metals such as lead (0.02–0.06 mg Pb l^(−1, cadmium (0.03–0.17 mg Cd l^(−1, mercury (0.001–0.005 mg Hg l^(−1, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli (1,100 most probable number per 100 ml. Levels of heavy metals exceeded the critical thresholds in surface soils (Cr, Ni, and Sr and produce (Pb, Cd, and Sr. The railway garden production systems can substantially foster employment and reduce economic deprivation of urban poor particularly slum dwellers and migrant people. However this production system may also cause possible health risks to producers and consumers.

  1. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  2. How Does Education Affect Environmental Knowledge: A Survey in Urban and Regional Planning Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Baris; Ergen, Zeynep

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring of environmental knowledge of students who select environmental science course in Urban and Regional Planning Department at Bozok University. This article includes a survey research, with this survey, we can get information about knowledge of environment of students and where they learn them. First briefly, it provides…

  3. Differences in particulate matter concentrations between urban and rural regions under current and changing climate conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mues, A.; Manders, A.; Schaap, M.; Ulft, L.H. van; Meijgaard, E. van; Builtjes, P.

    2013-01-01

    Pollution levels in urban areas and their surrounding rural regions differ due to different sources and density of emissions, different composition of pollutants as well as specific meteorological effects. These concentration differences for PM10 are investigated and compared in this study for three

  4. From fast to slow processes in the evolution of urban and regional settlement structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Weidlich

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex systems consist of many intertwined organizational levels starting from micro-structures and ending with macrostructures. Their evolution takes place on different time scales: Micropatterns exhibit a fast dynamics whereas macropatterns develop slowly. Urban and regional science can make use of this fact by constructing a hierarchy of models on different spatio-temporal scales.

  5. Efficient assessments of urban tree planting potential around the southern Piedmont region of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Merry; Jacek Siry; Pete Bettinger; Michael Bowker

    2013-01-01

    Urban forest carbon offset projects have the potential todraw substantial amounts ofcarbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere ,increase green space,and possibly generate revenue for landowne rsincities capable of trading credits associated with these projects.The area of15cities inornear the Piedmont region of the southern...

  6. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  7. Spectral fluctuation analysis of ionospheric inhomogeneities over Brazilian territory. Part I: Equatorial F-region plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, G.; Rosa, R. R.; de Meneses, F. C.; Muralikrishna, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this Part I of a more general paper on the analysis of ionospheric irregularities over Brazilian territory, we apply the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method to evaluate in situ equatorial F-region plasma bubbles events carried out with a sounding rocket over equatorial region in Brazil. The range of scaling exponents derived from the DFA technique are compared to previous results obtained using Power Spectral Density (PSD) technique (which is widely used in this area despite its recognized inaccuracy to analyze short series). The results obtained in this first part of our investigation, using DFA, also show a wide range of spectral index variation with standard deviation of the same order found from the previous application using PSD (σm ≫ 10 %). Therefore, since the dependence of the technique are disregarded, our findings also supports that the observed lack of a universality class characterized by the nonexistence of a single spectral index (with σm ≈ 2 %) may be due to non-homogeneity energy cascades that can appear in the incoherent ionospheric turbulent process.

  8. The Dynamics of Urban Land Rent in Italian Regional Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetto Manganelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research tries to interpret the results of the empirical analysis of urban land value variations from 1977 to 2012 in the regional Italian capital cities based on the well-known theory of urban land rent. The historical series to be analyzed were obtained as the difference between the market value of a property and its cost of production. The paper shows, in quantitative terms, how differential and absolute rents will be translated into the dynamics of land values in relation to local specificities. The analysis of urban land rent evolution and the comparative study of the phenomenon compared to urban geography highlighted the difference among the various urban systems investigated and the criticalities generated by processes of transformation that have affected some Italian urban contexts. The difference is essentially explained by the different weight of macroeconomic variables, related to national and international contexts, and microeconomic variables, closely related to local demand and supply, in the process of rent formation.

  9. Impact of future urban growth on regional climate changes in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsu; Kim, Yoo-Keun; Song, Sang-Keun; Lee, Hwa Woon

    2016-11-15

    The influence of changes in future urban growth (e.g., land use changes) on the future climate variability in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), Korea was evaluated using the WRF model and an urban growth model (SLEUTH). The land use changes in the study area were simulated using the SLEUTH model under three different urban growth scenarios: (1) current development trends scenario (SC 1), (2) managed development scenario (SC 2) and (3) ecological development scenario (SC 3). The maximum difference in the ratio of urban growth between SC 1 and SC 3 (SC 1 - SC 3) for 50years (2000-2050) was approximately 6.72%, leading to the largest differences (0.01°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively) in the mean air temperature at 2m (T2) and wind speed at 10m (WS10). From WRF-SLEUTH modeling, the effects of future urban growth (or future land use changes) in the SMA are expected to result in increases in the spatial mean T2 and WS10 of up to 1.15°C and 0.03ms(-1), respectively, possibly due to thermal circulation caused by the thermal differences between urban and rural regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Constancy, Distribution, and Frequency of Lepidoptera Defoliators of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus urophylla (Myrtaceae) in Four Brazilian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, G T; Zanuncio, J C; de S Tavares, W; de S Ramalho, F; Serrão, J E

    2016-12-01

    The growth of the Brazilian forest sector with monocultures favors the adaptation of Arthropoda pests. The Lepidoptera order includes major pests of Eucalyptus spp. (Myrtaceae). The aim of this work is to study the population constancy, distribution, and frequency of Lepidoptera primary pests of Eucalyptus spp. Lepidoptera pests in Eucalyptus spp. plantations were collected in Três Marias and Guanhães (state of Minas Gerais), Niquelândia (state of Goiás), and Monte Dourado (state of Pará), Brazil, for a period of 5 years, with light traps and captures, every 15 days, for every region. The number of primary pest species (12) has been similar in the four regions, and even with 1.5 to 2.4% of the total species collected, this group has shown a high frequency, especially in Três Marias, Niquelândia, and Monte Dourado, with 66.3, 54.2, and 40.0% of the individuals collected, respectively, for 5 years. The primary pest species have been constant and frequent in all the regions, with population peaks from February to September in Três Marias, February and May in Niquelândia, and from July to September in Monte Dourado. The highest population peaks of these species have been recorded when the Eucalyptus spp. plants are 3 to 6 years old. The Guanhães region is more stable and, therefore, has a lower possibility of outbreaks of the Lepidoptera primary pest species.

  11. Osmotically driven membrane process for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenyu

    2014-01-01

    An osmotic detention pond was proposed for the management of urban runoff in coastal regions. Forward osmosis was employed as a bridge to utilize natural osmotic energy from seawater for concentrating and reusing urban runoff water, and as a barrier to reject runoff-derived contaminants. The process was demonstrated by a lab scale testing using synthetic urban runoff (as the feed solution) and synthetic seawater (as the draw solution). The submerged forward osmosis process was conducted under neutral, acidic and natural organic matter fouling condition, respectively. Forward osmosis flux decline was mainly attributed to the dilution of seawater during a semi-batch process in lab scale testing. However, it is possible to minimize flux decrease by maintaining a constant salinity at the draw solution side. Various changes in urban runoff water quality, including acidic conditions (acid rain) and natural organic matter presence, did not show significant effects on the rejection of trace metals and phosphorus, but influenced salt leakage and the rejection of nitrate and total nitrogen. Rejection of trace metals varied from 98% to 100%, phosphorus varied from 97% to 100, nitrate varied from 52% to 94% and total nitrogen varied from 65% to 85% under different feed water conditions. The work described in this study contributes to an integrated system of urban runoff management, seawater desalination and possible power generation in coastal regions to achieve a sustainable solution to the water-energy nexus. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. The effect of climate change on urban drainage: an evaluation based on regional climate model simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grum, M; Jørgensen, A T; Johansen, R M; Linde, J J

    2006-01-01

    That we are in a period of extraordinary rates of climate change is today evident. These climate changes are likely to impact local weather conditions with direct impacts on precipitation patterns and urban drainage. In recent years several studies have focused on revealing the nature, extent and consequences of climate change on urban drainage and urban runoff pollution issues. This study uses predictions from a regional climate model to look at the effects of climate change on extreme precipitation events. Results are presented in terms of point rainfall extremes. The analysis involves three steps: Firstly, hourly rainfall intensities from 16 point rain gauges are averaged to create a rain gauge equivalent intensity for a 25 x 25 km square corresponding to one grid cell in the climate model. Secondly, the differences between present and future in the climate model is used to project the hourly extreme statistics of the rain gauge surface into the future. Thirdly, the future extremes of the square surface area are downscaled to give point rainfall extremes of the future. The results and conclusions rely heavily on the regional model's suitability in describing extremes at timescales relevant to urban drainage. However, in spite of these uncertainties, and others raised in the discussion, the tendency is clear: extreme precipitation events effecting urban drainage and causing flooding will become more frequent as a result of climate change.

  13. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  14. 20-Year Trend of CVD Risk Factors: Urban and Rural National Capital Region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Roy, Ambuj; Praveen, Pradeep A; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Gupta, Ruby; Amarchand, Ritvik; Kondal, Dimple; Singh, Kalpana; Sharma, Meenakshi; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Tandon, Nikhil; Reddy, Kolli Srinath; Krishnan, Anand

    2017-09-01

    The World Health Organization and the Government of India have set targets to reduce burden of noncommunicable diseases. Information on population level trend of risk factors would provide insights regarding the possibility of achieving them. This study aimed to determine the population trends of cardiovascular disease risk factors in the National Capital Region of Delhi over 2 decades. Two representative cross-sectional surveys were conducted among men and women ages 35 to 64 years, residing in the urban and rural areas (survey 1 [1991 to 1994] and survey 2 [2010 to 2012]) using similar methodology. The urban sample was collected from the Municipal Corporation of Delhi, and the rural sample was from the Ballabgarh block of the adjoining state of Haryana. A total of 3,048 and 2,052 subjects of urban areas and 2,487 and 1,917 subjects of rural areas were surveyed in surveys 1 and 2, respectively. Behavioral (smoking and alcohol use), physical (overweight, abdominal obesity, and raised blood pressure), and biochemical risk factors (raised fasting blood glucose and raised total cholesterol) were measured using standard tools. Urban and rural prevalence of overweight, alcohol use, raised blood pressure, and blood glucose increased with increases in age-standardized mean body mass index (urban: 24.4 to 26.0 kg/m2; rural: 20.2 to 23.0 kg/m2), systolic blood pressure (urban: 121.2 to 129.8 mm Hg; rural: 114.9 to 123.1 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (urban: 74.3 to 83.9 mm Hg; rural: 73.1 to 82.3 mm Hg), and fasting glucose (urban: 101.2 to 115.3 mg/dl; rural: 83.9 to 103.2 mg/dl). The smoking prevalence increased in the rural male population. Raised total cholesterol declined in urban and increased significantly in rural populations. The study indicates an overall worsening of population levels of all cardiovascular disease risk factors in National Capital Region over past 20 years, though some signs of stabilization and reversal are seen in urban Delhi. Copyright

  15. Regional dynamical downscaling for urban environment to estimate the potential impact of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göndöcs, Júlia; Breuer, Hajnalka; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit

    2017-04-01

    The RegCM regional climate model is designed to capture the regional meteorological processes with finer horizontal resolution than the global climate models, however, the scale of urban processes requires even finer scale, and definitely non-hydrostatic approach. Furthermore, in our target area, i.e. the Carpathian Basin, the built-up areas are not presented well enough (this is especially true for Budapest, the capital of Hungary). That is why to analyse the effects of climate change on urban environment dynamical downscaling should use finer scale and more complex terrain. In our model configuration, downscaling is carried out with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, with updated surface databases, such as land use (with 5 urban surface categories), climatological albedo, topography, and spatial distribution of urban parameters. To execute the model, the initial fields needed by WRF are initialized using the RegCM (RegCM4.3) RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 output fields at every 6 hours on selected dates during three periods (past: 1971-2000; future: 2016-2045 and 2061-2090). Earlier studies showed that the frequency and the lifetime of heat waves are projected to last longer and be more intense, which causes further stress both for the human body and the environment. Based on these considerations, the WRF model coupled to multilayer urban canopy parameterisation was run only for the heat wave days in July from the aforementioned periods in the past and in the future, as well. In order to keep the stability of the simulations, the entire downscaling is carried out in several steps using gradually smaller domains embedded to each other. Thus, three embedded target areas have been determined for this modelling study, the largest external area covers the whole Pannonian region with 10 km horizontal resolution, whereas the innermost domain covers Budapest and its surroundings with 1 km grid resolution. Among the numerous derived fields

  16. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil.

  17. Socio-spatial transformatioSocio-Spatial Transformations, Suburbanisation, and Voting Behaviour in the Vilnius Urban Regionns, suburbanisation, and voting behaviour in the Vilnius urban region (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ubareviciene, R.; Burneika, D.; Van Ham, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the interrelationship between the process of suburbanization and a changing political and ethnic landscape in the Vilnius urban region. The region surrounding Vilnius city is dominated by Polish identity residents while those who suburbanise into the region are mainly ethnic

  18. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  19. Old Fragments of Forest Inside an Urban Area Are Able to Keep Orchid Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) Assemblages? The Case of a Brazilian Historical City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R P; Martins, C; Dutra, M C; Mentone, C B; Antonini, Y

    2013-10-01

    Retention of habitat fragments within the urban matrix can provide critical resources for the maintenance of regional biodiversity while still providing socio-economic value. Euglossini bees are important components in a community as they are important pollinators for economically valuable plants as well as hundreds of orchid species. However, some species are very sensitive to environmental impacts like urbanization. This study presents the role of antique urban fragments in a historical city in Brazil and compares it with a conservation area on the aspects of orchid bee assemblage, such as richness, composition, and abundance. Four fragments inside the city of Ouro Preto and three inside Parque Estadual do Itacolomi (PEIT) were sampled for Euglossini bees. Sorensen similarity index was used to compare community composition. The Mantel test was applied to verify the hypothesis that an urban center is a barrier for the mobility of the individuals. Fourteen Euglossini species from the region were registered. Close to 75% of the sampled bees were collected from the PEIT sampling areas. The fragments presented differences in Euglossini richness and abundance. A majority of the sampled fragments were dominated by the Eulaema cingulata Fabricius, Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier, and Euglossa securigera Dressler species. We found differences on community composition between the fragments localized in PEIT and those located in the urban center. The data suggest that there is a possible flux of individuals between the sampled fragments. The various small forest fragments in Ouro Preto, primarily in backyards, may also serve as stepping stones between sampled fragments.

  20. Conhecimento sobre desenvolvimento infantil em mães primíparas de diferentes centros urbanos do Brasil Primiparous mothers' knowledge about child development of different Brazilian urban centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lucia Seidl de Moura

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognições parentais constituem importante componente do contexto sociocultural em que se dá o desenvolvimento infantil, e a literatura brasileira sobre o tema é ainda escassa. O objetivo deste estudo é analisar a relação entre conhecimento sobre desenvolvimento infantil e variáveis da mãe e do bebê. Foi estudada uma amostra de 405 mães primíparas, com filhos menores de um ano, distribuída por seis cidades em diferentes regiões do Brasil. Utilizou-se o Inventário do Conhecimento do Desenvolvimento Infantil (KIDI. Foram encontrados efeitos significativos de escolaridade materna e centro urbano. O efeito significativo de escolaridade materna foi verificado em todas as cidades, menos em Porto Alegre, possivelmente pelas políticas de atenção materno-infantil aí implementadas. Estes resultados contribuem para o conhecimento de aspectos do contexto de desenvolvimento de crianças brasileiras, e têm implicações para o planejamento de programas de intervenção que visem à promoção de saúde.Parental cognitions are important components of the sociocultural context of child development. The Brazilian literature regarding this subject is still scarce. The purpose of this research is to analyze the relationship between knowledge of infant development and different variables concerning the mother and the infant. Four hundred and five primiparous mothers with their children less than 1 year old, in six cities of different regions of Brazil, took part in the study. The Knowledge of Infant Development Inventory (KIDI was used. Mothers' educational level and urban center where they lived showed significant effects. This result was found for groups of all urban centers studied, with the exception of Porto Alegre. This result may reflect the different public policies concerning child and maternal care in that city. These findings contribute towards understanding important aspects of the developmental context of Brazilian children. They

  1. Oxidative stress markers in fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to urban and agricultural effluents in the Brazilian Pampa biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Silva, D G; Nunes, M E M; Wallau, G L; Martins, I K; Zemolin, A P P; Cruz, L C; Rodrigues, N R; Lopes, A R; Posser, T; Franco, J L

    2015-10-01

    Aquatic ecosystems are under constant risk due to industrial, agricultural, and urban activities, compromising water quality and preservation of aquatic biota. The assessment of toxicological impacts caused by pollutants to aquatic environment using biomarker measurements in fish can provide reliable data to estimate sublethal effects posed by chemicals in contaminated areas. In this study, fish (Astyanax sp. and Danio rerio) exposed to agricultural and urban effluents at the Vacacaí River, Brazil, were tested for potential signs of aquatic contamination. This river comprehends one of the main watercourses of the Brazilian Pampa, a biome with a large biodiversity that has been neglected in terms of environmental and social-economic development. Sites S1 and S2 were chosen by their proximity to crops and wastewater discharge points, while reference site was located upstream of S1 and S2, in an apparently non-degraded area. Fish muscle and brain tissues were processed for determination of acetylcholinesterase as well as oxidative stress-related biomarkers. The results showed signs of environmental contamination, hallmarked by significant changes in cholinesterase activity, expression of metallothionein, antioxidant enzymes, glutathione levels, and activation of antioxidant/cell stress response signaling pathways in fish exposed to contaminated sites when compared to reference. Based on these results, it is evidenced that urban and agricultural activities are posing risk to the environmental quality of water resources at the studied area. It is also demonstrated that cell stress biomarkers may serve as important tools for biomonitoring and development of risk assessment protocols in the Pampa biome.

  2. Spatial analysis spotlighting early childhood leprosy transmission in a hyperendemic municipality of the Brazilian Amazon region

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Bisanzio, Donal; Guimarães, Layana de Souza; Spencer, John Stewart; Vazquez-Prokopec, Gonzalo M; Kitron, Uriel; Salgado, Claudio Guedes

    2014-01-01

    More than 200,000 new cases of leprosy were reported by 105 countries in 2011. The disease is a public health problem in Brazil, particularly within high-burden pockets in the Amazon region where leprosy is hyperendemic among children...

  3. THE BRAZILIAN BIODIESEL PROGRAM AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT: CASES FROM NORTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Alves Finco

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production has been greatly discussed in Brazil. In 2004, these debates led the country to develop new policies and implement a national program for biodiesel use and production (PNPB with the intent to increase the share of renewable energy and foster regional development. In this context, the present study aims to assess the impacts of PNPB on regional development in Tocantins State, northern Brazil. For this purpose, ranges of socio-economic indicators were collected among national and regional stakeholders, as well as specific literature. The preliminary results point out that distribution logistics appears to be a considerable constraint to the success of the PNPB. The concentration of biodiesel industries in the central-west region of the country, and the large distances to deliver biodiesel in the northern Brazil make biodiesel prices non-competitive when compared to fossil diesel. The results also suggest that the PNPB is not succeeding in promoting the integration of family agriculture in the Tocantins state, especially due to the structural difficulty of the agricultural sector, as well as the technical and political shortcomings presented by the mechanism of incentives.

  4. Phosphorus flows in a peri-urban region with intensive food production: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittman, S; Sheppard, S C; Poon, D; Hunt, D E

    2017-02-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) in peri-urban regions is an emerging issue, whereas there is global depletion of quality mined supplies of P. The flow of P across the landscape leading to regional surpluses and deficits is not well understood. We computed a regional P budget with internal P flows in a fairly discreet peri-urban region (Lower Fraser Valley, BC) with closely juxtaposed agricultural and non-agricultural urban ecosystems, in order to clarify the relationship between food production, food consumption and other activities involving use of P (e.g. keeping pets and horses and using soaps). We hypothesized changes that might notably improve P efficiency in peri-urban settings and wider regions. Livestock feed for the dairy and poultry sectors was the largest influx of P: the peri-urban land is too limited to grow feed grains and they are imported from outside the region. Fertilizer and import of food were the next largest influxes of P and a similar amount of P flows as food from the agricultural to urban ecosystems. Export of horticultural crops (berries and greenhouse crops) and poultry represented agricultural effluxes that partially offset the influxes. P efficiency was lower for horticultural production (21%) than animal production (32%), the latter benefited from importing feed crops, suggesting a regional advantage for animal products. There was 2.0, 3.8, 5.7 and 5.6 tonnes imported P per $ million farm cash receipts for horticulture, dairy, poultry meat and eggs. Eliminating fertilizer for corn and grass would reduce the ratio for the dairy industry. The net influx, dominated by fertilizer, animal feed and food was 8470 tonnes P per year or 3.2 kg P per person per year, and of this the addition to agricultural soils was 3650 tonnes P. The efflux in sewage effluent to the sea was 1150 tonnes P and exported sewage solids was 450 tonnes P. Municipal solid waste disposal was most difficult to quantify and was about 1800 tonnes P, 80% of which was partly reused

  5. From cities and towns to urban networks in Germany – intra regional competition versus regional co-operation and inter regional competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Mueller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For many decades of the 20th century particular cities and towns were understood as integral parts of national and international urban systems. For many years the theory on central places and hierarchy of central places, first developed by Christaller and amended by Loesch, had a decisive influence on spatial research and regional development policies with guiding principles for urbanisation and the development of settlement patterns. However it is becoming ever more evident, that the planned effects of concepts for harmonising intra- and inter-regional differences were not reached. Moreover, inter-regional competition between neighbouring municipalities, as well as modern life styles and residential choices have caused the emergence of new settlement structures with dispersed spatial patterns and string functional ties. It is also true, that urban networking isn’t an easy task and that it inherently carries numerous obstacles.

  6. Suburban landscape assessment applied to urban planning. Case study in Barcelona Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Serrano Giné

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fringes set complex landscapes, in transition from rural to natural and urban, with fuzzy boundaries in mutual interdependence. The European Landscape Convention gives notorious importance to everyday landscapes, including those of suburban character. Few landscape evaluation researches are done in suburban areas, which is surprising considering its importance and abundance. This paper shows a methodology, yield on geographical information systems (GIS, for landscape assessment of suburban areas, useful in urban planning. Its main interest lies in a double assessment, which considers both landscape quality and landscape fragility, applied systematically. The procedure is applied in Muntanyes d’Ordal in the metropolitan area of Barcelona (Spain, an area with pronounced regional strengths and contrasted landscape values. Results are of important applicability and indicate a predominance of mean values, both for landscape quality and landscape fragility.

  7. Influence of urban form on landscape pattern and connectivity in metropolitan regions: a comparative case study of Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Hepcan, Çiğdem C; Hepcan, Şerif; Cook, Edward A

    2014-10-01

    Although ecological connectivity conservation in urban areas has recently been recognized as an important issue, less is known about its relationship to urban form and landscape pattern. This study investigates how urban morphology influences regional ecosystem pattern and landscape connectivity. Two metropolitan landscapes, Phoenix, AZ, USA, and Izmir, Turkey, were compared, both of which are fast-growing regions in their national context. A wide range of variables were considered for identifying natural and urban properties. The natural characteristics include typology of urban ecosystems, urban to natural cover ratio, dominant habitat type, urban biodiversity, landscape context, and connectivity conservation efforts. Urban parameters examine urban form, urban extent, urban cover proportion, growth rate, populations, urban gradient, major drivers of urbanization, urban density, and mode/approach of urban development. Twelve landscape metrics were measured and compared across the natural patches. Results show that there is little difference in landscape connectivity in the rural zones of Phoenix and Izmir, although Phoenix has slightly higher connectivity values. The connectivity variance in urbanized areas, however, is significantly dependent on the region. For example, Phoenix urban zones have substantially lower connectivity than either urban or suburban zones in Izmir. Findings demonstrate that small and compact urban settlements with more dense populations are more likely to conserve landscape connectivity compared to multiple-concentric but amalgamated urban form spreading all over the landscape (aka urban sprawl).

  8. Transferability of microsatellite markers in Syagrus coronata (Mart.) Becc. (Arecaceae), an iconic palm tree from the Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplicio, R R; Pereira, D G; Waldschmidt, A M

    2017-06-29

    The licuri palm Syagrus coronata plays a key role in the ecology and economy of Brazilian semiarid region. Nonetheless, genetic data about populations of this species are absent even though the intensive and uncontrolled exploitation since colonial periods has threatened the sustainability and viability of licuri populations. Therefore, we attempted to test the efficacy of transferability of microsatellite loci isolated from three palm tree species to S. coronata to analyze the population of this species throughout their range. A set of 19 heterologous microsatellite loci was tested in three native populations of S. coronata from the State of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, which amplified using distinct annealing temperatures (50°-60°C). Based on the 10 most polymorphic loci, the selected populations exhibited a mean number of alleles per locus of 9.8, and high genetic diversity values since the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.573 to 0.754, while the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.785 to 1.000. In conclusion, the tested loci are transferrable and highly efficient to population studies in S. coronata, thus minimizing the lack of species-specific loci to the genetic monitoring of licuri populations.

  9. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  10. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea) in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon)

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Eduardo; Marinho, Marco Antonio Tonus; Rafael, José Albertino

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae) in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%). A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembr...

  11. The diversity of the Brazilian regional Audit Courts on government auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Feliciano Lino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Currently, the 33 regional audit courts are responsible to monitor the public financial management cycle for states and municipalities and to judge the compliance of governors’ acts to the laws regarding procurement and civil servants’ employment from more than 20,000 governmental entities under their jurisdiction. This article aims to analyze the diversity of internal configuration of these regional audit courts and to discuss the potential associations with the financial auditing quality their teams usually run. We conducted interviews with external auditors and IT directors from 18 courts, followed by triangulation to official documents from the audit courts, such as audit manuals and activities reports. The audit quality drivers were identified within the governmental auditing literature, supporting the evidences collected by the interviews content analysis. Despite all regional auditing bodies in Brazil were based on the Napoleonic model, the analysis indicates the identified configurations vary according to the team’s organization and size, auditor rotation and use of data reporting systems. The discussion shows that dissimilarities on the courts’ configurations, as they are responsible to audit a specific country area, will contribute to a different coercion level on fiscal and accounting issues to state and municipalities, due a combination of characteristics which could mitigate or improve the audit quality. This paper additionally suggests some precautions, based on the organization alignment literature, for the use of proxies to control audit quality effects in the public finance studies in Brazil.

  12. Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rocio, E-mail: rocio.alonso@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Vivanco, Marta G., E-mail: m.garcia@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio, E-mail: ignacio.gonzalez@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bermejo, Victoria, E-mail: victoria.bermejo@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Palomino, Inmaculada, E-mail: inma.palomino@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Garrido, Juan Luis, E-mail: juanluis.garrido@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Elvira, Susana, E-mail: susana.elvira@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Salvador, Pedro, E-mail: pedro.salvador@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Artinano, Begona, E-mail: b.artinano@ciemat.es [Atmospheric Pollution Division CIEMAT, Avda., Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-15

    Tropospheric ozone (O{sub 3}) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O{sub 3} since removing this green area increased O{sub 3} levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: > Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O{sub 3} pollution in Madrid (Spain). > The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. > Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O{sub 3} concentrations over the surrounding areas. > Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O{sub 3} than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

  13. Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes de

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are important causes of death in Brazil. To assess proportional mortality (PM) due to HF and IHD as underlying causes stratified by sex and age groups in the Brazilian geoeconomic regions from 2004 to 2011. Data from death certificates were obtained in the DATASUS site under the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes, 10th Revision: 1) from chapter IX: I20 to I24 for acute IHD, I25 for chronic IHD, and I50 for HF; and 2) from chapter XVIII, for ill-defined causes (IDC). Proportional mortality due to HF increased with age in both sexes and all regions, the highest percentages being found among elderly women. Among men, the highest percentages were observed in the West-Central region up to the ninth decade, but, among the eldest individuals, the highest percentages were identified in the Southern region. Among women, the regions did not differ up to the age group of 70-79 years, although the West-Central region took the lead from 50 to 79 years; however, from the age of 80 years on, the Southern region showed the highest PM due to HF. Proportional mortality due to acute IHD in all Brazilian regions and in both sexes increased up to the age group of 60-69 years, from which it decreased. Among men, the Southeastern region had the highest percentages in the age group of 50-59 years, while women had lower PM due to acute IHD than men in all regions. In both sexes, PM due to chronic IHD increased with age in the Southern and Southeastern regions, which did not happen in the others, while the Southern region had the highest rate of all regions for all age groups. Regional differences were more prominent at more advanced ages, especially when deaths due to IDC were excluded. Insuficiência cardíaca (IC) e doenças isquêmicas do coração (DIC) são importantes causas de morte no Brasil. Avaliar a mortalidade proporcional (MP) por IC e DIC, como causas b

  14. Illicit and injecting drug use among Indigenous young people in urban, regional and remote Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Joanne; Ward, James; Wand, Handan; Byron, Kat; Bamblett, Andrew; Waples-Crowe, Peter; Betts, Sarah; Coburn, Tony; Delaney-Thiele, Dea; Worth, Heather; Kaldor, John; Pitts, Marian

    2016-07-01

    To examine patterns of illicit drug use among Australian Indigenous young people, identify correlates of frequent use separately in urban, regional and remote settings and characterise those who inject. Cross-sectional design at 40 Indigenous events. Self-complete surveys were administered to Indigenous people aged 16-29 years using mobile devices. 2,877 participants completed the survey. One in five reported using cannabis at least weekly in the previous year, but the use of other drugs was less prevalent. Patterns of drug use were largely similar across regions, although more participants in urban and regional areas reported using ecstasy (12% vs 11% vs 5%) and cocaine (6% vs 3% vs 1%) and more reported weekly cannabis use (18% vs 22% vs 14%). Injecting was rare (3%) but those who did inject reported a high incidence of needle sharing (37%). Methamphetamine (37%), heroin (36%) and methadone (26%) were the most commonly injected drugs, and injecting was related to prison experience (AOR 5.3 95% CI 2.8-10.0). Attention is needed in relation to cannabis use, particularly among those Indigenous young people living in regional and urban settings. Also, although injecting is uncommon, it is associated with prison involvement. Priority must be given to reducing the numbers of Indigenous youth entering justice settings, delaying the age at first entry to justice settings, and reducing the risk of BBV acquisition while in custody through, for example, prison-based NSP, BBV education, and Indigenous-specific treatment that emphasises connection to country and culture. [Bryant J, Ward J, Wand H, Byron K, Bamblett A, Waples-Crowe P, Betts S, Coburn T, Delaney-Thiele D, Worth H, Kaldor J, Pitts M. Illicit and injecting drug use among Indigenous young people in urban, regional and remote Australia. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:447-455]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Rapid ventilation of the Mexico City basin and regional fate of the urban plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. de Foy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas can be large emitters of air pollutants leading to negative health effects and environmental degradation. The rate of venting of these airsheds determines the pollutant loading for given emission levels, and also determines the regional impacts of the urban plume. Mexico City has approximately 20 million people living in a high altitude basin with air pollutant concentrations above the health limits most days of the year. A mesoscale meteorological model (MM5 and a particle trajectory model (FLEXPART are used to simulate air flow within the Mexico City basin and the fate of the urban plume during the MCMA-2003 field campaign. The simulated trajectories are validated against pilot balloon and radiosonde trajectories. The residence time of air within the basin and the impacted areas are identified by episode type. Three specific cases are analysed to identify the meteorological processes involved. For most days, residence times in the basin are less than 12 h with little carry-over from day to day and little recirculation of air back into the basin. Very efficient vertical mixing leads to a vertically diluted plume which, in April, is transported predominantly towards the Gulf of Mexico. Regional accumulation was found to take place for some days however, with urban emissions sometimes staying over Mexico for more than 6 days. Knowledge of the residence times, recirculation patterns and venting mechanisms will be useful in guiding policies for improving the air quality of the MCMA.

