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Sample records for brazilian sugarcane spirits

  1. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  2. Pattern recognition applied to mineral characterization of Brazilian coffees and sugar-cane spirits

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    Fernandes, Andrea P. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Santos, Mirian C. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Lemos, Sherlan G. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Marcia M.C. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nogueira, Ana Rita A. [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Grupo de Analise Instrumental Aplicada, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Caixa Postal 676, 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: djan@terra.com.br

    2005-06-30

    Aluminium, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, and Zn were determined in coffee and sugar-cane spirit (cachaca) samples by axial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). Pattern recognition techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis were applied to data sets in order to characterize samples with relation to their geographical origin and production mode (industrial or homemade and organically or conventionally produced). Attempts to correlate metal ion content with the geographical origin of coffee and the production mode (organic or conventional) of cachaca were not successful. Some differentiation was suggested for the geographical origin of cachaca of three regions (Northeast, Central, and South), and for coffee samples, related to the production mode. Clear separations were only obtained for differentiation between industrial and homemade cachacas, and between instant soluble and roasted coffees.

  3. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  4. A review of ethyl carbamate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination risk in cachaça and other Brazilian sugarcane spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riachi, L G; Santos, A; Moreira, R F A; De Maria, C A B

    2014-04-15

    Sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been identified in Brazilian sugarcane spirits. Contamination sources are: sugarcane burn before harvest and petroleum derivatives. PAHs concentration in spirits produced from burned cane was about 2-3 times higher than those from unburned cane. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is present at less than 1%, and therefore is not a representative marker of cachaça contamination by PAHs. Ethyl carbamate (EC) is produced during both fermentation and distillation. During distillation, cupric ions may catalyse the conversion of cyanide to EC. In discontinuous distillation, the use of the heart fraction for bottling cachaça considerably decreases its concentration. In the continuous process, in which there is no separation of distillate, it is highly recommended to couple cooling devices and reflux systems to the distillation column. Consumers are at a greater risk of EC exposure from cachaça than from any other spirit. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compostos Secundários em Cachaças Produzidas no Estado de Minas Gerais Secundary Compounds in Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirits (“Cachaça” Manufactured in Minas Gerais State

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    Norma Eliane Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes da cachaça classificados como secundários constituem um grupo de produtos minoritários oriundos do processo de fermentação. Esses, especialmente os ésteres e aldeídos, são responsáveis pelo aroma e sabor dos destilados em geral, porém, quando se encontram acima dos limites estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, podem comprometer a qualidade da cachaça e ser prejudicial à saúde. Com o intuito de avaliar os compostos secundários de aguardentes provenientes de várias localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 45 amostras aleatoriamente e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente (LAFQA da UFLA, no período de agosto de 2000 a julho de 2001. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que há diferenças altamente significativas entre as amostras analisadas para acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos e álcoois superiores. De todas as amostras analisadas, sete apresentaram excesso de álcoois superiores, duas de aldeídos e três de acidez volátil; portanto, 24,44% das aguardentes encontravam-se fora dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pelo MAPA (1997.The Brazilian sugar-cane spirit chemical compounds classified like secondary compounds are one group of Brazilian sugar-cane spirit minor compounds formed during the fermentation process. That compounds are important for the taste and flavor of spirits in general, mainly esters and aldehydes. However, that compounds are above the standard quality established by Agriculture Ministry (MAPA, they can affect the Brazilian sugar-cane spirit quality and be harmful to the health. Aiming to evaluate the sugar-cane spirit secondary compounds from diverse sites at Minas Gerais State, 45 samples were randomized sampled and taken to the Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirit Analysis Laboratory of UFLA during the period of August of 2000 to July of 2001. The results showed that there were high and significant statistical

  6. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis

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    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.

  7. Determination of acrolein, ethanol, volatile acidity, and copper in different samples of sugarcane spirits

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    José Masson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-one samples of sugarcane spirits from small and average size stills produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais (Brazil were analyzed for acrolein using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Ethanol and copper concentrations and volatile acidity were also determined according to methods established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA. A total of 9.85% of the samples tested showed levels of acrolein above the legal limits, while the copper concentrations of 21.00% of the samples and the volatile acidity of 8.85% of the samples were higher than the limits established by the Brazilian legislation. The concentration of acrolein varied from 0 to 21.97 mg.100 mL-1 of ethanol. However, no significant difference at 5% of significance was observed between the samples produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais. The method used for determination of acrolein in sugarcane spirits involved the formation of a derivative with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and subsequent analysis by HPLC.

  8. Chronic consumption of distilled sugarcane spirit induces anxiolytic-like effects in mice

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    Maria Clecia P. Sena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Chronic ethanol consumption is a major public health problem throughout the world. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effects and the possible ever injury induced by the chronic consumption of ethanol or sugarcane spirit in mice. METHOD: Adult mice were exposed to a two-bottle free-choice paradigm for 6 weeks. The mice in Group A (n = 16 had access to sugarcane spirit + distilled water, the mice in Group B (n = 15 had access to ethanol + distilled water, and the mice in Group C (control, n = 14 had access to distilled water + distilled water. The ethanol content in the beverages offered to Groups A and B was 2% for the first week, 5% for the second week and 10% for the remaining four weeks. At the end of the experimental period, the mice were evaluated using the elevated-plus maze and the hole-board test to assess their anxiety-related behaviors. We also determined the serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. RESULTS: In the elevated-plus maze, the time spent in the open arms was increased in the mice exposed to chronic ethanol (32 + 8 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 or sugarcane spirit (36 + 9 vs. 7 + 2 s, n = 9 compared to the controls. In the hole-board test, the mice exposed to ethanol or sugarcane spirit displayed increases in their head-dipping frequency (16 + 1 for the control group, 27 + 2 for the ethanol group, and 31 + 3 for the sugarcane-spirit group; n = 9 for each group. In addition, the mice exposed to sugarcane spirit displayed an increase in the aspartate aminotransferase / alanine aminotransferase ratio compared to the ethanol group (1.29 + 0.17 for the control group and 2.67 + 0.17 for the sugarcane spirit group; n = 8 for each group. CONCLUSION: The chronic consumption of sugarcane-spirit produces liver injury and anxiolytic-like effects and the possible liver injury in mice.

  9. Chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by double distillation methodologies in rectifying still

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    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the chemical profile of sugarcane spirits produced by different double distillation methodologies in rectifying still. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to three double distillation methodologies: the methodology used for cognac production; the methodology used for whisky production; and the 10-80-10 percentage composition methodology, referring to the volumes of head, heart and tail of the distillate fractions from the second distillation. For comparison purposes, a simple distilled spirit was also produced. The distillates were analyzed for concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. The spirits were also evaluated on the sensory attributes of aroma, taste and preference. Compared to simple distillation, double distillation improved the chemical quality of the spirits, since it has reduced the concentrations of acids, aldehydes, esters, methanol, higher alcohols and, consequently, their coefficient of congeners. Regardless of the methodology employed, the double distillation improved the sensory quality of the spirits since they obtained higher sensory acceptance in relation to spirits produced by simple distillation. Among double distilled spirits, the one produced according to whisky methodology obtained the best scores from appraisers on the aroma and flavor parameters and it was also the most preferred.

  10. Physico-chemical and sensorial evaluation of sugarcane spirits produced using distillation residue

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    Evandro Galvão Tavares Menezes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the use of vinasse from cachaça as an ingredient of the fermentation medium for the spirit production. The fermentations were conducted out in three successive batches using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolate. In the first batch, the sugarcane broth was only diluted with distilled water. In the second and third batches, the fermentations were carried out using the cane broth diluted with vinasse from the distillation of the sugarcane wines of the first and second batches, respectively at a concentration of 10% (v/v. The spirits were submitted to the physicochemical and sensorial analyses. The results showed that vinasse addition did not affect the fermentation, distillation and chemical-sensorial quality of the beverage. Therefore, the vinasse addition could be an alternative use for that residue.

  11. Physicochemical and sensory changes in aged sugarcane spirit submitted to filtering with activated carbon filter

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    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane spirit is a drink considered as a national symbol of Brazil. It is produced by large producers and by about 30 thousand small and medium home-distilling producers dispersed throughout the country. The copper originating from the home-distillers can become a serious problem since at high concentrations in beverages it may cause serious human health problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon used in commercial filters on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of aged sugarcane spirit. Analyses of copper, dry extract, alcoholic degree, higher alcohols, volatile acids, aldehydes, esters, furfural, and methanol were performed. The sensory evaluation was performed by seven selected trained judges, who analyzed the yellow color, woody aroma and flavor, and intensity of alcoholic aroma and flavor of the cane spirit before and after the filtration process. The sensory tests were carried out using a 9 cm non-structured intensity scale. A reduction was observed in all compounds analyzed physicochemically, except for the esters, which increased after filtration. This increase is probably due to the esterification of the alcohols and acids present. According to the sensory results obtained, a reduction was observed in the intensity of the yellow color, aroma, and wood flavor characteristics, the major characteristics of the aging process.

  12. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

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    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  13. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to US Corn Ethanol

    OpenAIRE

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Khanna, Madhu; Barton, Jason; Giuliani, Eduardo; Amaral, Weber

    2010-01-01

    Corn ethanol produced in the US and sugarcane ethanol produced in Brazil are the world’s leading sources of biofuel. Current US biofuel policies create both incentives and constraints for the import of ethanol from Brazil, and together with the competitiveness and greenhouse gas intensity of sugarcane ethanol compared to corn ethanol will determine the extent of these imports. This study analyzes the supply-side determinants of this competitiveness and compares the greenhouse gas intensity of...

  14. Loss of soil (macro)fauna due to the expansion of Brazilian sugarcane acreage.

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    Franco, André L C; Bartz, Marie L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Baretta, Dilmar; Cerri, Carlos E P; Feigl, Brigitte J; Wall, Diana H; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-09-01

    Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance

  15. Molecular variability and genetic relationship among Brazilian strains of the sugarcane smut fungus.

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    Benevenuto, Juliana; Longatto, Daniel P; Reis, Gislaine V; Mielnichuk, Natalia; Palhares, Alessandra C; Carvalho, Giselle; Saito, Suzane; Quecine, Maria C; Sanguino, Alvaro; Vieira, Maria Lucia C; Camargo, Luis Eduardo A; Creste, Silvana; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B

    2016-12-01

    Sporisorium scitamineum is the fungus that causes sugarcane smut disease. Despite of the importance of sugarcane for Brazilian agribusiness and the persistence of the pathogen in most cropping areas, genetic variation studies are still missing for Brazilian isolates. In this study, sets of isolates were analyzed using two molecular markers (AFLP and telRFLP) and ITS sequencing. Twenty-two whips were collected from symptomatic plants in cultivated sugarcane fields of Brazil. A total of 41 haploid strains of compatible mating types were selected from individual teliospores and used for molecular genetic analyses. telRFLP and ITS analyses were expanded to six Argentine isolates, where the sugarcane smut was first recorded in America. Genetic relationship among strains suggests the human-mediated dispersal of S. scitamineum within the Brazilian territory and between the two neighboring countries. Two genetically distinct groups were defined by the combined analysis of AFLP and telRFLP. The opposite mating-type strains derived from single teliospores were clustered together into these main groups, but had not always identical haplotypes. telRFLP markers analyzed over two generations of selfing and controlled outcrossing confirmed the potential for emergence of new variants and occurrence of recombination, which are relevant events for evolution of virulence and environmental adaptation.

  16. The Future Potential of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol with respect to Land Availability and Climate Change

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    Jaiswal, D.; Miguez, F.; Bollero, G.; Long, S.

    2014-12-01

    Expanding sugarcane production on the 65.9 mha area identified by Brazilian government can provide a sustainable and low carbon intensive supply of liquid fuel to the world. However, such expansion is also subject to long-term climate changes. Variation in sugarcane yield at policy-relevant spatial and temporal scales can greatly influence the long-term potential of Brazilian. A process-based crop model (BioCro) is parameterized and calibrated for leaf photosynthesis and field productivity. Multi-site validation against observed stem yield of sugarcane cultivar RB72454 suggests that model can predict consistent yield (observed = 0.92 × predicted; R2 = 0.65) over a wide range of soil and environmental conditions in Brazil. Regional simulations based on national soil data and reanalysis climate data suggest that 1.938 petagram (Pg) of stem dry biomass can be harvested annually. Increasing temperature and [CO2] can partially compensate for yield decline due to reduced rainfall in future, by means of greater water use efficiency and rate of photosynthesis. Simulations using five GCMs climate data suggest that average productivity of harvested stem dry biomass may decline from 1.938 Pg year-1 to 1.544 Pg year-1 (1.243-2.066 Pg year-1) by 2045 in the absence of improved cultivars.

  17. Evaluation of Brazilian Sugarcane Bagasse Characterization: An Interlaboratory Comparison Study

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    Sluiter, Justin B.; Chum, Helena; Gomes, Absai C.; Tavares, Renata P.A.; Azevedo, Vinicius; Pimenta, Maria T.B.; Rabelo, Sarita C.; Marabezi, Karen; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.; Alves, Aparecido R.; Garcia, Wokimar T.; Carvalho, Walter; Esteves, Paula J.; Mendonca, Simone; Oliveira, Patricia A.; Ribeiro, Jose A.A.; Mendes, Thais D.; Vicentin, Marcos P.; Duarte, Celina L.; Mori, Manoel N.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes a study of the variability of measured composition for a single bulk sugarcane bagasse conducted across eight laboratories using similar analytical methods, with the purpose of determining the expected variation for compositional analysis performed by different laboratories. The results show good agreement of measured composition within a single laboratory, but greater variability when results are compared among laboratories. These interlaboratory variabilities do not seem to be associated with a specific method or technique or any single piece of instrumentation. The summary censored statistics provide mean values and pooled standard deviations as follows: total extractives 6.7% (0.6%), whole ash 1.5% (0.2%), glucan 42.3% (1.2%), xylan 22.3% (0.5%), total lignin 21.3% (0.4%), and total mass closure 99.4% (2.9%).

  18. STRATEGIES FOR NEW INTERNATIONAL VENTURES IN THE BRAZILIAN SUGARCANE INDUSTRY: THE CASE OF ETH BIONERGIA

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    Marina Carrilho Soares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify cases of new international ventures in the Brazilian sugarcane industry, specifically as regards ethanol production, i.e., companies that are established from start to have an international profile. The paper explores the case of one such enterprise in the light of the theories addressed. In the last few years, a rising number of companies with this profile have appeared. This runs contrary to the main classical theories of internationalization, which present this process as evolutionary. As for the sugarcane industry, it has expanded considerably in recent years, which led many groups to invest in this segment. This study is a descriptive, qualitative piece of research and is based on the case study of a company recently established in this sector. Analyzing the chosen organization and comparing it to the studied theories, the authors concluded that there is, indeed, a type of organization with the profile of a new international venture. Key-words: Internationalization. New international ventures. Sugarcane industry. Brazil.

  19. New model of Brazilian electric sector: implications of sugarcane bagasse on the distributed generation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Celso E.L. de; Rabi, Jose A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (GREEN/FZEA/USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Zootecnia e Engenharia de Alimentos. Grupo de Pesquisa em Reciclagem, Eficiencia Energetica e Simulacao Numerica], Emails: celsooli@usp.br, jrabi@usp.br; Halmeman, Maria Cristina [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas

    2008-07-01

    Distributed generation has become an alternative for the lack of resources to large energy projects and for recent facts that have changed the geopolitical panorama. The later have increased oil prices so that unconventional sources have become more and more feasible, which is an issue usually discussed in Europe and in USA. Brazil has followed such world trend by restructuring the electrical sector as well as major related institutions, from generation to commercialization and sector regulation while local legislation has enabled the increase of distributed generation. It regulates the role of the independent energy producer so as to provide direct business between the later and a great consumer, which is an essential step to enlarge energy market. Sugarcane bagasse has been used to produce both electric energy and steam and this paper analyzes and discusses the major implications of a new model for Brazilian electric sector based on sugarcane bagasse use as means to increase distributed generation process, particularly concerned with the commercialization of energy excess. (author)

  20. Determination of acrolein, ethanol, volatile acidity, and copper in different samples of sugarcane spirits Determinação de acroleína, etanol, acidez volátil e cobre em diferentes amostras de aguardentes de cana

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    José Masson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-one samples of sugarcane spirits from small and average size stills produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais (Brazil were analyzed for acrolein using HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Ethanol and copper concentrations and volatile acidity were also determined according to methods established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA. A total of 9.85% of the samples tested showed levels of acrolein above the legal limits, while the copper concentrations of 21.00% of the samples and the volatile acidity of 8.85% of the samples were higher than the limits established by the Brazilian legislation. The concentration of acrolein varied from 0 to 21.97 mg.100 mL-1 of ethanol. However, no significant difference at 5% of significance was observed between the samples produced in the northern and southern Minas Gerais. The method used for determination of acrolein in sugarcane spirits involved the formation of a derivative with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH and subsequent analysis by HPLC.As setenta e uma amostras de aguardentes de cana coletadas em alambiques de pequeno e médio porte, provenientes das regiões norte e sul de Minas Gerais, foram avaliadas por CLAE (Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Eficiência quanto ao teor de acroleína. Avaliaram-se também as concentrações de etanol, acidez volátil e cobre, utilizando-se as metodologias estabelecidas pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA. Do total de amostras, 9,85% apresentaram níveis de acroleína acima do limite legal, 21,00% apresentaram teores de cobre e 8,85% de acidez volátil acima dos limites estabelecidos pela legislação brasileira. Os teores de acroleína variaram de 0 a 21,97 mg.100 mL-1 de etanol. Entretanto, não ocorreu diferença significativa no nível de 5% de significância entre as amostras do norte e as do sul de Minas Gerais. O método aplicado para a determinação de acroleína em aguardente de

  1. Water and Land Use Efficiency in Current and Potential Future US Corn and Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Newmark, R. L.

