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Sample records for brazilian tomatoes processing

  1. Desafios e perspectivas para a cadeia brasileira do tomate para processamento industrial Some challenges for the Brazilian chain of processing tomatoes

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    Paulo César T. de Melo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como principal objetivo descrever alguns dos desafios para maximização da eficiência técnica e socioeconômica da cadeia do tomate para processamento industrial no Brasil. Na década de 1990 observou-se um expressivo desempenho deste setor. Entretanto, no âmbito dos sistemas de produção, observam-se uma série de fatores limitantes à otimização da produção. Dentre esses, cultivares inadequadas à colheita mecanizada e suscetíveis às doenças e pragas que depreciam a qualidade industrial dos frutos, causando quebra na relação matéria prima/massa processada. Ocasionalmente, observam-se ocorrência de fungos na polpa concentrada, extratos e em outros derivados, que poderiam ser evitados com manejo cultural, como maior eficiência das técnicas de irrigação (sistema convencional com pivô central e irrigação por gotejamento, níveis de adubação, rotação de cultivo, preparo do solo e dos canteiros adequados ao transplante e à colheita mecanizados, controle de plantas daninhas e manejo ecológico de pragas e doenças.The purpose of this work is to provide information about technological problems that constitute challenges to the maximization of technical and the economic efficiency of the Brazilian chain of tomato processing. In the 90's the Brazilian chain of the processing tomato showed expressive performance. However, there are several factors involved in the tomato production systems that still impair the optimization of the processing tomato production. Among those factors we detected not well adapted tomato cvs. to mechanical harvest besides being susceptible to diseases and insects, depreciating the fruits quality for processing causing decline indexes in the relationship matter/ processed products. In addition, the presence of fungus was observed in the concentrated pulp, tomato extracts and in other tomato derived products. These problems could be solved through better cultural practices, including

  2. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

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    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  3. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

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    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  4. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

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    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  5. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

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    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  6. Prediction of processing tomato peeling outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeling outcomes of processing tomatoes were predicted using multivariate analysis of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images. Tomatoes were obtained from a whole-peel production line. Each fruit was imaged using a 7 Tesla MR system, and a multivariate data set was created from 28 different images. After ...

  7. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

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    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  8. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

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    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops

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    C. M. Silva-Neto

    Full Text Available Abstract Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp. are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the

  10. High species richness of native pollinators in Brazilian tomato crops.

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    Silva-Neto, C M; Bergamini, L L; Elias, M A S; Moreira, G L; Morais, J M; Bergamini, B A R; Franceschinelli, E V

    2017-01-01

    Pollinators provide an essential service to natural ecosystems and agriculture. In tomatoes flowers, anthers are poricidal, pollen may drop from their pore when flowers are shaken by the wind. However, bees that vibrate these anthers increase pollen load on the stigma and in fruit production. The present study aimed to identify the pollinator richness of tomato flowers and investigate their morphological and functional traits related to the plant-pollinator interaction in plantations of Central Brazil. The time of anthesis, flower duration, and the number and viability of pollen grains and ovules were recorded. Floral visitors were observed and collected. Flower buds opened around 6h30 and closed around 18h00. They reopened on the following day at the same time in the morning, lasting on average 48 hours. The highest pollen availability occurred during the first hours of anthesis. Afterwards, the number of pollen grains declined, especially between 10h00 to 12h00, which is consistent with the pollinator visitation pattern. Forty bee species were found in the tomato fields, 30 of which were considered pollinators. We found that during the flowering period, plants offered an enormous amount of pollen to their visitors. These may explain the high richness and amount of bees that visit the tomato flowers in the study areas. The period of pollen availability and depletion throughout the day overlapped with the bees foraging period, suggesting that bees are highly effective in removing pollen grains from anthers. Many of these grains probably land on the stigma of the same flower, leading to self-pollination and subsequent fruit development. Native bees (Exomalopsis spp.) are effective pollinators of tomato flowers and are likely to contribute to increasing crop productivity. On the other hand, here tomato flowers offer large amounts of pollen resource to a high richness and amount of bees, showing a strong plant-pollinator interaction in the study agroecosystem.

  11. INTEGRATED WEED MANAGEMENT ON THE PROCESSING TOMATO CROP AND TOMATO FOR CONSUMPTION IN NATURA

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    Y. O. Castro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Weeds cause direct and indirect damage to processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura. The coexistence period is decisive for the intensity of damage, although the economic cost is also considered for decision making when to control the weeds. There are similarities between processing tomato and tomato for consumption in natura cropping system and peculiarities. This causes the management has adopted its common applications and its variables within each system. As control alternative, the farmer has basically the preventive control, mechanical, cultural, biological and chemical. The application of a single method is not recommended. Ideally, the methods needs to be integrated in order to combat weeds, highly evolved populations and resistant to unfavorable conditions. Consider weed management taking only one control measure is to underestimate the evolutionary ability of such species. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate the various methods available to the weed interference not impede the tomato production.

  12. Processed tomato products as a source of dietary lycopene: bioavailability and antioxidant properties.

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    Rao, A Venket

    2004-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major contributors to increased risk of chronic diseases. A diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products containing lycopene, a carotenoid antioxidant, has been found to protect against these chronic diseases by mitigating oxidative damage. The study aim was to evaluate the effects of a long-term tomato-rich diet, consisting of various processed tomato products, on bioavailability and antioxidant properties of lycopene. Seventeen healthy human subjects (ten men, seven non-pregnant women) participated in the study. Following a two-week washout period during which subjects avoided foods containing lycopene, all subjects consumed test tomato products including tomato juice, tomato sauce, tomato paste, ketchup, spaghetti sauce, and ready-to-serve tomato soup providing 30 mg of lycopene a day for four weeks. At the end of treatment, serum lycopene level increased significantly (p reduced significantly (p can increase serum lycopene levels and reduce oxidative stress effectively.

  13. 7 CFR 457.160 - Processing tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... business enterprise regularly engaged in processing tomatoes for human consumption, that possesses all...; (6) Earthquake; (7) Volcanic eruption; or (8) Failure of the irrigation water supply, if due to a... meets the quality requirements of the processor contract (expressed as usable or payable weight). (3...

  14. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

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    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  15. Biochemical Studies for Producing Biscuits from Irradiated Tomato Processed Wastes

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    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to produce biscuits as therapeutic diets. Raw materials of tomato processed waste (TPW) were used as a source of some amino acids and elements, (phosphorus, potassium and magnesium), besides amino acids (Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acids while lysine was the second limiting one). It was present about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processed wastes remain un-utilized and they not only add to the disposal problem but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato processed wastes were irradiated at two doses (1.5 and 2.5 kGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% (TPW). All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated (TPW). The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined, besides the internal organs. The results obtained showed that 15% (TPW) biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was significant changes were recorded irradiation treatment on the rats internal organs

  16. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

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    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  17. Effect of Tomato Industrial Processing on Phenolic Profile and Antiplatelet Activity

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    Iván Palomo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables (e.g., tomatoes has been shown to be beneficial in terms of reducing the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. The industrial processing of tomatoes into tomato-based products includes several thermal treatments. Very little is known on the effect of tomato industrial processing on antiaggregatory activity and phenolic profile. Methods: It was assessed the effect of tomato and by-products extracts on platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6 and arachidonic acid. These in vitro antithrombotic properties were further supported in an in vivo model of thrombosis. A set of antiplatelet compounds has been selected for HPLC analysis in the different extracts. Results: Some natural compounds such as chlorogenic, caffeic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids were identified by HPLC in tomatoes and its products may inhibit platelet activation. Red tomatoes, tomato products (sauce, ketchup and juice and by-products extracts inhibited platelet aggregation induced adenosine 5'-diphosphate, collagen, thrombin receptor activator peptide-6 and arachidonic acid, but to a different extent. Also, pomace extract presents antithrombotic activity. Conclusions: Processed tomatoes may have a higher content of health-benefiting compounds than fresh ones. Pomace even presents the best antiplatelet activity. Finally, tomato products may be used as a functional ingredient adding antiplatelet activities to processed foods.

  18. Effect of tomato cultivars, honey finisher and processing methods on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... microbiological and sensory quality of tomato ketchup that was prepared using low-cost ... The color of tomato ketchup samples were measured by comparing it with standard color chart .... multiple rage tests. RESULTS AND ...

  19. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce: Effects on phenolics, flavonoids and in vitro bioaccessibility of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-04-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity (∼1.2-fold higher) compared to tomato fruit whereas home processing of tomato fruit into sauce led to a decrease in these values. Untargeted LC-QTOF-MS analysis revealed 31 compounds in tomato that changed upon processing, of which 18 could be putatively identified. Naringenin chalcone is only detectable in the fruit, while naringenin is strongly increased in the sauces. Rutin content increased by 36% in the industrial processed sauce whereas decreased by 26% in the home processed sauce when compared to fruit. According to the results of an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model, industrial processing may lead to enhanced bioaccessibility of antioxidants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Technological foundations of processing tomato pomace in feed additives

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    B. Yegorov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Search for new types of alternative raw material for the efficient development of poultry industry and problem of waste disposal of canning industry made it necessary to develop a method of processing tomato pomace in feed additives. Materials and methods. Sampling, preparation and testing were carried out by general and specific organ oleptic and physical-technological methods of assessment and analysis of the properties of raw materials and finished products. Results. Incorporation of tomato pomace in the feed additive reduces the cost of raw materials and expenses associated with moistening of the mixture before extrusion and incorporation of chalk feed will solve the problem of calcium imbalance of laying hens. It was found that extrusion process has improved the physical properties of feed additive and showed the possibility of its use as a feed component: moisture content decreased by 34.5 %, the angle of repose increased by 11.4 %, flowability decreased by 39.7 % and bulk density decreased by 32.3 %. Conclusions. The resulting feed additive will solve the problem of diversification of raw materials, waste, calcium imbalance of laying hens and reduce expenses on compound animal feedstuff production.

  1. A Study of Light Level Effect on the Accuracy of Image Processing-based Tomato Grading

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    Prijatna, D.; Muhaemin, M.; Wulandari, R. P.; Herwanto, T.; Saukat, M.; Sugandi, W. K.

    2018-05-01

    Image processing method has been used in non-destructive tests of agricultural products. Compared to manual method, image processing method may produce more objective and consistent results. Image capturing box installed in currently used tomato grading machine (TEP-4) is equipped with four fluorescence lamps to illuminate the processed tomatoes. Since the performance of any lamp will decrease if its service time has exceeded its lifetime, it is predicted that this will affect tomato classification. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum light levels which affect classification accuracy. This study was conducted by varying light level from minimum and maximum on tomatoes in image capturing boxes and then investigates its effects on image characteristics. Research results showed that light intensity affects two variables which are important for classification, for example, area and color of captured image. Image processing program was able to determine correctly the weight and classification of tomatoes when light level was 30 lx to 140 lx.

  2. Characterization of lycopene hydrocolloidal structure induced by tomato processing.

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    Jazaeri, Sahar; Mohammadi, Abdorreza; Kermani, Amir Mehrabi Panah; Paliyath, Gopinadhan; Kakuda, Yukio

    2018-04-15

    Tomato juice and paste are special type of dispersions, composed of suspended particles (pulp) dispersed in a colloidal liquid medium (serum). The bright red appearance of soluble solid separated by high speed centrifugation denoted the presence of lycopene in this fraction. Since lycopene is a hydrophobic compound it is not expected to appear in the water soluble fraction. HPLC analysis indicated presence of substantial amount of lycopene in soluble fraction which was confirmed by the appearance of lycopene crystals when observed under Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). Considerable amount of pectin in the soluble fraction led to hypothesis that pectin facilitated the formation of hydrocolloidal system of suspended lycopene during processing. Enzyme treatment confirmed this hypothesis when pectinase effectively disrupted colloidal system and precipitated lycopene. Necessity of the divalent ions to retain the suspension signified the electrostatic interactions in the matrix surrounding lycopene crystals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioactive Compound Content and Cytotoxic Effect on Human Cancer Cells of Fresh and Processed Yellow Tomatoes

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    Assunta Raiola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato, as a fresh or processed product, has a high nutritional value due to its content of bioactive components such as phenolic compounds. Few studies describe the effect of processing on antioxidant content and the cancer cell growth inhibition activity. In this study we determined the phenolic and ascorbic acid content of three yellow tomato varieties, before and after thermal processing. Moreover, we determined the antioxidative power and tested the effects of tomato extracts on three human cancer cell lines. We found that the amount of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid decreased in all the samples after processing, whereas the flavonoid content increased after the heat treatment in two samples. A cytotoxic effect of tomato extracts was observed only after processing. This result well correlates with the flavonoid content after processing and clearly indicates that processed yellow tomatoes have a high content of bioactive compounds endowed with cytotoxicity towards cancer cells, thus opening the way to obtain tomato-based functional foods.

  4. Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters.

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    Colle, Ines J P; Andrys, Anna; Grundelius, Andrea; Lemmens, Lien; Löfgren, Anders; Buggenhout, Sandy Van; Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc Van

    2011-01-01

    Tomatoes are often processed into shelf-stable products. However, the different processing steps might have an impact on the product quality. In this study, a model tomato soup was prepared and the impact of pilot-scale aseptic processing, including heat treatment and high-pressure homogenization, on some selected quality parameters was evaluated. The vitamin C content, the lycopene isomer content, and the lycopene bioaccessibility were considered as health-promoting attributes. As a structural characteristic, the viscosity of the tomato soup was investigated. A tomato soup without oil as well as a tomato soup containing 5% olive oil were evaluated. Thermal processing had a negative effect on the vitamin C content, while lycopene degradation was limited. For both compounds, high-pressure homogenization caused additional losses. High-pressure homogenization also resulted in a higher viscosity that was accompanied by a decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility. The presence of lipids clearly enhanced the lycopene isomerization susceptibility and improved the bioaccessibility. The results obtained in this study are of relevance for product formulation and process design of tomato-based food products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Mulch materials in processing tomato: a multivariate approach

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    Marta María Moreno

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mulch materials of different origins have been introduced into the agricultural sector in recent years alternatively to the standard polyethylene due to its environmental impact. This study aimed to evaluate the multivariate response of mulch materials over three consecutive years in a processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L. crop in Central Spain. Two biodegradable plastic mulches (BD1, BD2, one oxo-biodegradable material (OB, two types of paper (PP1, PP2, and one barley straw cover (BS were compared using two control treatments (standard black polyethylene [PE] and manual weed control [MW]. A total of 17 variables relating to yield, fruit quality, and weed control were investigated. Several multivariate statistical techniques were applied, including principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis. A group of mulch materials comprised of OB and BD2 was found to be comparable to black polyethylene regarding all the variables considered. The weed control variables were found to be an important source of discrimination. The two paper mulches tested did not share the same treatment group membership in any case: PP2 presented a multivariate response more similar to the biodegradable plastics, while PP1 was more similar to BS and MW. Based on our multivariate approach, the materials OB and BD2 can be used as an effective, more environmentally friendly alternative to polyethylene mulches.

  6. Antioxidant and Antiplatelet Activities in Extracts from Green and Fully Ripe Tomato Fruits (Solanum lycopersicum and Pomace from Industrial Tomato Processing

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    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of fruits and vegetables is accepted to be one of the strategies to reduce risk factors for these diseases. The aim of this study was to examine potential relationships between the antioxidant and the antiplatelet activities in green mature and fully ripe (red tomatoes and of lycopene-rich byproducts of tomato paste processing such as pomace. The total phenol content of tomato components was the highest in peels, pulp, and in the mucilaginous myxotesta covering the tomato seeds with values 36.9±0.8, 33.3±00.5, and 17.6±0.9 mg GAE/100 g, respectively (P<0.05. Tomato peels had the highest antioxidant activity, both, as measured by the FRAP (46.9±0.9 μmol Fe+2/g, P<0.05 and the DPPH assays (97.4±0.2%, 1000 μg/mL, P<0.05. Pomace extracts showed the highest antiplatelet activity induced by ADP, collagen, TRAP-6, and arachidonic acid. While the maturation stage of the tomato fruit affected the antioxidant effect, antiplatelet activity was independent of fruit ripeness. Finally, based on the present results, tomato and its byproducts may be considered as a valuable source of antioxidant and antiplatelet activities.

  7. INNOVATION PROCESS IN OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Ricardo Floriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the innovation process used by the open capital Brazilian companies and establish a ranking of the potentially innovative ones. For this, a questionnaire was sent to 484 companies with shares traded in Bovespa, receiving a response from 22. The innovation process is based on the model of Barrett and Sexton (2006. A summary of the results is presented below. (i Organizational Capabilities – 95.5% answered that they have incentives for innovation activities and 68.2% reported having procedures for all services. The leadership has a facilitator role encouraging the initiative (86.4% and promotes the maintenance of the group relationship (72.7%. Value risk taking, even through failures and prioritize the learning and experimenting new ideas. (ii Background of the innovation – reveals aspects of the capacity (internal or (external. Of the respondents, 59.1% developed internal activities of continuing P & D. Training to innovate is present in a continuous or occasional basis in 81.8% of the companies. The respondents characterize the economic environment as dynamic and the majority purchased software and equipments. In only 12 opportunities was a reference to obtaining patents as innovation protection measure. (iii Focus of innovation – the majority of the companies mentioned process or product innovation. Rewards are offered when the objectives are met and it is brought to attention when this does not occur. (iv Highlighted performance – the innovations achieved the expectations and created effects. The relevant benefits noticed were: improvement in quality of goods and services, increase of market share, increase of goods and services, and increase of productive capacity.

  8. Waste heat and water recovery opportunities in California tomato paste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amón, Ricardo; Maulhardt, Mike; Wong, Tony; Kazama, Don; Simmons, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Water and energy efficiency are important for the vitality of the food processing industry as demand for these limited resources continues to increase. Tomato processing, which is dominated by paste production, is a major industry in California – where the majority of tomatoes are processed in the United States. Paste processing generates large amounts of condensate as moisture is removed from the fruit. Recovery of the waste heat in this condensate and reuse of the water may provide avenues to decrease net energy and water use at processing facilities. However, new processing methods are needed to create demand for the condensate waste heat. In this study, the potential to recover condensate waste heat and apply it to the tomato enzyme thermal inactivation processing step (the hot break) is assessed as a novel application. A modeling framework is established to predict heat transfer to tomatoes during the hot break. Heat recovery and reuse of the condensate water are related to energy and monetary savings gained through decreased use of steam, groundwater pumping, cooling towers, and wastewater processing. This analysis is informed by water and energy usage data from relevant unit operations at a commercial paste production facility. The case study indicates potential facility seasonal energy and monetary savings of 7.3 GWh and $166,000, respectively, with most savings gained through reduced natural gas use. The sensitivity of heat recovery to various process variables associated with heat exchanger design and processing conditions is presented to identify factors that affect waste heat recovery. - Highlights: • The potential to recovery waste heat in tomato paste processing is examined. • Heat transfer from evaporator condensate to tomatoes in the hot break is modeled. • Processing facility data is used in model to predict heat recovery energy savings. • The primary benefit of heat recovery is reduced use of natural gas in boilers. • Reusing

  9. Marketing strategies in the internationalization process of Brazilian franchises

    OpenAIRE

    Camargo, Maria Adriana de A. P.; Rocha, Thelma Valéria; Silva, Susana Costa e

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aimed to analyze the influence of marketing strategies on the internationalization process of Brazilian franchises. The objective was to identify the marketing strategies used by Brazilian franchises during different stages of their internationalization processes and to analyze these strategies according to the Global Marketing Strategy (GMS). Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopted a qualitative research methodology based on three case studie...

  10. Hygienic quality of traditional processing and stability of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameyapoh, Yaovi; de Souza, Comlan; Traore, Alfred S

    2008-09-01

    Microbiological and physicochemical qualities of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) puree production line (ripe tomato, washing, cutting, pounding, bleaching, straining, bottling and pasteurization) and its preservation in Togo, West Africa, were studied using the HACCP method. Samples generated during the steps described previously were analyzed by determining sensory, chemical and microbiological characteristics. Samples were analyzed using MPN for coliform populations and plate count methodology for other bacteria. The microorganisms involved in spoilage of the opened products were moulds of genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Mucor and gram-positive Bacillus bacteria. The preserved tomato puree exhibited a pH value of 4.3, 90% water content, 0.98 water activity (aw) and an average ascorbic acid level of 27.3mg/100g. Results showed that the critical control point (CCP) of this tomato puree processing line is the pasteurization stage. The analysis of selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters during the preservation of bottled tomato puree indicated that this product was stable over 22 months at 29 degrees C. But the stability of the opened product stored at 29 degrees C did not exceed two months.

  11. [Examination of processed vegetable foods for the presence of common DNA sequences of genetically modified tomatoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakamura, Kosuke; Kondo, Kazunari; Ubukata, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The contamination of processed vegetable foods with genetically modified tomatoes was investigated by the use of qualitative PCR methods to detect the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (P35S) and the kanamycin resistance gene (NPTII). DNA fragments of P35S and NPTII were detected in vegetable juice samples, possibly due to contamination with the genomes of cauliflower mosaic virus infecting juice ingredients of Brassica species and soil bacteria, respectively. Therefore, to detect the transformation construct sequences of GM tomatoes, primer pairs were designed for qualitative PCR to specifically detect the border region between P35S and NPTII, and the border region between nopaline synthase gene promoter and NPTII. No amplification of the targeted sequences was observed using genomic DNA purified from the juice ingredients. The developed qualitative PCR method is considered to be a reliable tool to check contamination of products with GM tomatoes.

  12. THE PROCESS OF INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FIRMS: STUDY WITH FRANCHISORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Motta Romeiro Khauaja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the process of internationalization of Brazilian firms, including the motivations for the internationalization, the modes of entry and the difficulties faced during this process. This research is relevant due to the importance of international management for Brazilian firms at the current global scenario. Firstly, it was developed a theoretical basis and, afterwards, an empirical qualitative and exploratory research was carried out. The data were collected from in depth interviews with the representatives of ten Brazilian franchisors that became international, which are associated to the Brazilian Association of Franchising (ABF, who gave support to the research. The analytical procedure adopted was the content analysis. Franchising was chosen because Brazil is one of the most developed countries in this field and franchising is recognized as an important booster of the globalization process. The interviews were conducted with either the owner of the firm or the marketing or international executive officers. The results of the empirical research show that, although Brazilian firms are late movers, the firms analyzed do not seem handicapped in terms of managerial capacity or technological competences. It is clear, nevertheless, that they are late movers because they have a huge internal market to explore. Adopting a global vision is very important, even if they prefer a gradual approach towards internationalization.

  13. Non-destructive Measurement of Total Carotenoid Content in Processed Tomato Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.; Streza, M.; Dóka, O.; Valinger, D.; Luterotti, S.; Ajtony, Zs; Kurtanjek, Z.; Dadarlat, D.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenes found in a diversity of fruits and vegetables are among important natural antioxidants. In a study described in this paper, the total carotenoid content (TCC) in seven different products derived from thermally processed tomatoes was determined using laser photoacoustic spectroscopy

  14. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfry, Kimberly D; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J; Loewen, Steven A; Van Eerd, Laura L

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and tomato cultivar (early vs. late) was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L.), winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye) (Secale cereale L.), oilseed radish (OSR) (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes), and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye) treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS)) was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit margins.

  15. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D Belfry

    Full Text Available Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated and tomato cultivar (early vs. late was conducted. The main plot factor, cover crop, included a no cover crop control, oat (Avena sativa L., winter cereal rye (hereafter referred to as rye (Secale cereale L., oilseed radish (OSR (Raphanus sativus L. var. oleiferus Metzg Stokes, and mix of OSR and rye (OSR + rye treatments. Cover crop biomass of 0.5 to 2.8 and 1.7 to 3.1 Mg ha-1 was attained in early Oct. and the following early May, respectively. In general, OSR increased soil mineral N during cover crop growth and into the succeeding summer tomato growing season, while the remaining cover crops did not differ from the no cover crop control. The lack of a cover crop by N rate interaction in soil and plant N analyses at harvest suggests that growers may not need to modify N fertilizer rates to tomatoes based on cover crop type. Processing tomato fruit quality at harvest (rots, insect or disease damage, Agtron colour, pH, or natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS was not affected by cover crop type. In both years, marketable yield in the no cover crop treatment was lower or not statistically different than all planted cover crops. Partial profit margins over both years were 1320 $ ha-1 higher with OSR and $960 higher with oat compared to the no cover crop control. Thus, results from a systems-based approach suggest that the cover crops tested had no observed negative impact on processing tomato production and have the potential to increase marketable yield and profit

  16. Determination of Bruising Damages of Tomato during Road Transportation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mansouri Alam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The most important post-harvest mechanical damage is bruising. Bruising occurs during the stages of handling, transporting and packaging due to quasi-static and dynamic loads. Vibrations of tomato fruits during transportation by truck will decrease their quality. More than 2.5 million tons damages have been reported during tomato transportation in Iran. Therefore, it is necessary to recognize different parameters of damages during road transportation in order to detect and prevent bruising injury. Materials and Methods In this study, healthy Super Queen verity of tomatoes devoid of any corrosion and mechanical damage multipliers were used. Aaverage of 7 and 5 pieces of fruit in each length and width, respectively in 13*25*37 cm boxes with a capacity of 8 kg were arranged. The boxes were divided into 2 types of truck suspension (model M2631 AIMCO, manufactured in 2010 with air suspension and Nissan trucks 2400, manufactured in 2010 with suspension spring. Boxes were established in three different heights truck, floor truck, height of middle and top of truck, in addition to two different situation boxes on the front axle (S1 and rear axle (S2. In each situation, three levels of height (H1, floor truck, the truck (H2 and the truck (H3 there. The location of each sample inside the fruit boxes bottom row (Loc1 and top (Loc2 boxes marked with marker. In this study, two types of road, highway asphalt and asphalt secondary road was used for transportation. Trucks and vans had the same distance route about 400 km. Fruits were transferred to Hamadan agricultural college. Rheology lab test was a hit with the pendulum. In this study, the amount of energy absorbed from the index (as a parameter to determine the sensitivity and the fruits bruises were used. Hit test was done after transportation of fruits and transferring those to the laboratory in less than 2 hours. Impact energy products were considered higher than the dynamic submission

  17. Influence of salinity and water regime on tomato for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Cantore

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salinity and watering regime on tomato crop are reported. The trials have been carried out over two years in Southern Italy on a deep loam soil. Three saline levels of irrigation water (with electrical conductivity of 0.5, 5 and 10 dS m-1, three watering regimes (at 20, 40 and 60% of available water depletion, and two cultivars (HLY19 and Perfectpeel were compared. The overall results related to the salinity tolerance are in agreement with those from the literature indicating that water salinity reduced marketable yield by 55% in respect to the control treatments. The irrigation regimes that provided higher total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60% of available water depletion (on average, 90.5 and 58.1 Mg ha-1 against 85.3 and 55.5 Mg ha-1 of the 20% available water depletion. Saline and irrigation treatments did not affect sunburned fruits, while affected incidence of fruits with blossom-end rot. The former disease appeared more dramatically in saline treatments (+28% in respect to the control, and occurred mainly in HLY19. The disease incidence was by 52% lower in W2 respect to the W1 and W3. Fruit firmness was higher in S0, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes. Total soluble solids and dry matter content of tomato fruits were increased by salinity, whereas it was not affected by irrigation regimes and cultivars. The pH and the titratable acidity remained unchanged between the years, the cultivar and the saline and irrigation treatments. Similarly to the last parameters, the fruit ascorbic acid content remained unchanged in relation to the treatments, but it was higher in HLY19. The recommended thresholds of easily available water to preserve total and marketable yield were at 40 and 60%, respectively. Watering more frequently, instead, on the soil type of the trial, probably caused water-logging and root hypoxia affecting negatively yield.

  18. Effect of Temperature, Time, and Material Thickness on the Dehydration Process of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. K. Correia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature, time, and thickness of tomatoes fruits during adiabatic drying process. Dehydration, a simple and inexpensive process compared to other conservation methods, is widely used in the food industry in order to ensure a long shelf life for the product due to the low water activity. This study aimed to obtain the best processing conditions to avoid losses and keep product quality. Factorial design and surface response methodology were applied to fit predictive mathematical models. In the dehydration of tomatoes through the adiabatic process, temperature, time, and sample thickness, which greatly contribute to the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the final product, were evaluated. The optimum drying conditions were 60°C with the lowest thickness level and shorter time.

  19. Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission in the fresh, paste, whole-peeled, diced, and juiced tomato production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakaya, Ahmet; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Energy utilization and carbon dioxide emission during the production of fresh, peeled, diced, and juiced tomatoes are calculated. The energy utilization for production of raw and packaging materials, transportation, and waste management are also considered. The energy utilization to produce one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes is calculated to be 2412.8 MJ, whereas when the tomatoes are converted into paste, the energy utilization increases almost twofold; processing the same amount into the peeled or diced-tomatoes increases the energy utilization seven times. In case of juice production, the increase is five times. The carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy used and is 189.4 kg/t of fresh tomatoes in the case of retail packaging, and did not change considerably when made into paste. The carbon dioxide emission increased twofold with peeled or diced-tomatoes, and increased threefold when juiced. Chemical fertilizers and transportation made the highest contribution to energy utilization and CO 2 emission. The difference in energy utilization is determined mainly by water to dry solids ratio of the food and increases with the water content of the final product. Environmentally conscious consumers may prefer eating fresh tomatoes or alternatively tomato paste, to minimize carbon dioxide emission. -- Highlights: → Energy utilization for producing one-ton retail packaged fresh tomatoes was 2412.8 MJ → Energy utilization was 2 folds with paste, 7 times with peeled or diced-tomatoes, 5 times with juice. → Energy utilization increases with water content of the final product. → Transportation, packaging, evaporation and chemicals are the major energy consumers. → Carbon dioxide emission is determined by the source of energy.

  20. Winter cover crops on processing tomato yield, quality, pest pressure, nitrogen availability, and profit margins

    OpenAIRE

    Belfry, Kimberly D.; Trueman, Cheryl; Vyn, Richard J.; Loewen, Steven A.; Van Eerd, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Much of cover crop research to date focuses on key indicators of impact without considering the implications over multiple years, in the absence of a systems-based approach. To evaluate the effect of three years of autumn cover crops on subsequent processing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) production in 2010 and 2011, a field split-split-plot factorial design trial with effects of cover crop type, urea ammonium nitrate fertilizer rate (0 or 140 kg N ha-1 preplant broadcast incorporated) and ...

  1. The effect of commercial processing procedures on 14C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Genyuan; Wang Huaguo; Qi Mengwen; Wang Fujun; Zhou Changjiu

    1994-01-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with 14 C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with 14 C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit

  2. The effect of commercial processing procedures on {sup 14}C-carbendazim residues in soybean oil and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genyuan, Peng; Huaguo, Wang; Mengwen, Qi; Fujun, Wang; Changjiu, Zhou [Laboratory for the Application of Nuclear Techniques, Beijing Agricultural University, Beijing (China)

    1994-06-01

    Under simulated agricultural practices, soybean plants were treated with {sup 14}C-labelled carbendazim during the blooming stage. The residue in seeds was determined to be 0.067 ppm; corresponding to 0.076 ppm respectively. After subjecting the oil to degumming, alkali treatment, bleaching and deodorization, 53.7% of original radioactivity was removed. Deodorization was the most effect process, removing about 20% of the residue. The concentration of residues in the deodorized oil decreased about 30%. In soybean seed and cake, the residue was mainly present as carbendazim, the concentration of the other metabolites did not exceed 30% of the residue. Tomatoes grown on a field plot were treated with {sup 14}C-carbendazim. After harvest, the tomatoes were processed into tomato juice and canned whole fruit. The magnitude and nature of residues in samples taken at several processing steps were determined to evaluate the effect of commercial processing on removing or eliminating the residues. The results showed that the surface residues on tomato would be removed efficiently by simple washing of tomato. A buffer solution of phosphate had the highest efficiency. Tomato juice contained lower residues than canned whole fruit.

  3. Olive oil enriched in lycopene from tomato by-product through a co-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendini, Alessandra; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Valli, Enrico; Barbieri, Sara; Tesini, Federica; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to produce an olive oil (OO) naturally enriched with antioxidants, recovering carotenoids, in particular lycopene, using an industrial by-product of tomato seeds and skin. For this purpose, a technological process in a low-scale industrial plant to co-mill olives and tomato by-product in de-frosted or freeze-dried forms was applied and studied with respect to control samples. Preliminary results obtained from two different experiments were carried out by 40 kg of cultivar Correggiolo olives and 60 kg of olive blends from different cultivars. In both the experiments, the co-milling showed significant enrichment in carotenoids, especially in lycopene (mean values of 5.4 and 7.2 mg/kg oil from defrosted and freeze-dried by-products, respectively). The experimental results demonstrated the possibility to obtain a new functional food naturally enriched in antioxidant compounds, which might be marketed as "OO dressing enriched in lycopene" or "condiment produced using olives and tomato by-product".

  4. Effects of thermal processing by nanofluids on vitamin C, total phenolics and total soluble solids of tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, S M; Jabari, S S; Dehnad, D; Shahidi, S A

    2017-03-01

    In this research, our main idea was to apply thermal processing by nanofluids instead of conventional pasteurization processes, to shorten duration of thermal procedure and improve nutritional contents of fruit juices. Three different variables of temperature (70, 80 and 90 °C), nanofluid concentration (0, 2 and 4%) and time (30, 60 and 90 s) were selected for thermal processing of tomato juices by a shell and tube heat exchanger. The results demonstrated that 4% nanofluid concentration, at 30 °C for 30 s could result in 66% vitamin C retention of fresh juice while it was about 56% for the minimum nanofluid concentration and maximum temperature and time. Higher nanoparticle concentrations made tomato juices that require lowered thermal durations, because of better heat transfer to the product, and total phenolic compounds dwindle less severely; In fact, after 30 s thermal processing at 70 °C with 0 and 4% nanoparticles, total phenolic compounds were maintained by 71.9 and 73.6%, respectively. The range of total soluble solids for processed tomato juices was 5.4-5.6, meaning that nanofluid thermal processing could preserve the natural condition of tomato juices successfully. Based on the indices considered, a nanofluid thermal processing with 4% nanoparticle concentration at the temperature of 70 °C for 30 s will result in the best nutritional contents of final tomato juices.

  5. Evaluation of Degradation Kinetic of Tomato Paste Color in Heat Processing and Modeling of These Changes by Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganjeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Color is an important qualitative factor in tomato products such as tomato paste which is affected by heat processing. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the degradation kinetics of tomato paste color during heat processing by Arrhenius equation and modeling of these changes by response surface methodology (RSM. Considering this purpose, tomato paste was processed at three temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 °C for 25-100 minutes and by three main color indices including L, a and b, a/b ratio, total color difference (TCD, Saturation index (SI and hue angle (HU was analyzed. Degradation kinetics of these parameters was evaluated by Arrhenius equation and their changing trends were modeled by RSM. All parameters except TCA (zero order followed a first order reaction. The b index by highest and TCA and a/b by least activation energies had the maximum and minimum sensitivity to the temperature changes, respectively. Also, TCD and b had the maximum and minimum changing rates, respectively. All responses were influenced by independent parameters (the influence of temperature was more than time and RSM was capable of modeling and predicting these responses. In general, Arrhenius equation was appropriate to evaluate degradation kinetics of tomato paste color changes and RSM was able to estimate independent and interaction effects of time and temperature so that quadratic models were capable to predict these changes by a high accuracy (R2 > 0.95.

  6. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratajkiewicz, H.; Kierzek, R.; Raczkowski, M.; Hołodyńska-Kulas, A.; Łacka, A.; Wójtowicz, A.; Wachowiak, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV) adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha) on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary) (PLB) and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha) when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop. (Author)

  7. Effect of the spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effects of a proportionate spray volume (PSV adjustment model and a fixed model (300 L/ha on the infestation of processing tomato with potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB and azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residues in fruits in three consecutive seasons. The fungicides were applied in alternating system with or without two spreader adjuvants. The proportionate spray volume adjustment model was based on the number of leaves on plants and spray volume index. The modified Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS method was optimized and validated for extraction of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil residue. Gas chromatography with a nitrogen and phosphorus detector and an electron capture detector were used for the analysis of fungicides. The results showed that higher fungicidal residues were connected with lower infestation of tomato with PLB. PSV adjustment model resulted in lower infestation of tomato than the fixed model (300 L/ha when fungicides were applied at half the dose without adjuvants. Higher expected spray interception into the tomato canopy with the PSV system was recognized as the reasons of better control of PLB. The spreader adjuvants did not have positive effect on the biological efficacy of spray volume application systems. The results suggest that PSV adjustment model can be used to determine the spray volume for fungicide application for processing tomato crop.

  8. Using NDVI and guided sampling to develop yield prediction maps of processing tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortes, A.; Henar Prieto, M. del; García-Martín, A.; Córdoba, A.; Martínez, L.; Campillo, C.

    2015-07-01

    The use of yield prediction maps is an important tool for the delineation of within-field management zones. Vegetation indices based on crop reflectance are of potential use in the attainment of this objective. There are different types of vegetation indices based on crop reflectance, the most commonly used of which is the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index). NDVI values are reported to have good correlation with several vegetation parameters including the ability to predict yield. The field research was conducted in two commercial farms of processing tomato crop, Cantillana and Enviciados. An NDVI prediction map developed through ordinary kriging technique was used for guided sampling of processing tomato yield. Yield was studied and related with NDVI, and finally a prediction map of crop yield for the entire plot was generated using two geostatistical methodologies (ordinary and regression kriging). Finally, a comparison was made between the yield obtained at validation points and the yield values according to the prediction maps. The most precise yield maps were obtained with the regression kriging methodology with RRMSE values of 14% and 17% in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively, using the NDVI as predictor. The coefficient of correlation between NDVI and yield was correlated in the point samples taken in the two locations, with values of 0.71 and 0.67 in Cantillana and Enviciados, respectively. The results suggest that the use of a massive sampling parameter such as NDVI is a good indicator of the distribution of within-field yield variation. (Author)

  9. Enhancing the lycopene in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato juice synergistically applying thermal and non-thermal processing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathunge, K G L R; Stratakos, Alexandros Ch; Cregenzán-Albertia, Oliver; Grant, Irene R; Lyng, James; Koidis, Anastasios

    2017-04-15

    The influence of moderate intensity pulsed electric field pre-processing on increasing the lycopene bioaccessibility of tomato fruit, and the combined effect of blanching, ultrasonic and high intensity pulsed electric field processing on further enhancement of the lycopene bioaccessibility after juicing were investigated. Maximum total lycopene bioaccessibility (9.6%) of the tomato fruit was achieved by a 4μs pre-processed treatment after 24h holding period and further processing results revealed that all treatments were effective to increase the total lycopene. Most of juice processing treatments decreased the release of lycopene from the tomato matrix during digestion. Only the treatment of blanching followed by high intensity pulsed electric field showed a significant release of trans-(4.01±0.48) and cis-(5.04±0.26μg/g) lycopene, achieving 15.6% total lycopene bioaccessibility. Thus, processing of pre-blanched juice using high intensity pulsed electric field, derived from pre-processed tomato was the best overall process to achieve the highest nutritive value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability assessment of lycopene microemulsion prepared using tomato industrial waste against various processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri-Rigi, Atefeh; Abbasi, Soleiman

    2017-11-01

    Green separation techniques are growing at a greater rate than solvent extraction as a result of the constant consumer drive to 'go natural'. Considering the increasing evidence of the health benefits of lycopene and massive tomato industrial waste, in the present study, lycopene was extracted from tomato industrial waste using microemulsion technique and its mean droplet size and size distribution was determined. Moreover, the effects of pasteurization, sterilization, freeze-thaw cycles and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the thermodynamic stability, turbidity and lycopene concentration of the lycopene microemulsion were monitored. Freeze-thaw cycles, pasteurization and short exposure to UV irradiation showed no or negligible influence on lycopene content and turbidity of the microemulsion. However, long exposure to UV (260 min) reduced the lycopene content and turbidity by 34% and 10%, respectively. HHST (higher-heat shorter-time) and sterilization also reduced lycopene content (25%) and increased turbidity (32%). The lycopene microemulsion showed satisfactory stability over a process where its monodispersity and nanosize could be of potential advantage to the food and related industries. Regarding the carcinogenicity of synthetic colourants, potential applications of the lycopene microemulsion include in soft drinks and minced meat, which would result in a better colour and well-documented health-promoting qualities. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Biological effects of ion implantation on processing tomato and eggplant seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Peihong; Zeng Xianxian; Jin Xiang

    2004-01-01

    The seed of processing tomato '87-5' (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 6 different doses. The rate of emergence was little reduced in M1 generation, but the fruiting number per plant was increased and it's maturing earlier 20 days than the control. The precocity, disease resistance and stronger growth vigor were shown in M2 generation. Experimental results of two years showed that, according to synthetic analysis in factors such as precocity, disease resistance, high yield and quality, the N + dose of 6 x 10 16 cm -2 (60 times of pulse) for tomato seed '87-5' had been proved to have notable biological effects on M1 and M2 generation. The seed of eggplant 'Wuyeqie' (Solanum melongena L.) was also implanted by the low energy nitrogen ion (N + ) with 2 different doses. Multi-vertical channel fruits were obtained in variable M1 generation, which liked the pomelo without peel. The seed of these variable eggplants was taken and planted in the next year. The meaningful variable fruits, the characters of disease-resistance, purple-peel, small-navel, lantern-form, large-scale, etc. were obtained in beneficial M2 generation. The biggest single-fruit weight reached 1.53 kg, providing valuable germplasm resource for breeding. (authors)

  12. Spatial Spread of the Root Parasitic Weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca in Processing Tomatoes by Using Ecoinformatics and Spatial Analysis†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafit Cohen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Egyptian broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca is one of the main threats to tomato production in Israel. The seed bank of P. aegyptiaca rapidly develops and spreads in the field. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of such weeds is required in advance of emergence, as they emerge late in their life cycle when they have already caused major crop damage. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of two major internal infestation sources: crop rotation and infestation history; and one external source: proximity to infested tomato fields; on infestation of P. aegyptiaca in processing tomatoes. Ecoinformatics, spatial analysis and geostatistics were used to examine these effects. A regional survey was conducted to collect data on field history from 238 tomato fields between 2000 and 2012, in a major tomato-growing region in Israel. Multivariate logistic regression in the framework of generalized linear models (GLM has demonstrated the importance of all three variables in predicting infestation in tomato fields. The parameters of the overall model indicated a high specificity between tomatoes and P. aegyptiaca, which is potentially responsible for aggravating infestation. In addition, P. aegyptiaca infestation levels were intensively mapped in 43 of the 238 tomato fields in the years 2010–2012. Geostatistical measures showed that 40% of the fields had clustered infestation spatial patterns with infestation clusters located along the fields’ borders. Strong linear and negative relationships were found between infestation level and distance from a neighboring infested field, strengthening the role of infested tomato fields in P. aegyptiaca spread. An experiment specifically designed for this study showed that during harvest, P. aegyptiaca seeds are blown from an infested field to a distance of at least 90 m, and may initiate infestation in neighboring fields. Integrating current knowledge about the role of agricultural practices on

  13. Spatial Spread of the Root Parasitic Weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca in Processing Tomatoes by Using Ecoinformatics and Spatial Analysis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yafit; Roei, Itai; Blank, Lior; Goldshtein, Eitan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian broomrape (Phelipanche aegyptiaca) is one of the main threats to tomato production in Israel. The seed bank of P. aegyptiaca rapidly develops and spreads in the field. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of such weeds is required in advance of emergence, as they emerge late in their life cycle when they have already caused major crop damage. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of two major internal infestation sources: crop rotation and infestation history; and one external source: proximity to infested tomato fields; on infestation of P. aegyptiaca in processing tomatoes. Ecoinformatics, spatial analysis and geostatistics were used to examine these effects. A regional survey was conducted to collect data on field history from 238 tomato fields between 2000 and 2012, in a major tomato-growing region in Israel. Multivariate logistic regression in the framework of generalized linear models (GLM) has demonstrated the importance of all three variables in predicting infestation in tomato fields. The parameters of the overall model indicated a high specificity between tomatoes and P. aegyptiaca, which is potentially responsible for aggravating infestation. In addition, P. aegyptiaca infestation levels were intensively mapped in 43 of the 238 tomato fields in the years 2010–2012. Geostatistical measures showed that 40% of the fields had clustered infestation spatial patterns with infestation clusters located along the fields’ borders. Strong linear and negative relationships were found between infestation level and distance from a neighboring infested field, strengthening the role of infested tomato fields in P. aegyptiaca spread. An experiment specifically designed for this study showed that during harvest, P. aegyptiaca seeds are blown from an infested field to a distance of at least 90 m, and may initiate infestation in neighboring fields. Integrating current knowledge about the role of agricultural practices on the spread of P

  14. Spatial Spread of the Root Parasitic Weed Phelipanche aegyptiaca in Processing Tomatoes by Using Ecoinformatics and Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yafit; Roei, Itai; Blank, Lior; Goldshtein, Eitan; Eizenberg, Hanan

    2017-01-01

    Egyptian broomrape ( Phelipanche aegyptiaca ) is one of the main threats to tomato production in Israel. The seed bank of P. aegyptiaca rapidly develops and spreads in the field. Knowledge about the spatio-temporal distribution of such weeds is required in advance of emergence, as they emerge late in their life cycle when they have already caused major crop damage. The aim of this study is to reveal the effects of two major internal infestation sources: crop rotation and infestation history; and one external source: proximity to infested tomato fields; on infestation of P. aegyptiaca in processing tomatoes. Ecoinformatics, spatial analysis and geostatistics were used to examine these effects. A regional survey was conducted to collect data on field history from 238 tomato fields between 2000 and 2012, in a major tomato-growing region in Israel. Multivariate logistic regression in the framework of generalized linear models (GLM) has demonstrated the importance of all three variables in predicting infestation in tomato fields. The parameters of the overall model indicated a high specificity between tomatoes and P. aegyptiaca , which is potentially responsible for aggravating infestation. In addition, P. aegyptiaca infestation levels were intensively mapped in 43 of the 238 tomato fields in the years 2010-2012. Geostatistical measures showed that 40% of the fields had clustered infestation spatial patterns with infestation clusters located along the fields' borders. Strong linear and negative relationships were found between infestation level and distance from a neighboring infested field, strengthening the role of infested tomato fields in P. aegyptiaca spread. An experiment specifically designed for this study showed that during harvest, P. aegyptiaca seeds are blown from an infested field to a distance of at least 90 m, and may initiate infestation in neighboring fields. Integrating current knowledge about the role of agricultural practices on the spread of P

  15. Bioconversion of Radiation Processed Dried Tomato Pomace to High Protein Animal Fee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, H.; Diaa El-Din, M.; El-Niely, H. F.G.