  16. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

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    André Botequilha-Leitão

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  17. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan Pinto; Almeida, Francisléia Nascimento; Neto, Jaime Tolentino M; Maia, Maria de Fátima de M; Tolentino, Thatiana Maia

    2013-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old) to 5.5% (15-17 years old); the body weight excess (overweight and obesity) decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  18. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region of low economic status

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    Dartagnan Pinto Guedes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity in a representative sample of children and adolescents from a Brazilian region with low economic development. METHODS: A total of 982 girls and 986 boys, aged seven to 17 years old and assisted by Segundo Tempo Program, from Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil, were included in the study. Low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity were defined based on body mass cut-off indexes recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. The prevalence of the nutritional status according to sex and age was compared by chi-square test. RESULTS: In girls, the frequency of low body weight/thinness, overweight and obesity was 4.1, 18.4 and 3.8%, respectively; in boys, these percentages were 6.3, 13.2 and 2.9%, respectively. The low body weight/thinness for girls raised from 2.7% (7-10 years old to 5.5% (15-17 years old; the body weight excess (overweight and obesity decreased from 30.1 to 16.2% for the same age groups. In boys, the corresponding trends were from 3.2 to 9.4% for low body weight/thinness, and from 23.4 to 9.2%, for body weight excess. CONCLUSIONS: The data indicate that, even in a region with low economic status, the body weight excess was the main problem associated with nutritional health. The high overweight and obesity prevalence rates indicate the need of public policies for promoting healthy feeding behaviors and physical activity.

  19. Estimation of Large Regional Urban and Rural Population Density Based on the Differences of Population Distribution between Urban and Rural: Take Shandong Province as Example

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    LU Nan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Existing methods for large regional population density estimation, which are mostly concentrated in the kilometer scale and only reflect the macro distribution characteristics of the urban and rural population, are difficult to describe details of urban and rural population spatial distribution accurately. In order to resolve the problem above, an estimation method of large regional urban and rural population density, which is based on the first 30 m global land cover dataset(GlobeLand30 is proposed. Based on the urban and rural area data partitioned from artificial surfaces data in GlobeLand30 datasets, the population density were estimated in urban and rural area respectively. Urban population density was estimated through the correlation between night lighting intensity and population. Through area revise of rural patches by the method of quadrats estimation, the rural population density was estimated. This paper takes Shandong province as a test area. The result shows that the method of urban-rural population density estimation could reflect the heterogeneity and continuity of the population spatial distribution in urban internal well, and express the population spatial distribution in rural area. By comparison with the reference data, the method of this paper is superior to the reference data in describing the spatial extent of residents and expressing the spatial distribution of population. And due to the globality of GlobeLand30 data, it is feasible to extend the method to a wider area.

  20. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardal, Pedro Pereira de Oliveira; Pardal, Joseana Silva de Oliveira; Gadelha, Maria Apolônia da Costa; Rodrigues, Líliam da Silva; Feitosa, Darlan Tavares; Prudente, Ana Lúcia da Costa; Fan, Hui Wen

    2010-01-01

    Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  1. Envenomation by Micrurus coral snakes in the Brazilian Amazon region: report of two cases

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    Pedro Pereira de Oliveira Pardal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of proven coral snake bites were reported in Belém, Pará State, Brazil. The first case was a severe one caused by Micrurus surinamensis. The patient required mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure. The second case showed just mild signs of envenomation caused by Micrurus filiformis. Both patients received specific Micrurus antivenom and were discharged without further complications. Coral snake bites are scarcely reported in the Amazon region and there is a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, varying from extremely mild to those which may rapidly lead to death if the patient is not treated as soon as possible.

  2. Mixed models for selection of Jatropha progenies with high adaptability and yield stability in Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, P E; Bhering, L L; Costa, R D; Rocha, R B; Laviola, B G

    2016-08-19

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters via mixed models and simultaneously to select Jatropha progenies grown in three regions of Brazil that meet high adaptability and stability. From a previous phenotypic selection, three progeny tests were installed in 2008 in the municipalities of Planaltina-DF (Midwest), Nova Porteirinha-MG (Southeast), and Pelotas-RS (South). We evaluated 18 families of half-sib in a randomized block design with three replications. Genetic parameters were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction. Selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method in three strategies considering: 1) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); 2) performance in each environment (with interaction effect); and 3) simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability and adaptability. Accuracy obtained (91%) reveals excellent experimental quality and consequently safety and credibility in the selection of superior progenies for grain yield. The gain with the selection of the best five progenies was more than 20%, regardless of the selection strategy. Thus, based on the three selection strategies used in this study, the progenies 4, 11, and 3 (selected in all environments and the mean environment and by adaptability and phenotypic stability methods) are the most suitable for growing in the three regions evaluated.

  3. A survey of necrophagous blowflies (Diptera: Oestroidea in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region (Brazilian Amazon

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    Eduardo Amat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fauna of blowflies (Calliphoridae and Mesembrinellidae in three localities of primary Amazon forest coverage in the Amazonas-Negro interfluvial region was assessed. A total of 5066 blowflies were collected, with Chloroprocta idiodea being the most abundant species (66.3%. A difference in species richness between the localities ZF2 and Novo Airão was observed. Comparison among sampled sites revealed no considerable variation in fauna composition, except for the species Eumesembrinella benoisti (Séguy 1925 and Hemilucilia sp., whose occurrence was observed only in a single locality. Apparently, Amazon rivers are not efficient geographical barriers to influence the current composition of necrophagous blowfly assemblages. Also, most of the blowfly species did not show a noticeable specificity for any specific forest among the interfluvial areas of the ombrophilous forest. Finally, an updated checklist of necrophagous blowfly species of the Amazonas state in Brazil is presented.

  4. Microbial diversity of a Brazilian coastal region influenced by an upwelling system and anthropogenic activity.

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    Juliano C Cury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial

  5. Brazilian environmental legislation and scenarios for carbon balance in Areas of Permanent Preservation (APP) in dairy livestock regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, M. C.; Fonseca, L. D.; Andrade, R. G.

    2011-12-01

    maintain a balance between conservation of natural resources, land suitability and demand for food, especially for milk in these regions, which provide inputs for the dairy industry. The brazilian environmental legislation faces a turbulent period of change, but certainly it can contribute to increase carbon sequestration.

  6. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia, E-mail: dsdl@ufscar.br [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano [Laboratorio Genetica de Aves, Departamento de Genetica e Evolucao, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis km 235, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson [Institute of Chemistry, State University of Campinas, P.O. Box 6154, 13083-970 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford [Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, P.O. Box 110430, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  7. The research on regional conservation planning of urban historical and cultural areas based on GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shangli; Xu, Jian; Li, Qian

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid economic development and the growth of population happening in the urban historical and cultural areas, heritage and historical buildings along with their natural and artificial surrounding environments are suffering constructive destruction. Due to the lack of precise partition of protection region and construction control region in the local cultural relics protection law, traditional regional conservation planning cannot engaged with the urban controllability detailed planning very well. According to the several protection regulations about heritage and historical buildings from latest laws, we choose Baxian Temple area to study on the improvments of traditional regional conservation planning. The technical methods of this study mainly rely on GIS, which can complete the fundamental work of each stage. With the analytic hierarchy process(AHP), the comprehensive architectural value assessments can be calculated according to the investigation results. Based on the calculation results and visual corridor analysis, the precise range of protection region and construction control region can be decided and the specific protection measures can be formulated.

  8. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  9. Evaluating relationships between urban land cover composition and evapotranspiration in semi-arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manago, K. F.; Hogue, T. S.; Litvak, E.; Pataki, D. E.

    2016-12-01

    California experienced its most severe drought on record in 2013 and 2014, forcing the governor to call for the first statewide reductions in urban water use. This led to numerous water conservation efforts including turf removal and restrictions on outdoor irrigation. The decrease in irrigation across the city of Los Angeles has had major effects on regional hydrologic fluxes. Previous studies have found that conservation efforts have decreased streamflow but little work has been done on the impact of reduced irrigation on Evapotranspiration (ET). ET is one of the most difficult variables to measure as a result of its heterogeneity both spatially and temporally; yet, it is imperative in characterizing energy and hydrologic processes and in aiding water management decisions. Estimating ET is further complicated in urban regions where land cover composition is extremely variable, even at small scales. Irrigated landscape and impervious surfaces are two of the most common land cover types associated with urbanization, but they have opposite effects on ET. While numerous studies have evaluated changes in ET caused by urbanization, they have all produced varying results. This is expected as changes to ET are highly dependent on land cover composition. In this study, we modeled the relationship between ET and urban land cover change in Los Angeles. We utilized empirical equations derived from in situ measurements to calculate tree and irrigated turfgrass ET and compared the results to estimates based on remote-sensing and California Irrigation Management Information System (CIMIS) network of weather stations. We found that unshaded turfgrass largely increased ET compared to impervious surfaces, which reveals lavish irrigation practices. Trees also increased ET, but they provided shade that decreased ET from turf grass. With much of the western United States facing drought and water supply uncertainty due to climate change, understanding and predicting how land cover

  10. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region

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    Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto

    Full Text Available Abstract JC virus (JCV is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215 bp and IG (610 bp regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2; in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV subjects regarding their TCD4+/TCD8+ lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups.

  11. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodré, Geni da S; Marchini, Luís C; Carvalho, Carlos A L de; Moreti, Augusta C de C C

    2007-09-01

    Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples) and Ceará (20 samples), and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.

  12. JC virus/human immunodeficiency virus 1 co-infection in the Brazilian Amazonian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available JC virus (JCV is a member of the Polyomaviridae family and is associated to a severe disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, PML, which is gradually increasing in incidence as an opportunistic infection among AIDS patients. The present study aimed to investigate the occurrence of JCV among HIV-1 carriers including their types and molecular subtypes and the possible association with disease. Urine samples from 66 HIV-1 infected subjects were investigated for the presence of the virus by amplifying VP1 (215 bp and IG (610 bp regions using the polymerase chain reaction. JCV was detected in 32% of the samples. The results confirmed the occurrence of type B (subtype Af2; in addition, another polyomavirus, BKV, was also detected in 1.5% of samples of the HIV-1 infected subjects. Apparently, there was no significant difference between mono- (HIV-1 only and co-infected (HIV-1/JCV subjects regarding their TCD4+/TCD8+ lymphocyte counts or HIV-1 plasma viral load. Self admitted seizures, hearing and visual loses were not significantly different between the two groups.

  13. Construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Frainer, Deivis Elton Schlickmann; Adami, Fernando; Almeida, Fernando de Souza; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Demarzo,Marcelo Marcos Piva; MONTEIRO, Carlos Bandeira de Mello; Oliveira, Fernando R.

    2012-01-01

    p. 1-6 Background Figure rating scales were developed as a tool to determine body dissatisfaction in women, men, and children. However, it lacks in the literature the validation of the scale for body silhouettes previously adapted. We aimed to obtain evidence for construct validity of a figure rating scale for Brazilian adolescents. Methods The study was carried out with adolescent students attending three public schools in an urban region of the municipality of Florianopolis in the Sta...

  14. Vulnerability and adaptation of urban dwellers in slope failure threats--a preliminary observation for the Klang Valley Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapackiam, P; Salleh, Khairulmaini Osman; Ghaffar, Fauza Ab

    2012-04-01

    This paper discusses the outcome of a research that examines the relationships between vulnerability and adaptation of urban dwellers to the slope failure threat in the Klang Valley Region. Intense urban landuse expansions in the Klang Valley Region have increased urban dwellers vulnerability to slope failures in recent years. The Klang Valley Region was chosen as the study area due to the increasing intensities and frequencies of slope failures threat. This paper examines urban dwellers vulnerability based on their (1) population and demographics characteristics, (2) the state of physical structures of dwellings and (3) the situation of the immediate environment threatened by slope failures. The locations of slope failure incidents were identified, mapped and examined followed with a detailed field study to identified areas. The results identified significant relationships between vulnerability indicators and slope failures in the Klang Valley Region. The findings of the study are envisaged to give valuable insights on addressing the threat of slope failures in the Klang Valley Region.

  15. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION, DIRECTLY APPLIED TO GASTRIC BIOPSIES, IN AN URBAN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

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    Gustavo Miranda MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Antimicrobial resistance is the major factor leading to eradication failure in H. pylori treatment. Molecular tests are useful to detect genetic mutations predictive of clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones resistance. Knowledge of the local prevalence rate of resistance is important to define the best recommended treatment. Objective - To assess the prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones, using a molecular test, in a Southeastern urban Brazilian population. Methods - A total of 72 H. pylori seropositive patients [65% female, mean age 39 (19-73 years] never treated before for this infection were studied. All patients underwent gastroscopy in addition to antrum and corpus biopsies and molecular test GenoType HelicoDR (Hain Life Science, Germany to detect H. pylori and point mutations in genes responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. The molecular procedure was divided into three steps: DNA extraction from biopsy samples, a multiplex amplification with biotinylated primers and a reverse hybridization. The most frequent point mutations involved in resistance to the two antibiotics were evaluated. Results - Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in nine (12.5% patients and to fluoroquinolones in eight (11.1% patients. The point mutation A2147G was the most common (77.8% among resistant strains to clarithromycin. In 50% of the resistant strains to fluoroquinolones, the mutant codon couldn't be identified. Conclusion - The resistance rates to clarithromycin and fluorquinolones in a large urban population in the Southeast of Brazil were acceptable, suggesting that these drugs remain appropriate options to first and second-line of H. pylori treatment. The molecular test represents an adequate diagnostic tool for monitoring H. pylori resistance.

  16. From regional to local scale modelling on the south-eastern Brazilian shelf: case study of Paranaguá estuarine system

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    Guilherme Augusto Stefanelo Franz

    Full Text Available Abstract The applicability of a numerical model following a downscaling methodology was evaluated for the south-eastern Brazilian shelf (regional model and Paranaguá estuarine system (local model. This approach permits the simulation of different scale processes, such as storm surges and coastal upwelling, and is suitable for operational forecasting purposes. When large areas are covered by regional models, the tidal propagation inside the domain can be significantly affected by the local tidal potential, mainly where the resonance phenomenon is observed. The south-eastern Brazilian shelf is known for the resonance of the third-diurnal principal lunar tidal constituent (M3, the largest amplitudes being found in the Paranaguá estuarine system. Therefore, the significance of the local tidal potential was assessed in this study for the most important tidal constituents inside the estuarine system (including M3. The model validation was performed with tidal gauge data, Argo float profiles and satellite measurements of Sea Surface Temperature. The methodology described in this study can be replicated for other important estuarine systems located on the south-eastern Brazilian shelf. Furthermore, the numerical model was developed within a perspective of operational nowcast/forecast simulations, useful for several activities such as navigation and response to emergencies (e.g., oil spills.

  17. Isotopic paleoecology of the Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region: Feeding ecology (δ13C), niche breadth and overlap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mário André Trindade; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Bocherens, Hervé; Drefahl, Morgana; Bernardes, Camila; França, Lucas de Melo

    2017-08-01

    The extinct megamammals Eremotherium laurillardi (weight 6550 kg), Notiomastodon platensis (w = 6000 kg), Toxodon platensis (w = 3090 kg), Valgipes bucklandi (w = 980 kg) and Equus (Amerhippus) neogaeus (w = 370 kg) are recorded for the late Pleistocene of the Brazilian Intertropical Region. In order to evaluate the isotopic paleoecology (feeding diet, niche breadth and overlap) of these species, 14C dates, δ13C and δ18O analyzes were performed. Our results suggest that E. laurillardi (μδ13C = -4.35 ± 2.87‰; μBA = 0.77 ± 0.25), T. platensis (μδ13C = -5.74 ± 4.80‰; μBA = 0.57 ± 0.40) and N. platensis (μδ13C = -1.17 ± 2.76‰; μBA = 0.56 ± 0.20) were mixed feeders with a wide niche breadth, while E. (A.) neogaeus (μδ13C = 0.73 ± 1.19‰; μBA = 0.38 ± 0.22) was a grazer, and V. bucklandi (δ13C = -10.17‰; BA = 0.13) was a specialist browser. A narrow niche overlap occurred between V. bucklandi and the species that fed principally on C4 plants (>70%; O = 0.24-0.43). In contrast, there was a high niche overlap between E. neogaeus and N. platensis (O = 0.75) and between E. laurillardi and T. platensis (O = 0.86). Therefore, E. laurillardi was probably a key species in this Pleistocene community due to its high body weight and wide niche breadth, suggesting that E. laurillardi was a great competitor for resources in the BIR.

  18. Spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro D. Battirola

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study describes the composition and temporal variation of the spider assemblage (Arachnida: Araneae associated with canopies of Vochysia divergens Pohl. (Vochysiaceae in the northern region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Three V. divergens plants were sampled in 2004, at each seasonal period of the northern Pantanal (high water, receding water, dry season and rising water, using thermonebulization of the canopies with insecticide, totaling 396 m2 of sampled canopies. Analysis of abundance and richness of spider families were based on Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS and Variance Analysis (ANOVA and MANOVA. A total of 7,193 spiders were collected (6,330 immatures; 88.0%; 863 adults, 12.0% distributed in 30 families. Araneidae (1,676 individuals, Anyphaenidae (1,631 individuals, Salticidae (1,542 individuals and Pisauridae (906 individuals, were predominant, representing 80.0% of the sample. Ten different guilds were registered: aerial hunters, orb-weavers, nocturnal aerial runners and diurnal space web weavers dominated, sharing most ecological niches. The spider assemblage is affected by changes in the habitat structure, especially by the seasonal hydrological regime and variations in the phenology of V. divergens . The assemblage is composed of different groups of spiders. The dominant taxa and behavioral guilds differ in the different seasonal periods. Spiders were more abundant during the dry and rising water seasons, most likely reflecting a greater supply of potential prey, associated with new foliage and flowering at the canopy. The displacement of soil dwelling spiders to the trunks and canopies before and during the seasonal floods can change the structure and composition of the canopy assemblages. Oonopidae, Gnaphosidae and Caponiidae, were more frequent during the rising and high water seasons, which indicates that these taxa use the canopies of V. divergens as a refuge during the seasonal flooding in the Pantanal.

  19. Deforestation and forest fires in Roraima and their relationship with phytoclimatic regions in the northern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Paulo Eduardo; Pereira, Vaneza Barreto; Manzi, Antonio Ocimar; Barbosa, Reinaldo Imbrozio

    2015-05-01

    Deforestation and forest fires in the Brazilian Amazon are a regional-scale anthropogenic process related to biomass burning, which has a direct impact on global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions. Containment of this process requires characterizing its spatial distribution and that of the environmental factors related to its occurrence. The aim of this study is to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of deforested areas and forest fires in the State of Roraima from 2000 to 2010. We mapped deforested areas and forest fires using Landsat images and associated their occurrence with two phytoclimatic zones: zone with savanna influence (ZIS), and zone without savanna influence (ZOS). Total deforested area during the interval was estimated at 3.06 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 55 %; ZOS = 45 %) while total area affected by forest fires was estimated at 3.02 × 10(3) km(2) (ZIS = 97.7 %; ZOS = 2.3 %). Magnitude of deforestation in Roraima was not related to the phytoclimatic zones, but small deforested areas (≤17.9 ha) predominated in ZOS while larger deforestation classes (>17.9 ha) predominated in ZIS, which is an area with a longer history of human activities. The largest occurrence of forest fires was observed in the ZIS in years with El Niño events. Our analysis indicates that the areas most affected by forest fires in Roraima during 2000-2010 were associated with strong climatic events and the occurrence these fires was amplified in ZIS, a sensitive phytoclimatic zone with a higher risk of anthropogenic fires given its drier climate and open forest structure.

  20. Drug abuse among workers in Brazilian regions Uso de drogas entre trabalhadores de regiões do Brasil

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    Ovandir Alves Silva

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Many business organizations in Brazil have adopted drug testing programs in the workplace since 1992. Rehabilitation, rather than layoff and disciplinary measures, has been offered as part of the Brazilian employee assistance programs. The purpose study is to profile drug abuse among company workers of different Brazilian geographical regions. METHODS: Urine samples of 12,700 workers from five geographical regions were tested for the most common illicit drugs of abuse in the country: marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamine. Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS were the techniques utilized for urine testing. The distribution of collected urine samples according to geographical regions was: 72.0% southeast, 13.8% northeast, 7.9% south, 5.7% central west and 0.6% north. RESULTS: Of all samples analyzed, 1.8% was found to be positive for drugs: 0.5% from the south region, 1.1% from northeast, 1.2% from central west, 1.3% from north, and 2.2% from southeast. Of these, 59.9% was marijuana, 17.7% cocaine, 14.6% amphetamine, and 7.7% associated drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of drugs found in the samples shows a regional variation. Marijuana, however, was found in all regions. Cocaine was seen only in central west and southeast regions. Amphetamine was found in northeast, central west, and southeast regions.OBJETIVO: No Brasil, desde 1992, inúmeras empresas comerciais e industriais vêm adotando programas de controle do uso de drogas de abuso no ambiente de trabalho. Nenhuma medida disciplinar ou demissionária é tomada sem antes se tentar a reabilitação do funcionário. O objetivo do estudo é apresentar o perfil do uso de drogas de abuso entre trabalhadores de diferentes empresas brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Amostras de urina de 12.700 indivíduos provenientes das cinco regiões geográficas brasileiras foram analisadas visando à detecção das principais drogas de abuso

  1. From region to neighborhood unit: the urbanism of Group L’Equerre, 1937-52

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    Geoffrey Grulois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From 1937 to 1952, the young architects from Liège that formed Group L’Equerre and served as the secretariat of the Belgian section of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM initiated a reflection about the development of the Liège industrial agglomeration and its population centers. What sources did they mobilize to build a reflexive and multi-scalar approach to urban planning from the regional scale to that of the inhabited neigbourhood? The discovery of the original drawings of the survey of the Liège Region (1948-1952 and plans for a neighborhood unit on the plateau of Trixhes (1937-1952 in two archives—Archives of the city of Liège and the archives of architecture of ULB—allow us to explore an emerging practice of regional planning and neighborhood design in Belgium. In this article, we trace how architects from Group L’Equerre took advantage of the advance in human geography and regional planning to build a specific planning approach to Belgian cities that goes beyond the CIAM principles of the functional city in order to incorporate concerns for the natural environnement and traditional community levels. In this way, the paper questions the supposed dominance of the Athens Charter for modern urbanism on the development of postwar town planning in Belgium by identifying the emergence of landscape and community issues in the practice of regional and local development.

  2. Pollen analysis in honey samples from the two main producing regions in the Brazilian northeast

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    Geni da S. Sodré

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the botanical source of honey is very important for the beekeeper while it indicates adequate and abundant supply sources of nectar and pollen for the bees, thus contributing toward improved yield. The present study means to identify the pollen types occurring in 58 samples of honey produced in two states of the northeastern region of Brazil, Piauí (38 samples and Ceará (20 samples, and to verify the potential of the honey plants during the months of February to August. The samples were obtained directly from beekeepers in each state and analyzed at the Apiculture Laboratory of the Entomology Section of Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The pollen analysis was performed using the acetolysis method. The samples were submitted to both a qualitative and a quantitative analysis. The dominant pollen in the State of Ceará is from Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Borreria verticillata, Serjania sp., and a Fabaceae pollen type, while in the State of Piauí it is from Piptadenia sp., M. caesalpiniaefolia, M. verrucosa, Croton urucurana and Tibouchina sp.O conhecimento da origem botânica do mel é de grande importância para o apicultor por indicar fontes adequadas e de abundante suprimento de néctar e pólen para as abelhas, contribuindo, desta forma, para uma melhor produção. O presente estudo teve como objetivo identificar os tipos polínicos em 58 amostras de méis produzidos em dois estados da região nordeste do Brasil, Piauí (38 amostras e Ceará (20 amostras, verificando o potencial das plantas apícolas durante os meses de fevereiro a agosto. As amostras foram obtidas diretamente de apicultores de cada Estado e analisadas no Laboratório de Apicultura do Setor de Entomologia da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", USP, Piracicaba, Estado de São Paulo. A análise polínica foi realizada utilizando-se o método da acetólise. As amostras foram

  3. Analysis of chosen urban bioclimatic conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnol, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Due to the increasing urbanization, people spend more and more time in cities. Because of that fact during the last century the human bioclimatological approach had an important influence on the applied urban bioclimatology. The aim of the study was to analyze chosen thermal bioclimatic conditions in urban area of Upper Silesian Industrial Region in connection with the atmospheric circulation and air masses. The study was focused on the thermal conditions that are important for the bioclimatological research on human thermal comfort. They were the basis for making study on how to show the influence of the air masses and circulations types on frequency and variability of the chosen bioclimate indexes. That research was based on data (2004 - 2008) acquired by the Silesian University (Faculty of Earth Sciences) meteorological station located in the city of Sosnowiec (50°17'N, 19°08'E, h=263 m a.s.l.). The temperature measurements were made automatically every 10 minutes on the 2 meters above the ground level. Previous research showed that the station is a good representation of the local urban climate conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region. In the study the following air temperatures were taken into consideration: average day temperature, maximum day temperature, minimum day temperature and the average air temperature at 12 UTC. They were associated with atmospheric circulation types and masses typical for the region. Using the data mentioned above I conducted a classification to divide days into following objective categories: cool, cold, comfortable, hot, warm and very hot in the seasonal depiction. The final stage of the work was to find the answer to the following question: "When and how do the strong air masses and air circulations types modify bioclimatic conditions in the study area?" Answer to that question together with further results of the research will be presented on my poster.

  4. Observations of atmospheric monoaromatic hydrocarbons at urban, semi-urban and forest environments in the Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Barbosa, Cybelli G. G.; Godoi, Ana Flavia L.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; de Souza, Rodrigo A. F.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Costa, Patrícia S.; Almeida, Gerson P.; Manzi, Antonio O.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Yáñez-Serrano, Ana M.; Kesselmeier, Jürgen; Godoi, Ricardo H. M.