    2012-12-01

    Biofuels represent an opportunity for domestic fuel production from renewable energy sources with potential environmental and social benefits such as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) and promoting rural development. However, as demand for biofuel continues to increase worldwide, concerns about land competition between food and fuel, excessive water usage and other unintended environmental consequences have grown. Through a comparative study between US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol, we examine the energy, land, water and GHG performance of the two largest industrial fuel ethanol production systems in the world. Our comparisons include current and potential future systems with improved agronomic practices, crop yields, ethanol conversion processes, and utilization of agricultural residues. Our results suggest that the average water footprints of US corn ethanol and Brazilian sugarcane ethanol are fairly close (108 and 110 m3/GJ of ethanol, respectively) while the variations can range from 50 to 250 m3/GJ for sugarcane ethanol and 50 to380 m3/GJ for corn ethanol. Results emphasize the need to examine the water footprint within the context of local and regional climatic variability, water availability, competing uses (e.g. agricultural, industrial, and municipal water needs) and other ecosystem constraints. Research is under way (at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and other institutions) to develop models to analyze water supply and demand at the watershed-scale for current and future biomass production, and to understand the tradeoffs among water supply, demand and quality due to more intensive agricultural practices and expansion of biofuels. Land use efficiency metrics, with regards to life cycle GHG emissions (without land use change) savings through gasoline displacement with ethanol, illustrate the progression of the biofuel industry and the importance of maximizing bioenergy production by utilizing both the crops and the residues. A recent

  2. Use of Brazilian sugarcane bagasse ash in concrete as sand replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Almir; Lima, Sofia Araújo

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane today plays a major role in the worldwide economy, and Brazil is the leading producer of sugar and alcohol, which are important international commodities. The production process generates bagasse as a waste, which is used as fuel to stoke boilers that produce steam for electricity cogeneration. The final product of this burning is residual sugarcane bagasse ash (SBA), which is normally used as fertilizer in sugarcane plantations. Ash stands out among agroindustrial wastes because it results from energy generating processes. Many types of ash do not have hydraulic or pozzolanic reactivity, but can be used in civil construction as inert materials. The present study used ash collected from four sugar mills in the region of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, which is one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The ash samples were subjected to chemical characterization, sieve analysis, determination of specific gravity, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and solubilization and leaching tests. Mortars and concretes with SBA as sand replacement were produced and tests were carried out: compressive strength, tensile strength and elastic modulus. The results indicated that the SBA samples presented physical properties similar to those of natural sand. Several heavy metals were found in the SBA samples, indicating the need to restrict its use as a fertilizer. The mortars produced with SBA in place of sand showed better mechanical results than the reference samples. SBA can be used as a partial substitute of sand in concretes made with cement slag-modified Portland cement. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Least limiting water range in assessing compaction in a Brazilian Cerrado latosol growing sugarcane

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    Wainer Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the south-central region of Brazil, there is a trend toward reducing the sugarcane inter-harvest period and increasing traffic of heavy harvesting machinery on soil with high water content, which may intensify the compaction process. In this study, we assessed the structural changes of a distroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol by monitoring soil water content as a function of the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR and quantified its effects on the crop yield and industrial quality of the first ratoon crop of sugarcane cultivars with different maturation cycles. Three cultivars (RB 83-5054, RB 84-5210 and RB 86-7515 were subjected to four levels of soil compaction brought about by a differing number of passes of a farm tractor (T0 = soil not trafficked, T2 = 2 passes, T10 = 10 passes, and T20 = 20 passes of the tractor in the same place in a 3 × 4 factorial arrangement with three replications. The deleterious effects on the soil structure from the farm machinery traffic were limited to the surface layer (0-10 cm of the inter-row area of the ratoon crop. The LLWR dropped to nearly zero after 20 tractor passes between the cane rows. We detected differences among the cultivars studied; cultivar RB 86-7515 stood out for its industrial processing quality, regardless of the level of soil compaction. Monitoring of soil moisture in the crop showed exposure to water stress conditions, although soil compaction did not affect the production variables of the sugarcane cultivars. We thus conclude that the absence of traffic on the plant row maintained suitable soil conditions for plant development and may have offset the harmful effects of soil compaction shown by the high values for bulk density between the rows of the sugarcane cultivars.

  4. Assessing heavy metal sources in sugarcane Brazilian soils: an approach using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Vieira; da Silva, Roberto Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and soils in the northeastern part of the country have been cultivated with the crop for over 450 years. However, so far, there has been no study on the status of heavy metal accumulation in these long-history cultivated soils. To fill the gap, we collect soil samples from 60 sugarcane fields in order to determine the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. We used multivariate analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in soils. Analytical determinations were performed in ICP-OES after microwave acid solution digestion. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.9, 18.8, 6.4, 4.9, 11.2, and 16.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The principal component one was associated with lithogenic origin and comprised the metals Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis confirmed that 68 % of the evaluated sites have soil heavy metal concentrations close to the natural background. The Cd concentration (principal component two) was clearly associated with anthropogenic sources with P fertilization being the most likely source of Cd to soils. On the other hand, the third component (Pb concentration) indicates a mixed origin for this metal (natural and anthropogenic); hence, Pb concentrations are probably related not only to the soil parent material but also to industrial emissions and urbanization in the vicinity of the agricultural areas.

  5. Remoção de íons de cobre de aguardente utilizando carvão ativo e resinas de troca iônica = Copper ions remotion from sugarcane spirit by activated carbon and ion exchange resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Kunigk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A aguardente é a bebida fermento-destilada mais importante no Brasil. Caso a concentração de cobre (Cu2+, presente na aguardente, fosse inferior a 2,0 mg L-1, ela poderia ser exportada para diversos países europeus apesar da Legislação Brasileira permitir um teor de cobre em aguardente igual ou inferir a 5,0 mg L-1. Este trabalho mostrou que aaguardente contaminada com esses íons em concentrações de 4,0; 7,0 e 9,0 mg L-1 pode ser recuperada utilizando tanto carvão ativo como resinas de troca iônica, podendo reutilizar estes materiais adsorventes. Quando a concentração de Cu2+ é igual a 9,0 mg L-1, o carvão ativado pode ser reutilizado até três vezes e as resinas de troca iônica podem ser reutilizadas até sete vezes.Sugarcane spirit (aguardente is the most important fermented/distilled beverage in Brazil. If the concentration of cooper (Cu2+ in sugarcane spirits was less than 2.0 mg L-1, it could be exported to several European countries. This study showed that the sugarcane spirits contaminated with these ions with a concentrationof 4.0, 7.0 and 9.0 mg L-1 can be recovered using both active carbon and ion-exchange resins, reusing these absorbent materials. When the concentration of Cu2+ is equal to 9.0 mg L-1, active carbon can be reused up to 3 times and ion-exchange resins up to 7 times.

  6. Brazilian vodkas have undetectable levels of ethyl carbamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainy V. S. Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While in Europe vodka is mainly derived from potatoes or cereals, a large proportion of Brazilian vodka is likely obtained from sugarcane, which contains ethyl carbamate (EC precursors. EC, in addition to several other contaminants and congeners, were investigated in 32 samples of Brazilian vodka. All samples complied with the Brazilian regulations for congeners and contaminants, having EC content below 0.01 mg/L (detection limit. These results are probably related to the processing of vodka, in particular the use of extractive and rectifying stainless steel distillation columns, which allow the production of high strength spirits with low levels of congeners and contaminants.

  7. Lignocellulosic ethanol in Brazil : technical assessment of 1st and 2nd generation sugarcane ethanol in a Brazilian setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stojanovic, M.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is currently the largest ethanol-biofuel producer worldwide. Ethanol is produced by fermenting the sucrose part of the sugarcane that contains only one third of the sugarcane energy. The rest of the plant is burned to produce energy to run the process and to generate electricity that is sold

  8. Sugarcane spirit market share simulation: an application of conjoint analysis Simulação do mercado de cachaça: uma aplicação da análise conjunta de fatores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Souza Carneiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of packaging and labeling attributes of sugarcane spirit on consumers' behavior by applying the results of conjoint analysis in sugarcane spirit market share simulation. Firstly, a conjoint analysis was performed aiming to estimate the part-worths of each consumer for some sugarcane spirit packaging and labeling attributes. These part-worths were used in the market share simulation using the maximum utility model. It was observed that some packaging and labeling attributes affected consumer's purchase intention and that most consumers showed a similar preference pattern regarding these attributes. These consumers showed preference for the Seleta brand, which was bottled in 700 mL clear glass bottles with a metal screw cap that bore a label illustration unrelated to sugarcane spirit production process and had the information "aged 36 months in oak barrels". This study also showed that conjoint analysis and the use of its results in the market share simulation proved important tools to better understand consumer behavior towards intention to purchase sugarcane spirit.Este trabalho avaliou a influência de alguns fatores da embalagem e do rótulo de cachaça no comportamento dos consumidores, por meio da aplicação dos resultados da análise conjunta de fatores na simulação do mercado de cachaça. Inicialmente, realizou-se a análise conjunta de fatores, objetivando-se estimar os coeficientes da preferência dos consumidores em relação a alguns fatores da embalagem e do rótulo de cachaça. Esses coeficientes da preferência dos consumidores foram usados na simulação da participação de mercado, utilizando-se o modelo da máxima utilidade. Observou-se que os fatores da embalagem e do rótulo influenciaram na intenção de compra dos consumidores, sendo que os consumidores apresentaram preferência semelhante em relação a esses fatores. Esses consumidores preferiram as cachaças da marca Seleta

  9. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by a Novel Brazilian Pentose Fermenting Yeast Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2: Evaluation of Fermentation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. F. Antunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioconversion of hemicellulosic sugars into second generation (2G ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. In this study, ethanol production performance of a novel xylose-fermenting yeast, Scheffersomyces shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2, was evaluated under batch fermentation conditions using sugarcane bagasse (SB hemicellulosic hydrolysate as carbon source. Dilute acid hydrolysis of SB was performed to obtain sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate (SBHH. It was concentrated, detoxified, and supplemented with nutrients in different formulations to prepare the fermentation medium to the yeast evaluation performance. S. shehatae UFMG-HM 52.2 (isolated from Brazilian Atlantic rain forest ecosystem was used in fermentations carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks maintained in a rotator shaker at 30°C and 200 rpm for 72 h. The use of a fermentation medium composed of SBHH supplemented with 5 g/L ammonium sulfate, 3 g/L yeast extract, and 3 g/L malt extract resulted in 0.38 g/g of ethanol yield and 0.19 g L.h of volumetric productivity after 48 h of incubation time.

  10. Butanol production in a first-generation Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery: technical aspects and economics of greenfield projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Dias, Marina O S; Junqueira, Tassia L; Cunha, Marcelo P; Bonomi, Antonio; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    2013-05-01

    The techno-economics of greenfield projects of a first-generation sugarcane biorefinery aimed to produce ethanol, sugar, power, and n-butanol was conducted taking into account different butanol fermentation technologies (regular microorganism and mutant strain with improved butanol yield) and market scenarios (chemicals and automotive fuel). The complete sugarcane biorefinery with the batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process was simulated using Aspen Plus®. The biorefinery was designed to process 2 million tonne sugarcane per year and utilize 25%, 50%, and 25% of the available sugarcane juice to produce sugar, ethanol, and butanol, respectively. The investment on a biorefinery with butanol production showed to be more attractive [14.8% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.99] than the conventional 50:50 (ethanol:sugar) annexed plant [13.3% IRR, P(IRR>12%)=0.80] only in the case butanol is produced by an improved microorganism and traded as a chemical. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct Zinc Determination in Brazilian Sugar Cane Spirit by Solid-Phase Extraction Using Moringa oleifera Husks in a Flow System with Detection by FAAS

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    Vanessa N. Alves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a method for the determination of zinc in Brazilian sugar cane spirit, (cachaça in Portuguese, using solid-phase extraction with a flow injection analysis system and detection by FAAS. The sorbent material used was activated carbon obtained from Moringa oleifera husks. Flow and chemical variables of the proposed system were optimized through multivariate designs. The factors selected were sorbent mass, sample pH, sample flow rate, and eluent concentration. The optimum extraction conditions were obtained using a sample pH of 4.0, a sample flow rate of 6.0 mL min-1, 30.0 mg of sorbent mass, and 1.0 mol L-1 HNO3 as the eluent at a flow rate of 4.0 mL min-1. The limit of detection for zinc was 1.9 μg L-1, and the precision was below 0.82% (20.0 μg L-1, n=7. The analytical curve was linear from 2 to 50 μg L-1, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996. The method developed was successfully applied to spiked Brazilian sugar cane spirit, and accuracy was assessed through recovery tests, with results ranging from 83% to 100%.

  12. Short-term effects of air pollution from biomass burning in mucociliary clearance of Brazilian sugarcane cutters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Ceccato, Aline Duarte; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cípulo; de Carvalho, Luiz Carlos Soares; Xavier, Rafaella Fagundes; Teixeira, Marcos Fernando de Souza; Raymundo-Pereira, Paulo Augusto; Proença, Camila dos Anjos; de Toledo, Alessandra Choqueta; Ramos, Dionei

    2011-11-01

    Nasal mucociliary system is the first line of defense of the upper airways and may be affected acutely by exposure to particulate matter (PM) from biomass burning. Several epidemiologic studies have demonstrated a consistent association between levels of air pollution from biomass burning with increases in hospitalization for respiratory diseases and mortality. To determine the acute effects of exposure to particulate matter from biomass burning in nasal mucociliary transport by saccharin transit time (STT) test, we studied thirty-three non-smokers and twelve light smokers sugarcane cutters in two periods: pre-harvest season and 4 h after harvest at the first day after biomass burning. Lung function, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), nasal symptoms questionnaire and mucociliary clearance (MC) were assessed. Exhaled CO was increased in smokers compared to non-smokers but did not change significantly after harvest. In contrast, STT was similar between smokers and non-smokers and decreased significantly after harvest in both groups (p acute exposure to particulate matter from sugarcane burned affects mucociliary clearance in smokers and non-smokers workers in the absence of symptoms.

  13. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rachid, Caio T. C. C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Leite, Deborah Catharine A.; Balieiro, Fabiano C.; Coutinho, Heitor Luiz C.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rosado, Alexandre S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pr

  14. Características das transações do etanol carburante entre distribuidoras e revendedores Characteristics of Brazilian sugarcane ethanol fuel transactions between distributors and retail stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maíra Bacha Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O advento dos carros bicombustíveis no Brasil e a necessidade de uma fonte de energia alternativa ao petróleo acarretaram uma nova configuração no processo de distribuição do etanol. Essas mudanças trouxeram oportunidades para as empresas sucroalcooleiras do país e abriram diferentes horizontes para o desenvolvimento de canais de distribuição desse combustível nos âmbitos nacional e internacional. O presente trabalho tem o objetivo de mostrar como ocorrem as transações na relação entre as distribuidoras e os postos revendedores que compõem os canais de distribuição de etanol carburante. Na revisão de literatura, optou-se pelos conhecimentos da economia dos custos de transação, de modo a sustentar as variáveis utilizadas na análise (especificidades do negócio, frequências e riscos das transações. Na parte empírica, foram elaborados estudos de casos múltiplos, a partir de entrevistas pessoais realizadas em nove empresas (distribuidoras e postos revendedores do Estado de São Paulo. Os resultados mostram que as especificidades mais importantes do negócio de uma distribuidora de combustíveis estão ligadas às especificidades físicas, de local e de marca. As principais especificidades relacionadas aos postos revendedores são iguais às identificadas nas distribuidoras, apresentando diferenças somente nas especificidades locacionais e físicas. Na relação entre esses agentes, destacam-se as formas de governança de mercado spot e contratual.The development of flexible-fuel vehicles in Brazil and the need for an alternative energy source to oil (Petroleum has lead to a reconfiguration of the ethanol distribution process. These changes have brought new opportunities to the Brazilian sugarcane ethanol fuel industry and new directions to the development of ethanol marketing channels in the national and international levels. The present study aims to show how transactions between ethanol distributors and retail

  15. Sugarcane stems as larval habitat for the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans in sugarcane plantations

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    Paulo H.D. Cançado

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Outbreaks of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, cause losses for livestock producers located near sugarcane mills in Brazil, especially in southern Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane mills are often pointed by local farmers as the primary source of these outbreaks; some mills also joined the farmers in combating the flies. Brazilian beef cattle production has great economic importance in similar level to bio-fuel production as ethanol. In this context, the wide-ranging knowledge on the biology and ecology of the stable fly, including larval habitats and their reproduction sites is extremely important for further development of control programs. This paper aims to report the occurrence and development of S. calcitrans larvae inside sugarcane stems in three municipalities of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sugarcane stems give protection against bad weather conditions and insecticide application. In this way, for sustainable sugarcane growth specific research concerning this situation should be conducted.