    2006-01-01

    The increasing expansion of agro-industrial activity over the last 50 years has led to the accumulation of a large quantity of organic residues all over the world that they have become a threat to the environment. Bioconversion of these wastes seems to be a practical and promising alternative for increasing their nutritional value, transforming them into animal feed and thus producing a value added product. Radiation processing has the capability to reduce or eliminate pathogenic bacteria, insects and parasites, thereby increasing the utilization and sustainable management of waste organic matter from food production and processing while contributing to improve food quality and reducing the environmental impact of the wastes. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of radiation treatment at 25 kGy and fermentation process by Aspergillus niger, on crude and soluble protein, amino acid profile, available lysine and in vitro digestibility of dried tomato pomace (DTP), the by-product of the tomato canning industry. The study has also, investigated the effect of supplementation of 30% of raw or processed DTP meal in food of male Albino rats for six weeks on body and liver weight evaluation and the effect on blood lipid pattern. The work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of DTP at 25 kGy and fermentation process has increased the nutritional value of treated DTP meal and improved the plasma and liver lipid pattern of rats. Therefore, the combination treatment has beneficial effects on recycling of DTP and permits it to be included in monogastric animals' food without any health hazard or nutritional problem

  16. Ethanol production from waste processing tomato dry; Producao de etanol a partir de residuo do processamento de tomate seco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Carla A.P.; Dal Sotto, Jessica; Schutz, Fabiana Costa de Araujo [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Medianeira, PR (Brazil)], emails: carlaschmidt@utfpr.edu.br, jeh.dalsotto@hotmail.com, fabianaschutz@utfpr.edu.br

    2011-07-01

    The generation of waste increases with the development of a region and increases the power consumption. Research about the reuse of waste for energy generation favors solving these two problems. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of tomato seeds discarded from the production process of tomato pulp dried in ethanol production. Any product that has sugar or other carbohydrate constituted a feedstock for ethanol production, in this study was observed that approximately 26% by weight of 2kg of tomatoes assessed were represented by seeds. We obtained the juice of tomato seeds by use a blender to grind the product to facilitate the process of fermentation. Added to the fermenting yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing a pre inoculum with Brix and pH adjusted, sterilized at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, which was subsequently incubated at 28-30 deg C until the end of process. Mixed up to follow this pre inoculum to the rest of the must was sterilized and incubated again at 28-30 deg C until the end of the process. The acquisition of ethanol was carried through a distillation. It was concluded that the seed discarded in the process of the product can be used for this purpose. (author)

  17. Understanding the process of greening of Brazilian business schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbour, C.J.C.; Sarkis, J.; De Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.

    2013-01-01

    activities; (d) paradoxically, the analyzed business schools can be considered academic leaders in the field, but have had difficulties in adopting environmental management practices internally; (e) there is a "path dependence" effect in this process; (f) there are barriers to organizational change towards...... conducted at Brazilian business schools. The results were analyzed using the conceptual background of barriers to organizational change, transition to a more sustainable society, and path dependence. The main findings indicate that: (a) the incorporation of environmental management issues tends to begin......This study analyses business schools' incorporating environmental management issues into their core activities, defined through teaching, research, outreach and management. Taking into account the relative lack of literature on this theme, case study fieldwork is utilized. Two case studies were...

  18. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  19. Biostimulants from food processing by-products: agronomic, quality and metabolic impacts on organic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Chehade, Lara; Al Chami, Ziad; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Cavoski, Ivana; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Biostimulants have recently gained increased attention due to their multiple benefits for sustainable agriculture. In this study, three food processing by-products - fennel processing residues (FPR), lemon processing residues (LPR) and brewer's spent grain (BSG) - were investigated as potential sources of biostimulants. Their aqueous extracts as individual and associated applications were assessed for their effects on agronomic, quality and metabolic performance of organic tomato in comparison to extract of humic substances (HS) and untreated control (CTRL). Only FPR extracts stimulated shoot growth and tomato dry matter content, whereas all candidates improved tomato yield. FPR and BSG increased fruit mineral content and BSG-FPR-LPR in combination enhanced titratable acidity. FPR-treated fruits had also 20% more vitamin C than CTRL, and higher phenol content was obtained in those of BSG-LPR. Fruit metabolomic profile showed the tendency of all extracts, except BSG-LPR, to increase tomato citric acid and to decrease β-glucose and methanol concentrations. The analysis revealed accordingly the indispensable role of FPR in combined applications for inducing an HS-like response in fruits. The results were indicative of the biostimulant activity of these extracts and demonstrated them, particularly FPR, as promising candidates for enhancing plant productivity and fruit quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Thermogravimetric study of the pyrolysis of biomass residues from tomato processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangut, V.; Sabio, E.; Ganan, J.; Gonzalez, J.F.; Ramiro, A.; Gonzalez, C.M.; Roman, S.; Al-Kassir, A. [Department of Chemical and Energy Engineering, University of Extremadura, Avda. de Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    There is an increasing concern with the environmental problems associated with the increasing CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} emissions resulting from the rising use of fossil fuels. Renewable energy, mainly biomass, can contribute to reduce the fossil fuels consumption. Biomass is a renewable resource with a widespread world distribution. Tomato processing industry produces a high amount of biomass residue (peel and seeds) that could be used for thermal energy and electricity. A characterization and thermogravimetric study has been carried out. The residue has a high HHV and volatile content, and a low ash, and S contents. A kinetic model has been developed based on the degradation of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and oil that describe the pyrolysis of peel, seeds and peel and seeds residues. (author)

  1. Effect of tomato paste and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, M S; Bloukas, J G; Fista, G A

    2007-07-01

    Fourteen treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with two levels of sodium nitrite, 0 and 150mg/kg (0.015%), and seven levels (0%,2%,6%,8%,12% and 16%) of tomato paste with 12% soluble solids The higher the tomato paste level the higher the preference of consumers for frankfurters based on their colour. Frankfurters with 16% tomato paste had a sour taste while those with 12% tomato paste were the most acceptable. In a 2nd experiment three treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) were produced with 0, 50 and 100mg/kg of sodium nitrite and 12% tomato paste and a fourth (control) with only 150mg/kg sodium nitrite. Treatments with 12% tomato paste had lower (pnitrite, and higher (pnitrite (50 and 100mg/kg) and 12% tomato paste had the highest (pnitrites added to frankfurters can be reduced from 150mg/kg to 100mg/kg in combination with 12% tomato paste without any negative effect on the quality of the product.

  2. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  3. Evaluation of the Content of Lead, Cadmium, Mercury, Arsenic, Tin, Copper and Zinc during the Production Process Flow of Tomato Broth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are among the largest contaminants of food products. Once metals are present in vegetables, their concentrations are rarely modified by industrial processing techniques, although in some cases washing may decrease the metal content. The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of industrial processing on the content of lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, tin, copper and zinc in tomatoes and products resulting on flow technology of tomato broth. For the determination of essential elements and/or potentially toxic was use atomic absorption spectrometry. The analytical results for quantitative evaluation the concentrations of the investigated elements on the samples of tomatoes taken from the technological process of the production of tomato broth indicated the presence of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn but with a level of concentration that significantly decreased in the finished product and the absence of metals Hg and As in all investigated samples. Effect of industrial processing on the content of tin in tomato samples analyzed was characterized by fluctuations in the residual content that led to a significant increase in concentration of 0.100 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomatoes - unprocessed to 0.200 ± 0.041 mg kg-1 (tomato broth.

  4. Consumption of Ultra-processed Foods and Obesity in Brazilian Adolescents and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    da, Costa Louzada Maria Laura; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Steele, Euridice Martinez; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Claude-Moubarac, Jean; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cannon, Geoffrey; Afshin, Ashkan; Imamura, Fumiaki; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity indicators among Brazilian adults and adolescents. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on 30,243 individuals aged ≥ 10 years from the 2008–2009 Brazilian Dietary Survey. Food consumption data were collected through 24-h food records. We classified food items according to characteristics of food processing. Ultra-processed foods were defined as formulati...

  5. Processing, Valorization and Application of Bio-Waste Derived Compounds from Potato, Tomato, Olive and Cereals: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Fritsch

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The vast and ever-growing amount of agricultural and food wastes has become a major concern throughout the whole world. Therefore, strategies for their processing and value-added reuse are needed to enable a sustainable utilization of feedstocks and reduce the environmental burden. By-products of potato, tomato, cereals and olive arise in significant amounts in European countries and are consequently of high relevance. Due to their composition with various beneficial ingredients, the waste products can be valorized by different techniques leading to economic and environmental advantages. This paper focuses on the waste generation during industrial processing of potato, tomato, cereals and olives within the European Union and reviews state-of-the-art technologies for their valorization. Furthermore, current applications, future perspectives and challenges are discussed.

  6. Development of bioengineering processes to transform greenhouse waste into energy, fertilizer and tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, D.; Masse, D.I. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lennoxville, PQ (Canada). Dairy and Swine Research and Development Centre; Juteau, P. [Quebec Univ., Laval, PQ (Canada). INRS-Institut Armand Frappier; Saint-Laurent CEGEP, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre des technologies de l' eau; Dorais, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Horticultural Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    Methods to promote sustainable production systems in greenhouses were discussed with particular reference to anaerobic digestion (AD) and nitrification processes for waste and nutrient management and energy consumption. The high cost of organic soluble fertilizers and the difficulty in obtaining a quality product are strong limitations for converting conventional greenhouses to organic practices. AD has been shown to be a promising solution for disposal of tomato leaves pruned during greenhouse operations. Studies have shown that AD generates end-products, notably supernatant sludge that have agronomic benefits of land application for forage and cereal crops. However, little has been done for horticultural crops. Unlike field crops, nitrification of digester effluents is a key step for using AD effluents as fertilizers for vegetable greenhouse plants. Greenhouse vegetables need nitrogen mainly under the nitrate form for an adequate growth because the other forms of nitrogen are detrimental to plant and fruit quality. However, nitrification of AD supernatant can be challenging because of its high ammonia content and its inhibition potential of nitrifying micro-organisms. This study examined the few nitrification processes that have the potential to operate under these conditions.

  7. Effects of different methods to control the parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel in processing tomato crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Disciglio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The root-parasitic weed Phelipanche ramosa (L. Pomel represents a major problem for processing tomato crops. The control of this holoparasitic plant is difficult, and better understanding of treatment methods is needed to develop new and specific control strategies. This study investigated 12 agronomic, chemical, biological and biotechnological strategies for the control of this parasitic weed, in comparison with the untreated situation. The trial was carried out in 2014 at the Department of Agriculture, Food and the Environment of the University of Foggia (southern Italy, using processing tomato plants grown in pots filled with soil from a field that was heavily infested with P. ramosa. After transplantation, top dressing was performed with 70 kg ha–1 nitrogen. A randomised block design with 3 replicates (pots was adopted. During the growing cycle of the tomato, at 70, 75, 81 and 88 days after transplantation, the number of parasitic shoots (branched plants that had emerged in each pot was determined, and the leaf chlorophyll of the plants was measured using a soil-plantanalysis- development meter. At harvesting on 8 August 2014, the major quanti-qualitative yield parameters were determined, including marketable yield, mean weight, dry matter, soluble solids, and fruit colour. The results show lower chlorophyll levels in the parasitised tomato plants, compared to healthy plants. None of the treatments provided complete control against P. ramosa. However, among the methods tested, Radicon® biostimulant (Radicon, Inc., Elk Grove Village, IL, USA, compost activated with Fusarium oxysporum, nitrogen and sulphur mineral fertilisers, EnzoneTM soil fumigant (Elliott Chemicals Ltd., Auckland, New Zealand, and a resistant tomato genotype mitigated the virulence of the attacks of this parasite. These effects should be improved by combining some of these treatments, especially for gradual and continued reduction in the seed bank of the parasite in the

  8. Univariate and multivariate analysis on processing tomato quality under different mulches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of eco-friendly mulch materials as alternatives to the standard polyethylene (PE has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Consequently, a comparison of mulch materials from different origins is necessary to evaluate their feasibility. Several researchers have compared the effects of mulch materials on each crop variable through univariate analysis (ANOVA. However, it is important to focus on the effect of these materials on fruit quality, because this factor decisively influences the acceptance of the final product by consumers and the industrial sector. This study aimed to analyze the information supplied by a randomized complete block experiment combined over two seasons, a principal component analysis (PCA and a cluster analysis (CA when studying the effects of mulch materials on the quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. The study focused on the variability in the quality measurements and on the determination of mulch materials with a similar response to them. A comparison of the results from both types of analysis yielded complementary information. ANOVA showed the similarity of certain materials. However, considering the totality of the variables analyzed, the final interpretation was slightly complicated. PCA indicated that the juice color, the fruit firmness and the soluble solid content were the most influential factors in the total variability of a set of 12 juice and fruit variables, and CA allowed us to establish four categories of treatment: plastics (polyethylene - PE, oxo- and biodegradable materials, papers, manual weeding and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. straw. Oxobiodegradable and PE were most closely related based on CA.

  9. Weed seed inactivation in soil mesocosms via biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing waste amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Hernandez, Katie; McCurry, Dlinka G; Harrold, Duff R; Su, Joey; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-01

    Biosolarization is a fumigation alternative that combines passive solar heating with amendment-driven soil microbial activity to temporarily create antagonistic soil conditions, such as elevated temperature and acidity, that can inactivate weed seeds and other pest propagules. The aim of this study was to use a mesocosm-based field trial to assess soil heating, pH, volatile fatty acid accumulation and weed seed inactivation during biosolarization. Biosolarization for 8 days using 2% mature green waste compost and 2 or 5% tomato processing residues in the soil resulted in accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the soil, particularly acetic acid, and >95% inactivation of Brassica nigra and Solanum nigrum seeds. Inactivation kinetics data showed that near complete weed seed inactivation in soil was achieved within the first 5 days of biosolarization. This was significantly greater than the inactivation achieved in control soils that were solar heated without amendment or were amended but not solar heated. The composition and concentration of organic matter amendments in soil significantly affected volatile fatty acid accumulation at various soil depths during biosolarization. Combining solar heating with organic matter amendment resulted in accelerated weed seed inactivation compared with either approach alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Selection of internal control genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR studies during tomato development process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges-Pérez Andrés

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elucidation of gene expression patterns leads to a better understanding of biological processes. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR has become the standard method for in-depth studies of gene expression. A biologically meaningful reporting of target mRNA quantities requires accurate and reliable normalization in order to identify real gene-specific variation. The purpose of normalization is to control several variables such as different amounts and quality of starting material, variable enzymatic efficiencies of retrotranscription from RNA to cDNA, or differences between tissues or cells in overall transcriptional activity. The validity of a housekeeping gene as endogenous control relies on the stability of its expression level across the sample panel being analysed. In the present report we describe the first systematic evaluation of potential internal controls during tomato development process to identify which are the most reliable for transcript quantification by real-time RT-PCR. Results In this study, we assess the expression stability of 7 traditional and 4 novel housekeeping genes in a set of 27 samples representing different tissues and organs of tomato plants at different developmental stages. First, we designed, tested and optimized amplification primers for real-time RT-PCR. Then, expression data from each candidate gene were evaluated with three complementary approaches based on different statistical procedures. Our analysis suggests that SGN-U314153 (CAC, SGN-U321250 (TIP41, SGN-U346908 ("Expressed" and SGN-U316474 (SAND genes provide superior transcript normalization in tomato development studies. We recommend different combinations of these exceptionally stable housekeeping genes for suited normalization of different developmental series, including the complete tomato development process. Conclusion This work constitutes the first effort for the selection of optimal endogenous controls for quantitative real

  11. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP; water deficit (WD plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  12. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality.

  13. Combined Effects of Irrigation Regime, Genotype, and Harvest Stage Determine Tomato Fruit Quality and Aptitude for Processing into Puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbex de Castro Vilas Boas, Alexandre; Page, David; Giovinazzo, Robert; Bertin, Nadia; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Industry tomatoes are produced under a range of climatic conditions and practices which significantly impact on main quality traits of harvested fruits. However, the quality of tomato intended for processing is currently addressed on delivery through color and Brix only, whereas other traits are overlooked. Very few works provided an integrated view of the management of tomato puree quality throughout the chain. To gain insights into pre- and post-harvest interactions, four genotypes, two water regimes, three maturity stages, and two processes were investigated. Field and glasshouse experiments were conducted near Avignon, France, from May to August 2016. Two irrigation regimes were applied: control plants were irrigated in order to match 100% of evapotranspiration (ETP); water deficit (WD) plants were irrigated as control plants until anthesis of the first flowers, then irrigation was reduced to 60 and 50% ETP in field, and glasshouse respectively. Fruits were collected at three stages during ripening. Their color, fresh weight, dry matter content, and metabolite contents were determined before processing. Pericarp cell size was evaluated in glasshouse only. Two laboratory-scaled processing methods were applied before structural and biochemical analyses of the purees. Results outlined interactive effects between crop and process management. WD hardly reduced yield, but increased dry matter content in the field, in contrast to the glasshouse. The puree viscosity strongly depended on the genotype and the maturity stage, but it was disconnected from fruit dry matter content or Brix. The process impact on puree viscosity strongly depended on water supply during fruit production. Moreover, the lycopene content of fresh fruit may influence puree viscosity. This work opens new perspectives for managing puree quality in the field showing that it was possible to reduce water supply without affecting yield and to improve puree quality. PMID:29051767

  14. Effect of reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) on quality of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap Singh, Anubhav; Singh, Anika; Ramaswamy, Hosahalli S

    2017-06-01

    Reciprocating agitation thermal processing (RA-TP) is a recent innovation in the field of canning for obtaining high-quality canned food. The objective of this study was to compare RA-TP processing with conventional non-agitated (still) processing with respect to the impact on quality (color, antioxidant capacity, total phenols, carotenoid and lycopene contents) of canned tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) puree. Owing to a 63-81% reduction in process times as compared with still processing, tomato puree with a brighter red color (closer to fresh) was obtained during RA-TP. At 3 Hz reciprocation frequency, the loss of antioxidant, lycopene and carotenoid contents could be reduced to 34, 8 and 8% respectively as compared with 96, 41 and 52% respectively during still processing. In fact, the phenolic content for RA-TP at 3 Hz was 5% higher than in fresh puree. Quality retention generally increased with an increase in frequency, although the differences were less significant at higher reciprocation frequencies (between 2 and 3 Hz). Research findings indicate that RA-TP can be effective to obtain thermally processed foods with high-quality attribute retention. It can also be concluded that a very high reciprocation frequency (>3 Hz) is not necessarily needed and significant quality improvement can be obtained at lower frequencies (∼2 Hz). © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Analysis of the Risk of Bankruptcy of Tomato Processing Companies Operating in the Inter-Regional Interprofessional Organization “OI Pomodoro da Industria Nord Italia”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Iotti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato sector is a major area of agricultural activity in Italy; tomato production and processing characterize different Italian regions; in particular, there are two production districts, one in southern Italy and one in northern Italy, in the Po Valley. In recent years, processing firms have encountered increasing difficulties, due both to an increase in raw material costs and market difficulties. Tomato processing firms are often characterized by significant investment in fixed assets and working capital, with an ensuing increase in equity or debt financing, which increases the risk of bankruptcy, as has happened to many firms in the sector in recent years. Therefore, the aim of this research was to analyze the financial sustainability of tomato processing firms by applying financial ratios. To achieve this goal, this research focused on the annual data of a sample of 17 tomato processing firms operating in the Inter-regional Interprofessional Organization, “OI Pomodoro da Industria Nord Italia”. The firms were divided into still-active (not-distressed and failed (distressed firms, with the aim of analyzing the differences between the financial data and management practices of the two groups. The data suggest that larger firms, with an adequate financial structure, have been able to withstand the tomato market crisis in recent years, whereas distressed firms are on average smaller and suffer from higher recourse to debt capital and lower profit margins than not-distressed firms. This research could be applied by entrepreneurs, managers, bankers and public operators to define good management practices that should be achieved and measured with financial ratios, even as a means of reducing the risk of distress for firms operating in the tomato sector. This research highlights that financial ratios could be usefully applied for predicting the continuity of activity and therefore the sustainability of the management cycle, including its

  16. The dual career process in the Brazilian perspective: Unraveling typologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliani Berlato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A phenomenon closely linked to changes in social, economic, and cultural context is growing and growing as the years go by and attracting the attention of researchers for the development of studies involving both the individual and the organizational field. Named as "dual career family", this phenomenon emphasizes a joint move from a husband and wife (a couple in the family sphere and in the development of both careers. Thus, in order to know how these relationships are being established, this study set out to investigate what are the determining factors that compose the dual career phenomenon in the Brazilian context. The research involved 340 participants, all former students of a public university, married or living in a marital status. The results allowed to feature, through descriptive statistics, the profile of dual career couples in the Brazilian scene and check what are the types of dual career in the country. We obtained five types of dual career: coordinated familistic, conventional familistic, coordinated careerist, conventional careerist and acrobat.

  17. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Vittorio Vonella

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  18. Efficiency of water use in sugar beet and processing tomato cropped in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Rinaldi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A more efficient crop water use in biomass and yield accumulation can represent great water saving in the waterlimited environments. Crop management – irrigation, sowing time, fertilization – could affect water (and irrigation water transformation efficiency in dry matter and commercial yield of beet and tomato in Southern Italy. This field research, carried out in two locations of Southern Italy (Foggia and Vasto in 1998-2002 period, compared for sugar beet irrigation regimes (optimal, 100% of ETc and reduced, 60% of ETc and sowing times (autumnal and spring; for tomato three irrigation regimes were compared, re-establishing 100% (ET100, 66 (ET66 and 33% (ET33 of crop evapotranspiration. Water and irrigation water transformation efficiency in harvestable yield (WUEhdm and IRRWUE hdm, in total dry matter (WUEdm and IRRWUEdm and sucrose (WUEsuc were calculated both at harvest and during crop cycle. The results showed a significant effect of sowing date on WUEhdm and WUEsuc of sugar beet (respectively 2.44 and 2.12 for autumnal sowing and 1.08 and 0.84 kg m-3 for spring sowing. Irrigation regimes did not show significant differences. “Irrigation x sowing times” interaction was significant for WUEdm, with a superiority of reduced vs. optimal only in spring sowing time. In tomato, WUEdm was not affected by the irrigation regime, while WUEhdm in ET66 treatment was more efficient treatment than ET100 (1.19 vs. 1.00 kg m-3. “Year” effect was significant for WUEdm and WUEhdm with lowest values in the driest year. IRRWUE was higher in tomato than in sugar beet, considering dry matter, fresh harvestable product and also from an economic point of view. The temporal analysis of water use efficiency showed WUEdm and WUEhdm greater in the middle of crop cycle in autumnal than in spring sugar beet, but not between the irrigation regimes. In tomato, the ET66 treatment resulted the most efficient in water using, especially at the end of crop cycle

  19. Volatile compounds and changes in flavour-related enzymes during cold storage of high-intensity pulsed electric field- and heat-processed tomato juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiló-Aguayo, Ingrid; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Martín-Belloso, Olga

    2010-08-15

    The effects of high-intensity pulsed electric field (HIPEF) processing (35 kV cm(-1) for 1500 micros, using 4 micros bipolar pulses at 100 Hz) on the production of volatile compounds and flavour-related enzymes in tomato juice were investigated and compared with those of thermal processing (90 degrees C for 30 or 60 s). Tomato juice treated by HIPEF showed lower residual lipoxygenase (LOX) activity (70.2%) than juice heated at 90 degrees C for 60 s (80.1%) or 30 s (93.2%). In contrast, hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) was almost completely inactivated when the juice was subjected to 90 degrees C for 60 s, whereas roughly 50% of the control tomato juice was depleted after HIPEF treatment or thermal processing at 90 degrees C for 30 s. A slight decrease was observed in the initial LOX activity of treated and untreated samples during storage, whereas initial HPL activity was strongly affected over time. HIPEF-treated juice exhibited higher levels of compounds contributing to tomato aroma than untreated and heat-treated juices throughout storage. Thus HIPEF processing can preserve flavour quality and stability of tomato juice compared with conventional thermal treatments. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. The Brazilian Audit Tribunal's role in improving the federal environmental licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Luiz Henrique; Magrini, Alessandra

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the role played by the Brazilian Audit Tribunal (Tribunal de Contas da Uniao - TCU) in the external auditing of environmental management in Brazil, highlighting the findings of an operational audit conducted in 2007 of the federal environmental licensing process. Initially, it records the constitutional and legal framework of Brazilian environmental licensing, describing the powers and duties granted to federal, state and municipal institutions. In addition, it presents the responsibilities of the TCU in the environmental area, comparing these with those of other Supreme Audit Institutions (SAI) that are members of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI). It also describes the work carried out in the operational audit of the Brazilian environmental licensing process and its main conclusions and recommendations. Finally, it draws a parallel between the findings and recommendations made in Brazil with those of academic studies and audits conducted in other countries.

  1. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  2. Review of the anticarcinogenic properties and other health benefits of tomato compounds lycopene and tomatine in pure form and in fresh and processed tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes produce the bioactive compounds the red pigment lycopene and the glycoalkaloid a-tomatine that are reported to have potential health-promoting effects in animals and humans but our understanding of the roles of these compounds in the diet is incomplete. This review surveys and interprets t...

  3. Development of processes for the utilization of Brazilian coal using nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamert, H.; Niessen, H.F.; Walbeck, M.; Wasrzik, U.; Mueller, R.; Schiffers, U.; Strauss, W.

    1980-01-01

    Status of the project: End of the project definition phase and preparation of the planned conceptual phase. Objective of the project: Development of processes for the utilization of nuclear process heat and/or nuclear process steam for the gasification of coal with high ash content, in particular coal from Brazil. Results: With the data of Brazilian coal of high ash content (mine Leao/ 43% ash in the mine-mouth quality, 20% ash after preparation) there have been worked out proposals for the mine planning and for a number of processes. On the basis of these proposals and under consideration of the main data specified by the Brazilian working group there have been choosen two processes and worked out in a conceptual design: 1) pressurized water reactor + LURGI-pressure gasifier/hydrogasification for the production of SNG and 2) high temperature reactor steam gasification for the production of town gas. The economic evaluation showed that the two processes are not substantially different in their cost efficiency and they are economical on a long-term basis. For more specific design work there has been planned the implementation of an experimental programme using the semi-technical plants 'hydrogasification' in Wesseling and 'steam gasification' in Essen as the conceptual phase. (orig.) [de

  4. 2015 Plan. Project 1: methodology and planning process of the Brazilian electric sector expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The Planning Process of Brazilian Electric Sector Expansion, their normative aspects, instruments, main agents and the planning cycles are described. The methodology of expansion planning is shown, with the interactions of several study areas, electric power market and the used computer models. The forecasts of methodology evolution is also presented. (C.G.C.)

  5. FILLED GAP EFFECT AND SEMANTIC PLAUSIBILITY IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE SENTENCE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Maia

    2014-01-01

    The Filled Gap Effect (FGE) is investigated in Brazilian Portuguese through eye- tracking and self paced reading experiments. Results detect the presence of FGE, indicating that the parser is strictly syntactic in the early stage of processing. The final measures in the two experiments present discrepant results, motivating a discussion on possible good-enough effects.

  6. FILLED GAP EFFECT AND SEMANTIC PLAUSIBILITY IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE SENTENCE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Filled Gap Effect (FGE is investigated in Brazilian Portuguese through eye- tracking and self paced reading experiments. Results detect the presence of FGE, indicating that the parser is strictly syntactic in the early stage of processing. The final measures in the two experiments present discrepant results, motivating a discussion on possible good-enough effects.

  7. Evolution and structure of Tomato spotted wilt virus populations: evidence of extensive reassortment and insights into emergence processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentchev, Diana; Verdin, Eric; Marchal, Cécile; Jacquet, Monique; Aguilar, Juan M; Moury, Benoît

    2011-04-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) genetic diversity was evaluated by sequencing parts of the three RNA genome segments of 224 isolates, mostly from pepper and tomato crops in southern Europe. Eighty-three per cent of the isolates showed consistent clustering into three clades, corresponding to their geographical origin, Spain, France or the USA, for the three RNA segments. In contrast, the remaining 17% of isolates did not belong to the same clade for the three RNA segments and were shown to be reassortants. Among them, eight different reassortment patterns were observed. Further phylogenetic analyses provided insights into the dynamic processes of the worldwide resurgence of TSWV that, since the 1980s, has followed the worldwide dispersal of the western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) tospovirus vector. For two clades composed essentially of Old World (OW) isolates, tree topology suggested a local re-emergence of indigenous TSWV populations following F. occidentalis introductions, while it could not be excluded that the ancestors of two other OW clades were introduced from North America contemporarily with F. occidentalis. Finally, estimation of the selection intensity that has affected the evolution of the NSs and nucleocapsid proteins encoded by RNA S of TSWV suggests that the former could be involved in the breakdown of resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in pepper.

  8. Impact of ultra-processed foods on micronutrient content in the Brazilian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the impact of consuming ultra-processed foods on the micronutrient content of the Brazilian population's diet. METHODS This cross-sectional study was performed using data on individual food consumption from a module of the 2008-2009 Brazilian Household Budget Survey. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged 10 years or over was assessed (n = 32,898). Food consumption data were collected through two 24-hour food records. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the nutrient content of the diet and the quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption - crude and adjusted for family income per capita. RESULTS Mean daily energy intake per capita was 1,866 kcal, with 69.5% coming from natural or minimally processed foods, 9.0% from processed foods and 21.5% from ultra-processed foods. For sixteen out of the seventeen evaluated micronutrients, their content was lower in the fraction of the diet composed of ultra-processed foods compared with the fraction of the diet composed of natural or minimally processed foods. The content of 10 micronutrients in ultra-processed foods did not reach half the content level observed in the natural or minimally processed foods. The higher consumption of ultra-processed foods was inversely and significantly associated with the content of vitamins B12, vitamin D, vitamin E, niacin, pyridoxine, copper, iron, phosphorus, magnesium, selenium and zinc. The reverse situation was only observed for calcium, thiamin and riboflavin. CONCLUSIONS The findings of this study highlight that reducing the consumption of ultra-processed foods is a natural way to promote healthy eating in Brazil and, therefore, is in line with the recommendations made by the Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira (Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population) to avoid these foods.

  9. DILMA ROUSSEFF IN THE BRAZILIAN PRESS: From the reelection to the impeachment process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjovanes Thadeu S. de Almeida (coord.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight how the Brazilian press has been addressing the re-election process and impeachment concerning the government of President Dilma Rousseff. To achieve this objective, the newspaper O Globo, in its electronic version, was selected since it addresses both national and international issues and has a more significant exposure than other existing media in the country. In this regard, the newspaper has been publishing several reports about the current Brazilian political context considering the government Dilma Rousseff during the first and second presidential terms. The events of re-election and the process of impeachment were presented in a particular way by the selected newspaper, focusing on the construction of a negatively distorted image of both the president and the government in question. This construction has shown a given editorial position upon the domestic political conjuncture. Firstly, the article addresses reflections on the influence of the media on the formation of political perceptions in/about the Brazilian scene. Secondly, it analyses the approach of the newspaper concerning the aforementioned subject matter. Finally, it stresses the importance of the diversification of means of media, which still remain under monopoly of few family companies. These three questions point to not only a deeper view of the democratic experience, but also the relevance of political and ideological plurality in the contemporary Brazilian society.

  10. Quantification of lycopene in the processed tomato-based products by means of the light-emitting diode (LED) and compact photoacoustic (PA) detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Skenderovic, H.; Markovic, K.; Doka, O.; Pichler, L.; Pichler, G.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-01-01

    The combined use of a high power light emitting diode (LED) and the compact photoacoustic (PA) detector offers the possibility for a rapid (no extraction needed), accurate (precision 1.5%) and inexpensive quantification of lycopene in different products derived from the thermally processed tomatoes.

  11. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    OpenAIRE

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in ...

  12. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  13. Estimation of the nutritive value of tomato pomace for ruminant using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-06

    Jul 6, 2011 ... composition and estimation of nutritive value of dried tomato pomace (DTP) using in vitro gas ... of processed products such as tomato juice, paste, puree ..... of feeding ensiled mixed tomato and apple pomace on performance.

  14. Knowledge transfer process of Brazilian multinationals: comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Bertoia Silva

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge transfer process between the subsidiaries and the headquarter of Brazilian multinationals, and to identify the most used mechanisms for transferring knowledge. This paper also aims to point out existing barriers in this process, comparing acquired subsidiaries to the greenfield ones. International studies have shown differences in the process of knowledge transfer due to the origin of foreign units (entry mode. We surveyed in 2006 and 2007 a sample of 66 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals with overseas activities. As a result, the knowledge transfer from the headquarter to the subsidiary has occurred through meetings with top executives and the reception of Brazilian executives in both types of units. The barriers to knowledge transfer are bland, being clearer in acquired subsidiaries. Cultural resistance is the most prominent. When we focus on the acquired units, the hierarchical structure is seen as a barrier, probably reflecting the centralized attitude by the headquarters. At the same time, the lack of incentives for sharing knowledge is more evident in greenfield units. Also, the syndrome of not invented here is a perceived barrier by acquired units.

  15. Decision process regarding nuclear generation: the Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metri, Paulo

    2009-01-01

    Countries face a constant need to expand their electricity generation capacities. Electricity sources in a country and the respective generation technologies have different technical, economic, environmental, social and political characteristics. The evaluation criteria of the generating sources and their technologies must not be restricted to the supply of the increased demand at the lowest cost. Compliance with other public policies must be considered in the decision process of the expansion, for instance, maximize local acquisition and minimize foreign fuel purchase. Countries have different energy resources, as well as different levels of technology and development in their industrial parks. Brazil has many mineral reserves, besides the hydraulic potential, for supporting the expansion. The decision process in this sector, which includes nuclear energy as a sub-sector, requires analyzing and evaluating various information and data. In this stage, a quantitative model providing a first approach for the decision may be applied. The new institutional structure adopted in the sector during the 1990s and 2000s brought about new conditions into an already complex decision process. In such context of methodology complexity, political aspects gain relevance, becoming of increased importance. The political environment is described and the players are identified. One conclusion and a few recommendations are provided. (author)

  16. Market, Policies and Local Governance as Drivers of Environmental Public Benefits: The Case of the Localised Processed Tomato in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Mantino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the role of a specific Localised Agri-food System (LAFS in the provision of Environmental and social benefits (ESBs in densely cultivated, industrialised, and populated areas by analysing the core of the processing tomato supply chain of northern Italy (Parma and Piacenza. The research examines how the interplay of market drivers, public policies, and collective actions favoured farming, technological, and organisational innovations geared to support long-term economic growth and tackle, at the same time, environmental challenges. The tomato supply chain is characterised by a favourable convergence of attitudes, policies, and market conditions that over time allowed for fruitful interactions between private stakeholders and between the supply chain and public players. Decades of key stakeholders’ interconnections within the tomato supply chain led to a success story of economic growth and attention to a new balance between agro-industry and environment, for the benefit of producers/processors, consumers, and natural resources. Profitability strategies inevitably imply intensification of farming in order to maximise profit levels per hectare, however, the tomato supply chain found a collective motivation that could grant profitability and concurrently reward producers and processors for attention paid to safeguarding the environment—giving evidence that intensification does not necessarily conflict with requirements in support of sustainability.

  17. Thermal diffusivity of Swedish meatballs, pork meat pate and tomato puree during high pressure processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfeld, Ales; Strohalm, Jan; Stancl, Jaromir; Houska, Milan

    2011-06-01

    Our study is directed at the effects of high pressure on the thermal diffusivity of selected food samples - a fresh meat formulation for Swedish meatballs, pork meat pate and tomato puree. Preheated food samples were placed in a copper cell and tested at nominal pressures of 400 and 500 MPa in a high pressure chamber. The thermal diffusivity was estimated from the recorded time course of temperatures (at the center of the food sample, at the wall of the copper cell, and 7.5 mm from the wall) during the high pressure holding time. Measured time-temperature profiles were compared with predictions using the finite-element model to solve the problem of uneven heat conduction in an infinite, solid, linear cylinder using the linear temperature dependence of apparent thermal conductivity. Optimal parameters of the linear temperature dependence of apparent thermal conductivity were evaluated by comparing measured temperatures and temperatures calculated from the model. To minimize differences between measured and calculated temperatures, at the center of the sample, the Marquardt-Levenberg optimization method was used. The thermal diffusivity values of all food samples were linearly correlated with temperature for two levels of pressure. Thermal diffusivity values increased with increased pressure and temperature. † This paper was presented at the XLVIIIth European High Pressure Research Group (EHPRG 48) Meeting at Uppsala (Sweden), 25-29 July 2010.

  18. Organophilization process of Brazilian bentonite for preparation of polymeric nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carlos I.R. de; Rocha, Marisa C.G.; Ferreira, Joao L.A.N.G.

    2015-01-01

    Bentonite clay from the municipality of Cubati, PB, was used for the preparation of an organophilic clay. First, the clay was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organoclay was, then, obtained from the reaction of homo-ionic clay with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The natural clay and the modified clays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The chemical analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of the majority of the metallic oxides when the bentonite was organophilizated. This result is characteristic of the metal cation exchange process by organic salt molecules. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the intercalation among the layers of the clay. The results obtained by FTIR showed the presence of the characteristic groups of the salt in the clay, thus confirming the obtaining of organophilic bentonite. (author)

  19. Effects of reducing processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet: a cardiovascular modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Patrícia Vl; Hyseni, Lirije; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Martins, Ana Paula B; Baraldi, Larissa G; Capewell, Simon; O'Flaherty, Martin; Guzman-Castillo, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the impact of reducing saturated fat, trans-fat, salt and added sugar from processed culinary ingredients and ultra-processed foods in the Brazilian diet on preventing cardiovascular deaths by 2030. A modelling study. Data were obtained from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey 2008/2009. All food items purchased were categorized into food groups according to the NOVA classification. We estimated the energy and nutrient profile of foods then used the IMPACT Food Policy model to estimate the reduction in deaths from CVD up to 2030 in three scenarios. In Scenario A, we assumed that the intakes of saturated fat, trans-fat, salt and added sugar from ultra-processed foods and processed culinary ingredients were reduced by a quarter. In Scenario B, we assumed a reduction of 50 % of the same nutrients in ultra-processed foods and processed culinary ingredients. In Scenario C, we reduced the same nutrients in ultra-processed foods by 75 % and in processed culinary ingredients by 50 %. Approximately 390 400 CVD deaths might be expected in 2030 if current mortality patterns persist. Under Scenarios A, B and C, CVD mortality can be reduced by 5·5, 11·0 and 29·0 %, respectively. The main impact is on stroke with a reduction of approximately 6·0, 12·6 and 32·0 %, respectively. Substantial potential exists for reducing the CVD burden through overall improvements of the Brazilian diet. This might require reducing the penetration of ultra-processed foods by means of regulatory policies, as well as improving the access to and promotion of fresh and minimally processed foods.

  20. Oil bioremediation processes in Brazilian marine environments : laboratory simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.S.; Triguis, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Bioremediation methods have been used in Brazil to remediate contaminated soils from refinery residues. In particular, bioremediation is a process that can reduce the amount of oil that reaches shorelines, by enhancing natural biodegradation. This presentation presents the results of a laboratory study in which seawater contaminated with light crude oil was bioremediated in a period of 28 days using NPK fertilizer. Whole oil gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the hydrocarbon fractions were used to determine the extent of oil biodegradation. It was determined that natural degradation occurred in the first 4 days, and mostly through the evaporation of light end n-alkanes. Biodegradation of n-alkanes was found to be most effective after 7 days, and no changes were observed in the relative abundance of steranes and triterpanes. It appears that the addition of NPK nutrient reduces the biodegradation potential of polyaromatic compounds. Seawater samples were also measured to determine the efficiency of bioremediation. The use of NPK fertilizer resulted in higher toxicity after 14 days probably due to the creation of metabolites as polyaromatic compounds biodegrade. Non toxic levels were found to be reestablished after 28 days of bioremediation. 16 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  1. The role of the decomissioning process on the development of the Brazilian nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattos, Joao Roberto L. de; Dias, Marcio S.

    2009-01-01

    The National Energy Plan 2030, issued by the Energy Research Company of the Brazilian Ministry of Mines and Energy (EPE, 2007), formalized a reference scenario for the renaissance of the nuclear option in Brazil. This scenario includes the completion of Angra 3 Nuclear Power Plant up to 2014 and the construction of four additional nuclear power plants of 1000 MWe: a fourth unit by 2020, a fifth unit by 2025 and the sixth and seventh plants by 2030. Worldwide, the energy demand and the renaissance of nuclear energy as a primary source for electric power generation are leading the industry toward new constructions as well as uprates and operational life extensions. In this new scenario the decommissioning is pushed further into the future and Brazil is not an exception, considering that Angra 1 NPP is under a process of uprating and certainly will apply for and will receive license renewals allowing its operation for 20 or more years beyond its original project. Thus, why to focus on decommissioning in the present? What is the importance of decommissioning for the development of the Brazilian nuclear industry considering the existing reactors? Should the decommissioning be considered in the design of the new nuclear power plants? What would be the decommissioning plan for the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants? The present paper is intended to contextualize the decommissioning in the present scenarios as well as to try to answer the above questions. (author)

  2. Optimization of process parameters for the inactivation of Lactobacillus sporogenes in tomato paste with ultrasound and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation using response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Shengying [College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Wushan, Guangzhou, GD 510640 (China)], E-mail: yesy@scau.edu.cn; Qiu Yuanxin; Song Xianliang; Luo Shucan [College of Food Science, South China Agricultural University, Wushan, Guangzhou, GD 510640 (China)

    2009-03-15

    The processing parameters for ultrasound and {sup 60}Co-{gamma} irradiation were optimized for their ability to inactivate Lactobacillus sporogenes in tomato paste using a systematic experimental design based on response surface methodology. Ultrasonic power, ultrasonic processing time and irradiation dose were explored and a central composite rotation design was adopted as the experimental plan, and a least-squares regression model was obtained. The significant influential factors for the inactivation rate of L. sporogenes were obtained from the quadratic model and the t-test analyses for each process parameter. Confirmation of the experimental results indicated that the proposed model was reasonably accurate and could be used to describe the efficacy of the treatments for inactivating L. sporogenes within the limits of the factors studied. The optimized processing parameters were found to be an ultrasonic power of 120 W with a processing time of 25 min and an irradiation dose of 6.5 kGy. These were measured under the constraints of parameter limitation, based on the Monte Carlo searching method and the quadratic model of the response surface methodology, including the a/b value of the Hunter color scale of tomato paste. Nevertheless, the ultrasound treatment prior to irradiation for the inactivation of L. sporogenes in tomato paste was unsuitable for reducing the irradiation dose.