    2016-03-01

    The Amazon region is one of the most significant natural ecosystems on the planet. Of special interest as a major study area is the interface between the forest and Manaus city, a state capital in Brazil embedded in the heart of the Amazon forest. In view of the interactions between natural and anthropogenic processes, an integrated experiment was conducted measuring the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and meta, ortho, para-xylene (known as BTEX), all of them regarded as pollutants with harmful effects on human health and vegetation and acting also as important precursors of tropospheric ozone. Furthermore, these compounds also take part in the formation of secondary organic aerosols, which can influence the pattern of cloud formation, and thus the regional water cycle and climate. The samples were collected in 2012/2013 at three different sites: (i) The Amazon Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO), a pristine rain forest region in the central Amazon Basin; (ii) Manacapuru, a semi-urban site located southwest and downwind of Manaus as a preview of the Green Ocean Amazon Experiment (GoAmazon 2014/15); and (iii) the city of Manaus (distributed over three sites). Results indicate that there is an increase in pollutant concentrations with increasing proximity to urban areas. For instance, the benzene concentration ranges were 0.237-19.6 (Manaus), 0.036-0.948 (Manacapuru) and 0.018-0.313 μg m-3 (ATTO). Toluene ranges were 0.700-832 (Manaus), 0.091-2.75 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.011-4.93 (ATTO). For ethylbenzene, they were 0.165-447 (Manaus), 0.018-1.20 μg m-3 (Manacapuru) and 0.047-0.401 (ATTO). Some indication was found for toluene to be released from the forest. No significant difference was found between the BTEX levels measured in the dry season and the wet seasons. Furthermore, it was observed that, in general, the city of Manaus seems to be less impacted by these pollutants than other cities in Brazil and in other

  5. Physical activity associated with urban environmental characteristics: A correlational study of active women of high socioeconomic status from Brazilian cities of Santa Catarina

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    Leonessa Boing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study aimed to identify urban environmental characteristics, which may be associated with the physical activity (PA level of women from Brazilian cities of Santa Catarina. The sample was composed of 2047 women aged 20 to 59 from six Santa Catarina cities: Blumenau, Chapecó, Criciúma, Florianópolis, Itajaí, and São José. The PA was evaluated through the IPAQ (short version, and the NEWS to environmental variables. An inferential and descriptive statistic was used: Chi-squared test, ANOVA with post hoc, and raw and adjusted multinomial regression analysis (p < .05. The participants from São José presented greater chances to PA practice when they reside close to appropriated areas, sidewalks, fitness centers, well-lit streets, and when invited by relatives to the practice. The PA Program for the community enables greater chances of practice for women in Florianópolis, São José, Criciúma and Blumenau. As a conclusion, some environmental factors appeared to influence PA practice positively in Catarinense women. Besides that, the fact of belonging to the high economic status could increasingly enable practice, since they seem broader access to gyms and PA private professionals.

  6. Assessment of discrepancies between bottom-up and regional emission inventories in Norwegian urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Guevara, Marc; Thunis, Philippe; Cuvelier, Kees; Tarrasón, Leonor

    2017-04-01

    This study shows the capabilities of a benchmarking system to identify inconsistencies in emission inventories, and to evaluate the reason behind discrepancies as a mean to improve both bottom-up and downscaled emission inventories. Fine scale bottom-up emission inventories for seven urban areas in Norway are compared with three regional emission inventories, EC4MACS, TNO_MACC-II and TNO_MACC-III, downscaled to the same areas. The comparison shows discrepancies in nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) when evaluating both total and sectorial emissions. The three regional emission inventories underestimate NOx and PM10 traffic emissions by approximately 20-80% and 50-90%, respectively. The main reasons for the underestimation of PM10 emissions from traffic in the regional inventories are related to non-exhaust emissions due to resuspension, which are included in the bottom-up emission inventories but are missing in the official national emissions, and therefore in the downscaled regional inventories. The benchmarking indicates that the most probable reason behind the underestimation of NOx traffic emissions by the regional inventories is the activity data. The fine scale NOx traffic emissions from bottom-up inventories are based on the actual traffic volume at the road link and are much higher than the NOx emissions downscaled from national estimates based on fuel sales and based on population for the urban areas. We have identified important discrepancies in PM2.5 emissions from wood burning for residential heating among all the inventories. These discrepancies are associated with the assumptions made for the allocation of emissions. In the EC4MACs inventory, such assumptions imply high underestimation of PM2.5 emissions from the residential combustion sector in urban areas, which ranges from 40 to 90% compared with the bottom-up inventories. The study shows that in three of the seven Norwegian cities there is need for further improvement of

  7. Urban Effects on Lightning Flash Density in the Coastal Region of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yair, Y.; Binshtok, G.; Price, C.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning in the coastal region of Israel occurs mostly in the December-February period, with an average flash density of ~1.2 flashes/km2/year, increasing from south to north and reaching a maximum near the port city of Haifa and the near-by Carmel Mountain. Based on lightning data from the LPATS system, obtained during the winter seasons of 2004/5-2006/7, we mapped flash density by using high-resolution Google-earth visualization tools. We note that maximum lightning activity occurs just west of the coastline above the Mediterranean Sea and decreases over land. The urban complex of the metropolitan Tel-Aviv area shows a clear increase in lightning density compared to more rural regions to its north and south. A second maximum is present near Haifa and its surrounding industrial complex. An increase in positive-ground flash density is present downwind from the Tel-Aviv urban area. A clear mid-week effect is also apparent in the flash density of positive ground flashes with peak currents > 50 kA north-east of the Tel-Aviv metropolitan area. Considering the Urban-Heat Island (UHI) effect, we can explain this as a dynamic consequence driven by wind-shear pushing the upper positive charge center eastward relative to the lower part of convective thunderstorms.

  8. Aerosol Seasonal Variations over Urban-Industrial Regions in Ukraine According to AERONET and POLDER Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinevsky, G.; Danylevsky, V.; Bovchaliuk, V.; Bovchaliuk, A.; Goloub, Ph.; Dubovik, O.; Kabashnikov, V.; Chaikovsky, A.; Miatselskaya, N.; Mishchenko, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an investigation of aerosol seasonal variations in several urban-industrial regions in Ukraine. Our analysis of seasonal variations of optical and physical aerosol parameters is based on the sun-photometer 2008-2013 data from two urban ground-based AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sites in Ukraine (Kyiv, Lugansk) as well as on satellite POLDER instrument data for urban-industrial areas in Ukraine. We also analyzed the data from one AERONET site in Belarus (Minsk) in order to compare with the Ukrainian sites. Aerosol amount and optical depth (AOD) values in the atmosphere columns over the large urbanized areas like Kyiv and Minsk have maximum values in the spring (April-May) and late summer (August), whereas minimum values are observed in late autumn. The results show that fine-mode particles are most frequently detected during the spring and late summer seasons. The analysis of the seasonal AOD variations over the urban-industrial areas in the eastern and central parts of Ukraine according to both ground-based and POLDER data exhibits the similar traits. The seasonal variation similarity in the regions denotes the resemblance in basic aerosol sources that are closely related to properties of aerosol particles. The behavior of basic aerosol parameters in the western part of Ukraine is different from eastern and central regions and shows an earlier appearance of the spring and summer AOD maxima. Spectral single-scattering albedo, complex refractive index and size distribution of aerosol particles in the atmosphere column over Kyiv have different behavior for warm (April-October) and cold seasons. The seasonal features of fine and coarse aerosol particle behavior over the Kyiv site were analyzed. A prevailing influence of the fine-mode particles on the optical properties of the aerosol layer over the region has been established. The back-trajectory and cluster analysis techniques were applied to study the seasonal back trajectories and prevailing

  9. Mapping regional patterns of large forest fires in Wildland-Urban Interface areas in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Sirio; Balzter, Heiko; Cole, Beth; Borrelli, Pasquale

    2016-05-01

    Over recent decades, Land Use and Cover Change (LUCC) trends in many regions of Europe have reconfigured the landscape structures around many urban areas. In these areas, the proximity to landscape elements with high forest fuels has increased the fire risk to people and property. These Wildland-Urban Interface areas (WUI) can be defined as landscapes where anthropogenic urban land use and forest fuel mass come into contact. Mapping their extent is needed to prioritize fire risk control and inform local forest fire risk management strategies. This study proposes a method to map the extent and spatial patterns of the European WUI areas at continental scale. Using the European map of WUI areas, the hypothesis is tested that the distance from the nearest WUI area is related to the forest fire probability. Statistical relationships between the distance from the nearest WUI area, and large forest fire incidents from satellite remote sensing were subsequently modelled by logistic regression analysis. The first European scale map of the WUI extent and locations is presented. Country-specific positive and negative relationships of large fires and the proximity to the nearest WUI area are found. A regional-scale analysis shows a strong influence of the WUI zones on large fires in parts of the Mediterranean regions. Results indicate that the probability of large burned surfaces increases with diminishing WUI distance in touristic regions like Sardinia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, or in regions with a strong peri-urban component as Catalunya, Comunidad de Madrid, Comunidad Valenciana. For the above regions, probability curves of large burned surfaces show statistical relationships (ROC value > 0.5) inside a 5000 m buffer of the nearest WUI. Wise land management can provide a valuable ecosystem service of fire risk reduction that is currently not explicitly included in ecosystem service valuations. The results re-emphasise the importance of including this ecosystem service

  10. Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, C.; Li, P. J.

    2014-03-01

    Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping.

  11. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  12. Methane emissions from natural gas infrastructure and use in the urban region of Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKain, Kathryn; Down, Adrian; Raciti, Steve M; Budney, John; Hutyra, Lucy R; Floerchinger, Cody; Herndon, Scott C; Nehrkorn, Thomas; Zahniser, Mark S; Jackson, Robert B; Phillips, Nathan; Wofsy, Steven C

    2015-02-17

    Methane emissions from natural gas delivery and end use must be quantified to evaluate the environmental impacts of natural gas and to develop and assess the efficacy of emission reduction strategies. We report natural gas emission rates for 1 y in the urban region of Boston, using a comprehensive atmospheric measurement and modeling framework. Continuous methane observations from four stations are combined with a high-resolution transport model to quantify the regional average emission flux, 18.5 ± 3.7 (95% confidence interval) g CH4 ⋅ m(-2) ⋅ y(-1). Simultaneous observations of atmospheric ethane, compared with the ethane-to-methane ratio in the pipeline gas delivered to the region, demonstrate that natural gas accounted for ∼ 60-100% of methane emissions, depending on season. Using government statistics and geospatial data on natural gas use, we find the average fractional loss rate to the atmosphere from all downstream components of the natural gas system, including transmission, distribution, and end use, was 2.7 ± 0.6% in the Boston urban region, with little seasonal variability. This fraction is notably higher than the 1.1% implied by the most closely comparable emission inventory.

  13. CONTINUED DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF A NEW THERMODYNAMIC AEROSOL MODULE FOR URBAN AND REGIONAL AIR QUALITY MODELS. (R824793)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A computationally efficient and rigorous thermodynamic model (ISORROPIA) that predicts the physical state and composition of inorganic atmospheric aerosol is presented. The advantages of this particular model render it suitable for incorporation into urban and regional air qualit...

  14. Landslide hazard and land management in high-density urban areas of Campania region, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Di Martire

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results deriving from a research focused on the interplay between landslides and urban development are presented here, with reference to two densely populated settings located in the Campania region, Italy: the city of Naples and the island of Ischia. Both areas suffer adverse consequences from various types of landslides since at least 2000 yr. Our study evidences that, despite the long history of slope instabilities, the urban evolution, often illegal, disregarded the high landslide propensity of the hillsides; thus, unsafe lands have been occupied, even in recent years, when proper and strict rules have been enacted to downgrade the landslide risk. It is finally argued that future guidelines should not be entirely based upon physical countermeasures against mass movements. On the contrary, national and local authorities should enforce the territorial control, obliging citizens to respect the existing regulations and emphasizing the role of alternative, non-structural solutions.

  15. Evolución desigual de las causas de muerte en las regiones de Brasil Different triends in causes of death in Brazilian regions

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    Sabino Wilson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conocer la evolución de la mortalidad por las principales causas en un región de Brasil entre 1980 y 2000, teniendo en cuenta las desigualdades entre territorios y la transición epidemiológica. Material y métodos: Los datos proceden de las bases del Sistema de Información del Estado de São Paulo. Se calcularon las tasas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad y el aumento medio anual mediante modelos de regresión lineal. Resultados: Se observó un incremento significativo de la tasa de mortalidad por las causas mal definidas, agresión y homicidio e infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana tanto en hombres como en mujeres, y un descenso significativo en las muertes por enfermedades cardiovasculares, neumonía e influenza. Conclusión: La transición epidemiológica en Brasil no se ajusta ni al modelo de los países desarrollados ni a otros de Latinoamérica, ya que coexisten causas de muerte ligadas tanto al retraso como al desarrollo.Objective: To determine changing patterns in the main causes of mortality Brazilian regions between 1980 and 2000 taking into consideration the inequalities among territories and epidemiological transition. Material and methods: Data was gathered from the Information System of the state of São Paulo. Age-standardized mortality rates were calculated using the European population as reference. The average annual increase was calculated using linear regression models. Result: Mortality rates due to ill-defined causes of death, assaults and homicide, and HIV infection increased in men and women while mortality due to cardiovascular disease, pneumonia and influenza significantly decreased. Conclusion: The epidemiological transition in Brazil differs from that of developed countries and other Latin American countries, since causes of death connected with both developed and developing countries coexist.

  16. Cooling Town - How landscape is affecting urban climates in mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Leitinger, Georg; Heinl, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Cities and urban areas are known to have a local climate different from that of surrounding rural landscapes. The so-called 'urban heat island' phenomenon results from the replacement of natural with impervious, non-evaporative surfaces such as concrete and asphalt. Urban areas usually have higher solar radiation absorption and a greater thermal conductivity and capacity that lead to greater heat storage during the day and heat release at night. This results in a modified climate that is warmer than the surrounding rural areas. Despite being often considered as 'heating islands', cities are not isolated from their environment and are affected by their thermal properties. Reports for the cities of Vienna (Austria) or Stuttgart (Germany) document the importance of the environmental setting for the climate in the cities. Especially large forest areas around the cities have shown to provide cooling and higher air quality. It is therefore not only the core urban area that needs to be considered for climatic effects but also the large-scale surrounding and environmental setting of the city. But only very few studies (e.g. for rice fields in Japan and Taiwan) specifically investigated this temperature effect of surrounding landscapes on urban areas. The research project "Cooling Town" (www.coolingtown.at) addresses this little knowledge on temperature regimes of urban areas and their thermal connectivity with surrounding landscapes, focusing on mountain environments. One major aspect in this research is to assess the summer temperature regime of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol (northern Italy). The spatial distribution of air and surface temperatures is analyzed to derive rural and urban and regions with specific temperature regimes and climates and their connectivity. Twelve climate stations were placed in and around the city of Bolzano to measure air and surface temperatures together with wind parameters throughout summer 2012. Thermal infrared images were taken from

  17. The Impact of Urbanization on the Regional Aeolian Dynamics of an Arid Coastal Dunefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alexander; Jackson, Derek; Cooper, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The anthropogenic impact on the geomorphology of many landscapes are inextricably connected but are often neglected due to the difficulty in making a direct link between the quasi natural and human processes that impact the environment. This research focuses on the Maspalomas dunefield, located on the southern coast of Gran Canaria, in the Canary Island Archipelago. The tourism industry in Maspalomas has led to intensive urbanization since the early 1960's over an elevated alluvial terrace that extends into the dunefield. Urbanization has had a substantial impact on both the regional airflow conditions and the geomorphological development of this transverse dune system. As a result airflow and sediment has been redirected in response to the large scale construction efforts. In situ data was collected during field campaigns using high resolution three-dimensional anemometry to identify the various modifications within the dunefield relative to incipient regional airflow conditions. The goal is to analyse the flow conditions near the urbanized terrace in relation to areas that are located away from the influence of the buildings and to verify numerical modelling results. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling is used in order to expand the areal extent of analysis by providing an understanding of relevant flow dynamics (e.g. flow velocity, directionality, turbulence, shear stresses, etc.) at the mesoscale. An integrative three dimensional model for CFD simulations was created to address the impact of both the urban area (i.e. hotels, commercial centers, and residential communities) as well as the dune terrain on regional flow conditions. Early modelling results show that there is significant flow modification around the urban terrace with streamline compression, acceleration, and deflection of flow on the windward side of the development. Consequently downwind of the terrace there is an area of highly turbulent flow conditions and well developed separation and

  18. Industrial Restructuring and Urban Change in the Pittsburgh Region: Developmental, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Haller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the steel industry's restructuring during the 1980s and its consequences for older industrial regions tied historically to steel production. These regions contained large working-class communities that declined because of deindustrialization and restructuring. This article first examines the transition of the steel industry from its roots in extractive and primary manufacturing to a scrap-recycling industry that minimizes labor and raw material inputs. This transition parallels the structural changes in other industries addressed by political economic perspectives, such as the new international division of labor and globalization of production. The article then focuses on the socioeconomic and structural changes, using the Pittsburgh region as an example, including the employment and land-use consequences of deindustrialization and the relationship between losses in manufacturing employment and increases in persistent joblessness and poverty associated with growth of the urban underclass.

  19. Spatial Distribution of Dengue in a Brazilian Urban Slum Setting: Role of Socioeconomic Gradient in Disease Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Kikuti

    Full Text Available Few studies of dengue have shown group-level associations between demographic, socioeconomic, or geographic characteristics and the spatial distribution of dengue within small urban areas. This study aimed to examine whether specific characteristics of an urban slum community were associated with the risk of dengue disease.From 01/2009 to 12/2010, we conducted enhanced, community-based surveillance in the only public emergency unit in a slum in Salvador, Brazil to identify acute febrile illness (AFI patients with laboratory evidence of dengue infection. Patient households were geocoded within census tracts (CTs. Demographic, socioeconomic, and geographical data were obtained from the 2010 national census. Associations between CTs characteristics and the spatial risk of both dengue and non-dengue AFI were assessed by Poisson log-normal and conditional auto-regressive models (CAR. We identified 651 (22.0% dengue cases among 2,962 AFI patients. Estimated risk of symptomatic dengue was 21.3 and 70.2 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in 2009 and 2010, respectively. All the four dengue serotypes were identified, but DENV2 predominated (DENV1: 8.1%; DENV2: 90.7%; DENV3: 0.4%; DENV4: 0.8%. Multivariable CAR regression analysis showed increased dengue risk in CTs with poorer inhabitants (RR: 1.02 for each percent increase in the frequency of families earning ≤1 times the minimum wage; 95% CI: 1.01-1.04, and decreased risk in CTs located farther from the health unit (RR: 0.87 for each 100 meter increase; 95% CI: 0.80-0.94. The same CTs characteristics were also associated with non-dengue AFI risk.This study highlights the large burden of symptomatic dengue on individuals living in urban slums in Brazil. Lower neighborhood socioeconomic status was independently associated with increased risk of dengue, indicating that within slum communities with high levels of absolute poverty, factors associated with the social gradient influence dengue transmission. In

  20. Environmental Sustainability and Effects on Urban Micro Region using Agent-Based Modeling of Urbanisation in Select Major Indian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, B. H.

    2015-12-01

    Abstract: Urbanisation has gained momentum with globalization in India. Policy decisions to set up commercial, industrial hubs have fuelled large scale migration, added with population upsurge has contributed to the fast growing urban region that needs to be monitored in order to design sustainable urban cities. Unplanned urbanization have resulted in the growth of peri-urban region referred to as urban sprawl, are often devoid of basic amenities and infrastructure leading to large scale environmental problems that are evident. Remote sensing data acquired through space borne sensors at regular interval helps in understanding urban dynamics aided by Geoinformatics which has proved very effective in mapping and monitoring for sustainable urban planning. Cellular automata (CA) is a robust approach for the spatially explicit simulation of land-use land cover dynamics. CA uses rules, states, conditions that are vital factors in modelling urbanisation. This communication effectively introduces simulation assistances of CA with the agent based modelling supported by its fuzzy characteristics and weightages through analytical hierarchal process (AHP). This has been done considering perceived agents such as industries, natural resource etc. Respective agent's role in development of a particular regions into an urban area has been examined with weights and its influence of each of these agents based on its characteristics functions. Validation was performed obtaining a high kappa coefficient indicating the quality and the allocation performance of the model & validity of the model to predict future projections. The prediction using the proposed model was performed for 2030. Further environmental sustainability of each of these cities are explored such as water features, environment, greenhouse gas emissions, effects on human human health etc., Modeling suggests trend of various land use classes transformation with the spurt in urban expansions based on specific regions and

  1. Multilevel Hierarchical Modeling of Benthic Macroinvertebrate Responses to Urbanization in Nine Metropolitan Regions across the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashuba, Roxolana; Cha, YoonKyung; Alameddine, Ibrahim; Lee, Boknam; Cuffney, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Multilevel hierarchical modeling methodology has been developed for use in ecological data analysis. The effect of urbanization on stream macroinvertebrate communities was measured across a gradient of basins in each of nine metropolitan regions across the conterminous United States. The hierarchical nature of this dataset was harnessed in a multi-tiered model structure, predicting both invertebrate response at the basin scale and differences in invertebrate response at the region scale. Ordination site scores, total taxa richness, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, Trichoptera (EPT) taxa richness, and richness-weighted mean tolerance of organisms at a site were used to describe invertebrate responses. Percentage of urban land cover was used as a basin-level predictor variable. Regional mean precipitation, air temperature, and antecedent agriculture were used as region-level predictor variables. Multilevel hierarchical models were fit to both levels of data simultaneously, borrowing statistical strength from the complete dataset to reduce uncertainty in regional coefficient estimates. Additionally, whereas non-hierarchical regressions were only able to show differing relations between invertebrate responses and urban intensity separately for each region, the multilevel hierarchical regressions were able to explain and quantify those differences within a single model. In this way, this modeling approach directly establishes the importance of antecedent agricultural conditions in masking the response of invertebrates to urbanization in metropolitan regions such as Milwaukee-Green Bay, Wisconsin; Denver, Colorado; and Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas. Also, these models show that regions with high precipitation, such as Atlanta, Georgia; Birmingham, Alabama; and Portland, Oregon, start out with better regional background conditions of invertebrates prior to urbanization but experience faster negative rates of change with urbanization. Ultimately, this urbanization

  2. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m(-3) during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  3. Variability of Ozone, OX and NOx in Rural and Urban Areas in Marmara Region of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparoǧlu, Sabin; İncecik, Selahattin; Topçu, H. Sema

    2017-04-01

    Marmara region is located in northwest of Turkey and it is bordered by Greece and the Aegean Sea to the west, and Bulgaria, the Black Sea to the north covers about 11,000 km2. Sea of Marmara is located at the center of the region. The region has the largest population in Turkey with about 23 million inhabitants. It is Turkey's main industrial region and It is the territory which is provided by a quarter of the Turkish economy. Moreover, the region is economically the most developed area of Turkey. Its agricultural potential is very rich. For example, about 73% of the sunflower production and 30 % of corn production of Turkey is done in this region. The aim of the study is to assess the spatial and temporal variations in O3, NO, and NO2 in Marmara region of Turkey based on the analysis of hourly concentrations collected at 22 monitoring stations (7 rural and 15 urban) over three years (2013-2016). This is the first study in the region. In this way possible reasons of the results will be useful in the design of control strategies for photochemical pollution in this region. For this purpose, diurnal variations of NOx, O3 and OX were examined for rural and urban sites. The total levels of oxidant (OX) which are considered to be sum of O3 and NO2 were determined. In rural sites, NOx concentrations are generally lower than at urban and polluted sites of Marmara region. We found that usually O3 peak time in rural areas are occurred at around 15:00 LST while mean peak values vary between 70-85 µg/m3. The highest mean concentrations of NO were also observed at 09:00 LST around 35-50 µg/m3 in rural areas while varies at the highest at around 75-85 µg/m3 in polluted sites. Due to the NOx -dependent contribution corresponds to local production of ozone and the NOx -independent contribution corresponds to regional concentrations, we examined OX versus NOx for daytime (10:00-18:00LST) and nighttime (19:00-09:00LST)periods to understand the contaminants of NOx from local

  4. Binge drinking among Brazilian students: a gradient of association with socioeconomic status in five geo-economics regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Locatelli, Danilo P; Noto, Ana R; Martins, Silvia S

    2013-01-01

    Aims 1) To describe the characteristics of binge drinking (BD) among high school students in Brazil and 2) the association of BD with students' socioeconomic status (SES) in the five different Brazilian macroregions. Design A national multistage probabilistic sample of high school students. Setting Students were drawn from 789 public and private schools in each of the 27 Brazilian state capitals. Participants 17,297 high school students, aged 14 to 18 years. Measurement Self-report data about BD practices and SES were analyzed via weighted logistic regressions and a funnel plot. Findings Almost 32% of the students engaged in BD in the past-year. Being in the highest SES stratum doubled the risk of BD among students in all five Brazilian macroregions. There was a gradient in the association between past-year BD and socioeconomic status: as SES increased; the chance of having recently engaged in BD also increased. In the Brazilian capitals as a whole, boys versus girls (aOR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.26 to 1.58]), being older (aOR = 1.47 [95% CI 1.40 to 1.55] per each additional year of age) and those attending private schools versus public schools (aOR = 1.39 [95% CI 1.18 to 1.62]), were at greater risk for BD. Conclusions Contrary to what is observed in developed countries, students living in Brazilian capitals may be at an increased risk of BD when they belong to the highest socioeconomic status. Adolescents growing up in other emerging economies might have the same association between high SES and BD. PMID:22771006

  5. High-molecular weight adiponectin/HOMA-IR ratio as a biomarker of metabolic syndrome in urban multiethnic Brazilian subjects.

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    Virgínia Genelhu de Abreu

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has an important epidemiological relevance due to its increasing prevalence and association with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance is a core feature of the MetS. HOMA-IR is a robust clinical and epidemiological marker of MetS. Adiponectin is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory functions; its levels decrease as number of components of MetS increases. High-molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is the multimer responsible for the relationship of adiponectin with insulin sensitivity. HOMA-IR and HMWA are suitable candidates for MetS biomarkers. The ratio of adiponectin to HOMA-IR has been validated as a powerful index of MetS and considered a better marker of its presence, than either HOMA-IR or adiponectin alone, in selected homogeneous populations. We compared the strength of association between HMWA, HOMA-IR and HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio with MetS and its key components. Our data have shown that the median (25th, 75th percentile of HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio was lower in subjects with MetS [0.51 (0.33, 1.31] as compared to those without it [2.19 (1.13, 4.71]. The correlation coefficient (r was significantly higher for HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio as compared to HMWA for waist circumference (-0.65; -0.40, respectively; mean blood pressure (-0.27; -0.14, respectively; fasting glucose (-0.38; -0.19, respectively; HDL-cholesterol (0.44; 0.40, respectively; and triglycerides (-0.35; -0.18, respectively. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio was a sensitive predictor for MetS, being the only marker that was significantly associated with each and all the individual components of the syndrome. These results expand on previous studies in that we used the active circulating form of adiponectin, i.e. HMWA, and represent a typical Brazilian cohort characterized by intense interethnic admixture. Thus, the HMWA/HOMA-IR ratio is a minimally invasive biomarker for MetS that could

  6. From region to neighborhood unit: the urbanism of Group L’Equerre, 1937-52

    OpenAIRE

    Geoffrey Grulois

    2015-01-01

    [EN] From 1937 to 1952, the young architects from Liège that formed Group L’Equerre and served as the secretariat of the Belgian section of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM) initiated a reflection about the development of the Liège industrial agglomeration and its population centers. What sources did they mobilize to build a reflexive and multi-scalar approach to urban planning from the regional scale to that of the inhabited neigbourhood? The discovery of the original ...

  7. From region to neigbourhood unit: The urbanism of Group L'Equerre - 1937-1952

    OpenAIRE

    Grulois, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    From 1937 to 1952, the young architects from Liège that formed Group L’Equerre and served as the secretariat of the Belgian section of the International Congress of Modern Architecture (CIAM) initiated a reflection about the development of the Liège industrial agglomeration and its population centers. What sources did they mobilize to build a reflexive and multi-scalar approach to urban planning from the regional scale to that of the inhabited neigbourhood?The discovery of the original drawin...

  8. Urban and regional management of small towns – the institution of intermunicipal cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelca Rus

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with problems of intermunicipal cooperation, especially in the field of physical planning and land management, since the majority of urbanized areas and functional connections between new communes exceed the administrative boundaries of particular territorial units. Possibilities of cooperation are shown, aspects which should be respected when deciding upon cooperation, criteria for including peripheral communes into the municipal region and goals of improving intermunicipal cooperation. In the conclusion, the intermunicipal union is discussed, especially its tasks, criteria for shaping the union and the timing of accession.

  9. Methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source for the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, P.M.; Le, T.

    1979-01-01

    The potential contribution of municipal refuse as an energy source depends on the spatial distribution and characteristics of population and the cost of alternative fuels. A methodology for regional economic analysis of urban refuse as an energy source requires a methodology that integrates population, interregional fuel price variations, and other engineering variables into a single model that can be subjected to sensitivity analysis helpful to the policy maker. Such a framework in the context of the Northeast States is developed. The area includes New England, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and the District of Columbia.

  10. The urban area, a center of agrobiodiversity in the Negro River region (Amazonas, Brazil?

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    Laure Emperaire

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its isolation from land communications networks and colonization frontiers, the regions of the Upper and Middle Negro River are characterized by increasing connectivity between rural or forest areas, pertaining to communities, and urban areas, i.e. small towns along the river. Population movement between these two poles, on a temporary or permanent basis, results in expanded periurban agriculture, in the context of new social and ecological arrangements. A comparative approach is proposed to cultivated plants diversity, based on a sample of 14 and 18 families in these urban and forest contexts. Relations among the diversity of managed spaces, biological diversity and social networks involved in access to phytogenetic resources were analyzed. The analysis shows a recomposition of agricultural systems with high crop diversity, at times higher than in the context of forests, albeit subject to more system vulnerability due to reduced fallow periods and available manual labor. In urban areas, traditional agricultural resource management strategies are combined with another objective, farmed lands access. This analysis also points out the need for reflection about the conservation of a biocultural heritage.