  16. A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain highly active to sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae Uma Estirpe Brasileira de Bacillus thuringiensis com elevada atividade para a broca da cana-de-açúcar Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae

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    Patrícia de Medeiros Gitahy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The control of the major sugarcane pest, Diatraea saccharalis, is limited by the stem location of the caterpillar. As part of a long-term project towards the development of an alternative and efficient delivery system of Cry proteins to control the sugarcane borer, the current work describes the selection and characterization of a Brazilian B. thuringiensis strain with prominent activity towards D. saccharalis. Strain S76 was eleven-fold more active than the HD-1 Lepidoptera-standard strain, as estimated by the LC50 of 13.06 µg/L and 143.88 µg/L, respectively. We observed bipiramidal and cuboidal crystals similar to those found in other B. thuringiensis strains with entomopathogenic activity against Lepidoptera and Diptera. In addition, smaller and spherical crystalline inclusions were also observed. The plasmid profile of strain S76 is similar to that of HD-1. PCR amplifications of S76 DNA using cry specific primers confirmed the presence of cry1Aa,cry1Ab,cry1Ac,cry2Aa1, and cry2Ab2, but not cry1Ad, cry2Ac and cry9 type genes. No differences that could explain the superior activity of S76 when compared to HD-1, the Lepidoptera standard strain, were observed. Nevertheless, its higher entomopathogenic activity has pointed this strain S76 as a potential source of cry genes to control sugarcane borer, an important pest that affects sugarcane, a crop that occupies a planted area of about 6 million ha in Brazil.Diatraea saccharalis é o inseto-praga que provoca os maiores danos a cultura da cana-de-açúcar, e seu controle é limitado pela localização do ataque no interior do colmo das plantas. Como parte de um projeto a longo prazo com o objetivo de desenvolver uma alternativa eficiente para o controle da broca da cana utilizando as proteínas Cry de Bacillus thuringiensis, o presente trabalho descreve a seleção e caracterização de uma estirpe desta bactéria com atividade larvicida para D. saccharalis. A estirpe brasileira S76, foi

  17. Why 'spiritism'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyimesi, Júlia

    2016-04-01

    Some of the early representatives of psychoanalysis had a lifelong interest in certain 'occult' phenomena. Although several theories were born for the purpose of understanding the interest of Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung or Sándor Ferenczi in spiritualism and related phenomena, interpreters usually ignore the changing cultural meaning and significance of modern occult practices like spiritualism. The aim of the present essay is to outline the cultural and historical aspects of spiritualism and spiritism in Hungary, and thus to shed new light on the involvement of Ferenczi - and other Hungarian psychoanalysts like Géza Róheim, István Hollós, and Mihály Bálint - in spiritualism and spiritism. The connections between spiritualism and the Budapest School of Psychoanalysis will be discussed, highlighting the cultural and scientific significance of Hungarian spiritualism and spiritism in the evolution of psychoanalysis. Taking into account the relative lack of the scientific research in the field of spiritism in Hungary, it can be pointed out that Ferenczi undertook a pioneering role in Hungarian psychical research.

  18. Sugarcane Pernicious Organisms Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ There are more than 2000 species of sugarcane pernicious organisms in the world, and over 400species axe in China. In order to make sure the sugarcane pernicious organisms in Hunan, we had a detailed investiga tion in several main sugarcane - producing regions during 1996- 1998.

  19. Physicochemical and sensory changes in aged sugarcane spirit submitted to filtering with activated carbon filter Alterações físico-químicas e sensoriais de cachaças envelhecidas submetidas à filtragem com carvão ativado

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    Felipe Cimino Duarte

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane spirit is a drink considered as a national symbol of Brazil. It is produced by large producers and by about 30 thousand small and medium home-distilling producers dispersed throughout the country. The copper originating from the home-distillers can become a serious problem since at high concentrations in beverages it may cause serious human health problems. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the activated carbon used in commercial filters on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of aged sugarcane spirit. Analyses of copper, dry extract, alcoholic degree, higher alcohols, volatile acids, aldehydes, esters, furfural, and methanol were performed. The sensory evaluation was performed by seven selected trained judges, who analyzed the yellow color, woody aroma and flavor, and intensity of alcoholic aroma and flavor of the cane spirit before and after the filtration process. The sensory tests were carried out using a 9 cm non-structured intensity scale. A reduction was observed in all compounds analyzed physicochemically, except for the esters, which increased after filtration. This increase is probably due to the esterification of the alcohols and acids present. According to the sensory results obtained, a reduction was observed in the intensity of the yellow color, aroma, and wood flavor characteristics, the major characteristics of the aging process.A cachaça é uma bebida considerada símbolo nacional, sendo produzida por grandes produtores e por cerca de 30 mil pequenos e médios produtores de alambiques artesanais espalhados por todo o País. O cobre oriundo dos destiladores dos alambiques artesanais pode tornar-se um grande problema, pois esse metal, em grandes concentrações na bebida, acarreta sérios problemas à saúde humana. Desta forma, objetivou-se estudar a influência da filtragem em carvão utilizado nos filtros comerciais sobre as características físico-químicas e

  20. Sancti Spirit

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    Torroja, Eduardo

    1962-02-01

    Full Text Available Mucho más alto que el último pueblo del valle, a 1.500 metros de altitud, las aguas del San Nicolau, cansadas de saltar cascadas, se detienen a lo largo de unos pocos kilómetros, entreteniéndose en suaves meandros antes de volver a precipitarse en otra cascada mayor. La nieve cubre esa región la mayor parte del año, y en los meses de verano es lugar delicioso para el excursionista y el pescador de truchas. Sólo las tormentas bruscas, violentas y breves llegan con frecuencia a turbar la paz de su reposo en aquel edén. Puede cobijarse entonces bajo la media naranja del refugio, orientada a sotavento; y mientras pasa el aguacero, contemplar sus frescos inspirados por el nombre del lugar: Sancti Spirit.

  1. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine

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    Ge Xinfeng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem that appeared in hand peeling sugarcane, the sugarcane peeling machine is designed, the sugarcane peeling machine includes motor, groove wheel, cutting room, slider crank mechanism, reducer (including belt drive, chain drive and so on. The designed sugarcane peeling machine is simulated, the results show that the sugarcane peeling machine can peel sugarcane successfully with convenient, fast and uniform.

  2. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  3. Life cycle impact assssment of biobased plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Biois, J.F.; Patel, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  4. Gamma radiation use on the aging of sugar cane spirit; Uso da radiacao gama no envelhecimento da aguardente de cana de acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walder, Julio M. M. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia; Spoto, Marta H. F.; Novaes, Fernando V.; Alcarde, Andre R. [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the influence of gamma radiation on the aging of sugarcane spirit. Samples of sugarcane spirit (cachaca ) were irradiated in a Gammabeam Cobalt-60 source with doses between 0 (control) and 300 Gy, with 50 Gy increasing. The irradiated samples were offered to 5 expert judges for sensorial tests using the comparison: irradiated versus control. The chemical volatile components of the irradiated spirit were determined using a gas chromatograph. Sensorial tests elected the dose of 150 Gy as the best for sugarcane spirit irradiation based on its flavour and bouquet. These sensorial characteristics were due to the chemical changes observed in esters, aldehydes and higher alcohol's concentrations. The samples irradiated with 250 and 300 Gy developed a bitter taste and an 'oxidized' flavour. A second experiment was carried out using single and twice-distilled sugarcane spirit, normal aged in oak barrels or not, or added with oak extract. Samples were irradiated with the dose of 150 Gy and scored by the same sensorial analysis methodology. All irradiated samples had their flavour improved. The irradiation of the non-maturated twice-distilled sugarcane spirit produced a flavour compared to spirits maturated during one year of normal aging. (author)

  5. Volatilization kinetics of secondary compounds from sugarcane spirits during double distillation in rectifying still Cinética de volatilização de componentes secundários da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar durante dupla destilação em alambique retificador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Ricardo Alcarde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative variation of secondary components plays a key role in the aroma and taste of the sugarcane spirit. The objective of this work was to study the volatilization kinetics of secondary components of sugarcane spirits during double distillation process in a rectifying still to verify the cutoff point in ethanol between "head" and "tail" fractions. Fermented sugarcane juice was distilled in rectifying still according to the methodology used for whisky production. Both distillates from first and second distillations were collected in fractions of 500 mL and analyzed for the concentrations of ethanol, copper, volatile acidity, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural, aldehydes, esters, methanol and higher alcohols. In the first distillation, aldehydes and esters were distilled at the beginning of the distillation, while acetic acid was distilled at the end of the distillation. Methanol was found in the fractions up to almost half of the first distillation. Higher alcohols were distilled during the whole first distillation, but with greater intensity up to the alcoholic degree of 40% v v-1 of the distillate. During the second distillation, aldehydes, esters and methanol were distilled in the first distillate fractions, being collected mainly at alcohol concentrations above 80% v v-1. Acetic acid was distilled in the final distillate fractions, with concentrations in alcohol content below 20% v v-1. Higher alcohols followed a distillation kinetics pattern similar to ethanol, being collected mainly at alcoholic concentrations above 60% v v-1 of the distillate. The presence of copper, furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural was not detected in any fraction of the distillates of the first and second distillation.A variação qualitativa dos componentes secundários é função chave no aroma e sabor da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar. Avaliou-se a cinética de volatilização de componentes secundários da aguardente de cana-de-açúcar ao longo do

  6. Life and death in Kardecist Spiritism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Viveiros de Castro Cavalcanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses from an anthropological perspective how Brazilian Spiritism resignifies the current notions of life and death, comparing the notion of reincarnation with the Christian and Catholic notion of purgatory. The search for understanding of the processes of identity construction in this religious system leads to the examination of the notions of reincarnation, karma, evolution, mediumship and probation, which are central to Kardecian cosmology. With this active set of notions, Spiritism proposes a rich set of perspectives about the self, and simultaneously graduates and softens the otherness of death.

  7. Expression of sugarcane genes induced by inoculation with Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira Eduardo de Matos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Brazilian sugarcane varieties have the ability to grow with little addition of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, showing high contributions of Biological Nitrogen Fixation (BNF. A particular type of nitrogen-fixing association has been described in this crop, where endophytic diazotrophs such as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum spp. colonize plant tissues without causing disease symptoms. In order to gain insight into the role played by the sugarcane in the interaction between this plant and endophytic diazotrophs, we investigated gene expression profiles of sugarcane plants colonized by G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans by searching the sugarcane expressed sequence tag SUCEST Database (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/en/. We produced an inventory of sugarcane genes, candidates for exclusive or preferential expression during the nitrogen-fixing association. This data suggests that the host plant might be actively involved in the establishment of the interaction with G. diazotrophicus and H. rubrisubalbicans.

  8. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício R Cherubin

    Full Text Available Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI. The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators. Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity; however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC, abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity. Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration and proportional weighting to reflect

  9. Soil Quality Indexing Strategies for Evaluating Sugarcane Expansion in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício R; Karlen, Douglas L; Cerri, Carlos E P; Franco, André L C; Tormena, Cássio A; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    Increasing demand for biofuel has intensified land-use change (LUC) for sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) expansion in Brazil. Assessments of soil quality (SQ) response to this LUC are essential for quantifying and monitoring sustainability of sugarcane production over time. Since there is not a universal methodology for assessing SQ, we conducted a field-study at three sites within the largest sugarcane-producing region of Brazil to develop a SQ index (SQI). The most common LUC scenario (i.e., native vegetation to pasture to sugarcane) was evaluated using six SQI strategies with varying complexities. Thirty eight soil indicators were included in the total dataset. Two minimum datasets were selected: one using principal component analysis (7 indicators) and the other based on expert opinion (5 indicators). Non-linear scoring curves were used to interpret the indicator values. Weighted and non-weighted additive methods were used to combine individual indicator scores into an overall SQI. Long-term conversion from native vegetation to extensive pasture significantly decreased overall SQ. In contrast, conversion from pasture to sugarcane had no significant impact on overall SQ at the regional scale, but site-specific responses were found. In general, sugarcane production improved chemical attributes (i.e., higher macronutrient levels and lower soil acidity); however it has negative effects on physical and biological attributes (i.e., higher soil compaction and structural degradation as well as lower soil organic carbon (SOC), abundance and diversity of macrofauna and microbial activity). Overall, we found that simple, user-friendly strategies were as effective as more complex ones for identifying SQ changes. Therefore, as a protocol for SQ assessments in Brazilian sugarcane areas, we recommend using a small number of indicators (e.g., pH, P, K, Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure -VESS scores and SOC concentration) and proportional weighting to reflect chemical

  10. Precipitation variability and the sugarcane climate demand in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, V. R.; de Avila, A. M. H.; Blain, G.; Zullo, J., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the precipitation variability in São Paulo state/Brazil considering the climate demand for high sugarcane productivity. The Brazilian sugarcane and the bioethanol chain are facing an increase demand in response of the biofuel industry expansion. The productivity improvement is the key point to face the challenges about the land expansion in the Brazilian agriculture. The sugarcane phenology is climate dependent even being efficient in the decarboxylation process. The sprouting, growing, yield and the sugar content are determined by the climate. The accumulated rainy days during the pre harvest or more than 180 days of dry period can reduce the sugar content during the maturation process. Daily rainfall time series for the period 1960-2003 from 210 rain gauges at São Paulo state - the major Brazilian producer - are used. We subset the time series in the annual, seasonal, ten-day totals and dry and wet spells analysis. We used the mann- kendall non-parametric test to calculate the trends. The annual, the seasonal totals and the dry and wet spells did not showed a significant change in time. However, the ten-day total analysis in the beginning of the rainy season - i.e. in October - showed an interesting changing pattern - 24% of gauges showed a significant negative trend (p_value<0.1). These gauges are located in specific regions with the highest sugarcane production. Also, the October totals showed significant and negative trends (p_value<0.1) for more than 95% of precipitation gauges. These results are strongly indicating a longer dry season in the last twenty years. These changes in the precipitation variability can be related with the instability of the sugarcane market in Brazil in the last years.

  11. [(Un)sustainable development of the sugarcane agribusiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Polyana Felipe Ferreira; da Silva, Marcelo Saturnino; dos Santos, Solange Laurentino

    2014-10-01

    In the past few years the sugarcane agribusiness has been experiencing considerable expansion, being presented as a symbol of progress and the most developed industry in the country. In this article, we investigate the myths surrounding this sector of the Brazilian economy, revealing the environmental injustices and suffering experienced by northeastern workers who relocate every year to work in the sugarcane regions. We conducted a methodological study of the specialized literature on the sugarcane agribusiness and its interface with the migration of northeastern workers and the labor conditions and relations to which these individuals are subjected. We also use data from our own research developed in the micro regions of Pajeú in the State of Pernambuco and Princesa Isabel in the State of Paraíba. The data reveal the human and environmental unsustainability of the sugarcane agribusiness, demystifying the sweetness of sugarcane and purity of ethanol produced in Brazil, since this production is strongly influenced by perverse conditions, the social consequences of which have been the destruction of the environment and the flora and fauna, the exploitation of labor and workers in this process marked by illness and, in many cases, death.

  12. Expansion of sugarcane ethanol production in Brazil: environmental and social challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Luiz A; Filoso, Solange

    2008-06-01

    Several geopolitical factors, aggravated by worries of global warming, have been fueling the search for and production of renewable energy worldwide for the past few years. Such demand for renewable energy is likely to benefit the sugarcane ethanol industry in Brazil, not only because sugarcane ethanol has a positive energetic balance and relatively low production costs, but also because Brazilian ethanol has been successfully produced and used as biofuel in the country since the 1970s. However, environmental and social impacts associated with ethanol production in Brazil can become important obstacles to sustainable biofuel production worldwide. Atmospheric pollution from burning of sugarcane for harvesting, degradation of soils and aquatic systems, and the exploitation of cane cutters are among the issues that deserve immediate attention from the Brazilian government and international societies. The expansion of sugarcane crops to the areas presently cultivated for soybeans also represent an environmental threat, because it may increase deforestation pressure from soybean crops in the Amazon region. In this paper, we discuss environmental and social issues linked to the expansion of sugarcane in Brazil for ethanol production, and we provide recommendations to help policy makers and the Brazilian government establish new initiatives to produce a code for ethanol production that is environmentally sustainable and economically fair. Recommendations include proper planning and environmental risk assessments for the expansion of sugarcane to new regions such as Central Brazil, improvement of land use practices to reduce soil erosion and nitrogen pollution, proper protection of streams and riparian ecosystems, banning of sugarcane burning practices, and fair working conditions for sugarcane cutters. We also support the creation of a more constructive approach for international stakeholders and trade organizations to promote sustainable development for biofuel

  13. The Benefits of Sugarcane Chain Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, Marcos Fava; Chaddad, Fabio Ribas

    2012-01-01

    As consumers continue to be concerned about the future of sustainable agriculture and the scarcity of natural resources, biofuels can be an important component of the "people" solution through job creation, development and interiorizing economic activities of a country through moving money from cities into rural areas. The Brazilian sugarcane industry is well developed in terms of corporate social responsibility and can serve as an example for other countries such as Africa. The objective of ...

  14. Sugarcane-Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sílvio

    2017-03-17

    Concepts such as biorefinery and green chemistry focus on the usage of biomass, as with the oil value chain. However, it can cause less negative impact on the environment. A biorefinery based on sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) as feedstock is an example, because it can integrate into the same physical space, of processes for obtaining biofuels (ethanol), chemicals (from sugars or ethanol), electricity, and heat.The use of sugarcane as feedstock for biorefineries is dictated by its potential to supply sugars, ethanol, natural polymers or macromolecules, organic matter, and other compounds and materials. By means of conversion processes (chemical, biochemical, and thermochemical), sugarcane biomass can be transformed into high-value bioproducts to replace petrochemicals, as a bioeconomy model.

  15. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    by the recent rush for large-scale agricultural land acquisition in most developing countries, often described as "land grabbing," because contract farming and outgrower schemes can result in the same advantages as large-scale farming, but avoid its main drawback-namely the displacement of the current land......-users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...... prior to joining sugarcane outgrower schemes, we use genetic matching and propensity score matching to make the two groups comparable based on their observable characteristics. Our results indicate that compulsory participation in an outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks...

  16. Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment Through the Indicators Extracted from Spatial Models: Case Study of Sugarcane Expansion Hotspots in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, R. P.; Simoes, M.; Dubreuil, V.