  3. Fruit removal of a wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (Solanaceae, by birds, bats and non-flying mammals in an urban Brazilian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of removal of fruits of the wild tomato, Solanum granulosoleprosum Dunal (N = 5 plants, by vertebrates was carried out in an urban environment of southern Brazil from January to May 1997 and February 1998. To verify diurnal and nocturnal removals, fruits were counted in several fruit bunches, being classified by size and color. Diurnal observations were made on plants to verify bird removal. A mist net was placed among the plants from the evening to 23:00 h to verify bat consumption. Live traps baited with S. granulosoleprosum fruits were placed on the ground among plants to verify terrestrial removers. On average it was found two ripe fruits available per bunch/day, but unripe, small, fruits were dominant (70%. Nocturnal mammals and birds-diurnal mammals partitioned fruits similarly. Bats removing fruits were Artibeus lituratus (Olfers, 1818, Pygoderma bilabiatum (Wagner, 1843 and Sturnira lilium (E. Geoffroy, 1810. Birds were Saltator similis Lafresnaye & d'Orbigny, 1837 and Thraupis sayaca (Linnaeus, 1766. Terrestrial mammals were a marsupial and three rodent species. Except for rodents, these vertebrates must be promoting the seed dispersal of S. granulosoleprosum seeds in disturbed mixed forests of southern Brazil.

  4. Listeria monocytogenes in Food-Processing Facilities, Food Contamination, and Human Listeriosis: The Brazilian Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Call, Douglas Ruben; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2017-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that contaminates food-processing environments and persists within biofilms on equipment, utensils, floors, and drains, ultimately reaching final products by cross-contamination. This pathogen grows even under high salt conditions or refrigeration temperatures, remaining viable in various food products until the end of their shelf life. While the estimated incidence of listeriosis is lower than other enteric illnesses, infections caused by L. monocytogenes are more likely to lead to hospitalizations and fatalities. Despite the description of L. monocytogenes occurrence in Brazilian food-processing facilities and foods, there is a lack of consistent data regarding listeriosis cases and outbreaks directly associated with food consumption. Listeriosis requires rapid treatment with antibiotics and most drugs suitable for Gram-positive bacteria are effective against L. monocytogenes. Only a minority of clinical antibiotic-resistant L. monocytogenes strains have been described so far; whereas many strains recovered from food-processing facilities and foods exhibited resistance to antimicrobials not suitable against listeriosis. L. monocytogenes control in food industries is a challenge, demanding proper cleaning and application of sanitization procedures to eliminate this foodborne pathogen from the food-processing environment and ensure food safety. This review focuses on presenting the L. monocytogenes distribution in food-processing environment, food contamination, and control in the food industry, as well as the consequences of listeriosis to human health, providing a comparison of the current Brazilian situation with the international scenario.

  5. Quantification of lycopene in the processed tomato-based products by means of the light-emitting diode (LED) and compact photoacoustic (PA) detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Skenderović, H.; Marković, K.; Dóka, O.; Pichler, L.; Pichler, G.; Luterotti, S.

    2010-03-01

    The combined use of a high power light emitting diode (LED) and the compact photoacoustic (PA) detector offers the possibility for a rapid (no extraction needed), accurate (precision 1.5%) and inexpensive quantification of lycopene in different products derived from the thermally processed tomatoes. The concentration of lycopene in selected products ranges from a few mg to several tens mg per 100 g fresh weight. The HPLC was used as the well established reference method.

  6. Quantification of lycopene in the processed tomato-based products by means of the light-emitting diode (LED) and compact photoacoustic (PA) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicanic, D; Skenderovic, H; Pichler, L; Pichler, G; Markovic, K; Doka, O; Luterotti, S

    2010-01-01

    The combined use of a high power light emitting diode (LED) and the compact photoacoustic (PA) detector offers the possibility for a rapid (no extraction needed), accurate (precision 1.5%) and inexpensive quantification of lycopene in different products derived from the thermally processed tomatoes. The concentration of lycopene in selected products ranges from a few mg to several tens mg per 100 g fresh weight. The HPLC was used as the well established reference method.

  7. Associations of ultra-processed food and drink products with asthma and wheezing among Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, B; Rezende, L; Machado, P; Gouveia, N; Levy, R

    2018-04-21

    Although both consumption of ultra-processed products and asthma are common during adolescence, the epidemiological evidence in regarding their association is unclear. We investigated the associations of ultra-processed products consumption with asthma and wheezing in a representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. We used data from a representative sample of 109,104 Brazilian adolescents enrolled in the National Survey of School Health, 2012. The consumption of ultra-processed products was based on the weekly consumption (0-2, 3-4, ≥5 days/week) of sweet biscuits, salty biscuits, ultra-processed meats, sweets/candies, soft drinks, and packaged snacks over the previous seven days. We also calculated an ultra-processed consumption score by adding partial scores corresponding to weekly frequency intake of each ultra-processed product. The ultra-processed consumption score ranged from 0 to 42, the higher score, the higher the intake of these products. Presence of wheezing in the previous 12 months and asthma at any time in the past were self-reported. The adjusted odds ratios of asthma comparing the extreme categories ranged from 1.08 (95% CI 1.03-1.13) for sweets/candies to 1.30 (1.21-1.40) for ultra-processed meats. Similar magnitude of associations was found for wheezing outcome. The ultra-processed consumption score was positively associated with presence of asthma and wheezing in a dose-response manner. The adjusted OR of asthma and wheezing comparing highest to lowest quintile of ultra-processed consumption score were 1.27 (95% CI 1.15-1.41) and 1.42 (1.35-1.50), respectively. The consumption of ultra-processed products was positively associated with the presence of asthma and wheezing in adolescents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. The Institutional Strategy of Brazilian Supreme Court on the Legislative Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bentes Bentes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Federal Constitution established a framework of laws that allow for the Supreme Court to act over the social life and branches of the government. Nevertheless, the analysis of the federal legislative process by the strategic institutional approach demonstrates that the panorama among state departments is not asymmetric. In fact, the separation of powers game can create groups of scenarios that generate decisions based on the preference of individual judges, or that restrict the autonomy of the Court when criticism or external retaliations threaten its authority.

  9. NAC-NOR mutations in tomato Penjar accessions attenuate multiple metabolic processes and prolong the fruit shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Tamboli, Vajir; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2018-09-01

    Several Penjar accessions of tomato grown in the Mediterranean exhibit prolonged shelf life and harbor alcobaca mutation. To uncover the metabolic basis underlying shelf life, we compared four Penjar accessions to Ailsa Craig. Three accessions bore alcobaca mutation, whereas the fourth was a novel NAC-NOR allele. Cuticle composition of Penjars varied widely during fruit ripening. All Penjars exhibited delayed ripening, prolonged on-vine and off-vine shelf life, low ethylene emission, and carotenoid levels. Metabolic profiling revealed shifts in Krebs cycle intermediates, amino acids, and γ-aminobutyric acid levels indicating the attenuation of respiration in Penjars during post-harvest storage. Penjar fruits also showed concerted downregulation of several cell-wall modifying genes and related metabolites. The high ABA and sucrose levels at the onset of senescence in Penjar fruits likely contribute to reduced water loss. Our analyses reveal that the attenuation of various metabolic processes by NAC-NOR mutation likely prolongs the shelf life of Penjar fruits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  11. Ventomod: a dynamic model for leaf to fruit transfer of radionuclides in processing tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) following a direct contamination event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.; Strebl, F.; Carini, F.; Gerzabek, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents results on the calibration and validation of a model (Ventomod) for leaf to fruit transfer of 134 Cs, 85 Sr and 65 Zn in processing tomato plants after leaf contamination. Several models (e.g FARMLAND) that deal specifically with the transfer of radionuclides to fruits are adaptations of models that were developed for agricultural crops such as leafy green vegetables. 'Ventomod' represents a dynamic evaluation model exclusively built for the short-term behaviour of radionuclide depositions. It forecasts the level of radionuclide contamination in ripe processing tomato fruits following an accidental radionuclide release into the atmosphere. A validation of the developed model by data sets from an independent experiment showed that the model successfully reproduced the observed radionuclide distribution and dynamics in tomato fruits. The level of uncertainty was within the normal range of similar assessment models. Fo a more general use of this model further testing with independent data sets from experiments obtained under different environmental conditions and data from other horticulturally important plant species would be desirable

  12. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity in Brazilian adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Steele, Euridice Martinez; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Canella, Daniela Silva; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cannon, Geoffrey; Afshin, Ashkan; Imamura, Fumiaki; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the consumption of ultra-processed foods and obesity indicators among Brazilian adults and adolescents. We used cross-sectional data on 30,243 individuals aged ≥10 years from the 2008-2009 Brazilian Dietary Survey. Food consumption data were collected through 24-h food records. We classified food items according to characteristics of food processing. Ultra-processed foods were defined as formulations made by the food industry mostly from substances extracted from foods or obtained with the further processing of constituents of foods or through chemical synthesis, with little if any whole food. Examples included candies, cookies, sugar-sweetened beverages, and ready-to-eat dishes. Regression models were fitted to evaluate the association of the consumption of ultra-processed foods (% of energy intake) with body-mass-index, excess weight, and obesity status, controlling for socio-demographic characteristics, smoking, and physical activity. Ultra-processed foods represented 30% of the total energy intake. Those in the highest quintile of consumption of ultra-processed foods had significantly higher body-mass-index (0.94 kg/m(2); 95% CI: 0.42,1.47) and higher odds of being obese (OR=1.98; 95% CI: 1.26,3.12) and excess weight (OR=1.26; 95% CI: 0.95,1.69) compared with those in the lowest quintile of consumption. Our findings support the role of ultra-processed foods in the obesity epidemic in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Akoth Ogada

    Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  14. The innovative process of Brazilian and US orange juice processors: a comparison using patent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Ribeiro Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, Brazil is the world´s leading producer of orange juice, and since that time has been followed by the United States (US. Over 90% of all orange juice produced in Brazil is exported, while US production is basically dedicated to internal consumption. The objective of this study was to compare the patenting dynamics of the orange juice processing industries in both Brazil and the US between 1978 and 2012. This was done by conducting a search in the Derwent Innovations Index (DII and analyzing the patent applications exclusively related to orange juice processing. For this period, a total of 45 patent applications were found, 43 filed by US processors and two by Brazilian processors. It was seen that brand ownership on the part of US processors may have led to a greater need for more innovation in their end products, compared to Brazilian processors that mainly produce and export commodities while acquiring foreign technology in the form of machinery and inputs.

  15. Optimisation of the recovery of carotenoids from tomato processing wastes: application on textile dyeing and assessment of its antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaka, Noureddine; El Ksibi, Imen; Mhenni, Mohamed Farouk

    2017-01-01

    The present study has been focused on the extraction of natural pigments from tomato industry waste. At first, different solvents and solvents mixture were compared to determine which one is the best for extracting carotenoids compounds from tomato by-products. A mixture of hexane and acetone gave the highest carotenoids extraction yield among the others examined. The extraction conditions were optimised using a five-level-five-factor central composite design. Under optimal conditions, solvent solid ratio 90, hexane percentage in the solvent mixture 60, extraction duration 50, number of extractions 4 and extraction temperature 35 °C, the yield of carotenoids was 80.7 μg/g. The coloured extract of tomato by-products was applied on textile fabrics to investigate the dyeing characteristics and antioxidant activities. The results indicate that extract can be applied on textile fabrics (wool, silk and polyamide) to produce coloured clothing with acceptable antioxidant properties.

  16. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  17. The impact of high pressure processing on the phenolic profile, hydrophilic antioxidant and reducing capacity of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeż, Maja; Wiczkowski, Wiesław; Zielińska, Danuta; Białobrzewski, Ireneusz; Błaszczak, Wioletta

    2018-09-30

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) (450-550-650 MPa/5-10-15 min) on polyphenols profile of purée obtained from commercial tomato varieties (Maliniak, Cerise, Black Prince and Lima) was investigated. Individual polyphenols, total phenolic index (TPI) were quantified using a mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS). Photochemiluminescence (PCLACW), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays were used to determine the antioxidant capacity of the hydrophilic extract. The results demonstrated that at certain processing conditions, HHP may enhance or decrease the nutritional quality of tomato purée. However, the tomato variety was a key factor influencing the polyphenols profile and the antioxidant capacity. A significant positive correlation was found among TPI, FRAP or CV parameters and the concentration of caffeic, ferulic, sinapic and p-coumaric acids, and epicatechin. On the other hand, significant positive correlation was observed among antioxidant capacity (PCLACW), TPC, rutin and naringenin concentration as well as chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture: effects of post-harvest tomato plants and biochar on radish growth, chlorophyll content and protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzetti Monterumici, Chiara; Rosso, Daniele; Montoneri, Enzo; Ginepro, Marco; Baglieri, Andrea; Novotny, Etelvino Henrique; Kwapinski, Witold; Negre, Michèle

    2015-04-21

    The aim of this work was to address the issue of processed vs. non-processed biowastes for agriculture, by comparing materials widely differing for the amount of process energy consumption. Thus, residual post harvest tomato plants (TP), the TP hydrolysates obtained at pH 13 and 60 °C, and two known biochar products obtained by 650 °C pyrolysis were prepared. All products were characterized and used in a cultivation of radish plants. The chemical composition and molecular nature of the materials was investigated by solid state 13C NMR spectrometry, elemental analysis and potentiometric titration. The plants were analysed for growth and content of chlorophyll, carotenoids and soluble proteins. The results show that the TP and the alkaline hydrolysates contain lignin, hemicellulose, protein, peptide and/or amino acids moieties, and several mineral elements. The biochar samples contain also similar mineral elements, but the organic fraction is characterized mainly by fused aromatic rings. All materials had a positive effect on radish growth, mainly on the diameter of roots. The best performances in terms of plant growth were given by miscanthus originated biochar and TP. The most significant effect was the enhancement of soluble protein content in the plants treated with the lowest energy consumption non processed TP. The significance of these findings for agriculture and the environment is discussed.

  19. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti, E-mail: mbeserra@cefet-rj.br, E-mail: maurootto@cefet-rj.br [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira, E-mail: fraupp@puc-rio.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Industrial

    2013-07-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  20. Radioscopy applied to the improvement of industrial processes of quality control in the Brazilian footwear production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marcela Tatiana Fernandes; Mello Filho, Mauro Otto de Cavalcanti; Raupp, Fernanda Maria Pereira

    2013-01-01

    According to the Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade, China has the last five years in the Brazilian footwear market for imports, representing 70% of total imports. Brazil has been recording declines in footwear exports; in 2011 there was an average reduction of 21.5% compared to 2010. Thus, Brazil has moved to the eighth position in the export market. Moreover, Asians have been improving the quality and technological level of their footwear for niche markets. It is well known that the introduction of new technologies into industrial organizations enables adding value to their products, making the organizations more competitive in the global market. In this work, we present a study on the use of radioscopy technique to improve quality control of the Brazilian footwear industry. Being already used by some international footwear manufactures, aiming at the identification of strange bodies, control jumps, among other aspects, this technique brings innovation to the referred industry, since it is a non-destructive test approach that makes use of X-rays. We also propose a tool for the application of radioscopy technique to improve quality control processes of footwear production, employing concepts of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). (author)

  1. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  2. Importance of the licensing process on the safety culture in the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, E.S.; Sousa, A.L.B. de; Paiva, R.L.C. de; Mezrahi, A., E-mail: emotta@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facilities licensing processes is to ensure the safety of these installations in their entire life cycle (in the installation site selection, designing, construction, pre-operational tests, operational and decommissioning phases). The Brazilian licensing process requires from the operator, among others, before the operating license: (I) a Site Report and a Final Safety Analysis Report, ensuring that all safety related issues are adequately analyzed and understood; (II) a formal structured Management System focused on the installation safety; and (III) dissemination of safety related information to all involved operator employees and subcontractors. Therefore, these requirements reflect in an adequate operator actions and practices, ensuring a working environment with a high level of safety culture. (author)

  3. Virus-specific proteins in cells infected with tomato black ring nepovirus: evidence for proteolytic processing in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, G; Hemmer, O; Reinbolt, J; Mayo, M A; Fritsch, C

    1992-07-01

    The synthesis of proteins encoded by the RNA of tomato black ring virus (TBRV) in vivo was studied in protoplasts by direct labelling with [35S]methionine, and in protoplasts and plants by immunoblotting experiments with specific antisera. Comparison of the proteins synthesized in infected and mock-inoculated protoplasts suggested that proteins of M(r) 120K, 90K, 80K, 57K and 46K were virus-specific. The proteins derived from the RNA-1-encoded polyprotein detected by immunoblotting were a stable 120K protein and, only in protoplasts, small amounts of a 90K protein which contains the C-terminal part of the 120K protein and the polymerase domain. The results suggest that the polymerase and the adjacent protease function in vivo largely or solely when combined in a 120K protein. The proteins derived from the RNA-2-encoded polyprotein detected by immunoblotting were 59K and 57K proteins, which reacted with antiserum to TBRV particles, and a 46K protein. In extracts of infected Nicotiana clevelandii and Chenopodium quinoa made soon after inoculation, the 59K protein was more abundant than the 57K protein; later samples contained similar quantities of each protein. The 57K protein comigrated with protein extracted from virus particles. The results of amino acid sequencing suggested that the 57K protein is derived from the 59K protein by the loss of nine C-terminal amino acids. Antiserum to a peptide adjacent to the 57K protein in the 150K polyprotein detected a 46K protein in protoplasts and plant tissue. The results support the processing scheme for TBRV polyproteins proposed after analysis of the products of in vitro translation.

  4. Changes in antioxidant and metabolite profiles during production of tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Vos, de C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Tomato products and especially concentrated tomato paste are important sources of antioxidants in the Mediterranean diet. Tomato fruit contain well-known antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids, and hydroxycinnamic acids. The industrial processing of this fruit into tomato paste

  5. Ultra-Processed Food Products and Obesity in Brazilian Households (2008–2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Background Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. Methods The study was based on data from the 2008–2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. Results The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Conclusion Greater household

  6. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silva Canella

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity and obesity in Brazil. METHODS: The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata, geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products. Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. RESULTS: The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile to 39.4% (upper quartile. Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. CONCLUSION: Greater

  7. Ultra-processed food products and obesity in Brazilian households (2008-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canella, Daniela Silva; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Baraldi, Larissa Galastri; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Production and consumption of industrially processed food and drink products have risen in parallel with the global increase in overweight and obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between household availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the prevalence of excess weight (overweight plus obesity) and obesity in Brazil. The study was based on data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey involving a probabilistic sample of 55,970 Brazilian households. The units of study were household aggregates (strata), geographically and socioeconomically homogeneous. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the relationship between the availability of processed and ultra-processed products and the average of Body Mass Index (BMI) and the percentage of individuals with excess weight and obesity in the strata, controlling for potential confounders (socio-demographic characteristics, percentage of expenditure on eating out of home, and dietary energy other than that provided by processed and ultra-processed products). Predictive values for prevalence of excess weight and obesity were estimated according to quartiles of the household availability of dietary energy from processed and ultra-processed products. The mean contribution of processed and ultra-processed products to total dietary energy availability ranged from 15.4% (lower quartile) to 39.4% (upper quartile). Adjusted linear regression coefficients indicated that household availability of ultra-processed products was positively associated with both the average BMI and the prevalence of excess weight and obesity, whereas processed products were not associated with these outcomes. In addition, people in the upper quartile of household consumption of ultra-processed products, compared with those in the lower quartile, were 37% more likely to be obese. Greater household availability of ultra-processed food products in

  8. Development of a low-cost cellulase production process using Trichoderma reesei for Brazilian biorefineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellilä, Simo; Fonseca, Lucas; Uchima, Cristiane; Cota, Junio; Goldman, Gustavo Henrique; Saloheimo, Markku; Sacon, Vera; Siika-Aho, Matti

    2017-01-01

    During the past few years, the first industrial-scale cellulosic ethanol plants have been inaugurated. Although the performance of the commercial cellulase enzymes used in this process has greatly improved over the past decade, cellulases still represent a very significant operational cost. Depending on the region, transport of cellulases from a central production facility to a biorefinery may significantly add to enzyme cost. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple, cost-efficient cellulase production process that could be employed locally at a Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery. Our work focused on two main topics: growth medium formulation and strain improvement. We evaluated several Brazilian low-cost industrial residues for their potential in cellulase production. Among the solid residues evaluated, soybean hulls were found to display clearly the most desirable characteristics. We engineered a Trichoderma reesei strain to secrete cellulase in the presence of repressing sugars, enabling the use of sugarcane molasses as an additional carbon source. In addition, we added a heterologous β-glucosidase to improve the performance of the produced enzymes in hydrolysis. Finally, the addition of an invertase gene from Aspegillus niger into our strain allowed it to consume sucrose from sugarcane molasses directly. Preliminary cost analysis showed that the overall process can provide for very low-cost enzyme with good hydrolysis performance on industrially pre-treated sugarcane straw. In this study, we showed that with relatively few genetic modifications and the right growth medium it is possible to produce considerable amounts of well-performing cellulase at very low cost in Brazil using T. reesei . With further enhancements and optimization, such a system could provide a viable alternative to delivered commercial cellulases.

  9. The Effect of Industrial Food Processing on Potentially Health-beneficial Tomato Antioxidants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.

    2010-01-01

    Increasing desires from both consumers and producers to understand better which nutritive components are present in our food and how these are influenced by industrial processing strategies is resulting in extra research involving the use of state-of-the-art technologies to generate novel

  10. Global Players from Brazil: drivers and challenges in the internationalization process of Brazilian firms

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Flavia; Costa, Ionara; Duysters, Geert

    2010-01-01

    This chapter discusses general patterns of internationalization of Brazilian firms. It highlights the main determinants for internationalization, the main destinations, as well as the modes of entry that Brazilian firms employ overseas. The paper also discusses some aspects related to the technological capabilities of Brazilian firms that are related to their internationalization strategies, in terms of both the exploitation of such advantages and the search for technological assets abroad.

  11. [Processes in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira Neto, João Leite; Kind, Luciana; Resende, Maria Carolina Costa; Colen, Natália Silva

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the processes involved in the construction of the Brazilian National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) through the analysis of three documents produced by the Ministry of Health from 2002 to 2005 and the final text of the National Health Promotion Policy, approved in 2006. We interviewed five subjects who participated in drafting the PNPS, three of whom were Ministry of Health administrators, plus two researchers. The documents were explored with discourse analysis. The article contributes to the debate on the development of the PNPS. Health promotion showed various points of disagreement, which led to the delay in the document's final approval. International induction via funding proved to be a crucial element for defining the final wording of the PNPS, reestablishing the emphasis (subject to criticism) on lifestyle changes in its "Actions". The article highlights the negotiated consensus that led to the creation of the PNPS Management Committee, with participation by various sub-sectors, an innovative structure within the Ministry of Health.

  12. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  13. Formation of hydrocarbons in irradiated Brazilian beans: gas chromatographic analysis to detect radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.; Mancini-Filho, J.; Hartmann, M.; Ammon, J.; Delincee, H.

    1997-01-01

    Radiation processing of beans, which are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil, is a valuable alternative to chemical fumigation to combat postharvest losses due to insect infestation. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled as such, and to enforce labeling, analytical methods to detect the irradiation treatment in the food product itself are desirable. In two varieties of Brazilian beans, Carioca and Macacar beans, the radiolytic formation of hydrocarbons formed after alpha and beta cleavage, with regard to the carbonyl group in triglycerides, have been studied. Using gas chromatographic analysis of these radiolytic hydrocarbons, different yields per precursor fatty acid are observed for the two types of beans. However, the typical degradation pattern allows the identification of the irradiation treatment in both bean varieties, even after 6 months of storage

  14. The Educational Process in Chico Bento's Stories: Representations About Education in the Brazilian Rural Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Weber Biazi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we use Cultural Studies to identify and understand the representations that are transmitted about the educational process in Chico Bento's stories - a character of a comic strip in Brazil. He is a personage who lives in the Brazilian rural zone and was created by Maurício de Sousa. The trajectory of this work included an ethnography of the magazines about Chico Bento, characterizing the rural universe where he lives, focusing on the educational practices and especially his school experiences. Since the delimitation of that universe, it was possible to analyze in which ways Chico Bento's creators articulate the relationship between scientific knowledge x popular knowledge, emphasizing the pedagogic practices of the teacher, Miss Marocas.

  15. Considerations on the Use of Visual Tools in Planning Processes: A Brazilian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Zyngier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper assumes that citizen participation does not really happen in relation to current urban planning practice for a number of reasons. First of all, many planning processes do not involve citizens as ideally they should. Secondly, although if they involve citizens, many planning processes are not able to communicate them the actual questions to deal with. Thirdly, many citizens have not a sufficient knowledge or ability to understand the planning issues. Therefore, the paper supposes that the use of visual interfaces can collaborate to organize data and improve the involvement of citizens within planning processes. Focusing on the Brazilian reality, the case study present two selected areas with great relevance for the Metropolitan Region of Belo Horizonte’s (MRBH: Santa Lúcia, within the municipality of Belo Horizonte, and the neighborhood Vale do Sereno, in the Nova Lima municipality. The areas result under a great pressure and intensification of anthropic interventions, containing consolidated occupancy. The example on the two areas shows how urban planning still lacks a systematization of data. This also implies that the two municipalities not consider the communication of information as a priority for developing cities. Although current information technology can offer advantages for implementing the planning processes though visual languages, harder efforts are required to build the communication process between people, including communication as part of the planning process.

  16. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  17. Increased contribution of ultra-processed food products in the Brazilian diet (1987-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Moubarac, Jean Claude; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2013-08-01

    To establish temporal trends in household food and drink consumption in Brazil, taking into account the extent and purpose of its industrial processing. Data was obtained from Household Budget Surveys conducted in Brazil in 1987-1988, 1995-1996, 2002-2003 and 2008-2009. In all surveys, probabilistic samples of households in the metropolitan areas were studied and, for the last two surveys, the scope was national. The units of analysis were food purchases records of clusters of households. The purchased food items were divided according to the extent and purpose of their industrial processing into: 'in natura' or minimally processed foods, processed culinary ingredients and ready-to-consume, processed and ultra-processed food and drink products. The quantity of each item was converted into energy. For each survey, the daily availability of calories per capita and the caloric share of the food groups were estimated. For the national surveys, estimates were calculated by income quintiles. Temporal trends were assessed using linear regression models and difference of means tests. The caloric share of ready-to-consume products significantly increased between 2002-2003 and 2008-2009 (from 23.0% to 27.8% of total calories), mainly because of the increase in the consumption of ultra-processed products (20.8% to 25.4%). In the same period, there was a significant reduction in the caloric share of foods and culinary ingredients. The increase in the ultra-processed products caloric share occurred across all income quintiles. There was an uniform increase in the caloric share of ready-to-consume products in the metropolitan areas, mostly in place of ultra-processed products, accompanied by a decrease in the share of 'in natura' or minimally processed foods and culinary ingredients. The share of ultra-processed products significantly increased in the Brazilian diet, as seen in the metropolitan areas since the 1980s, and confirmed at a national level in the 2000s.

  18. HYBRID CONTINUUM-DISCONTINUUM MODELLING OF ROCK FRACUTRE PROCESS IN BRAZILIAN TENSILE STRENGTH TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming An

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid continuum-discontinuum method is introduced to model the rock failure process in Brazilian tensile strength (BTS test. The key component of the hybrid continuum-discontinuum method, i.e. transition from continuum to discontinuum through fracture and fragmentation, is introduced in detail. A laboratory test is conducted first to capture the rock fracture pattern in the BTS test while the tensile strength is calculated according to the peak value of the loading forces. Then the proposed method is used to model the rock behaviour during BTS test. The stress propagation is modelled and compared with those modelled by finite element method in literatures. In addition, the crack initiation and propagation are captured and compared with the facture patter in laboratory test. Moreover, the force-loading displacement curve is obtained which represents a typical brittle material failure process. Furthermore, the stress distributions along the vertical direction are compared with the theoretical solution. It is concluded that the hybrid continuum-discontinuum method can model the stress propagation process and the entire rock failure process in BTS test. The proposed method is a valuable numerical tool for studying the rock behaviour involving the fracture and fragmentation processes.

  19. [Use of health technology assessment in decision-making processes by the Brazilian Ministry of Health on the incorporation of technologies in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh; Elias, Flávia Tavares Silva

    2013-11-01

    Policies for scientific development and knowledge production in health have increased in recent decades. In Brazil, incentives for research, development, and innovation have been part of the National Health Act since 1990, and science and technology policies for health, including health technology assessment (HTA), have been implemented since 1994, as in many other countries. The emphasis is now on impact evaluation of HTA policies in the incorporation of technologies by health services and systems. The article presents a case study of HTA utilization in decision-making processes in the Brazilian Ministry of Health, analyzing participation by the Department of Science and Technology (DECIT), responsible for the production of assessments used in the Commission on Technology Incorporation (CITEC) of the Ministry of Health from 2008 to 2010. CITEC used 103 assessments in its decisions during this period, of which DECIT produced 80%. Nearly all were literature reviews on therapeutic technologies. An increase in knowledge production was observed. A methodological and political learning process appears to have occurred in the use of HTA, but its impact on Brazilian Unified National Health System remains unclear.

  20. Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/zestytomatosoup.html Zesty Tomato Soup To use the sharing features on this page, ... Number of Servings: 4 Not your traditional tomato soup, this quick-cooking dish can be a side ...

  1. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  2. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  3. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  4. Exploratory and discriminative studies of commercial processed Brazilian coffees with different degrees of roasting and decaffeinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Souza Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The fingerprints of the volatile compounds of 21 commercial Brazilian coffee samples submitted to different industrial processing i.e. decaffeinated or different roasting degrees (traditional and dark were studied. The volatiles were collected by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The chromatographic data matrices (fingerprints obtained were explored by the principal component analysis (PCA and partial least squares - discriminative analysis (PLS-DA. Initially the chromatographic profiles were aligned by the algorithm correlation optimized warping (COW. The PCA showed the discrimination of the decaffeinated coffees from the others with both the SPME fibres used. This separation probably occurred due to the loss of some volatile precursors during the decaffeination process, such as sucrose. For both the fibres tested, PDMS/DVB and CX / PDMS SPME, the PLS-DA models correctly classified 100% of the samples according to their roasting degree: (medium and dark, the main differences being the concentrations of some of the volatile compounds such as 2-methyl furan, 2-methylbutanal, 2,3-pentanedione, pyrazine, 2-carboxyaldehyde pyrrole, furfural and 2-furanmethanol.

  5. Virus-specific proteins in cells infected with tomato black ring nepovirus: evidence for proteolytic processing in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Demangeat, Gerard; Hemmer, O; Reinbolt, J; Mayo, M A; Fritsch, Coralie

    1992-01-01

    The synthesis of proteins encoded by the RNA of tomato black ring virus (TBRV) in vivo was studied in protoplasts by direct labelling with [35S]methionine, and in protoplasts and plants by immunoblotting experiments with specific antisera. Comparison of the proteins synthesized in infected and mock-inoculated protoplasts suggested that proteins of M(r) 120K, 90K, 80K, 57K and 46K were virus-specific. The proteins derived from the RNA-1-encoded polyprotein detected by immunoblotting were a sta...

  6. Avaliação da capacidade de regeneração in vitro em tomateiro industrial Evaluation of the in vitro regeneration capacity in Brazilian industrial tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIKLÓS FÁRI

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a capacidade de regeneração das cultivares de tomateiro industrial (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill IPA-5 e IPA-6, utilizando quatro composições de meio de cultura descritos na literatura e cinco variações de inoculação. Foi testada uma nova variação de inoculação, denominada cotilédone fendido. A maior freqüência de formação de gemas vegetativas foi 100% no caso de IPA-5, e 65% no caso de IPA-6. Para induzir o alongamento de brotos, foram necessários três subcultivos dos explantes apresentando gemas. No caso de IPA-5, o número de brotos obtidos foi maior quando a indução de gemas foi realizada em meio contendo BAP (2,5 mg L-1 e AIA (0,2 mg L-1 seguido de três subcultivos, em meio como zeatina (0,5 mg L-1. Usando esse protocolo, a cultivar IPA-5 produziu uma média de 5,45 brotos alongados a partir do cotilédone fendido. Essa capacidade excedeu significativamente o cotilédone aparado, que produziu 4,4 brotos alongados por explante. No caso de IPA-6, a melhor combinação de meios e método de inoculação produziu 0,87 broto alongado por explante. Os brotos alongados foram enraizados e transferidos para casa de vegetação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the regeneration capacity of the IPA-5 and IPA-6 Brazilian industrial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cultivars using four compositions of culture media described in the literature and five inoculation methods. A new variation of inoculation, the split cotyledon method, was also tested. The largest frequency of shoot bud formation was 100% in the case of IPA-5 and 65% in the case of IPA-6. To induce shoot elongation, it was necessary to accomplish three subcultures of the explants presenting shoot buds. In the case of IPA-5, the number of the obtained shoots was higher when the induction of shoot buds was accomplished in culture medium containing BAP (2.5 mg L-1 and IAA (0.2 mg L-1 followed by three subcultures on

  7. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  8. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura D'Evoli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g. Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%, while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%. Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%. The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  9. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-07-31

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids-principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (-17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (-25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (-36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  10. Geochemical characterization of the largest upland lake of the Brazilian Amazonia: Impact of provenance and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Prafulla Kumar; Guimarães, José Tasso Felix; Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir Martins; da Silva, Marcio Sousa; Nascimento, Wilson, Júnior; Powell, Mike A.; Reis, Luiza Santos; Pessenda, Luiz Carlos Ruiz; Rodrigues, Tarcísio Magevski; da Silva, Delmo Fonseca; Costa, Vladimir Eliodoro

    2017-12-01

    Lake Três Irmãs (LTI), the largest upland lake in the Brazilian Amazonia, located in Serra dos Carajás, was characterized using multi-elemental and isotope geochemistry (δ13C and δ15N) to understand the significance of organic and inorganic sources, weathering and sedimentary processes on the distribution of elements in lake bottom (surficial) sediments. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from sedimentary organic matter suggest C3 terrestrial plants (forests > canga vegetation), macrophytes and freshwater DOC as the main sources. Sediments are depleted in most of the major oxides (except Fe2O3 and P2O5) when compared to upper continental crust (UCC) and their spatial distribution is highly influenced by catchment lithology. Principal Component Analysis revealed that most of the trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb, Sc, Th, U, Zr, Hf, Nb, Y, V, Cr, Ga, Co, Ni) and REEs are closely correlated with Al and Ti (PC1; Group-1), so their redistribution is less influenced by post-depositional process. This is due to their relative immobility and being hosted by Al-bearing minerals during laterization. High Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mafic Index of Alteration (MIA) and Index of Laterization (IOL) values indicate intense chemical weathering at source areas, but the weathering transformation was better quantified by IOL. A-CN-K plot along with elemental ratios (Al/K, Ti/K, Ti/Zr, La/Al, Cr/Th, Co/Th, La/Sm, La/Gd, Zr/Y, and Eu/Eu*) as well as chondrite-normalized REE patterns show that the detritic sediments are mainly sourced from ferruginous laterites and soils in the catchment, which may have characteristics similar to mafic rocks.

  11. In vitro processing of the RNA-2-encoded polyprotein of two nepoviruses: tomato black ring virus and grapevine chrome mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demangeat, G; Hemmer, O; Fritsch, C; Le Gall, O; Candresse, T

    1991-02-01

    In vitro translation of RNA-2 of each of two closely related nepoviruses, tomato black ring virus (TBRV) and grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate resulted in the synthesis of single polypeptides of 150K and 146K respectively. Processing of these polyproteins occurred after the addition of translation products of homologous RNA-1. The positions of the cleavage products within the polyproteins were determined. From the N to the C terminus, Mr values for the proteins were 50K, 46K and 59K for TBRV and 44K, 46K and 56K for GCMV. TBRV RNA-1 translation products also cleaved the polyproteins encoded by GCMV RNA-2 which suggests that the cleavage sites in the two polyproteins are similar.

  12. Defining essential processes in plant pathogenesis with Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 disarmed polymutants and a subset of key type III effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hai-Lei; Collmer, Alan

    2017-12-25

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and its derivatives cause disease in tomato, Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana. The primary virulence factors include a repertoire of 29 effector proteins injected into plant cells by the type III secretion system and the phytotoxin coronatine. The complete repertoire of effector genes and key coronatine biosynthesis genes have been progressively deleted and minimally reassembled to reconstitute basic pathogenic ability in N. benthamiana, and in Arabidopsis plants that have mutations in target genes that mimic effector actions. This approach and molecular studies of effector activities and plant immune system targets have highlighted a small subset of effectors that contribute to essential processes in pathogenesis. Most notably, HopM1 and AvrE1 redundantly promote an aqueous apoplastic environment, and AvrPtoB and AvrPto redundantly block early immune responses, two conditions that are sufficient for substantial bacterial growth in planta. In addition, disarmed DC3000 polymutants have been used to identify the individual effectors responsible for specific activities of the complete repertoire and to more effectively study effector domains, effector interplay and effector actions on host targets. Such work has revealed that AvrPtoB suppresses cell death elicitation in N. benthamiana that is triggered by another effector in the DC3000 repertoire, highlighting an important aspect of effector interplay in native repertoires. Disarmed DC3000 polymutants support the natural delivery of test effectors and infection readouts that more accurately reveal effector functions in key pathogenesis processes, and enable the identification of effectors with similar activities from a broad range of other pathogens that also defeat plants with cytoplasmic effectors. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  13. Physicochemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of tomato seed oils from processing wastes Características físico-químicas e composição em ácidos graxos de óleos de sementes de tomate de resíduos industriais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R. Cantarelli

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available The major component of tomato processing industry wastes is seed. Samples of tomato (Petomech var. pomace from industries of São Paulo state submitted to Hot and Cold Break treatments, were spontaneously fermented and washed to separate seeds. The oils were analysed for specific gravity, iodine and saponifícation numbers, refractive index, viscosity and fatty acid composition. Except for saponifícation number, Hot and Cold Break seed oils were very similar. In both treatments palmitic acid was the major saturated fatty acid, followed by stearic acid. Linoleic acid was the major unsaturated fatty acid followed by oleic acid. Both oleic and linoleic acids added up to over 60% of total fatty acids, being higher in Cold Break seed oils. Both treatments produced high nutritional oil quality. Differences in colour and viscosity may incur in more intense refining operations for Brazilian tomato processing industries due to the adoption of the Hot Break treatment.O principal componente de resíduos da industrialização de tomates é a semente. Amostras de resíduos após extração comercial de tomates maduros (var. Petomech submetidas a tratamentos de Hot e Cold Break em indústrias do Estado de São Paulo foram deixadas fermentar espontaneamente e as sementes separadas após lavagem. Os óleos foram analisados quanto ao peso específico, índices de iodo e saponifícação, índice de refração, viscosidade e composição em ácidos graxos. À exceção do índice de saponificação, os óleos dos tratamentos Hot e Cold Break apresentaram-se semelhantes. Em ambos os tratamentos o principal ácido graxo saturado foi o ácido palmítico, seguido pelo ácido esteárico. O ácido linoléico foi o principal ácido graxo insaturado, seguido pelo ácido oléico e juntos somaram a mais de 60% do total de ácidos graxos, o que torna o óleo de tomate recomendável à alimentação humana. As diferenças em cor e viscosidade dos óleos podem implicar num

  14. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-01-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene,...

  15. Peer Influences on the Dating Aggression Process among Brazilian Street Youth: A Brief Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Tiago; Koller, Silvia H.; Hokoda, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This study explored risk factors for adolescent dating aggression (ADA) among Brazilian street youth. Forty-three adolescents, between the ages of 13 and 17 years, were recruited at services centers in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Simultaneous multiple regression revealed that ADA was significantly predicted by adolescent dating victimization (ADV), and…

  16. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... 1Repository of Tomato Genomics Resources, Department of Plant Sciences, School .... Due to its position at the crossroads of Sanger's sequencing .... replacement for the microarray-based expression profiling. .... during RNA fragmentation step prior to library construction, ...... tomato pollen as a test case.

  17. The Legitimacy Deficit in the Political Process Brazilian . Democracy Theory of Violation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Lôbo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to reflect on the legitimacy deficit of the Brazilian political pro- cess, in that it withdraws control over the elections and political terms from the people, refusing protection and concretion of the fundamental right of participation, backbone of the democratic state governed by the rule of law. It also seeks to identify activation mechanisms of public pools as measurement methods of the popular will, which cannot be replaced by what is read in the printed review. To achieve its objectives a slight expla- nation of the Brazilian electoral judicial bodies was made, identifying the control actions of the elections that can only be filed by for legitimates (candidate, political party, party coalitions and prosecutors office, and a justification of the application discourse for the minimal participation and excess jurisdiction (activism versus minimalism was presented as well.

  18. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  19. Study on the degradation of 14C maneb during the fabrication of concentrated tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sennaoui, Z.; Meguenni, H.; Bennaceur, M.

    1992-11-01

    Tomatoes were contaminated with 14C maneb to know the degradation of this fungicide during the technological process of tomato under laboratory conditions. 57,2% of the initial amount of 14C maneb applied was found in the many metabolites ETM, ETU and EU, were found during the technological transformation of tomato

  20. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    OpenAIRE

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice...

  1. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  2. Applying a food processing-based classification system to a food guide: a qualitative analysis of the Brazilian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Vanessa Fernandes; Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Medeiros, Kharla Janinny; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2018-01-01

    The present paper aimed to identify the stakeholders, as well as their arguments and recommendations, in the debate on the application of a food processing-based classification system to the new Brazilian Food Guide. Qualitative approach; an analysis was made of documents resulting from the consultation conducted for the development of the new Brazilian Food Guide, which uses the NOVA classification for its dietary recommendations. A thematic matrix was constructed and the resulting themes represented the main points for discussion raised during the consultation. Brazil. Actors from academia, government and associations/unions/professional bodies/organizations related to the area of nutrition and food security; non-profit institutions linked to consumer interests and civil society organizations; organizations, associations and food unions linked to the food industry; and individuals. Four themes were identified: (i) conflicting paradigms; (ii) different perceptions about the role and need of individuals; (iii) we want more from the new food guide; and (iv) a sustainable guide. There was extensive participation from different sectors of society. The debate generated by the consultation revealed two main conflicting opinions: a view aligned with the interests of the food industry and a view of healthy eating which serves the interests of the population. The first group was against the adoption of a food processing-based classification system in a public policy such as the new Brazilian Food Guide. The second group, although mostly agreeing with the new food guide, argued that it failed to address some important issues related to the food and nutrition agenda in Brazil.