  11. Regional climate effects of irrigation and urbanization in thewestern united states: a model intercomparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, M.A.; Kueppers, L.M.; Sloan, L.C.; Cavan, D.C.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, M.; Du, H.; Weare, B.

    2006-05-01

    In the western United States, more than 30,500 square miles has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. This study compares the climate responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) to these past land-use changes. The RCMs used two contrasting land cover distributions: potential natural vegetation, and modern land cover that includes agriculture and urban areas. Three of the RCMs represented irrigation by supplementing soil moisture, producing large decreases in August mean (-2.5 F to -5.6 F) and maximum (-5.2 F to -10.1 F) 2-meter temperatures where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9 percent 36 percent absolute change). Only one of the RCMs produced increases in summer minimum temperature. Converting natural vegetation to urban land cover produced modest but discernable climate effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effects dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type. Overall, the RCM results indicate that land use change impacts are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. The irrigation effect on summer maximum temperatures is comparable in magnitude (but opposite in sign) to predicted future temperature change due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations.

  12. Evaluation of the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, A. S.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.; Miller, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Urban development results in a myriad of changes to the natural environment; these changes can give rise to a range of effects on the groundwater system. We have used the integrated subsurface - surface - land surface hydrologic model ParFlow.CLM to evaluate and isolate the impacts of urban development on groundwater storage at the regional scale. We have applied the model to the 13,216 sq km Baltimore metropolitan area at a 500 m horizontal and 5 m vertical discretization, incorporating realistic estimates of anthropogenic fluxes (lawn watering, leakage from water supply pipes, infiltration into sewer pipes, withdrawals for water supply) as well as any available hydrogeologic data. We developed a base-case model, where all urban fluxes and features are incorporated, followed by model scenarios in which urban features were modified one-at-a time to evaluate the effects of each feature. The scenarios presented are: (1) the vegetated city, in which urban land is represented as natural vegetation mosaic in the land surface model; (2) the pervious city, in which low hydraulic conductivity values representing impervious surfaces are replaced with higher soil hydraulic conductivities; (3) the intact-sewer scenario, in which infiltration and inflow (I/I) of groundwater and stormwater into wastewater sewer pipes is removed; and (4) the no-anthropogenic- discharge-and-recharge scenario, in which all anthropogenic input and output fluxes are removed. We compared the subsurface storage of these scenarios to the base case model. We found that the pervious city subsurface storage was slightly greater than the subsurface storage in the base case, which is expected due to additional infiltration associated higher hydraulic conductivity values. The magnitude of this increase in subsurface storage was surprisingly small compared to changes found in other scenarios. The intact-sewer scenario eliminated the large quantity of groundwater infiltrating into wastewater pipes in the

  13. Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L

    2015-07-01

    Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  14. Modelling regional climate change and urban planning scenarios and their impacts on the urban environment in two cities with WRF-ACASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, M.; Pyles, R. D.; Marras, S.; Spano, D.; Paw U, K. T.

    2011-12-01

    The number of urban metabolism studies has increased in recent years, due to the important impact that energy, water and carbon exchange over urban areas have on climate change. Urban modeling is therefore crucial in the future design and management of cities. This study presents the ACASA model coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) mesoscale model to simulate urban fluxes at a horizontal resolution of 200 meters for urban areas of roughly 100 km^2. As part of the European Project "BRIDGE", these regional simulations were used in combination with remotely sensed data to provide constraints on the land surface types and the exchange of carbon and energy fluxes from urban centers. Surface-atmosphere exchanges of mass and energy were simulated using the Advanced Canopy Atmosphere Soil Algorithm (ACASA). ACASA is a multi-layer high-order closure model, recently modified to work over natural, agricultural as well as urban environments. In particular, improvements were made to account for the anthropogenic contribution to heat and carbon production. For two cities four climate change and four urban planning scenarios were simulated: The climate change scenarios include a base scenario (Sc0: 2008 Commit in IPCC), a medium emission scenario (Sc1: IPCC A2), a worst case emission scenario (Sce2: IPCC A1F1) and finally a best case emission scenario (Sce3: IPCC B1). The urban planning scenarios include different development scenarios such as smart growth. The two cities are a high latitude city, Helsinki (Finland) and an historic city, Florence (Italy). Helsinki is characterized by recent, rapid urbanization that requires a substantial amount of energy for heating, while Florence is representative of cities in lower latitudes, with substantial cultural heritage and a comparatively constant architectural footprint over time. In general, simulated fluxes matched the point observations well and showed consistent improvement in the energy partitioning over

  15. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  16. Assessing summertime urban warming and the cooling efficacy of adaptation strategy in the Chengdu-Chongqing metropolitan region of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Tian, Guangjin; Feng, Jinming; Wang, Jun; Kong, Lingqiang

    2018-01-01

    Western China has experienced rapid urbanization since the Chinese reform process began in the late 1970s. It is essential to study the spatiotemporal patterns of warming induced by historical and future urban expansion and to evaluate adaptation strategies for the Chengdu-Chongqing metropolitan region (CCMR) in western China. The observed urban heat island intensity was ~1.5K in July 2009-2011. We employed the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model using real and projected urban land-use data to simulate near-surface air temperatures for a crop, urban in 2010 and urban in 2030 scenarios in summer over the CCMR. The difference between urban 2010 and cropland scenarios is 0.93K. Warming induced by urban development in 2010-2030 is in the range of 1-1.5K, but warming induced by future urban development will be less intense than historical warming over eastern China. We increased roof albedo to 0.8 to assess the difference in near-surface air temperature between cool roofs (CR) and urban 2030 scenarios, which represents the maximum potential impact of CR; we also assessed the cooling caused by green roofs (GR) (i.e., the difference between the GR and urban 2030 scenarios). Greater cooling occurs during the day due to reflection of solar radiation by CR and additional water evaporation by GR. We provided an evaluation criterion, cooling efficiency (CE), to measure the local performances of CR and GR. CE represents the local cooling capability based on urban warming rather than absolute cooling over a larger spatial scale. CE reveals a lower nocturnal cooling capability, which poses a significant challenge to the applications of CR and GR at night. CR has a better cooling capability across CCMR than GR, only when roof albedo of CR exceeds 0.68. Measures enacted should be appropriately adjusted to optimize for cost, technology and energy savings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Airborne black carbon concentrations over an urban region in western India-temporal variability, effects of meteorology, and source regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapna, Mukund; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Ramachandran, S; Rajesh, T A

    2013-03-01

    This study characterizes over 5 years of high time resolution (5 min), airborne black carbon (BC) concentrations (July 2003 to December 2008) measured over Ahmedabad, an urban region in western India. The data were used to obtain different time averages of BC concentrations, and these averages were then used to assess the diurnal, seasonal, and annual variability of BC over the study region. Assessment of diurnal variations revealed a strong association between BC concentrations and vehicular traffic. Peaks in BC concentration were co-incident with the morning (0730 to 0830, LST) and late evening (1930 to 2030, LST) rush hour traffic. Additionally, diurnal variability in BC concentrations during major festivals (Diwali and Dushera during the months of October/November) revealed an increase in BC concentrations due to fireworks displays. Maximum half hourly BC concentrations during the festival days were as high as 79.8 μg m(-3). However, the high concentrations rapidly decayed suggesting that local meteorology during the festive season was favorable for aerosol dispersion. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model with BC as the dependent variable and meteorological parameters as independent variables was fitted. The variability in temperature, humidity, wind speed, and wind direction accounted for about 49% of the variability in measured BC concentrations. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis was used to identify the geographical location of local source regions contributing to the effective BC measured (at 880 nm) at the receptor site. The east north-east (ENE) direction to the receptor was identified as a major source region. National highway (NH8) and two coal-fired thermal power stations (at Gandhinagar and Sabarmati) were located in the identified direction, suggesting that local traffic and power plant emissions were likely contributors to the measured BC.

  18. MODIS 3 Km Aerosol Product: Applications over Land in an Urban/suburban Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munchak, L. A.; Levy, R. C.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J. S.; Hostetler, C. A.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites have provided a rich dataset of aerosol information at a 10 km spatial scale. Although originally intended for climate applications, the air quality community quickly became interested in using the MODIS aerosol data. However, 10 km resolution is not sufficient to resolve local scale aerosol features. With this in mind, MODIS Collection 6 is including a global aerosol product with a 3 km resolution. Here, we evaluate the 3 km product over the Baltimore/Washington D.C., USA, corridor during the summer of 2011, by comparing with spatially dense data collected as part of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign these data were measured by the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a network of 44 sun photometers (SP) spaced approximately 10 km apart. The HSRL instrument shows that AOD can vary by up to 0.2 within a single 10 km MODIS pixel, meaning that higher resolution satellite retrievals may help to characterize aerosol spatial distributions in this region. Different techniques for validating a high-resolution aerosol product against SP measurements are considered. Although the 10 km product is more statistically reliable than the 3 km product, the 3 km product still performs acceptably, with more than two-thirds of MODIS/SP collocations falling within the expected error envelope with high correlation (R > 0.90). The 3 km product can better resolve aerosol gradients and retrieve closer to clouds and shorelines than the 10 km product, but tends to show more significant noise especially in urban areas. This urban degradation is quantified using ancillary land cover data. Overall, we show that the MODIS 3 km product adds new information to the existing set of satellite derived aerosol products and validates well over the region, but due to noise and problems in urban areas, should be treated with some degree of caution.

  19. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  20. Desperately Seeking Sustainability: Urban Shrinkage, Land Consumption and Regional Planning in a Mediterranean Metropolitan Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation has expanded in the Mediterranean region as a result of a variety of factors, including economic and population growth, land-use changes and climate variations. The level of land vulnerability to degradation and its growth over time are distributed heterogeneously over space, concentrating on landscapes exposed to high human pressure. The present study investigates the level of land vulnerability to degradation in a shrinking urban area (Rome, Italy at four points in time (1960, 1990, 2000 and 2010 and it identifies relevant factors negatively impacting the quality of land and the level of landscape fragmentation. A multi-domain assessment of land vulnerability incorporating indicators of climate quality, soil quality, vegetation quality and land management quality was carried out based on the Environmentally Sensitive Area (ESA framework. The highest rate of growth in the level of land vulnerability was observed in low-density suburban areas. The peri-urban mosaic formed by coastal woodlands and traditional cropland preserved high-quality land with a stable degree of vulnerability over time. Evidence suggests that the agro-forest mosaic surrounding Mediterranean cities act as a “buffer zone” mitigating on-site and off-site land degradation. The conservation of relict natural landscapes is a crucial target for multi-scale policies combating land degradation in suburban dry regions.

  1. Comparative Analysis on Effects of Low Impact Development Techniques on Urban Flooding Considering Regional and Geographical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.; Lee, D. K.; Yang, B.

    2016-12-01

    Low impact development(LID) is generally known as a more sustainable solution for urban stormwater management than traditional urban drainage systems. Since the emergence of LID, they have been successfully used to manage stormwater runoff, improve water quality, and protect the environment. However, its effects on urban drainage systems have not been fully understood particularly when regional and geographical characteristics are considered.In this paper, using 3 different urbanized catchments considering regional and geographical characteristics (slope, elevation, impervious cover etc.) in Korea, the effects were compared by the difference among the characteristics. The effects of LID techniques on urban flooding are analyzed by using EPA SWMM-5 and selected the suitable LID techniques for each characteristic. The effects are measured by the total flood volume reduction and peak flow time delay during a storm event compared to the traditional drainage system design.By comparing the result of each LID technique, the results indicate the suitable LID techniques considering each different regional and geographical characteristic. This paper provides an insight into the performance of LID designs under regional and geographical characteristics, which is essential for effective urban flood management.

  2. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Thorne

    Full Text Available Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2% currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%. Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area. Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9% rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other

  3. Regional assessment of urban impacts on landcover and open space finds a smart urban growth policy performs little better than business as usual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, James H; Santos, Maria J; Bjorkman, Jacquelyn H

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of landscape change is critical for attainment of regional sustainability goals. Urban growth assessments are needed because over half the global population now lives in cities, which impact biodiversity, ecosystem structure and ecological processes. Open space protection is needed to preserve these attributes, and provide the resources humans need. The San Francisco Bay Area, California, is challenged to accommodate a population increase of 3.07 million while maintaining the region's ecosystems and biodiversity. Our analysis of 9275 km² in the Bay Area links historic trends for three measures: urban growth, protected open space, and landcover types over the last 70 years to future 2050 projections of urban growth and open space. Protected open space totaled 348 km² (3.7% of the area) in 1940, and expanded to 2221 km² (20.2%) currently. An additional 1038 km² of protected open space is targeted (35.1%). Urban area historically increased from 396.5 km² to 2239 km² (24.1% of the area). Urban growth during this time mostly occurred at the expense of agricultural landscapes (62.9%) rather than natural vegetation. Smart Growth development has been advanced as a preferred alternative in many planning circles, but we found that it conserved only marginally more open space than Business-as-usual when using an urban growth model to portray policies for future urban growth. Scenarios to 2050 suggest urban development on non-urban lands of 1091, 956, or 179 km², under Business-as-usual, Smart Growth and Infill policy growth scenarios, respectively. The Smart Growth policy converts 88% of natural lands and agriculture used by Business-as-usual, while Infill used only 40% of those lands. Given the historic rate of urban growth, 0.25%/year, and limited space available, the Infill scenario is recommended. While the data may differ, the use of an historic and future framework to track these three variables can be easily applied to other metropolitan areas.

  4. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    China is the world's most populous country with a fast growing economy that surges in energy comsumption. It has become the second largest energy consumer after the United States although the per capita level is much lower than those found in developed or developing countries. Air pollution has become one of the most important problems of megacities such as Beijing and Shanghai and has serious impacts on public health, causes urban and regional haze. The Models-3/CMAQ modeling application that has been conducted to simulate multi-pollutants in China is presented. The modeling domains cover East Asia (36-kmx36-km) including Japan, South Korea, Korea DPR, Indonesia, Thailand, India and Mongolia, East China (12-kmx12-km) and Beijing/Tianjing, Shanghai (4-kmx4-km). For this study, the Asian emission inventory based on the emission estimates of the year 2000 that supported the NASA TRACE-P program is used. However, the TRACE-P emission inventory was developed for a different purpose such as global modeling. TRACE-P emission inventory may not be practical in urban area. There is no China national emission inventory available. Therefore, TRACE-P emission inventory is used on the East Asia and East China domains. The 8 districts of Beijing and Shanghai local emissions inventory are used to replace TRACE-P in 4-km domains. The meteorological data for the Models-3/CMAQ run are extracted from MM5. The model simulation is performed during the period January 1-20 and July 1-20, 2001 that presented the winter and summer time for China areas. The preliminary model results are shown O3 concentrations are in the range of 80 -120 ppb in the urban area. Lower urban O3 concentrations are shown in Beijing areas, possibly due to underestimation of urban man-made VOC emissions in the TRACE-P inventory and local inventory. High PM2.5 (70ug/m3 in summer and 150ug/m3 in winter) were simulated over metropolitan & downwind areas with significant secondary constituents. More comprehensive

  5. Aircraft observations of the urban CO2 dome in London and calculated daytime CO2 fluxes at the urban-regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Anna; Morgui, Josep Anton; Grimmond, Sue; Barratt, Benjamin

    2013-04-01

    Traffic, industry and energy production and consumption within urban boundaries emit great amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere, creating an urban increment of CO2 mixing ratios compared to the surrounding rural atmosphere. Monitoring CO2 within these 'urban domes' has been proposed as a means to evaluate the effectiveness of policies aiming to mitigate and reduce CO2 urban emissions (CMEGGE, 2010). London is the biggest urban conurbation in Western Europe with more than 8 million inhabitants, and it emitted roughly 45000 ktn CO2 in 2010 (DECC, 2012). In order to develop and implement observational strategies to measure the contribution of urban areas into the global carbon cycle, two airborne surveys were deployed using the Natural and Environment Research Council - Airborne Research and Survey Facility (NERC-ARSF). High frequency measurements of atmospheric CO2, O3, particles and meteorological variables were taken over London in October 2011 and July 2012. CO2 mixing ratios were measured by a Non-Dispersive IR instrument developed by AOS. In July 2012, a Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CDRS) instrument developed by PICARRO was deployed measuring CO2, CH4 and water vapour at 1Hz resolution. The objectives of the campaigns were to measure the CO2 dome over London and to calculate CO2 emissions at the urban-regional-scale. London was crossed by two transects (SW-NE and SSE-NNW) at an altitude of 360 m and vertical profiles up to 2000 m were carried out to characterize the structure of the atmosphere. Aircraft measurements allowed observation on how CO2 domes were shaped by meteorological conditions. In October 2011, the mean CO2 mixing ratio measured in London was on average 2 ppmv higher than the suburban measurements within the boundary layer. However, under low wind speeds, the CO2 mixing ratio in the urban mixing ratio peaked in central London (>10 ppmv) and decreased towards the city boundaries. Under windy conditions, the structure of the urban dome was

  6. Bird diversity in the Serra do Aracá region, northwestern Brazilian Amazon: preliminary check-list with considerations on biogeography and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Borges

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We inventoried the birds from Serra do Aracá region, state of Amazonas. The region encompasses a high diversity of vegetation types, including white sand forests and campinas, terra firme and flooded forests, montane forests and tepuis. We recorded 416 bird taxa in 69 families through captures with mist nets, tape recording of bird voices, and collection of voucher specimens. A large proportion of them (61% were recorded in a single vegetation type. Qualitative estimates suggest that approximately 580 bird species occur in the region. The avifauna of the Aracá region has a mixed biogeographic composition, with species typical of both margins of the Rio Negro occurring sympatrically. Additionally, species whose distributions are restricted to three areas of endemism for Amazonian birds (Imeri, Guiana and Pantepui were recorded in the region. Rare landscapes in the Brazilian Amazon are found in the Serra do Aracá region. Additionally, we recorded endemic and rare birds, highlighting the value of the region for conservation. The Serra do Aracá State Park officially protects montane forests, terra firme forests and tepuis. We suggest that the large extension of white sand campinas and igapó forests at the southern portion of Serra do Aracá should be also preserved in order to improve the representation of the rich natural heritage of the region.

  7. Evaluating climate variables, indexes and thresholds governing Arctic urban sustainability: case study of Russian permafrost regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, O. A.; Kokorev, V.

    2013-12-01

    Addressing Arctic urban sustainability today forces planners to deal with the complex interplay of multiple factors, including governance and economic development, demography and migration, environmental changes and land use, changes in the ecosystems and their services, and climate change. While the latter can be seen as a factor that exacerbates the existing vulnerabilities to other stressors, changes in temperature, precipitation, snow, river and lake ice, and the hydrological regime also have direct implications for the cities in the North. Climate change leads to reduced demand for heating energy, on one hand, and heightened concerns about the fate of the infrastructure built upon thawing permafrost, on the other. Changes in snowfall are particularly important and have direct implications for the urban economy, as together with heating costs, expenses for snow removal from streets, airport runways, roofs and ventilation corridors underneath buildings erected on pile foundations on permafrost constitute the bulk of the city's maintenance budget. Many cities are located in river valleys and are prone to flooding that leads to enormous economic losses and casualties, including human deaths. The severity of the northern climate has direct implications for demographic changes governed by regional migration and labor flows. Climate could thus be viewed as an inexhaustible public resource that creates opportunities for sustainable urban development. Long-term trends show that climate as a resource is becoming more readily available in the Russian North, notwithstanding the general perception that globally climate change is one of the challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. In this study we explore the sustainability of the Arctic urban environment under changing climatic conditions. We identify key governing variables and indexes and study the thresholds beyond which changes in the governing climatic parameters have significant impact on the economy

  8. The Genesis of the Urban Culture of the Steppe of the Volga Region and Sociocultural Development of the Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda V. Dulina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems of the genesis of socio-historical processes of urban culture of the steppe of the Volga region, is based on historical documents, materials of scientific expeditions conducted in the lower Volga region encyclopedic scientists from the second half of the XVIII century, and the results of archaeological research here settlement sites. Based on the fact that the whole history of mankind is the history of the reference person of its economy, the authors believe that the analysis of the spaces of the modern city must be waged simultaneously in multiple coordinate systems – involving knowledge of scientific disciplines such as history and archeology, sociology, Economics etc. Attention is focused on the events in the Volga steppes of socio-economic and cultural-historical transformation, reflected in the distinctive dynamics of sociocultural development of the medieval (Khazar, the Golden Horde, Russian and modern cities in the region. The authors come to the following conclusions: the city created (and covered by most throughout the centuries (and even millennia by many generations, carry a spatial-temporal characteristics and the variety of creative ideas that make them diverse, aesthetically balanced. The growth of these cities, like all living things, inevitably threatens the time, which naturally destroys some of their historical (and in fact – "root" part to "make room" for new construction. To the relentless dynamism of our era was not able to destroy formed for many generations the idea that is subordinated to the formation and development of each particular city, you should each time from a separate historical parts of the city (or temporal-spatial "fragments" to try to reproduce it in its entirety, as the unity and integrity, while maintaining its inherent identity.

  9. Recent trends in urbanization in the ASEAN region: implications for health programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteria, T S

    1987-01-01

    "This paper examines recent trends in urbanization in four selected ASEAN countries--Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand--giving particular attention to the scale and pace of urbanization, the unique features of urban communities, and the health changes and adjustments that accompany urban development in these countries." excerpt

  10. Assessment of natural and artificial radiation dose in the city urban area of Goiania, Goias, Brazil: results of Campinas - Centro and Sul regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Nivaldo C.; Dias, Danila C.S.; Guerrero, Eder T.Z.; Alberti, Heber L.C., E-mail: ncsilva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: edertzg@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heber@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Santos, Eliane E.; Pimenta, Lucinei R.; Costa, Heliana F., E-mail: esantos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: lucinei@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: heliana@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Centro-Oeste (CRCN-CO/CNEN-GO), Abadia de Goias, GO (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    An assessment of external gamma dose was carried out in some urban areas in the city of Goiania - GO - Brazil, allowing to infer the contribution of this component to the average annual effective dose value for the population leaving in that region. The measurements were done using a vehicle with a mobile radioactivity measurement system, Thermo-Eberline FHT 1376, consisting of plastic scintillation detector and a Global Position System (GPS), which is able to collect gamma dose rate as well as the local spatial coordinates. These data, associated with those from national census, provided by Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistic, were analyzed using the ArcGIS software, a well known Geographical Information System - GIS. As the main result, radiometric maps were produced, illustrating how effective dose values are distributed within the selected areas and also correlating the collective dose values for these populations. Around 57,000 geo referenced effective dose values were measured in the so-called Campinas-Centro and Sul Regions, which are two of the seven regions Goiania is divided in for administrative purposes. The dose rates ranging from 10.4 to 192.7 nSv/h with an average of 22.4 nSv/h, which means 0.20 mSv/year as the annual effective dose. This values are lower than the worldwide average effective dose value of 0.46 mSv/year for outdoor exposures from terrestrial radiation sources) and lower than the previous average values found in Brazil for the regions of Pocos de Caldas, Guarapari, Andradas and Caldas. Actually, the average value is comparable with those observed in the Ribeirao Preto - SP - Brazil City. (author)

  11. Molecular findings from influenza A(H1N1pdm09 detected in patients from a Brazilian equatorial region during the pandemic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Couto Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available After the World Health Organization officially declared the end of the first pandemic of the XXI century in August 2010, the influenza A(H1N1pdm09 virus has been disseminated in the human population. In spite of its sustained circulation, very little on phylogenetic data or oseltamivir (OST resistance is available for the virus in equatorial regions of South America. In order to shed more light on this topic, we analysed the haemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA genes of influenza A(H1N1pdm09 positive samples collected during the pandemic period in the Pernambuco (PE, a northeastern Brazilian state. Complete HA sequences were compared and amino acid changes were related to clinical outcome. In addition, the H275Y substitution in NA, associated with OST resistance, was investigated by pyrosequencing. Samples from PE were grouped in phylogenetic clades 6 and 7, being clustered together with sequences from South and Southeast Brazil. The D222N/G HA gene mutation, associated with severity, was found in one deceased patient that was pregnant. Additionally, the HA mutation K308E, which appeared in Brazil in 2010 and was only detected worldwide the following year, was identified in samples from hospitalised cases. The resistance marker H275Y was not identified in samples tested. However, broader studies are needed to establish the real frequency of resistance in this Brazilian region.

  12. FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF RURAL AND URBAN CONSUMERS OF SELECT PERSONAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS IN COIMBATORE REGION, TAMILNADU

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. K. Ramamurthi; A. Arun

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on buying behaviour of rural and urban consumers on select personal hygiene products in the Coimbatore region of Tamilnadu. It examines the factors influencing consumer behaviour in respect to purchase of personal hygiene products identified by the researcher based on the data collected from the rural and urban consumers. The study has used a 5 point Likert type scale for measuring the reasons for buying a particular purchase format, rank preferences on factors influencin...

  13. Thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of locally adapted ewes under natural weather conditions of Brazilian semiarid region

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    Wirton Peixoto Costa

    2015-12-01

    of T3 was lower in the RMN than in the WMN (0.19±0.07 and 0.24±0.08 ?g dL-1, respectively, while T4 did not differ between them (6.53±1.51 and 6.52±1.46 ?g dL-1, respectively. The Morada Nova sheep showed positive physiological responses to the heat stress, notably an increase of respiratory rate and a reduction of T3 and T4 levels. All another hematologic parameters analyzed were within the normal range for all sheep, indicating a good ability to cope with the climatic changes of the Brazilian semiarid region. Both varieties were heat tolerant, but the red variety required major adjustments to maintain homeothermy.

  14. Regional scale prioritisation for key ecosystem services, renewable energy production and urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Bennie, Jonathan J; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services.

  15. Regional Scale Prioritisation for Key Ecosystem Services, Renewable Energy Production and Urban Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Bennie, Jonathan J.; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    Although the importance of addressing ecosystem service benefits in regional land use planning and decision-making is evident, substantial practical challenges remain. In particular, methods to identify priority areas for the provision of key ecosystem services and other environmental services (benefits from the environment not directly linked to the function of ecosystems) need to be developed. Priority areas are locations which provide disproportionally high benefits from one or more service. Here we map a set of ecosystem and environmental services and delineate priority areas according to different scenarios. Each scenario is produced by a set of weightings allocated to different services and corresponds to different landscape management strategies which decision makers could undertake. Using the county of Cornwall, U.K., as a case study, we processed gridded maps of key ecosystem services and environmental services, including renewable energy production and urban development. We explored their spatial distribution patterns and their spatial covariance and spatial stationarity within the region. Finally we applied a complementarity-based priority ranking algorithm (zonation) using different weighting schemes. Our conclusions are that (i) there are two main patterns of service distribution in this region, clustered services (including agriculture, carbon stocks, urban development and plant production) and dispersed services (including cultural services, energy production and floods mitigation); (ii) more than half of the services are spatially correlated and there is high non-stationarity in the spatial covariance between services; and (iii) it is important to consider both ecosystem services and other environmental services in identifying priority areas. Different weighting schemes provoke drastic changes in the delineation of priority areas and therefore decision making processes need to carefully consider the relative values attributed to different services

  16. Monitoring of daily integrated exposure of outdoor workers to respirable particulates in an urban region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, M.M.; Patil, R.S. [Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    1996-12-31

    A realization is gradually emerging that estimation of daily integrated exposure of population to air pollutants is more relevant rather than the ambient air quality, since it gives a better indicator of health risk. Outdoor workers in urban region are generally of low income category and suffer from both indoor and outdoor air pollution of high levels. These respondent population sub-group have been selected for this study. The outdoor workers are divided into two categories - stationary and mobile. Stationary outdoor workers are further divided into two groups viz. traffic police and casual outdoor workers like watchman, roadside shopkeeper, etc. The mobile outdoor workers include drivers and workers who have to travel for a majority period of their occupation time. Most of the respondents are from lower income group. The sampling frequency is once a week. The study region is situated in the N-W part of Greater Bombay Municipal Corporation. It can be classified as industrial cum residential area. Ambient air quality monitoring stations are established at three sites viz. Marol, Sakinaka and Jogeshwari in this region and respondents for the exposure measurement are selected from the cluster of residential houses (slums) near these stations. In the present study, outdoor workers residing and working in the study region are selected. This has eliminated the commuting microenvironment. The daily integrated exposure of the outdoor workers consists of two major microenvironments viz. occupation and indoor residential. In addition, activity diary of the respondents is maintained to check whether there are any other major microenvironments.

  17. Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions: an Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Haase

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Because we have entered the 'millennium of the cities', urban ecological research needs to account for the provisions ecosystem services provide to urban regions. In urban areas, ecosystem service assessment studies need to account for the complex land use patterns, which change over relatively short periods of time. We discuss an analytical framework for the spatial and temporal integration of different ecosystem services in an urban region to determine synergies, trade-offs and losses, and we employ a case study in Leipzig-Halle, Germany. The following five ecosystem services, which are of special importance for urban areas, were selected: local climate regulation, recreation potential, biodiversity potential, food supply, and above-ground carbon storage. These services were analyzed from 1990 to 2006. Our results identified only slight increases in urbanization (1% or 3 km² and in mining restoration (-11 km². However, the detected land use changes led to synergies with biodiversity and climate regulation of > 50% of the total area, whereas trade-offs of approximately 60% were detected between variables such as climate regulation and recreation. Finally, we address both the opportunities and the challenges that were encountered in the integration study, specifically with respect to the application in land use planning.