    2012-12-01

    The CanaSat project data from INPE (2010) has evidenced the trend of sugarcane expansion into savanna areas in the Midwest region of Brazil that has a great potential for the sugarcane development, in terms of topography and suitable soils, according to Sugarcane Agroecological Zoning (EMBRAPA, 2009). However, in this region the climatic water availability has limitations, once the climate is marked by drought season with a strong water deficiency due to reduction of rainfall (SILVA et al. 2008). There may be serious risks to the sugarcane culture conducted in dryland crop system without any support from additional irrigation. Silva et al. (2008) state that, for the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in the Cerrado region will be necessary supplemental irrigation with 80 to 120 mm of water applied after cutting or planting. In the Brazilian Midwest the sugarcane agroindustry expansion is technically viable, but for the sustainable development of this activity it is necessary an adequate planning based on knowledge about water demand and availability. The aim of this study was to conduct an assessment of the potential water sustainability for the sugarcane cultivation in four microregions in Goiás State, Brazil, through the use of indicators proposed in Indicators System of Sugarcane Water Sustainability Assessment (Ferraz, 2012), that was thought to subsidize the public policies proposals and sectoral planning in strategic level by means of indicators that enable to perform diagnostic and prognostic analysis. These indicators are direct and relevant indexes obtained from data extracted through geoprocessing techniques from integration of many spatial models. The used indicators were: (i) Three indexes expressing the land favorability for sugarcane development conducted in dryland or irrigation system through the establishment of the ratio between the sugarcane suitable area for each different system and the total area of territorial unit of analysis (micro

  17. "Bandung Spirit" Lives on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shaoxian; He Xiquan; Xu Weizhong; Ma Jiali; Tang Zhichao; Zhai Kun; Chen Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    @@ In commemoration of the golden jubilee of the first Bandung Conference held in 1955, at the proposal of Presidents Bambang Yodhoyono of Indonesia and Thabo Mbeki of South Africa, a second Asian-African conference was held on April 22-24,2005 again in Bandung under the theme of "reinvigorating the Bandung Spirit: Working torwards a New Asian-African Strategic Partnership. "The Bandung Spirit has exerted deep impact on history. In the age of globalization, the spirit has added to brilliance beyond era and assumed brand-new meanings after the Asian-African summit this year. To develop the Bandung Spirit is in the interests of the developing countries. Therefore, at the invitation of Contemporary International Relations, some experts concerned from China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations had discussion over the Bandung Spirit and its historical significance as well. Hopefully our discussion could offer our readers some food for thought.

  18. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane juice with yeasts that ... yeast strains using 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks with 180 ml of must prepared ... Key words: Hydrolysis of sugarcane straw and pointers, sugarcane juice, ...

  19. Spirit Coinciding with Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    I have given a name to the studio where I make my soft sculptures: "Spirit Existing." It means that my life exists together with my spirit; that spirit is inseparable from body. I believe the original nature of life is the most beautiful thing in the world. On September 6th, 1997, I handed in my resignation to the tax bureau where I worked. Leaving my family and my son at home, I came to Beijing alone to create a new life for myself. As a woman making such a choice at the age of 35, I

  20. Mudanças climáticas e a cana-de-açúcar no Brasil: Fisiologia, conjuntura e cenário futuro Climate change and the sugarcane in Brazilian: Physiology, conjuncture and future scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Marin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Com base na revisão de literatura, o manuscrito analisa qualitativamente um futuro cenário para a cana-de-açúcar no Brasil, com base na tendência de expansão da cultura observada ao longo da última década, a conjuntura atual do setor e as projeções de mudanças climáticas globais regionalizadas para este século. O principal foco foi associar os resultados científicos sobre a fisiologia da cana-de-açúcar e suas respostas à elevação na concentração de dióxido de carbono atmosférico e eficiência de uso da água com as perspectivas socioeconômicas do setor canavieiro do Brasil. Prováveis efeitos sobre plantas daninhas, pragas e doenças da cana-de-açúcar, também foram abordados. A base do conhecimento disponível na literatura indica que a cana-de-açúcar apresentaria uma resposta positiva em relação aos cenários de mudanças climáticas mais prováveis para o Brasil, tanto pela resposta direta da fotossíntese à elevação na concentração do dióxido de carbono quanto ao aumento da eficiência de uso da água. Contudo, é provável que o manejo na cultura necessite de adaptações uma vez que plantas daninhas e doenças poderiam ser favorecidas pelas condições futuras.Based on literature, this paper examines qualitativelly a future scenario for the sugarcane in Brazil. It was done considering the expanding trend of the crop observed over the last decade, the current sector conjuncture, and the down scaled climate change projections for this century. The focus was to associate the scientific findings on the physiology of sugarcane and their responses to the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration and the water use efficiency with socio-economic prospects for the sugarcane industry in Brazil. Probable effects on weeds, diseases and pest of sugarcane crop were also analysed. Available literature indicates that sugarcane crop would likely show a positive response to probably scenarios of climate change in Brazil due

  1. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  2. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol

  3. Life cycle impact assessment of bio-based plastics from sugarcane ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, I.; Faaij, A. P C; Lundquist, L.; Schenker, U.; Briois, J. F.; Patel, M. K.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing production of bio-based plastics calls for thorough environmental assessments. Using life cycle assessment, this study compares European supply of fully bio-based high-density polyethylene and partially bio-based polyethylene terephthalate from Brazilian and Indian sugarcane ethanol w

  4. Discerning the Spirits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Else Marie Wiberg

    2007-01-01

    /the Spirit by way of postmodern philosophy and theology (for example Lévinas and Vattimo), this response discovers a number of traits in Svenungsson's paper that resembles those of radical orthodoxy, primarily Milbank. Thus, Svenungsson's opposition towards simplistic or reductive accounts of religion....../theology, and even more so her reconstruction of a rational yet metaphysical theology and the understanding of the church as the only locus of the Holy Spirit and the learning of the grammar of radical ethics are identical with Milbank's views. Since Svenungsson conclusively opts for a radical (and metaphysical......) Otherness and calls for a religion of the Spirit, a religion about radical ethics very similar to that of radical orthodoxy, I conclude my response by way of a set of questions aimed at clarifying the interrelatedness between incarnation and otherness, church and ethics, body and spirit....

  5. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF THE SUGARCANE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Oranges Cezarino

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the concern about the environmental degradation and the conditions of life of our planet has increased. An alarm literally sounded relating the environmental problems and the uncertainties of the future. An energy revolution is necessary in face of the climate changes. Nature offers numerous possibilities of energy production and Brazil is in a great position in this scenario. It is the greatest producer, consumer and exporter of ethanol. Analyzing the Brazilian sugarcane industry, it is easy to recognize its historical and economic importance. More than ever, this industry has shown environmental solutions with changes in the energy matrix using ethanol as renewable fuel. It is essential to have the industry development in balance with social and environmental values. Thus, the first step to expand this sector would be to identify the social and environmental impacts of the sugarcane industry. Public policies are also acting on the sector and have a prominent role in the scenario.

  6. Genetic instability of sugarcane plants derived from meristem cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucchi Maria Imaculada

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The RADP (Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to detect tissue-culture-induced variations in sugarcane. Plants of the Brazilian variety RB83-5486 propagated via rhizomes and via meristem cultures were studied. The polymorphism rate for 98 RAPD loci was 6.93% when the plants derived from meristems. Besides, in order to evaluate the influence of the number of subcultures on the generation of somaclonal variation, field-grown RB83-5486 plants derived from 10 meristems were studied after five subcultivations. Although different rates of polymorphism were observed, there was no direct association with the stage of subcultivation. The analysis of plants of two sugarcane varieties cultivated in vitro from meristems showed that variety RB83-5486 was more unstable than variety SP80-185.

  7. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of Emission Factors through Laboratory Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Andrade Carvalho

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for the Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. However, the common practice of pre-harvest burning of sugarcane straw emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the practice of pre-harvest sugarcane burning in the near future, there is still significant environmental damage. Thus, the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess their environmental impact. Nevertheless, the official Brazilian emissions inventory does not presently include the contribution from pre-harvest sugarcane burning. In this context, this work aims to determine sugarcane straw burning emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm in the laboratory. Excess mixing ratios for CO2, CO, NOX, UHC (unburned hydrocarbons, and PM2.5 were measured, allowing the estimation of their respective emission factors. Average estimated values for emission factors (g kg−1 of burned dry biomass were 1,303 ± 218 for CO2, 65 ± 14 for CO, 1.5 ± 0.4 for NOX, 16 ± 6 for UHC, and 2.6 ± 1.6 for PM2.5. These emission factors can be used to generate more realistic emission inventories and therefore improve the results of air quality models.

  8. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating...... smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  9. AN APPROACH TO FINANCIAL RISK IN A PORTFOLIO FOR PLANNING THE INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF PRODUCTS DERIVED FROM SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thárcylla R.N. Clemente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil's location and tropical weather conditions are favourable cultivating sugarcane, which has led to Brazil being one of the world's largest producers of sugarcane. The influence of the sugarcane industry on its economy stands out among the indicators of Brazilian economic growth and because the diversified investment when planning the production of products derived from this sector is encouraged. The decision on which derivative (for example, crystal sugar, anhydrous ethanol, or hydrous ethanol to produce from raw sugarcane can be modelled as an investment decision in a portfolio decision problem whenever a combination of these products is considered. As to the future price of these commodities, raw sugarcane is considered to be capital that should be invested. Thus, this paper puts forward a decision model which uses concepts from Decision Analysis and Bayesian Risk Analysis that may well assist the process of managing assets in the Brazilian sugarcane industry by considering the financial aspect when compiling a portfolio for planning production.

  10. Análise dos compostos voláteis da aguardente de cana por concentração dinâmica do "headspace" e cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas The analysis of volatile compounds from Brazilian sugar cane spirit by dynamic headspace concentration and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Carneiro da Cunha Nóbrega

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos voláteis da aguardente de cana foram extraídos por meio da concentração dinâmica do "headspace" em armadilhas contendo Tenax-TA e analisados por cromatografia gasosa-espectrometria de massas. Cerca de 100 compostos voláteis, com número de carbonos que variavam de 5 a 18, foram detectados. Destes, 22 foram selecionados, sendo 18 ésteres, com base nas suas quantidades no extrato ou nas suas características sensoriais obtidas na literatura. Os compostos presentes em maiores quantidades foram o 3-metil-1-butanol (álcool isoamílico, 1,1-dietoxi-etano (acetaldeído dietil acetal e os ésteres acetato de 3-metilbutila, hexanoato de etila, octanoato de etila, decanoato de etila e dodecanoato de etila. Dentre os compostos identificados em menor quantidade, destacou-se, devido a sua natureza química, o composto sulfurado 4,5-de-hidro-2-metil-3(2H-tiofenona. Esta é a primeira vez que este e outros compostos voláteis são reportados em aguardente de cana. Conclui-se que a metodologia empregada neste trabalho permitiu a identificação de compostos voláteis da fração C5-C18, que potencialmente contribuem para o aroma da aguardente de cana.The volatile compounds of Brazilian sugar cane spirit, the fermented and distilled juice of sugar cane, were extracted by dynamic headspace concentration on Tenax-TA trap and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 100 volatile compounds with carbon number ranging from 5 to 18 were detected. Among these, 18 esters and 4 compounds from other chemical classes were selected for this work on the basis of their quantity in the extract or their sensory qualities obtained from literature. The major compounds identified were 3-methyl-1-butanol (isoamyl alcohol, 1,1-diethoxy-ethane (acetaldehyde diethyl acetal and the esters 3-methylbutyl acetate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate and ethyl dodecanoate. In minor quantities, potentially important aroma compounds

  11. SPIRIT 2013 Statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G;

    2013-01-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol ...

  12. Enzymatic activity of three sugarcane varieties under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercia F. Carvalho

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sugarcane is a species of great economic importance to Brazil. The study of enzymatic activity has helped to identify varieties of sugarcane tolerant to salt stress, for planting in Brazilian semiarid regions, where there is the occurrence of saline soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic activity of three varieties of sugarcane subjected to stress caused by salinity. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, in a completely randomized design with four replicates. The leaf blade samples were collected for analysis of soluble proteins and determination of the activity of catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The protein content was higher for RB962962 and lower for the varieties RB92579 and RB867515. However, in RB867515, there was an increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase and catalase, while the varieties RB92579 and RB962962 showed a reduction in the activity of these enzymes. These results indicate that the variety RB867515 has a more efficient mechanism in plant protection against the action of reactive oxygen species.

  13. Sugarcane for Bioethanol: Soil and Environmental Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Cultivation of sugarcane for bioethanol is increasing and the area under sugarcane is expanding. Much of the sugar for bioethanol comes from large plantations where it is grown with relatively high inputs. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil because of the use of heavy machinery and because

  14. Emergy efficiency analysis of sugarcane as a raw material for ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Leandro da Vitória

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In recent years, the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in Brazil and its growing importance in the Brazilian economy have been driven by a sharp increase in fuel alcohol production. This increase in fuel alcohol production was accompanied by increasing interest regarding the impacts of fuel crops in Brazil. In this study, regions of sugarcane expansion into deforested areas in the Atlantic Forest were studied by applying the emergy theory and indices. Environmental and economic inputs and the sustainability of the sugarcane production system were evaluated with the emergy method. The transformity (TR was equal to 1.78E+11 seJ kg-1, the yield rate (EYR was equal to 1.30, the investment rate was equal to 3.29, the environmental load rate was equal to 4.33, the renewability rate was equal to 18.77, and the exchange rate was equal to 1.09. The emergy indices of corn, cassava, wheat, and sugarcane (as raw materials for ethanol production were used. In Brazil, sugarcane production for ethanol production was more emergetically sustainable based on the analysed emergy indices.

  15. Developing students’ entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grădinaru, E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains a research study about the necessity to develop the entrepreneurial spirit in universities and how students could be involved in such initiatives. A qualitative research based on three focus groups was conducted, having as main objective to identify students’ opinions regarding the initiative to develop an on-line magazine for students and young people. The results reveal that students prefer the online media to the traditional ones and the pilot numbers of the magazine received good appreciations. A business plan for the future development of the magazine is also presented.

  16. An Embarrassment of Spirits: Spirits, Hauntology and Democracy in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2014-01-01

    irruption of spirits into Indonesian politics reflected not only a haunting within Indonesian politics and Indonesian Islam but also a haunting of the spirit of global democracy. Embarrassment, the paper posits, provides a useful methodological entry point into the ethnographic study of politics and its...

  17. Genetic Diversity and Structure of Brazilian Populations of Diatraea saccharalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae): Implications for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina L; Santos, Thiago V; Cônsoli, Fernando L; Omoto, Celso

    2015-02-01

    The sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.), is the main pest of sugarcane in Brazil. Genetic variability and gene flow among 13 Brazilian populations of the species were evaluated based on mitochondrial DNA sequences to estimate the exchange of genetic information within and among populations. We found high genetic structure among sampled localities (ΦST=0.50923), and pairwise genetic distances were significantly correlated to geographic distances. Demographic analysis and genealogical network of mitochondrial sequences indicate population growth and admixture of D. saccharalis populations, events likely related to the sequential expansion of the corn and sugarcane crops in Brazil. The implications of these findings for pest management are discussed.

  18. The Spirit of Logotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Costello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to adduce the meaning of Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy and existential analysis—the spirit of logotherapy—in the two-fold sense of its core teachings, as well as its emphasis on the spiritual dimension of the human person. Firstly, I situate Frankl’s tri-dimensional ontology—his philosophical anthropology—within a Platonic perspective, asserting that it was Plato who first gave us a picture and model of mental health which he based on the harmony of the disparate parts of the personality—the aim to become One instead of Many, which finds a modern parallel in Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy, which likewise stresses the importance of inner wholeness (an anthropological oneness despite our ontological differences. Classical Greek philosophers all pointed to the Logos as source of order—to the horizon of meaning-potentials, so I visit the various understandings of this term from the pre-Socratics to Frankl, albeit briefly, to avoid semantic confusion in what is to follow. I then discuss in some detail the exact meaning that logos/spirit has in Frankl’s philosophical conceptualisations. Disorders of logos may be seen in various psychopathologies and pnemopathologies which I go on to consider, highlighting the differences between various terms that are commonly left unclarified. Next, I adumbrate the differences between psychotherapy and logotherapy, which ultimately revolves around the difference between instincts and spirit before demarcating the boundaries between religion (as salvation and logotherapy (as sanity. The question I pose next is: what exactly constitutes the spiritual in logotherapy, as in life? An example is given to concretise the conceptual considerations previously elucidated before drawing on another distinction, that between “ultimate meaning” and “the meaning of the moment”. The paper concludes with a brief excursus into the work of Ken Wilber by way of enabling us to appreciate and

  19. An Embarrassment of Spirits: Spirits, Hauntology and Democracy in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2014-01-01

    Kyai Muzakkin is the spiritual leader of a Koranic school (pesantren) in East Java that he claims is the only pesantren in the world that is attended entirely by spirits (jin). Kyai Muzakkin is also the founder of an anti-corruption NGO. In 2009, he gained national notoriety and infamy when he...... irruption of spirits into Indonesian politics reflected not only a haunting within Indonesian politics and Indonesian Islam but also a haunting of the spirit of global democracy. Embarrassment, the paper posits, provides a useful methodological entry point into the ethnographic study of politics and its...

  20. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a har...

  1. SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2013-01-01

    (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials). The SPIRIT Statement provides guidance in the form of a checklist of recommended items to include in a clinical trial protocol. This SPIRIT 2013 Explanation and Elaboration paper provides important information to promote full......High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content and quality of protocols, an international group of stakeholders developed the SPIRIT 2013 Statement...... understanding of the checklist recommendations. For each checklist item, we provide a rationale and detailed description; a model example from an actual protocol; and relevant references supporting its importance. We strongly recommend that this explanatory paper be used in conjunction with the SPIRIT Statement...