  3. The policymaking process for creating competitive assets for the use of biomass energy: the Brazilian alcohol programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, J.A. Puppim de [Getulio Vargas Foundation - FGV/EBAPE, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    Public policies are fundamental to spur the use of biomass and make it competitive to face traditional commercial fossil fuels. This article analyzes the policymaking process of the Brazilian National Alcohol Policy (Proalcool). Proalcool is one of the world's most ambitious efforts to produce a renewable biomass fuel as an oil substitute. In the 1970s, after the oil crisis and the sharp increase in fuel prices, the Brazilian government started intensifying its policy to substitute sugarcane alcohol for gasoline in automobile use. Through a set of governmental interventions to increase alcohol demand and supply, Brazil created some competitive assets that made Proalcool a relative success in terms of developing institutional and technological capabilities for using renewable energy in large scale. Several key actors influenced the policy directions, such as the central and state governments, military groups, the alcohol industry, sugarcane agricultural aristocracy, bureaucrats, researchers and the media. Instead of thinking of Proalcool as a government decision based only on economic rationale or interests of few decision-makers, the elaboration and implementation of this alcohol policy could be thought of as the result of a policymaking process where the different stakeholders involved in the process with their values, interests and knowledge interacted with each other according to the political, social, technological and economic situation. (Author)

  4. [Association of processed meat intake and obesity in a population-based study of Japanese-Brazilians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Maria F; Gimeno, Suely G A; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of processed meat with overall, abdominal, and overall with abdominal obesity in a Japanese-Brazilian population, which is known to be at cardiometabolic risk. A total of 329 men and 443 women aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional population-based survey. Diagnosis of overall obesity and abdominal obesity were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionaire. In men, processed meat intake was positively associated with overall with abdominal obesity (OR 2.97; 95%CI 1.13-7.78) after adjustment. In women, only the red meat group was associated with overall with abdominal obesity after adjustment (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.96). Our results showed that high intakes of processed meats were associated with overall with abdominal obesity in male Japanese-Brazilians, but not in females.

  5. Phloem unloading in tomato fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.; Hewitt, J.; Bennett, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    To begin to identify those processes that contribute to the regulation of photosynthate partitioning in tomato fruit the path of phloem unloading in this tissue has been characterized. Assymetrically labelled sucrose ( 3 H-fructosyl sucrose) was applied to source leaves. Following translocation to the fruit the apoplast was sampled. The appearance of assymetric sucrose and 3 H-fructose in the apoplast indicates that phloem unloading is apoplastic and that extracellular invertase is active. Estimation of sucrose, glucose, and fructose concentrations in the apoplast were 1 mM, 40 mM, and 40 mM, respectively. Rates of uptake of sucrose, 1-fluorosucrose, glucose, and fructose across the plasma membrane were similar and non-saturating at physiological concentrations. These results suggest that, although extracellular invertase is present, sucrose hydrolysis is not required for uptake into tomato fruit pericarp cells. 1-fluorosucrose is used to investigate the role of sucrose synthase in hydrolysis of imported photosynthate

  6. Development of infrared heating technology for tomato peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The commercial lye and steam peeling methods used in tomato processing industry are water- and energy-intensive and have a negative impact on the environment. To develop alternative peeling methods, we conducted comprehensive studies of using infrared (IR) heating for tomato peeling. The three major...

  7. FROM THE MULTI-PARTY PROCESS OF CLASS ACTIONS TO THE COLLECTIVE PROCESS OF REPETITIVE CASES: MODELS OF COLLECTIVE TUTELAGE IN BRAZILIAN LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Argenta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the models of multi-party litigation established in Brazilian law, considering the class action model and the model systematized by the Civil Procedure Code of 2015 consisting of repetitive case judgments. It exposes the evolution, influences and consolidation of multi-party litigation in the Brazilian legal system, identifies the collective actions microsystem and deals with its relationship with the Civil Procedure Codes of 1973 and 2015, under a constitutional perspective. It presents characteristics of the incident of resolution of repetitive demands and the repetitive extraordinary and special appeals, with comparisons with the model of class actions. It discusses, from a comparative law perspective, the three great models of collective tutelage (American, European, and Brazilian in their relationship with the holders of individual rights. Finally, it brings forward considerations about the due process of law, presenting a doctrinal vision based on the need to evaluate the conflict and the complexity of the litigation to adapt the forms of multi-party conflicts resolution.

  8. 21 CFR 155.190 - Canned tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... tomatoes. (a) Identity—(1) Description. (i) Canned tomatoes is the food prepared from mature tomatoes...). Without shifting the tomatoes, so incline the sieve as to facilitate drainage of the liquid. Two minutes...

  9. Ultra-processed food product brands on Facebook pages: highly accessed by Brazilians through their marketing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta, Paula M; Rodrigues, Fernanda T; Dos Santos, Luana C

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the content and extent of marketing of ultra-processed food products (UPP) and their brand pages on Facebook, which are highly accessed by Brazilians. Descriptive. Sixteen UPP brand pages on Facebook were selected from 250 pages that were the most liked by Brazilians in October 2015. We analysed the frequency of 'likes' and members 'talking about' each one of the pages, in addition to fifteen marketing techniques used in the previous year (September 2014 to October 2015). The number of posts, likes, 'shares' and 'commentaries', and the mean number of likes, shares and commentaries per post, were collected for one month, from 23 September to 23 October 2015. The two most liked pages were: Coke® (93 673 979 likes) and McDonald's® (59 749 819 likes). Regarding the number of people talking about the pages, McDonald's led with 555 891 commentaries, followed by Coke (287 274), Burger King® (246 148) and Kibon® (244 523). All pages used marketing techniques, which included photos, user conversations, presence of brand elements and links. Videos were observed on 93·8 % of the pages; promotions on 68·8 %; and celebrities on 62·5 %. In one month, Garoto®, Outback® and Coke were brands that published more than one post per day. Kibon achieved the highest ratio of likes per post (285 845·50) and Burger King had the highest mean shares per post (10 083·93), including commentaries per post (7958·13). UPP marketing is extensively used on Facebook pages and is highly accessed by Brazilians, with UPP companies employing a diversity of marketing strategies.

  10. On slaves and genes: "origins" and "processes" in genetic studies of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this article I examine how contemporary geneticists investigating the history and configuration of the Brazilian population engage with other academic disciplines. To do so I use as a case study some articles published by geneticists researching the presence of hemoglobin S variants in Brazil, in which there is a clear pretension to contribute to the analysis of issues such as slavery or Brazil's ethnic identity. By contrasting these studies with contemporary works from history and the social science, the explanatory centrality of "origin" in the genetic studies analyzed is problematized, as is the lack of interaction with the epistemological characteristics of other areas of knowledge.

  11. The organization of the sport process: The perspective of elite volleyball Brazilian coaches.

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Ana Luiza; Dias, Cláudia Salomé Lima; Corte-Real, Nuno José; Fonseca, António Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyze the coaching knowledge of 24 expert high-performance Brazilian volleyball coaches in the organization of training and competition. A semi-structured interview was used, and the resulting data analyzed following the procedures outlined by Côté and colleagues (Côté & Salmela, 1994, 1996; Côté, Salmela, & Russell, 1995a, 1995b). Overall, the data highlighted that the coaches of male and female teams organized competition and train...

  12. Carotenoid bioavailability in humans from tomatoes processed in different ways determined from the carotenoid response in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein fraction of plasma after a single consumption and in plasma after four days of consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, van het K.H.; Boer, de B.C.J.; Tijburg, L.B.M.; Lucius, B.R.H.M.; Zijp, I.; West, C.E.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tomatoes are the main dietary source of lycopene, and the bioavailability of lycopene from tomato paste is higher than that from fresh tomatoes. We investigated systematically the effect of mechanical homogenization and heating on the bioavailability of carotenoids from canned tomatoes. Further, we

  13. Brazilian professionals’ perception in relation to the accounting convergence process to IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Pelucio Grecco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was identifying the main difficulties faced by the accounting and financial professionals of entities located in Brazil in the implementation of the new Brazilian accounting practices. This work is characterized regarding its nature as descriptive and exploratory, concerning the applied method, quantitative, making use of Kruskal-Wallis test and qualitative by means of content analysis. The population was composed of entities located in Brazil with foreign trade activities, import or export. The sample, by convenience, was composed of entities located in the metropolitan São Paulo whose business involved import in the year of 2009. Data were collected according to a questionnaire whose questions were formulated for attending the specific objectives described in this paper. The main results pointed that the professionals’ perception regarding the main difficulties in the implementation of the new Brazilian accounting practices are linked to the recognition, measurement and disclosure of Property, Plant and Equipment and Intangibles, besides the lack of qualified professionals and information technology support. In general, it is assumed that despite the difficulties, the accounting and financial professionals realize that the new accounting practices will bring positive impacts in terms of investments in Brazil.

  14. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  15. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or .... stored at -20°C. Enzymatic in vitro synthesis of radiolabeled ..... with nematicidal activity from Culture of basidiomycetes.

  16. Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    suggest a mean of conservation of the surplus of production by processing tomato into puree. The most produced local ... processing into puree on industrial scale. The main .... functions contributing to the reaction of non-enzymatic browning ...

  17. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  18. The Payout Decision-Making Process of Brazilian Listed Companies: A CFO Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Frota Decourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a survey with Brazilian listed companies CFOs` trying to identify how these companies determine and manage their payout policy. It was identified that the final decision about dividends is taken by the board of directors, taking into consideration a management proposal sent to them before. Main factors analyzed are net profit and cash generation during immediate previous period. The managers mainly consider interest on own capital (JSCP and dividends as instruments for payout policy. They believe that share repurchase is advantageous to shareholders; however, it is viewed more as an investment decision by the company than a dividend policy. The interest on own capital is broadly used because it provides a fiscal benefit to the company. It seems that management compensation policy affects dividends payout. This suggests an agency conflict between managers and shareholders.

  19. Documentation control process of Brazilian multipurpose reactor: conceptual design and basic design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Prates, Jose Eduardo; Longo, Guilherme Carneiro; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Established in the scope of Plan of Action of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (PACTI/MCTI) in 2007, the construction of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is on the way. This type of reactor has a broad spectrum of applications in the nuclear field and related technologies such as the radioisotopes used as supplies in the production of radiopharmaceuticals, with very much benefit to the Brazilian society being, therefore, the main goal of the Project. RMB Project consists of the following stages: site selection and site evaluation; design (conceptual design, basic design, detailed design and experimental design); construction (procurement, manufacturing; civil construction; electromechanical construction and assembling); commissioning; operation and decommissioning. Each stage requires adaptation of human resources for the stage schedule execution. The implementation of a project of this magnitude requires a complex project management, which covers not only technical, but also administrative areas. Licensing, financial resources, quality and document control systems, engineering are some of the areas involved in project success. The development of the conceptual and basic designs involved the participation of three main engineering companies. INTERTECHNE Consultores S.A. was in charge of conceptual and basic designs for conventional systems of buildings and infrastructure. INVAP S.E. was responsible for preparing the basic design of the reactor core and annexes. MRS Estudos Ambientais Ltda. has prepared documents for environmental licensing. This paper describes the procedures used during conceptual and basic design stages to control design documentation and flow of this documentation, involving the analysis and incorporation of comments from experts, control and storage of a volume of approximately 15,000 documents. (author)

  20. Documentation control process of Brazilian multipurpose reactor: conceptual design and basic design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibrit, Eduardo; Prates, Jose Eduardo; Longo, Guilherme Carneiro; Salvetti, Tereza Cristina, E-mail: ekibrit@ipen.br, E-mail: jeprates@ipen.br, E-mail: glongo@ipen.br, E-mail: salvetti@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Established in the scope of Plan of Action of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (PACTI/MCTI) in 2007, the construction of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is on the way. This type of reactor has a broad spectrum of applications in the nuclear field and related technologies such as the radioisotopes used as supplies in the production of radiopharmaceuticals, with very much benefit to the Brazilian society being, therefore, the main goal of the Project. RMB Project consists of the following stages: site selection and site evaluation; design (conceptual design, basic design, detailed design and experimental design); construction (procurement, manufacturing; civil construction; electromechanical construction and assembling); commissioning; operation and decommissioning. Each stage requires adaptation of human resources for the stage schedule execution. The implementation of a project of this magnitude requires a complex project management, which covers not only technical, but also administrative areas. Licensing, financial resources, quality and document control systems, engineering are some of the areas involved in project success. The development of the conceptual and basic designs involved the participation of three main engineering companies. INTERTECHNE Consultores S.A. was in charge of conceptual and basic designs for conventional systems of buildings and infrastructure. INVAP S.E. was responsible for preparing the basic design of the reactor core and annexes. MRS Estudos Ambientais Ltda. has prepared documents for environmental licensing. This paper describes the procedures used during conceptual and basic design stages to control design documentation and flow of this documentation, involving the analysis and incorporation of comments from experts, control and storage of a volume of approximately 15,000 documents. (author)

  1. The effect of coarse-droplet spraying with double flat fan air induction nozzle and spray volume adjustment model on the efficiency of fungicides and residues in processing tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Ratajkiewicz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted for the purpose of improving the application of fungicides against potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans (Mont. de Bary (PLB in processing tomato. The usability of coarse spray quality with double flat fan air induction IDKT12003 nozzle and the impact of fixed and variable spray volume and adjuvants during alternate application of azoxystrobin and chlorothalonil were analysed on the basis of plant infestation and fungicide residues. The variable spray volume was calculated based on the number of leaves on a plant. The study was conducted during three vegetation seasons. Spraying of plants with significantly flattened canopies during the peak of the fructification season using an IDKT12003 nozzle was as effective as in the case of fine spraying performed with an XR11003 nozzle and facilitated the increase of fungicides residue. In the case of plants with high-spreading canopy at the beginning of fructification, XR11003 nozzle favoured the reduction of PLB infestation. Both spray volume adjustment systems enabled the same level of protection of tomato against PLB, which could result from alternate application of systemic and contact fungicides. Polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyltrisiloxane adjuvant, which causes siginificant increase in wetting and droplet spreading, facilitated the reduction of tomato PLB infestation during the application of fungicides using an IDKT12003 nozzle.

  2. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    commercial food vendors often intentionally use physically damaged tomatoes and ... The production of the bulk of the fresh tomato and. 'tatase' in Nigeria is in ...... mycotoxin contamination of food include but not limited to mycotoxicoses, liver ...

  3. Evaluating the composition and processing potential of novel sources of Brazilian biomass for sustainable biorenewables production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marisa A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Steele-King, Clare G; Simister, Rachael; Bernardinelli, Oigres D; Carvalho, Marcelo A; Rezende, Camila A; Labate, Carlos A; Deazevedo, Eduardo R; McQueen-Mason, Simon J; Polikarpov, Igor

    2014-01-18

    The search for promising and renewable sources of carbohydrates for the production of biofuels and other biorenewables has been stimulated by an increase in global energy demand in the face of growing concern over greenhouse gas emissions and fuel security. In particular, interest has focused on non-food lignocellulosic biomass as a potential source of abundant and sustainable feedstock for biorefineries. Here we investigate the potential of three Brazilian grasses (Panicum maximum, Pennisetum purpureum and Brachiaria brizantha), as well as bark residues from the harvesting of two commercial Eucalyptus clones (E. grandis and E. grandis x urophylla) for biofuel production, and compare these to sugarcane bagasse. The effects of hot water, acid, alkaline and sulfite pretreatments (at increasing temperatures) on the chemical composition, morphology and saccharification yields of these different biomass types were evaluated. The average yield (per hectare), availability and general composition of all five biomasses were compared. Compositional analyses indicate a high level of hemicellulose and lignin removal in all grass varieties (including sugarcane bagasse) after acid and alkaline pretreatment with increasing temperatures, whilst the biomasses pretreated with hot water or sulfite showed little variation from the control. For all biomasses, higher cellulose enrichment resulted from treatment with sodium hydroxide at 130°C. At 180°C, a decrease in cellulose content was observed, which is associated with high amorphous cellulose removal and 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde production. Morphological analysis showed the effects of different pretreatments on the biomass surface, revealing a high production of microfibrillated cellulose on grass surfaces, after treatment with 1% sodium hydroxide at 130°C for 30 minutes. This may explain the higher hydrolysis yields resulting from these pretreatments, since these cellulosic nanoparticles can be easily accessed and cleaved by

  4. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of Brazilian kefir during fermentation and storage processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, A M O; Leite, D C A; Del Aguila, E M; Alvares, T S; Peixoto, R S; Miguel, M A L; Silva, J T; Paschoalin, V M F

    2013-07-01

    The microbial community composition and chemical characteristics of a Brazilian milk kefir sample produced during its manufacturing and refrigerated storage were investigated by culture-dependent and -independent methods and HPLC. Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris and ssp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Acetobacter lovaniensis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated, whereas the detected bands on denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis corresponded to Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactobacillus kefiri, Lactobacillus parakefiri, and S. cerevisiae. After fermentation, lactic acid bacteria were present at levels of 10 log units, whereas acetic acid bacteria and yeast were present at levels of 7.8 and 6 log units, respectively. The lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts remained constant, whereas acetic acid bacteria counts decreased to 7.2 log units during storage. From fermentation to final storage, the pH, lactose content and citric acid of the kefir beverage decreased, followed by an increase in the concentrations of glucose, galactose, ethanol, and lactic, acetic, butyric, and propionic acids. These microbiological and chemical characteristics contribute to the unique taste and aroma of kefir. This research may serve as a basis for the future industrial production of this beverage in Brazil. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of thermal processing on hydrolysis and stability of folate poly-gamma-glutamates in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica), carrot (Daucus carota) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyaka, Ann Wambui; Verlinde, Philippe; Mukisa, Ivan Muzira; Oey, Indrawati; Van Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc

    2010-04-14

    The folate poly-gamma-glutamate profile, their concentrations, and hydrolysis by endogenous gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (GGH) were evaluated in broccoli, carrot and tomato. Further studies on the effect of time and temperature on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis and stability were carried out in broccoli since this vegetable showed the highest long-chain and total folate poly-gamma-glutamate concentration. The evolution of l-ascorbic acid, total phenols and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values was evaluated in parallel. Upon thermal inactivation of GGH prior to crushing, it was observed that broccoli, carrot and tomato contained poly-gamma-glutamates with one to seven glutamate residues but differed in the predominant poly-gamma-glutamates. Crushing of raw broccoli, carrot and tomato resulted in significant poly-gamma-glutamate profile changes in broccoli and carrot (indicating GGH-catalyzed hydrolysis) but not in tomato. In this study, the actual crushing of raw broccoli matrix had a greater effect on folate poly-gamma-glutamate hydrolysis than incubation conditions (0-30 min at 25-55 degrees C). During treatments at 25-140 degrees C, folate retention was higher at 80 and 100 degrees C than at the other temperatures. A similar trend in thermal stability was observed for folates, vitamin C, total phenols and TEAC value, an indication that conditions that result in endogenous antioxidants degradation might also result in folate degradation.

  6. A comparison of dynamic mechanical properties of processing-tomato peel as affected by hot lye and infrared radiation heating for peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the viscoelastic characteristics of tomato skins subjected to conventional hot lye peeling and emerging infrared-dry peeling by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Three DMA testing modes, including temperature ramp, frequency sweep, and creep behavior test, were conduct...

  7. Minimum number and best combinations of harvests to evaluate accessions of tomato plants from germplasm banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Abreu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the minimum number and the best combination of tomato harvests needed to compare tomato accessions from germplasm banks. Number and weight of fruit in tomato plants are important as auxiliary traits in the evaluation of germplasm banks and should be studied simultaneously with other desirable characteristics such as pest and disease resistance, improved flavor and early production. Brazilian tomato breeding programs should consider not only the number of fruit but also fruit size because Brazilian consumers value fruit that are homogeneous, large and heavy. Our experiment was a randomized block design with three replicates of 32 tomato accessions from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank (Banco de Germoplasma de Hortaliças at the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil plus two control cultivars (Debora Plus and Santa Clara. Nine harvests were evaluated for four production-related traits. The results indicate that six successive harvests are sufficient to compare tomato genotypes and germplasm bank accessions. Evaluation of genotypes according to the number of fruit requires analysis from the second to the seventh harvest. Evaluation of fruit weight by genotype requires analysis from the fourth to the ninth harvest. Evaluation of both number and weight of fruit require analysis from the second to the ninth harvest.

  8. Operational Improvements of Continuous Process with Tools of Lean Production - A Case Study in a Brazilian Petrochemical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Uchoa Passos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to evaluate operational improvements in Brazilian petrochemical company Braskem, which has been using lean production management tools to monitor its processes. There was some improvement in plant efficiency, measured from the beginning of implementation of management tools Six Sigma and TPM. Thus, we investigated three efficiency indicators considered by the company of great importance for the competitiveness of the business: the physical loss of products, plant’s energy efficiency, and the utilization rate of assets. The differences observed in these indicators, before and after the use of the tools, were tested for its statistical significance, which revealed that the physical losses of ethylene and plant’s energy efficiency improved, almost reaching the performance considered as class world. As for the utilization rate of assets, although it has evolved positively, still is at a considerable distance from that performance standard. By registering operational improvements in a continuous process plant, with lean production tools, this study indicates that these instruments, even if they have no causal relation with the improvements, are suitable for continuous processes and could have a much broader use, oriented, first of all, by the general approach of process optimization and, somehow, regardless of the nature of productive activity.

  9. farmers'perception on the strategies for increasing tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    Nigeria in the year 2013 to assess the farmers' perception on the strategies for increasing ... In Nigeria the high demand for fresh and processed tomato calls for a significant improvement in production technology to ensure increase.

  10. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  11. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  12. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene

    OpenAIRE

    Story, Erica N.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.; Harris, G. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is responsible for the red to pink colors seen in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and other foods. Processed tomato products are the primary dietary lycopene source in the United States. Unlike many other natural compounds, lycopene is generally stable to processing when present in the plant tissue matrix. Recently, lycopene has also been studied in relation to its potential health effects. Although promising data from epidemiological, as well as cell...

  13. Corporate governance structure which is based in the S&OP process: Case study in la Brazilian cosmetic company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Rojas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Received: 2014/01/31 - Accepted: 2014/03/25This article is about the generation of a corporate governance structure which is based in the process S&OP for a Brazilian cosmetic industry. The increasing emphasis on business development guided by attention to the requirements and demands of customers, cause nowadays, that the organizations of the commercial sectors work in the creation of a competitive differential. The collaborative business management strategy S&OP is looking for the attention of people who are interested in the improvement of their skills; in order to achieve this differential. With the case study methodology, the objectives are to get knowledge, identify, and analyze the characteristics of the company using analysis tools like SWOT, process analysis, value chain. All with the purpose to get a robust management tool that fits with the requirements and demands of the organization. The analyzed results showed that the principles of collaboration and internal communication were the pillars necessary against any attempt of business development. This supports the proposal of a management structure based on the five step S&OP process. As a complement to this study a methodology CPFR was identified as the platform for an integrated work with the rest of the companies of the supply chain.

  14. EPR study on tomatoes before and after gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksieva, K.; Georgieva, L.; Tzvetkova, E.; Yordanov, N.D.

    2009-01-01

    The results from the EPR studies on fresh, air-dried and lyophilized tomato samples before and after gamma-irradiation are reported. Before irradiation fresh and air-dried tomatoes exhibit one singlet EPR line characterized with common g-factor of 2.0048±0.0005, whereas freeze-dried tomato does not show any EPR spectrum. After irradiation, a typical 'cellulose-like' triplet EPR spectrum appears in all samples, attributed to cellulose free radicals, generated by gamma-irradiation. It consists of intense central line with g=2.0048±0.0005 and two weak satellite lines separated ca. 3 mT left and right of it. In air-dried and lyophilized tomatoes the 'cellulose-like' EPR spectrum is superimposed by an additional partly resolved carbohydrate spectrum. Fading measurements of the radiation-induced EPR signals indicate that the intensity of the EPR spectra of air-dried and freeze-dried tomato are reduced to about 50% after 50 days, whereas those of fresh irradiated tomatoes kept at 4 o C fade completely in 15 days. The reported results unambiguously show that the presence of two satellite lines in the EPR 'cellulose-like' spectra of tomato samples can be used for identification of radiation processing.

  15. Green manuring effect of pure and mixed barley - hairy vetch winter cover crops on maize and processing tomato N nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosti, Giacomo; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela

    2012-01-01

    this can influence the N uptake and N status of different subsequent summer cash crops. In this study the N effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) grown in pure stands or in mixtures with different sowing proportion was tested on maize (Zea Mays L.) and processing......Adopting mixtures between legumes and non legumes can be an efficient tool to merge the advantages of the single species in the fall-sown cover crop practice. Nevertheless there is a lack of information on how the species proportion may affect N accumulation and C/N of the cover crops and how...... of the relationship between cover crop C/N and Neff was confirmed, so mixtures can be used to adjust the extent and timing of mineralisation of the incorporated biomass to the subsequent cash crop requirements. Prediction of the cash crops N status on the cover crop C/N appears to be a useful approach, but, it may...

  16. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  17. Profundidade de instalação da linha de gotejadores em tomateiro para processamento industrial Drip line placement depth for processing tomatoes crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir A. Marouelli

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a resposta do tomateiro para processamento industrial, irrigado por gotejamento, a diferentes profundidades de instalação da linha lateral de gotejadores (0; 20 e 40 cm. Um tratamento irrigado por aspersão foi utilizado como controle. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Hortaliças, nas condições edafoclimáticas da região de cerrados do Brasil Central. Maior crescimento vegetativo de plantas foi observado nos tratamentos irrigados por aspersão e gotejamento superficial, enquanto que menor crescimento ocorreu no gotejamento a 40 cm. A produtividade comercial do tratamento irrigado por gotejamento superficial (124 t.ha-1 foi 32% maior que no tratamento por gotejamento subterrâneo a 40 cm, 15% maior que no tratamento irrigado por aspersão, não diferindo (p>0,05 do tratamento por gotejamento a 20 cm. Incrementos de produtividade foram devidos, principalmente, ao maior número de frutos por planta, uma vez que o estande final e a massa média de frutos não foram afetados pelos tratamentos. A incidência de frutos podres na irrigação por aspersão foi 112 e 453% maior que nos tratamentos irrigados por gotejamento superficial e subterrâneo, respectivamente.A field experiment was carried out at Embrapa Hortaliças under soil and climate conditions of Central Brazil "cerrado" region, aiming to evaluate the response of drip-irrigated processing tomatoes to different drip line placement depths (0; 20 and 40 cm. A control treatment was irrigated by sprinkle system. Larger plant vegetative growth was observed for the sprinkle and surface drip treatments, while smaller growth occurred for the 40 cm-depth drip treatment. Marketable yield of the surface drip irrigated treatment (124 t.ha-1 was 32% larger than the 40 cm-depth drip treatment, 15% larger than the sprinkle treatment, but did not differ (p>0,05 from the 20 cm-depth drip treatment. Yield increments were basically due to a larger number of fruits per plant, since final

  18. The Need for Popular Participation Effectiveness and Social Control in Public Administration for the Brazilian Democratic Process Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Couto de Oliveira Contigli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article aims to seek the correlation between popular participation and social control in public administration in the consolidation of the Brazilian democratic process, from the perspective of participatory democracy, as well as conditions for increasing this participation. In participatory democracy, having as the theoretical framework Bobbio (2006, p.30 and Santos (2002, p.62 and 63, it emphasizes public participation as one of the forms of management, where it plays an important role, as legitimating the decisions. This article discusses the ways of popular participation in government, with no claim to exhaust the subject, and was based on Perez settings (2004, Enterría (1998 and Di Pietro (1993, plus other institutes of participation popular. Search thus contribute including other popular participation instruments besides those already mentioned by these authors, emphasize the difficulties and to suggest some measures to minimize them. The methodology used to develop the work, dogmatic and legal, was developed through bibliographic research, done through a literature review and analytical reading on the subject.

  19. [The federal government discourse during the political decentralization process and the obstacles to implement the Brazilian Public Health Care System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Bárbara

    2007-01-01

    A discourse analysis carried out on basic operating standard Norma Operacional Básica do Sistema Unico de Saúde (NOB-SUS 01/96) of the Brazilian public health care system aiming at locating signs that could allow to identify lines of thought which have influenced health care policies prioritized by the federal administration. The author points out a peculiarity in the kind of discourse employed by the ministry directive: its structure is based on isolated aspects of legislation and on ideas advocated by other discourse communities, articulated with redefined legal principles - an effort towards authorizing the official reasoning in favor of the relevance in keeping the decentralization process under the control of the federal administration. The analysis concludes that an infra-legal standard can neither grant state and federal administrations a hierarchical superiority (mediation function) over municipal administrations, nor can it transfer the legal responsibilities pertaining to Health Councils over to inter-administration commissions (Comissões Intergestores) , thus making the former mere decision ratifiers. This study found that granting privileges not contemplated in the legislation to state and federal administrations surfaced again and more strongly so in 2001 in yet another operating standard.

  20. Survey of aflatoxins in tomato products Aflatoxinas em produtos de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Regina Barros Mariutti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are highly susceptible to fungi contamination in the field, during transportation, processing, and storage. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus have been isolated from tomatoes and tomato products, and both fungi species can produce aflatoxin, mycotoxin with hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic effects on all animal species tested so far. In order to verify a possible aflatoxin contamination of tomato products commercialized in Brazil, 63 samples of tomato products (pulp, paste, purée, ketchup, dehydrated tomatoes, and dried tomatoes preserved in oil produced in 5 Brazilian states and 1 imported sample (ketchup, totalizing 29 brands, were analyzed by thin layer chromatography. The analytical method showed an average recovery of 86% for all aflatoxins at two spiking levels. The limits of detection for the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 varied with the type of the product ranging from 2 to 7 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were not detected in any evaluated sample indicating that they did not pose a risk to human health since there was no invasion of raw materials by toxigenic fungi or no conditions for toxin production.Os tomates são frutos altamente susceptíveis à contaminação fúngica tanto no campo como durante o transporte, processamento e armazenamento. Aspergillus flavus e Aspergillus parasiticus têm sido isolados em tomate e em produtos de tomate e ambas as espécies são produtoras de aflatoxinas, potentes micotoxinas que apresentam efeitos hepatotóxicos, carcinogênicos, teratogênicos e mutagênicos para todas as espécies animais testadas até o momento. Para verificar a possível contaminação por estas micotoxinas em produtos de tomate comercializados no Brasil, amostras de 63 produtos de tomate (polpa, pasta, purê, catchup, tomate desidratado e tomate seco conservado em óleo provenientes de 5 Estados brasileiros e uma do exterior (catchup, compreendendo a 29 marcas, foram analisadas por

  1. The Formation of the Brazilian State and the Uses of its Foreign Policy in the Light of the Process of Identity Construction. Definition of Key Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Pereyra-Doval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on its construction of identity, a State defines key situations. The aim of this paper is to analyze those milestones in the process of identity construction in Brazil, which caused its early differentiation from other Latin American countries. Consequently, we divide it into four sections. The first explains the differentiating aspect of identity. The second analyzes the process of independence. The third makes the difference from consolidation process of the national space, also going through the development process of this space. Finally, the Brazilian option is described as being closer to the United States as a reference center while it left the European area.

  2. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  3. Functional Process Zones Characterizing Aquatic Insect Communities in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, B S; Simião-Ferreira, J; Lodi, S; Oliveira, L G

    2016-04-01

    Stream ecology studies see to understand ecological dynamics in lotic systems. The characterization of streams into Functional Process Zones (FPZ) has been currently debated in stream ecology because aquatic communities respond to functional processes of river segments. Therefore, we tested if different functional process zones have different number of genera and trophic structure using the aquatic insect community of Neotropical streams. We also assessed whether using physical and chemical variables may complement the approach of using FPZ to model communities of aquatic insects in Cerrado streams. This study was conducted in 101 streams or rivers from the central region of the state of Goiás, Brazil. We grouped the streams into six FPZ associated to size of the river system, presence of riparian forest, and riverbed heterogeneity. We used Bayesian models to compare number of genera and relative frequency of the feeding groups between FPZs. Streams classified in different FPZs had a different number of genera, and the largest and best preserved rivers had an average of four additional genera. Trophic structure exhibited low variability among FPZs, with little difference both in the number of genera and in abundance. Using functional process zones in Cerrado streams yielded good results for Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera communities. Thus, species distribution and community structure in the river basin account for functional processes and not necessarily for the position of the community along a longitudinal dimension of the lotic system.

  4. The processing of Brazilian Portuguese anaphora and the influence of dialectal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cláudia Mesquita Lacerda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate whether different types of recovery [se, Ø, ele(a] may influence the coreferential processing of reflective structures, relating to these, the semantics of the verbal predicate. To verify whether the dialectal variation of the use of anaphora “se” (use, removal, and replacement could influence the processing of these structures, we performed a self-paced reading experiment in Minas Gerais and Paraíba. The results showed a significant effect on the type of retrieval, indicating the possibility of the influence of verb type. It is believed that syntactic constraints of the Binding theory (Chomsky, 1981 were activated in early stages of processing (NICOL; SWINNEY, 1989, however, the interpretability from the verbal semantics and the discursive question related to usage factors (range meant that there was a re-examination by the parser.

  5. Effect of tomato post-harvest fungicide treatment and storage conditions on the quality of fruits, and biological value of tomato pulp and concentrated pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Parynow

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of storage conditions on the quality of tomato fruits was tested. The rate of ripening was established in normal air, where tomatoes ripen quickly, under controlled atmosphere where they ripen more slowly and under low pressure, where they ripen slowest. The influence of post-harvest benomyl or methylthiophanate treatment on tomato rot, ripening, and biological value were examined. Post-harvest tomato treatment did not reduce fruit rot. The color of fruits and the processed products depended on the fungicide treatment. Concentrated tomato pulp made of fruits treated with methylthiophanate was redder than the others. The fungicide treatment increased or decreased the level of some chemical substances in the fruits in dependence on the applied fungicide, storage conditions and the length of storage, e.g. tomatoes treated with benomyl and stored for 14 days contained the highest level of vitamin C under 0% CO2:3%O2 and tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the highest level of vitamin C under 38 mm Hg. Degradation of vitamin C in pulp was faster than in the concentrated pulp. Tomato pulp made of tomatoes treated with methylthiophanate contained the lowest level of vitamin C.

  6. Public Relations for Brazilian Libraries: Process, Principles, Program Planning, Planning Techniques and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Cosette N.

    A brief overview of the functions of public relations in libraries introduces this manual, which provides an explanation of the public relations (PR) process, including fact-finding, planning, communicating, evaluating, and marketing; some PR principles; a 10-step program that could serve as a model for planning a PR program; a discussion of PR…

  7. Barriers to and facilitators of ultra-processed food consumption: perceptions of Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luara Bellinghausen; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Duran, Ana Clara; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2018-01-01

    To explore how individuals perceive the availability of ultra-processed foods in their neighbourhoods and the barriers to and facilitators of consumption of such foods. A qualitative design was chosen. In-depth, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted and a content analysis was performed. São Paulo, Brazil. A purposeful sample of adults (n 48), stratified by sex and age group (20-39 years and 40-59 years). All participants perceived their neighbourhoods as favourable regarding the availability of ultra-processed foods. Three barriers were identified: health concerns, not appreciating the taste of these foods and not being used to eating them. Five facilitators, however, were identified: appreciating the taste of these foods, their children's preference, convenience, addiction and cost. Participants perceived their neighbourhoods as favourable to the consumption of ultra-processed foods and reported more facilitators than barriers to their consumption. Reported barriers point to the need to include measures promoting a healthy food system and traditional eating practices. The facilitators reinforce the idea that these foods are habit-forming and that regulatory measures to offset the exposure to ultra-processed foods are necessary.

  8. Human Capital, Social Classes, and the Earnings Determination Process in Brazilian Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.

    This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…

  9. The Data Processing Concept After If Google Spain and its influence on Brazilian Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Rosa Pereira de Lima

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The information economy challenges personal data protection because it represents an obstacle to the big corporations’ economic interests within this market. The companies which operate the searching websites, that before had only profits, face nowadays legal battles in order not to be bound to personal data protection legislation. The leading case, known as Google Spain must be considered as a landmark in such process given the European Court of Justice’s interpretation of the Directive 95/46/CE considering that the search engines shall be considered as personal data processing because the data which are inserted by the users are collected, stored, disclosed within certain classification order. As a matter of fact, personal data processing is stated by law in open terms due the fact that one cannot freeze the law that suffers constantly the impact of new technologies. The Spanish Law played an important role through its Supervisory Authority, named Agencia Española de Protección de Datos Personales – AEPD, that since 2007 had conclued that the search engines are activities that process personal data. Such findings were reaffirmed one year later by the Working Party, WP 29 opinion n. 148 (April 4th 2008 in which it was clear that the searching websites shall to be considered personal data processing. This paper intends to analyze the statements raised within this subject. In other words if the search engines are data processing, the searching websites’ operators must follow the personal data protection legislation that ensures rights to the data’s subject such as the right to correct, cancel or delete his information. In Brazil, the Internet Civil Rights Framework, know as Marco Civil da Internet, has dealt with personal data protection superficially within article 7º, inc. VIII, IX and X, the last one states the right to cancel or delete personal information which is repeated at article 10. This research aims to investigate that

  10. Drying effects on the antioxidant properties of tomatoes and ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümüşay, Özlem Aktürk; Borazan, Alev Akpınar; Ercal, Nuran; Demirkol, Omca

    2015-04-15

    In this study, the effects of four different drying processes, sun drying (SD), oven drying (OD), vacuum oven drying (VOD) and freeze drying (FD) for tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) in terms of thiolic and phenolic contents have been studied. Thiol content, total phenolic content (TPC), ascorbic acid (AA) content, and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) were determined in fresh and dried samples. Glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (Cys) were determined as the thiol contents of tomatoes and ginger. Significant losses were observed in the contents of TPC, AA, GSH and Cys and CUPRAC values in all samples that were dried using the thermal method. There was a statistically significant difference in the losses of the TPC, AA, and thiol contents between the use of thermal drying and freeze drying (except Cys in tomatoes) methods. Freeze dried tomato and ginger samples have been found to have better antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Web platform using digital image processing and geographic information system tools: a Brazilian case study on dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Lourdes M; Gomes, Marília M F; Miosso, Cristiano J; da Silva, Marlete M; Amvame-Nze, Georges D

    2015-07-16

    the following steps: i. Obtain images from the eggs on an ovitrap's cardboards, with a microscope. ii. Apply a proposed image-processing-based semi-automatic counting system. The system we developed uses the Java programming language and the Java Server Faces technology. This is a framework suite for web applications development. This approach will allow a simple migration to any Operating System platform and future applications on mobile devices. iii. Collect and store all data into a Database (DB) and then georeference them in a GIS. The Database Management System used to develop the DB is based on PostgreSQL. The GIS will assist in the visualization and spatial analysis of digital maps, allowing the location of Dengue outbreaks in the region of study. This will also facilitate the planning, analysis, and evaluation of temporal and spatial epidemiology, as required by the Brazilian Health Care Control Center. iv. Deploy the SCSA-WEB, DB and GIS on a single Web platform. The statistical results obtained by DIP were satisfactory when compared with the SCSA-WEB's semi-automated eggs count. The results also indicate that the time spent in manual counting has being considerably reduced when using our fully automated DIP algorithm and semi-automated SCSA-WEB. The developed georeferencing Web platform proves to be of great support for future visualization with statistical and trace analysis of the disease. The analyses suggest the efficiency of our algorithm for automatic eggs counting, in terms of expediting the work of the laboratory technician, reducing considerably its time and error counting rates. We believe that this kind of integrated platform and tools can simplify the decision making process of the Brazilian Health Care Control Center.

  12. The work process and care production in a Brazilian indigenous health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aridiane Alves Ribeiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the constitutive elements of the work process and care production in an Indigenous Health Support Service. Methods: Case study. Systematic observation and semi-structured interviews were conducted in January and February of 2012. The participants were 10 nursing professionals of an Indigenous Health Support Center, located in Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The work process was used as a conceptual and analytical category. Results: Through interpretative analysis, the data were organized into three categories. The results showed that care production was focused on procedures and guided by rigid institutional rules and bureaucracy. The prioritization of institutional rules and procedures was detrimental to the provision of person-centered care. Conclusion: The temporary employment contracts and rigid bureaucratic organization generated a tense work environment. These aspects do not maximize the efforts of the nursing staff to provide person-centered care.

  13. Organizational ergonomics of occupational health methods and processes in a Brazilian oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bau, Lucy M S; Farias, Jean P; Buso, Sandro A; Passero, Carolina R Marcon

    2012-01-01

    Organizational ergonomics refers to the optimization of social technical systems, including their organizational structures, policies and processes. The relevant topics include communications, management of resources, work projects, temporal organization of work, team work, participative project, new work paradigms, cooperative work, organizational culture, network organizations and quality management (IEA, 2000). The purpose of this study was the reorganization of the methods and processes of the occupational health sector (SMS/SO - Portuguese acronym of the area) of a petrochemical company. The work involved thirty professionals: a coordinator, two occupational physicians, one cardiologist, one occupational dentist, two occupational nurses, eleven occupational health technicians, one social worker, one nutritionist, one phonoaudiologist, one ophthalmologist, one biochemist, two ergonomists, three administrative assistants, one administrator and one psychologist, during a six-month period. The methodology that was used sought to establish a cooperative alliance focused on change, transformation and acquisition of skills, reflecting directly on the attitudes and performance of the leaderships and their work teams. In addition to the feedback practice, the following supporting tools were used for the study's success: "Functional Polyvalence Matrix", "Management of Failures", 5W2H", "6M", "5 Why" and "process mapping". The intended results after the organization ergonomics restructuring process will allow the leader to help his or her team to make a diagnosis of the problems, identify options, develop strategies, establish targets and action plans, remove barriers, review contexts and implement the business management fundaments: planning, organization, management, coordination and control. The transformation possibilities allow us to consider some hypothesis: Before: Focus only on results. After: Engage collaborators to create sustainable results. Before: Operating

  14. Urbanization and ambient quality: the prodution process of the brazilian coast space

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This text discuss about the question of the relations between urbanization and ambient quality in the coastal zone. The increasing degradation of coastal ecosystems is provoked by the disordered urban expansion, in function of the interests of the capital. Real estate speculation, irregular land divisions, predatory tourism, clandestine nestings, demographic growth with significant migratory movement, are elements that exemplifies the urbanization process that comes occurring of disordered fo...

  15. A BRIEF STUDY ABOUT THE LEGAL NATURE OF PRECAUTIONA RY PRISONS (? IN BRAZILIAN CRIMINAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Paula Cruz de Siqueira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes, even if soon, the legal nature of prison said as precautionary, that occur during the police investigation or criminal process. Over this study, prison in the act, preventive prison, according to each of its assumptions and, lastly, temporary prison will bel analyzed. At the end, will be presented the measures, which are effectively considered precautionary, serving to the utility of the final provision, like security measures

  16. Welding of Nb micro-alloyed steel by the submerged arc process using Brazilian consumables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scotti, A.; Quites, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    A set of procedures was established for welding of Nb micro-alloyed steel by the submerged arc process, using national consumables, in order to simultaneously achieve a more economic welding and better mechanical properties. From all the wire-flux combinations the better were the correspondent to AWS F84ED1, F74EM12K and F84EH14, the last being the best. (Author) [pt

  17. Characterization of Brazilian Industrial Companies’ Processes and Challenges as to Innovation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to investigate the use of product innovation management practices and the challenges faced by organizations when increasing their innovative performance. To this end, we analyzed the relationships between internal organizational elements, as well as the influence of contextual factors (size, field and source of capital in the characterization of innovation management systems and of barriers to innovation faced by each company. We chose this topic due to the fact that management processes that leverage innovative performance are not yet fully understood, and because of the lack of empirical studies that analyze the reality of the practices proposed in the organizational world, especially in Brazil. As a conceptual basis, we presented modern approaches to innovation, which recognize that this should not be seen as an isolated event but as a process. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out by means of a multiple case study. In it, we studied the innovation management systems of four companies which present relevant product development activities in Brazil. As well as a detailed study of the elements of innovation management, this article includes contributions referring to the characterization of organizational challenges faced by organizations when managing their innovation process.

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of Genes Encoding PHD-Finger Protein in Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayat, S.; Cheng, Z.; Chen, X.