  18. Urban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Lisboa Nobre

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Natal is a city with environment singularities. The urban legislation tried to preserve the features of the local landscape delimiting “Areas for Controlling Building High”, destined to protect the scenic value of some parts of the city. In 1979 was created a “NonÆdificandi” area to protect the scenery of Ponta Negra beach, one of the most famous view of the city. Since this time, the real state market, the building constructers and the land owners of this area have exerted constant pressure in sense to abolish or to modify this legal instrument.Nowadays, the public administration presented a new project which try to answer public and private interests.This paper is the result of an inclusion of the University in this polemic issue. Architecture and Urban Planning and Statistic students of two universities of the city (UFRN and UNP, helped the process collecting data and producing information. The proposed of the investigation was to know the users of this area and their opinion about the subject. It was done together with the Public agency, Secretaria Especial de Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo. At the end, the students presented their particular solutions for the problem, inside the disciplines of Landscaping and Urban Planning.

  19. Sustainable urban regions - criteria and indicators for land use planning; Kestaevaet kaupunkiseudut. Kriteereitae ja mittareita suunnittelun tyoevaelineiksi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederman, T.; Saarela, S.-R. (eds.)

    2011-10-15

    How to concretise the objectives of sustainability in urban regions through land use and traffic planning? How to utilise existing information and data in planning? These questions have been the core of Seutukeke (Sustainable land use and traffic), a project which combines and discusses scientifically based ecological, social and economic information, expert knowledge, and land use planners' experiences in relation to urban regions. In this project sustainable urban regions have been defined as follows: Their development does not endanger biodiversity or ecosystem services (ecological dimension), human well-being or social equality (social dimension), or the opportunities for economic success (economic dimension) in the long run. The objective of the project Seutukeke has been to collect and analyse a variety of strategies for sustainability and to concretise them into criteria and indicators. Criteria are qualitative statements that include a desired objective for sustainability. Indicators measure quantitatively the fulfilment of each objective. Instead of restricting the analysis within administrative boundaries, the project has focused on functional urban regions consisting of areas of multiple towns. The criteria and indicators presented in this report are especially designed for land use and traffic planning in mid-size urban regions (80,000 - 200,000 inhabitants) in Finland. Whenever possible, the indicators have been based on freely available data that allows the indicator results to be mapped using a GIS. Seutukeke criteria and indicators are a suitable tool for sustainable planning, impact assessment, and the monitoring of land use plans. Indicators are suitable for both strategic and concrete master planning in urban regions or individual cities. Indicators have already been applied to ongoing master planning in the city of Lahti and will shortly be applied within the regional council of Paeijaet-Haeme. The first part of this report focuses on the

  20. Dominance of pollutant aerosols over an urban region and its impact on boundary layer temperature profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti; Maitra, Animesh

    2017-01-01

    Collocated measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon at different wavelengths over Kolkata, an urban region in eastern India, have been used to calculate aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA). The wavelength dependence of SSA and AOD has been presented to discriminate the aerosol types over this highly populated metropolitan area. The spectral pattern shows that SSA decreases with wavelength for most of the time in a year and corresponding Ångström coefficient is greater than unity. These optical properties indicate the dominance of fine-mode pollutant particles over the city. The temperature lapse rate profile within the surface boundary layer has been found to be significantly influenced by the heating effect of fine-mode pollutants, and consequently, the growth of the convective processes in the lower troposphere is notably affected. In addition, a back trajectory analysis has also been presented to indicate that transported air masses can have significant impact on spectral pattern of SSA.

  1. Crime in relation to urban design. Case study: The Greater Cairo Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Adel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a part of any social system and known to human communities since its origins. It differs from community to another, even within one community it doesn’t occur equally in all places and nor by the same way. It is also concentrated in some places more than others, sometimes increases, sometimes decreases, etc. Previous researches have proved that crime rate has significant correlation with different social factors: education levels, poverty rates and lack of social organization, while others have drawn the attention to its relation with the built environment. They proposed that crime occurs in places where both opportunities and criminals are available. The role of this paper is to identify urban circumstances related to crime occurrence within the Greater Cairo Region, and to propose different ways to reduce these crimes. Consecutively, agglomeration’s main districts were scrutinized according to social analysis, street-network pattern and land-use.

  2. Household smoking restrictions among urban residents in China: individual and regional influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Yu, Lingwei; Jiang, Shuhan; Feng, Xueying; Xian, Hong; Cottrell, Randall R; Rockett, Ian R H

    2015-05-01

    The present study examines individual and regional influences on household smoking restrictions (HSR) in China. Participants were 16,866 urban residents, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 21 Chinese cities. The data collection instrument was a self-administered questionnaire. The sample was characterized in terms of the prevalence of complete HSRs. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine individual and environmental influences on HSR. Almost 22 % of respondents reported HSR. Both individual and regional-level restrictions on smoking in the workplace were associated with HSR. There was a negative association between individual household income and HSR, and positive associations between HSR awareness of secondhand smoking (SHS), and smoking in smoke-free public places, respectively. This study revealed individual and regional influences on HSR in China. Findings underscore that efforts to restrict smoking in Chinese households should emphasize environmental smoking restrictions, while simultaneously raising public awareness of the perils of SHS. This information should be considered in designing interventions to sustain and promote the adoption of HSR in Chinese and other populations.

  3. Comparison of household consumption and regional production approaches to assess urban energy use and implications for policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baynes, Timothy, E-mail: Tim.Baynes@csiro.au [Ecosystems Science Division, CSIRO, P.O. Box 310, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Lenzen, Manfred, E-mail: m.lenzen@physics.usyd.edu.au [ISA, School of Physics A28, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Steinberger, Julia K., E-mail: j.k.steinberger@leeds.ac.uk [Institute of Social Ecology Alpen-Adria University, Schottenfeldg. 29, Vienna A-1070 (Austria); Sustainability Research Institute, School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, LS29JT (United Kingdom); Bai Xuemei, E-mail: Xuemei.Bai@anu.edu.au [Fenner School of Environment and Society, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Assessment of urban energy use may proceed by a number of methods. Here we derive an energy account from local statistics, and compare them with an input output (IO) analysis as applied to Melbourne, Australia. These approaches highlight different aspects of urban energy use and comparable outputs are presented together to assess consistency, to identify complementarities and discuss the insight each approach brings to understanding urban energy. The IO method captures the direct and embodied primary energy requirements of local household expenditure (235.8 GJ/capita/year) while the regional assessment more directly accounts for local production activity (258.1 GJ/capita/year). The parity of these results is unexpected for a developed city with a strong tertiary sector. Sectoral detail reveals differences between the primary energy required by Melbourne's economic structure and that ultimately required through the full supply chain relating to household expenditure. This is accompanied by an IO analysis of the geography of Melbourne's 'energy catchment'. It is suggested that the IO consumption and regional production approaches have particular relevance to policies aimed at consumption behaviour and economic (re)structuring, respectively. Their complementarity further suggests that a combined analysis would be valuable in understanding urban energy futures and economic transitions elsewhere. - Highlights: > We compare an IO approach and a regional assessment of an urban energy use case. > Unusually, regional assessment of the primary energy use exceeds that from IO. > Sectoral and geographical detail reveals the urban consumption/production character. > We discuss the relative merits and policy utility of the different methods. > A combined approach is recommended for urban energy and economic transitions.

  4. Pesticides analysed in rainwater in Alsace region (Eastern France): Comparison between urban and rural sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheyer, Anne; Morville, Stéphane; Mirabel, Philippe; Millet, Maurice

    Current-used pesticides commonly applied in Alsace region (Eastern France) on diverse crops (maize, vineyard, vegetables, etc.) were analysed, together with Lindane, in rainwater between January 2002 and June 2003 simultaneously on two sites situated in a typical rural (Erstein, France) and urban area (Strasbourg, France). Rainwater samples were collected on a weekly basis by using two automatic wet only collectors associated with an open collector for the measurement of rainwater height. Pesticides were analysed by GC-MSMS and extracted from rainwater by SPME. Two runs were performed. The first one was performed by using a PDMS (100 μm) fibre for pesticides where direct injection into GC is possible (alachlor, atrazine, azinphos-ethyl, azinphos-methyl, captan, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, diflufenican, α- and β-endosulfan, iprodione, lindane, metolachlor, mevinphos, parathion-methyl, phosalone, phosmet, tebuconazole, triadimefon and trifluralin). The second run was performed by using PDMS/DVB fibre and this run concerns pesticides where a preliminary derivatisation step with pentafluorobenzylbromide (PFBBr) is required for very low volatiles (bromoxynil,2,4-MCPA, MCPP and 2,4-D) or thermo labiles (chlorotoluron, diuron and isoproturon) pesticides. Results showed that the more concentrated pesticides detected were those used as herbicides in large quantities in Alsace region for maize crops (alachlor, metolachlor and atrazine). Maximum concentrations for these herbicides have been measured during intensive applications periods on maize crops following by rapid decrease immediately after use. For Alachlor, most important peaks have been observed between 21 and 28 April 2003 (3327 ng L -1 at Erstein and 5590 ng L -1 at Strasbourg). This is also the case for Metolachlor where most important peak was observed during the same week. Concentrations of pesticides measured out of application periods were very low for many pesticides and some others where never detected

  5. Time trends and changes in the distribution of malaria cases in the Brazilian Amazon Region, 2004-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac da SF Lima

    Full Text Available Recent efforts to reduce malaria incidence have had some successes. Nevertheless, malaria persists as a significant public health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. The objective of this study was to describe changes in malaria case characteristics and to identify trends in malaria incidence in the Brazilian Amazon. This study used data from the Malaria Epidemiological Surveillance and Case Notification Information System from 2004 to 2013. The annual parasite incidence (API was calculated and joinpoint regression was used to assess the trends in API over time. There was a sharp increase in API in the state of Acre, followed by two periods of decrease. Pará also presented inconsistent decreases over the study period. Amapá, Amazonas, Rondônia, and Roraima showed statistically significant decreases over the period. The sharpest decrease occurred in Rondônia, with a reduction of 21.7% in the average annual percent change (AAPC (AAPC: -21.7%; 95% confidence interval: -25.4%, -17.8%; p < 0.05. This panorama of malaria incidence highlights the importance of integrating evidence-based malaria surveillance and control. Malaria is highly preventable, and eliminating its transmission should be a goal in coming decades.

  6. Modeling commuting patterns in a multi-regional input-output framework: impacts of an `urban re-centralization' scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J.-P.; Ramos, P.; Cruz, L.; Barata, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper suggests a modeling approach for assessing economic and social impacts of changes in urban forms and commuting patterns that extends a multi-regional input-output framework by incorporating a set of commuting-related consequences. The Lisbon Metropolitan Area case with an urban re-centralization scenario is used as an example to illustrate the relevance of this modeling approach for analyzing commuting-related changes in regional income distribution on the one side and in household consumption structures on the other.

  7. Object-based change detection in rapid urbanization regions with remotely sensed observations: a case study of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lihuang; Dong, Guihua; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    China, the most populous country on Earth, has experienced rapid urbanization which is one of the main causes of many environmental and ecological problems. Therefore, the monitoring of rapid urbanization regions and the environment is of critical importance for their sustainable development. In this study, the object-based classification is employed to detect the change of land cover in Shenzhen, which is located in South China and has been urbanized rapidly in recent three decades. First, four Landsat TM images, which were acquired on 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively, are selected from the image database. Atmospheric corrections are conducted on these images with improved dark-object subtraction technique and surface meteorological observations. Geometric correction is processed with ground control points derived from topographic maps. Second, a region growing multi-resolution segmentation and a soft nearest neighbour classifier are used to finish object-based classification. After analyzing the fraction of difference classes over time series, we conclude that the comparison of derived land cover classes with socio-economic statistics demonstrates the strong positive correlation between built-up classes and urban population as well as gross GDP and GDPs in second and tertiary industries. Two different mechanisms of urbanization, namely new land development and redevelopment, are revealed. Consequently, we found that, the districts of Shenzhen were urbanized through different mechanisms.

  8. CLIMATE, CITIES AND SUSTAINABILITY IN THE ARABIAN REGION: COMPACTNESS AS A NEW PARADIGM IN URBAN DESIGN AND PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Ben Hamouche

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Over centuries, the climate in Arabia has become a major factor that shaped daylife of the local societies and thus, the form of their cities. Old cities were charactrized by their compactness which stemmed from the need for protection from the harsh environment. Urban fabric has been dominated by the building masses, the limited number of enclosed public and outdoor spaces, and the inward-looking architecture. Besides its environmental utility, compactness also provided a physical support to the local community and reflected its strong social structure and complex network of kinships. Nowadays, Gulf cities that are mostly shaped by the modern movement and American life style are in complete negation with their past. An unprecedented sprawl effect is taking place all over the Gulf countries due to the heavy reliance on private transportation, high building technology, powerful air-conditioning systems and private housing. Reconsidering compactness in the present urban planning and design practices, would not only insure a cultural continuity with the rooted urban history of the region, but also meets the recommendations of the recent findings in research on sustainable urban development. Modeling compactness from the study of the old cities into urban indicators and design guidelines would provide an alternative design and planning process to architects, planners and decisionmakers. Far from being exhaustive, the study consists of analyzing some old cities that are located in the hot regions, according to the available documents, and extracting urban indicators that help measuring and applying compactness in planning and design.

  9. Urban green effects on land surface temperature caused by surface characteristics: A case study of summer Beijing metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yazhou; Zhan, Yulin; Yu, Tao; Ren, Xinyu

    2017-11-01

    The pace of urbanization in China has increased in recent decades. Accordingly, the urbanized area has expanded at a spectacular rate and the urban heat island (UHI) has intensified. Understanding the effects of the landscape pattern on the UHI is crucial for optimizing urban structure, which could mitigate the UHI. This study focused on green cover in an urban area. To investigate how the composition and configuration of urban green patches would affect their temperature in Beijing metropolitan region, China, especially the influence of the configuration of green patches on their cooling effect, the relationships between green surface temperature (GST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and normalized compactness index (NCI) were investigated by regression analyses, and a method to quantify the cooling effect of greens derived from the urban cool island and green space cool island was proposed. The image from the Landsat Thermal Infrared Sensor was used to estimate GST, and three images from the GF-2 Panchromatic & Multispectral Camera were used to obtain NDVI and calculate NCI. Our results showed that both NDVI and NCI had negative relationships to GST in summer, but only NCI strongly influenced the spatial cooling effect of greens. The further exploration of the influence of NCI on the cooling effect showed the NCI was negatively correlated to the cooling effect, which indicated that, for a given area, more compact green patches reduce the extent of the cooling effect.

  10. Analyzing Land Cover Change and Urban Growth Trajectories of the Mega-Urban Region of Dhaka Using Remotely Sensed Data and an Ensemble Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehedy Hassan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate information on, and human interpretation of, urban land cover using satellite-derived sensor imagery is critical given the intricate nature and niches of socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental factors occurring at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Detailed knowledge of urban land and their changing pattern over time periods associated with ecological risk is, however, required for the best use of critical land and its environmental resources. Interest in this topic has increased recently, driven by a surge in the use of open-source computing software, satellite-derived imagery, and improved classification algorithms. Using the machine learning algorithm Random Forest, combined with multi-date Landsat imagery, we classified eight periods of land cover maps with up-to-date spatial and temporal information of urban land between the period of 1972 and 2015 for the mega-urban region of greater Dhaka in Bangladesh. Random Forest—a non-parametric ensemble classifier—has shown a quantum increase in satellite-derived image classification accuracy due to its outperformance over traditional approaches, e.g., Maximum Likelihood. Employing Random Forest as an image classification approach for this study with independent cross-validation techniques, we obtained high classification accuracy, user and producer accuracy. Our overall classification accuracy ranges were between 85% and 97% with kappa values between 0.81 and 0.94. The area statistics derived from the thematic land cover map show that the built-up area in the 43-year study period expanded quickly, from 35 km2 in 1972 to 378 km2 in 2015, with a net increase rate of approximately 980% and an average annual growth rate of 6%. This growth rate, however, was higher in peripheral areas, with a 2903% increase and an annual expansion rate of 8%, compared to a 460% increase with an annual growth rate of 4% in the core city area (Dhaka City Corporation. This huge urban expansion took

  11. Trace metal concentrations in forest and lawn soils of Paris region (France) along a gradient of urban pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovic, Foti

    2017-04-01

    Urban soils differ greatly from natural ones as they are located in areas of intense anthropogenic activity (e.g. pollution, physical disturbance, surface transformation). Urban soils are a crucial component of urban ecosystems, especially in public green spaces, and contribute to many ecosystem services from the mitigation of urban heat island to recreational services. In the last decade, the study of urban soils has emerged as an important frontier in environmental research, at least because of their impact on the quality of life of urban populations, because of the services they deliver and because they are more and more recognized as a valuable resource. One of the key issues is the pollution of urban soils because they receive a variety of deposits from local (vehicle emissions, industrial discharges, domestic heating, waste incineration and other anthropogenic activities) and from remote sources (through atmospheric transport). Typical contaminants include persistent toxic substances, such as trace metals (TMs) that have drawn wide attention due to their long persistence in the environment, their tendency to bioaccumulate in the food chain and their toxicity for humans and other organisms. Concentrations, spatial distributions, dynamics, impacts and sources of TMs (e.g. industry or fossil fuels combustion) have attracted a global interest in urban soils and are the subject of ongoing research (e.g. ecotoxicological urban ecology). Some studies have already documented soil pollution with TMs at both the town and regional scales. So far, several monitoring programs (e.g. National Network for the long term Monitoring of Forest Ecosystem, Regional Monitoring Quality of Soil in France) and studies have been carried out on a national scale to measure the ranges of TM concentrations and natural background values in French soils. These studies have focused on French agricultural and forest soils and have not tackled urban soils. No study has described TM

  12. The Sociocultural Value of Upland Regions in the Vicinity of Cities in Comparison With Urban Green Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Schmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Mountain and upland regions provide a wide range of ecosystem services to residents and visitors. While ecosystem research in mountain regions is on the rise, the linkages between sociocultural benefits and ecological systems remain little explored. Mountainous regions close to urban areas provide numerous benefits to a large number of individuals, suggesting a high social value, particularly for cultural ecosystem services. We explored and compared visitors' valuation of ecosystem services in the Pentland Hills, an upland range close to the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, and urban green spaces within Edinburgh. Based on 715 responses to user surveys in both study areas, we identified intense use and high social value for both areas. Several ecosystem services were perceived as equally important in both areas, including many cultural ecosystem services. Significant differences were revealed in the value of physically using nature, which Pentland Hills users rated more highly than those in the urban green spaces, and of mitigation of pollutants and carbon sequestration, for which the urban green spaces were valued more highly. Major differences were further identified for preferences in future land management, with nature-oriented management preferred by about 57% of the interviewees in the Pentland Hills, compared to 31% in the urban parks. The study highlights the substantial value of upland areas in close vicinity to a city for physically using and experiencing nature, with a strong acceptance of nature conservation.

  13. Urban forest cover of the Chicago region and its relation to household density and income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Elizabeth A. Cook; Elizabeth A. Cook

    2000-01-01

    Urban forests and herbaceous open space play a vital role in the environmental and aesthetic ?health? of cities, yet they are rarely identified in land-use inventories of urban areas. To provide information on urban forests and other vegetative land cover in Illinois cities, Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data from June 27, 1988, were classified for the Chicago...

  14. A influência da proximidade tecnológica e geográfica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil The influence of the technological proximity and the geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar a influência da proximidade geográfica e da proximidade tecnológica sobre a inovação regional no Brasil, medida por depósitos de patentes no período 1999-2001 para mesorregiões geográficas. Para tanto, utilizaram-se técnicas de Análise Exploratória de Dados Espaciais (AEDE e de econometria espacial. Os dados de patentes foram organizados em quatro clusters tecnológicos segundo critérios de proximidade cognitiva, como biofarmacêutico, desenvolvimento de novos materiais, bens mecânicos e de consumo e tecnologias eletroeletrônicas, revelando um padrão de concentração da atividade tecnológica em poucas mesorregiões brasileiras. Além disso, foi calculada a medida de proximidade tecnológica de Jaffe para ponderar a vizinhança geográfica pelo grau de similaridade tecnológica das mesorregiões. Os resultados confirmam a hipótese de transbordamentos de conhecimento mediados tecnológica e geograficamente.The aim of this paper is to determine the influence of technological proximity and geographical proximity on Brazilian regional innovation, measured by patent applications over the period 1999-2001 for Brazilian geographical mesoregions. First, the paper undertakes an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA and then uses spatial econometric techniques. According with procedures based on cognitive proximity the patent data are organized into four technological clusters such as chemical and bio-pharmaceutical, new materials, mechanical and process technologies and electrical and electronic technologies. The four aforementioned clusters exhibit a concentrated regional pattern of technological activity over few Brazilian mesoregions. Moreover, the paper uses a Jaffe's measure of technological distance in order to construct a matrix in which the technological similarity is weighted by the geographical proximity. The results corroborate the hypothesis of geographically and technologically

  15. Isolation and characterization of a Pseudomonas aeruginosa from a virgin Brazilian Amazon region with potential to degrade atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Flavia Tonelli; da Silva, Michelle Barbosa Partata; Martins, Vinicius Vicente; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2014-12-01

    The use of pesticides to increase agricultural production can result in the contamination of the environment, causing changes in the genetic structure of organisms and in the loss of biodiversity. This practice is also inducing changes in the rainforest ecosystem. In this work, a Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from a preservation soil area of the Brazilian Amazon Forest, without usage of any pesticide, was evaluated for its potential to degrade atrazine. This isolate presented all responsible genes (atzA, atzB, atzC, atzD, atzE, and atzF) for atrazine mineralization and demonstrated capacity to use atrazine as a nitrogen source, having achieved a reduction of 44 % of the initial concentration of atrazine after 24 h. These results confirm gene dispersion and/or a possible contamination of the area with the herbicide, which reinforces global concern of the increase and intensive use of pesticides worldwide.

  16. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140).

  17. Compositional and temporal analysis of urban and regional aerosols in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indresand, Hege

    Two sampling campaigns in Norway were undertaken to characterize fine aerosols (PM2.5). Two types of collection methods were used to capture aerosols, namely DRUM impactors and filter collectors. The DRUM impactor achieves samples that can be analyzed by high time resolution. A measurement can be taken every three hours, by non-destructive methods such as Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence and Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. In June and July of 2002 3-DRUM aerosol samples were attained at rural sites, Birkenes and Kjeller, to gain insight to the aerosol composition in Southern Norway as influenced by regional transport events. The summer study at Birkenes and Kjeller gave insights to long-range transport events of aerosols from the European continent, aerosol composition, chemistry and dynamics. The high time resolution greatly added insights to diurnal cycling of the aerosols and the correlation to temperature and relative humidity. An urban winter sampling campaign was completed in Sofienberg Park in Oslo February and March 2004 with two 8-DRUM impactors. Filter measurements with a time resolution of 48 hours were used to quantify the PM2.5 mass and carbon fractions associated with wood burning. The goal of the urban campaign was to characterize size-separated aerosols with high time resolution during wintertime, where especially high concentrations of aerosols are occurring and speciation of PM2.5 in Norwegian urban settings are lacking. In Oslo, elevated aerosol concentrations from local sources are a function of traffic and inversion layers. The carbon analysis found that wood burning is a significant source of aerosol carbon. The results from the Sofienberg Park winter 2004 analysis will be submitted to the international scientific journal Atmospheric Environment. The following dissertation is organized into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to aerosols and measurement tools used. The second chapter covers the summer

  18. Walking to work in Canada: health benefits, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Allison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is mounting concern over increasing rates of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity among children and adult in Canada. There is a clear link between the amount of walking a person does and his or her health. The purpose of this paper is to assess the health factors, socio-economic characteristics and urban-regional variations of walking to work among adults in Canada. Methods Data is drawn from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey: 2001 and 2005. The study population is divided into three groups: non-walkers, lower-duration walkers and high-duration walkers. Logistic regression modeling tests the association between levels of walking and health related outcomes (diabetes, high blood pressure, stress, BMI, physical activity, socio-economic characteristics (sex, age, income, education and place of residence (selected Census Metropolitan Areas. Results In 2005, the presence of diabetes and high blood pressure was not associated with any form of walking. Adults within the normal weight range were more likely to be high-duration walkers. Females and younger people were more likely to be lower-duration walkers but less likely to be high-duration walkers. There was a strong association between SES (particularly relative disadvantage and walking to work. In both 2001 and 2005, the conditions influencing walking to work were especially prevalent in Canada's largest city, Toronto, as well as in several small to medium sized urban areas including Halifax, Kingston, Hamilton, Regina, Calgary and Victoria. Conclusion A number of strategies can be followed to increase levels of walking in Canada. It is clear that for many people walking to work is not possible. However, strategies can be developed to encourage adults to incorporate walking into their daily work and commuting routines. These include mass transit walking and workplace walking programs.

  19. Molecular cloning and recombinant expression of the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region from a brazilian white spot syndrome virus isolate

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    Patricia Braunig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fragment of the VP28 coding sequence from a Brazilian WSSV isolate (BrVP28 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3 pLysS strain in order to produce the VP28 carboxyl-terminal hydrophilic region. The expression resulted in a protein of about 21 kDa, which was purified under denaturing conditions, resulting in a final highly purified BrVP28 preparation. The recombinant protein obtained can be used in several biotechnology applications, such as the production of monoclonal antibodies which could be used in the development of diagnostic tools as well as in the studies on the characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV isolated in Brazil.

  20. How Best to Assess Students Taking Work Placements? An Empirical Investigation from Australian Urban and Regional Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, John; Jones, Martyn; Steele, Wendy; Coiacetto, Eddo

    2017-01-01

    Work placements (including internships) are common in urban and regional planning education but the relevant literature has largely overlooked their assessment and academic standards. To address this gap, the paper presents a study of this topic undertaken within the Australian context. The research involved systematically scoping the status of…

  1. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

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    Marianne F. Weber

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%, live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT, and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006–2010. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening.

  2. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marianne F.; Chiew, May; Feletto, Eleonora; Kahn, Clare; Sitas, Freddy; Webster, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian-born participants aged 50 years or older in the 45 and Up Study (New South Wales, Australia 2006–2010). Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks of test use, adjusting for key socio-demographic characteristics. Overall, immigrants from Asia and Europe were less likely to have had any of the tests in the previous two years than Australian-born participants. Regional Australian-born participants were more likely to have had any of the tests than those living in urban areas. Regional immigrant participants were more likely to have had an FOBT or PSA test than those living in urban areas, but there were no differences in mammograms. This report identifies key immigrant groups in urban and regional areas that policymakers and healthcare providers should target with culturally appropriate information to promote cancer screening PMID:25153460

  3. Grounding of metallic fences on urban regions substations; Aterramento de cercas metalicas de subestacoes situadas em regioes urbanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, S.L. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, G.A.D.; Tello, M. [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1991-12-31

    Metallic fences on power substation situated on urban regions, its insulation, its localization according ground wire mashes, and the occurrence of dangerous electric voltage on its surfaces are described. An analytical method which permits planing a insulation model using a grounding system with insulated electrodes and an example of the method utilization are presented. 6 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs.

  4. Training in Information Systems Design for Urban and Regional Planners in Developing Countries. A Concept Paper Prepared for the UNCRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, John

    Information systems design is at a crossroads of changes in technology (microcomputing, software engineering, and telecommunications) and the administration of social systems, of which urban and regional planning are a part. Training in information systems design will be beneficial to four distinct groups of people: clerical and technical staff;…

  5. Urban soil organic carbon and its spatial heterogeneity in comparison with natural and agricultural areas in the Moscow region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasenev, V.I.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Vasenev, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    Soils hold the largest carbon stock in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed under a combination of bioclimatic and land-use conditions. Therefore, one would expect changes in SOC stocks with land use changes like urbanization. So far, the majority of regional studies on SOC

  6. Brazilian coral reefs in a period of global change: A synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelinda M. A. N. Leão

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian coral reefs form structures significantly different from the well-known reef models, as follows: (i they have a growth form of mushroom-shaped coral pinnacles called "chapeirões", (ii they are built by a low diversity coral fauna rich in endemic species, most of them relic forms dating back to the Tertiary, and (iii the nearshore bank reefs are surrounded by siliciclastic sediments. The reefs are distributed in the following four major sectors along the Brazilian coast: the northern, the northeastern and the eastern regions, and the oceanic islands, but certain isolated coral species can be found in warmer waters in embayments of the southern region. There are different types of bank reefs, fringing reefs, isolated "chapeirões" and an atoll present along the Brazilian coast. Corals, milleporids and coralline algae build the rigid frame of the reefs. The areas in which the major coral reefs occur correspond to regions in which nearby urban centers are experiencing accelerated growth, and tourism development is rapidly increasing. The major human effects on the reef ecosystem are mostly associated with the increased sedimentation due to the removal of the Atlantic rainforest and the discharge of industrial and urban effluents. The effects of the warming of oceanic waters that had previously affected several reef areas with high intensity coral bleaching had not shown, by the time of the 2010 event, any episodes of mass coral mortality on Brazilian reefs.