  2. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation–pasture–sugarcane transitions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva, E-mail: denermsoliveira@gmail.com [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Colorado State University, Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, 1231 East Drive, 80523-1499 Fort Collins, CO (United States); Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino [University of São Paulo, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, 11 Páduas Dias Avenue, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0–0.1 m, 0.2–0.3 m and 0.9–1 m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ{sup 13}C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion. - Graphical abstract: We chose 3 sites in Brazil (1) and collected soil samples in areas undergoing LUC pasture–sugarcane (2) to evaluate SOM composition using Py–GC/MS (3). The LUC causes shifts on SOM signature (4), highlighting the increase of fresh litter compounds in sugarcane areas (5). - Highlights: • Effect of land use change (LUC) on SOM composition in Brazilian soils • Py-GC/MS of NaOH extractable SOM

  3. Education and entrepreneurial spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Marinescu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of a man is influenced by the quality of education. Too often we use to exclusively impute to the system the educational problems of individuals and groups. It is necessary to look lucidly and to identify the role of family, civil society and individuals in education. Exercising leadership means continuously learning and, therefore, it is difficult to separate the educational dynamics from the team evolution at organizational level. The training of individuals occurs in variable contexts that they create or in which they are involved. From the leadership perspective, education is also a problem of assuming responsibilities. The set of values that outlines a social behaviour imposes also disclaimers. In such context, disclaimers can define the understanding of the efficient use of resources in favour of the group and not in one’s own interest. Hence, the management lesson for those who will be prepared to lead begins. That’s how the practical management and leadership lessons can contribute to the creation of complex personalities. Leaders and managers define a reality in which education plays a central role. Therefore, selfeducation becomes a must because it will impose the development of the spirit of initiative and the selection of those having both potential and skills to become leaders, managers and entrepreneurs. We can say that it is imperative to move on from “the game of chance” to the real performance standards in training tomorrow’s decision-makers.

  4. Library Spirit and Genius Loci

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlkild, Nan

    2009-01-01

    The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style".......The architecture and design of Nyborg Public Library in the light of the concepts "Library Spirit" and "Genius Loci", related to contemporary social and cultural movements, the development of the early welfare state and the "Scandinavian Style"....

  5. Vinasse and Its Influence on Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Communities in Sugarcane Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, L. P.; Souza-Campana, D. R.; Bueno, O. C.

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane is an important crop within the Brazilian socioeconomic landscape. There is a constant need for approaches to increase sustainability at all steps of the production chain. Irrigating sugarcane crops with vinasse is one of these approaches, because vinasse is a residue of sugarcane processing that can be used to fertilize these same crops. However, due to its chemical properties, vinasse may be harmful to soil fauna. Analyzing the structure and functional organization of ant communities is a fast and practical way to monitor sites affected by the addition of chemicals. This study compared the structure of soil ant communities in vinasse-irrigated sugarcane crops to those in secondary forests adjacent to the crops. In total, 32 genera and 107 species of ants were observed; of these, 30 species foraged in crop fields and 102 foraged in forests. Twenty-five percent of the species were present in both crops and forests. Ant communities in crop soil had poorer taxonomic composition and lower richness in each functional group compared to communities in forest remnants. However, regardless of vegetation type, epigeic ants were more diverse, and Dorymyrmex brunneus (crop) and Pachycondyla striata (forest) were very frequent. Vinasse did not increase the diversity of epigeic and hypogeic ants, but it may affect the community composition. PMID:28130455

  6. Using satellite image-based maps to improve sugarcane straw burning emission estimates in the state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, D.; Longo, K.; Rudorff, B.; Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S. R.; Stockler, R.; Pereira, G.

    2014-12-01

    Since the last decade, the global demand for biofuel production has been increasing every year due to the growing need for energy supply security and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHG). Currently, sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels and Brazil is already the world's largest sugarcane producer, devoting almost 50% of it to ethanol production. The state of São Paulo is the major sugarcane producer in this country, with a cultivated area of about 5.4 Mha in 2011. Approximately 2 million hectares were harvested annually from 2006 to 2011 with the pre-harvest straw burning practice, which emits trace gases and particulate material to the atmosphere. The assessment and monitoring of sugarcane burning impacts are fundamental in order to mitigate the negative impacts of pre-harvest burning and consolidate the environmental benefits of sugarcane ethanol. Although some official inventories created by the Brazilian government have indicated the prevalence of emissions from sugarcane straw burning in total agricultural residue emissions, specific information about emissions of gases and aerosols during pre-harvest burning of sugarcane is still scarce in Brazil. This study aimed to contribute to the improvement of estimates of emissions from sugarcane burning through the use of specific parameters for sugarcane straw burning and a method which has avoided underestimations resulting from the unique characteristics of this type of biomass fire. In this investigation, emissions of several air pollutants released by sugarcane burning during the harvest season were estimated through the integrated use of remote sensing based maps of sugarcane burned area and a numerical tool for the state of São Paulo from 2006 to 2011. Average estimated emissions (Gg/year) were 1,130 ± 152 for CO, 26 ± 4 for NOX, 16 ± 2 for CH4, 45 ± 6 for PM2.5, 120 ± 16 for PM10 and 154 ± 21 for NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons). An intercomparison among annual emissions from this

  7. Sugarcane straw harvest effects on soil quality and plant growth: preliminary data synthesis of a multi-local project running in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubin, Maurício; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2017-04-01

    Brazil is the largest sugarcane producer in the world, and consequently, it is one of major players in the bioenergy production sector. Despite that, growing demands for bioenergies have raised the interest of Brazilian sugarcane industry to harvest the sugarcane straw left on the field for cellulosic ethanol production and/or bioelectricity cogeneration. However, crop residues have a key role in the soil, affecting directly or indirectly multiple soil functions and related ecosystem services. Therefore, indiscriminate straw harvest could jeopardize soil quality, decreasing its capacity to sustain plant productivity over time. In order to evaluate the potential impacts of sugarcane straw harvest on soil quality and plant growth, we are conducting since 2014 a multi-local project across central-southern Brazil, the main core of sugarcane production in the world. A wide range of soil chemical, physical and biological parameters, as well as, plant biomass production has been quantified under increasing straw harvest intensities. Our preliminary findings have showed that short-term straw harvest management did not affect total organic C stocks; however, high straw harvest led to significant reduction in labile C forms (e.g., microbial biomass C and N), and abundance of microbial communities as well. Sugarcane straw harvest affects soil nutrient cycling, since significant amount of nutrients are removed annually by straw, especially in top (green) leaves. In addition, our data show that straw acts as a thermal insulator, decreasing soil temperature amplitude and keeping soil moisture for a longer time. Straw harvest management did not affect sugarcane yields in the first two crop seasons. Based on this first synthesis of the project, we conclude that short-term sugarcane straw harvest led to soil changes, especially in more sensitive and dynamic properties, which did not affect the plant yield. However, long-term impacts should be monitored towards a better

  8. Biomass of cocoa and sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siswanto; Sumanto; Hartati, R. S.; Prastowo, B.

    2017-05-01

    The role of the agricultural sector is very important as the upstream addressing downstream sectors and national energy needs. The agricultural sector itself is also highly dependent on the availability of energy. Evolving from it then it must be policies and strategies for agricultural development Indonesia to forward particularly agriculture as producers as well as users of biomass energy or bioenergy for national development including agriculture balance with agriculture and food production. Exports of biomass unbridled currently include preceded by ignorance, indifference and the lack of scientific data and potential tree industry in the country. This requires adequate scientific supporting data. This study is necessary because currently there are insufficient data on the potential of biomass, including tree biomasanya detailing the benefits of bioenergy, feed and food is very necessary as a basis for future policy. Measurement of the main estate plants biomass such as cocoa and sugarcane be done in 2015. Measurements were also conducted on its lignocellulose content. Tree biomass sugarcane potential measured consist of leaves, stems and roots, with the weight mostly located on the stem. Nevertheless, not all the potential of the stem is a good raw material for bioethanol. For cocoa turned out leaves more prospective because of its adequate hemicellulose content. For sugarcane, leaf buds contain a good indicator of digestion of feed making it more suitable for feed.

  9. Fermentation of irradiated sugarcane must

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcarde, Andre Ricardo; Horii, Jorge [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao]. E-mail: aralcard@esalq.usp.br; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos e Radioentomologia

    2003-12-01

    Bacillus and Lactobacillus are bacteria that usually contaminate the ethanolic fermentation by yeasts and my influence yeast viability. As microorganisms can be killed by ionizing radiation, the efficacy of gamma radiation in reducing the population of certain contaminating bacteria from sugarcane must was examined and, as a consequence, the beneficial effect of lethal doses of radiation on some parameters of yeast-based ethanolic fermentation was verified. Must from sugarcane juice was inoculated with bacteria of the general Bacillus and Lactobacillus. The contaminated must was irradiated with 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0 and 10.0 kGy of gamma radiation. After ethanolic fermentation by the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) the total and volatile acidity produced during the process were evaluated: yeast viability and ethanol yield were also recorded. Treatments of gamma radiation reduced the population of the contaminating bacteria in the sugarcane must. The acidity produced during the fermentation decreased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Conversely, the yeast viability increased as the dose rate of radiation increased. Gamma irradiation was an efficient treatment to decontaminate the must and improved its parameters related to ethanolic fermentation, including ethanol yield, which increased 1.9%. (author)

  10. Base excision repair in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnez-Lima Lucymara F.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA damage can be induced by a large number of physical and chemical agents from the environment as well as compounds produced by cellular metabolism. This type of damage can interfere with cellular processes such as replication and transcription, resulting in cell death and/or mutations. The low frequency of mutagenesis in cells is due to the presence of enzymatic pathways which repair damaged DNA. Several DNA repair genes (mainly from bacteria, yeasts and mammals have been cloned and their products characterized. The high conservation, especially in eukaryotes, of the majority of genes related to DNA repair argues for their importance in the maintenance of life on earth. In plants, our understanding of DNA repair pathways is still very poor, the first plant repair genes having only been cloned in 1997 and the mechanisms of their products have not yet been characterized. The objective of our data mining work was to identify genes related to the base excision repair (BER pathway, which are present in the database of the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST Project. This search was performed by tblastn program. We identified sugarcane clusters homologous to the majority of BER proteins used in the analysis and a high degree of conservation was observed. The best results were obtained with BER proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana. For some sugarcane BER genes, the presence of more than one form of mRNA is possible, as shown by the occurrence of more than one homologous EST cluster.

  11. Biochemical genetic markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaszmann, J C; Fautret, A; Noyer, J L; Feldmann, P; Lanaud, C

    1989-10-01

    Isozyme variation was used to identify biochemical markers of potential utility in sugarcane genetics and breeding. Electrophoretic polymorphism was surveyed for nine enzymes among 39 wild and noble sugarcane clones, belonging to the species most closely related to modern varieties. Up to 114 distinct bands showing presence versus absence type of variation were revealed and used for qualitative characterization of the materials. Multivariate analysis of the data isolated the Erianthus clone sampled and separated the Saccharum spontaneum clones from the S. robustum and S. officinarum clones; the latter two were not differentiated from one another. The analysis of self-progenies of a 2n=112 S. spontaneum and of a commercial variety showed examples of mono- and polyfactorial segregations. Within the progeny of the variety, co-segregation of two isozymes frequent in S. spontaneum led to them being assigned to a single chromosome initially contributed by a S. spontaneum donor. This illustrates how combined survey of ancestral species and segregation analysis in modern breeding materials should permit using the lack of interspecific cross-over to establish linkage groups in a sugarcane genome.

  12. Breeding for stem borer resistance in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem borers are arguably the most important group of insect pests of sugarcane. Stem borers primarily belong to the insect order Lepidoptera, although a few species belong to the order Coleoptera. The larvae of these insects bore into the sugarcane stalk and heavy infestations can cause severe losse...

  13. Management of Sugarcane Aphid in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerger, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane aphids are becoming a more prevalent pest in sorghum in the United States, especially in the south and are making their way north. There are many management practices that can be used on sugarcane aphids, the most important being scouting and maintaining populations. The most common mistake once a pest has been found is to immediately…

  14. Pre-Harvest Sugarcane Burning: Determination of emission factors through laboratory measurements and quantification of emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo Franca, D.; Maria Longo, K.; Gomes Soares Neto, T.; Carlos dos Santos, J.; Rudorf, B. F.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Freitas, S.; Vieira Cortez, E.; Stockler S. Lima, R.; S. Gacita, M.; Anselmo, E.; A. Carvalho, J., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    Sugarcane is a relevant crop to Brazilian economy and roughly 50% of its production is used to produce ethanol. São Paulo state is the largest producer of sugarcane in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production in a cultivated area of 4.5 Mha in 2010. Sugarcane harvest practice can be performed either with green harvest or with pre-harvest burning. A "Green Ethanol" Protocol is underway to eliminate the pre-harvest burning practice by 2014 in most of the sugarcane cultivated land in São Paulo state. During the last five years close to 2 Mha were annually harvested with the pre-harvest burning practice. This practice emits particulate material, greenhouse gases, and tropospheric ozone precursors to the atmosphere. Even with policies to eliminate the burning practice in the near future there is still a significant environmental damage due to the pre-harvest burning practice of sugarcane. Thus the generation of reliable inventories of emissions due to this activity is crucial in order to assess the environmental impact. Presently the official Brazilian emissions inventories do not include the sugarcane pre-harvest burning contribution. Therefore, this work aims to estimate the annual emissions (from 2006 to 2010) associated with pre-harvest sugarcane burning practice in São Paulo state, including the determination of emission factors for some trace gases and particulate material smaller than 2.5 μm. Annual remote sensing based mappings of burned sugarcane fields throughout the harvest season in each crop year made in the context of Canasat Project (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/) were added to the Brazilian Biomass Burning Emission Model (3BEM) in order to estimate trace gases and aerosols emissions. Two laboratory combustion experiments were carried out to determine the emission factors estimation. Samples of different varieties of sugarcane were harvested in dry weather conditions and in distinct sites in the state of São Paulo to assure

  15. Elimination of five sugarcane viruses from sugarcane using in vitro culture of axillary bud and apical meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures were developed for the in vitro elimination of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV), Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV), Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV) and Fiji disease virus (FDV) from infected sugarcane. In vitro shoot regeneration, elongation and virus el...

  16. Carbon stock and humification index of organic matter affected by sugarcane straw and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Segnini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. straw on a soil surface increases the soil carbon (C stocks, but at lower rates than expected. This fact is probably associated with the soil management adopted during sugarcane replanting. This study aimed to assess the impact on soil C stocks and the humification index of soil organic matter (SOM of adopting no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT for sugarcane replanting. A greater C content and stock was observed in the NT area, but only in the 0-5 cm soil layer (p < 0.05. Greater soil C stock (0-60 cm was found in soil under NT, when compared to CT and the baseline. While C stock of 116 Mg ha-1 was found in the baseline area, in areas under CT and NT systems the values ranged from 120 to 127 Mg ha-1. Carbon retention rates of 0.67 and 1.63 Mg C ha-1 year-1 were obtained in areas under CT and NT, respectively. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy showed that CT makes the soil surface (0-20 cm more homogeneous than the NT system due to the effect of soil disturbance, and that the SOM humification index (H LIF is larger in CT compared to NT conditions. In contrast, NT had a gradient of increasing H LIF, showing that the entry of labile organic material such as straw is also responsible for the accumulation of C in this system. The maintenance of straw on the soil surface and the adoption of NT during sugarcane planting are strategies that can increase soil C sequestration in the Brazilian sugarcane sector.

  17. Nitrous oxide emission factors from N-fertilizer in sugarcane production in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdos, M. V.; Siqueira Neto, M.; Feigl, B. J.; Carvalho, J. L.; Cerri, C. E.; Cerri, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Brazilian sugarcane production is rapidly expanding due to the increase of global demand for ethanol. Concurrently the necessary inputs to culture, especially N-fertilizer, are growing, since N is one of the key element to maintain sugarcane productivity. However, it is known that N-fertilizer is responsible for the largest share of N2O emissions from agricultural soils. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) estimated that under favorable climatic conditions approximately 1% of the N-fertilizer applied can be emitted as N2O. Our goal was to estimate N2O emission factors from N-fertilizer used in the sugarcane ratoon for ethanol production. A field study was conducted at the Capuava Mill, located in southeastern Brazil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with four replications in a factorial scheme (2 x 2): two N sources (urea and ammonium nitrate), two application rates (80 and 120 kg ha-1), and a control treatment. N2O concentrations were determined by gas chromatography using a Shimadzu© GC-mini. N2O fluxes were calculated from linear regressions of concentration versus incubation time in the soil static chambers. The N2O emission factor of N-fertilizer was calculated according to the methodology described in the Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC). Comparatively, ammonium nitrate emitted 45 to 75% less N2O than urea application. There was no significant difference in N2O emission between the two applied rates of urea. Also the N2O emission factor of ammonium nitrate (0.3×0.2%) was lower than that of urea (1.1×0.4%). Our results indicated that on average the N fertilization of sugarcane plantation has an emission factor of 0.7×0.5% suggesting that N-fertilizer management can be used to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to improve the sustainability of bioethanol from sugarcane.