    2016-01-01

    The PHD-finger proteins are conserved in eukaryotic organisms and are involved in a variety of important functions in different biological processes in plants. However, the function of PHD fingers are poorly known in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In current study, we identified 45 putative genes coding Phd finger protein in tomato distributed on 11 chromosomes except for chromosome 8. Some of the genes encode other conserved key domains besides Phd-finger. Phylogenetic analysis of these 45 proteins resulted in seven clusters. Most Phd finger proteins were predicted to PML body location. These PHD-finger genes displayed differential expression either in various organs, at different development stages and under stresses in tomato. Our study provides the first systematic analysis of PHD-finger genes and proteins in tomato. This preliminary study provides a very useful reference information for Phd-finger proteins in tomato. They will be helpful for cloning and functional study of tomato PHD-finger genes. (author)

  19. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  20. Application of radiometric analysis in the study of provenance and transport processes of Brazilian coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.; Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Macario, K.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gamma radiation of beach sand deposits was measured along the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the aim of studying the provenance and transport processes of sediments in this area. Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium were evaluated using γ-ray spectrometry and a behavioral study of eTh/eU and eTh/K cross plots was performed, reflecting the mineralogical properties of beach sands, as well as their history of transport and sorting processes. The results show that such technique can be efficiently used to map heavy mineral distributions and to distinguish the different origins of coastal sediments disclosing the influence of nearby rivers. - Research highlights: → Based on the natural γ-ray analyses of beach sand, high concentrations of heavy minerals have been found around the Mambucaba River deltaic complex, located in the South of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. → Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium concentration can give information on the mineral composition and provenance of beach sands and consequently investigate heavy mineral deposits.

  1. Application of radiometric analysis in the study of provenance and transport processes of Brazilian coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Macario, K. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gamma radiation of beach sand deposits was measured along the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the aim of studying the provenance and transport processes of sediments in this area. Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium were evaluated using {gamma}-ray spectrometry and a behavioral study of eTh/eU and eTh/K cross plots was performed, reflecting the mineralogical properties of beach sands, as well as their history of transport and sorting processes. The results show that such technique can be efficiently used to map heavy mineral distributions and to distinguish the different origins of coastal sediments disclosing the influence of nearby rivers. - Research highlights: {yields} Based on the natural {gamma}-ray analyses of beach sand, high concentrations of heavy minerals have been found around the Mambucaba River deltaic complex, located in the South of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. {yields} Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium concentration can give information on the mineral composition and provenance of beach sands and consequently investigate heavy mineral deposits.

  2. Combined zero-valent iron and fenton processes for the treatment of Brazilian TNT industry wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio; Silva, Flavio T.; Paiva, Teresa C.B.

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impact caused by the production of explosives made from nitroaromatic compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is currently a major concern, mainly due to their toxic nature, a fact that makes these compounds highly harmful. This work evaluated a continual system treatment reactor (CSTR) consisting of column zero-valent iron and a system to promote a fenton reaction in order to create possible definitive routines for treating effluents originating from the TNT production process. The spectrophotometric results demonstrated that this combination of processes was highly efficient in promoting the removal of all the absorbed species at 290 nm and the visible region of the specter. The results also revealed that the combination of treatments was significantly efficient in terms of correcting the effluent's main parameters of relevance, mainly COD (95.5% reduction) and TNT concentration, whose total was converted into nitrous and phenolic compounds and, additionally, the acute toxicity was also significantly reduced (95%). These results indicate that the strategy can serve as an efficient option for effluent treatment, for release into the receiving body, or eventually for use as industrial reuse water.

  3. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  4. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-01-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  5. The communication strategic process of e-learning in the Brazilian touristic corporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Mello Ferrari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In  this  article,  it  is  searched  to  reflect  on  the Education  in  the  distance,  more  specifically  in relation to one of these modalities of education: the e-learning, come back  toward  the tourism. For this, it was looked through a bibliographical revision, to approach relevant aspects, to iden-tify existing gaps that not only justified the relevance of the subject, but also propitiated interest for the opening of ways that will be conducting wires for future quarrels. The questionings considered in this article  evidence  the necessity  of making a deep research on this subject, not only for understanding, but, mainly, for making possible the analysis of the characteristics of the or-ganizational communication process of e-learning  applied  in  the  Tourism,  besides  comparing them with other forms of communication, more used in the traditional corporative  qualification of the sector.

  6. Rendimento de cultivares de tomate para processamento em Goias Yield of processing tomato cultivars in Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei Peixoto

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Seis ensaios de competição de cultivares de tomate para processamento industrial foram conduzidos nos municípios goianos de Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú e Santa Isabel, em 1990, e Anápolis e Porangatu, em 1991. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, tendo as parcelas 80 plantas em 1990 e 70 em 1991. Em Porangatu, em 1990, as plantas foram mais precoces, florescendo 35 e 41 dias após a semeadura e iniciando-se a colheita 38 dias após a antese. Em Anápolis, também em 1990, a floração iniciou-se de 54 a 60 dias após a semeadura e, a colheita, 46 dias após a antese. As cultivares Petomech, IPA 6 e Topmech Melhorado destacaram-se entre as mais produtivas, apresentando frutos firmes, seguidas das cultivares IPA 5 e Agrocica 72. As cultivares Roma VFN, Rossol e Agrocica 08, por outro lado, revelaram-se produtivas, mas com frutos pouco firmes, sendo impróprias para o transporte a longa distância. Com exceção da cultivar Itaparica, que apresentou melhor desempenho relativo nos ambientes menos favoráveis, os genótipos apresentaram, para rendimento, resposta diretamente proporcional à melhoria do ambiente, caracterizado pela média geral dos genótipos dentro de cada experimento. As cultivares Agrocica 08, IPA 5, Nemadoro e UC 204, foram as mais influenciadas pelas variações do ambiente, enquanto as cultivares Agrocica 33, Calmec VF, IPA 6, Rio Fuego, Santa Adélia, Topmec Melhorado e UC 82 foram as mais estáveis.Six field trials were carried out to evaluate processing tomato cultivars in four counties in the State of Goiás, Brazil (Anápolis, Jataí, Porangatú and Santa Isabel, in 1990, and Anápolis and Porangatu, in 1991. The experiment was conducted as a randomized block design, with four replications, and plots of 80 plants in 1990 and 70 plants in 1991. The plant cycle was shorter in Porangatu (1990, where temperatures were higher than Anápolis. In Porangatu, plant flowering

  7. Ultra-processed food consumption and adiposity trajectories in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents: ELANA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana Barbosa; da Costa, Teresa Helena Macedo; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; Pereira, Rosangela Alves; Sichieri, Rosely

    2018-05-25

    In Brazil, the increase in obesity rates has been accompanied by increased consumption of ultra-processed food (UPF). The objective of this paper was to evaluate body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (%BF) trajectories in adolescents over a 3-year follow-up according to the frequency of UPF consumption. Data of three consecutive years (2010, 2011, and 2012) were obtained from the Adolescent Nutritional Assessment Longitudinal Study (ELANA) that aimed to assess changes in anthropometric indicators of nutritional status, and 1035 adolescents enrolled in the 1st year of high school from six schools (four private and two public) in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were included. At three follow-ups, they had their weights and heights measured. Body composition was measured at the first and second follow-ups. Mixed linear regression models were used to estimate BMI and %BF trajectories based on quartiles of UPF intake, adjusting for type of school, sex, physical activity, and underreporting. Compared to their counterparts in the 1st quartile, adolescents in the 4th quartile of UPF consumption had a lower daily intake of fruits, cooked vegetables, and raw vegetables and a higher intake of total sugar and physical activity levels (p < 0.001). There was an inverse association between UPF consumption and BMI both at baseline and at follow-up. Values for %BF followed the same trend. Adolescents in the 4th quartile had the greatest level of physical activity and lowest total energy intake. This study confirmed that greater intake of UPF is a marker of an unhealthy diet, but did not support the hypothesis of a high rate of change in BMI associated with greater UPF consumption, even after adjusting for physical activity.

  8. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanshen Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  9. Robust Tomato Recognition for Robotic Harvesting Using Feature Images Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanshen; Gong, Liang; Huang, Yixiang; Liu, Chengliang

    2016-01-29

    Automatic recognition of mature fruits in a complex agricultural environment is still a challenge for an autonomous harvesting robot due to various disturbances existing in the background of the image. The bottleneck to robust fruit recognition is reducing influence from two main disturbances: illumination and overlapping. In order to recognize the tomato in the tree canopy using a low-cost camera, a robust tomato recognition algorithm based on multiple feature images and image fusion was studied in this paper. Firstly, two novel feature images, the  a*-component image and the I-component image, were extracted from the L*a*b* color space and luminance, in-phase, quadrature-phase (YIQ) color space, respectively. Secondly, wavelet transformation was adopted to fuse the two feature images at the pixel level, which combined the feature information of the two source images. Thirdly, in order to segment the target tomato from the background, an adaptive threshold algorithm was used to get the optimal threshold. The final segmentation result was processed by morphology operation to reduce a small amount of noise. In the detection tests, 93% target tomatoes were recognized out of 200 overall samples. It indicates that the proposed tomato recognition method is available for robotic tomato harvesting in the uncontrolled environment with low cost.

  10. A model for drug dispensing service based on the care process in the Brazilian health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to medication emphasizes the availability of the product at the expense of providing a service. The goal of this paper is to propose a theoretical model for a drug dispensing service, beginning with a reflection on the current realities of the Unified Health System and drug dispensation in Brazil. A conceptual analytical research made by a methodological course called disciplined imagination was mainly the approach applied to develop the model. The drug dispensing service is part of the care process, which considers access as an attribute; reception, connection and accountability, management, and clinical pharmaceutical aspects as components; and the rational use of drugs as the purpose. The proposed model addresses access to the dispensing service and demands a reorientation of routines, instruments, and practices.O acesso a medicamentos enfatiza a disponibilidade do produto em detrimento da provisão de um serviço. O objetivo deste trabalho é propor um modelo teórico para um serviço de dispensação de medicamentos, iniciando com uma reflexão sobre a realidade atual do Sistema Único de Saúde e a dispensação de medicamentos no Brasil. Uma pesquisa analítica conceitual realizada por meio de um percurso metodológico chamado de imaginação disciplinada constituiu a estratégia principal para o desenvolvimento do modelo. O serviço de dispensação é parte do processo de cuidado, o qual considera o acesso como um atributo; os aspectos acolhimento, vínculo e responsabilização, gestão e clínica farmacêutica como componentes e o uso racional de medicamentos como o propósito. O modelo proposto direciona o acesso para o serviço de dispensação e demanda a reorientação de rotinas, instrumentos e práticas.

  11. Reflections on the process of selecting and preparing teams: the case of the brazilian youth masculine volleyball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Shigunov

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out with the aim to analyze the methodological strategy adopted by the coach of the Brazilian youth man volleyball team during training sessions in the preparation period. As a data gathering method, 45 videos were taken during sessions, 28 in Belo Horizonte and 17 in Poços de Caldas. A semi-structured interview was also held with the coach and the coaching staff . The results of the research indicated that the coach’s pedagogical practice was strongly influenced by technical, developmental and systemic methodological conceptions. This practice was developed through a combination of different methodologies, such as analytic, synthetic, structuralist, dynamic and progressive. The relationship between the coaching staff and the athletes was harmonious and respectful. It was shown that, besides to anthropometric, conditioning, technical-coordinating, tactical-cognitive and psychological factors, the twelve athletes who represented Brazil in the World Youth Championshipwere also chosen for other qualities. Among the qualities to be mentioned are the capacity for leadership, group cohesion, courage and determination . The research pointed out that the preparation process of the Brazilian team was carried out with great competence, through a correct division of training time and a careful selection of the athletes, following international standard criteria such as height, strength and individual technical skills. RESUMO Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o propósito de analisar a estratégia metodológica adotada pelo técnico da seleção brasileira masculina de voleibol infanto-juvenil nos treinamentos no período preparatório da equipe. Como instrumento de coleta de dados, foram realizadas filmagens em vídeo de 45 sessões de treinamentos, sendo 28 em Belo horizonte e 17 em Poços de Caldas. Também foi realizada uma entrevista semi-estruturada com o treinador da seleção brasileira e a sua comissão técnica. Os

  12. Enhancing the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process: linguistic and psychometric testing of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of a self-report measure for dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Felipe; Alves, Milton Ruiz; Epstein, Jonathan; Novaes, Priscila

    2015-04-01

    To provide a reliable, validated, and culturally adapted instrument that may be used in monitoring dry eye in Brazilian patients and to discuss the strategies for the enhancement of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation process of a self-report measure for dry eye. The cross-cultural adaptation process (CCAP) of the original Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) into Brazilian-Portuguese was conducted using a 9-step guideline. The synthesis of translations was tested twice, for face and content validity, by different subjects (focus groups and cognitive interviews). The expert committee contributed on several steps, and back translations were based on the final rather than the prefinal version. For validation, the adapted version was applied in a prospective longitudinal study to 101 patients from the Dry Eye Clinic at the General Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Simultaneously to the OSDI, patients answered the short form-36 health survey (SF-36) and the 25-item visual function questionnaire (VFQ-25) and underwent clinical evaluation. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and measure validity were assessed. Cronbach's alpha value of the cross-culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI was 0.905, and the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.801. There was a statistically significant difference between OSDI scores in patients with dry eye (41.15 ± 27.40) and without dry eye (17.88 ± 17.09). There was a negative association between OSDI and VFQ-25 total score (P adaptation process requires skill, knowledge, experience, and a considerable investment of time to maximize the attainment of semantic, idiomatic, experiential, and conceptual equivalence between the source and target questionnaires. A well-established guideline resulted in a culturally adapted Brazilian-Portuguese version of the OSDI, tested and validated on a sample of Brazilian population, and proved to be a valid and reliable instrument for assessing

  13. Environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, new funeral technologies, and preferences of the Northeastern and Southern Brazilian population as for the funeral process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nicholas Joseph Tavares; Lezana, Álvaro Guillermo Rojas; Freire Dos Santos, Paulo da Cruz; Santana Pinto, Ibsen Mateus Bittencourt; Zancan, Claudio; Silva de Souza, Gustavo Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Cemeteries and crematoria are the main funeral ways used in the world nowadays. It is a little-studied segment in the present days, mainly as for the possible environmental impacts in the environment, such as those derived from dental amalgam, prostheses, and dioxins, among other. This article aimed to identify the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria and to point out new trends in funeral processes such as freeze-drying and alkaline hydrolysis. The study is justified due to the large part of the Brazilian population that do not know the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, as well as to bring information about the new processes. For that, a research was carried out with 400 people. The main results show that among all the funeral processes, the new freeze-drying process was opted by 33% of the sample. We also identified that the main reasons for choosing the funeral process were less environmental impact (28%), no after-death expenses (grave payment) (16.1%), and the possibility of putting away or throwing away the remains wherever you want (14.9%). Finally, new funeral processes were well accepted by the Brazilian population-those who were interviewed-due to their benefits.

  14. Waste energy boosts tomato industry at distillery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McColl, J

    1989-04-01

    A trial project aimed at using waste hot water from the cooling process at a Scottish whisky distillery to heat a glasshouse for tomato production is described. Later developments have involved the installation of a waste heat boiler to make use of the heat from the still burner flue gases. Steam from the boiler is used within the distillery and to supplement the glasshouse system. The payback within the distillery industry has been excellent, but tomato production, though continuing, was adversely affected by severe cutbacks in distillery production in the early eighties. Recently further significant savings have been made in the distillery industry by the installation of a regenerative burner in one of the stills and thermo-compressors in the cooling tower condensers to produce low pressure steam which can be fed back into the system. (U.K.).

  15. Rapid, accurate and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bicanic, D.D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.T.M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such

  16. Almería’s tomato chain analysis and strategies to upgrade the chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García Martínez de San Vicente, I.T.

    2012-01-01

    The Almeria’s tomato value chain is currently reducing its competitiveness due to high production and processing costs as well as the maintenance of selling prices and the increase of competitors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the Almeria’s tomato value chain in order to

  17. Hot water surface pasteurization for inactivating Salmonella on surfaces of mature green tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of salmonellosis have been associated with the consumption of tomatoes contaminated with Salmonella. Commercial washing processes for tomatoes are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove this human pathogen. Our objective was to develop a hot water surface pasteurization pro...

  18. Demonstration tests of infrared peeling system with electrical emitters for tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling is an emerging technology that could avoid the drawbacks of steam and lye peeling of tomatoes. The objectives of this research was to evaluate the performance of an IR peeling system at two tomato processing plants located in California and to compare product quality, peela...

  19. Desempenho de famílias e híbridos comerciais de tomateiro para processamento industrial com irrigação por gotejamento Evaluation of tomato families and commercial hybrids for processing using drip irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O.M. Carvalho

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas e selecionadas as famílias provenientes do programa de melhoramento do tomateiro da UFU, com potencial para processamento industrial e comparados seus desempenhos com os híbridos mais utilizados pelos produtores na região de Patos de Minas. O ensaio foi conduzido na EE Fazenda Barreiro da Unilever Bestfoods Brasil, em Patos de Minas. Utilizaram-se 30 famílias de tomateiro e os híbridos Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 e Hypeel 108. As Parcelas constituíram-se de linhas duplas espaçadas 0,5 m entre si, com 10 m de comprimento, irrigadas por gotejamento. O espaçamento entre as linhas duplas foi de 1,3 m e a população de 27 mil plantas por hectare. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. A semeadura foi realizada em 19/05/01. O rendimento de polpa mostrou correlações fenotípicas e genotípicas positivas com a produção total, produção de frutos comerciais, % de sólidos solúveis totais, coloração do suco, número de frutos maduros por planta e pH e negativa com acidez total titulável. Destacaram-se a família UFU 06 e os três híbridos comerciais.Tomato families originated from the processing tomato breeding program of the Universidade Federal de Uberlandia were evaluated and selected and compared to the performance with the most planted hybrids in Patos de Minas, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in the E. E. Barreiro, Unilever Bestfoods, in Patos de Minas. Thirty tomato families and the hybrids Heinz 9553, Heinz 7155N2 and Hypeel 108 were used. Experimental plots consisted of two lines, each one 10 m long, spaced 0,5 m from each other and irrigated with drip irrigation. The space between each double row was 1,3 m and the population of 27 thousand plants per hectare. The experimental design was a randomised complete block with four repetitions, installed on 05/19/01. The paste yield showed positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with total fruit yield, commercial fruit

  20. Bread enriched in lycopene and other bioactive compounds by addition of dry tomato waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Violeta; Ionica, Mira Elena; Trandafir, Ion

    2015-12-01

    The tomato processing industry generates high amounts of waste, mainly tomato skins and seeds, which create environmental problems. These residues are attractive sources of valuable bioactive components and pigments. A relatively simple recovery technology could consist of production of powders to be directly incorporated into foods. Tomato waste coming from a Romanian tomato processing unit were analyzed for the content of several bioactive compounds like ascorbic acid, β-carotene, lycopene, total phenolics, mineral and trace elements. In addition, its antioxidant capacity was assayed. Results revealed that tomato waste (skins and seeds) could be successfully utilized as functional ingredient for the formulation of antioxidant rich functional foods. Dry tomato processing waste were used to supplement wheat flour at 6 and 10 % levels (w/w flour basis) and the effects on the bread's physicochemical, baking and sensorial characteristics were studied. The following changes were observed: increase in moisture content, titratable acidity and bread crumb elasticity, reduction in specific volume and bread crumb porosity. The addition of dry tomato waste at 6 % resulted in bread with good sensory characteristics and overall acceptability but as the amount of dry tomato waste increased to 10 %, bread was less acceptable.

  1. Distribution behaviour of acaricide cyflumetofen in tomato during home canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Dong, Fengshou; Chen, Zenglong; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Duan, Lifang; Li, Minmin; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-05-01

    The distribution behaviour of cyflumetofen in tomatoes during home canning was studied. The targeted compound cyflumetofen was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each process step, which included washing, peeling, homogenisation, simmering and sterilisation. Results indicated that more cyflumetofen was removed by washing with detergent solution compared with tap water, 2% NaCl solution and 2% CH3COOH solution. Peeling resulted in 90.2% loss of cyflumetofen and was the most effective step at removing pesticide residues from tomatoes. The processing factors (PFs) of tomato samples after each step were generally less than 1; in particular, the PF of the peeling process for cyflumetofen was 0.28.

  2. FATE OF ENDOSULFAN AND DELTAMETHRIN RESIDUES DURING TOMATO PASTE PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIGDEM UYSAL-PALA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of tomato paste processing steps on pesticides with active ingredient endosulfan and deltamethrin were investigated in Biga/Canakkale. Residue data were obtained by analyzing samples taken during harvesting, taken after washing and chopping, taken after pulping (pulp and pomace and taken from the tomato paste with GC-ECD. In the process of making tomato paste, washing decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 30.62% and 47.58%, respectively. Pre-heating, pulping, evaporation and half-pasteurization increased deltamethrin 2.33% while decreasing endosulfan 66.5% after washing. The whole process decreased endosulfan and deltamethrin, 76.8% and 46.3%, respectively. The residues were mostly collected in pomace.

  3. Controle químico da mancha-bacteriana do tomate para processamento industrial em campo Field chemical control of bacterial spot on tomato for industrial processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadia dos R Nascimento

    2013-03-01

    cloretos de benzalcônio. ASM e famoxadona + mancozebe foram os que promoveram uma relação benefício/custo superior a 1.In order to evaluate chemical control of bacterial spot on tomato for industrial processing, two field trials were carried out at the Unilever Bestfoods experimental station, in Goiânia, Goias state, Brazil. The first trial was in a randomized complete block design, with 15 treatments and three replications, using the hybrid Heinz 9992 inoculated with Xanthomonas perforans. The second trial was in a split-plot randomized complete block design with chemical foliar applications (10 treatments and hybrids (Hypeel 108 and U2006 as factors. Plants were inoculated with X. perforans and X. gardneri. In both trials the chemicals, in different number of applications and combinations, were: acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM; famoxadone + mancozeb; metiram + pyraclostrobin; phosphite PK; benzalkonium chlorides; cuprous oxide, and copper hydroxide (SC, WP and WG. For both trials, disease severity on leaves, number of fruits with symptoms and yield were evaluated. In the second one, sunscald was also evaluated. For the first trial, significant severity differences (p>0.05 among treatments were observed only in the first two evaluations, but none of them differed from the water check control. In the second trial, significant differences were detected only in foliar severity in first evaluation for hybrids. For number of fruits with symptoms and sunscald, besides hybrids, interaction among factors was also significant. 'U2006' was more resistant than 'Hypeel 108', which also had highest sunscald values, but concerning fruits with symptoms, the opposite was observed. The two factors were significant for yield data, 'U2006' yielded better than 'Hypeel 108'. Despite none of the treatments have differed in yield from the water control, famoxadone + mancozeb, which resulted in the highest yield, differed from copper hydroxide, ASM - famoxadone + mancozeb, and benzalkonium

  4. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  5. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Nowacka, Małgorzata; Dadan, Magdalena; Wiktor, Artur; Rybak, Katarzyna; Witrowa-Rajchert, Dorota; Zdunek, Artur

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle) method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma). Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε) provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes. PMID:29617343

  6. Postharvest Monitoring of Tomato Ripening Using the Dynamic Laser Speckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Mariusz Pieczywek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic laser speckle (biospeckle method was tested as a potential tool for the assessment and monitoring of the maturity stage of tomatoes. Two tomato cultivars—Admiro and Starbuck—were tested. The process of climacteric maturation of tomatoes was monitored during a shelf life storage experiment. The biospeckle phenomena were captured using 640 nm and 830 nm laser light wavelength, and analysed using two activity descriptors based on biospeckle pattern decorrelation—C4 and ε. The well-established optical parameters of tomatoes skin were used as a reference method (luminosity, a*/b*, chroma. Both methods were tested with respect to their prediction capabilities of the maturity and destructive indicators of tomatoes—firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. The statistical significance of the tested relationships were investigated by means of linear regression models. The climacteric maturation of tomato fruit was associated with an increase in biospckle activity. Compared to the 830 nm laser wavelength the biospeckle activity measured at 640 nm enabled more accurate predictions of firmness, chlorophyll and carotenoids content. At 640 nm laser wavelength both activity descriptors (C4 and ε provided similar results, while at 830 nm the ε showed slightly better performance. The linear regression models showed that biospeckle activity descriptors had a higher correlation with chlorophyll and carotenoids content than the a*/b* ratio and luminosity. The results for chroma were comparable with the results for both biospeckle activity indicators. The biospeckle method showed very good results in terms of maturation monitoring and the prediction of the maturity indices of tomatoes, proving the possibility of practical implementation of this method for the determination of the maturity stage of tomatoes.

  7. Metabolite Profiling of Italian Tomato Landraces with Different Fruit Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana eBaldina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest towards traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to understand the genetic basis of traits related to health and organoleptic aspects and improve them in modern varieties. To establish a framework for this approach, we studied the content of several metabolites in a panel of Italian tomato landraces categorized into three broad fruit type classes (flattened/ribbed, pear/oxheart, round/elongate. Three modern hybrids, corresponding to the three fruit shape typologies, were included as reference. Red ripe fruits were morphologically characterized and biochemically analyzed for their content in glycoalkaloids, phenols, amino acids and Amadori products. The round/elongate types showed a higher content in glycoalkaloids, whereas flattened types had higher levels of phenolic compounds. Flattened tomatoes were also rich in total amino acids and in particular in glutamic acid. Multivariate analysis of amino acid content clearly separated the three classes of fruit types. Making allowance of the very low number of genotypes, phenotype-marker relationships were analyzed after retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the landraces available in the literature. Sixty-six markers were significantly associated with the studied traits. The positions of several of these SNPs showed correspondence with already described genomic regions and QTLs supporting the reliability of the association. Overall the data indicated that significant changes in quality-related metabolites occur depending on the genetic background in traditional tomato germplasm, frequently according to specific fruit shape categories. Such a variability is suitable to harness association mapping for metabolic quality traits using this germplasm

  8. Rapid, accurate, and direct determination of total lycopene content in tomato paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicanic, D.; Anese, M.; Luterotti, S.; Dadarlat, D.; Gibkes, J.; Lubbers, M.

    2003-01-01

    Lycopene that imparts red color to the tomato fruit is the most potent antioxidant among carotenes, an important nutrient and also used as a color ingredient in many food formulations. Since cooked and processed foods derived from tomatoes were shown to provide optimal lycopene boost, products such as paste, puree, juice, etc. are nowadays gaining popularity as dietary sources. The analysis of lycopene in tomato paste (partially dehydrated product prepared by vacuum concentrating tomato juice) is carried out using either high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry, or by evaluating the color. The instability of lycopene during processes of extraction, etc., handling, and disposal of organic solvents makes the preparation of a sample for the analysis a delicate task. Despite a recognized need for accurate and rapid assessment of lycopene in tomato products no such method is available at present. The study described here focuses on a direct determination of a total lycopene content in different tomato pastes by means of the laser optothermal window (LOW) method at 502 nm. The concentration of lycopene in tomato paste ranged between 25 and 150 mg per 100 g product; the results are in excellent agreement with those obtained by spectrophotometry. The time needed to complete LOW analysis is very short, so that decomposition of pigment and the formation of artifacts are minimized. Preliminary results indicate a good degree of reproducibility making the LOW method suitable for routine assays of lycopene content in tomato paste.

  9. Consumption of ultra-processed food and obesity: cross sectional results from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort (2008-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fernanda Marcelina; Giatti, Luana; de Figueiredo, Roberta Carvalho; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; de Oliveira Cardoso, Letícia; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Barreto, Sandhi Maria

    2018-04-12

    To verify if the intake of ultra-processed foods is associated with higher BMI and waist circumference (WC) among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort. Cross-sectional analysis of the ELSA-Brasil baseline (2008-2010). Dietary information obtained through an FFQ was classified according to characteristics of food processing (NOVA) and used to estimate the percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods (i.e. industrial formulations, elaborated from food processing, synthetic constituents and food additives) to individuals' total energy intake. BMI and WC and their respective cut-off points served as response variables. Associations were estimated through linear and multinomial logistic regression models, after adjusting for confounders and total energy intake. Six Brazilian capital cities, 2008-2010. Active and retired civil servants, aged 35-64 years, from universities and research organizations (n 8977). Ultra-processed foods accounted for 22·7 % of total energy intake. After adjustments, individuals in the fourth quartile of percentage energy contribution from ultra-processed foods presented (β; 95 % CI) a higher BMI (0·80; CI 0·53, 1·07 kg/m2) and WC (1·71; 1·02, 2·40 cm), and higher chances (OR; 95 % CI) of being overweight (1·31; 1·13, 1·51), obese (1·41; 1·18, 1·69) and having significantly increased WC (1·41; 1·20, 1·66), compared with those in the first quartile. All associations suggest a dose-response gradient. Results indicate the existence of associations between greater energy contribution from ultra-processed foods and higher BMI and WC, which are independent of total energy intake. These findings corroborate public policies designed to reduce the intake of this type of food.

  10. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  11. Implementation of PEF Treatment at Real-Scale Tomatoes Processing Considering LCA Methodology as an Innovation Strategy in the Agri-Food Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro J. Arnal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, science and innovation are boosting the agri-food sector and, in parallel, are helping to decrease greenhouse gas emissions (GHG and European dependency on non-renewable resources. Currently, it is well-known that this sector contributes to the consumption of energy and material resources, causing significant environmental impacts that require a complex and comprehensive environmental evaluation in order to manage them effectively. This becomes even more complicated when new technologies are reaching the level of technological maturity needed to be installed in the production lines. To address this scientific challenge, the life cycle assessment (LCA has been used in this paper to evaluate the potential of pulsed electric fields (PEF technology at an industrial scale to facilitate the steam peeling of tomato fruits. Considering the thermo-physical peeling stage, the LCA has shown that PEF technology is environmentally friendly, because when PEF technology is applied, all the considered environmental indicators improve between 17% and 20%.

  12. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  13. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Innovation in the strategies of Internationalization of Brazilian Multinationals: Evaluation of the Cultural National Dimensions: A Study Case of the Meat Processing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rovai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sketches the evolution of Brazilian multinational companies, from the perspective of the development of Latin-American multinational companies, with respect to the process of globalization. With this article, we looked to characterize the typical profile of these enterprises in agreement with the Dunning Model to confirm if this typology is adequate for the characterization of internationalization strategies. We also explored the Theory of the Cultural Dimensions of Hofstede. While doing this, we analyzed which model measures the strategic alignment and is more orientated in terms of: (i exploration of natural resources and advantages of costs of labor not qualified (resource seeking, advantages; (ii location and synergies of market (market seeking, investments; (iii search of strategic assets of the type efficiency seeking (for what they look to rationalize the production and to explore savings of specialization and location, investments; and (iv type of strategic asset seeking (turned to the acquisition of resources and competences with the objective to develop competitiveness through of the innovation and growth of strategic capacities. We also summarize the referential system that makes possible the development of future inquiries for the delineation of the principal strategies, of the public politics of the National States, and also the financial strategies of these enterprises. Keywords: Strategic innovation; Brazilian multinationals; foreign investment; globalization; Latin American multinationals and multinationals from emerging countries

  15. The metaphor in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR to express inceptive aspect with extension of the action in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Franco de Paula

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present how a metaphor acts in the grammaticalization process of the verb DANAR, from Brazilian Portuguese, ranging from the full lexical verb to the grammatical, auxiliary verb in constructions like: "The kid danou(-se to cry", hereby referred to as V1DANAR + (pron + (prep + V2infinitive. We support that this new usage of DANAR, perceived as a marker of an inceptive aspect with an extension of action, is a consequence of a metaphorical cognitive process that involves imagetic schemes of motion and force, which already existed within the concrete form of DANAR, which justifies that this verb, although not the archetypal aspect marker, may have updated this grammatical category.

  16. Tomato Infrared Drying: Modeling and some Coefficients of the Dehydration Process Secado de Tomate por Infrarrojo: Modelación y algunos Coeficientes del Proceso de Deshidratación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Corrêa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Infrared dehydration is more advantageous than the convective system under similar conditions, and studying this process is important to further develop equipment and procedures. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the dehydration process of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. slices obtained by infrared drying at three different maturity stages throughout two different procedures: Firstly, the drying model was determined by applying the mass and energy balances under wet bulb temperature for the constant drying rate period and secondly, the mass effective diffusion coefficient was determined throughout the experimental data and the theory of diffusion of the liquid phase for the decreasing drying rate period. Tomato fruits cv. Santa Cruz were used. Three maturity stages were selected: green (stage 1, orange (stage 2, and red (stage 3. Mathematical models frequently used to represent drying of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data of tomato drying. The effective diffusion coefficient was obtained by adjusting the liquid diffusion mathematical model to the experimental data of the descending period of dehydration. The two-term model was the best one to represent the tomato dehydration process. The critical moisture content for tomato dehydration was 2.97 kgw kgdm-1. There is an initial dehydration period in which the drying rate reaches its maximum (approximately 1.05 kgw kgdm-1, about 3 min. Three different methods were used to obtain values of the effective diffusion coefficient, including the finite element method, which had the lowest values for the least square sum of deviation 1.00 x 10-7 m² s-1. The global coefficient of heat transfer was 12.45 W m-2K-1, and the global coefficient of mass transfer was 0.0105 m s-1.La deshidratación por infrarrojo es más ventajosa que el sistema convectivo, en condiciones similares, y el estudio de este proceso es importante para el desarrollo de equipos y procedimientos. Por tanto

  17. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  18. Gamma-irradiation of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The influence of gamma-ray on tomatoes picked in a pink-red ripening stage, good for consumption, is studied. For that purpose tomatoes of ''Pioneer 2'' variety packed in perforated 500 g plastic bags were irradiated on a gamma device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min with doses 200 or 300 krad. Samples were stored after irradiation at room temperature (20 - 22sup(o)C). Microbiological studies demonstrated that 44 resp. 99.96 per cent of the initial number of microorganisms was destroyed after irradiation with 200 resp. 300 krad. The time required for the number of microorganisms to be restored was accordingly increased. Irradiation delayed tomato ripening by 4 to 6 days, demonstrable by the reduced content of the basic staining substances - carotene and licopine. Immediately after irradiation the ascorbic acid content was reduced by an average of 13 per cent. After 18 days the amount of ascorbic acid in irradiated tomatoes was increased to a higher than the starting level, this is attributed to reductone formation during irradiation. The elevated total sugar content shown to be invert sugar was due to further tomato ripening. (Ch.K.)

  19. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez, A.I.; Viron, N.; Alhagdow, M.; Karimi, M.; Jones, M.; Amsellem, Z.; Sicard, A.; Czerednik, A.; Angenent, G.C.; Grierson, D.; May, S.; Seymour, G.; Eshed, Y.; Lemaire-Chamley, M.; Rothan, C.; Hilson, P.

    2009-01-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed

  20. Peeling of tomatoes using novel infrared radiation heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of using infrared (IR) dry-peeling as an alternative process for peeling tomatoes without lye and water was studied. Compared to conventional lye peeling, IR dry-peeling using 30 s to 75 s heating time resulted in lower peeling loss (8.3% - 13.2% vs. 12.9% - 15.8%), thinner thickne...

  1. Development of Infrared Radiation Heating Method for Sustainable Tomato Peeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although lye peeling is the widely industrialized method for producing high quality peeled fruit and vegetable products, the peeling method has resulted in negative impacts by significantly exerting both environmental and economic pressure on the tomato processing industry due to its associated sali...

  2. Influence of Inter-Intra Row Spacing on Yield Losses of Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    losses of tomato growing under open field production with fresh market (Bishola) and processing ..... AVRDC. 2003. Asian Vegetable Research and Development Centre, Shanhua, Tainan, progress ... Australia national universities. 20: 1.

  3. Nature of gene action for fruit quality characters of tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. P. Hazra

    2013-05-15

    May 15, 2013 ... additive x additive type non-allelic interaction with negative sign for the characters, which will hinder ..... artificial gene dosage series in tomato to study the mechanisms by ... physical properties affected by food processing.

  4. Consumption of ultra-processed foods and socioeconomic position: a cross-sectional analysis of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Bárbara Dos Santos; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Benseñor, Isabela Judith Martins; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Giatti, Luana

    2018-03-05

    The objective of the study was to estimate the contribution of ultra-processed foods to total caloric intake and investigate whether it differs according to socioeconomic position. We analyzed baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil 2008-2010; N = 14.378) and data on dietary intake using a food frequency questionnaire, assigning it into three categories: unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients, processed foods, and ultra-processed foods. We measured the associations between socioeconomic position (education, per capita household income, and occupational social class) and the percentage of caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods, using generalized linear regression models adjusted for age and sex. Unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients contributed to 65.7% of the total caloric intake, followed by ultra-processed foods (22.7%). After adjustments, the percentage of caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was 20% lower among participants with incomplete elementary school when compared to postgraduates. Compared to individuals from upper income classes, the caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was 10%, 15% and 20% lower among the ones from the three lowest income, respectively. The caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods was also 7%, 12%, 12%, and 17% lower among participants in the lowest occupational social class compared to those from high social classes. Results suggest that the caloric contribution of ultra-processed foods is higher among individuals from high socioeconomic positions with a dose-response relationship for the associations.

  5. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Bacillus coagulans spores in tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Mah, Jae-Hyung; Somavat, Romel; Mohamed, Hussein; Sastry, Sudhir; Tang, Juming

    2012-07-01

    The thermal characteristics of the spores and vegetative cells of three strains of Bacillus coagulans (ATCC 8038, ATCC 7050, and 185A) in tomato juice were evaluated. B. coagulans ATCC 8038 was chosen as the target microorganism for thermal processing of tomato products due to its spores having the highest thermal resistance among the three strains. The thermal inactivation kinetics of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice between 95 and 115°C were determined independently in two different laboratories using two different heating setups. The results obtained from both laboratories were in general agreement, with z-values (z-value is defined as the change in temperature required for a 10-fold reduction of the D-value, which is defined as the time required at a certain temperature for a 1-log reduction of the target microorganisms) of 8.3 and 8.7°C, respectively. The z-value of B. coagulans 185A spores in tomato juice (pH 4.3) was found to be 10.2°C. The influence of environmental factors, including cold storage time, pH, and preconditioning, upon the thermal resistance of these bacterial spores is discussed. The results obtained showed that a storage temperature of 4°C was appropriate for maintaining the viability and thermal resistance of B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores. Acidifying the pH of tomato juice decreased the thermal resistance of these spores. A 1-h exposure at room temperature was considered optimal for preconditioning B. coagulans ATCC 8038 spores in tomato juice.

  6. NAC transcription factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 enhances drought tolerance in tomato

    KAUST Repository

    Thirumalaikumar, Venkatesh P.

    2017-06-22

    Water deficit (drought stress) massively restricts plant growth and the yield of crops; reducing the deleterious effects of drought is therefore of high agricultural relevance. Drought triggers diverse cellular processes including the inhibition of photosynthesis, the accumulation of cell-damaging reactive oxygen species, and gene expression reprogramming, besides others. Transcription factors (TF) are central regulators of transcriptional reprogramming and expression of many TF genes is affected by drought, including members of the NAC family. Here, we identify the NAC factor JUNGBRUNNEN1 (JUB1) as a regulator of drought tolerance in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Expression of tomato JUB1 (SlJUB1) is enhanced by various abiotic stresses, including drought. Inhibiting SlJUB1 by virus-induced gene silencing drastically lowers drought tolerance concomitant with an increase in ion leakage, an elevation of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels, and a decrease of the expression of various drought-responsive genes. In contrast, overexpression of AtJUB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana increases drought tolerance in tomato, alongside with a higher relative leaf water content during drought and reduced H2 O2 levels. AtJUB1 was previously shown to stimulate expression of DREB2A, a TF involved in drought responses, and of the DELLA genes GAI and RGL1. We show here that SlJUB1 similarly controls the expression of the tomato orthologs SlDREB1, SlDREB2, and SlDELLA. Furthermore, AtJUB1 directly binds to the promoters of SlDREB1, SlDREB2 and SlDELLA in tomato. Our study highlights JUB1 as a transcriptional regulator of drought tolerance and suggests considerable conservation of the abiotic stress-related gene regulatory networks controlled by this NAC factor between Arabidopsis and tomato. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil; Negrã o, Só nia; Essack, Magbubah; Morton, Mitchell J. L.; Bougouffa, Salim; Mohamad Razali, Rozaimi; Radovanovic, Aleksandar; Marchand, Benoit; Kulmanov, Maxat; Hoehndorf, Robert; Tester, Mark A.; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  8. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  9. Consumer knowledge, preference, and perceived quality of dried tomato products in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owureku-Asare, Mavis; Ambrose, R P Kingsly; Oduro, Ibok; Tortoe, Charles; Saalia, Firibu K

    2017-05-01

    Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers. Most consumers (74%) preferred tomato powder that is conveniently packaged to retain the characteristic intense taste and the flavor using Friedman's rank mean procedure. The study indicated that consumers were more concerned about good manufacturing practices during the production of solar-dried tomato (48.8%) rather than the quality attributes (8.6%). These findings indicate the need for safe solar drying procedures in order to increase consumer acceptability of solar-dried tomato products in Ghana.

  10. Qualidade de tomate 'Débora' minimamente processado armazenado em dois tipos de embalagens Quality of minimally processed tomato cv. Débora stored in two types of packages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina A Miguel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a qualidade de tomates cv. Débora minimamente processados acondicionados em dois tipos de embalagens. Os frutos foram lavados e sanificados com hipoclorito de sódio (200 mg L-1. A polpa destes frutos foi cortada em cubos (1 cm³ com posterior enxagüe em solução de hipoclorito de sódio (20 mg L-1, acondicionada em sacos de polipropileno (PP ou copos de tereftalato de polietileno (PET e armazenada a 5°C por 8 dias. Durante esse período foram retiradas diariamente amostras para determinação da perda de massa, coloração interna, textura, pH, conteúdos de sólidos solúveis (SS, acidez titulável (AT e ácido ascórbico. Os teores de sólidos solúveis, acidez titulável, relação SS/AT e o pH se mostraram significativamente afetados pela embalagem. Os cubos acondicionados em copos PET apresentaram maiores teores de SS e menores teores de AT, o que resultou em uma relação SS/AT maior que os mantidos em sacos PP. O acondicionamento em copos PET mostrou-se o mais indicado para a produção de tomates cortados em cubos.The quality of minimally processed tomatoes cv. Débora conditioned in two types of packages was evaluated. The fruits were washed and sanitized with a 200 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite solution. The pulp was cut in cubes (1 cm³, rinsed with a 20 mg L-1 sodium hypochlorite solution, packed in polypropylene (PP bags or polyethylene terephthalate (PET cups and stored at 5ºC for eight days. During this period samples were daily retired to evaluate the loss of fresh mass, internal color, texture, pH, contents of soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA and ascorbic acid. The soluble solids, titratable acidity, SS/TA ratio and pH were significantly affected by the packing type. The cubes packed in cups showed greater content of SS and lower of TA, resulting in a better ratio when compared to the cubes packed in bags. The polyethylene terephthalate (PET cups were the best package for

  11. Genetic characterization of Italian tomato varieties and their traceability in tomato food products-Sardaro-2012-Food Science & Nutrition-Wiley Online Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardaro, Maria Luisa Savo; Marmiroli, Marta; Maestri, Elena; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity underlies the improvement of crops by plant breeding. Landraces of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) can contain valuable alleles not common in modern germplasms. The aim was to measure genetic diversity present in 47 most common tomato varieties grown in Italy, 35 were varieties used for processing and 12 were landraces considered "salad varieties". Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility that the variety traceability can be extended through the entire production chain. Diversity was measured using 11 microsatellite markers and 94 genotypes. Among the markers used, a total of 48 alleles were detected. A dendrogram based on total microsatellite polymorphism grouped 47 varieties into three major clusters at 0.75 similarity coefficient, differentiating the modern varieties from tomatoes landraces. The DNA markers developed confirmed the possibility to support the genotype identification all along the tomato production chain. The number of alleles and genotypes identified in the present work is the largest considering papers on food traceability.

  12. Residual impact of methyl salicylate fumigation at the breaker stage on C6 volatile biopathway in red tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavor, which is comprised of aroma and taste, is an important tomato characteristic. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), acting as a critical mobile signal, plays an important role in tomato stress responses and ripening processes. However, less is studied on the impact of its application at early ripening s...