  7. Assessing the Atmospheric Oxygen Balance in a Region of Rapid Urbanization: A Case Study in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Peng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is a product of photosynthesis and is essential for human survival. It also has a profound effect on ecosystems as the atmospheric oxygen balance is the basis for regional ecological sustainability. The Pearl River Delta (PRD has experienced rapid urbanization and has become one of China’s three major urban agglomerations. This study focused on the oxygen balance of the PRD in 2011, and established a model to calculate the oxygen balance that was suitable for a region of rapid urbanization by applying remote sensing gross primary production data via the C-Fix model. The influencing factors for the oxygen imbalance were analyzed and it was suggested that more attention be paid to the management of oxygen emissions than oxygen consumption. The results indicated that the oxygen balance capacity of the PRD was weak, with an oxygen consumption 9.37 times that of its oxygen emission. Zhaoqing and Huizhou are the main sources of oxygen in the PRD, with an oxygen emission density more than 4.67 times that of Dongguan or Zhuhai. Guangzhou and Shenzhen are the main oxygen sinks, with a total oxygen consumption more than 5.49 times that of Zhaoqing. Moreover, the oxygen balance of the PRD is more sensitive to oxygen emissions than consumption. Therefore, it could be inferred that the land urbanization has a stronger influence on the oxygen balance than the population urbanization.

  8. Evaluating the quality of the Digital Elevation Models produced from ASTER stereoscopy for topographic mapping in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber G. de Oliveira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Amazon is a vast territory rich in natural renewable and non-renewable resources. Due to the adverse environmental condition (rain, cloud, dense vegetation and difficult access, topographic information is still poor, and when available needs to be up-dated or remapped. In this paper, the feasibility of using elevation generated from orbital ASTER- stereo-pairs images for topographic mapping was investigated for the mountainous relief in the Serra dos Carajás, Pará. The quality of information derived from these optical images was evaluated regarding field altimetric measurements. Precise topographic field information acquired from Global Positioning System (GPS was used as Ground Control Points (GCPs for the modeling of the stereoscopic Digital Elevation Models (DEMs and as Independent Check Points (ICPs for the calculation of elevation accuracies. The analysis was performed following two approaches: (1 the use of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE and (2 calculations of trend analysis and accuracy. The investigation has shown that the altimetric accuracy from ASTER fulfilled the Brazilian Map Accuracy Standards elevation requirements for 1:100,000 A Class. In addition, ASTER can provide up-dated planimetric information that is also necessary for cartographic production. Thus, when the environment condition allows the acquisition of stereo-pairs, the use of ASTER can be considered an alternative for semi-detailed topographic mapping in similar environments of the Brazilian Amazon.A Amazônia Brasileira é um rico e vasto território em recursos naturais renováveis e nãorenováveis. Devido às condições ambientais adversas (chuvas, nuvens, vegetação densa e difícil acesso, a informação topográfica ainda é escassa, e quando disponível necessita ser atualizada ou remapeada. Neste trabalho, a viabilidade de usar elevação para mapeamento topográfico por meio de imagens estereoscópicas orbitais ASTER foi investigada para relevo

  9. Characterizing Surface Energy Budget Components in Urban Regions Using Combination of Flux Tower Observations and Satellite Remote Sensing Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, H.; Vant-hull, B.; Ramamurthy, P.; Blake, R.; Prakash, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban and built regions because of their lack of surface moisture and their surface impermeability significantly perform differently in surface energy budget than natural and non-urban regions. Characterizing the effect and the response of each surface type in the cities can help to increase our understanding of climate, anthropogenic heat, and urban heat islands. Both ground observations and remote sensing observations are important when the extent of the heat energy balance components in big cities is targeted. This is study aims to provide a novel approach to use ground observations and map the maxima and minima air temperature in New York City using satellite measurements. Complete energy balance stations are installed over distinct materials such as concrete, asphalt, and rooftops. The footprint of these stations is restricted to the individual materials. The energy balance stations monitor the sensible and latent heat fluxes through eddy covariance method. To account for the incoming and outgoing radiation, a 4-component radiometer is used that can observe both incoming and outgoing longwave and shortwave radiation. Moreover, satellite observations from Landsat 8 are utilized to classify the city surfaces to distinct defined surfaces where ground observations were performed. The mapped temperatures will be linked to MODIS surface temperatures to develop a model that can downscale MODIS skin temperatures to fine resolution air temperature over urban regions. The results are compared with ground observations, which they reveal a great potential of using synergetic use of flux tower observations and satellite measurement to study urban surface energy budget. The results of this study can enhance our understanding about urban heat islands as well as climate studies and their effects on the environment.

  10. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Laguardia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available METHODS: The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD (Social Dimensions of Inequalities involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. RESULTS: Brazilian men scored substantially higher than women on all eight domains and the two summary component scales of the SF-36. Brazilians scored less than their international counterparts on almost all of SF-36 domains and both summary component scales, except on general health status (US, pain (UK and vitality (Australia, US and Canada. CONCLUSION: The differences in the SF-36 scores between age groups, genders and countries confirm that these Brazilian norms are necessary for comparative purposes. The data will be useful for assessing the health status of the general population and of patient populations, and the effect of interventions on health-related quality of life.

  11. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguardia, Josue; Campos, Monica Rodrigues; Travassos, Claudia; Najar, Alberto Lopes; Anjos, Luiz Antonio dos; Vasconcellos, Miguel Murat

    2013-12-01

    The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD) (Social Dimensions of Inequalities) involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. Brazilian men scored substantially higher than women on all eight domains and the two summary component scales of the SF-36. Brazilians scored less than their international counterparts on almost all of SF-36 domains and both summary component scales, except on general health status (US), pain (UK) and vitality (Australia, US and Canada). The differences in the SF-36 scores between age groups, genders and countries confirm that these Brazilian norms are necessary for comparative purposes. The data will be useful for assessing the health status of the general population and of patient populations, and the effect of interventions on health-related quality of life.

  12. Urban and rural population growth in a spatial panel of municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa da Silva, Diego Firmino; Elhorst, J. Paul; Silveira Neto, Raul da Mota

    2017-01-01

    Urban and rural population growth in a spatial panel of municipalities. Regional Studies. Using Bayesian posterior model probabilities and data pertaining to 3659 Brazilian minimum comparable areas (MCAs) over the period 1970-2010, two theoretical settings of population growth dynamics resulting in

  13. Impacts of thermal circulations induced by urbanization on ozone formation in the Pearl River Delta region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Song, Yu; Mao, Zhichun; Liu, Mingxu; Huang, Xin

    2016-02-01

    Thermal circulations induced by urbanization could exert important effects on regional ozone (O3) formation through regulating the chemical transformations and transport of O3 and its precursors. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting/Chemistry (WRF/Chem) model combined with remote sensing are used to investigate the impacts of urbanization-induced circulations on O3 formation in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, China. The urban heat island (UHI) effect in PRD significantly enhances turbulent mixing and modifies local circulations, i.e., initiates the UHI circulation and strengthens the sea breeze, which in turn cause a detectable decrease of daytime O3 concentration (-1.3 ppb) and an increase of O3 (+5.2 ppb) around the nocturnal rush-hours. The suppressed O3 titration destruction due to NOx dilution into the deeper urban boundary layer (200-400 m) is the main reason for elevated nocturnal O3 levels. In the daytime, however, the upward transport of O3 precursors weakens near-surface O3 photochemical production and conversely enhances upper-level O3 generation. Furthermore, the surface UHI convergence flow and intensified sea breeze act to effectively trap O3 at the suburban and coastal regions.

  14. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia's Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-10-27

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis--Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)--were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung's Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  15. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Fa; Hsieh, Yen-Fen; Ou, Sheng-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia. PMID:26516881

  16. Thermal Adaptation Methods of Urban Plaza Users in Asia’s Hot-Humid Regions: A Taiwan Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Fa Wu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal adaptation studies provide researchers great insight to help understand how people respond to thermal discomfort. This research aims to assess outdoor urban plaza conditions in hot and humid regions of Asia by conducting an evaluation of thermal adaptation. We also propose that questionnaire items are appropriate for determining thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users. A literature review was conducted and first hand data collected by field observations and interviews used to collect information on thermal adaptation strategies. Item analysis—Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—were applied to refine the questionnaire items and determine the reliability of the questionnaire evaluation procedure. The reliability and validity of items and constructing process were also analyzed. Then, researchers facilitated an evaluation procedure for assessing the thermal adaptation strategies of urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia and formulated a questionnaire survey that was distributed in Taichung’s Municipal Plaza in Taiwan. Results showed that most users responded with behavioral adaptation when experiencing thermal discomfort. However, if the thermal discomfort could not be alleviated, they then adopted psychological strategies. In conclusion, the evaluation procedure for assessing thermal adaptation strategies and the questionnaire developed in this study can be applied to future research on thermal adaptation strategies adopted by urban plaza users in hot and humid regions of Asia.

  17. Mutations in the pfmdr1, cg2, and pfcrt genes in Plasmodium falciparum samples from endemic malaria areas in Rondonia and Pará State, Brazilian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Giselle Maria Rachid; Machado, Ricardo Luís Dantas; Calvosa, Vanja Sueli Pachiano; Póvoa, Marinete Marins

    2006-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the molecular basis for Plasmodium falciparum resistance to chloroquine in isolates from the Brazilian Amazon and to identify polymorphisms in the pfmdr1 gene, codons 184, 1042, and 1246, the kappa and gamma regions of the cg2 gene, and the K76T mutation of the pfcrt gene, in order to calculate the distribution of polymorphism within each target gene, comparing samples from distinct geographic areas, using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the pfmdr gene and PCR plus restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for the cg2 and pfcrt genes. The sample consisted of 40 human blood isolates, already collected and morphologically diagnosed as carriers of P. falciparum parasites, from four localities: Porto Velho in Rondonia State and Maraba, Itaituba, and Tailandia in Pará State. Distribution of P. falciparum in vitro chloroquine resistance in the isolates was 100% for pfmdr1, cg2 gamma region, and pfcrt, except for the polymorphism in the cg2 kappa region, which was not found.

  18. Non-Detection of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-Seropositive Blood Donors from Three Brazilian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S.; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140). PMID:21858163

  19. Payments for carbon sequestration to alleviate development pressure in a rapidly urbanizing region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Dorning, Monica; Shoemaker, Douglas A.; Méley, Andréanne; Dupey, Lauren; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine individuals' willingness to enroll in voluntary payments for carbon sequestration programs through the use of a discrete choice experiment delivered to forest owners living in the rapidly urbanizing region surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We examined forest owners' willingness to enroll in payments for carbon sequestration policies under different levels of financial incentives (annual revenue), different contract lengths, and different program administrators (e.g., private companies versus a state or federal agency). We also examined the influence forest owners' sense of place had on their willingness to enroll in hypothetical programs. Our results showed a high level of ambivalence toward participating in payments for carbon sequestration programs. However, both financial incentives and contract lengths significantly influenced forest owners' intent to enroll. Neither program administration nor forest owners' sense of place influenced intent to enroll. Although our analyses indicated that payments from carbon sequestration programs are not currently competitive with the monetary returns expected from timber harvest or property sales, certain forest owners might see payments for carbon sequestration programs as a viable option for offsetting increasing tax costs as development encroaches and property values rise.

  20. VEGETATION BEHAVIOR AND ITS HABITAT REGION AGAINST FLOOD FLOW IN URBAN STREAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IL-KI CHOI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic effects on the vegetation behavior and on its habitat region against flood flow in the urban streams were analysed in this paper. Vegetation behavior was classified into stable, recovered, damaged and swept away stages. Criteria between recovered and damaged status were determined by the bending angle of the aquatic plants. Aquatic plants whose bending angle is lower than 30~50 degree is recovered, but they were damaged and cannot be recovered when the bending angle is higher than 30~50 degree. Phragmites japonica was inhabited in the hydraulic condition of high Froude number which shows that it was inhabited in the upstream reaches. Phragmites communis was inhabited in the relatively low Froude number compared with Phragmites japonica. This shows that it was inhabited in the downstream reaches. Persicaria blumei was found in the relatively wide range of flow velocity and flow depth, which shows that it was inhabited in the middle and downstream reaches. Criterion on the vegetation behavior of Persicaria thunbergii was not clear, which implies that it may be affected by the flow turbulence rather than flow velocity and flow depth.

  1. Urban-wildland fires: how California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Scott L; Moritz, Max A [Division of Ecosystem Science, Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, 137 Mulford Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 (United States); Adams, Mark A [Faculty of Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources, University of Sydney, McMillan Building, Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia); Handmer, John [Center for Risk Community Management, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, 3001 (Australia); Kearns, Faith R [University of California Center for Fire Research and Outreach, College of Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114 (United States); Leicester, Bob; Leonard, Justin [CSIRO and Bushfire Co-operative Research Centre, Highett, VIC, 3190 (Australia)

    2009-01-15

    Most urban-wildland interface (UWI) fires in California and the other regions of the US are managed in a similar fashion: fire agencies anticipate the spread of fire, mandatory evacuations are ordered, and professional fire services move in and attempt to suppress the fires. This approach has not reduced building losses in California. Conversely, losses and the associated suite of environmental impacts, including reduced air quality, have dramatically increased over the last three decades. In contrast to California, Australia has developed a more effective 'Prepare, stay and defend, or leave early' policy. Using this approach, trained residents decide whether they will stay and actively defend their well-prepared property or leave early before a fire threatens them. Australian strategies have the distinct advantage of engaging and preparing those most affected by such fires: homeowners. Investing more in fire suppression alone, the common response after large UWI fires in California, will not reduce losses. US society has attempted to accommodate many of the natural hazards inherent to the landscapes that we inhabit; by examining the Australian model, we may approach a more sustainable coexistence with fire as well. However, it should be noted that some California communities are so vulnerable that a 'Prepare and leave early' strategy may be the only option.

  2. No-suicide agreements: current practices and opinions in a Canadian urban health region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Stacey A; King, Michael C

    2008-03-01

    To determine the extent to which no-suicide agreements (NSAs)--one method of intervening with people at risk of suicide--are used by a population of outpatient mental health therapists in a Canadian urban health region, and to describe therapists' perceptions and practices surrounding their use. The survey was mailed to 516 therapists, including psychiatrists, psychologists, nurses, social workers, and occupational therapists. Completed surveys were returned by 312 therapists (response rate = 60.5%). NSAs were used by 83%, although 43% had no formal training in their use. Among those who had used NSAs, 31% reported having had at least one patient attempt or complete suicide while an agreement was in place. Therapists from nonmedical disciplines were most likely to have used these agreements. Most therapists believed NSAs communicated care and concern to patients. Respondents were divided in their perceptions of whether NSAs afforded liability protection in the event of a patient suicide. Contextual factors associated with the perceived degree of suicide risk, the patient-therapeutic relationship influenced a therapist's use of NSAs. Most therapists attempted to have patients admitted to hospital if the patient refused to enter into an NSA. Use of NSAs is prevalent in this population of outpatient psychotherapists, suggesting that these therapists believe they are a useful intervention in the management of suicidal patients. Practitioners might benefit from increased formal training opportunities in the use and legal implications of NSAs.

  3. Comparison of spawning patterns of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita in Ubatuba region, southern Brazil during 1985 through 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita inhabit the southeastern Brazilian Bight. The former spawns at night (21:00-03:00 in coastal region during late-spring and summer, meanwhile, the latter spawns all year-around, mainly in coastal region during summer and in neritic region during winter. The spawning time of E. anchoita was observed all day long, but more intensively at night. During summer there occurs a strong vertical stratification of water masses. The spawning of S. brasiliensis occurs in surface mixed layer, while that of E. anchoita occurs beneath the thermocline inside the cool South Atlantic Central Water which occupies the bottom layer during late spring and summer. However, the sardine and anchovy egss and larvae were found inside both the upper tropical and lower cold water masses, but predominantly above thermocline in this regionNeste trabalho são analisados os padrões sazonais de desova da sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis, e da anchoita, Engraulis anchoita, baseado em dados coletados em águas costeiras de Ubatuba (SP, entre 1985 e 1988. Ambas as espécies habitam a costa sudeste do Brasil A primeira efetua desova durante a noite (21:00 - 23:00 h na região costeira durante o fim da primavera e o verão, enquanto que a segunda desova durante todo o ano, principalmente na região costeira durante o verão e na região nerítica durante o inverno. A desova da anchoita foi observada ao longo de todo o dia, porém com mais intensidade à noite. No verão, ocorre uma forte estratificação vertical das massas d'água. A desova da sardinha-verdadeira ocorre na camada superficial de mistura, enquanto que a da anchoita ocorre abaixo da termoclina, nas águas frias da "Água Central do Atlântico Sul" (ACAS, que ocupam as camadas do fundo durante o verão. Entretanto, ovos e larvas de ambas as espécies foram encontrados tanto na camada superior, de água tropical, como na camada

  4. Family Farmers and Major Retail Chains in the Brazilian Organic Sector: Assessing New Development Pathways. A Case Study in a Peri-Urban District of Sao Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Julien

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the organic sector in Brazil is seen as a leverage for the social emancipation of the small family farmers. Next to the traditional alternatives circuits of organic food and farming, new powerful capitalistic actors, such as supermarket chains, are rapidly entering the Brazilian organic arena. Can family farming benefit from the…

  5. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach--system dynamics modeling--for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool--Stella. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues.

  6. Urban Growth Areas, This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area is a concept used by the U.S. Census Bureau to measure the population, land area and population density of a built-up or continuously deve, Published in 2000, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Atlanta Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Urban Growth Areas dataset current as of 2000. This Layer represents the current Urbanized Area for Atlanta as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. An Urbanized Area...

  7. Urban and community forests of the Pacific region: California, Oregon, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of California, Oregon, and Washington by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  8. Urban Development in Costa Rica: The Direct and Indirect Impacts on Local and Regional Avian Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jeff L.

    2012-01-01

    Urban development, the pinnacle of human land use, has drastic effects on native ecosystems and the species they contain. For the first time in recorded history there are more people living in cities than in the rural areas surrounding them. Furthermore, the global rate of urbanization continues increasing; raising serious concerns for earth's…

  9. Urban and community forests of the South Central East region: Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  10. Urban and community forests of the North Central East region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends,...

  11. Urban and community forests of the South Central West region: Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2010-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes...

  12. Urban and community forests of the Mid-Atlantic region: New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Eric J. Greenfield

    2009-01-01

    This report details how land cover and urbanization vary within the states of New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania by community (incorporated and census designated places), county subdivision, and county. Specifically this report provides critical urban and community forestry information for each state including human population characteristics and trends, changes in...

  13. Bushmeat networks link the forest to urban areas in the trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie van Vliet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have intended to quantify urban consumption and trade in Amazonian towns. However, little is still known about the different ways in which bushmeat is made available in urban areas, including commercial and noncommercial flows, and how those flows contribute to link forests to urban livelihoods. In this study we qualitatively describe the structure and functioning of bushmeat flows in terms of species, catchment area, stakeholders involved, and the motivations for their activity in the main towns of the Amazon trifrontier region between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru. We show that bushmeat trade to urban areas exists under an organized but invisible commodity chain providing a source of income to about 195 persons. Bushmeat is made available either directly from the hunter to the urban consumer, at the main market place, or in food stalls and restaurants. On the Colombian border, the trade is totally invisible, whereas in Peru and Brazil, bushmeat is sold in open markets despite regulations. The catchment area comprises the main rivers: up to Caballococha along the Amazon River, along the Atacuary River in Peru, along the Javari River between Peru and Brazil, and along the Loretoyacu and Amacayacu rivers in Colombia and in periurban forests. Although the trade is rather localized (no commercial flows to larger towns, international transborder trade is commonplace, disregarding Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora regulations. Bushmeat clients in urban areas are mainly nonindigenous or mestizos who can afford bushmeat as a luxury meal. Instead, indigenous people in urban areas do not access bushmeat through the market but rather through their social networks with whom they maintain noncommercial flows including immediate exchange and long-term exchange mechanisms. Although bushmeat is no longer consumed as a daily meal among urban and periurban indigenous families, it constitutes what could be

  14. Regional Differences in Upland Forest to Developed (Urban Land Cover Conversions in the Conterminous U.S., 1973–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger F. Auch

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS, specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management.

  15. Regional differences of urbanization in the conterminous U.S. on upland forest land cover, 1973-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger F.; Drummond, Mark A.; Xian, George Z.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Acevedo, William; Taylor, Janis

    2016-01-01

    In this U.S. Geological Survey study of forest land cover across the conterminous U.S. (CONUS), specific proportions and rates of forest conversion to developed (urban) land were assessed on an ecoregional basis. The study period was divided into six time intervals between 1973 and 2011. Forest land cover was the source of 40% or more of the new urban land in 35 of the 84 ecoregions located within the CONUS. In 11 of these ecoregions this threshold exceeded in every time interval. When the percent of change, forest to urban, was compared to the percent of forest in each ecoregion, 58 ecoregions had a greater percent of change and, in six of those, change occurred in every time interval. Annual rates of forest to urban land cover change of 0.2% or higher occurred in 12 ecoregions at least once and in one ecoregion in all intervals. There were three ecoregions where the above conditions were met for nearly every time interval. Even though only a small number of the ecoregions were heavily impacted by forest loss to urban development within the CONUS, the ecosystem services provided by undeveloped forest land cover need to be quantified more completely to better inform future regional land management.

  16. Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection and Oral Shedding in Amerindian and Non-Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Sumita, Laura M.; Nascimento, Maria-Claudia; Oliveira, Juliane; Mascheretti, Melissa; Quiroga, Mariana; Freire, Wilton S.; Tateno, Adriana; Boulos, Marcos; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown. Methods Antibodies against either HHV-8 lytic antigen or HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were detected, by immunofluorescence assays, in 339 Amerindians and 181 non-Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon. Serological markers of oro-fecal (hepatitis A), parenteral (hepatitis B and C), and sexual (herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis) transmission were measured by specific ELISAs. Salivary HHV-8 DNA was detected by use of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and was sequenced. Results Antibodies against either lytic antigen or LANA were detected in 79.1% of Amerindians and in 6.1% of non-Amerindians (adjusted seroprevalence ratio [SR], 12.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1–22.4]; P< .0001). HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (PTrend< .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. The 2 populations did not differ in seroprevalence of oro-fecal or parenteral markers, but seroprevalence of markers of sexual transmission was lower among Amerindians. HHV-8 DNA in saliva was detected in 47 (23.7%) of 198 HHV-8 seropositive Amerindians. Detection of HHV-8 DNA decreased with age (PTrend< .04) and was more common in men (SR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.3–3.5]; P= .003). A total of 36 (76.6%) of the 47 saliva HHV-8 DNA samples were sequenced, and all clustered as subtype E. Conclusion The data support the hypothesis of early acquisition and horizontal transmission, via saliva, of HHV-8 subtype E in Amerindian populations. PMID:17703414

  17. Differentiating local and regional sources of Chinese urban air pollution based on the effect of the Spring Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Zhu, Qiao; Cao, Li-Ming; Zhang, Bin; He, Ling-Yan

    2017-07-01

    The emission of pollutants is extremely reduced during the annual Chinese Spring Festival (SF) in Shenzhen, China. During the SF, traffic flow drops by ˜ 50 % and the industrial plants are almost entirely shut down in Shenzhen. To characterize the variation in ambient air pollutants due to the Spring Festival effect, various gaseous and particulate pollutants were measured in real time in urban Shenzhen over three consecutive winters (2014-2016). The results indicate that the concentrations of NOx, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosols, chloride, and nitrate in submicron aerosols decrease by 50-80 % during SF periods relative to non-Spring Festival periods, regardless of meteorological conditions. This decrease suggests that these pollutants are mostly emitted or secondarily formed from urban local emissions. The concentration variation in species mostly from regional or natural sources, however, is found to be much less, such as for bulk fine particulate matter (PM2. 5). More detailed analysis of the Spring Festival effect reveals an urgent need to reduce emissions of SO2 and VOCs on a regional scale rather than on an urban scale to reduce urban PM2. 5 in Shenzhen, which can also be useful as a reference for other megacities in China.

  18. Changes in Urban Climate due to Future Land-Use Changes based on Population Changes in the Nagoya Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, S. A.; Hara, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Ma, X.; Yoshikane, T.; Kimura, F.

    2013-12-01

    Severe hot weather in summer season becomes a big social problem in metropolitan areas, including the Nagoya region in Japan. Surface air temperature warming is projected in the future. Therefore, the reduction of surface air temperature is an urgent issue in the urban area. Although there are several studies dealing with the effects of global climate change and urbanization to the local climate in the future, these studies tend to ignore the future population changes. This study estimates future land-use scenarios associated with the multi-projections of future population and investigates the impacts of these scenarios on the surface temperature change. The Weather Research and Forecast model ver. 3.3.1 (hereafter, WRF) was used in this study. The horizontal resolutions were 20km, 4km, and 2km, for outer, middle, and inner domains, respectively. The results from the inner domain, covering the Nagoya region, were used for the analysis. The Noah land surface model and the single-layer urban canopy model were applied to calculate the land surface processes and urban surface processes, respectively. The initial and boundary conditions were given from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data in August 2010. The urban area ratio used in the WRF model was calculated from the future land-use data provided by the S8 project. The land-use data was created as follows. (1) Three scenarios of population, namely, with high-fertility assumption and low-mortality assumption (POP-high), with medium-fertility assumption and medium-mortality assumption (POP-med), and with low-fertility assumption and high-mortality assumption (POP-low), are estimated using the method proposed by Ariga and Matsuhashi (2012). These scenarios are based on the future projections provided by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research. (2) The future changes in urban area ratio were assumed to be proportional to the population change (Hanasaki et al., 2012). The averaged urban area ratio in

  19. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in small rodents from areas of low endemicity for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milagres, Bruno S; Padilha, Amanda F; Montandon, Carlos E; Freitas, Renata N; Pacheco, Richard; Walker, David H; Labruna, Marcelo B; Mafra, Cláudio L; Galvão, Márcio A M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the humoral immune response against different species of Rickettsia in serum samples from small rodents collected in two areas of a silent focus for Brazilian spotted fever in the eastern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Sera samples were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay using antigens from Rickettsia species of the spotted fever, ancestral, and transition groups. Titers ≥ 1:64 were considered positive. In Santa Cruz do Escalvado, 94% (30 of 32) of the samples collected from Rattus rattus, 22% (5 of 23) from Nectomys squamipes, and 80% (4 of 5) from Akodon sp., reacted by indirect immunofluorescence assay with Rickettsia antigens of the spotted fever group. In the municipality of Pingo D'Água, 84% (26 of 31) of the samples collected from R. rattus, 86% (6 of 7) of the samples from Oryzomys subflavus, 86% (6 of 7) from N. squamipes, and 100% (1 of 1) from Bolomys sp. contained antibodies that reacted with rickettsial antigens of the spotted fever group. These results demonstrated the previous exposure of small rodents to spotted fever group Rickettsia, suggesting the participation of these animals in the natural history of these rickettsiae in this region.

  20. Spectral imaging and passive sampling to investigate particle sources in urban desert regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jeff; Casuccio, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Two types of electron microscopy analyses were employed along with geographic information system (GIS) mapping to investigate potential sources of PM2.5 and PM10 (airborne particulate matter smaller than 2.5 and 10 μm, respectively) in two urbanized desert areas known to exhibit PM excursions. Integrated spectral imaging maps were obtained from scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) analyses of 13 filters collected in Imperial Valley, California. Seven were from 24 h PM10 Federal Reference Method (FRM) samplers and six were from PM2.5 FRM samplers. This technique enabled extraction of information from particles collected on complex filter matrices, and indicated that all samples exhibited substantial proportions of crustal particles. Six Imperial PM2.5 and PM10 filters selected from unusually high-PM days exhibited more large particles (2.5-15 and 10-30 μm, respectively) than did filters from low-PM days, and were more consistent with soils analyzed from the region. High winds were present on three of the six high-PM days. One of the high-PM2.5 filters also exhibited substantial fine carbonaceous soot PM, suggesting significant contributions from a combustion source. Computer-controlled SEM/EDS (CCSEM/EDS) was conducted on PM collected with UNC Passive samplers from Phoenix, Arizona. The passive samplers showed good agreement with co-located FRM PM10 and PM2.5 measurements (μg m(-3)), and also enabled detailed individual particle analysis. The CCSEM/EDS data revealed mostly crustal particles in both the Phoenix fine and coarse PM10 fractions. GIS maps of multiple dust-related parameters confirm that both Imperial Valley and Phoenix possess favorable conditions for airborne crustal PM from natural and anthropogenic sources.