  18. Physical-chemical and microbiological changes in Cerrado Soil under differing sugarcane harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Caio TCC

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane cultivation plays an important role in Brazilian economy, and it is expanding fast, mainly due to the increasing demand for ethanol production. In order to understand the impact of sugarcane cultivation and management, we studied sugarcane under different management regimes (pre-harvest burn and mechanical, unburnt harvest, or green cane, next to a control treatment with native vegetation. The soil bacterial community structure (including an evaluation of the diversity of the ammonia oxidizing (amoA and denitrifying (nirK genes, greenhouse gas flow and several soil physicochemical properties were evaluated. Results Our results indicate that sugarcane cultivation in this region resulted in changes in several soil properties. Moreover, such changes are reflected in the soil microbiota. No significant influence of soil management on greenhouse gas fluxes was found. However, we did find a relationship between the biological changes and the dynamics of soil nutrients. In particular, the burnt cane and green cane treatments had distinct modifications. There were significant differences in the structure of the total bacterial, the ammonia oxidizing and the denitrifying bacterial communities, being that these groups responded differently to the changes in the soil. A combination of physical and chemical factors was correlated to the changes in the structures of the total bacterial communities of the soil. The changes in the structures of the functional groups follow a different pattern than the physicochemical variables. The latter might indicate a strong influence of interactions among different bacterial groups in the N cycle, emphasizing the importance of biological factors in the structuring of these communities. Conclusion Sugarcane land use significantly impacted the structure of total selected soil bacterial communities and ammonia oxidizing and denitrifier gene diversities in a Cerrado field site in Central Brazil

  19. Factors Affecting Sugarcane Production in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Nazir

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the factors affecting sugarcane production in Pakistan. Data were collected from 387 sugarcane growers from Sindh, Punjab and NWFP province. Data were collected during the period 2007-08. The study reveals that the costs of inputs of sugarcane i.e. urea, DAP, FYM, land preparation, seed and its application, weeding and cost of irrigation were the important factors which influenced on the returns of sugarcane growers. The effectiveness was examined by using the Cobb-Douglas production function; MVP and allocative efficiency were calculated. The coefficient of multiple determinations R2 was 0.9249, which indicated that 92% variation in the cost of inputs was explained by all explanatory variables and the adjusted R2 was 92%. The F-value was 666.94 and was highly significant at 5% level of significance, indicating that the regression model was well fitted. The high prices of inputs, low price of output, delay in payments and lack of scientific knowledge were the major problems in sugarcane production. In order to enhance the productivity of sugarcane in the country, government should solve the identified problems to increase the income of sugarcane growers.

  20. Sugarcane starch: quantitative determination and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelise de Alencar Figueira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Starch is found in sugarcane as a storage polysaccharide. Starch concentrations vary widely depending on the country, variety, developmental stage, and growth conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the starch content in different varieties of sugarcane, between May and November 2007, and some characteristics of sugarcane starch such as structure and granules size; gelatinization temperature; starch solution filterability; and susceptibility to glucoamylase, pullulanase, and commercial bacterial and fungal α-amylase enzymes. Susceptibility to debranching amylolytic isoamylase enzyme from Flavobacterium sp. was also tested. Sugarcane starch had spherical shape with a diameter of 1-3 µm. Sugarcane starch formed complexes with iodine, which showed greater absorption in the range of 540 to 620 nm. Sugarcane starch showed higher susceptibility to glucoamylase compared to that of waxy maize, cassava, and potato starch. Sugarcane starch also showed susceptibility to debranching amylolytic pullulanases similar to that of waxy rice starch. It also showed susceptibility to α-amylase from Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Aspergillus oryzae similar to that of the other tested starches producing glucose, maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, maltopentose and limit α- dextrin.

  1. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, tota...

  2. The Spirit and the church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Hegstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In what way is the Holy Spirit present in the life of the church? Questions of ecclesiology and pneumatology have traditionally divided denominations. Today these questions are at the centre of renewed ecumenical rapprochement. This article presents the contribution of the classic study on Martin Luther’s pneumatology, Spiritus Creator (1946, by the Danish theologian Regin Prenter (1907–1990. One basic insight in Prenter’s interpretation of Luther is the Spirit’s role of conveying the real presence of Christ in the life of the believer. This also means that the Spirit conveys the experience of Christ. As a Lutheran, Prenter underlines the role of word and sacrament as the tool of transmitting the Spirit. This does not mean that the Spirit is limited to word and sacrament, as an institutionally oriented reading of the Augsburg Confession may advocate. A pneumatologically oriented ecclesiology inspired by Prenter’s reading of Luther may open new possibilities for a “re-ceptive ecumenism”, including insights from Pentecostal and Charismatic theology in a Lutheran context.

  3. The Spirit of the Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Olynda

    2013-01-01

    "The real preparation for education is a study of one's self. The training of the teacher who is to help life is something far more than a learning of ideas. It includes the training of character, it is a preparation of the spirit."--Maria Montessori". It is common knowledge among Montessorians that spiritual preparation was…

  4. Investigations on Sugarcane De-Trashing Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joby Bastian, B. Shridar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is the second most important industrial crop in India grown in 4.4 million hectares with an average productivity of about 68 tonnes per hectare (Anon.2013. To mitigate the labour scarcity and ensure timely operations mechanization is a must. Mechanisation will also improve the overall energy use efficiency of sugarcane based farming (Duttamajumder et al. 2011. About 45-48% of the total cost of cultivation is accountable to harvesting operation in manual harvesting. Mechanisation of harvesting operations is imperative in increasing the cost effectiveness of sugarcane production system.

  5. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Sugarcane [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sugarcane Saccharum officinarum Saccharum_officinarum_L.png Saccharum_officinarum_NL.png Saccharum_officinarum_S.png Saccharum_officinarum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cg

  7. Ethanol production using hemicellulosic hydrolyzate and sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juliana

    2015-02-11

    Feb 11, 2015 ... Fermentation was performed in a laboratory scale using the J10 and FT858 yeast strains using 500 ml ... provides recovery of up to 90% of fermentable sugars ..... ethanol production in the clarified broth of sugarcane juice.

  8. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  9. Growth indices ans productivity in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Simões,Maurício dos Santos; Rocha,Jansle Vieira; Lamparelli, Rubens Augusto Camargo

    2005-01-01

    A knowledge about the temporal development of agronomic variables in sugarcane is a very important aspect for the development of crop yield prediction models using remote sensing, and further studies are still needed. This paper describes the temporal evolution of sugarcane biophysical parameters, such as total biomass, leaf area index, number of plants per meter, and productivity. During two seasons, a commercial field in Araras/SP, planted with variety SP80-1842, on the 4th and 5th cuts, wa...

  10. Sugarcane genes related to mitochondrial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fonseca Ghislaine V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria function as metabolic powerhouses by generating energy through oxidative phosphorylation and have become the focus of renewed interest due to progress in understanding the subtleties of their biogenesis and the discovery of the important roles which these organelles play in senescence, cell death and the assembly of iron-sulfur (Fe/S centers. Using proteins from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Homo sapiens and Arabidopsis thaliana we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for the presence of expressed sequence tags (ESTs with similarity to nuclear genes related to mitochondrial functions. Starting with 869 protein sequences, we searched for sugarcane EST counterparts to these proteins using the basic local alignment search tool TBLASTN similarity searching program run against 260,781 sugarcane ESTs contained in 81,223 clusters. We were able to recover 367 clusters likely to represent sugarcane orthologues of the corresponding genes from S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens and A. thaliana with E-value <= 10-10. Gene products belonging to all functional categories related to mitochondrial functions were found and this allowed us to produce an overview of the nuclear genes required for sugarcane mitochondrial biogenesis and function as well as providing a starting point for detailed analysis of sugarcane gene structure and physiology.

  11. Sugarcane vinasse: environmental implications of its use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofoletti, Cintya Aparecida; Escher, Janaína Pedro; Correia, Jorge Evangelista; Marinho, Julia Fernanda Urbano; Fontanetti, Carmem Silvia

    2013-12-01

    The inadequate and indiscriminate disposal of sugarcane vinasse in soils and water bodies has received much attention since decades ago, due to environmental problems associated to this practice. Vinasse is the final by-product of the biomass distillation, mainly for the production of ethanol, from sugar crops (beet and sugarcane), starch crops (corn, wheat, rice, and cassava), or cellulosic material (harvesting crop residues, sugarcane bagasse, and wood). Because of the large quantities of vinasse produced, alternative treatments and uses have been developed, such as recycling of vinasse in fermentation, fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, and yeast and energy production. This review was aimed at examining the available data on the subject as a contribution to update the information on sugarcane vinasse, from its characteristics and chemical composition to alternatives uses in Brazil: fertirrigation, concentration by evaporation, energy production; the effects on soil physical, chemical and biological properties; its influence on seed germination, its use as biostimulant and environmental contaminant. The low pH, electric conductivity, and chemical elements present in sugarcane vinasse may cause changes in the chemical and physical-chemical properties of soils, rivers, and lakes with frequent discharges over a long period of time, and also have adverse effects on agricultural soils and biota in general. Thus, new studies and green methods need to be developed aiming at sugarcane vinasse recycling and disposal.

  12. The Spirit of Public Service

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassall Thomsen, Line Hassall; Willig, Ida

    on cultural production and news work. Through fieldwork and interviews with Danish and British reporters/editors from DR 1, TV 2, BBC 1 and ITV we identify three components of a strong public service spirit present in the journalist’s understanding of the self: mass audience orientation, democratic......Research on public service broadcasting tends to highlight norms and values at the strategic level. This paper explores ‘public service’ as an institutional logic guiding the everyday practice of journalists. The theoretical framework draws on Pierre Bourdieus’ field theory and recent works...... responsibility and unbiased reporting. These three components can be found in both British and Danish newsrooms suggesting a trans-national, institutional spirit of public service. At the same time, the three components are interpreted differently from newsroom to newsroom suggesting different practices...

  13. Economic process to produce biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids by a mixed culture using vinasse from sugarcane ethanol industry as nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Larroche, Christian; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Nouaille, Regis; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Letti, Luiz Alberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work evaluates the potential of vinasse (a waste obtained at the bottom of sugarcane ethanol distillation columns) as nutrient source for biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production by means of anaerobic consortia. Two different media were proposed, using sugarcane juice or molasses as carbon source. The consortium LPBAH1 was selected for fermentation of vinasse supplemented with sugarcane juice, resulting in a higher H2 yield of 7.14 molH2 molsucrose(-1) and hydrogen content in biogas of approx. 31%, while consortium LPBAH2 resulted in 3.66 molH2/molsucrose and 32.7% hydrogen content in biogas. The proposed process showed a rational and economical use for vinasse, a mandatory byproduct of the renewable Brazilian energy matrix.

  14. Identification, classification and expression pattern analysis of sugarcane cysteine proteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Coelho Correa

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Cysteine proteases are peptidyl hydrolyses dependent on a cysteine residue at the active center. The physical and chemical properties of cysteine proteases have been extensively characterized, but their precise biological functions have not yet been completely understood, although it is known that they are involved in a number of events such as protein turnover, cancer, germination, programmed cell death and senescence. Protein sequences from different cysteine proteinases, classified as members of the E.C.3.4.22 sub-sub-class, were used to perform a T-BLAST-n search on the Brazilian Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags project (SUCEST data bank. Sequence homology was found with 76 cluster sequences that corresponded to possible cysteine proteinases. The alignments of these SUCEST clusters with the sequence of cysteine proteinases of known origins provided important information about the classification and possible function of these sugarcane enzymes. Inferences about the expression pattern of each gene were made by direct correlation with the SUCEST cDNA libraries from which each cluster was derived. Since no previous reports of sugarcane cysteine proteinases genes exists, this study represents a first step in the study of new biochemical, physiological and biotechnological aspects of sugarcane cysteine proteases.Proteinases cisteínicas são peptidil-hidrolases dependentes de um resíduo de cisteína em seu sítio ativo. As propriedades físico-químicas destas proteinases têm sido amplamente caracterizadas, entretanto suas funções biológicas ainda não foram completamente elucidadas. Elas estão envolvidas em um grande número de eventos, tais como: processamento e degradação protéica, câncer, germinação, morte celular programada e processos de senescência. Diferentes proteinases cisteínicas, classificadas pelo Comitê de Nomenclatura da União Internacional de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular (IUBMB como pertencentes à sub

  15. High throughput screening of hydrolytic enzymes from termites using a natural substrate derived from sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucena Severino A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The description of new hydrolytic enzymes is an important step in the development of techniques which use lignocellulosic materials as a starting point for fuel production. Sugarcane bagasse, which is subjected to pre-treatment, hydrolysis and fermentation for the production of ethanol in several test refineries, is the most promising source of raw material for the production of second generation renewable fuels in Brazil. One problem when screening hydrolytic activities is that the activity against commercial substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose, does not always correspond to the activity against the natural lignocellulosic material. Besides that, the macroscopic characteristics of the raw material, such as insolubility and heterogeneity, hinder its use for high throughput screenings. Results In this paper, we present the preparation of a colloidal suspension of particles obtained from sugarcane bagasse, with minimal chemical change in the lignocellulosic material, and demonstrate its use for high throughput assays of hydrolases using Brazilian termites as the screened organisms. Conclusions Important differences between the use of the natural substrate and commercial cellulase substrates, such as carboxymethylcellulose or crystalline cellulose, were observed. This suggests that wood feeding termites, in contrast to litter feeding termites, might not be the best source for enzymes that degrade sugarcane biomass.

  16. Using quantitative PCR with retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphisms as markers in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Cushla J; Oliveira, Sarah G; Gaiarsa, Jonas W; Aitken, Karen S; Carneiro, Monalisa S; Zatti, Fernanda; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne

    2015-07-01

    Sugarcane is the main source of the world's sugar and is becoming increasingly important as a source of biofuel. The highly polyploid and heterozygous nature of the sugarcane genome has meant that characterization of the genome has lagged behind that of other important crops. Here we developed a method using a combination of quantitative PCR with a transposable marker system to score the relative number of alleles with a transposable element (TE) present at a particular locus. We screened two genera closely related to Saccharum (Miscanthus and Erianthus), wild Saccharum, traditional cultivars, and 127 modern cultivars from Brazilian and Australian breeding programmes. We showed how this method could be used in various ways. First, we showed that the method could be extended to be used as part of a genotyping system. Secondly, the history of insertion and timing of the three TEs examined supports our current understanding of the evolution of the Saccharum complex. Thirdly, all three TEs were found in only one of the two main lineages leading to the modern sugarcane cultivars and are therefore the first TEs identified that could potentially be used as markers for Saccharum spontaneum.

  17. Development Strategy of Sugarcane Industry in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yue-gui; WU Jian-tao; YANG Jun-xian; LI Qi-wei; XIE Jing; PAN Fang-yin; WU Wen-long; LIU Fu-ye; DENG Hai-hua; QI Yong-wen

    2012-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the main producing areas of sugarcane in China, and one of China’s three regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, having good basis and conditions for developing sugarcane industry. In this research, using the SWOT-AHP method, we set 20 assessment indicators (such as the regions with dominant advantage in sugarcane, huge demand for domestic sugar, increased production costs and backward system of sugarcane), to analyze the development strategy of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, from strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges of sugarcane industrial development in Guangdong Province. The results show that in order to promote the development of sugarcane industry in Guangdong Province, it is necessary to adopt the SO development strategy (relying on its own strengths and using favorable external environment), to achieve the rapid development.

  18. Design of Sugarcane Peeling Machine Based on Motion Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dehui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is a common raw material for sugar, but in the process of machining, there will be suspended solids in the cane juice, in order to process better, the sugarcane should be peeled. Traditional way of peeling is by man, production efficiency is low. In this study, a kind of sugarcane peeling machine was designed based on motion controller, it can realize the automation of input, peeling and output. It can make certain contribution for sugarcane processing.