  13. Competitiveness of tomato production in punjab, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, W.; Qureshi, A.H.; Khan, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study measures competitiveness at farm level and economic efficiency at country level of tomato production in relation to tomato trade by using Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM) framework in Punjab, Pakistan. The province was divided into two tomato production regions i.e., Central and Southern Punjab for analysis purpose under importable scenario by using import parity price. Results of PAM model revealed that tomato production in both regions of Punjab has competitiveness under prevailing market situation as indicated by positive private profitability and private cost ratio (PCR) which is less than 1. Competitiveness difference in two regions indicated that Central Punjab has more competitiveness at farm level in tomato production. Economic efficiency results i.e. Domestic Resource Cost (DRC) ratio remained 0.39 and 0.51 in Central and Southern Punjab, respectively with positive social profitability indicating strong comparative advantage under importable scenario. The above results implied that Central Punjab has greater economic efficiency than Southern Punjab in domestic resources use for production of tomato as import substitute commodity. Results of Nominal Protection Coefficient (NPC) and Effective Protection Coefficient (EPC) indicated that combine effects of policies on output and tradable input market did not pass any protection to tomato farmers in the study area. Net effect of policy or market failure is reducing the profitability of tomato producers at farm level which indicates lack of motivation from policies for farmers to expand tomato production as import substitute crop. Present study recommended competitiveness and economic efficiency analysis in other tomato producing regions of the country for year round tomato supply on the basis of resource efficiency and to curtail tomato imports to save the precious foreign exchange. To enhance the competitiveness there is need to increase farmer's incentives through increase of farm level price up to

  14. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  15. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halinska, A.; Frenkel, C.

    1991-01-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied l-[U- 14 C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. Results indicate that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification

  16. Effect of peracetic acid on biofilms formed by Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from a Brazilian cheese processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Hwa In Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the effect of peracetic acid (PAA, 0.5% on adherent cells of three strains of Listeria monocytogenes strains belonging to serotypes 4b and 1/2b that had been previously isolated from the environment of a Brazilian cheese plant. The assays were conducted using polystyrene microplates and stainless steel coupons and the adhered cells were treated with PAA for 60, 120 and 180 s. On stainless steel, biofilms were partially inactivated by PAA after 60 s and almost 100% of the cells were damaged within 180 s using epifluorescence microscopy with LIVE/DEAD® staining. On polystyrene microplates, PAA decreased (P<0.05 biofilm biomass produced by the three L. monocytogenes isolates at 60 s, when compared with controls (no PAA treatment. However, PAA did not completely eliminate L. monocytogenes cells on polystyrene microplates (decreasing 1.8-2.5 log cycles after treatment with PAA for 180 s. The correct concentration and contact time of PAA is critical for eliminating biofilms formed by L. monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces, although further studies are needed for defining efficient PAA treatments to remove adherent cells of this pathogen on plastic polymers.

  17. The behavior of heavy metals in the process of desulfurization of Brazilian coal combustion gases by the addition of limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebag M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of heavy metals in two kinds of Brazilian coals at 100° C (acid digestion and at 850° C were studied (ashes the obtained in muffle furnace with and without addition of limestone. Data were analyzed by flame atomic absorption, using the air acetylene flame. For Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn and Cu the metal concentration obtained the acid digestion were higher than metal concentration were obtained in tests in the muffle furnace. This behavior observed in the muffle furnace occurs because these metals are fixed in stable sulfated compounds in the ashes, which are difficult to dissociate at flame temperature, and also due to the volatile character of the metals, mainly Pb and Zn. There was a constant concentration in the ashes in of Cr the acid digestion and muffle furnace tests. Results from tests using an XRD apparatus indicated, he formation of sulfated compounds in the ashes for both. coals. The analysis using microprobe electronic showed retention of metals like Ni, Mn, Cu, Fe, Ti and Ca. For both coals, the low mobility of most of the metals studied occured due to the alkaline pH of sulfated ashes. These metals in the ash from coal combustion in fluidized bed reactor were also studied and showed similar results, enabling a scale-up to pilot scale.

  18. Hormones and tomato seed germination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Using GA- and ABA-deficient mutants, exogenous gibberellins (GAs), abscisic acid (ABA) and osmoticum, we studied the roles of GAs and ABA in the induction of cell cycle activities, internal free space formation and changes in water relations during seed development and imbibition in tomato. First of

  19. Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...

  20. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  1. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  2. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    OpenAIRE

    J. Hossain

    2014-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU) research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15) were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in co...

  3. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  4. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  5. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  6. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  7. Evaluation of tomato varieties on P absorption and its use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Villanueva, Felipe Carlos; Cotrim Duete, Robson Rui; Muraoka, Takashi; Cotrim Duete, Washington Luiz; Abreu Junior, Cassio Hamilton

    1999-01-01

    The differences on the uptake of P from the soil and fertilizer (triple superphosphate) and on nutrient use by two commercial tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Will) varieties, Santa Clara and Santa Cruz Kada, were evaluated by 32 P technique. The experiment was carried out in two Brazilian soils, Dark Red Latosol from Piracicaba, Sao Paulo and calcareous Yellow Latosol from Irec Bahia, using pots with 2.5 kg soil. The radioisotope was added to the soil as KH2PO4 solution, with 3.7 MBq/pot. The dry matter weight, plant P content, L and A values were utilized for comparing the tomato varieties. There was a clear response to P fertilization. The Santa Cruz variety had higher dry matter weight and lower concentration than Santa Clara variety, but there was no difference on the total P taken up, indicating that the Santa Cruz variety

  8. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-01-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. PMID:26082399

  9. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-11-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Flexible tools for gene expression and silencing in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana I; Viron, Nicolas; Alhagdow, Moftah; Karimi, Mansour; Jones, Matthew; Amsellem, Ziva; Sicard, Adrien; Czerednik, Anna; Angenent, Gerco; Grierson, Donald; May, Sean; Seymour, Graham; Eshed, Yuval; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine; Rothan, Christophe; Hilson, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    As a genetic platform, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) benefits from rich germplasm collections and ease of cultivation and transformation that enable the analysis of biological processes impossible to investigate in other model species. To facilitate the assembly of an open genetic toolbox designed to study Solanaceae, we initiated a joint collection of publicly available gene manipulation tools. We focused on the characterization of promoters expressed at defined time windows during fruit development, for the regulated expression or silencing of genes of interest. Five promoter sequences were captured as entry clones compatible with the versatile MultiSite Gateway format: PPC2, PG, TPRP, and IMA from tomato and CRC from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Corresponding transcriptional fusions were made with the GUS gene, a nuclear-localized GUS-GFP reporter, and the chimeric LhG4 transcription factor. The activity of the promoters during fruit development and in fruit tissues was confirmed in transgenic tomato lines. Novel Gateway destination vectors were generated for the transcription of artificial microRNA (amiRNA) precursors and hairpin RNAs under the control of these promoters, with schemes only involving Gateway BP and LR Clonase reactions. Efficient silencing of the endogenous phytoene desaturase gene was demonstrated in transgenic tomato lines producing a matching amiRNA under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or PPC2 promoter. Lastly, taking advantage of the pOP/LhG4 two-component system, we found that well-characterized flower-specific Arabidopsis promoters drive the expression of reporters in patterns generally compatible with heterologous expression. Tomato lines and plasmids will be distributed through a new Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre service unit dedicated to Solanaceae resources.

  11. The influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Jelena M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the potential raw materials which could be used for production of food with added nutritional value is tomato pomace, a by-product from tomato processing. On the other hand, requirements of consumers for diverse food with potential for health benefits impose the need for creation of products made from different cereals. In this respect, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of addition of dried tomato pomace on the physical and sensory properties of whole grain rye flour cookies. The whole grain rye flour was substituted with tomato pomace powder in two levels (15% and 25% in the standard formulation of short-dough cookie. The quality of final products was evaluated by instrumental and sensory methods. The results clearly demonstrated that redness (+a* and yellowness (+b* were highly influenced by level of tomato pomace in the cookie formulations due to its content of carotenoid pigments. The spread factor of the cookies made with addition of tomato pomace powder was higher than the control sample. Hardness of the cookie samples decreased for approximately 50% for the cookie sample with 25% tomato pomace level substitution when compared with control sample. According to the results of sensory analysis, substitution level of 15% caused decrease of surface roughness, fracturability, and granularity, as well as increase of caramel flavour intensity. Substitution level of 25% caused higher degree of cookie softening and more pronounced tomato flavour.

  12. Chemical and biological studies on producing high quality biscuits with irradiated tomato wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to produce high quality biscuits for treatment of some special diseases. In this study, the total tomato processing wastes were used as new source of protein in which the most predominate elements were found to be phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Phenyl alanine was found to be the first limiting amino acid, while lysine was the second limiting amino acid. It was found to contain about 30.66% fiber and 28.1% protein. The total tomato processing wastes remain unutilized and they not only add to the disposal problem, but also aggravate environmental pollution. Tomato wastes were irradiated in two doses (1.5 and 2.5 KGy) for preservation. Biscuits were made with supplementation of 5, 10 and 15% tomato wastes. All samples of biscuits were examined for chemical composition and organoleptic evaluation. Biological assay was carried out on rats fed biscuits containing 15% irradiated and non-irradiated tomato wastes. The weight gain, serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined. Internal organs were also followed. The results obtained showed that 15% tomato wastes biscuit had the highest content of lysine, isoleucine and fiber (6.36, 2.72 and 24.80, respectively) and also scored a good grade. Weight gain, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable to control and there was no effect of irradiation on the rats internal organs

  13. High speed intelligent classifier of tomatoes by colour, size and weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cement, J.; Novas, N.; Gazquez, J. A.; Manzano-Agugliaro, F.

    2012-11-01

    At present most horticultural products are classified and marketed according to quality standards, which provide a common language for growers, packers, buyers and consumers. The standardisation of both product and packaging enables greater speed and efficiency in management and marketing. Of all the vegetables grown in greenhouses, tomatoes are predominant in both surface area and tons produced. This paper will present the development and evaluation of a low investment classification system of tomatoes with these objectives: to put it at the service of producing farms and to classify for trading standards. An intelligent classifier of tomatoes has been developed by weight, diameter and colour. This system has optimised the necessary algorithms for data processing in the case of tomatoes, so that productivity is greatly increased, with the use of less expensive and lower performance electronics. The prototype is able to achieve very high speed classification, 12.5 ratings per second, using accessible and low cost commercial equipment for this. It decreases fourfold the manual sorting time and is not sensitive to the variety of tomato classified. This system facilitates the processes of standardisation and quality control, increases the competitiveness of tomato farms and impacts positively on profitability. The automatic classification system described in this work represents a contribution from the economic point of view, as it is profitable for a farm in the short term (less than six months), while the existing systems, can only be used in large trading centers. (Author) 36 refs.

  14. Preplanting irradiation of tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltseva, S.

    1976-01-01

    Seeds of the tomato varieties Pioneer-2, Drouzhba and Ace were treated prior to planting with Co 60 gamma rays in optimal doses of 2000 R and the varieties No 10 x Bison, Triumph and Extase with 1500 R. This treatment raised the germination energy and the plants started flowering and ripening earlier. The index of earliness was enhanced but the overall yield was equal to that of the control plants. (author)

  15. Carotenoid stability during production and storage of tomato juice made from tomatoes with diverse pigment profiles measured by infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Diaz, Daniel E; Santos, Alejandra; Francis, David M; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2010-08-11

    Chemical changes in carotenoids and lipids were studied during production and storage of canned tomato juice using ATR infrared spectroscopy and HPLC. Samples from 10 groups of tomatoes with different carotenoid profiles were analyzed fresh, after hot-break and screening, after canning, and at five different time points during 1 year of storage. An apparent increase of carotenoids was observed after hot-break due to improved extraction efficiency. This increase was accompanied by some degree of lipid oxidation and carotenoid isomerization. Canning produced the most intense changes in the lipid profile with breakdown of triglycerides ( approximately 1743 cm(-1)), formation of fatty acids ( approximately 1712 cm(-1)), and degradation and isomerization of trans-carotenoids ( approximately 960 and approximately 3006 cm(-1)). Isomerization was corroborated by the relative increase of HPLC areas corresponding to carotenoid cis isomers. Canning reduced trans-lycopene, trans-delta-carotene, trans-beta-carotene, and trans-lutein by 30, 34, 43, and 67%, respectively. HPLC data indicate that canning causes a drastic reduction of tetra-cis-lycopene and promotes its isomerization to other geometric forms, including all-trans-lycopene. Infrared spectra of tomato juice lipid fractions correlated well with the number of days in storage (SECV 0.99), demonstrating continuous degradation of lipids. Results demonstrated that individual carotenoids and their isomeric forms behave differently during production and storage of canned tomato juice. Information collected by infrared spectroscopy complemented well that of HPLC, providing marker bands to further the understanding of chemical changes taking place during processing and storage of tomato juice.

  16. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  17. An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Erica N.; Kopec, Rachel E.; Schwartz, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Lycopene is a non-provitamin A carotenoid that is responsible for the red to pink colors seen in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and other foods. Processed tomato products are the primary dietary lycopene source in the United States. Unlike many other natural compounds, lycopene is generally stable to processing when present in the plant tissue matrix. Recently, lycopene has also been studied in relation to its potential health effects. Although promising data from epidemiological, as well as cell culture and animal, studies suggest that lycopene and the consumption of lycopene containing foods may affect cancer or cardiovascular disease risk, more clinical trial data is needed to support this hypothesis. In addition, future studies are required to understand the mechanism(s) whereby lycopene or its metabolites are proven to possess biological activity in humans. PMID:22129335

  18. Sensitivity of tomato cultivars to sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, T.K.; Woltz, S.S.

    1982-04-01

    The sensitivity of 26 cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were compared at 2 concentrations of SO/sub 2/in specially designed exposure greenhouses. Cultivars studied included fresh market, processing, and specialty types. Insensitive and sensitive cultivars were identified by assessment of acute SO/sub 2/-induced foliar necrosis. Cultivars found to be insensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Ace', 'Bonanza', 'Heinz 1350', 'Tarquinia Tondino', and 'VF 145-B 7879'. Cultivars found to be sensitive to SO/sub 2/ included: 'Bellarina', 'Chico III', 'Flora-Dade', 'Red Cherry Large' 'Sub-Arctic Delight', and 'Vetomold. 10 figures, 1 table.

  19. ANALYSIS OF CAROTENOIDS AND LYCOPENE IN TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM MILL. AND THEIR RETENTION IN TOMATO JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE In this work we investigated the effect of variety and processing on the content of carotenoids and lycopene in fruits and Tomato juice from the fruit after heat treatment. The experiment included four varieties are edible tomato for industrial processing (Báb, Žiara PK, Šampion and Roti PK. The concentration of total carotenoids and lycopene were determined spectrophotometrically on UV-VIS spectrophotometer Jenway at a wavelength of 445 and 472 nm. The highest average content of carotenoids in fruits were recorded at a variety Roti PK (7.0 mg/100 g-1 and lowest in variety Báb (4.8 mg/100 g-1. Heat treatment had a statistically significant positive effect on the lycopene content, changes in carotenoid content were not significant. Effect of genotype (variety for the content of the endpoint was significantly important.doi:10.5219/195 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  20. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    OpenAIRE

    G. I. Yarovoy; V. I. Kuzmenko

    2017-01-01

    The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were ...

  1. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  2. 21 CFR 155.191 - Tomato concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Tomato concentrates. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato concentrates are the class of foods each of... greater in length. (c) Blemishes, such as dark brown or black particles (specks)—not more than four exceed...; place a U.S. No. 12 screen (1.68 millimeters (0.066 inch) openings) over the sink drain; transfer the...

  3. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  4. Economic Sustainability of Italian Greenhouse Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Testa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse tomato cultivation plays an important role in Sicily, being the primary production area in Italy, due to its favorable pedo-climatic conditions that permit extra-seasonal productions. In Sicily, more than half of greenhouse tomato production is derived from the Province of Ragusa on the southeastern coast, where especially cherry tomato typologies are cultivated. Over the last decade, the Ragusa Province has registered a decrease both in terms of greenhouse tomato area and harvested production due to several structural problems that would require restructuring of the tomato supply chain. Thus, since recognition of real costs and profitability of tomato growing is a vital issue, both from the perspective of the farm, as well as from that of the entrepreneur, the aim of this paper was to analyze the economic sustainability of Sicilian greenhouse cherry tomato cultivated in the Ragusa Province. In particular, an economic analysis on 30 representative farms was conducted in order to estimate production costs and profits of greenhouse cherry tomato. According to our results, the lack of commercial organization, which characterizes the small farms we surveyed, determines low contractual power for farmers and, consequently, low profitability.

  5. Peeling mechanism of tomato under infrared heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical behaviors of peeling tomatoes using infrared heat are thermally induced peel loosening and subsequent cracking. However, the mechanism of peel loosening and cracking due to infrared heating remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the mechanism of peeling tomatoes under infrared h...

  6. Growth and Tomato Nutrition Content with Bandotan (Ageratum Conyzoides L) Bokashi Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anhar, A.; Junialdi, R.; Zein, A.; Advinda, L.; Leilani, I.

    2018-04-01

    Bandotan (A.conyzoides) is one of the most common weeds in dry land. Weeds can reduce the results of a variety of crops. On the contrary, the use of this weed as the organic material would be able to increase the nutrient content of the soil. The problem is, the decomposition of this weed is naturally longer than the process in the form of Bokashi. This study aims to determine the effect of Bandotan applied in the form of Bokashi on growth and nutrient content of tomato plants. This study was an experimental study and completely randomized design was used with 5 treatments and 3 replications. The treatment were rate of bandotan bokashi those 100, 120, 140, 160 g / polybag and 0,6g NPK / polybag as a control. The research was conducted in the Screen House of Biology Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Sciences, Universitas Negeri Padang. Tomato growth observed was high, wet weight, biomass and weight of the fruit. While the nutritional quality of tomatoes was vitamin C and A. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and a further test DNMRT at 5% level. The results showed that bokhasi bandotan 120g / polybag give best effect to the weight of tomatoes. However, bandotan bokashi do not give effect to the high, wet weight, biomass, vitamin C and vitamin A of tomato. Bokashi bandotan can be utilized as a substitute for synthetic fertilizer NPK for tomato plants.

  7. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  8. Plastid and Stromule Morphogenesis in Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    PYKE, KEVIN A.; HOWELLS, CAROLINE A.

    2002-01-01

    By using green fluorescent protein targeted to the plastid organelle in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), the morphology of plastids and their associated stromules in epidermal cells and trichomes from stems and petioles and in the chromoplasts of pericarp cells in the tomato fruit has been revealed. A novel characteristic of tomato stromules is the presence of extensive bead‐like structures along the stromules that are often observed as free vesicles, distinct from and apparently unconnected to the plastid body. Interconnections between the red pigmented chromoplast bodies are common in fruit pericarp cells suggesting that chromoplasts could form a complex network in this cell type. The potential implications for carotenoid biosynthesis in tomato fruit and for vesicles originating from beaded stromules as a secretory mechanism for plastids in glandular trichomes of tomato is discussed. PMID:12466096

  9. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  10. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  11. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  12. Evaluation of Merger and Acquisition Processes in the Brazilian Banking Sector by means of an Event Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Reed Bergmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Analyze the reactions of the stock market to M&A announcements, i.e. find out if there was value creation and consequently maximization of shareholder wealth or whether there was value destruction and consequently a decrease in the wealth of the shareholders of the acquiring companies in the short term. Design/methodology/approach – Event study – Quantitative Method Findings – It can neither be affirmed that the acquisitions had a significant impact on value creation for purchasers and banks, nor can it be denied. Given the lack of preponderance of either positive or negative returns, the transactions may have been perceived in different manners. Practical implications – The results may be explained by the fact that the synergies that resulted from the M&A processes in the banking sector only helped consolidating major market players and consequently reduced competitiveness in that sector. The negative abnormal returns of M&A processes are due to the monopolistic market competition structure (Tabak, Fazio & Cajueiro, 2012. Contributions – Event Study with robust errors

  13. Radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A method for the radiation preservation of white pomfret (Stromateus cinereus) in tomato sauce is described which enables the storage of fish at ambient temperature (28±3 deg C) for a period of six months. The product with low pH could be stabilized with a dose of 5 kGy. A batch of packed cans (consisting of cans of fish with tomato sauce and the control cans) were subjected to a dose in a Cobalt 60 Package Irradiator (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.) at a dose rate of 0.045 kGy min -1 . Biochemical and bacteriological evaluation confirmed the storage stability of the product. The process offers a safe and simple method to preserve white pomfret in a 'heat and serve' form. (author) 6 refs.; 5 tabs

  14. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen...... consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton...... was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6 f complex in chromorespiration...

  15. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  16. The unitization process in the oil and gas Brazilian sector: regulations analysis; A regulacao no processo de unitizacao na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Silva, Moises E. da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Bone, Rosemarie B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (DEI/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Industrial

    2008-07-01

    In Brazil, the withdraw of 41 blocks of the 9th Round of Auctions by ANP rose questions about the possible unitization of oil fields, particularly on the pre-salt areas and the likelihood of future litigation from licensees against the Brazilian Government on the issue. Based on the international experience from Nigeria and East Timor/Australia, we propose improvements to the Brazilian law on the issue (Law 9478/97, article 27). We conclude that a clear and specific regulation on the unitization issue should be passed, so to protect investors and the non-renewable resources at stake (oil and gas). (author)

  17. The Net Carbon Flux due to Deforestation and Forest Re-Growth in the Brazilian Amazon: Analysis using a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, A. I.; Little, W. S.; Houghton, R. A.; Scott, N. A.; White, J. D.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a process-based model of forest growth, carbon cycling, and land cover dynamics named CARLUC (for CARbon and Land Use Change) to estimate the size of terrestrial carbon pools in terra firme (non-flooded) forests across the Brazilian Legal Amazon and the net flux of carbon resulting from forest disturbance and forest recovery from disturbance. Our goal in building the model was to construct a relatively simple ecosystem model that would respond to soil and climatic heterogeneity that allows us to study of the impact of Amazonian deforestation, selective logging, and accidental fire on the global carbon cycle. This paper focuses on the net flux caused by deforestation and forest re-growth over the period from 1970-1998. We calculate that the net flux to the atmosphere during this period reached a maximum of approx. 0.35 PgC/yr (1PgC = 1 x 10(exp I5) gC) in 1990, with a cumulative release of approx. 7 PgC from 1970- 1998. The net flux is higher than predicted by an earlier study by a total of 1 PgC over the period 1989-1 998 mainly because CARLUC predicts relatively high mature forest carbon storage compared to the datasets used in the earlier study. Incorporating the dynamics of litter and soil carbon pools into the model increases the cumulative net flux by approx. 1 PgC from 1970-1998, while different assumptions about land cover dynamics only caused small changes. The uncertainty of the net flux, calculated with a Monte-Carlo approach, is roughly 35% of the mean value (1 SD).

  18. Ecology and identification of environmental fungi and metabolic processes involved in the biodeterioration of Brazilian soapstone historical monuments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniek, D; de Castro Mendes, I; Paiva, C A O; de Paula Lana, U G; Dos Santos, A F B; de Resende Stoianoff, M A

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the action of organic acids produced by the fungal population associated with the biodeterioration process of the Twelve Prophets of Aleijadinho, a set of soapstone sculptures in Congonhas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. For this, samples of fungi were obtained from the surface of each of the 12 outdoor stone sculptures that comprise the set of Prophets. The identification of the colonizing filamentous fungi was performed by classical microbiology and molecular methods. Some species of filamentous fungi-dependent cultivation were detected, and the presence of species Aspergillus versicolor, Curvularia lunata, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium citrinum and Pseudocercospora norchiensis indicated a connection with the excretion of organic acids. The acids produced by each of these fungal species were analysed quantitatively by chromatographic methods, revealing potential biodeterioration by the action of acidic metabolites excreted in the stone. Minas Gerais, Brazil, is vulnerable to the activities of mineral extraction industries, posing an imminent risk to United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognized cities, e.g. Congonhas. Many of these municipalities hold many soapstone religious sculptures and historical monuments. Consequently, soapstone is susceptible to filamentous fungi attack causing irreversible biodeterioration. Despite the concern related to nondestructive sampling of 18th century sculptures, in this study, we have discussed the factors that lead to biodeterioration of soapstone due to organic acid excretion by the fungi that damage the stone, thereby providing an insight in conserving and preserving the soapstone monuments. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Manager's Discretionary Power and Comparability of Financial Reports: An Analysis of the Regulatory Transition Process in Brazilian Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mussoi Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to directly evaluate the impact of the accounting regulatory flexibility movement on the comparability of financial reports. The country chosen for the analysis was Brazil, because it was one of the few countries in the world where a process of regulatory change from a completely rule-based standard with a strong link to tax accounting (Lopes, 2011 to a principle-based standard with greater need for decision by managers who prepare the financial reports took place. To measure comparability, the accounting function similarity model developed by DeFranco, Kothari and Verdi (2011 was used. The companies analyzed were all listed ones with full data for the period concerned having, at least, a pair company within the same economic activity sector. To obtain the research results, we adopted a panel data model where the years 2005 to 2012 were compared to the year 2004. The results obtained prove that, on average, there was no significant decrease in the comparability level within country during the regulatory transition period in Brazil. On the contrary, there was an increase in genuine comparability in the year 2012 when compared to 2004. In the model adjusted by stepwise, the years 2011 and 2012 had a significantly higher average comparability when compared to 2004. The results found corroborate other researches addressing the quality of accounting information (Collins, Pasewark, & Riley, 2012; Psaros & Trotman, 2004; Agoglia, Doupnik, & Tsakumis, 2011 and prove the superiority of the principle-based standard also over the comparability of financial reports. The main conclusion of this research is that increasing manager's discretionary power through flexibility of accounting standards does not decrease the comparability of financial reports.

  20. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  1. Nutritional evaluation of dried tomato seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persia, M E; Parsons, C M; Schang, M; Azcona, J

    2003-01-01

    Two samples of tomato seeds, a by-product of the tomato canning industry were evaluated to determine proximate analysis, amino acid content, and digestibility, TMEn, and protein efficiency ratio. Tomato seeds were also used to replace corn and soybean meal (SBM) in a chick diet on an equal true amino acid digestibility and TMEn basis. Tomato seeds were found to contain 8.5% moisture, 25% CP, 20.0% fat, 3.1% ash, 35.1% total dietary fiber, 0.12% Ca, 0.58% P, and 3,204 kcal/kg of TMEn. The total amounts of methionine, cystine, and lysine in the tomato seeds were 0.39, 0.40, and 1.34%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 75, 70, and 54%, respectively. The protein efficiency ratio (weight gain per unit of protein intake) value when fed to chicks at 9% CP was 2.5 compared to 3.6 for SBM (P seeds could replace corn and SBM without any adverse affects on chick weight gain, feed intake, or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 21 d posthatch. Tomato seeds at any level in the diet did not significantly affect skin pigmentation. Although the protein quality of tomato seeds may not be as high as SBM, tomato seeds do contain substantial amounts of digestible amino acids and TMEn. When formulating diets on a true digestible amino acid and TMEn basis, tomato seeds can be supplemented into chick rations at up to 15% without any adverse affects on growth performance.

  2. Waste water reuse pathways for processing tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battilani, A; Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

      Direct or indirect water reuse involves several aspects: contamination by faecal, inorganic and xenobiotic pollutants; high levels of suspended solids and salinity; rational use of the dissolved nutrients (particularly nitrogen). The challenge is apply new strategies and technologies which allows...... to use the lowest irrigation water quality without harming nor food safety neither yield and fruit or derivatives quality. The EU project SAFIR aims help farmers solve problems with low quality water and decreased access to water. New water treatment devices (prototypes) are under development to allow...... a safe use of waste water produced by small communities/industries (≤2000 EI) or of treated water discharged in irrigation channels. Water treatment technologies are coupled with irrigation strategies and technologies to obtain a flexible, easy to use, integrated management....

  3. Biological control of bacterial spot of tomato by saprobe fungi from semi-arid areas of northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Casaroto Peitl

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial spot of tomato, caused by Xanthomonas spp., is a common disease in tomato fields that causes significant economic losses. Due to the difficulty with control of bacterial spot by conventional methods, new techniques such as biological control and induction of resistance are gaining prominence. This study aimed to select saprobe fungi from semi-arid regions of the Brazilian Northeast for the biological control of bacterial spot of tomato. To select the best isolates to control bacterial spot, a greenhouse experiment was initially conducted. Tomato plants (‘Santa Cruz Kada’ were treated with filtrates of 25 saprobe fungi and inoculated three days later with Xanthomonas euvesicatoria. Filtrates of Memnoniella levispora, Periconia hispidula, Zygosporium echinosporum, and Chloridium virescens var. virescens were selected as the most effective. Filtrates and volatile compounds from these four isolates were tested for their antibacterial activity in cultures of X. euvesicatoria and in tomato plants (‘Santa Cruz Kada’ inoculated with X. euvesicatoria. In vitro, the addition of nonvolatile fungal metabolites into the culture medium at 5% and 50% (v/v inhibited bacterial growth by 28.9% and 53.8%, respectively. The volatile compounds produced by C. virescens var. virescens reduced the number of colony-forming units of X. euvesicatoria by 25.9%. In vivo, all treatments reduced from 62.4 to 71.3% the area under bacterial spot progress curve, showing the same control efficacy as the commercial resistance inducer used as a positive control (acibenzolar-S-methyl. Systemicity of the fungal filtrates was confirmed in a separate experiment, where application of the treatments exclusively to the third leaf decreased the severity of the disease on the fourth leaf (except for C. virescens var. virescens. These results show that M. levispora, P. hispidula, Z. echinosporum, and C. virescens var. virescens are potential biocontrol agents against

  4. Redox proteomics of tomato in response to Pseudomonas syringae infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmant, Kelly Mayrink; Parker, Jennifer; Yoo, Mi-Jeong; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Unlike mammals with adaptive immunity, plants rely on their innate immunity based on pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI) for pathogen defense. Reactive oxygen species, known to play crucial roles in PTI and ETI, can perturb cellular redox homeostasis and lead to changes of redox-sensitive proteins through modification of cysteine sulfhydryl groups. Although redox regulation of protein functions has emerged as an important mechanism in several biological processes, little is known about redox proteins and how they function in PTI and ETI. In this study, cysTMT proteomics technology was used to identify similarities and differences of protein redox modifications in tomato resistant (PtoR) and susceptible (prf3) genotypes in response to Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) infection. In addition, the results of the redox changes were compared and corrected with the protein level changes. A total of 90 potential redox-regulated proteins were identified with functions in carbohydrate and energy metabolism, biosynthesis of cysteine, sucrose and brassinosteroid, cell wall biogenesis, polysaccharide/starch biosynthesis, cuticle development, lipid metabolism, proteolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, protein targeting to vacuole, and oxidation–reduction. This inventory of previously unknown protein redox switches in tomato pathogen defense lays a foundation for future research toward understanding the biological significance of protein redox modifications in plant defense responses. PMID:26504582

  5. Methods to overcome dormancy in tree tomato (Solanum betaceum seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kosera Neto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tree tomato (Solanum betaceum is a poorly known species that has fruits with great economic potential, as it can be consumed in natura or industrialized. However, for reaching this potential, it is necessary the development of technologies for seedlings production. The propagation of this species is mainly done by seeds, but the seed germination process is usually slow, especially under stress conditions. This study aimed at verifying whether tree tomato seeds have dormancy and which is the best method to obtain fast and uniform germination. A completely randomized design was adopted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement (methods to overcome dormancy x light, with four replications of 50 or 60 seeds, depending on the production cycle. The methods tested were cold stratification, hydropriming, priming with GA3 solution and control, with or without light. Seed germination and germination rate index, as well as the beginning and average time of germination, were also evaluated. The use of GA3 at a concentration of 100 mg L-1 or 300 mg L-1 is recommended to the germination of tree tomato seeds.

  6. Research on tomato seed vigor based on X-ray digital image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueguan; Gao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Xiu; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Songlin; Feng, Qinghun

    2016-10-01

    Seed size, interior abnormal and damage of the tomato seeds will affect the germination. The purpose of this paper was to study the relationship between the internal morphology, seed size and seed germination of tomato. The preprocessing algorithm of X-ray image of tomato seeds was studied, and the internal structure characteristics of tomato seeds were extracted by image processing algorithm. By developing the image processing software, the cavity area between embryo and endosperm and the whole seed zone were determined. According to the difference of area of embryo and endosperm and Internal structural condition, seeds were divided into six categories, Respectively for three kinds of tomato seed germination test, the relationship between seed vigor and seed size , internal free cavity was explored through germination experiment. Through seedling evaluation test found that X-ray image analysis provide a perfect view of the inside part of the seed and seed morphology research methods. The larger the area of the endosperm and the embryo, the greater the probability of healthy seedlings sprout from the same size seeds. Mechanical damage adversely effects on seed germination, deterioration of tissue prone to produce week seedlings and abnormal seedlings.

  7. Energetic use of the tomato plant waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Encinar, Jose M.; Martinez, Gloria [Dpto. de Ingenieria Quimica y Quimica Fisica. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n. 06071 Badajoz, Tf. 34 924 289672 (Spain); Gonzalez, Juan F. [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada. UEX. Avda de Elvas s/n 06071 Badajoz (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    A study of the conventional pyrolysis of the tomato plant waste has been carried out. The objective of this work was to characterize the solid, liquid and gaseous phases obtained in the process for their possible utilization in energy generation. Also, a study of the influence of operation variables has been performed, determining the optimal conditions in which the process can be accomplished. The operation variables studied were temperature (400-800 C), the initial sample mass (2.5-10 g of tomato plant waste) and the particle size (0.63-2.00 mm). Under the conditions studied here, an increase in reaction temperature leads to a decrease in solid and liquid yields and to an increase in gas phase yield. However the variation in the initial sample mass and the particle size does not seem to exert a defined influence in the yield of the different phases. The higher heating value (HHV) of solids and liquids was determined; also the immediate analysis of the solid phase was carried out. The gas phase, mainly composed of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and traces of ethane and ethylene, was analyzed chromatographically. The solid phase is constituted for a charcoal with an average higher heating value of 26 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1}, the liquid phase presents a HHV of 7.8 MJ kg{sup -} {sup 1} at 400 C, this value diminishes when the temperature is increased, and the gas phase has an HHV between 0.5 and 8.0 MJ (kg of raw material){sup -} {sup 1}. According to their characteristics and energy contents, the solid phase can be used as fuel or precursor for the manufacture of activated carbons. The liquid phase could be used as liquid fuel or as organic-compounds source. The gas phase could be used to heat the pyrolysis reactor or to generate heat and electricity in a gas-turbine/vapour-turbine combined cycle. Finally, as previous step to the design of the industrials equipments, a kinetic study of the process, based in the generation of the principal gases, has been carried

  8. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ... tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. ... the ingestion of mycotoxins that are usually associated with fungal species), ...

  9. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  10. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... propagated plants upon transfer to soil under natural conditions. ... Effect of high temperature and heat shock on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) genotypes .... Modulation of mineral and fatty acid profiles during ...

  11. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    response of plant to salinity stress varies according to plant ... National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan, Oyo. State .... the work of Mgbeze et al. ... accumulation of four tomato cultivars. American. Journal of Plant Physiology, ...

  12. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet .... dissolved in 10% of culture-grade dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO; Sigma-. Aldrich .... In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol.

  13. Turkish tomato greenhouse gets geothermal heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, A.; Maaswinkel, R.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wageningen UR Greenhouse Horticulture will set up an ultramodern greenhouse in Turkey, together with Dutch greenhouse builders and contractors. Geothermal energy will be used there to provide heat and carbon dioxide for tomato cultivation.

  14. The Brazilian Air Force Uniform Distribution Process: Using Lean Thinking, Statistical Process Control and Theory of Constraints to Address Improvement Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    universal definition” (Evans & Lindsay, 1996). Heizer and Render (2010) argue that several definitions of this term are user-based, meaning, that quality...for example, really good ice cream has high butterfat levels.” ( Heizer & Render , 2010). Garvin, in his Competing in Eight Dimensions of Quality...Montgomery, 2005). As for definition purposes, the concept adopted by this research was provided by Heizer and Render (2010), for whom Statistical Process

  15. Usefulness of circulating E-selectin to early detection of the atherosclerotic process in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida-Pititto, Bianca; Ribeiro-Filho, Fernando Flexa; Bittencourt, Marcio Sommer; Lotufo, Paulo A; Bensenor, Isabela; Ferreira, Sandra R G

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional analysis evaluated whether determination of E-selectin concentrations could identify deterioration of cardiometabolic risk profile or subclinical atherosclerosis in individuals at low-to-moderate risk included in The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health-ELSA-Brasil. A sample of 984 individuals from ELSA-Brasil (35-54 years) without cardiovascular disease or diabetes was stratified according to E-selectin tertiles. Traditional risk factors, inflammatory markers and categories of coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores were evaluated across the tertiles by ANOVA or Chi-squared test. In linear regression models, associations of E-selectin levels with insulin resistance index, adjusted for age, sex and adiposity were tested. The mean age of the participants was 45.8 (SD 4.9) years and 55 % were women. Mean values of age, anthropometric data, biochemical variables and inflammatory status increased across E-selectin tertiles. Also, a gradual deterioration of the cardiometabolic profile was reflected by increments in frequencies (95 % CI) of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) [53.7 % (48.5-58.8), 61.0 % (56.1-66.5) and 64.2 % (59.0-69.4), p = 0.019], hypertension [18.0 % (14.1-22.8), 19.8 % (15.4-24.6) and 24.8 % (20.4-29.9), p = 0.048], pre-diabetes [62.5 % (57.4-68.3), 63.1 % (58.4-69.6) and 73.8 % (68.8-78.3), p = 0.003] and hypertriglyceridemia [22.4 % (17.9-27.2), 27.3 % (22.5-32.8) and 33.4 % (28.3-38.5), p = 0.013]. Insulinemia and HOMA-IR were independently associated with E-selectin concentration. A greater proportion of individuals with CAC scores different from zero was found in the third tertile when compared with the first and second tertiles (16.1 versus 11 %, p = 0.04, respectively). Direct associations of E-selectin with traditional risk factors slightly above their normal ranges, components of the metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and presence of CAC suggest that this biomarker may indicate an initial

  16. FIELD MONITORING OF TOMATO LEAF MINER TUTA ABSOLUTA (MEYRICK (LEPIDOPTERA: GELECHIIDAE BY PHEROMONE TRAPS IN ZONA 1 OF ECUADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristina Kutinkova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae, is a economically important pest of processed and fresh tomatoes, both in greenhouses and open field crops. Currently, the pest threatens other cultivated solanaceous plants such as eggplant and potato. In this article we review pheromone control strategies for species-specific and environmentally safe management of the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae. This insect pest originates from South America and is now considered to be one of the most damaging invasive pests of tomatoes in the Mediterranean Basin countries of Europe and North Africa. In this article we describestrategies used to control T. absoluta including pest detection and population monitoring. Monitoring of Tuta absoluta was carried out in Imbabura Province in Ecuador. The parameters of using the pheromone traps Delta VI are described.

  17. Thin-layer catalytic far-infrared radiation drying and flavour of tomato slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ekow Abano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A far-infrared radiation (FIR catalytic laboratory dryer was designed by us and used to dry tomato. The kinetics of drying of tomato slices with FIR energy was dependent on both the distance from the heat source and the sample thickness. Numerical evaluation of the simplified Fick’s law for Fourier number showed that the effective moisture diffusivity increased from 0.193×10–9 to 1.893×10–9 m2/s, from 0.059×10–9 to 2.885×10–9 m2/s, and, from 0.170×10–9 to 4.531×10–9 m2/s for the 7, 9, and 11 mm thick slices as moisture content decreased. Application of FIR enhanced the flavour of the dried tomatoes by 36.6% when compared with the raw ones. The results demonstrate that in addition to shorter drying times, the flavour of the products can be enhanced with FIR. Therefore, FIR drying should be considered as an efficient drying method for tomato with respect to minimization of processing time, enhancement in flavour, and improvements in the quality and functional property of dried tomatoes.

  18. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  19. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) or lycopene supplementation attenuates ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction through different mechanistic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruna L B; Reis, Patrícia P; Severino, Fábio E; Felix, Tainara F; Braz, Mariana G; Nogueira, Flávia R; Silva, Renata A C; Cardoso, Ana C; Lourenço, Maria A M; Figueiredo, Amanda M; Chiuso-Minicucci, Fernanda; Azevedo, Paula S; Polegato, Bertha F; Okoshi, Katashi; Fernandes, Ana A H; Paiva, Sergio A R; Zornoff, Leonardo A M; Minicucci, Marcos F

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of tomato or lycopene supplementation on cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Male Wistar rats were assigned to four groups: the sham group (animals that underwent simulated surgery) that received a standard chow (S; n=18), the infarcted group that received a standard chow (MI; n=13), the infarcted group supplemented with lycopene (1 mg of lycopene/kg body weight/day) (MIL; n=16) and the infarcted group supplemented with tomato (MIT; n=16). After 3 months, morphological, functional and biochemical analyses were performed. The groups MIL and MIT showed decreased interstitial fibrosis induced by infarction. Tomato supplementation attenuated the hypertrophy induced by MI. In addition, tomato and lycopene improved diastolic dysfunction evaluated by echocardiographic and isolated heart studies, respectively. The MI group showed higher levels of cardiac TNF-α compared to the MIL and MIT groups. Decreased nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 was measured in the MIL group. Lipid hydroperoxide levels were higher in the infarcted groups; however, the MIT group had a lower concentration than did the MI group [S=223±20.8, MI=298±19.5, MIL=277±26.6, MIT=261±28.8 (nmol/g); n=8; Ptomato or lycopene supplementation attenuated the cardiac remodeling process and improved diastolic function after MI. However, the effect of lycopene and tomato supplementation occurred through different mechanistic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Time-dependent movement and distribution of chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Jiexun; Chen, Jin-Yuan; Li, Fei-Li

    2013-07-01

    Determining the distribution of pesticides in fruits is essential to eliminate pesticide residues during food processing. In this study, the dynamic distribution of two pesticides, chlorothalonil (CHT) and chlorpyrifos (CHP), were determined in different tomato parts following immersion in pesticide solutions. The concentrations of CHT and CHP in tomato followed an order of cuticle>plasma>pulp. However, the plasma initially accumulated the highest pesticide concentration. And the ratio of CHT concentration to that of CHP in plasma was about 2.1:1, similar to the ratio in solution, which suggested carpopodium as the entry site for the pesticides tested. The ratio in the cuticle was 0.02:1-0.06:1. This was consistent with the ratio of Kow for the two pesticides, manifesting the direct pesticide transfer from solution to cuticle. Following pesticide injection into tomato, the degradation of CHT over 96h was described by a first-order decay equation, Ctomato(t)CHT=C0×e(-0.0239t). The CHP concentration in tomato remained nearly constant with little degradation detected. Deducting the amount of degradation and migration, volatilization appeared to contribute the most amount of migration of CHT and CHP in tomato. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  2. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  3. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan Metropolis Of Oyo State, Nigeria. ... fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of benomyl on the microflora of a tomato cropped soil was investigated. ... both in culture and soil treatments. ... pseudomonads to benomyl in culture .... bacterial pathogens of tomato solanucearum. Indian Pin to 11:01. in vitro.

  5. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the ... Tabora Region on the growth and yield of newly introduced tomato varieties. The tested ..... (1985). Evaluation of some American tomatocultivars grown.

  6. Spinosad and the Tomato Borer Tuta absoluta: A Bioinsecticide, an Invasive Pest Threat, and High Insecticide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R.; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S.; Silva, Wellington M.; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M.; Silva, Vitória Regina F.; Guedes, Raul Narciso C.; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest’s phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h 2 = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = −0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  7. Spinosad and the tomato borer Tuta absoluta: a bioinsecticide, an invasive pest threat, and high insecticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Mateus R; Rodrigues, Agna Rita S; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Tadeu Barbosa M; Silva, Vitória Regina F; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro A

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of an agricultural pest species into a new environment is a potential threat to agroecosystems of the invaded area. The phytosanitary concern is even greater if the introduced pest's phenotype expresses traits that will impair the management of that species. The invasive tomato borer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is one such species and the characterization of the insecticide resistance prevailing in the area of origin is important to guide management efforts in new areas of introduction. The spinosad is one the main insecticides currently used in Brazil for control of the tomato borer; Brazil is the likely source of the introduction of the tomato borer into Europe. For this reason, spinosad resistance in Brazilian populations of this species was characterized. Spinosad resistance has been reported in Brazilian field populations of this pest species, and one resistant population that was used in this study was subjected to an additional seven generations of selection for spinosad resistance reaching levels over 180,000-fold. Inheritance studies indicated that spinosad resistance is monogenic, incompletely recessive and autosomal with high heritability (h(2) = 0.71). Spinosad resistance was unstable without selection pressure with a negative rate of change in the resistance level ( = -0.51) indicating an associated adaptive cost. Esterases and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases titration decreased with spinosad selection, indicating that these detoxification enzymes are not the underlying resistance mechanism. Furthermore, the cross-resistance spectrum was restricted to the insecticide spinetoram, another spinosyn, suggesting that altered target site may be the mechanism involved. Therefore, the suspension of spinosyn use against the tomato borer would be a useful component in spinosad resistance management for this species. Spinosad use against this species in introduced areas should be carefully monitored to

  8. Design And Control Of Agricultural Robot For Tomato Plants Treatment And Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Arnes; Budiman, Arif; Lestari, Yuyun D.