  1. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data. PMID:28587066

  2. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A and optical (Landsat-8 data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM and a random forest (RF method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure–up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  3. Access to social capital and risk of HIV infection in Bukoba urban district, Kagera region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumence, Gasto; Emmelin, Maria; Eriksson, Malin; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Killewo, Japhet; Moyo, Sabrina; Nystrom, Lennarth

    2014-01-01

    Kagera is one of the 22 regions of Tanzania mainland, which has witnessed a decline in HIV prevalence during the past two decades; decreasing from 24% in 1987 to 4.7 in 2009 in the urban district of Bukoba. Access to social capital, both structural and cognitive, might have played a role in this development. The aim was to examine the association between individual structural and cognitive social capital and socio-economic characteristics and the likelihood of being HIV infected. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 3586 participants, of which 3423 (95%) agreed to test for HIV following pre-test counseling. The HIV testing was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody detection tests. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the impact of socio-economic factors, individual structural and cognitive social capital and HIV sero-status. Individuals who had access to low levels of both structural and cognitive individual social capital were four and three times more likely to be HIV positive compared to individuals who had access to high levels. The associations remained statistically significant for both individual structural and cognitive social capital after adjusting for potential confounding factors such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education and wealth index (OR =8.6, CI: 5.7-13.0 and OR =2.4, CI: 1.6-3.5 for individual structural and cognitive social capital respectively). For both women and men access to high levels of individual structural and cognitive social capital decreased the risk of being HIV infected. This study confirms previous qualitative studies indicating that access to structural and cognitive social capital is protective to HIV infection. We suggest that policy makers and programme managers of HIV interventions may consider strengthening and facilitating access to social capital as a way of promoting HIV preventive information and interventions in order to

  4. The Favourable Health Behaviours in Women from a Selected Urban Region in Kayseri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Sonmezer,Fevziye Cetinkaya,Melis Nacar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study it was aimed to establish the favourable health behaviours in the life style of women, who also are in charge, and carry the responsibility of the whole family’s health. Material and Method: A questionnaire, inquiring about some favourable health behaviours, was applied to 421 women aged 18-64, living in an urban region in Kayseri. Results: The mean age of the study group was 36.2±11.1, 57.1% were housewives, 74.3% were married, and the educational level of 62.7% was high school and above. The rate of obtaining information from health personnel was 9.7%, and most women(31.1% stated media as their source of information. 67.0% did not smoke. 44.4% of the study group were with in normal weight, and 66.3% stated that they had breakfast. 32.3% of the women stated that they restricted salt in food, and 18.8% restricted sugar, 20.4% tried not to consume tea following a meal and 32.1% stated that they were always careful about not using saturated fat while cooking. 16.2% of the women stated that they self-examined their breats on a regular basis, 54.0% that they did so sometimes, 41.6% had had a clinical breast examination. The rate of mammograhpic evaluation above the age of 40 was 78.0%. Conclusion: The awareness about and the applications for favourable health behaviours as a life style were found to be insufficient in women. It is the duty and responsibility of health personnel to establish healthy life style behaviours in women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(5.000: 521-528

  5. Mapping Winter Wheat with Multi-Temporal SAR and Optical Images in an Urban Agricultural Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tao; Pan, Jianjun; Zhang, Peiyu; Wei, Shanbao; Han, Tao

    2017-05-25

    Winter wheat is the second largest food crop in China. It is important to obtain reliable winter wheat acreage to guarantee the food security for the most populous country in the world. This paper focuses on assessing the feasibility of in-season winter wheat mapping and investigating potential classification improvement by using SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) images, optical images, and the integration of both types of data in urban agricultural regions with complex planting structures in Southern China. Both SAR (Sentinel-1A) and optical (Landsat-8) data were acquired, and classification using different combinations of Sentinel-1A-derived information and optical images was performed using a support vector machine (SVM) and a random forest (RF) method. The interference coherence and texture images were obtained and used to assess the effect of adding them to the backscatter intensity images on the classification accuracy. The results showed that the use of four Sentinel-1A images acquired before the jointing period of winter wheat can provide satisfactory winter wheat classification accuracy, with an F1 measure of 87.89%. The combination of SAR and optical images for winter wheat mapping achieved the best F1 measure-up to 98.06%. The SVM was superior to RF in terms of the overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient, and was faster than RF, while the RF classifier was slightly better than SVM in terms of the F1 measure. In addition, the classification accuracy can be effectively improved by adding the texture and coherence images to the backscatter intensity data.

  6. Regional and urban downscaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J.L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R.M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meeorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed downscaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finnally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the {sup n}o feedback{sup s}imulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  7. Regional and urban down scaling of global climate scenarios for health impact assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Jose, R.; Perez, J. L.; Perez, L.; Gonzalez, R. M.; Pecci, J.; Garzon, A.; Palacios, M.

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution we have used global climate RCP IPCC scenarios to produce climate and air pollution maps at regional (25 km resolution) and urban scale with 200 m spatial resolution over Europe and five European cities in order to investigate the impact on meteorological variables and pollutant concentrations . We have used the very well known mesoscale meteorological model WRF-Chem (NOAA, US). We have used 2011 as control past year and two RCP scenarios from CCSM global climate model with 4.5 W/m2 and 8.5 W/m2 for 2030, 2050 and 2100 years. After running WRF-Chem model, using the boundary conditions provided by RCP scenarios with the emissions of 2011, we have performed a detailed down scaling process using CALMET diagnostic model to obtain a full 200 m spatial resolution map of five European cities (London, Antwerp, Madrid, Milan, and Helsinki). We will show the results and the health impacts for future RCP IPCC climate scenarios in comparison with the 2011 control year information for climate and health indicators. Finally, we have also investigated the impact of the aerosol effects in the short wave radiation mean value. Two simulations with the WRF-Chem model have been performed over Europe in 2010. A baseline simulation without any feedback effects and a second simulation including the direct effects affecting the solar radiation reaching the surface as well as the indirect aerosol effect with potential impacts on increasing or decreasing the precipitation rates. Aerosol effects produce an increase of incoming radiation over Atlantic Ocean (up to 70%) because the prescribed aerosol concentrations in the WRF-Chem without feedbacks is substantially higher than the aerosol concentrations produced when we activate the feedback effects. The decrease in solar radiation in the Sahara area (10%) is found to be produced because the prescribed aerosol concentration in the no feedback simulation is lower than when we activate the feedback effects. (Author)

  8. Revisiting the genetic ancestry of Brazilians using autosomal AIM-Indels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Saloum de Neves Manta

    Full Text Available There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State, demographic (e.g., urban and rural, or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour. In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs. In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%. The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations.

  9. Revisiting the Genetic Ancestry of Brazilians Using Autosomal AIM-Indels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saloum de Neves Manta, Fernanda; Pereira, Rui; Vianna, Romulo; Rodolfo Beuttenmüller de Araújo, Alfredo; Leite Góes Gitaí, Daniel; Aparecida da Silva, Dayse; de Vargas Wolfgramm, Eldamária; da Mota Pontes, Isabel; Ivan Aguiar, José; Ozório Moraes, Milton; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    There are many different studies that contribute to the global picture of the ethnic heterogeneity in Brazilian populations. These studies use different types of genetic markers and are focused on the comparison of populations at different levels. In some of them, each geographical region is treated as a single homogeneous population, whereas other studies create different subdivisions: political (e.g., pooling populations by State), demographic (e.g., urban and rural), or ethnic (e.g., culture, self-declaration, or skin colour). In this study, we performed an enhanced reassessment of the genetic ancestry of ~ 1,300 Brazilians characterised for 46 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). In addition, 798 individuals from twelve Brazilian populations representing the five geographical macro-regions of Brazil were newly genotyped, including a Native American community and a rural Amazonian community. Following an increasing North to South gradient, European ancestry was the most prevalent in all urban populations (with values up to 74%). The populations in the North consisted of a significant proportion of Native American ancestry that was about two times higher than the African contribution. Conversely, in the Northeast, Center-West and Southeast, African ancestry was the second most prevalent. At an intrapopulation level, all urban populations were highly admixed, and most of the variation in ancestry proportions was observed between individuals within each population rather than among population. Nevertheless, individuals with a high proportion of Native American ancestry are only found in the samples from Terena and Santa Isabel. Our results allowed us to further refine the genetic landscape of Brazilians while establishing the basis for the effective application of an autosomal AIM panel in forensic casework and clinical association studies within the highly admixed Brazilian populations. PMID:24073242

  10. Utah's Regional/Urban ANSS Seismic Network---Strategies and Tools for Quality Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlacu, R.; Arabasz, W. J.; Pankow, K. L.; Pechmann, J. C.; Drobeck, D. L.; Moeinvaziri, A.; Roberson, P. M.; Rusho, J. A.

    2007-05-01

    The University of Utah's regional/urban seismic network (224 stations recorded: 39 broadband, 87 strong-motion, 98 short-period) has become a model for locally implementing the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) because of successes in integrating weak- and strong-motion recording and in developing an effective real-time earthquake information system. Early achievements included implementing ShakeMap, ShakeCast, point-to- multipoint digital telemetry, and an Earthworm Oracle database, as well as in-situ calibration of all broadband and strong-motion stations and submission of all data and metadata into the IRIS DMC. Regarding quality performance, our experience as a medium-size regional network affirms the fundamental importance of basics such as the following: for data acquisition, deliberate attention to high-quality field installations, signal quality, and computer operations; for operational efficiency, a consistent focus on professional project management and human resources; and for customer service, healthy partnerships---including constant interactions with emergency managers, engineers, public policy-makers, and other stakeholders as part of an effective state earthquake program. (Operational cost efficiencies almost invariably involve trade-offs between personnel costs and the quality of hardware and software.) Software tools that we currently rely on for quality performance include those developed by UUSS (e.g., SAC and shell scripts for estimating local magnitudes) and software developed by other organizations such as: USGS (Earthworm), University of Washington (interactive analysis software), ISTI (SeisNetWatch), and IRIS (PDCC, BUD tools). Although there are many pieces, there is little integration. One of the main challenges we face is the availability of a complete and coherent set of tools for automatic and post-processing to assist in achieving the goals/requirements set forth by ANSS. Taking our own network---and ANSS---to the next level

  11. The Comparison and Modeling of the Driving Factors of Urban Expansion for Thirty-Five Big Cities in the Three Regions in China

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    Tian Guangjin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a national- and regional-scale urban growth model (NRUGM of China based on panel data analysis. Through the panel analysis, population growth, road construction, salary increment per capita, and secondary industry product increment were proven to be the major driving factors for national-scale urban expansion. According to Seventh Five-Year Plan, China had been divided into three regions, Eastern China, Middle China, and Western China, by their geographic position and economic development. We studied the relationship between urban expansion and the driving factors for the three regions between 1990 and 2010 in China. The driving factors of urban expansion were different for the different regions and periods. Population growth and road construction were identified as the two major factors driving urban expansion for Eastern China. Secondary industry and economic development had become the major driving factors for urban expansion over the last twenty years in Middle China. Over the same period, for Western China, economic growth had become the major driving factor for urban expansion. Our results have significant policy implications for China. The macrocontrol of the central government should utilize different policies to adjust urban expansion in the different regions.

  12. Cardiovascular health among healthy population of Northeast region of India: a cross-sectional study comparing urban-tribal difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Soma; Gupta, Kinnari; Kumar, Soumitra

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of adult mortality in India but data on the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors are scarce, especially from North-east region of India. This study aims to assess the prevalence and the urban/tribal gradient of cardiovascular disease risk factors among healthy population of Tripura. A cross-sectional study was carried out among 238 healthy individuals (140 urban and 98 tribal) in one urban and five tribal areas of Tripura. Data was collected on sociodemographic profile, medical history, anthropometry, dietary patterns and addiction. Fasting blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score was calculated. The association of independent variables with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score were examined by using multiple regression model. Prevalence of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome and short-term cardiovascular disease risk score were higher in urban group. Urban people had higher salt, calories and fat intake. No difference was found in the addiction patterns of tobacco and alcohol but frequency and quantity being higher in tribal area. Dyslipidaemia and alcohol consumption showed significant positive association with 10-year cardiovascular disease risk score in both groups. While the non-sedentary lifestyle and dietary habits (low salt, low fat, carbohydrate predominant) of tribal population need to be promoted as a whole across the nation, they need to be protected from the adverse effects of rampant prevalence of tobacco and alcohol addiction among them. Urban population need to be extricated from adverse effects of sedentary lifestyle, modern food habits (high salt, high fat) and tobacco-alcohol addiction.

  13. Evaluation of the urban/rural particle-bound PAH and PCB levels in the northern Spain (Cantabria region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, Axel; Fernández-Olmo, Ignacio; Irabien, Ángel

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels in PM(10) and PM(2.5), at one rural and three urban sites in the Cantabria region (northern Spain). From all of these pollutants, benzo(a)pyrene is regulated by the EU air quality directives; its target value (1 ng/m(3)) was not exceeded. The concentration values of the studied organic pollutants at the studied sites are in the range of those obtained at other European sites. A comparison between the rural-urban stations was developed: (a) PAH concentration values were lower in the rural site (except for fluorene). Therefore, the contribution of local sources to the urban levels of PAHs seems relevant. Results from the coefficient of divergence show that the urban PAH levels are influenced by different local emission sources. (b) PCB rural concentration values were higher than those found at urban sites. Because no local sources of PCBs were identified in the rural site, the contribution of more distant emission sources (about 40 km) to the PCB levels is considered to be the most important; the long-range transport of PCBs does not seem to be significant. Additionally, local PAH tracers were identified by a triangular diagram: higher molecular weight PAHs in Reinosa, naphthalene in Santander and anthracene/pyrene in Castro Urdiales. A preliminary PAH source apportionment study in the urban sites was conducted by means of diagnostic ratios. The ratios are similar to those reported in areas affected by traffic emissions; they also suggest an industrial emission source at Reinosa.

  14. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension among rural and urban dwellers of the Far North Region of Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogoum, Daniel; Van de Borne, Philippe; Lele, Claude Elysée Bika; Damasceno, Albertino; Ngatchou, William; Amta, Pierre; Leeman, Marc; Preumont, Nicolas; Degaute, Jean-Paul; Kamdem, Felicité; Hermans, Michel P; Donnen, Philippe; Bovet, Pascal

    2018-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and determinants of high blood pressure (BP) and awareness, treatment, and control rates in the Far North Region of Cameroon, where these variables have not been explored so far. In total, 889 individuals (41.5% women) aged at least 18 years participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in Maroua (urban area) and Tokombere (rural area) from November 2014 to May 2015, using a multistage cluster sampling frame. Anthropometric variables, BP, and fasting capillary glucose were assessed in all participants. Hypertension was defined as BP at least 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive therapy and BP control as BP less than 140/90 mmHg. Prevalence estimates were age standardized to the Cameroon population. The prevalence of hypertension was 37.8% (rural: 34%; urban: 41.2%; men: 38.8%; women: 37.9%). Hypertension was associated with urban environment (odds ratio: 1.42; 95%; confidence interval 1.06-1.89), age at least 70 years (4.06; 2.02-6.14), male sex (4.06; 2.02-6.14), abdominal obesity (2.36; 1.54-3.61), and high blood sugar (2.01; 1.31-3.08). Among individuals with hypertension, 18.6% (rural: 17.9%; urban: 19.5%) were aware of having high BP. Among those aware, 29.3% (rural: 17.3%; urban: 36.3%) reported receiving treatment, of whom 16.3% (rural: 22.6%; urban: 4.2%) had BP controlled. Awareness, treatment, and BP control levels were higher in women than men. Hypertension is highly prevalent in Far North Cameroon and awareness, treatment, and control rates are low. Efforts to improve detection, treatment, and control of hypertension in Cameroon are needed.

  15. Prevalence and regional correlates of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents: A 21-city population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockett, Ian R H; Jiang, Shuhan; Yang, Qian; Yang, Tingzhong; Yang, Xiaozhao Y; Peng, Sihui; Yu, Lingwei

    2017-08-18

    This study estimated the prevalence of road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents and examined individual and regional-level correlates. A cross-sectional multistage process was used to sample residents from 21 selected cities in China. Survey respondents reported their history of road traffic injury in the past 12 months through a community survey. Multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify injury correlates. Based on a retrospective 12-month reporting window, road traffic injury prevalence among urban residents was 13.2%. Prevalence of road traffic injury, by type, was 8.7, 8.7, 8.5, and 7.7% in the automobile, bicycle, motorcycle, and pedestrian categories, respectively. Multilevel analysis showed that prevalence of road traffic injury was positively associated with minority status, income, and mental health disorder score at the individual level. Regionally, road traffic injury was associated with geographic location of residence and prevalence of mental health disorders. Both individual and regional-level variables were associated with road traffic injury among Chinese urban residents, a finding whose implications transcend wholesale imported generic solutions. This descriptive research demonstrates an urgent need for longitudinal studies across China on risk and protective factors, in order to inform injury etiology, surveillance, prevention, treatment, and evaluation.

  16. O controle de pragas urbanas na qualidade do alimento sob a visão da legislação federal Urban plague control in food quality according to brazilian federal legislation

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    Ricardo Soares Matias

    2007-08-01

    Ordinance Law 209 that establishes the Brazilian Code of Foods. The Brazilian Governmental Decree 1428 of 26 November, 1993 from the Brazilian Ministry of Health (MS innovates the relationship of the contributory factors for food contamination presenting in the guidelines the establishment of good manufacturing practices and services rendered in the area of foods, the de-infestation that includes the sanitization plan used by an establishment. A new vision of the decisive factors of food contamination has been created, which is the control of mice and insects. This procedure integrates all the legal documents that were produced by the MS and Brazilian Ministry for Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA concerning the control of food. Even the publication of the Brazilian Governmental Decree 275/2002-MS, the control of urban plagues could be done by trained teams of establishments that carried out: production / industrialization, division, storage and transporting of industrialized food, handling, preparation, storage, distribution, transport, sale display and the delivery of food prepared for consumption, such as restaurants, buffets, sweet shops, industrial kitchens, institutional kitchens, delicatessens, snack bars, bakeries, pastry shops, restaurants, among others. Regarding its publication, the chemical control is only carried out by the PCO in accordance with the Brazilian Governmental Decree 18/2000-MS. However, this does not mean the legal responsibility of food companies has been taken away that should include in the SOP (Standardized Operational Procedure the control of pests, whether it be physical and/or chemical.

  17. Male haplotypes and haplogroups differences between urban (Rimini) and rural area (Valmarecchia) in Romagna region (North Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Gianmarco; Ceccardi, Stefania; Lugaresi, Federica; Bini, Carla; Ingravallo, Francesca; Cicognani, Alberto; Falconi, Mirella; Pelotti, Susi

    2008-03-05

    The distribution of Y chromosomal haplotypes and haplogroups in two different population samples from the Romagna region (North Italy) was performed. One population sample was collected in the urban area of Rimini, an ancient port in Roman age and the other one in the near and geographically more isolated rural area of Valmarecchia. Fast and slow evolving markers have been studied to infer population history and to analyse the microgeographic heterogeneity of Y chromosome in a Northern Italian region. Haplotype variability values compared to those observed in a Central Italy sample from the other side of Apennine mountains and in an Austrian population sample were very similar.

  18. Low frequency of mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of hepatitis B virus in anti-HBe positive Brazilian carriers

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    Niel Christian

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the core promoter and precore regions of the hepatitis B virus (HBV genome, notably the double substitution (AGG to TGA at nt positions 1762-1764 in the core promoter, and the precore stop codon mutation G to A at nt 1896, can often explain the anti-HBe phenotype in chronic carriers. However, the A1896 mutation is restricted to HBV isolates that have T at nt 1858. The double substitution at positions 1762-1764 has been described to occur preferentially in patients infected with strains showing C instead of T at nt 1858. Results HBV DNAs from 29 anti-HBe Brazilian samples were characterized by nucleotide sequencing of PCR products from precore region. Among them, 18 isolates presented C at nt 1858 (mostly genotype A strains. The 11 remaining isolates (genotypes D and F had T1858. The stop codon mutation at nt 1896 was found in seven isolates (24% of the total and 63% of the isolates that had T1858. The frequency of the double substitution at positions 1762-1764 was surprisingly low (20% among C1858 isolates. An association between A1896 and TGA 1762-1764 mutations was observed among genotype D isolates: these showed either none of the two mutations or both. Furthermore, strains mutated at positions 1896 and/or 1762-1764 also presented an elevated number of other, less common substitutions in the core promoter and precore regions. Conclusions The data reported here are not in accordance with some reports from other parts of the world. In half of the isolates, none of the mutations previously described could explain the anti-HBe phenotype.

  19. Housing shortages in urban regions: aggressive interactions at tree hollows in forest remnants.

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    Adrian Davis

    Full Text Available Urbanisation typically results in a reduction of hollow-bearing trees and an increase in the density of particularly species, potentially resulting in an increased level of competition as cavity-nesting species compete for a limited resource. To improve understanding of hollow usage between urban cavity-nesting species in Australia, particularly parrots, we investigated how the hollow-using assemblage, visitation rate, diversity and number of interactions varied between hollows within urban remnant forest and continuous forest. Motion-activated video cameras were installed, via roped access to the canopy, and hollow usage was monitored at 61 hollows over a two-year period. Tree hollows within urban remnants had a significantly different assemblage of visitors to those in continuous forest as well as a higher rate of visitation than hollows within continuous forest, with the rainbow lorikeet making significantly more visitations than any other taxa. Hollows within urban remnants were characterised by significantly higher usage rates and significantly more aggressive interactions than hollows within continuous forest, with parrots responsible for almost all interactions. Within urban remnants, high rates of hollow visitation and both interspecific and intraspecific interactions observed at tree hollows suggest the number of available optimal hollows may be limiting. Understanding the usage of urban remnant hollows by wildlife, as well as the role of parrots as a potential flagship for the conservation of tree-hollows, is vital to prevent a decrease in the diversity of urban fauna, particularly as other less competitive species risk being outcompeted by abundant native species.

  20. Fast food restaurant locations according to socioeconomic disadvantage, urban-regional locality, and schools within Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Lukar E; Lamb, Karen E; Ball, Kylie

    2016-12-01

    Features of the built environment provide opportunities to engage in both healthy and unhealthy behaviours. Access to a high number of fast food restaurants may encourage greater consumption of fast food products. The distribution of fast food restaurants at a state-level has not previously been reported in Australia. Using the location of 537 fast food restaurants from four major chains (McDonald׳s, KFC, Hungry Jacks, and Red Rooster), this study examined fast food restaurant locations across the state of Victoria relative to area-level disadvantage, urban-regional locality (classified as Major Cities, Inner Regional, or Outer Regional), and around schools. Findings revealed greater locational access to fast food restaurants in more socioeconomically disadvantaged areas (compared to areas with lower levels of disadvantage), nearby to secondary schools (compared to primary schools), and nearby to primary and secondary schools within the most disadvantaged areas of the major city region (compared to primary and secondary schools in areas with lower levels of disadvantage). Adjusted models showed no significant difference in location according to urban-regional locality. Knowledge of the distribution of fast food restaurants in Australia will assist local authorities to target potential policy mechanisms, such as planning regulations, where they are most needed.

  1. Regional differences and correlates of leisure time physical activity in Brazil: results from the Brazilian National Health Survey-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Grégore Iven; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; de Sá, Gisele Balbino Araújo Rodrigues; Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-12-01

    To analyze the regional differences and factors associated with physical activity during the leisure time in the adult participants of the National Health Survey, 2013. This study was carried out with the data from the National Health Survey, conducted in 2013 with an approximate sample of 63,000 adults (18+ years). For each of the five regions of Brazil, the prevalence of physically active adults during the leisure time was calculated, and the participants were classified as active if they practiced at least 150 minutes per week of physical activity during leisure time. The prevalence of individuals who were active during the leisure time varied from 21.9% in the south to 24.4% in the midwest. The men were 1.48 (95%CI 1.40-1.57) times more active than women, with the northern region showing the highest difference between the sexes. The prevalence of active individuals was 67% lower among those aged 75+ years when compared with the 18-24 age group, and this difference was more marked in the north. Those with higher levels of education were on average three times more active than the participants with lower education levels. In terms of education level, the lowest difference was observed in the northeast. Despite the slight variations in the prevalence of physical activity during the leisure time among the regions, when population subgroups are considered, important differences were observed. These results suggest the need for promotion initiatives on physical activity with different approaches in each of the five regions of Brazil.

  2. Managing Stormwater Runoff From Urban Areas in Consideration of Predicted Climate Change Impacts in the Mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.

    2014-12-01

    Mean annual temperature and precipitation in the Mid-Atlantic, USA, increased over the last century, and global climate models applied to this region generally project that these trends will continue throughout the year 2100. Higher temperatures and associated evapotranspiration may decrease total annual baseflow, even as stormflow events increase in magnitude and intensity, leading to more frequent and larger nutrient and sediment fluxes to receiving waters. Development will create more impervious surfaces, thereby increasing the ratio of stormflow to baseflow volumes. The possibility of increasing riverine flow associated with climate change this century necessitates an evaluation of various best management practices (BMPs) in urban areas to develop and utilize BMPs that optimize reductions in nutrient and sediment fluxes, as well as determine the extent to which these BMPs should be implemented. The headwaters of the Patuxent watershed are located in a highly developed urban corridor between Washington DC and Baltimore thus making it an ideal setting to explore potential climate change impacts in urban areas. Scenarios generated from a system of linked watershed and estuarine models were used to determine climate and land use change effects on Patuxent River runoff and estuarine water quality. The uncertainties of climate predictions and their implications regarding proactive mitigation approaches to manage pollutant fluxes from urban areas are discussed.

  3. Trends of tropospheric NO2 over the Yangtze River Delta region and the possible linkage to rapid urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingliang; Zhang, Deying; Liu, Qiyang; Song, Yue; Zhou, Jiayuan; Shi, Runhe; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Over the past decade, China has experienced a rapid increase in urbanization. The urban built-up areas (population) of Shanghai increased by 16.1% (22.9%) from 2006 to 2015. This study aims to analyze the variations of tropospheric NO2 over Yangtze River Delta region and the impacts of rapid urbanization during 2006-2015. The results indicate that tropospheric NO2 vertical column density (VCD) of all cities in the study area showed an increasing trend during 2006-2011 whereas a decreasing trend during 2011-2015. Most cities showed a lower tropospheric NO2 VCD value in 2015 compared to that in 2006, except for Changzhou and Nantong. Shanghai and Ningbo are two hotspots where the tropospheric NO2 VCD decreased most significantly, at a rate of 22% and 19%, respectively. This effect could be ascribed to the implementation of harsh emission control policies therein. Similar seasonal variability was observed over all cities, with larger values observed in the summer and smaller values shown in the winter. Further investigations show that the observed increasing trend of tropospheric NO2 during 2006-2011 could be largely explained by rapid urbanization linked to car ownership, GDP, power consumption, population and total industrial output. Such effect was not prominent after 2011, mainly due to the implementation of emission control strategies.

  4. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

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    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  5. Water resources management in the urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan: An ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaochen; Chen, Yuqing; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Niu, Jia; Nakagami, Ken'ichi; Qian, Xuepeng; Jia, Baoju; Nakajima, Jun; Han, Ji; Li, Jianhua

    2017-05-15

    An innovative ecosystem services-based sustainability assessment was conducted in the important urban agglomeration of the Lake Biwa region, Japan, covering the time period from 1950 to 2014. A 22-indicator system was established that was based on the major ecosystem services of Lake Biwa and its water courses, i.e., provisioning services regarding aquatic products and water; regulating services regarding floods and water quality; cultural services regarding recreation and tourism, scientific research, and environmental education; and supporting services regarding biodiversity. First, changes in the eight ecosystem services were discussed together with the considerable experience and difficult lessons that can be drawn from the development trajectory. Next, with the indicators rearranged according to sustainability principles, the regional sustainability over the past six-plus decades was assessed. In general, this urban agglomeration has been progressing in terms of its sustainability, although economic and social development was achieved at the cost of environmental degradation in the past, and the current economic downturn is hurting the balanced development and integrated benefits. The results lead directly to recommendations for regional development, especially in terms of economic rejuvenation, from the perspective of improving management of Lake Biwa's water resources. Moreover, the relevant knowledge is educational and inspirational for other places in the world that are facing similar development issues. For example, the effective and even pioneering countermeasures that have been taken against environmental degradation, as well as the participation and collaboration of multiple stakeholders, could be useful as a model. Moreover, the study invites increased understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to anthropogenic devastation and emphasizes the priority of precautionary measures over countermeasures in the context of holistic urban planning and sustainable

  6. International standards’ influence in brazilian milk production: a critical perspective about the good manufacturing practices for family farms in the Amazon region

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    Cristiane Fonseca Costa Corrêa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural changes imposed on Brazil’s dairy industry are influenced by the international market while it presses local industries and local producers. One of the main difficulties in the dairy sector is the standardization of milk based on the international standards of quality. So, to meet these requirements, standard operating procedures are established for the entire production chain, and they’re called '' Good dairy farming practices”. This paper addresses in a systemic way the influences of these standards in the Brazilian milk production, and the difficulties for adopting these procedure standards in family farming, especially in the Amazon region. The Amazonian family farmer is characterized by a peculiar diversity related to the ways they produce and live in society. In addition, there is at the same time a variety of local contexts very striking in the Amazon, which involve and influence the practices of farmers, making it difficult to join a homogenizing principle of good practices. The criticism of this paper does not report the need for sanitation improvements in milk production practices, but it wants to demonstrate as a leading line that the local context and the logic of producers are extremely necessary, so that the actions elaborated can value their practices and have them as a starting point. It should be noted in this study that the result of standard procedures for family farmers is the differentiation and social reunification in between them, where some are consolidated in milk production and others are excluded.