  19. Heat treatment and gamma radiation effects on the physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with fruit juices, stored under refrigeration;Efeitos do processamento termico e da radiacao gama na estabilidade fisico-quimica, microbiologica e sensorial de caldo de cana puro e adicionado de suco de frutas, armazenado sob refrigeracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aline Cristine Garcia de

    2007-07-01

    Sugarcane juice is a taste drink, energetic, no alcoholic that conserves all the nutrients in cane sugar. It was very appreciated by the Brazilian population and its production has been shown to be a highly lucrative business. This research had the following objectives: evaluate the acceptance of the consuming market and the stability of pure sugarcane juice or added with natural fruit juices, submitted of heat treatment (70 deg C/ 25 min) and/ or gamma radiation (2,5 kGy) and stored in high density polyethylene bottles, under refrigeration (5 +- 1 deg C). Sugarcane juice market test was evaluated through the application of 350 questionnaires on six Sao Paulo cities. Sugarcane juice stability was evaluated through microbiological (psychotropic count, lactic bacteria and yeasts and molds count), physical-chemical (pH, color, titratable acidity, soluble solids, ratio and polyphenoloxidase activity) and sensory (hedonic test) parameters. Centesimal composition was determined analyzing: humidity, caloric value, total carbohydrates, total and reducing sugars, lipids, proteins, ascorbic acid, ash and minerals. Sugarcane juice shelf life period was determinate ever 7 days over a period of 42 days stored under refrigeration. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and compared by Tukey's test (p<0,05). Among the 350 interviewed people, more of the half one is interested about its habitual food safe and care about street foods. Sandwiches had been cited foods as routinely consumed, followed for the sugarcane juice and 'pastel'. Among the interviewed ones, 80% had mentioned to appreciate sugarcane juice. It had not correlation between age and school age and the preference for the consumption form was with lemon juice addition. About 55% of the interviewed ones had mentioned that would more frequently consume sugarcane juice processed and packed. Sugarcane juice processing did not modify the flavor and taste of the drink. It was concluded from the

  20. Sugarcane genes associated with sucrose content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincentz Michel GA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - Sucrose content is a highly desirable trait in sugarcane as the worldwide demand for cost-effective biofuels surges. Sugarcane cultivars differ in their capacity to accumulate sucrose and breeding programs routinely perform crosses to identify genotypes able to produce more sucrose. Sucrose content in the mature internodes reach around 20% of the culms dry weight. Genotypes in the populations reflect their genetic program and may display contrasting growth, development, and physiology, all of which affect carbohydrate metabolism. Few studies have profiled gene expression related to sugarcane's sugar content. The identification of signal transduction components and transcription factors that might regulate sugar accumulation is highly desirable if we are to improve this characteristic of sugarcane plants. Results - We have evaluated thirty genotypes that have different Brix (sugar levels and identified genes differentially expressed in internodes using cDNA microarrays. These genes were compared to existing gene expression data for sugarcane plants subjected to diverse stress and hormone treatments. The comparisons revealed a strong overlap between the drought and sucrose-content datasets and a limited overlap with ABA signaling. Genes associated with sucrose content were extensively validated by qRT-PCR, which highlighted several protein kinases and transcription factors that are likely to be regulators of sucrose accumulation. The data also indicate that aquaporins, as well as lignin biosynthesis and cell wall metabolism genes, are strongly related to sucrose accumulation. Moreover, sucrose-associated genes were shown to be directly responsive to short term sucrose stimuli, confirming their role in sugar-related pathways. Conclusion - Gene expression analysis of sugarcane populations contrasting for sucrose content indicated a possible overlap with drought and cell wall metabolism processes and suggested signaling and

  1. Disease resistance in sugarcane – An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ramesh Sundar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is one of the important commercial crops cultivated world-wide both under tropical and sub-tropical conditions. The crop gains economic importance by virtue of its industrial potential in terms of products like crystal white sugar, bagasse, pressmud, power etc. Among the various production constraints of the crop, diseases are seen as a major threat for sustaining the productivity of sugarcane. Conventional Breeding is a lengthy process and it involves almost more than 10 years for the release of a commercial variety. Many varieties with superior agronomical traits have succumbed to diseases like red rot and smut during the course of cultivation, which hitherto at the time of release were rated to be resistant. The breakdown of disease resistance is attributed to the possible emergence of new virulent pathotypes. This situation has warranted a pertinent need to have a thorough understanding on inheritance pattern and mechanism of disease resistance in sugarcane, which would aid for quick screening of disease resistant clones and successful management of the diseases, respectively. Overall, there is a paradigm shift in the understanding of plant disease resistance, thanks to the advent of robust molecular tools. An integration of the tools of “Omics” namely genomics, proteomics, metabolomics etc. has further strengthened in deciphering plant-pathogen interactions at the molecular level. With the accomplishments in elucidating sugarcane ESTs, which was ably supported by employing the next generation sequencing platforms to unlock the secrets of pathogenomics in sugarcane, it is now made possible to further improve our understanding on disease resistance in sugarcane. Giving the scenario, the future looks evenmore promising, wherein convincing results are in the offing to thoroughly unravel the enigmatic relationship between sugarcane and its important pathogens.

  2. Life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of bioethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Lin; Van der Voet, Ester; Huppes, Gjalt [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    Brazil has always been the pioneer in the application of bioethanol as a main fuel for automobiles, hence environmental and economic analyses of the Brazilian ethanol industries are of crucial importance. This study presents a comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) on gasoline and ethanol as fuels, and with two types of blends of gasoline with bioethanol, all used in a midsize car. The focus is on a main application in Brazil, sugarcane based ethanol. The results of two cases are presented: base case - bioethanol production from sugarcane and electricity generation from bagasse; future case - bioethanol production from both sugarcane and bagasse and electricity generation from wastes. In both cases sugar is co-produced. The life cycles of fuels include gasoline production, agricultural production of sugarcane, ethanol production, sugar and electricity co-production, blending ethanol with gasoline to produce E10 (10% of ethanol) and E85 (85%), and finally the use of gasoline, E10, E85 and pure ethanol. Furthermore, a life cycle costing (LCC) was conducted to give an indication on fuel economy in both cases. The results show that in the base case less GHG is emitted; while the overall evaluation of these fuel options depends on the importance attached to different impacts. The future case is certainly more economically attractive, which has been the driving force for development in the ethanol industry in Brazil. Nevertheless, the outcomes depend very much on the assumed price for crude oil. In LCC a steady-state cost model was used and only the production cost was taken into account. In the real market the prices of fuels are very much dependent on the taxes and subsidies. Technological development can help in lowering both the environmental impact and the prices of the ethanol fuels. (author)

  3. Spirit Drive Animation, Sols 365 to 390

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This animation is built from images taken by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit from the rover's 365th martian day, or sol (Jan. 11, 2005), through sol 390 (Feb. 6, 2005). During this period, Spirit covered about 80 meters (262 feet) in its climb toward 'Cumberland Ridge' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The sequence includes images from all of the sols on which Spirit drove during this period: sols 365, 366, 371, 381, 382, 386, 388 and 390.

  4. A Study of Sugarcane Leaf-Removal Machinery during Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sopa Cansee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sugarcane leaf-removing tools could help speed up sugarcane harvest and reduce contamination. Moreover, leaf-removal machinery can solve the problems of sugarcane burning and workers can increase sugarcane harvest production too. The purpose of this research was to study the use of leaf-removal machinery in the post-harvest production of sugarcane to reduce harvest production time and contaminant. Approach: This study focused on the LK92-11 variety of sugarcane having a harvesting period of 12 months, a density of 9,387 stems/rai and could produce 14.01 tons/rai including cane top and, leaves and leaf sheaths of 1675.2 and 180 kg/rai. Sugarcane leaf-removal machinery was applied to a small engine power from a grass-cutting machine. A rotate dish applied 4 different materials, tendon string, soft wire, medium wire and sling for sugarcane leaf-removing. The machine was operated at a constant speed. The efficiency of the sugarcane leaf-removal machinery indicated the capacity of sugarcane leaf-removing by area and operation time. Results: The quantity of leaves and leaf sheaths affect the speed of harvest production. Moreover, leaves and leaf sheaths increase the waste material in production and also contaminate the sugar and the sugar production system with clay, sand, and mud from the fields. Traditional methods for sugarcane harvest without removing leaf took 37 h/rai to complete, but sugarcane leaf-removing could reduce the sugarcane harvest process to 11.4 h/rai. Conclusion: The material of the blades in de-leafing machine is crucial to the efficiency of harvest production time. Blades made from poor materials can cause tangling and clogging in the rotator dish, which increases maintenance time. Further developments in sugarcane leaf removal systems will create dramatic improvement in sugarcane production.

  5. Rebellious Spirit in Shelley's Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉

    2003-01-01

    Shelley's poetry expresses his rebellious spirit- to struggle for equality and freedom. This paper aims to show his scorn for upper-class, encouragement to lower-class, perseverance to fate and confidence in fight.%雪莱的诗歌反映了他争取平等和自由的反叛思想.诗歌中揭示了他对上层阶级的诅咒,对下层劳动阶级的激励和鼓舞以及他对命运的不屈服和斗争的信念.

  6. Emprego do carvão ativado para remoção de cobre em cachaça Using activated carbon to remove copper from sugar cane spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annete de J. Boari Lima

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Copper content is of great concern among sugarcane-spirit producers. It is released from copper-made distillers, during the distillation process. Activated carbon has been used to remove copper. However, depending on the amount of carbon and the duration of reaction, it can also remove higher alcohols and esters, which are important in the final product. A sugarcane spirit with 9 mg L-1 of copper was shaken with 2 to 26 g L-1 of activated carbon, during 10 to 1440 minutes. Then, copper and organic compounds were measured. At least 12 g L-1 of carbon and 60 min shaking time were necessary to decrease copper bellow 5 mg L-1. However, other components of the product were also affected.

  7. Review - Spirits of the Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Holt, John Clifford. 2009. Spirits of the Place:Buddhism and Lao Religious Culture. Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press. xiii+348. Black and white photographs and maps throughout, seven color plates after page 194, Lao transformations of the Ramayana, description of the cult of kwan, chapter notes, bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-08248-3327-5 (hardcover, 58USD. John Holt draws deeply upon more than twenty years of scholarship on the Theravadin world in Spirits of the Place, a work that analyzes the historical role of Buddhism in Laos. This work will appeal to scholars in such diverse fields as history, anthropology, sociology, religious studies, US foreign policy, and area studies. In this study Holt turns his focus to the Lao ethnic majority of Laos and the Lao ethnic minority of Isan Province, Thailand, in five chapters that compellingly combine historiographic and anthropological analysis, including what (MacDaniel 2010:120 has referred to as "the best Literature review of scholarship on Lao religion to date…"

  8. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  9. Comparison of Constitutional Spirit Between United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琅琅

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares the differences in constitutional spirit between United States and China, and then brings out the influence of the constitutional spirit in United States to the constitutional spirit in China.

  10. Young People Should Have Combatant Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,quite a few people believe that combatant spirit is essential for one'ssuccess in today's competitive world.However,some young people today think nothing of this spirit which,in their opinion,is only needed in revolutionary age.Even

  11. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  12. FP 7 SPIRIT project concerning infrastructure protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doormaal, J.C.A.M.; Weerheijm, J.; Veld, B.F.P. van het; Boonacker, B.

    2012-01-01

    SPIRIT is an acronym for Safety and Protection of built Infrastructure to Resist Integral Threats. Within the 7th framework of the EU, the SPIRIT consortium was formed to bring the required expertise regarding protection of infrastructure against terrorist threats together, to make these commonly

  13. Microcollinearity between autopolyploid sugarcane and diploid sorghum genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsar Daniel S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. has become an increasingly important crop for its leading role in biofuel production. The high sugar content species S. officinarum is an octoploid without known diploid or tetraploid progenitors. Commercial sugarcane cultivars are hybrids between S. officinarum and wild species S. spontaneum with ploidy at ~12×. The complex autopolyploid sugarcane genome has not been characterized at the DNA sequence level. Results The microsynteny between sugarcane and sorghum was assessed by comparing 454 pyrosequences of 20 sugarcane bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs with sorghum sequences. These 20 BACs were selected by hybridization of 1961 single copy sorghum overgo probes to the sugarcane BAC library with one sugarcane BAC corresponding to each of the 20 sorghum chromosome arms. The genic regions of the sugarcane BACs shared an average of 95.2% sequence identity with sorghum, and the sorghum genome was used as a template to order sequence contigs covering 78.2% of the 20 BAC sequences. About 53.1% of the sugarcane BAC sequences are aligned with sorghum sequence. The unaligned regions contain non-coding and repetitive sequences. Within the aligned sequences, 209 genes were annotated in sugarcane and 202 in sorghum. Seventeen genes appeared to be sugarcane-specific and all validated by sugarcane ESTs, while 12 appeared sorghum-specific but only one validated by sorghum ESTs. Twelve of the 17 sugarcane-specific genes have no match in the non-redundant protein database in GenBank, perhaps encoding proteins for sugarcane-specific processes. The sorghum orthologous regions appeared to have expanded relative to sugarcane, mostly by the increase of retrotransposons. Conclusions The sugarcane and sorghum genomes are mostly collinear in the genic regions, and the sorghum genome can be used as a template for assembling much of the genic DNA of the autopolyploid sugarcane genome. The comparable gene density between

  14. Model for Predicting Climatic Yield of Sugarcane in Nanning City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanggui; LAN; Guanghai; LI; Yulian; LIANG; Yuhong; YANG; Xiaoping; LI

    2014-01-01

    According to spatial distribution of climate disasters in Nanning City and physiological and ecological indicator demands of sugarcane,with the aid of HJ- 1 CCD satellite remote sensing images,basic meteorological data and geographic information data,this paper established the model for predicting climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City,to predict total yield of sugarcane in Nanning City. Results indicated that the distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is greatly influenced by drought. In 2010,regions suffered from drought had sugarcane planting area of 346. 20 km2,accounting for 18.88% of the total sugarcane planting area. The influence of frost disaster on distribution of sugarcane in Nanning City is limited. Regions suffered from frost had sugarcane planting area of only 67. 1 km2,taking up 3.75% of the total sugarcane planting area. In 2010,the climatic yield of sugarcane in Nanning City was 8. 8446 million tons. It proved that the prediction accuracy of the model is up to 90%.

  15. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Chakravarthi

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated) system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016) have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review. PMID:27790238

  16. Registration of 'UFCP 74-1010' Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    UFCP 74-1010 (Reg. no. ) was released by the University of Florida (UF) and the United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Services (USDA-ARS), Canal Point (CP) for its potential use in cellulosic ethanol production. UFCP 74-1010, a cross between sugarcane varieties CP 66-56-4 a...

  17. Genome Editing in Sugarcane: Challenges ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakravarthi Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome editing opens new and unique opportunities for researchers to enhance crop production. Until 2013, the zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs were the key tools used for genome editing applications. The advent of RNA-guided engineered nucleases - the type II clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated system from Streptococcus pyogenes holds great potential since it is simple, effective and more versatile than ZFNs and TALENs. CRISPR/Cas9 system has already been successfully employed in several crop plants. Use of these techniques is in its infant stage in sugarcane. Jung and Altpeter (2016 have reported TALEN mediated approach for the first time to reduce lignin content in sugarcane to make it amenable for biofuel production. This is so far the only report describing genome editing in sugarcane. Large genome size, polyploidy, low transformation efficiency, transgene silencing and lack of high throughput screening techniques are certainly great challenges for genome editing in sugarcane which would be discussed in detail in this review.

  18. Inoculation of sugarcane with diazotrophic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivaldo Schultz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry, a strategic crop in Brazil, requires technological improvements in production efficiency to increase the crop energy balance. Among the various currently studied alternatives, inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria proved to be a technology with great potential. In this context, the efficiency of a mixture of bacterial inoculant was evaluated with regard to the agronomic performance and N nutrition of sugarcane. The experiment was carried out on an experimental field of Embrapa Agrobiologia, in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, using a randomized block, 2 × 3 factorial design (two varieties and three treatments with four replications, totaling 24 plots. The varieties RB867515 and RB72454 were tested in treatments consisting of: inoculation with diazotrophic bacteria, N-fertilized control with 120 kg ha-1 N and absolute control (no inoculation and no N fertilizer. The inoculum was composed of five strains of five diazotrophic species. The yield, dry matter accumulation, total N in the shoot dry matter and the contribution of N by biological fixation were evaluated, using the natural 15N abundance in non-inoculated sugarcane as reference. The bacterial inoculant increased the stalk yield of variety RB72454 similarly to fertilization with 120 kg ha-1 N in the harvests of plant-cane and first ratoon crops, however the contribution of biological N fixation was unchanged by inoculation, indicating that the benefits of the inoculant in sugarcane may have resulted from plant growth promotion.

  19. How much fertilizer nitrogen does sugarcane need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen rate recommendations for sugarcane in Louisiana take into account crop age (plant cane or stubble) and soil texture (light or heavy). Recommended rates in the 1950s ranged from 40 pounds N/A for plant cane on light-textured soil to 100 pounds of N/A for stubble cane on heavy-textured soil a...

  20. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  1. Harvest managements and cultural practices in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Gustavo Quassi de Castro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of trash from the mechanical harvest of green cane on sugarcane plantations promotes changes in the agricultural management, for example, in the mechanical cultural practices of ratoon cane in-between the rows and nitrogen (N fertilization. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of sugarcane in different harvest systems, associated to the mechanical cultural practices in interrows and N rates. The study was carried out on a sugarcane plantation in Sales Oliveira, São Paulo, Brazil, with the sugarcane variety SP81-3250, on soil classified as Acrudox, in a randomized block design with split-split plots and four replications. The main treatments consisted of harvest systems (harvesting green cane or burnt cane, the secondary treatment consisted of the mechanical cultural practices in the interrows and the tertiary treatments were N rates (0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 160 kg ha-1, using ammonium nitrate (33 % N as N source. The harvest systems did not differ in sugarcane yield (tons of cane per hectare - TCH, but in burnt cane, the pol percent and total sugar recovery (TSR were higher. This could be explained by the higher quantity of plant impurities in the harvested raw material in the system without burning, which reduces the processing quality. Mechanical cultural practices in the interrows after harvest had no effect on cane yield and sugar quality, indicating that this operation can be omitted in areas with mechanical harvesting. The application of N fertilizer at rates of 88 and 144 kg ha-1 N, respectively, increased stalk height and TCH quadratically to the highest values for these variables. For the sugar yield per hectare (in pol %, N fertilization induced a linear increase.

  2. Performance of herbicides in sugarcane straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilaine Araldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of mechanical harvesting of sugarcane generates a large deposition of straw on the soil surface, providing a coverage that several studies have found important for reducing the weed population. Although such coverage reduces weed infestations, additional management, including chemical control, is still needed. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the leaching of atrazine, pendimethalin, metribuzin, clomazone, diuron and hexazinone in sugarcane straw. The experiment was conducted at the School of Agronomic Engineering at UNESP (Sao Paulo State University - Botucatu/SP. The sugarcane straw was collected in the field, cut and placed in quantities of 10t ha-1 in the capsules used as experimental units. The experimental design was completely randomized, using six herbicide treatments and four replications. Within 24 hours after the herbicides were applied in capsules with straw, five different rainfalls (5, 10, 20, 50 and 100mm were simulated. The leached water was collected for chromatographic analysis. The herbicide percentages that crossed the straw layer were statistically correlated with the rainfall amount by the Mitscherlich model that compares the facility of herbicide removal from sugarcane straw. In summary, pendimethalin did not present quantified transposition of the product by sugarcane straw even with a rain simulation of 100 mm. Furthermore, two different profiles of facility to transpose the herbicides in straw were found: one for metribuzin and hexazinone that crossed quickly through the straw layer and another for atrazine, diuron and clomazone that required more rainfall to be leached from coverage to the soil according to the maximum removable amount of each herbicide.