    2017-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest agricultural country in the world, implementation of robotic technology, otomation and efficiency enhancement in agriculture process hasn’t extensive yet. This research proposed a low cost agricultural robot architecture. The robot could help farmer to survey their farm area, treat the tomato plants and harvest the ripe tomatoes. Communication between farmer and robot was facilitated by wireless line using radio wave to reach wide area (120m radius). The radio wave was combinated with Bluetooth to simplify the communication between robot and farmer’s Android smartphone. The robot was equipped with a camera, so the farmers could survey the farm situation through 7 inch monitor display real time. The farmers controlled the robot and arm movement through an user interface in Android smartphone. The user interface contains control icons that allow farmers to control the robot movement (formard, reverse, turn right and turn left) and cut the spotty leaves or harvest the ripe tomatoes.

  9. Trafficking of the potato spindle tuber viroid between tomato and Orobanche ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachev, T; Ivanova, D; Minkov, I; Tsagris, M; Gozmanova, M

    2010-04-10

    Viroids, small RNA pathogens capable of infecting flowering plants, coexist in the field with parasitic plants that infest many crops. The ability of viroids to be exchanged between host and parasitic plants and spread in the latter has not yet been investigated. We studied the interaction between the Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) and Branched bromrape (Orobanche ramosa) using the tomato, Solanum lycopersicon, as a common host. We report the long distance trafficking of PSTVd RNA via the phloem from tomato to O. ramosa, but not vice versa. Furthermore, we identify O. ramosa as a novel host with the ability to facilitate the replication and processing of PSTVd. Finally, molecular variants of PSTVd with single nucleotide substitutions that replicate with different efficiencies in tomato were isolated from O. ramosa. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Fluorescence hyper-spectral imaging to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romaniello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Faecal contamination of fresh fruits represents a severe danger for human health. Thus some techniques based on microbiological testing were developed to individuate faecal contaminants but those tests do not results efficient because their non-applicability on overall vegetable unity. In this work a methodology based on hyper-spectral fluorescence imaging was developed and tested to detecting faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes. Two image-processing methods were performed to maximise the contrast between the faecal contaminant and tomatoes skin: principal component analysis and band image ratio (BRI. The BRI method allows classifying correctly 70% of contaminated area, with no false-positives in all examined cases. Thus, the developed methodology can be employed for a fast and effective detection of faecal contamination on fresh tomatoes.

  11. Electronic Nose to Determine the Maturity Index of the Tree Tomato (Cyphomandra Betacea Sendt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durán-Acevedo Cristhian Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an Electronic Nose for nondestructive monitoring of tree tomato ripening process (Cyphomandra Betacea Sendt. An array of 16 chemical gas sensors was arranged for the detection of three ripeness levels of tree types of tomato (green, ripe and overripe. A Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN as variable selection technique (Simulated Annealing was coupled to improve the result and the PCA (Principal Component Analysis technique was applied to discriminate each one of volatile compounds. A number of measures for physicochemical tests were analyzed with the goal of evaluating the physical, chemical and sensory properties (i.e, pH, acidity and Brix of the product, and the results of the Electronic Nose were compared. The olfactory system was able to classify the samples of tree tomato in three different stages with very high accuracy, to reach a success rate 99.886% in classification.

  12. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  13. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Neogene climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, C.; Bernardes-de-Oliveira, M.E.C.; Dino, R.; Garcia, M.J.; Antonioli, L.; da Costa Casado, F.; Hooghiemstra, H.; de Souza Carvalho, I.; Garcia, M.J.; Strohschoen, O.; Cunha Lana, C.

    2014-01-01

    Climate change follows from the interaction between global atmospheric and oceanic processes with regional processes. In this chapter we review which factors determined climate evolution in Amazonia and the Brazilian Northeast and present a recompilation of Neogene palynological and paleobotanical

  15. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    Full Text Available Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene.

  16. A physiological and genetic approach to the improvement of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit soluble solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damon, S.E.

    1989-01-01

    Physiological processes and the genetic basis determining soluble solids content (SSC) of processing tomato fruit were addressed. Analysis of [ 3 H]-(fructosyl)-sucrose translocation in tomato indicates that phloem unloading in the fruit occurs, at least in part, to the apoplast. Apoplastic sucrose, glucose and fructose concentrations were estimated as 1 to 7, 12 to 49 and 8 to 63 millimolar, respectively in tomato fruit pericarp. Short-term uptake of [ 14 C]sucrose, -glucose and -fructose in tomato pericarp discs showes first order kinetics over the physiologically relevant concentration range. The uptake of [ 14 C]-(glycosyl)-1'fluorosucrose was identical to the rate of [ 14 C] sucrose uptake suggesting sucrose may be taken up directly without prior extracellular hydrolysis. Short-term uptake of all three sugars was insensitive to 10 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and to 10 micromolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid. However, long-term accumulation of glucose was sensitive to carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Sugar uptake across the plasmamembrane does not appear to be energy dependent, suggesting that sugar accumulation in the tomato is driven by subsequent intracellular metabolism and/or active uptake at the tonoplast. Fourteen genomic DNA probes and ten restriction endonucleases were used to identify restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) useful in the linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci controlling the expression of SSC in a segregating F 2 population from a cross between L. esculentum (UC204B) and L. cheesmanii f. minor, a wild species with high fruit soluble solids. RFLPs were detected between the DNAs of the two tomato species with all 14 probes

  17. Economics Of Tomato Production In Yewa North Local Government ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Questions relating to the socio-economic characteristics of the tomato farmers, tomato outputs, output prices and cost of resources viz. labour, seed, fertilizer and land used in production, as well as constraints to tomato production were asked in the questionnaire. Production function analysis was used to show the ...

  18. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Živković; Saša Stojanović; Žarko IVanović; Nenad Trkulja; Nenad Dolovac; Goran Aleksić; Jelica Balaž

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  19. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  20. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is ... Hue-mean and red-green color-difference image mean can be used as a criterion for the judgment of tomato maturity, and the tests indicated that the redgreen mean ...

  1. Fungi of genus Alternaria occurring on tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Marcinkowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato early blight in central Poland was caused by Alternaria solani (A. porri f. sp., solani and A. alernata (A. tenuis. A. alternata was isolated more often than A. solani. All isolates of A. solani in controlled conditions killed tomato seedlings, while pathogenic isolates of A. alternata caused only slight seedling blight. In greenhouse tests A. solani proved to be strongly pathogenic for leaves and stems of tomato but A. alternata was weakly pathogenic. The latter species attacked only injured fruits while, A. solanicould penetrate through undamaged peel of fruits. Both of these species caused the same type of symptoms; the differences consisted only in intensification of disease symptoms. During 1974 and 1975 field tomatoes were moderately attacked by early blight. Thebest development of this disease occurred by the turn of August and September. Determinate variety 'New Yorker' was distinguished by more severe infection of stem parts of tomato whereas the fruits of a stock variety 'Apollo' were more strongly attacked.

  2. Superfamily of ankyrin repeat proteins in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Qing, Xiaohe; Sun, Meihong; Liu, Shiyang; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-07-10

    The ankyrin repeat (ANK) protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development and in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, no detailed information concerning this family is available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to the limited information on whole genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 130 ANK genes in tomato genome (SlANK), and these genes were distributed across all 12 chromosomes at various densities. And chromosomal localizations of SlANK genes indicated 25 SlANK genes were involved in tandem duplications. Based on their domain composition, all of the SlANK proteins were grouped into 13 subgroups. A combined phylogenetic tree was constructed with the aligned SlANK protein sequences. This tree revealed that the SlANK proteins comprise five major groups. An analysis of the expression profiles of SlANK genes in tomato in different tissues and in response to stresses showed that the SlANK proteins play roles in plant growth, development and stress responses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato ANK gene family. This study provides valuable information regarding the classification and putative functions of SlANK genes in tomato. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Desempenho de híbridos experimentais de tomateiro para processamento industrial nas condições edafo-climáticas do cerrado brasileiro Field performance of processing tomato hybrids in the "Cerrado" region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A.S. Aragão

    2004-09-01

    melhor desempenho no experimento de acordo com a informação obtida via contrastes ortogonais. Os resultados obtidos indicam que com um pequeno esforço nas áreas de pesquisa e desenvolvimento, será possível, a médio prazo, a liberação de híbridos nacionais capazes de competir com os melhores híbridos importados.Genetic parameters for yield and processing characteristics were estimated using 26 experimental processing tomato hybrids in an experiment conducted in Cristalina, Goiás State, Brazil. The commercial hybrids 'Hypell-108' and 'RTP1095' were used as standards. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with three replications. Each plot consisted of two rows (30 plants each spaced 0.50 m apart with a within row distance of 0.25 m. The following parameters were evaluated: mature fruit yield (FM, green fruit yield (FV, total fruit yield (PT, uniformity of fruit ripening (UM = (FM/PT x 100, soluble solids [brix (°B], paste yield (RP, fruit color (CF and fruit firmness (FF. Significant differences were found among the 26 experimental hybrids for FM, FV, PT, UM, °B, RP and CF. Experimental hybrids (as a group were superior to the commercial hybrids for FM, FV, PT and RP. The commercial hybrids (as a group had superior performance only for °B, as compared to experimental hybrids. However, six experimental hybrids had °B values similar to that of 'Hypell-108'. A negative genotypic correlation (-0.40 was observed between FV and FM. A negative (-0.27 genotypic correlation was observed between CF and °B. Both associations are undesirable from the breeding for processing industry standpoint. A multivariate analysis indicated FM, UM, °B and CF as being the traits with highest relevance to discriminate hybrid performance. A multi-trait selection indicated eight experimental hybrids with superior performance in this assay. The top one ('CNPH 1346' x 'CNPH 1272' had 40% and 58% higher paste yield production as compared to 'Hypeel-108' and 'RPT1095

  4. Antibacterial effect of roselle extracts (Hibiscus sabadariffa), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains isolated from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alcántara, E J; Rangel-Vargas, E; Gómez-Aldapa, C A; Falfan-Cortes, R N; Rodríguez-Marín, M L; Godínez-Oviedo, A; Cortes-López, H; Castro-Rosas, J

    2016-02-01

    Antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from saladette and red round type tomatoes, and an analysis done of the antibacterial activity of roselle calyx extracts against any of the identified strains. One hundred saladette tomato samples and 100 red round tomato samples were collected from public markets. Each sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. Salmonella was isolated from the samples by conventional culture procedure. Susceptibility to 16 antibiotics was tested for the isolated Salmonella strains by standard test. The antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid against antibiotic-resistant Salmonella isolates was evaluated on contaminated tomatoes. Twenty-four Salmonella strains were isolated from 12% of each tomato type. Identified Salmonella serotypes were Typhimurium and Typhi. All isolated strains exhibited resistance to at least three antibiotics and some to as many as 12. Over contaminated tomatoes, the roselle calyx extracts produced a greater reduction (2-2·6 log) in antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strain concentration than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. The presence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella in vegetables is a significant public health concern. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains were isolated from raw tomatoes purchased in public markets in Mexico and challenged with roselle Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extracts, sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. On tomatoes, the extracts caused a greater reduction in the concentration of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella strains than sodium hypochlorite and acetic acid. Roselle calyx extracts are a potentially useful addition to disinfection procedures of raw tomatoes in the field, processing plants, restaurants and homes. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  6. Characterization and quantification of phenolic compounds in four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmers' varieties in northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Pinela, José; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Buelga, Celestino Santos; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) is one of the most widely consumed fresh and processed vegetables in the world, and contains bioactive key components. Phenolic compounds are one of those components and, according to the present study, farmers' varieties of tomato cultivated in homegardens from the northeastern Portuguese region are a source of phenolic compounds, mainly phenolic acid derivatives. Using HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, it was concluded that a cis p-coumaric acid derivative was the most abundant compound in yellow (Amarelo) and round (Batateiro) tomato varieties, while 4-O-caffeolyquinic acid was the most abundant in long (Comprido) and heart (Coração) varieties. The most abundant flavonoid was quercetin pentosylrutinoside in the four tomato varieties. Yellow tomato presented the highest levels of phenolic compounds (54.23 μg/g fw), including phenolic acids (43.30 μg/g fw) and flavonoids (10.93 μg/g fw). The phenolic compounds profile obtained for the studied varieties is different from other tomato varieties available in different countries, which is certainly related to genetic features, cultivation conditions, and handling and storage methods associated to each sample.

  7. Avaliação da qualidade de tomate seco em conserva Evaluation of quality of dried tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele A. Camargo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O tomate seco em conserva é alvo de crescente aceitação no mercado brasileiro; sua utilização é comum em aperitivos e na culinária como ingrediente de molhos e pizzas. Avaliou-se, neste trabalho o efeito dos seguintes fatores na qualidade do tomate seco: variedade de tomate (Rio Grande e Débora Plus, geometria de corte (pedaços de ½ e ¼ com relação ao eixo maior do fruto, presença ou ausência de sementes e teor de umidade final (25 e 35%, mediante análises instrumentais de cor e textura e testes sensoriais afetivos. Os resultados mostraram que a variedade Rio Grande apresentou melhor mastigabilidade e dureza, porém maior suscetibilidade ao escurecimento após o processo de secagem. De forma geral, a preferência dos consumidores foi por tomates secos com 35% de umidade final, enquanto a melhor qualidade final foi obtida a partir do tratamento com a variedade Rio Grande e umidade final de 35%.Preserved dried tomato has been gaining increasing acceptance in the Brazilian market, its use being common in appetizers and also in the cooking, as an ingredient of sauces and pizzas. The effect of the following factors on the quality of dried tomato was evaluated: variety of tomato (Rio Grande and Débora Plus, geometry of pieces (½ and ¼ to the fruit major axis, presence or absence of seeds and final moisture content (25 and 35% by means of instrumental texture, and color analysis and sensorial affective tests. The results showed that the variety Rio Grande presented better physical parameters but was more susceptible to darkness. Generally, the consumers preferred dried tomatoes at 35% moisture content. The best final quality of dried tomato was obtained from the treatment performed with Rio Grande variety and 35% final moisture content.

  8. Transgenic overexpression of expansin influences particle size distribution and improves viscosity of tomato juice and paste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalamaki, M.S.; Powell, A.L.T.; Struijs, K.; Labavitch, J.M.; Reid, D.S.; Bennett, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Suppression of the expression of a ripening-related expansin gene, LeExp1, in tomato enhanced fruit firmness and overexpression of LeExp1 resulted in increased fruit softening. Because of the incompletely understood relationship between fresh fruit texture and the consistency of processed products,

  9. Feasibility Study of Using Infrared Radiation Heating as a Sustainable Tomato Peeling Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    The yye peeling technique is putting both environmental and economic pressure on California tomato processing industry due to its associated salinity issues and wastewater disposal problems. This study is aimed at developing alternative peeling methods with reduced or no caustic usage to produce hi...

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  11. Review of the Brazilian experience in the licensing of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, L.; Laborne, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Survey of the licensing of the Brazilian Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is presented. The organization and technical expertise of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, the Brazilian Regulatory Body, is reviewed with regard to in-house experience, foreign consultants, agreements with regulatory bodies of other countries and research contracts with Brazilian univerisities. The application of the two-stage licensing process and the stage of development of Brazilian nuclear standards is described. Finally, the paper speculates about the future role of probabilistic risk assessment in the Brazilian licensing process

  12. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Moya, Carlos; Gisbert, Carmina; Vilanova, Santiago; Nuez, Fernando

    2011-10-20

    Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1) derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27) with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47). The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8) in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1) and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related to regeneration. In this study we have

  13. Localization of QTLs for in vitro plant regeneration in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuez Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low regeneration ability limits biotechnological breeding approaches. The influence of genotype in the regeneration response is high in both tomato and other important crops. Despite the various studies that have been carried out on regeneration genetics, little is known about the key genes involved in this process. The aim of this study was to localize the genetic factors affecting regeneration in tomato. Results We developed two mapping populations (F2 and BC1 derived from a previously selected tomato cultivar (cv. Anl27 with low regeneration ability and a high regeneration accession of the wild species Solanum pennellii (PE-47. The phenotypic assay indicated dominance for bud induction and additive effects for both the percentage of explants with shoots and the number of regenerated shoots per explant. Two linkage maps were developed and six QTLs were identified on five chromosomes (1, 3, 4, 7 and 8 in the BC1 population by means of the Interval Mapping and restricted Multiple QTL Mapping methods. These QTLs came from S. pennellii, with the exception of the minor QTL located on chromosome 8, which was provided by cv. Anl27. The main QTLs correspond to those detected on chromosomes 1 and 7. In the F2 population, a QTL on chromosome 7 was identified on a similar region as that detected in the BC1 population. Marker segregation distortion was observed in this population in those areas where the QTLs of BC1 were detected. Furthermore, we located two tomato candidate genes using a marker linked to the high regeneration gene: Rg-2 (a putative allele of Rg-1 and LESK1, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase and was proposed as a marker for regeneration competence. As a result, we located a putative allele of Rg-2 in the QTL detected on chromosome 3 that we named Rg-3. LESK1, which is also situated on chromosome 3, is outside Rg-3. In a preliminary exploration of the detected QTL peaks, we found several genes that may be related

  14. Genetic divergence of tomato subsamples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Pugnal Mattedi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the genetic variability of a species is crucial for the progress of a genetic breeding program and requires characterization and evaluation of germplasm. This study aimed to characterize and evaluate 101 tomato subsamples of the Salad group (fresh market and two commercial controls, one of the Salad group (cv. Fanny and another of the Santa Cruz group (cv. Santa Clara. Four experiments were conducted in a randomized block design with three replications and five plants per plot. The joint analysis of variance was performed and characteristics with significant complex interaction between control and experiment were excluded. Subsequently, the multicollinearity diagnostic test was carried out and characteristics that contributed to severe multicollinearity were excluded. The relative importance of each characteristics for genetic divergence was calculated by the Singh's method (Singh, 1981, and the less important ones were excluded according to Garcia (1998. Results showed large genetic divergence among the subsamples for morphological, agronomic and organoleptic characteristics, indicating potential for genetic improvement. The characteristics total soluble solids, mean number of good fruits per plant, endocarp thickness, mean mass of marketable fruit per plant, total acidity, mean number of unmarketable fruit per plant, internode diameter, internode length, main stem thickness and leaf width contributed little to the genetic divergence between the subsamples and may be excluded in future studies.

  15. [Culture and health services: studying the participation of cultural traits of Brazilian society in the work process of primary healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Alessandra Maria Silva; Najar, Alberto Lopes

    2011-11-01

    The analysis of institutions is a widely researched area of health. The culture of organizations is understood as a symbolic possibility contained in a larger dimension, called "national culture". This premise justifies the incorporation of the social anthropological approach to the study of organizational culture. This study sought to establish the perceptions of employees of two primary healthcare services in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, regarding commonly used social navigation strategies from the theory developed by Roberto DaMatta. The results showed the relational character associated with the stereotype of the Brazilian people manifested by conflicts arising from the existence of values based on the `individual' and the `person'. Among them are the distortions observed between discourse and practice, and the mobilization strategies of social navigation like "making do" - to establish a mediation between the person and the impersonal law. The organization of the services of the Niterói Family Medical Program apparently sets its employees the concrete challenge of balancing the egalitarian principle that underpins the Unified Health System (SSU) with the set of values upon which personal relations are based in Brazilian society.

  16. Comprehensive exergy analysis of a commercial tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojarab Soufiyan, Mohamad; Dadak, Ali; Hosseini, Seyed Sina; Nasiri, Farshid; Dowlati, Majid; Tahmasebi, Maryam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a detailed exergy evaluation of a commercial tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator was conducted in order to provide information on the system thermodynamic inefficiencies. Using energy and exergy balance equations, all components of the plant were analyzed individually and their exergetic parameters were calculated on the basis of actual operational data. The required data were obtained from Nazchin tomato paste factory located in Tehran, Iran. In addition, it was attempted to quantify the exergy utilized for processing a given amount of the tomato paste. The results showed that over 82% of the total destroyed exergy in the plant occurred in the boiler combination as the main component wasting exergy. Furthermore, exergy analysis introduced this combination as the main equipment rejecting exergy to the ambient where 4.79% of its total exergy input was lost. The rational exergy efficiency of the first- and second-effect evaporative units was found to be 65.33% and 56.60%, respectively. The specific exergy consumption of the tomato paste production was also determined as 16.83 MJ/kg. Generally, exergy concept and its extensions could be served as a powerful assessment technique to optimize the design and performance of multiple-effect evaporation systems employed in food industry. - Highlights: • Exergy analysis of a tomato paste plant with a double-effect evaporator was done. • 82% of the total exergy destruction rate occurred in the boiler combination. • 16.83 MJ exergy was utilized for production of 1 kg tomato paste. • Optimal number of effects could be potentially found using exergy-based approaches.

  17. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  18. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  19. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  20. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  1. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  2. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  3. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  4. The effect of the lenght of storage on the amount of lycopene in the fruits of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Uher

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We focused on tomatoes for industrial processing due to its economical importance for its lycopene content. The objective of our research is to find the variation of lycopene content in tomato fruits depending upon the length of after harvest storage and thermic treatment, which is inevitable when being industrialy processed. From the point of view of nutritional qualities the most relevant contentual substance of tomatos are carotenoids, included lycopene.At average for tree following experimental years we learnt significant differences regarding the content of lycopene and the length of storage of tomato fruits. Immediately after the harvest and proccesing tomato fruits contained, at average for tree years, 103.24 mg of lycopene. After 14 days the content of lycopene declined to 46.76 mg . kg−1 of fresh mass. After 30 days the average value dropped to 29.26 mg . kg−1. This fact comfirms that boiling respectively thermic treatment increases the content of lycopene in tomato fruits, particulary in our experiment to the value 83.33 mg . kg−1. At varieties Ladislav, Peto 86, Prémium, Salus the content of lycopene has even risen in comparison with its content up to 48 hours after the harvest. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. belongs to the most signifficant vegetable varieties either for its exploitation in processing industry as well as for its nutritional value with extraordinary beneficial effect for human organism.Although the content of lycopene is genetically stable attribute, its content in our experiment ranged from 45.39 mg . kg−1 (Prémium variety to 77.98 mg . kg−1 (Zámčan variety, which are significant differences.

  5. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the bHLH gene family in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hua; Fan, Hua-Jie; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2015-01-22

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large superfamily of transcription factors, and play a central role in a wide range of metabolic, physiological, and developmental processes in higher organisms. Tomato is an important vegetable crop, and its genome sequence has been published recently. However, the bHLH gene family of tomato has not been systematically identified and characterized yet. In this study, we identified 159 bHLH protein-encoding genes (SlbHLH) in tomato genome and analyzed their structures. Although bHLH domains were conserved among the bHLH proteins between tomato and Arabidopsis, the intron sequences and distribution of tomato bHLH genes were extremely different compared with Arabidopsis. The gene duplication analysis showed that 58.5% and 6.3% of SlbHLH genes belonged to low-stringency and high-stringency duplication, respectively, indicating that the SlbHLH genes are mainly generated via short low-stringency region duplication in tomato. Subsequently, we classified the SlbHLH genes into 21 subfamilies by phylogenetic tree analysis, and predicted their possible functions by comparison with their homologous genes of Arabidopsis. Moreover, the expression profile analysis of SlbHLH genes from 10 different tissues showed that 21 SlbHLH genes exhibited tissue-specific expression. Further, we identified that 11 SlbHLH genes were associated with fruit development and ripening (eight of them associated with young fruit development and three with fruit ripening). The evolutionary analysis revealed that 92% SlbHLH genes might be evolved from ancestor(s) originated from early land plant, and 8% from algae. In this work, we systematically identified SlbHLHs by analyzing the tomato genome sequence using a set of bioinformatics approaches, and characterized their chromosomal distribution, gene structures, duplication, phylogenetic relationship and expression profiles, as well predicted their possible biological functions via comparative analysis

  6. The typical RB76 recombination breakpoint of the invasive recombinant tomato yellow leaf curl virus of Morocco can be generated experimentally but is not positively selected in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belabess, Z; Urbino, C; Granier, M; Tahiri, A; Blenzar, A; Peterschmitt, M

    2018-01-02

    TYLCV-IS76 is an unusual recombinant between the highly recombinogenic tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus (TYLCSV), two Mediterranean begomoviruses (Geminiviridae). In contrast with the previously reported TYLCV/TYLCSV recombinants, it has a TYLCSV derived fragment of only 76 nucleotides, and has replaced its parental viruses in natural conditions (Morocco, Souss region). The viral population shift coincided with the deployment of the popular Ty-1 resistant tomato cultivars, and according to experimental studies, has been driven by a strong positive selection in such resistant plants. However, although Ty-1 cultivars were extensively used in Mediterranean countries, TYLCV-IS76 was not reported outside Morocco. This, in combination with its unusual recombination pattern suggests that it was generated through a rare and possibly multistep process. The potential generation of a recombination breakpoint (RB) at locus 76 (RB76) was investigated over time in 10 Ty-1 resistant and 10 nearly isogenic susceptible tomato plants co-inoculated with TYLCV and TYLCSV clones. RB76 could not be detected in the recombinant progeny using the standard PCR/sequencing approach that was previously designed to monitor the emergence of TYLCV-IS76 in Morocco. Using a more sensitive PCR test, RB76 was detected in one resistant and five susceptible plants. The results are consistent with a very low intra-plant frequency of RB76 bearing recombinants throughout the test and support the hypothesis of a rare emergence of TYLCV-IS76. More generally, RBs were more scattered in resistant than in susceptible plants and an unusual RB at position 141 (RB141) was positively selected in the resistant cultivar; interestingly, RB141 bearing recombinants were detected in resistant tomato plants from the field. Scenarios of TYLCV-IS76 pre-emergence are proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunzhou; Qin, Lei; Zhao, Jingjing; Muhammad, Tayeb; Cao, Hehe; Li, Hailiang; Zhang, Yan; Liang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3) in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II) and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  8. SlMAPK3 enhances tolerance to tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV by regulating salicylic acid and jasmonic acid signaling in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunzhou Li

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported on the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK3 in plant immune responses. However, little is known about how MAPK3 functions in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. infected with tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV. There is also uncertainty about the connection between plant MAPK3 and the salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA defense-signaling pathways. The results of this study indicated that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response against TYLCV. Tomato seedlings were inoculated with TYLCV to investigate the possible roles of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 against this virus. Inoculation with TYLCV strongly induced the expression and the activity of all three genes. Silencing of SlMAPK1, SlMAPK2, and SlMAPK3 reduced tolerance to TYLCV, increased leaf H2O2 concentrations, and attenuated expression of defense-related genes after TYLCV infection, especially in SlMAPK3-silenced plants. Exogenous SA and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA both significantly induced SlMAPK3 expression in tomato leaves. Over-expression of SlMAPK3 increased the transcript levels of SA/JA-mediated defense-related genes (PR1, PR1b/SlLapA, SlPI-I, and SlPI-II and enhanced tolerance to TYLCV. After TYLCV inoculation, the leaves of SlMAPK3 over-expressed plants compared with wild type plants showed less H2O2 accumulation and greater superoxide dismutase (SOD, peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX activity. Overall, the results suggested that SlMAPK3 participates in the antiviral response of tomato to TYLCV, and that this process may be through either the SA or JA defense-signaling pathways.

  9. Mitigation strategies in the agro-food sector: The anaerobic digestion of tomato purée by-products. An Italian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Duca, Daniele; Negri, Marco; Fusi, Alessandra; Fiala, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Tomato processing involves a significant production of residues, mainly constituted by discarded tomatoes, skins, seeds and pulp. Often, these residues are not valorized and represent an added cost for manufacturing companies because of disposal processes, with environmental issues due to the difficult management. The exploitation of these residual materials results complex as their availability is mainly concentrated in few months. A possible solution is the production of biogas employed in a Combine Heat and Power engine for energy production, in line with the 2020 targets of European Union in terms of promotion of energy from renewable resources and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The tomato by-product utilization for energy production as a strategy to reduce the environmental load of tomato purée was evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. Two scenarios were considered: Baseline Scenario — tomato by-products are sent back to the tomato fields as organic fertilizers; Alternative Scenario — tomato by-products are employed in a nearby biogas plant for energy production. Methane production of tomato by-products was assessed by means of specific laboratory tests. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted reductions for all the impact categories with the Alternative Scenario. The most important reductions are related to particulate matter (− 5.3%), climate change (− 6.4%) and ozone depletion (− 13.4%). Although small, the reduction of the environmental impact cannot be neglected; for example for climate change, the anaerobic digestion of by-products allows a saving of GHG emissions that, over the whole year, is equal to 1.567 tons of CO 2 eq. The results of this study could be up-scaled to the food industries with high heat demand producing considerable amounts of fermentable by-products employable as feedstock for biogas production. - Highlights: • Tomato processing generates byproducts, whose residual mass is 2–5%. • Anaerobic

  10. Mitigation strategies in the agro-food sector: The anaerobic digestion of tomato purée by-products. An Italian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo, E-mail: jacopo.bacenetti@unimi.it [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Duca, Daniele [Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche 10, 60131 Ancona (Italy); Negri, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy); Fusi, Alessandra [School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, The Mill, Sackville Street, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fiala, Marco [Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Production, Landscape, Agroenergy, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2015-09-01

    Tomato processing involves a significant production of residues, mainly constituted by discarded tomatoes, skins, seeds and pulp. Often, these residues are not valorized and represent an added cost for manufacturing companies because of disposal processes, with environmental issues due to the difficult management. The exploitation of these residual materials results complex as their availability is mainly concentrated in few months. A possible solution is the production of biogas employed in a Combine Heat and Power engine for energy production, in line with the 2020 targets of European Union in terms of promotion of energy from renewable resources and greenhouse gas emission reduction. The tomato by-product utilization for energy production as a strategy to reduce the environmental load of tomato purée was evaluated by means of Life Cycle Assessment. Two scenarios were considered: Baseline Scenario — tomato by-products are sent back to the tomato fields as organic fertilizers; Alternative Scenario — tomato by-products are employed in a nearby biogas plant for energy production. Methane production of tomato by-products was assessed by means of specific laboratory tests. The comparison between the two scenarios highlighted reductions for all the impact categories with the Alternative Scenario. The most important reductions are related to particulate matter (− 5.3%), climate change (− 6.4%) and ozone depletion (− 13.4%). Although small, the reduction of the environmental impact cannot be neglected; for example for climate change, the anaerobic digestion of by-products allows a saving of GHG emissions that, over the whole year, is equal to 1.567 tons of CO{sub 2} eq. The results of this study could be up-scaled to the food industries with high heat demand producing considerable amounts of fermentable by-products employable as feedstock for biogas production. - Highlights: • Tomato processing generates byproducts, whose residual mass is 2–5%.

  11. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, D.M.; Sakamoto, L.H.

    1981-12-01

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.) [pt

  12. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  13. Pepino mosaic virus and Tomato chlorosis virus causing mixed infection in protected tomato crops in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALVATORE DAVINO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusual virus-like yellow leaf disorder associated with fruit marbling was observed during the winter of 2005 in some greenhouse tomato crops in the province of Ragusa Sicily (Southern Italy. Leaf samples from 250 symptomatic tomato plants were serologically tested by DAS-ELISA technique for 5 viruses: Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV. PepMV was detected in 215 of the samples. The virus was mechanically transmitted to cucumber, wild metel, wild tobacco and ‘Rio Grande’ tomato. The experimental host range of PepMV-Ragusa differed from that of the PepMV found in Sardinia in 2001, which infected ‘Camone’ tomato. By applying RT-PCR to 25 PepMV-infected tomato plants, the expected 844 bp DNA fragment for PepMV and the expected 439 bp DNA fragment for Tomato chlororis virus (ToCV were obtained from all the samples tested. Sequences of the obtained amplicons were used to study the phylogenetic relationships of the viruses with isolates from other countries. Nucleotide sequence alignments showed that the sequence CP-PepMV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ 517884 were 99% homologous with both US2 and Spain-Murcia isolates, while those of ToCV-Ragusa (Genbank acc. No. DQ517885 isolate HSP70, were 99% homologous with the Florida isolate, and 98% with the Lebanon isolate. The results proved that the unusual disorder found in greenhouse tomatoes in Sicily can be associated with infections by PepMV and ToCV, reported for the first time in a mixed infection.

  14. Dynamics in the tomato root transcriptome on infection with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiecicka, Magdalena; Filipecki, Marcin; Lont, Dieuwertje; Van Vliet, Joke; Qin, Ling; Goverse, Aska; Bakker, Jaap; Helder, Johannes

    2009-07-01

    Plant parasitic nematodes infect roots and trigger the formation of specialized feeding sites by substantial reprogramming of the developmental process of root cells. In this article, we describe the dynamic changes in the tomato root transcriptome during early interactions with the potato cyst nematode Globodera rostochiensis. Using amplified fragment length polymorphism-based mRNA fingerprinting (cDNA-AFLP), we monitored 17 600 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) in infected and uninfected tomato roots, 1-14 days after inoculation with nematode larvae. Six hundred and twenty-four TDFs (3.5%) showed significant differential expression on nematode infection. We employed GenEST, a computer program which links gene expression profiles generated by cDNA-AFLP and databases of cDNA sequences, to identify 135 tomato sequences. These sequences were grouped into eight functional categories based on the presence of genes involved in hormone regulation, plant pathogen defence response, cell cycle and cytoskeleton regulation, cell wall modification, cellular signalling, transcriptional regulation, primary metabolism and allocation. The presence of unclassified genes was also taken into consideration. This article describes the responsiveness of numerous tomato genes hitherto uncharacterized during infection with endoparasitic cyst nematodes. The analysis of transcriptome profiles allowed the sequential order of expression to be dissected for many groups of genes and the genes to be connected with the biological processes involved in compatible interactions between the plant and nematode.

  15. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES ON TOMATO YIELD AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Yarovoy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of influence of growth regulators and biopreparations affecting on decrease of disease development, increase of yield capacity and final product quality was carried out in tomato. It was shown that all preparations were effective in decreasing the process of diseases development and increasing the yield capacity and product quality. The studies were carried out in the experimental fields at the Institute of Vegetables and Melons NAAS, in Ukraine in 2011-2012. The field studies were performed according to ‘Methodology of Experimental Work in Vegetable and Melon Growing’ on area sown with cultivars ‘Karas’ and ‘Kremenchugskiy’. The fungicides ‘Mars U 77%’, ‘Vimpel with Fitotsid’, ‘Vermistim’ wth ‘Azotofit’ and ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ were used on cultivars of tomato, as control were the plants without treatment. It was determined that all preparations decreased the development of diseases. On average, the development of early dry spot had decreased by 12.2–16.1% and anthracnose by 10.0–12.6% in the cultivars ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’. Thus, biopreparations used on the varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’ were effective in decrease of disease development, such as early dry spot, anthracnose, in a range of 39.1–52.7 %. Generally, during observation period the efficacy index of the preparations ‘Vermistim’ with ‘Azotofit’, ‘Bioglobin’ with ‘Azotofit’ was higher than others preparations on the varieties ‘Kremenchug and ‘Karas’ against early dry spot (48.3–50.9%, 50.3–52.7% and anthracnose (46.1–47.0%, 47.6–48.5%. The results showed that the vast majority of biological preparations, phytohormones used against diseases in tomato crops of varieties ‘Kremenchugskiy’ and ‘Karas’, were effective in a range of 39.1-52.7% and also maintained the tomato yield within 2.8-5.1 t/ha or 8.1- 13.9%. The biological preparations, phytohormones improved

  17. Modelling quality of fresh-cut tomato based on stage of maturity and storage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Lana, M.

    2005-01-01

    Fresh-cut or minimally processed vegetables are those which have been trimmed and/or peeled and/or cut into 100% usable product and still maintain freshness. Contrary to other processing methods (freezing, canning and drying for example) the minimal processing operations reduce the shelf life in relation to the raw material (intact product).In this thesis the changes in quality of tomato fruits after cutting into transversal slices were analysed and quantified in relation to the stage of matu...

  18. Storage properties of irrdiated white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus) in tomato sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doke, S.N.; Sherekar, S.V.; Ghadi, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A process involving radiation and heat treatment combined with effective management of pH using tomato sauce was developed for preservation of white pomfret (Stromatus cinereus). This process enhanced the organoleptic acceptability of the product and also ensured its microbiological safety. The processed product was in good edible condition even after a storage of 6 months at ambient temperature. (M.G.B.). 3 tabs

  19. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  20. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...). The food is preserved by heat sterilization (canning), refrigeration, or freezing. When sealed in a... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN...

  1. Enhanced regeneration in explants of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The development of a cost effective and efficient protocol for mass propagation of high quality tomato seedlings via tissue culture could help to reduce the price per seedling. A good in vitro plant regeneration system may also assist in further improvement of the commercially important cultivars for disease.

  2. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A) + RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L- 35 S-methionine. The 35 S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues

  3. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  4. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  5. Genetic (in)stability in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study tomato lines carrying unstable alleles of the loci yv or sulfurea were characterized. In addition, we aimed at the isolation of an endogenous transposable element supposedly active in the unstable lines. Since the unstable loci were not cloned, we

  6. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  7. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of a new method based on color image analysis and the Minolta SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter for the diagnosis of nitrogen deficiencies of tomato seedlings, a field experiment was conducted. In this study, five levels of nitrogen fertilization were established so as to induce nitrogen ...

  8. Response of Pratylenchus spp Infected Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...

  9. Microbiological Food Safety Status of Commercially Produced Tomatoes from Production to Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Brigitte N; de Bruin, Willeke; du Plessis, Erika M; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Tomatoes have been implicated in various microbial disease outbreaks and are considered a potential vehicle for foodborne pathogens. Traceback studies mostly implicate contamination during production and/or processing. The microbiological quality of commercially produced tomatoes was thus investigated from the farm to market, focusing on the impact of contaminated irrigation and washing water, facility sanitation, and personal hygiene. A total of 905 samples were collected from three largescale commercial farms from 2012 through 2014. The farms differed in water sources used (surface versus well) and production methods (open field versus tunnel). Levels of total coliforms and Escherichia coli and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were determined. Dominant coliforms were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. No pathogens or E. coli were detected on any of the tomatoes tested throughout the study despite the high levels of coliforms (4.2 to 6.2 log CFU/g) present on the tomatoes at the market. The dominant species associated with tomatoes belonged to the genera Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Citrobacter. Water used on the farm for irrigation considered not fit for purpose according to national agricultural irrigation standards, with high E. coli levels resulting from either a highly contaminated source water (river water at 3.19 log most probable number [MPN]/100 ml) or improper storage of source water (stored well water at 1.72 log MPN/100 ml). Salmonella Typhimurium was detected on two occasions on a contact surface in the processing facility of the first farm in 2012. Contact surface coliform counts were 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/cm(2). Risk areas identified in this study were water used for irrigation and poor sanitation practices in the processing facility. Implementation of effective food safety management systems in the fresh produce industry is of the utmost importance to ensure product

  10. Differential gene expression in tomato fruit and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides during colonization of the RNAi-SlPH tomato line with reduced fruit acidity and higher pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barad, Shiri; Sela, Noa; Dubey, Amit K; Kumar, Dilip; Luria, Neta; Ment, Dana; Cohen, Shahar; Schaffer, Arthur A; Prusky, Dov

    2017-08-04

    The destructive phytopathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes anthracnose disease in fruit. During host colonization, it secretes ammonia, which modulates environmental pH and regulates gene expression, contributing to pathogenicity. However, the effect of host pH environment on pathogen colonization has never been evaluated. Development of an isogenic tomato line with reduced expression of the gene for acidity, SlPH (Solyc10g074790.1.1), enabled this analysis. Total RNA from C. gloeosporioides colonizing wild-type (WT) and RNAi-SlPH tomato lines was sequenced and gene-expression patterns were compared. C. gloeosporioides inoculation of the RNAi-SlPH line with pH 5.96 compared to the WT line with pH 4.2 showed 30% higher colonization and reduced ammonia accumulation. Large-scale comparative transcriptome analysis of the colonized RNAi-SlPH and WT lines revealed their different mechanisms of colonization-pattern activation: whereas the WT tomato upregulated 13-LOX (lipoxygenase), jasmonic acid and glutamate biosynthesis pathways, it downregulated processes related to chlorogenic acid biosynthesis II, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and hydroxycinnamic acid tyramine amide biosynthesis; the RNAi-SlPH line upregulated UDP-D-galacturonate biosynthesis I and free phenylpropanoid acid biosynthesis, but mainly downregulated pathways related to sugar metabolism, such as the glyoxylate cycle and L-arabinose degradation II. Comparison of C. gloeosporioides gene expression during colonization of the WT and RNAi-SlPH lines showed that the fungus upregulates ammonia and nitrogen transport and the gamma-aminobutyric acid metabolic process during colonization of the WT, while on the RNAi-SlPH tomato, it mainly upregulates the nitrate metabolic process. Modulation of tomato acidity and pH had significant phenotypic effects on C. gloeosporioides development. The fungus showed increased colonization on the neutral RNAi-SlPH fruit, and limited colonization on the WT acidic fruit

  11. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Development of gas-to-liquid (GTL) processes in the PETROBRAS: a joint process with university through the CTPETRO projects (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas ); Desenvolvimento de processos GTL na PETROBRAS: um processo conjunto com a academia via projetos CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Sugaya, Marcos de Freitas [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mail: falabella@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper discusses the importance of the conversion the natural gas into liquid fuels, the GTL (gas-to-liquid) process, for the Brazilian energetic matrix. The different routes of synthesis gas generation (CO + H2) from the methane are presented. The paper comments on the role played by PETROBRAS and her policy of GTL process development, by using a model jointly with various universities. The work also presents the preliminary results of catalysts development and the respective pilot scale supports, aiming a posterior evaluation in a GTL synthesis pilot plant.

  13. Plant nutritional status modulates glutamine synthetase levels in ripe tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpeci, Telma E; Marro, Martin L; Bortolotti, Santiago; Boggio, Silvana B; Valle, Estela M

    2007-02-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening implies that chloroplastic proteins are degraded and new proteins are synthesized. Supplementary nutrition is frequently required when tomato plants begin to fruit and continues until the end of the plant's life cycle. Ammonium assimilation is crucial in these fruit maturation and ripening processes. Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2), the main ammonium-fixing enzyme in plants, could not be detected in red fruits of several tomato varieties when growing under standard nutrition. In this paper, we analyze the influence of the nutritional status on the ammonium assimilation capacity of ripe tomato (cv. Micro-Tom) fruit. For this purpose, GS expression and protein profiles were followed in mature green and red fruits harvested from plants grown under standard or supplemented nutrition. Under standard nutrient regime (weekly supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution) GS activity was found in chloroplasts (GS2) of mature green fruits, but it was not detected either in the chromoplasts or in the cytosol of red fruits. When plants were shifted to a supplemented nutritional regime (daily supplied with 0.5 x Hoagland solution), GS was found in red fruits. Also, cytosolic transcripts (gs1) preferentially accumulated in red fruits under high nutrition. These results indicate that mature green Micro-Tom fruits assimilate ammonia through GS2 under standard nutrition, while ripe red fruits accumulate GS1 under high nutrition, probably in order to assimilate the extra N-compounds made available through supplemented nutrition.