  7. In Situ and Satellite Observation of CDOM and Chlorophyll-a Dynamics in Small Water Surface Reservoirs in the Brazilian Semiarid Region

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    Christine Coelho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed chlorophyll-a and Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM dynamics from field measurements and assessed the potential of multispectral satellite data for retrieving water-quality parameters in three small surface reservoirs in the Brazilian semiarid region. More specifically, this work is comprised of: (i analysis of Chl-a and trophic dynamics; (ii characterization of CDOM; (iii estimation of Chl-a and CDOM from OLI/Landsat-8 and RapidEye imagery. The monitoring lasted 20 months within a multi-year drought, which contributed to water-quality deterioration. Chl-a and trophic state analysis showed a highly eutrophic status for the perennial reservoir during the entire study period, while the non-perennial reservoirs ranged from oligotrophic to eutrophic, with changes associated with the first events of the rainy season. CDOM characterization suggests that the perennial reservoir is mostly influenced by autochthonous sources, while allochthonous sources dominate the non-perennial ones. Spectral-group classification assigned the perennial reservoir as a CDOM-moderate and highly eutrophic reservoir, whereas the non-perennial ones were assigned as CDOM-rich and oligotrophic-dystrophic reservoirs. The remote sensing initiative was partially successful: the Chl-a was best modelled using RapidEye for the perennial one; whereas CDOM performed best with Landsat-8 for non-perennial reservoirs. This investigation showed potential for retrieving water quality parameters in dry areas with small reservoirs.

  8. Post-harvest nutraceutical behaviour during ripening and senescence of 8 highly perishable fruit species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leandro Camargo; Tosin, Jéssica Milanez; Benedette, Ronaldo Moreno; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2015-05-01

    The post-harvest nutraceutical characteristics of highly perishable native fruits species from the Northern Brazilian Amazon region were studied during 12 day at 15 ± 1 °C and 95 ± 3% RH. Uxi and caja fruit showed climacteric behaviour while caju, açai de terra firme, camu-camu, inajá, murici and araçá-boi were non-climacteric. Soluble solids and sugars increased for climacteric fruit while total acidity remained constant for all fruits. In general, all fruit species had high levels of total phenolics (121-9889 mg GAE 100 g(-1) dry weight pulp), vitamin C (31-1532 mg AA 100 mL(-1) juice) and antioxidant activity (AOX) (75-288 1 μmol Trolox Eq 100 g(-1) dry weight, ORAC value), however, camu-camu, acai and murici were among the highest. All fruits showed an increase in phenolic content (15-82%), a simultaneous decrease in ascorbic acid in both peel (88-98%) and pulp (89-97%), while AOX increased or decreased depending on the fruit species, very likely due to the specific phenolic profile being synthesized. We propose a hypothetical model where ripening/senescence induced a redox homeostasis imbalance which in turn triggered the responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Subaltern urbanism in India beyond the mega-city slum: The civic politics of occupancy and development in two peripheral cities in the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T.K.

    2014-01-01

    Tara van Dijk leverages concepts from subaltern urbanism, namely political society and occupancy urbanism, to look at how residence and locality development are constituted and governed in practice across three types of settlements in two 'satellite' cities of the Mumbai Metropolitan Region:

  10. Urbanization Trends (2001-2006) In The Conterminous United States And Regional Climate Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, G. Z.; Homer, C.

    2011-12-01

    More than 50% of the world population now lives in urban and suburban areas. The rate of urbanization in the world is expected to continue to accelerate in the near future. As urban areas expand by transforming the surrounding landscape into impervious surface, the changes of urban land cover (ULC) have significant implications for wide range consequences. Monitoring changes in large urban areas becomes increasingly important. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently published the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) 2006 products including land cover and percent impervious surface area (ISA) for the conterminous United States (CONUS). The percent ISA, which represents the fraction of impervious area in a 30 m grid, was estimated using regression tree algorithms with both Landsat and nighttime lights imagery. Generally, the approach comprises four major procedures: creating a training dataset, modeling a synthetic impervious surface, comparing model outputs for optimal selection and final product clean up. The ISA product was used to define four different ULC types by categorizing percent ISA and quantitatively determining the extent of ULC. We analyzed 2001 and 2006 imperviousness variations to summarize two areal increments: ISA, which calculates the area of imperviousness proportion in every 30 m pixels, and urban area, which totals the number of 30 m pixels that contain any impervious surface. The new ISA in 2006 increases 4.1% (4095 km2) from the 2001 base amount across the CONUS. The growth of ISA reached approximately 819 km2 per year during the period. The total ISA in 2006 reached 103,615 km2, which is slightly smaller than the state of Kentucky. The new urban area in 2006 was 12,365 km2 and the total urban area reached 500,153 km2, which is close to the size of California and Indiana combined. To analyze the interactions between ULC change and climate systems, we used both the gridded climate data from the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent

  11. [Adsorption Capacity of the Air Particulate Matter in Urban Landscape Plants in Different Polluted Regions of Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-kang; Wang, Bing; Niu, Xiang

    2015-07-01

    Urban landscape plants, as one of the important factors of the urban ecosystem, play an important role in stagnating airborne particulates and purifying urban atmospheric environment. In this article, six kinds of common garden plants were studied, and aerosol generator (QRJZFSQ-I) was used to measure the ability of their leaves to stagnate atmospheric particulates (TSP and PM2.5) in different polluted regions. Meanwhile, environmental scanning electron microscope was used to observe changes in the leaf structure of the tested tree species. The results showed: (1)Among the tested tree species, the ability of coniferous species to stagnate atmospheric particulates was higher than that of broad-leaved species per unit leaf area. Pinus tabuliformis stagnated the highest volume of (3. 89± 0. 026) µg . m-2, followed by Pinus bungeana of (2. 82 ± 0. 392) µg . cm-2, and Populus tomentosa stagnated the minimum of (2. 00 ± 0. 118) µg . cm-2; (2) Through observing the leaf microstructure morphology, coniferous species were found to have tightly packed stomas, stoma density and surface roughness higher than those of broad-leaved species, and they could also secrete oil; (3) In different polluted regions, the leaves of the same tree species showed significant difference in stagnating TSP. Per unit leaf area, the tree species leaves situated around the 5th Ring Road had higher ability to absorb TSP than the tree species leaves at Botanical Garden, while their abilities to absorb PM2.5 showed no significant difference; (4) In different polluted regions, significantly adaptive changes were found in leaf structure. Comparing to the region with light pollution, the outer epidermal cells of the plant leaves in region with heavy pollution shrank, and the roughness of the leaf skin textures as well as the stomatal frequency and villous length increased. In spite of the significant changes in plant leaves exposed to the heavy pollution, these plants could still maintain normal

  12. The Influence of Spatial Urbanization to Regional Condition in Periurban Areas of Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri Kurniawan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to study periurban areas because of its transitional characteristic. Periurban areas undergo dynamic changes as a result of spatial urbanization. This study is aimed at: (1 examining the development pattern of spatial urbanization in Yogyakarta and finding out the influential determinant factors; (2 examining the dynamics of land use changes in periurban areas and finding out the resultant impacts; (3 examining the pattern and development of services (infrastructures and finding out the determinant factors supporting the development of services (infrastructures in periurban areas; (4 examining the role of the development of periurban services (infrastructures as magnetic forces for periurban development; and (5 making policies concerning periurban development and management in order to achieve optimal development and to balance the functions of urban and rural areas. The methods used in this research are secondary data analyses and aerial photo interpretation. This study applies secondary data analysis by comparing the data to find out the extent of the changes. Descriptive statistics, scaling, and discri-minant analysis are used as the analytical techniques to find out the determinant factors of urban growth in periurban areas. Spatially, urbanization in Yogyakarta periurban areas tends to move toward the western part (Ngestiharjo village, northern part (Catur Tunggal village and eastern part (Banguntapan village. Besides centrifugal forces, the development of built land and urban characteristics in the western, northern and eastern parts are also influenced by the main roads (corridors from Yogyakarta to Kaliurang, from Yogyakarta to Wates, and from Yogyakarta to Solo. The existence of the corridors prompts the functions of trade and services which, in turn, trigger the development of the surrounding housing complex. On the contrary, in the southern and south-east part of Yogyakarta the activities of service have not yet well

  13. The Urban Heat Island Effect and the Role of Vegetation to Address the Negative Impacts of Local Climate Changes in a Small Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Dener Lima Alves

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the influence of urban-geographical variables on determining heat islands and proposes a model to estimate and spatialize the maximum intensity of urban heat islands (UHI. Simulations of the UHI based on the increase of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, using multiple linear regression, in Iporá (Brazil are also presented. The results showed that the UHI intensity of this small city tended to be lower than that of bigger cities. Urban geometry and vegetation (UI and NDVI were the variables that contributed the most to explain the variability of the maximum UHI intensity. It was observed that areas located in valleys had lower thermal values, suggesting a cool island effect. With the increase in NDVI in the central area of a maximum UHI, there was a significant decrease in its intensity and size (a 45% area reduction. It is noteworthy that it was possible to spatialize the UHI to the whole urban area by using multiple linear regression, providing an analysis of the urban set from urban-geographical variables and thus performing prognostic simulations that can be adapted to other small tropical cities.

  14. Identification of soybean genotypes with high stability for the Brazilian macro-region 402 via biplot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, E U Ramos; Brogin, R L; Godinho, V P C; Botelho, F J E; Tardin, F D; Teodoro, P E

    2017-09-27

    Biplot analysis has often been used to recommend genotypes from different crops in the presence of the genotype x environment interaction (GxE). The objective of this study was to verify the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and to select soybean genotypes that simultaneously meet high grain yield and stability to the environments belonging to the Edaphoclimatic Region 402, from Soybean Cultivation Region 4 (Mid-West), which comprises the Center North and West of Mato Grosso, and the southern region of Rondônia. Grain yield of 12 soybean genotypes was evaluated in seven competition trials of soybean cultivars in the 2014/2015 harvest. Significant GxE interaction revealed the need to use methods for recommending genotypes with adaptability and yield stability. The methods were complementary regarding the recommendation of the best genotypes. The AMMI analysis recommended MG/BR46 (Conquista) (G10) widely for all environments evaluated, whereas the BRY23-55012 (G9) and BRAS11-0149 (G2) were the most indicated genotypes by the GGE biplot method. However, the methods were concordant as to Porto Velho (PV1) environment that contributed least to the GxE interaction.

  15. Modelos de Desenvolvimento Regional e Sistemas Urbanos: Portugal, visão integrada / Regional Development Models and Urban Systems: Portugal, integrated approach

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    Carlos Gonçalves

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Neste artigo, analisam-se os sistemas urbanos representados nos Planos Regionais de Ordenamento do Território em Portugal Continental. A espacialização dos sistemas urbanos regionais reproduz, quer as dinâmicas de desenvolvimento existentes, quer a natureza das propostas formuladas pelo conjunto de entidades que têm responsabilidades de projetar o futuro destas regiões. Propõe-se um exercício de agregação das propostas e, através dele, apresenta-se uma síntese das estruturas definidoras do desenvolvimento do país. Abstract In this article we analyze the urban systems represented in Portuguese Regional Spatial Plans. The spatial distribution of regional urban systems reproduces the development dynamics consolidated and the nature of the proposals made by the group of entities that have responsibilities to design the future of these regions. At the end, we present an exercise that combines the proposals and through it, we present an overview of the structures that organize the development of the country.

  16. Biomonitoring of Air Condition in Urban Environment (with Regard to Irkutsk, Irkutsk region in Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, L. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the results of investigation into the contents and distribution of cancer-causing benzo(a)pyrene in the leaves of the trees that are common in the urban environment of Irkutsk. The degree of plant pollution is determined depending on the landscape and traffic exposure, on the mode of the plant material being prepared and on its type. The methodology for landscape geochemical biomonitoring is offered to be used at the stages of sample sorting and preparation and in the statistical treatment of the analysis results obtained. The possibility to use tree leaves as biotest materials for the urban atmosphere state control is considered in the paper.

  17. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Thermal comfort implications of urbanization in a warm-humid city: the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel, R. [Moratuwa Univ., Dept. of Architecture, Moratuwa (Sri Lanka)

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the historic trends in thermal comfort (measured in terms of Temperature-Humidity Index [THI] and Relative Strain Index [RSI]) in the Sri Lankan primate city of Colombo and correlate them with land cover changes in the region. Land cover is calculated from time-series aerial photographs in terms of 'hard' cover (buildings, paved areas and roads) and 'soft' cover (trees, green areas and waterbodies). The period selected for analysis includes pre-rapid (up to 1977) and rapid urban phases (1978 onwards) in the city. Contemporary Sri Lanka's urbanization is peculiar in that mid to late 20th century urban rates (approx. 22% of the population) had remained virtually unchanged till the economy was liberalized in 1977, but have recently intensified (currently at about 35%). This offers a unique window of opportunity to look at the thermal comfort transition consequent to urbanization. Since many tropical cities are at a similar stage of demographic transition, lessons from Colombo may generally be applicable to other tropical developing cities as well. An increasing trend in thermal discomfort-particularly at night-is seen especially at the suburban station and it correlates well with hard land cover changes. The study also brings out the relative importance of land cover in city center vs. rural areas (e.g. hard cover has more effect on thermal discomfort in city center than in rural areas). Based on these findings, we postulate an outline for a climate-sensitive urban design policy for tropical cities. (Author)

  19. Regional evaluation of particulate matter composition in an Atlantic coastal area (Cantabria region, northern Spain): Spatial variations in different urban and rural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruti, A.; Fernández-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the major components (Na, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Al, NH 4+, SO 42-, NO 3-, Cl - and TC) and trace-metal levels (As, Ni, Cd, Pb, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Mo, Rh and Hg) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 at an Atlantic coastal city (Santander, Cantabria region, Northern Spain). Additional samples were collected in other urban sites of the Cantabria region to assess the metal content found in different urban environments within the region. To control for the mass attributed to inland regional background particulate matter, samples were also collected in Los Tojos village. The spatial variability of the major PM components shows that PM origins are different at inland and coastal sites. In the coastal city of Santander, the most important contributors are (i) the marine aerosol and (ii) the secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) and the total carbon (TC) in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. Additionally, the influence of the coastal location on the ionic balance of PM is also studied. The trace metal spatial variability is studied using the coefficient of divergence (COD), which shows that the levels of trace metals at the three studied urban sites are mainly influenced by local emission sources. The main local tracers are identified as follows: Mn in the Santander area; Mo, Cr and Pb at Reinosa; and Ni and V at Castro Urdiales. A more detailed source apportionment study of the local trace metals at Santander is conducted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF); these two receptor models report complementary information. From these statistical analyses, the identified sources of trace metals in PM 10 are urban background sources, industrial sources and traffic. The industrial factor was dominated by Mn, Cu and Pb, which are trace metals used in steel production and manganese-ferroalloy production plant. With respect to PM 2.5, the identified emission sources of trace metals are combustion processes as well as traffic and

  20. The Influence of Household Heterogeneity Factors on the Green Travel Behavior of Urban Residents in the East China Region

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    Ranran Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey was conducted with 1475 urban residents in the east region of China to explore the impact of household heterogeneity factors on the green travel behavior of urban residents. The green travel behavior was divided into practice-based and promotion-based green travel behavior, and the results showed that variables including gender, age, educational background, household monthly income, amount of cars, professional status, positional tiers and housing ownership were correlated with both of the two types of green travel behavior significantly. Variables that included having elderly family members or not, having children or not, and position level were only correlated with practice-based green travel behavior significantly. Moreover, the study found that the variables female, elderly and young, highly educated, low-income, low professional status, low positional tiers, low positional status, house-renting, not having elderly family members or children and having fewer cars had a significantly positive impact on green travel behavior.

  1. Evaluating adaptation options for urban flooding based on new high-end emission scenario regional climate model simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Leonardsen, L.; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Climate change adaptation studies on urban flooding are often based on a model chain approach from climate forcing scenarios to analysis of adaptation measures. Previous analyses of climate change impacts in Copenhagen, Denmark, were supplemented by 2 high-end scenario simulations. These include...... to pluvial flooding that makes the urban areas more robust and reduces the risk of flooding under the current climate to a very low level. The reduction in flood risk for the A1B scenario is substantial (corresponding to 0.2-0.3 times the current EAD in 2100), and even in the high-end scenarios, the risk...... a regional climate model projection forced to a global temperature increase of 6 degrees C in 2100 as well as a projection based on a high radiative forcing scenario (RCP8.5). With these scenarios, projected impacts of extreme precipitation increase significantly. For extreme sea surges, the impacts do...

  2. Spatial justice and the translation of European strategic planning ideas in the urban sub-region of south Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabinett, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses urban planning practices in South Yorkshire to reveal how EU strategic spatial ideas and values are reproduced. Specifically, the paper examines how the notion of spatial justice was interpreted as the organising concepts within the European Spatial Development Perspective became situated within a territory severely affected by deindustrialisation in the 1980s, but subsequently a major beneficiary of EU Structural Fund programmes. The analysis reveals how policy-making at this scale used a construct of polycentric urban development that reasserted a model of economic growth based on the indigenous assets held in city centres at the expense of more redistributive measures targeted at the former coal-mining communities in the sub-region.

  3. Reliability and Cost Analysis of a Rainwater Harvesting System in Peri-Urban Regions of Greater Sydney, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Hajani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In large cities, rainwater tanks are used to save mains water, but in peri-urban and rural areas, rainwater tanks are used as a sole water supply for many households, as these regions often do not have any other means of water supply. This paper investigates the performance of a rainwater harvesting system (RWHS in peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney, Australia. Considering the daily rainfall data over the entire period of record at ten different locations, it has been found that a 5 kL tank can meet 96% to 99% of the demand for toilet and laundry use depending on the location in Greater Sydney regions. However, in the driest year, a 5 kL tank can meet 69% to 99% of toilet and laundry demand depending on the location. Based on the results of life cycle cost analysis, it has been found that a 5 kL tank has the highest benefit–cost ratio (ranging from 0.86 to 0.97 among the eight possible tank sizes examined in this study. Interestingly, for a 5 kL tank, with a combined use (i.e., toilet, laundry and irrigation, the current water price in Sydney needs to be increased by 3% to 16% to achieve a benefit–cost ratio exceeding one. A set of regression equations are developed which can be used to estimate reliability using the average annual rainfall data at any arbitrary location in the peri-urban regions of Greater Sydney. The method presented in this paper can also be applied to other Australian states and other countries to estimate water savings and reliability of a RWHS using daily rainfall data.

  4. Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region

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    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.

  5. [Spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality among the elderly in a Brazilian Amazon region, 2001 - 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Valdir Soares de; Artaxo, Paulo Eduardo; Hacon, Sandra de Souza; Carmo, Cleber Nascimento do

    2017-01-01

    The burning of biomass has a significant impact on the Amazon ecosystem in the dry season due to the emissions of air pollutants. The effects on the health of the population, especially in the region of the arc of deforestation, has been the subject of recent studies. The scope of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of biomass burning and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases among the elderly in the state of Rondônia in the period from 2001 to 2012. Mortality data were obtained through the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. Biomass burning data were provided by the National Institute for Space Research. The Kernel estimator was used. The highest mortality rates were observed in the central-east and south-east of Rondônia. The focuses of the fires were concentrated in the northern part of the state, though with a significant amount in other regions. The spatial distribution of the hot areas of mortality and fires were not directly associated. However, fires were observed in all municipalities in the state. Pollutants emitted from biomass burning can be transported thousands of kilometers from the source areas and influence the health of the elderly.

  6. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  7. Cultura Organizacional na Perspectiva Cultural Regional BrasileiraOrganizational Culture under the Perspective of the Brazilian Regional CultureCultura Organizacional en la Perspectiva Cultural Regional Brasileña

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    MUZZIO, Henrique

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEsse ensaio tem como objetivo analisar o contexto cultural brasileiro e a sua influência no universo organizacional a partir de uma perspectiva cultural regional que não se limite à visão funcionalista e avance por meio de conceitos contemporâneos como os fluxos culturais e os códigos culturais locais. Do ponto de vista internacional, os estudos comparativos que trabalham com a perspectiva de adaptação cultural já apresentam um volume significativo de pesquisas que enfatizam as distinções entre regiões ou nações. Mas, quando se trata dessa perspectiva dentro de países culturalmente diversos, parece ainda não haver no campo a mesma expressão. Em países em que é reconhecida a diversidade cultural, como o Brasil, análises que levem em conta as influências dessa variável podem contribuir para a eficiência das relações internas e externas da organização. Arguimos a necessidade das organizações contemplarem em suas ações o que chamamos de legitimidade cultural local, quando as organizações atuam em distintos contextos respeitando os valores e as práticas culturais locais. As diferentes culturas regionais encontradas no Brasil se refletem nos hábitos dos consumidores, no comportamento social e nas atitudes e desempenho das pessoas no trabalho, o que requer efetivamente diferentes e variadas práticas de gestão.ABSTRACTThis essay has the objective of analyzing the Brazilian cultural context and its influence on the organizations universe from a cultural regional perspective that goes beyond the functionalist paradigm and advances through contemporary concepts, like cultural flows and the local cultural codes. In an international perspective, in studies that consider the perspective of cultural adaptation, it is possible finding a significant volume of research that emphasizes the distinctions between regions or nations. On the other hand, when it these studies deal with this perspective inside each culturally

  8. Energy, Pollutant Emissions and Other Negative Externality Savings from Curbing Individual Motorized Transportation (IMT: A Low Cost, Low Technology Scenario Analysis in Brazilian Urban Areas

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    Ursula Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the inefficient use of resources in the Brazilian transportation system. The energy use growth and external cost generation in this essential economic sector are considerable, and the trend is towards an increasing problem in the coming years. The continued expansion of Brazilian cities and the increase in demand for mobility is a result of a substantial growth in the number of road transport users, as increased earnings enable lower income groups to acquire and use individual motorized means of transport. The aim of this paper is to estimate the potential gains from reducing individual motorized transport by the year 2020. This investigation concludes that in a conservationist scenario, by prioritizing low cost, low technology public policies—which include operation of Bus Rapid Transit systems, walking and cycling facilities and congestion charges, among others—it should be possible to save over USD 30 billion and USD 26 billion in external transportation and infrastructure costs, respectively, up to 2020. In addition, these public policies can save more than 35 million Tons of Oil Equivalents in energy consumption and avoid almost 4,000 thousand tons of local pollution emissions and 37,500 thousand tons of GHG emissions in the same period.

  9. Use of antibiotics in rural and urban regions in the Netherlands: an observational drug utilization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Large livestock farms might increase the infection risk for the nearby human population because of an increased risk for disease outbreaks and because antibiotic-resistant bacteria are more likely to be present. We hypothesized that populations residing in rural areas have more contact with cattle compared with populations in urban areas, and will use more antibiotics or more frequently require a new course of antibiotics. Methods Using data from the prescription database IADB.nl, we compared antibiotic use by patients living in rural areas to the use by patients living in urban areas. We also followed cohorts of antibiotic users and determined the patients who required a second antibiotic within 14 days after beginning the first antibiotic. Results The yearly prevalence of antibiotic use was greater in rural areas compared with urban areas (2009: 23.6% versus 20.2% (p antibiotic treatment within 14 days after starting the first treatment. Conclusion Individuals use more antibiotics, and adults more frequently require a second antibiotic prescription within 14 days, in rural areas compared with urban areas. Although the differences were small and the risks for the general rural population were not high, this difference should be investigated further. PMID:24992967

  10. Integration of the Problem of Medical Ecology on the Level of the Highly Urbanized Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, Gennadiy S.; Lazareva, Natalya V.; Simonov, Yury V.; Lifirenko, Natalya G.; Sarapultseva, Lilija A.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the analyzed issue is due to the study of the basic issues of medical ecology: the dynamics of demographic indicators, the correlation of somatic and reproductive public health, depending on the influence of physical factors of the urban environment on public health on the basis of medical and geographic mapping. The article aims at…

  11. Sustainable Urban Regeneration with a Physical Infill Development Approach: a Case Study on Isfahan Central Region

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    Farzad Momeni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of regeneration and revitalization of historical distressed urban areas has been the focus of academic and scientific discussions over the last five decades. The evolution of these ideas, from a mere physical approach after the reconstruction of World War II ruins to the ideas of urban sustainability, has always been in line with adjustments to circumstances and accelerated developments in cities. The present study aims to investigate one of the new approaches to renewal, improvement and modernization of distressed urban areas to examine sustainable urban regeneration approach based on physical approaches. Multiple topics were examined in the case study conducted in Isfahan districts 1 and 3 to propose restructuring strategies for these historic districts using analytical methods. We employed analytical methods such as ArcGis software for reaching conclusions and obtaining results. The findings from the case study suggested a structural gap between the northwest district and Isfahan districts 1 and 3 restructuring strategies. Also, the strategies and suggestions regarding the discussion points are extracted.

  12. Knowledge-based Design : Developing Urban & Regional Design into a Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaasen, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    An implemented design of an urban area imposes long-term conditions on societal processes, such as the opportunities people have to organize their lives in temporospatial respects in a healthy and safe living environment, and the way social, cultural and economic institutions and organisations can

  13. Ranking functional urban regions : a comparison of interaction and node attribute data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limtanakool, N.; Schwanen, T.; Dijst, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Although many studies employ either interaction- or node-attribute data to study the positions of cities in the urban system, relatively little is known about the relationships between these two different types of data. This study explores this relationship by ranking and comparing 39 metropolitan

  14. Exploit or protect airport regions from urbanization? Assessment of land use restrictions in Amsterdam-Schiphol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, M.; Brattinga, K.; Bontje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Airports are no longer only places for take-off and landing, but increasingly became economic nodes in the urban development of metropolitan areas. Though it is debatable to what extent aviation growth is a cause or effect of economic growth, the reciprocal relationship cannot be denied. Most past

  15. Species determination of Brazilian mammals implicated in the epidemiology of rabies based on the control region of mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carnieli Junior

    Full Text Available Identification of animals that are decomposing or have been run over or burnt and cannot be visually identified is a problem in the surveillance and control of infectious diseases. Many of these animals are wild and represent a valuable source of information for epidemiologic research as they may be carriers of an infectious agent. This article discusses the results obtained using a method for identifying mammals genetically by sequencing their mitochondrial DNA control region. Fourteen species were analyzed and identified. These included the main reservoirs and transmitters of rabies virus, namely, canids, chiroptera and primates. The results prove that this method of genetic identification is both efficient and simple and that it can be used in the surveillance of infectious diseases which includes mammals in their epidemiologic cycle, such as rabies.

  16. Brazilian Firms

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    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  17. The Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu and its impacts on the drainage system and the urban structure of the Northern- Fluminense Region

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    Larissa Carneiro Rangel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu will result in an accelerated process of urbanization directly related to population growth. When it no longer supports agricultural and livestock activities to meet the port activities, the region will have its urban, hydrological and economic dynamics changed. Given the fragility of the Quaternary Coastal, geomorphology of the region, these areas have occupation problems, and are subject to constant flooding. Therefore, it is necessary to make geomorphology studies of the area study so that development is can be planned, avoiding future environmental and territorial and urban problems.

  18. Development and water requirements of cowpea under climate change conditions in the Brazilian semi-arid region

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    Edmilson G. Cavalcante Junior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to determine the impacts that climate change may cause on the development and evapotranspiration of cowpea, in semi-arid climate region of Northeast Brazil. The study was conducted in the municipalities of Apodi, Ipanguaçu and Mossoró, in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. In order to evaluate the influence of climate change on crop water consumption, changes in air temperature and relative humidity were simulated using the PRECIS climate model. Two scenarios of emissions were evaluated based on the report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: a pessimistic named A2 and an optimistic B2. The duration of the crop cycle showed an average reduction of 14 and 23 days for the optimistic and pessimistic scenarios, respectively. Temperatures will be well above the limit tolerated by crop, which could have a negative impact on its development and yield. There will be a decrease in total evapotranspiration of 4.8%, considering the optimistic scenario, and 8.7% in the pessimistic scenario.

  19. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belém, Brazilian Amazon

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    Ediclei Lima do Carmo

    Full Text Available Abstract The relevance of consuming raw or undercooked beef in the transmission of toxoplasmosis is unclear due to the high resistance of cattle to infection. However, this possibility needs to be considered in endemic areas, such as the Amazon, where the consumption of beef is frequent. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies in beef cattle slaughtered in the metropolitan region of Belem, Pará state, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from 500 animals of both genders in a licensed slaughterhouse in Belém. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA with a cut-off titer of 1:64. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 203 animals (40.6%, with a titer of 64 in 112 animals (55.2%, 128 in 68 animals (33.5%, 256 in 15 animals (7.4%, 512 in 5 animals (2.5%, and 1,024 in 3 animals (1.4%. No significant difference was observed between males and females (p > 0.05. The high frequency of anti-T. gondii antibodies observed in beef cattle slaughtered in Belém indicates that the meat of these animals may be an important source of infection for humans and carnivorous domestic animals when inadequately cooked beef is consumed.

  20. [Overweight among young people in a city in the Brazilian semiarid region: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Aline Rodrigues; Dumith, Samuel Carvalho; Gonçalves, Tatiane Santos; Cesar, Juraci Almeida

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article is to measure the prevalence and identify factors associated with excess weight among young people living in the city of Caracol, Piaui, Brazil. Qualified interviewers applied a standardized questionnaire and assessed the anthropometric measurements of all young people (13 to 19 years of age) in their households. The questionnaires sought information on demographic, socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. The outcome was overweight in young people (BMI > 1 z score) calculated on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and classified in accordance with the new parameters of the World Health Organization. Poisson regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the statistical analysis. Of the 1,088 young people studied, 10.5% were overweight. The occurrence of the outcome varied from 6% for young people belonging to the second income quartile to 19% for adolescents with a height deficit for their age. Even with the prevalence of overweight being below the national average in the semiarid region, the factors associated with their occurrence are already equal to the other areas of Brazil and there is a pressing need for early intervention aimed at preventing and reducing the current overweight levels.