  14. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Van Meulebroek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita. Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS m−1 was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level, whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  15. Vermicompost as a soil supplement to improve growth, yield and fruit quality of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Miceli, Federico A; Santiago-Borraz, Jorge; Montes Molina, Joaquín Adolfo; Nafate, Camerino Carlos; Abud-Archila, Miguel; Oliva Llaven, María Angela; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Dendooven, Luc

    2007-11-01

    The effects of earthworm-processed sheep-manure (vermicompost) on the growth, productivity and chemical characteristics of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum) (c.v. Rio Grande) were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. Five treatments were applied combining vermicompost and soil in proportions of 0:1, 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 and 1:5 (v/v). Growth and yield parameters were measured 85 days and 100 days after transplanting. Addition of vermicompost increased plant heights significantly, but had no significant effect on the numbers of leaves or yields 85 days after transplanting. Yields of tomatoes were significantly greater when the relationship vermicompost:soil was 1:1, 1:2 or 1:3, 100 days after transplanting. Addition of sheep-manure vermicompost decreased soil pH, titratable acidity and increased soluble and insoluble solids, in tomato fruits compared to those harvested from plants cultivated in unamended soil. Sheep-manure vermicompost as a soil supplement increased tomato yields and soluble, insoluble solids and carbohydrate concentrations.

  16. Tomato-based food products for prostate cancer prevention: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hsueh-Li; Thomas-Ahner, Jennifer M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Wan, Lei; Francis, David M; Schwartz, Steven J; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2010-09-01

    Evidence derived from a vast array of laboratory studies and epidemiological investigations have implicated diets rich in fruits and vegetables with a reduced risk of certain cancers. However, these approaches cannot demonstrate causal relationships and there is a paucity of randomized, controlled trials due to the difficulties involved with executing studies of food and behavioral change. Rather than pursuing the definitive intervention trials that are necessary, the thrust of research in recent decades has been driven by a reductionist approach focusing upon the identification of bioactive components in fruits and vegetables with the subsequent development of single agents using a pharmacologic approach. At this point in time, there are no chemopreventive strategies that are standard of care in medical practice that have resulted from this approach. This review describes an alternative approach focusing upon development of tomato-based food products for human clinical trials targeting cancer prevention and as an adjunct to therapy. Tomatoes are a source of bioactive phytochemicals and are widely consumed. The phytochemical pattern of tomato products can be manipulated to optimize anticancer activity through genetics, horticultural techniques, and food processing. The opportunity to develop a highly consistent tomato-based food product rich in anticancer phytochemicals for clinical trials targeting specific cancers, particularly the prostate, necessitates the interactive transdisciplinary research efforts of horticulturalists, food technologists, cancer biologists, and clinical translational investigators.

  17. [Genome-wide identification and bioinformatic analysis of PPR gene family in tomato].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Anming; Li, Ling; Qu, Xu; Sun, Tingting; Chen, Yaqiong; Zong, Peng; Li, Zunqiang; Gong, Daping; Sun, Yuhe

    2014-01-01

    Pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs) genes constitute one of the largest gene families in plants, which play a broad and essential role in plant growth and development. In this study, the protein sequences annotated by the tomato (S. lycopersicum L.) genome project were screened with the Pfam PPR sequences. A total of 471 putative PPR-encoding genes were identified. Based on the motifs defined in A. thaliana L., protein structure and conserved sequences for each tomato motif were analyzed. We also analyzed phylogenetic relationship, subcellular localization, expression and GO analysis of the identified gene sequences. Our results demonstrate that tomato PPR gene family contains two subfamilies, P and PLS, each accounting for half of the family. PLS subfamily can be divided into four subclasses i.e., PLS, E, E+ and DYW. Each subclass of sequences forms a clade in the phylogenetic tree. The PPR motifs were found highly conserved among plants. The tomato PPR genes were distributed over 12 chromosomes and most of them lack introns. The majority of PPR proteins harbor mitochondrial or chloroplast localization sequences, whereas GO analysis showed that most PPR proteins participate in RNA-related biological processes.

  18. Carotenoid Profile of Tomato Sauces: Effect of Cooking Time and Content of Extra Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vallverdú-Queralt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of carotenoid-rich vegetables such as tomatoes and tomato sauces is associated with reduced risk of several chronic diseases. The predominant carotenoids in tomato products are in the (all-E configuration, but (Z isomers can be formed during thermal processing. The effect of cooking time (15, 30, 45 and 60 min and the addition of extra virgin olive oil (5% and 10% on the carotenoid extractability of tomato sauces was monitored using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and LC-ultraviolet detection (LC-UV. The thermal treatment and the addition of extra virgin olive oil increased the levels of antioxidant activity, total carotenoids, Z-lycopene isomers, α-carotene and β-carotene. These results are of particular nutritional benefit since higher lycopene intake has been associated with a reduced risk of lethal prostate and a reduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels. Moreover, β-carotene has been reported to suppress the up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene expression in a dose dependent manner and to suppress UVA-induced HO-1 gene expression in cultured FEK4.

  19. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  20. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  1. Induction of mutations in tomato variety Solar Set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiris, R.

    1995-01-01

    The production of tomatoes in Sri Lanka is hampered by many problems. Tomato is an economic crop which is nutritious and has export potential. The major constraint for tomato production is Bacterial Wilt caused by Pseudomonas Solanacearum. A study was initiated with the obnjective of finding tomato genotype having resistance to bacterial wilt. The seeds of the varity, Solar Set which is highly susceptible to bacterial wilt was exposed to irradiation from Co 60 source after adjusting moisture content to 14%. The dosese given were 0, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50 krad. The seeds were sown in plastic trays and germination count was taken after 3 days. The LD50 value for the induction of mutants in tomato variety Solar Set is observed to be 35.6 Kr and it is the best dose value for the induction of beneficial mutants in tomato variety, Solar Set by irradiation

  2. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  3. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irrigadas com soluções nutritivas preparadas com água de abastecimento e com águas salinas preparadas diluindo-se água de rejeito coletado em um dessalinizador a 75%; 50% e 25% e 0%, correspondendo à condutividades elétricas de 2,1; 3,55; 4,88, 6,02 e 6,96 dS m-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos (níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva e quatro repetições. A altura e a massa seca das plantas reduziram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. O consumo hídrico da cultura foi influenciada pela adição de rejeito salino na solução nutritiva e a salinidade limiar, considerando-se a produtividade da cultura, ficou em torno de 3,51 dS m-1. A adição de até 25% de rejeito de dessalinizador (diluição de 75% à solução nutritiva permite o cultivo do tomate cereja, cv. 'Samambaia', sem haver redução na produtividade.Sustainable agricultural production is the most challenge facing many arid and semiarid regions due to the severe shortage of water for irrigation, thus the use of saline water for irrigation is common. The aim of this research was to examine the response of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia under four levels of salinity of the nutritional solution with added water reject from desalting under soilless conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with coconut fiber and irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap

  4. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  5. Tomatoes in oil recovery. [Plant waste additives improve yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    The waste from processing tomato, squash and pepper stalks found unexpected use in recovery of oil. Even a negligible amount thereof in an aqueous solution pumped into an oil-bearing formation turned out to be sufficient to increase the yield. Substances of plant origin, which improve dramatically the oil-flushing properties of water, not only increase the recovery of oil, but reduce the volume of fluid to be pumped into the stratum. The staff of the Institute of Deep Oil and Gas Deposits of the Azerbaijan Academy of Sciences, who proved the technological and economical advantages of using the waste from plant processing, transmitted their findings to the oil workers of Baku. The scientists have concluded that there is a good raw material base in this republic for utilizing this method on oil-bearing formations.

  6. Screening of tomato varieties for fruit tree based Agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hossain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted with four tomato varieties under a six year old orchard was accomplished at the Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University (BSMRAU research farm during October 2011 to April 2012. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Four tomato varieties (BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 8, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 15 were grown under guava, mango, olive and control. Results showed that light availability in control plot (999.75 μ mol m-2s-1 was remarkably higher over fruit tree based agroforestry systems and it was 58.8, 43.9 and 31.5% of the control for guava, mango and olive based systems, respectively. The shortest tomato plant was observed in olive based system (54.91 cm, while the tallest plant was observed in mango based system (60.09 cm. The highest SPAD value and number of primary branches per plant was recorded in control plot. Fruit length, fruit girth was found lowest in olive based system. The highest yield (34.06 t ha-1 was recorded in control plot while the lowest yield (10.26 t ha-1 was recorded in olive based system. The economic performance of fruit tree based tomato production system showed that both the net return and BCR of mango and guava based system was higher over control and olive based system. The contents of organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus, potassium and sulfur of before experimentation soil were slightly higher in fruit tree based agroforestry systems than the control. After experimentation, nutrient elements in soil were found increased slightly than initial soils. Fruit tree based agroforestry systems could be ranked based on the economic performance as mango> guava> control> olive based system with BARI Tomato 15, BARI Tomato 2, BARI Tomato 14 and BARI Tomato 8, respectively.

  7. LICOPENE AND Β-CAROTENE IN TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Yu. Kondratieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The high antioxidant activity in tomato fruits is caused not only by sufficient content of vitamin C and polyphenols but also the carotenoids and the fat soluble antioxidants. Lycopene and beta-carotene are the main fat-soluble antioxidants, the consumption of which influences positively on human’s health. It is known that tomato fruits are the source of lycopene for human diet, providing up to 85% of the total lycopene in food. The breeding program for tomato cultivars with high content of carotenoids is a very important task for breeders. In our study the content of betacarotene and lycopene was assessed in 18 tomato accessions with red, pink, yellow and orange fruits obtained in Solanaceae Breeding Laboratory at VNIISSOK. All plants were grown in experimental open field in Odintsovo region, Moscow oblast, VNIISSOK. It was revealed that the typical concentration ratio of lycopene to beta-carotene for pink and red fruits was 1.5 to 10.25, but for yellow and orange fruits was 0 to 0.63. Highest ratio was observed in red fruits in line 230-16. The highest lycopene content was found in red fruits of tree type tomato lines 198-16 and 86F1 (11.5 and 8.7 g/100g. respectively. The highest content of betacarotene was in yellow fruits of line 53-16 F1 (4.1 mg/100g and orange fruits of line 184-16 (6.2 mg/100g. All studied accessions with orange fruits had the higher content of beta-carotene than in standard and highest content of lycopene in this group of accessions. Thus, these fruits had the high nutritional value. The balanced content of lycopene and beta-carotene and low acidity in pink and yellow-orange tomato fruits makes these cultivars the most valuable for children’s diet and people with problems of digestive system.

  8. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  9. Screening of tomato genotypes for resistance to tomato fruit borer (helicoverpa armiger hubner) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajjad, M.; Ashfaq, M.; Suhail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tomato genotypes viz., Roma Local, Rio Grande, Tanja, Chico III, Long Tipped, Red-Top, FS-8001, FS-8002, Tropic, Pakit, Peelo, NARC-1, Roma VFN, Pant Bahr, Ebein, Nova Mech, Rockingham, Nagina, Shalkot-96, Pomodoro, Manik, Gressilesse, Nadir, Early Mech, Tommy, Pusha Rubi, Tropic boy, Big Long, Sahil, Sun 6002, Money-Maker and Royesta were evaluated to screen out the suitable resistant/susceptible genotypes against the fruit borer in Pakistan. The results imparted that the percentage of fruit infestation and larval population per plant on tested genotypes of tomato varied significantly. Roma VF, NARC-1 and FS-8002 were categorized as susceptible genotypes with fruit infestation (37.69%, 37.08% and 36.41%, respectively) and larval population per plant (1.02%, 1.02% and 0.84 %, respectively). Whereas, the genotypes Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb had fruit infestation (12.30%, 13.14% and 13.96%, respectively) and larval population per plant (0.42%, 0.42% and 0.43%, respectively) and declared as resistant genotypes to tomato fruit borer. Lower values of host plant susceptibility indices (HPSI) were recorded on resistant genotypes. Sahil, Pakit and Nova Mecb could be used as a source of resistance for developing tomato genotypes resistant to tomato fruit borer. (author)

  10. Effects of Short-Term Biosolarization Using Mature Compost and Industrial Tomato Waste Amendments on the Generation and Persistence of Biocidal Soil Conditions and Subsequent Tomato Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Sade, Nir; Wilhelmi, María Del Mar Rubio; Fernández-Bayo, Jesus D; Harrold, Duff R; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Blumwald, Eduardo; Simmons, Christopher W

    2018-06-06

    Conventional solarization and biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing residue amendments were compared with respect to generation of pesticidal conditions and tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant growth in treated soils. Soil oxygen depletion was examined as a response that has previously not been measured across multiple depths during biosolarization. For biosolarized soil, volatile fatty acids were found to accumulate concurrent with oxygen depletion, and the magnitude of these changes varied by soil depth. Two consecutive years of experimentation showed varying dissipation of volatile fatty acids from biosolarized soils post-treatment. When residual volatile fatty acids were detected in the biosolarized soil, fruit yield did not significantly differ from plants grown in solarized soil. However, when there was no residual volatile fatty acids in the soil at the time of planting, plants grown in biosolarized soil showed a significantly greater vegetation amount, fruit quantity, and fruit ripening than those of plants grown in solarized soil.

  11. Generation of gamma irradiation and EMS-induced mutant lines of the H7996 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canama, Alma O.; Galvez, Hayde F.; Tongson, Eden Jane U.; Quilloy, Reynaldo B.; Hautea, Desiree M.

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide for the fresh vegetable market and food processing industry. With the completion of the genome-sequencing projects in various crops, the major challenge will be determine the gene function. One approach is to generate and to analyze mutant phenotypes. The paper reports the generation of gamma-irradiated and ethy methane sulfonate (EMS)-treated mutant populations, identification and phenotypic characterization of dominant and visible mutations in tomato mutant lines. Mutant populations of tomato H7996 were created using physical (cobalt 60 gamma ray) and chemical EMS mutagens. Generally, based on high-throughput phenotypic characterization, mutations were observed on the plant habit, size, morphology, leaf and flower color and morphology and fruit characteristics. Specifically, the most common dominant and visible mutations noted in the M 1 generation were monopodial, compact, short internodes, multi-branch plant type, light yellow and ghost leaf coloration, tiny and long pedicel leaf morphology and small or short plant size. In the M2 generation, homogeneous and segregating M 2 families were selected to constitute the core set of visible tomato mutants. Initial bacterial wilt resistance (BWR) gene knockouts were also identified. The mutant lines will be used as a rich source of genetic materials for breeding and functional genomics of tomato. (author)

  12. A Post-Harvest Prediction Mass Loss Model for Tomato Fruit Using A Numerical Methodology Centered on Approximation Error Minimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Bucio

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to its nutritional and economic value, the tomato is considered one of the main vegetables in terms of production and consumption in the world. For this reason, an important case study is the fruit maturation parametrized by its mass loss in this study. This process develops in the fruit mainly after harvest. Since that parameter affects the economic value of the crop, the scientific community has been progressively approaching the issue. However, there is no a state-of-the-art practical model allowing the prediction of the tomato fruit mass loss yet. This study proposes a prediction model for tomato mass loss in a continuous and definite time-frame using regression methods. The model is based on a combination of adjustment methods such as least squares polynomial regression leading to error estimation, and cross validation techniques. Experimental results from a 50 fruit of tomato sample studied over a 54 days period were compared to results from the model using a second-order polynomial approach found to provide optimal data fit with a resulting efficiency of ~97%. The model also allows the design of precise logistic strategies centered on post-harvest tomato mass loss prediction usable by producers, distributors, and consumers.

  13. Tomato FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12 mediates the interaction between rapamycin and Target of Rapamycin (TOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjie Xiong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling is an important regulator in multiple organisms including yeast, plants and animals. However, the TOR signaling in plants is much less understood as compared to that in yeast and animals. TOR kinase can be efficiently suppressed by rapamycin in the presence of functional FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12 in yeast and animals. In most examined higher plants rapamycin fails to inhibit TOR kinase due to the non-functional FKBP12. Here we find that tomato plants showed obvious growth inhibition when treated with rapamycin and the inhibitory phenotype is similar to suppression of TOR causing by active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis such as KU63794, AZD8055 and Torin1. The chemical genetic assays using TOR inhibitors and heterologous expressing SlFKBP12 in Arabidopsis indicated that the TOR signaling is functional in tomato. The protein gel shifting and TOR inhibitors combination assays showed that SlFKBP12 can mediate the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. Furthermore, comparative expression profiling analysis between treatments with rapamycin and KU63794 identified highly overlapped Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs which are involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, cell wall restructuring, and senescence in tomato. These observations suggest that SlFFBP12 is functional in tomato. The results provided basic information of TOR signaling in tomato, and also some new insights into how TOR controls plant growth and development through reprogramming the transcription profiles

  14. Tomato FK506 Binding Protein 12KD (FKBP12) Mediates the Interaction between Rapamycin and Target of Rapamycin (TOR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fangjie; Dong, Pan; Liu, Mei; Xie, Gengxin; Wang, Kai; Zhuo, Fengping; Feng, Li; Yang, Lu; Li, Zhengguo; Ren, Maozhi

    2016-01-01

    Target of Rapamycin (TOR) signaling is an important regulator in multiple organisms including yeast, plants, and animals. However, the TOR signaling in plants is much less understood as compared to that in yeast and animals. TOR kinase can be efficiently suppressed by rapamycin in the presence of functional FK506 Binding Protein 12 KD (FKBP12) in yeast and animals. In most examined higher plants rapamycin fails to inhibit TOR kinase due to the non-functional FKBP12. Here we find that tomato plants showed obvious growth inhibition when treated with rapamycin and the inhibitory phenotype is similar to suppression of TOR causing by active-site TOR inhibitors (asTORis) such as KU63794, AZD8055, and Torin1. The chemical genetic assays using TOR inhibitors and heterologous expressing SlFKBP12 in Arabidopsis indicated that the TOR signaling is functional in tomato. The protein gel shifting and TOR inhibitors combination assays showed that SlFKBP12 can mediate the interaction between rapamycin and TOR. Furthermore, comparative expression profile analysis between treatments with rapamycin and KU63794 identified highly overlapped Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) which are involved in many anabolic and catabolic processes, such as photosynthesis, cell wall restructuring, and senescence in tomato. These observations suggest that SlFFBP12 is functional in tomato. The results provided basic information of TOR signaling in tomato, and also some new insights into how TOR controls plant growth and development through reprogramming the transcription profiles.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity in tomato for fruit morphology, composition and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaif, K.; Amjad, M.; Saeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Postharvest losses are of great concern in vegetable crops, including tomato, due to their perishable nature. Damage to tomato fruit during transportation is related to its shape besides other factors. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess genetic diversity in the available tomato germplasm (35 genotypes) for fruit morphology, biochemical composition and yield. Considerable variation was observed for all studied traits except number of locules per fruit, TSS and reducing sugars, for which very low range was recorded. While, moderate level of variation existed for stem-end blockiness, blossom-end blockiness and elongated shape which suggested that fruit of most of the varieties could belong to more than one category of fruit shape. Fruit length and diameter had significantly positive correlation with heart shape of tomato, while later was also correlated with blossom-end-blockiness. Heart shape of tomato fruit was also correlated with stem-end blockiness. Yield showed significantly positive correlation with number of inflorescence per plant. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed PC-I to PC-VI had Eigen values >1, which contributed 73.86% of total variability for different traits. The highest factor loading values for blossom-end-blockiness, stem-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape was recorded in PC-6, PC-4, PC-6 and PC-2, respectively. Thirty five genotypes were grouped into three clusters. Higher yield and stem-end-blockiness was observed in genotypes from cluster II, while higher values for blossom-end-blockiness, heart shape and elongated shape were noticed in cluster I followed by cluster III. So, it can be assumed that genotypes in cluster II showed higher yield and also possessed blocky fruit, a desirable character for transportation and processing purpose. Moreover, it is suggested that genotypes of cluster I and cluster II can be crossed to find heterosis for yield and fruit shape related traits. (author)

  16. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Chen; Wei, Li; Huang, Wen-Ching; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-12-17

    Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT) on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD)). Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8), standard diet (control); and experimental (n = 32), HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group) to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  17. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  18. Identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM-responsive microRNAs in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping eWu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A majority of land plants can form symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi. MicroRNAs (miRNAs have been implicated to regulate this process in legumes, but their involvement in non-legume species is largely unknown. In this study, by performing deep sequencing of sRNA libraries in tomato roots and comparing with tomato genome, a total of 700 potential miRNAs were predicted, among them, 187 are known plant miRNAs that have been previously deposited in miRBase. Unlike the profiles in other plants such as rice and Arabidopsis, a large proportion of predicted tomato miRNAs was 24 nt in length. A similar pattern was observed in the potato genome but not in tobacco, indicating a Solanum genus-specific expansion of 24-nt miRNAs. About 40% identified tomato miRNAs showed significantly altered expressions upon Rhizophagus irregularis inoculation, suggesting the potential roles of these novel miRNAs in AM symbiosis. The differential expression of five known and six novel miRNAs were further validated using qPCR analysis. Interestingly, three up-regulated known tomato miRNAs belong to a known miR171 family, a member of which has been reported in Medicago truncatula to regulate AM symbiosis. Thus, the miR171 family likely regulates AM symbiosis conservatively across different plant lineages. More than 1000 genes targeted by potential AM-responsive miRNAs were provided and their roles in AM symbiosis are worth further exploring.

  19. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhamyansurehn, D [Institut Fiziki i Matematiki Akademii Nauk Mongol' skoj Narodnoj Respubliki, Ulan Bator; Voloozh, D

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit.

  20. Effects of pre-sowing gamma irradiation of tomato seeds on production and yield of open field tomato crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhamyansurehn, D.; Voloozh, D.

    1976-01-01

    The following conclusions may be drawn from results obtained in experiments with pre-sowing irradiation of tomato seeds and its effect on tomato crops. The dose of 2500 R proved to be optimum for increase of tomato crops yield. The yield increase resulted from increase in average weight, quantity and the dry matter of the fruit. The irradiation did not significantly affect the concentration of sugar, phosphorus, nitrogen and ascorbic acid in the fruit. (author)

  1. First report of bacterial speck of tomato caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, L.; Cruz, J.; Eloy, M.; Oliveira, Helena; Vaz, H.; Tenreiro, R.

    2010-01-01

    Protected and open field tomato crops are economically important for Portuguese agriculture. In 1983, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Okabe, 1933) Young, Dye & Wilkie, 1978 was first reported affecting protected crops (3) and then later under open field conditions (1). In the 2009 spring/summer season, several outbreaks of bacterial speck of tomato showing an unusual degree of severity were observed in open fields from the Tagus Valley Region

  2. Ten years of Brazilian ballast water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Maria Cecilia Trindade; Hall-Spencer, Jason M.; Poggian, Cecília Fonseca; Fileman, Timothy W.

    2018-03-01

    In 2005, Brazil addressed the environmental challenges posed by ballast water through a unilateral regulation, called the Maritime Standard N° 20 (NORMAM-20), applied to all shipping in her waters. This world-leading decision was the culmination of a process that started during the 1990‧s. Here, we summarize how these ballast water regulations were brought in and adopted and present the findings of 10 years of enforcement (2005-2015) in 39 ports along the Brazilian coast. We show that compliance with the Brazilian standard has increased significantly since the regulations were implemented (p < 0.001). After five years of implementation, non-compliance decreased probably reflecting an increase in awareness of the Brazilian Standard and a shift in the shipping industry commitment to minimize and control the spread of invasive species through ballast water. The Brazilian experience shows that very high levels (97%) of compliance with ballast water management regulations can be made to work in a region of global importance to the maritime industry. In the last decade, the rules governing ballast water in Brazil have evolved to address the demands from the maritime community and to provide updates such as imminent requirements for the use of ballast water management systems on board ships. These regulations are rarely cited when ballast water regulations are discussed internationally, yet there is much to learn from the proactive approach taken by Brazil such as what is feasible and enforceable.

  3. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  5. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  6. Genome-wide identification and expression profiling of tomato Hsp20 gene family in response to biotic and abiotic stresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    jiahong yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20 gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83% were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower, suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript

  7. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Profiling of Tomato Hsp20 Gene Family in Response to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Kun; Ruan, Meiying; Ye, Qingjing; Wang, Rongqing; Li, Zhimiao; Zhou, Guozhi; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The Hsp20 genes are involved in the response of plants to environment stresses including heat shock and also play a vital role in plant growth and development. They represent the most abundant small heat shock proteins (sHsps) in plants, but little is known about this family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), an important vegetable crop in the world. Here, we characterized heat shock protein 20 (SlHsp20) gene family in tomato through integration of gene structure, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and expression profile. Using bioinformatics-based methods, we identified at least 42 putative SlHsp20 genes in tomato. Sequence analysis revealed that most of SlHsp20 genes possessed no intron or a relatively short intron in length. Chromosome mapping indicated that inter-arm and intra-chromosome duplication events contributed remarkably to the expansion of SlHsp20 genes. Phylogentic tree of Hsp20 genes from tomato and other plant species revealed that SlHsp20 genes were grouped into 13 subfamilies, indicating that these genes may have a common ancestor that generated diverse subfamilies prior to the mono-dicot split. In addition, expression analysis using RNA-seq in various tissues and developmental stages of cultivated tomato and the wild relative Solanum pimpinellifolium revealed that most of these genes (83%) were expressed in at least one stage from at least one genotype. Out of 42 genes, 4 genes were expressed constitutively in almost all the tissues analyzed, implying that these genes might have specific housekeeping function in tomato cell under normal growth conditions. Two SlHsp20 genes displayed differential expression levels between cultivated tomato and S. pimpinellifolium in vegetative (leaf and root) and reproductive organs (floral bud and flower), suggesting inter-species diversification for functional specialization during the process of domestication. Based on genome-wide microarray analysis, we showed that the transcript levels of SlHsp20

  8. Rheological Behavior of Tomato Fiber Suspensions Produced by High Shear and High Pressure Homogenization and Their Application in Tomato Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ping; Adhikari, Benu P.; Li, Dong

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high shear and high pressure homogenization on the rheological properties (steady shear viscosity, storage and loss modulus, and deformation) and homogeneity in tomato fiber suspensions. The tomato fiber suspensions at different concentrations (0.1%–1%, w/w) were subjected to high shear and high pressure homogenization and the morphology (distribution of fiber particles), rheological properties, and color parameters of the homogenized suspensions were measured. The homogenized suspensions were significantly more uniform compared to unhomogenized suspension. The homogenized suspensions were found to better resist the deformation caused by external stress (creep behavior). The apparent viscosity and storage and loss modulus of homogenized tomato fiber suspension are comparable with those of commercial tomato ketchup even at the fiber concentration as low as 0.5% (w/w), implying the possibility of using tomato fiber as thickener. The model tomato sauce produced using tomato fiber showed desirable consistency and color. These results indicate that the application of tomato fiber in tomato-based food products would be desirable and beneficial. PMID:29743890

  9. Biological control of corky root in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, G; Fiume, F

    2008-01-01

    Corky root caused by Pyrenochaeta lycopersici (Schneider et Gerlach) is one of the most important soil borne fungal pathogens which develops in the soils, causing diseases in different crops. The research was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the biological control of corky root on tomato. Biological control was performed by using Trichoderma viride Pers. 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and Bacillus subtilis M51 PI. According to present and future regulations on the use of chemical fungicides and considering that treatments must avoids environmental pollution, the main object of this research was to find alternative strategies by using biocontrol agents against P. lycopersici that affect tomato plants. In laboratory, the effectiveness of T. viride 18/17 SS, Streptomyces spp. AtB42 and B. subtilis M51 PI to control P. lycopersici were studied. In greenhouse, the research was carried out comparing the following treatments: 1) untreated control; 2) T. viride 18/17 SS; 3) Streptomyces spp. AtB42; 4) B. subtilis M51 PI. Roots of plants of tomato H3028 Hazera were treated with the antagonist suspensions just prior of transplant. Treatments were repeated about 2 months after, with the same suspensions sprayed on the soil to the plant collar. In dual culture, the inhibition of P. lycopersici ranged up to 81.2% (caused from T. viride 18/17 SS), 75.6% (from Streptomyces spp. AtB42) and 66.8% (from B. subtilis M51 PI). In greenhouse trials, with regard to corky root symptoms, all treated plots showed signifycative differences compared to untreated. T. viride gave the better results followed by Streptomyces spp. and then by B. subtilis. The fungus antagonist showed good root surface competence such as demonstrated its persistence on the roots surface of the tomato plants whose roots were treated with T. viride 18/17 SS up to 2 months before.

  10. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  11. Linear relationships between cherry tomato traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to identify the linear relationship between cherry tomato yield components. Two uniformity trials, without treatments, were conducted on Lilli cherry tomato plants in a plastic greenhouse during the 2014 spring/summer season, with the plants in two stems. Variables observed for each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, total number of fruits, and total fruit weight; a Pearson's correlation matrix was used to estimate the relationship between the variables. Path analysis was then performed considering total fruit weight as the main variable and the remaining variables as explanatory. Due to the severe multicollinearity, the variable 'number of fruits per bunch' was eliminated. Pearson's correlation coefficients were significant between explanatory and main variables. Mean fruit weight has a low cause-and-effect relationship with the total weight of fruits produced. A low cause-and-effect relationship was also observed between number of fruits and number of bunches. Cherry tomato productivity is directly related to the number of fruits per plant.

  12. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  13. Towards Using NMR to Screen for Spoiled Tomatoes Stored in 1,000 L, Aseptically Sealed, Metal-Lined Totes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Pinter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy is used to track factory relevant tomato paste spoilage. It was found that spoilage in tomato paste test samples leads to longer spin lattice relaxation times T1 using a conventional low magnetic field NMR system. The increase in T1 value for contaminated samples over a five day room temperature exposure period prompted the work to be extended to the study of industry standard, 1,000 L, non-ferrous, metal-lined totes. NMR signals and T1 values were recovered from a large format container with a single-sided NMR sensor. The results of this work suggest that a handheld NMR device can be used to study tomato paste spoilage in factory process environments.

  14. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  16. From Tomato King to World Food Prize laureate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip E

    2014-01-01

    This autobiographical article describes my early years, education, and career at Purdue University. Helping form and expand the Department of Food Science at Purdue was exciting and gratifying, and working with students in the classroom and on research projects was rewarding and kept me feeling young. My research on bulk aseptic processing allowed me to help solve problems relevant to the tomato industry, but I learned later that it had much broader relevance. I certainly never expected the impact and visibility of the work to result in my being awarded the World Food Prize. Being the first food scientist to win this award has enabled me to focus increased attention on the need to reduce food losses.

  17. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hao; Song, Congfeng; Borth, Wayne; Sether, Diane; Melzer, Michael; Hu, John

    2011-10-20

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX) in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  18. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  19. Response of Tomato Genotypes to Induced Salt Stress | Agong ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirteen tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) genotypes were subjected to salt treatment under hydroponics and their responses monitored in a set of two experiments with the objective of advancing them as potential salt tolerant tomato scion and/or rootstocks. Salt applications ranged from 0 to 2% NaCl, with the resultant ...

  20. Growth and Yield Components of Tomato as Influenced by Nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yield of tomato, and later application in the growing stages favours fruit development, thus nitrogen has a dramatic effect on tomato growth and development ..... CRBD design in factorial experiment using SAS analytical Software. ..... with relatively fertile soil experimental conditions there is no existence of joint factor.

  1. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  2. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B ... In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl ...

  3. Design and Development of a tomato Slicing Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaldeen Oladimeji Salaudeen; Awagu E. F.

    2012-01-01

    Principle of slicing was reviewed and tomato slicing machine was developed based on appropriate technology. Locally available materials like wood, stainless steel and mild steel were used in the fabrication. The machine was made to cut tomatoes in 2cm thickness. The capacity of the machine is 540.09g per minute and its performance efficiency is 70%.

  4. Breeding of a Tomato Genotype Readily Accessible to Genetic Manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Maarten; Hanhart, Corrie; Jongsma, Maarten; Toma, Ingrid; Weide, Rob; Zabel, Pim; Hille, Jacques

    1986-01-01

    A tomato genotype, superior in regenerating plants from cell cultures, was obtained by transferring regeneration capacity from Lycopersicon peruvianum into L. esculentum by classical breeding. This genotype, MsK93, greatly facilitates genetic manipulation of tomato, as was demonstrated by successful

  5. DS read-out transcription in transgenic tomato plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudenko, George N.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1994-01-01

    To select for Ds transposition in transgenic tomato plants a phenotypic excision assay, based on restoration of hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT II) gene expression, was employed. Some tomato plants, however, expressed the marker gene even though the Ds had not excised. Read-out transcriptional

  6. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis-mediated tomato tolerance to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitarra, Walter; Maserti, Biancaelena; Gambino, Giorgio; Guerrieri, Emilio; Balestrini, Raffaella

    2016-07-02

    A multidisciplinary approach, involving eco-physiological, morphometric, biochemical and molecular analyses, has been used to study the impact of two different AM fungi, i.e. Funneliformis mosseae and Rhizophagus intraradices, on tomato response to water stress. Overall, results show that AM symbiosis positively affects the tolerance to drought in tomato with a different plant response depending on the involved AM fungal species.

  7. Three QTLs for Botrytis cinerea resistance in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finkers, H.J.; Berg, van den P.M.M.M.; Berloo, van R.; Have, ten A.; Heusden, van A.W.; Kan, van J.A.L.; Lindhout, P.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to grey mold (Botrytis cinerea). Partial resistance to this fungus was identified in accessions of wild relatives of tomato such as S. habrochaites LYC4. In order to identify loci involved in quantitative resistance (QTLs) to B. cinerea, a population of

  8. Strategies for Increasing Tomato Production In Nigeria: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out in Kabba-Bunu Local Government Area (LGA) of Kogi State, Nigeria in the year 2013 to assess the farmers' perception on the strategies for increasing tomato production in the LGA; an area that has potential to produce tomato on commercial level. The objectives of the study were to identify the ...

  9. Wild tomato introgressions that confer resistance to begomoviruses in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begomoviruses, whitefly-transmitted geminiviruses, are one of the major diseases of tomatoes in subtropical and tropical regions. In Guatemala, several bipartite begomoviruses and the monopartite geminivirus, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, are present. Three experiments were conducted to evaluate th...

  10. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  11. field reactions of interspecific hybrids of tomato (solanum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2014-09-03

    Sep 3, 2014 ... Leaf spot is a major disease of tomato causing reduction in fruit yield under humid environments. It's control using some of the major systemic fungicides available is environmentally unfriendly and costly. Heterosis known to increase productivity in crops was used to assess improvement in tomato yield and ...

  12. In Vitro screening of tomato genotypes for drought resistance using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drought is a major abiotic factor that limits plant growth and productivity. Tomato is an important vegetable crop and area under production is limited by irrigation water scarcity. Effort was made to screen tomato germplasm under in vitro condition using polyethylene glycol (PEG) at four concentrations (0, 20, 40 and 60 g/l) ...

  13. Prospects: the tomato genome as a cornerstone for gene discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Those involved in the international tomato genome sequencing effort contributed to not only the development of an important genome sequence relevant to a major economic and nutritional crop, but also to the tomato experimental system as a model for plant biology. Without question, prior seminal work...

  14. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanaceraum was investigated. Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested (Glomus mosseae, Scutellospora sp. and Gigaspora margarita). Siginificant differences in tomato growth based on plant ...

  15. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006). For tomato, the commodity of interest in this study, tariffs reduction increased ... Even though Accra is the largest tomato consumer market in Ghana, it was ... Impediments arising from oligopolistic behaviour of traders, seasonal ... an ideal case for employing the TAR model in analysing price transmission and market.

  16. Farmers Agronomic Practice in Management of the Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' awareness of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease and their agronomic and disease management practices in the Efutu municipality, Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA), and Mfantseman districts which are leading tomato producing centres in the Central Region of Ghana.

  17. Morphological and Molecular Identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from Tomato Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Živković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium forming a white to gray colonies. The cultures developed black acervuli around the center of the colony. Conidia were hyaline, aseptate, and fusiform or rarely cylindrical. Appressoria were smooth, simple, clavate to ovate, and variedfrom light to dark brown. Pathogenicity tests with representative isolates were conducted on symptomless, detached tomato fruits. All tested isolates caused anthracnose lesions on tomato fruit after 7 days of incubation. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled by reisolationfrom inoculated tomato fruits. PCR analysis (using species-specific primer pair, CaInt2/ITS4 of genomic DNA from tomato isolates resulted in an amplification product of 490 bp, specific for C. acutatum, further confirming the identity of the pathogen. Based onmorphological and molecular characteristics, the isolates from tomato fruit were determined as C. acutatum.

  18. The arms race between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, F.; Rep, M.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between tomato and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici has become a model system for the study of the molecular basis of disease resistance and susceptibility. Gene-for-gene interactions in this system have provided the basis for the development of tomato cultivars resistant to

  19. Tomato sorting using independent component analysis on spectral images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Young, I.T.

    2003-01-01

    Independent Component Analysis is one of the most widely used methods for blind source separation. In this paper we use this technique to estimate the most important compounds which play a role in the ripening of tomatoes. Spectral images of tomatoes were analyzed. Two main independent components

  20. Pepino mosaic virus isolates and differential symptomatology in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Paeleman, A.; Vandewoestijne, E.; Bergen, Van L.; Bragard, C.; Lievens, B.; Vanachter, A.C.R.C.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on a survey conducted in commercial tomato production in Belgium in 2006, four Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) isolates that differed in symptom expression in the crop of origin were selected for greenhouse trials. The selected isolates were inoculated onto tomato plants grown in four separate

  1. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss. Keywords: Tomato, Pepper, virus distribution, PVMV, CMV, PVY ...

  2. YIELD OF TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) IN MUBI, ADAMAWA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    fruits and can be taken raw or cooked (Adams et al.,. 1978). It was believed to have been originated from ... European literatures appeared as herbal swelling fruit used for cooking (Olayinka and Adebayo, 1985). Over ... largest consumers of tomato paste all over the world. Production indices of tomato in Nigeria as reported ...

  3. Tomato farmers adoption level of postharvest value addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined tomato farmers' adoption level of postharvest value addition technology and its constraints in Surulere Area of Oyo state. 160 tomato farmers were randomly selected and interviewed through structured interview schedule. Data obtained were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistics. Results ...

  4. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO IDENTIFY TOMATO MOSAIC TOBAMOVIRUS (TOMV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Keila M.R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against Tomato mosaic tobamovirus (ToMV isolated in Brazil. One antibody (8G7G2 isotyped as IgG2b (kappa light chain showed strong specificity and very low cross reaction with the Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV. It can be used in identification of tomato mosaic virus (ToMV.

  5. Molecular marker screening of tomato, ( solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is one of the crops in which genetic resistance has specially been effective against root-knot nematodes. In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance (Mi) with specific primer (Mi23/F//Mi23/R). The cultivars; VFNT, FLA 505-BL 1172, ...

  6. Price Variation of Tomatoes and Ginger in Giwa Market, Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jamila Rabe Mani

    ginger marketing an indication of principle of supply and demand. The feasibility for storage were 20.71% and 21.44% for tomato and ginger respectively, implying that the producers/marketers of both tomato and ginger will make highest returns if they stored and sold to other (urban/international) markets during periods of ...

  7. Development of polymorphic microsatellite loci for the tomato leaf ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lite loci for the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). J. Genet. 92, e110–e112. Online only ... idae) is a devastating pest of tomato originating from South. America (García and Espul 1982). .... ture of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on pear trees in. China identified using microsatellites.

  8. Genotypic variation in the response of tomato to salinity | Turhan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to determine the predictive screening parameters that can be applied at early development stages of tomato plants, 18 tomato cultivars were grown in nutrient solution with 12 dS m-1 NaCl. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with tree replications. The relationships among the salinity ...

  9. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, K.; Krasikov, V.; Allmann, S.; Rep, M.; Takken, F.L.W.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene

  10. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  11. Genome-wide transcriptomic analysis of BR-deficient Micro-Tom reveals correlations between drought stress tolerance and brassinosteroid signaling in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsu; Shim, Donghwan; Moon, Suyun; Kim, Hyemin; Bae, Wonsil; Kim, Kyunghwan; Kim, Yang-Hoon; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Hong, Chang Pyo; Hong, Suk-Young; Lee, Ye-Jin; Sung, Jwakyung; Ryu, Hojin

    2018-06-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are plant steroid hormones that play crucial roles in a range of growth and developmental processes. Although BR signal transduction and biosynthetic pathways have been well characterized in model plants, their biological roles in an important crop, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), remain unknown. Here, cultivated tomato (WT) and a BR synthesis mutant, Micro-Tom (MT), were compared using physiological and transcriptomic approaches. The cultivated tomato showed higher tolerance to drought and osmotic stresses than the MT tomato. However, BR-defective phenotypes of MT, including plant growth and stomatal closure defects, were completely recovered by application of exogenous BR or complementation with a SlDWARF gene. Using genome-wide transcriptome analysis, 619 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between WT and MT plants. Several DEGs were linked to known signaling networks, including those related to biotic/abiotic stress responses, lignification, cell wall development, and hormone responses. Consistent with the higher susceptibility of MT to drought stress, several gene sets involved in responses to drought and osmotic stress were differentially regulated between the WT and MT tomato plants. Our data suggest that BR signaling pathways are involved in mediating the response to abiotic stress via fine-tuning of abiotic stress-related gene networks in tomato plants. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Destalking the Wily Tomato: A Case Study in Social Consequences in California Agricultural Research. Research Monograph No. 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, William H.; Barton, Amy

    The end of the bracero program after 1965 brought about a major change in the growing, harvesting, and processing of California tomatoes which dramatically influenced the structure of the harvesting labor force. In order to determine the social consequences of the transition from man to mechanized harvesting procedures, the following areas of…

  13. RNA interference silencing of chalcone synthase, the first step in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, leads to parthenocarpic tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijlen, E.G.W.M.; Vos, de C.H.; Martens, S.; Jonker, H.H.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Molthoff, J.W.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Angenent, G.C.; Tunen, van A.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Parthenocarpy, the formation of seedless fruits in the absence of functional fertilization, is a desirable trait for several important crop plants, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Seedless fruits can be of great value for consumers, the processing industry, and breeding companies. In this

  14. Expression of heterosis in floral traits and fruit size in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was prompted by lack of improved tomato cultivars adapted to the humid tropical. Tomato hybrids were developed by crossing wild and cultivated tomato varieties. The average fruit size of the tomato hybrids generated did not meet the level of acceptability in the local market. A modified three way cross ...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1261 - Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. 180.1261 Section 180.1261 Protection of.... vesicatoria and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato specific Bacteriophages. An exemption from the requirement of... syringae pv. tomato specific bacteriophages in or on pepper and tomato. [74 FR 26536, June 3, 2009] ...

  16. Effect of concentration on the rheology and serum separation of tomato suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den F.W.C.; Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    The °Brix value of the tomato concentrate, from which tomato suspensions were prepared, was shown to have a large effect on the resulting apparent viscosity and storage modulus. The apparent viscosity of a tomato suspension prepared from a 30 °Brix tomato concentrate was only 35␘f that of a

  17. Emergence of a resistance breaking TSWV strain in tomato in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a highly destructive pathogen of tomato in the central valley of California. During the 2016 tomato growing season, unusually early and severe symptoms of TSWV occurred in fields of TSWV-resistant fresh market tomato cultivars. Disease incidences of 50-80% were ob...

  18. Low temperature-induced lycopene degradaton in red ripe tomato evaluated by remittance spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farneti, B.; Schouten, R.E.; Woltering, E.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomatoes are mostly harvested at the orange and red-ripe stages. A survey among consumers indicated that tomatoes are most often stored in the refrigerator well below 10 °C, a temperature considered harmful for chilling sensitive products such as tomato. Also during distribution, tomatoes may be

  19. KINETICS OF COLOUR CHANGE OF TOMATOES DURING DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Unadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Colour is one of the pharameters determining the quality of dried tomatoes. The changes in colour of the skin of tomatoes during drying in an experimental dryer at various temperatures were measured every two hours by using Minolta CR 200 colorimeter and the colours were represented in Hunter-Lab scale. The objective of this research was develop a model for predicting colour changes of tomatoes during drying. The decrease in darkness as represented by dL value varied from 10 to 16%, while decrease in chroma value (dL varied from 20 to 37% of initial values. An empirical logarithmic equation with six constants was derived to fit the data of chroma changes during drying at various temperature and times. The model of colour change of tomatoes can be used for determining the optimum drying temperature to produce acceptable colour of dried tomatoes at reasonable cost.

  20. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral...... images of the seeds were captured and normalized canonical discriminant analysis was used to analyse the images. Germination tests were performed and seeds that subsequently germinated were recorded as viable. The viable seeds were classified with 99% and 98% accuracy for the training and test set...