  3. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  4. 27 CFR 19.726 - Authorized abbreviations to identify spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... records: Kinds of spirits Abbreviations Alcohol A Brandy BR Bourbon Whisky BW Canadian Whisky CNW Completely Denatured Alcohol CDA Corn Whisky CW Grain Spirits GS Irish Whisky IW Light Whisky LW Malt Whisky MW Neutral Spirits NS Neutral Spirits Grain NSG Rye Whisky RW Scotch Whisky SW Specially...

  5. 27 CFR 19.99 - Spirits in customs custody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits in customs custody. 19.99 Section 19.99 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Conveyance of Spirits Or Wines on Plant Premises § 19.99 Spirits in customs custody. Spirits in...

  6. Detection limit of molasses spirits mixed in rice spirits using the SNIF-NMR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hung Lai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Taiwanese rice spirits were made from rice, which is their only ingredient and ethanol source. Site-specific natural isotopic fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR methods were used to investigate molasses spirits usually mixed in rice spirits. The mean ratios for the parameters in five rice spirits labeled as Taikeng 8, Taikeng 9, Taichung sen 10, Tainan 11, and Tainung 71 were (D/HI, 99.0–100.3 ppm; (D/HII, 121.3–123.0 ppm; whereas for molasses spirits labeled as MS, the mean ratios were 108.7 ppm and 126.8 ppm, respectively. A close and reproducible correlation was found for (D/HI values of the mixtures in which MS was mixed with authentic rice spirit samples. The 3.62% MS mixed in Tainung 71 was detected through calculation, whereas the detectable limit for MS mixed in other rice spirits ranged from 8.20% to 11.73%. The SNIF-NMR analysis provides a powerful method for the detection of rice spirits adulteration and can determine the extent to which the rice spirit product is mixed with MS.

  7. Sugarcane Land Classification with Satellite Imagery using Logistic Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, F.; Herwindiati, D. E.; Mulyono, S.; Hendryli, J.

    2017-03-01

    This paper discusses the classification of sugarcane plantation area from Landsat-8 satellite imagery. The classification process uses binary logistic regression method with time series data of normalized difference vegetation index as input. The process is divided into two steps: training and classification. The purpose of training step is to identify the best parameter of the regression model using gradient descent algorithm. The best fit of the model can be utilized to classify sugarcane and non-sugarcane area. The experiment shows high accuracy and successfully maps the sugarcane plantation area which obtained best result of Cohen’s Kappa value 0.7833 (strong) with 89.167% accuracy.

  8. Water-Signature Mineral Found by Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This spectrum, taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer, shows the presence of an iron-bearing mineral called goethite in a rock called 'Clovis' in the 'Columbia Hills' of Mars. Goethite contains water in the form of hydroxyl as a part of its structure. By identifying this mineral, the examination of Clovis produced strong evidence for past water activity in the area that Spirit is exploring.

  9. Oxidative stress response in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Soares Netto

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias fun

  10. A digital image method of spot tests for determination of copper in sugar cane spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Kenia Dias; Suarez, Willian Toito; dos Reis, Marina Ferreira; de Oliveira Krambeck Franco, Mathews; Moreira, Renata Pereira Lopes; dos Santos, Vagner Bezerra

    2017-10-01

    In this work the development and validation of analytical methodology for determination of copper in sugarcane spirit samples is carried out. The digital image based (DIB) method was applied along with spot test from the colorimetric reaction employing the RGB color model. For the determination of copper concentration, it was used the cuprizone - a bidentate organic reagent - which forms with copper a blue chelate in an alkaline medium. A linear calibration curve over the concentration range from 0.75 to 5.00 mg L- 1 (r2 = 0.9988) was obtained and limits of detection and quantification of 0.078 mg L- 1 and 0.26 mg L- 1 were acquired, respectively. For the accuracy studies, recovery percentages ranged from 98 to 104% were obtained. The comparison of cooper concentration results in sugar cane spirits using the DIB method and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry as reference method showed no significant differences between both methods, which were performed using the paired t-test in 95% of confidence level. Thus, the spot test method associated with DIB allows the use of devices as digital cameras and smartphones to evaluate colorimetric reaction with low waste generation, practicality, quickness, accuracy, precision, high portability and low-cost.

  11. Methylated spirit burns: an ongoing problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansbeken, J R H; Vloemans, A F P M; Tempelman, F R H; Breederveld, R S

    2012-09-01

    Despite many educational campaigns we still see burns caused by methylated spirit every year. We undertook a retrospective study to analyse the impact of this problem. We retrospectively collected data of all patients with burns caused by methylated spirit over twelve years from 1996 to 2008. Our main endpoints were: incidence, age, mechanism of injury, total body surface area (TBSA) burned, burn depth, need for surgery and length of hospital stay. Ninety-seven patients with methylated spirit burns were included. During the study period there was no decrease in the number of patients annually admitted to the burn unit with methylated spirit burns. 28% of the patients (n=27) were younger than eighteen years old, 15% (n=15) were ten years old or younger. The most common cause of burns was carelessness in activities involving barbecues, campfires and fondues. Mean TBSA burned was 16% (SD 12.4). 70% (n=68) had full thickness burns. 66% (n=64) needed grafting. Mean length of hospital stay was 23 days (SD 24.7). The use of methylated spirit is an ongoing problem, which continues to cause severe burns in adults and children. Therefore methylated spirit should be banned in households. We suggest sale only in specialised shops, clear labelling and mandatory warnings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular characterization of soil organic matter from native vegetation-pasture-sugarcane transitions in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dener Márcio da Silva; Schellekens, Judith; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino

    2016-04-01

    Replacing pastures (PA) with sugarcane (SG) has been deemed an agronomically feasible strategy for sugarcane expansion in Brazil. However, there are some uncertainties about the environmental impacts regarding this land use change (LUC), mainly related to soil organic matter (SOM), a key factor of environmental sustainability of Brazilian ethanol. LUC-related losses of SOM can overcome the C savings from biofuels. The molecular composition of SOM was evaluated to understand the C dynamics regarding LUC from PA to SG, using native vegetation (NV) as reference. Our study area was located in the south-central region of Brazil. Soil sampling was performed at three depths (0-0.1m, 0.2-0.3m and 0.9-1m) in three representative sites with known LUC history and management practice since 1970. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) was chosen to study SOM chemistry. Content and isotopic composition of soil organic C and N were also determined. The LUC caused decreases on C and N contents and on δ(13)C isotopic values. Depth was the major factor that influenced SOM composition, while the influence of LUC was mainly evident in surface soils and diminished rapidly with depth. The main difference in SOM composition undergoing the conversion PA-SG was a higher contribution from compounds associated to fresh litter inputs. The high contribution from fresh litter, having a relatively low mean residence time and increasing decomposition rates, is probably a major factor that drives C losses in areas undergoing sugarcane expansion.

  13. The Vale do Amanhecer : Healing and spiritualism in a globalized Brazilian new religious movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Introvigne

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the author conducted fieldwork at the Vale do Amanhecer (Valley of Dawn, an incorporated township located four miles near Planaltina, one of the so called satellite towns of the Brazilian capital Brasilia and the center of the largest Brazilian new religious movement, the Spiritualist Christian Order (Ordem Espiritualista Cristã, OEC. OEC, founded by Neiva Chaves Zelaya (1925-1985, know to her followers as Tia Neiva (Aunt Neiva, has currently some 500,000 members and 680 temples in Brazil, and several thousand abroad. The group is an offshoot of Kardecist Spiritualism/Spiritism, which is quite well-represented in Brazil, and among the spirits channeled by the OEC mediums are spiritual doctors, gypsies, and African American slaves. Several thousand OEC mediums operate in the Vale do Amanhecer, and they have attracted there millions of pilgrims, most of them seeking healing from the spirits

  14. Variation in the sugar yield in response to drying-off of sugarcane before harvest and the occurrence of low air temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Araújo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The need to irrigate sugarcane in the Brazilian Savanna is due to the lack of rain from April to September. For efficient sugar accumulation, the crop needs water stress or heat stress at the maturation stage. However, when the water deficit is intense at this stage, it occurs the reduction in crop production. The objective of this study was: (i to assess the quality of the raw material of sugarcane in different drying-off seasons before harvest; (ii to evaluate the influence of heat stress on the culture. The experiment was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás (GO, Brazil, in Oxisol, with CTC4 variety in cane-plant cycle. A randomized block design in a split-plot array in time was used. The treatments of the plots were five drying-off times (90, 60, 30, 15 and 0 days before harvest and, in the subplots, five seasons of the yield evaluation. Irrigation was carried out by surface drip method, which provided 50% of crop water requirement. The best results for sugar yield occurred 30 days before harvest, period in which the crop irrigation could be interrupted. The water deficit of 37.76 mm appears to be the critical limit of water shortage in the soil, from which the sugarcane yield starts to be reduced. The sugar concentration in the stalk was more influenced by low air temperatures than sugarcane yield.

  15. Direct impacts on local climate of sugar-cane expansion in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loarie, Scott R.; Lobell, David B.; Asner, Gregory P.; Mu, Qiaozhen; Field, Christopher B.

    2011-05-01

    The increasing global demand for biofuels will require conversion of conventional agricultural or natural ecosystems. Expanding biofuel production into areas now used for agriculture reduces the need to clear natural ecosystems, leading to indirect climate benefits through reduced greenhouse-gas emissions and faster payback of carbon debts. Biofuel expansion may also cause direct, local climate changes by altering surface albedo and evapotranspiration, but these effects have been poorly documented. Here we quantify the direct climate effects of sugar-cane expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado, on the basis of maps of recent sugar-cane expansion and natural-vegetation clearance combined with remotely sensed temperature, albedo and evapotranspiration over a 1.9millionkm2 area. On a regional basis for clear-sky daytime conditions, conversion of natural vegetation to a crop/pasture mosaic warms the cerrado by an average of 1.55 (1.45-1.65)°C, but subsequent conversion of that mosaic to sugar cane cools the region by an average of 0.93 (0.78-1.07)°C, resulting in a mean net increase of 0.6°C. Our results indicate that expanding sugar cane into existing crop and pasture land has a direct local cooling effect that reinforces the indirect climate benefits of this land-use option.

  16. Distillation of fermented sugarcane juice: fractions characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and multivariate data treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, Marcus H; Rosa, Carlos A; de Moura, Fabiana; Augusti, Rodinei; Siebald, Helmuth G L

    2012-07-01

    Direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode (ESI(-)-MS) was employed to discriminate among fractions arising from the distillation of fermented sugarcane juice during the production of cachaça, a typical Brazilian alcoholic beverage. Aliquots were collected in the course of distillation and their ESI(-)-MS shown to be almost indistinguishable by a simple visual inspection. However, when the ESI(-)-MS data were treated by the principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) statistical methods, four major groups were clearly determined, the so-called head (two distinct clusters), heart and tail fractions. Furthermore, the recognition of diagnostic ions (and their respective intensities) enabled a more confident establishment of the cutoff position (i.e. the initial and final points of each fraction). In conclusion, ESI-MS, in conjunction with PCA or HCA approaches, proved to be a quite efficient method that allowed for a prompt characterization of each fraction derived from the distillation of brewed sugarcane. The results described herein can, therefore, be useful not only to optimize the production of cachaça but also to improve the quality of the final product. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. LEAN PRODUCTION ASSESSMENT IN A SUGARCANE AGRIBUSINESS: A CASE STUDY IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guilherme Satolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sugarcane agribusiness has emerged as one of the main drivers of the economy; mainly stand out in global scenario as a major producer and exporter of sugar. To make this segment even more competitive it is also necessary to look for constant improvements in its production system. Over the past four decades, Lean Production has been recognized as a management model in efficiency and competitiveness when it comes to the use of a systematic approach and focused on waste elimination. In this scenario this article aims to evaluate the use of philosophy, techniques and tools of Lean Production System in a sugarcane agribusiness in State of São Paulo. A research roadmap developed from the 14 principles of Liker for the implementation of Lean Production was used to conduct an interview, as well as on site visit and observation in order to perform a data triangulation. Within the search results is identified that the organization has a satisfactory performance on Lean principles, especially the support given by the technical and applied tools, which support the processes and problem solving categories.

  18. Soil Extracellular Enzymes from Brazilian Cerrado as Quality Bioindicators in Agricultural Areas in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leciana de Menezes Sousa Zago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of native Cerrado areas for the implementation of crops alters the physicochemical properties and biochemistry of soil. In this study we sought to understand the effect of seasonality and management used for planting sugarcane on the activity of hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Cerrado native soil samples and soil converted to sugarcane crops under different management underwent physical-chemical assessment, biological and biochemistry. The implementation of monocultures in Brazilian Cerrado caused reductions in the amount of organic matter and organic carbon in relation to the native vegetation, which in turn reflected in decreased biological activity in the soil. Thus, it was found that hydrolases and oxidoreductases are sensitive to the caused variations in drought and rain events, and in the vegetation cover and management used for the implementation of sugarcane. Therefore soil hydrolases and oxidoreductases can be used as quality bioindicators in the Cerrado soils of Goiás.

  19. TECHNOLOGICAL SCENARIOS TO THE DEMAND FOR SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Franco Paes Leme Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first decade of the 2000s, it is clear that there is an increase in discussions involving sustainability, including the bioenergy issue, to which Brazil has drawn the attention due to advances in the ethanol industry. Advances in engine technology reflected new opportunities for this industry and, according to the Ten-Year Energy Plan for 2019 developed by the Ministry of Mines and Energy, there is an expected increase in demand for ethanol of 90% by 2019 (Brazil, 2010. However, new technologies for the conversion and use of sugarcane and the complex context of this industry add uncertainties to this sector. Aiming to discuss and include the uncertainties on the agenda of this industry, this study proposes to elaborate and discuss prospective scenarios to the demand for sugarcane. Four scenarios with different perspectives of technological advance and market development were elaborated and discussed in the conclusion.

  20. Field Performance of Transgenic Sugarcane Lines Resistant to Sugarcane Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Ruan, Miaohong; Qin, Lifang; Yang, Chuanyu; Chen, Rukai; Chen, Baoshan; Zhang, Muqing

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane mosaic disease is mainly caused by the sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), which can significantly reduce stalk yield and sucrose content of sugarcane in the field. Coat protein mediated protection (CPMP) is an effective strategy to improve virus resistance. A 2-year field study was conducted to compare five independent transgenic sugarcane lines carrying the SCMV-CP gene (i.e., B2, B36, B38, B48, and B51) with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT). Agronomic performance, resistance to SCMV infection, and transgene stability were evaluated and compared with the wild-type parental clone Badila (WT) at four experimental locations in China across two successive seasons, i.e., plant cane (PC) and 1st ratoon cane (1R). All transgenic lines derived from Badila had significantly greater tons of cane per hectare (TCH) and tons of sucrose per hectare (TSH) as well as lower SCMV disease incidence than those from Badila in the PC and 1R crops. The transgenic line B48 was highly resistant to SCMV with less than 3% incidence of infection. The recovery phenotype of transgenic line B36 was infected soon after virus inoculation, but the subsequent leaves showed no symptoms of infection. Most control plants developed symptoms that persisted and spread throughout the plant with more than 50% incidence. B48 recorded an average of 102.72 t/ha, which was 67.2% more than that for Badila. The expression of the transgene was stable over many generations with vegetative propagation. These results show that SCMV-resistant transgenic lines derived from Badila can provide resistant germplasm for sugarcane breeding and can also be used to study virus resistance mechanisms. This is the first report on the development and field performance of transgenic sugarcane plants that are resistant to SCMV infection in China. PMID:28228765

  1. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  2. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance.

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond Rodrigo D.; Guimarães Claudia T.; Felix Juliana; Ninamango-Cárdenas Fernando E.; Carneiro Newton P.; Paiva Edilson; Menossi Marcelo

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually...

  3. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  4. Biodegradation of sugarcane bagasse by Pleurotus citrinopileatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V K; Singh, M P; Srivastava, A K; Vishwakarma, S K; Takshak, S

    2012-12-22

    The chemically as well as hot water treated agrowaste sugarcane bagasse was subjected to degradation by Pleurotus citrinopileatus. The fungus degraded lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and carbon content of both chemically as well as hot water treated waste and produced in turn the edible and nutritious fruiting body. Biodegradation of the waste in terms of loss of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose showed positive correlation with cellulases, xylanase, laccase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity of the fungus. During mycelial growth of the fungus, lignin degradation was faster and during fructification, lignin degradation was slower than cellulose and hemicellulose. The carbon content of the sugarcane bagasse decreased while, nitrogen content increased during degradation of the waste. Hot water treated substrate supported better production of enzymatic activity and degraded more efficiently than chemically sterilized substrate. The total yield and biological efficiency of the mushroom was maximum on the hot water treated substrates. Degradation of the hot water treated sugarcane bagasse was better and faster than chemically treated substrates.

  5. The Branding of Sugarcane Juice in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sinha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane juice is traditionally sold in India by roadside vendors, often in unhygienic conditions. That’s why a few entrepreneurs have taken the initiative venturing into the marketing of branded sugarcane juice through a chain of franchised outlets. Initial indications are that this model is headed for success. Pune, Kolhapur, more known for its leather chappals, has also been blessed with an abundance of milk, water and sugar, which has made the region the nation's kitchen for many years. The Warana milk producers' cooperative located here has lived up to this reputation. It has been a contract manufacturer for products such as Cadbury's Bournvita, butter for Britannia Industries and Soya milk for Ruchi Soya. Now, the cooperative is preparing to assert its own identity through the launch of Warana Joy, its national brand. Among its new products is sugarcane juice in aseptic packs (Tetra Pak. This article outlines the development of this business; the opportunities and threats faced and also offer suggestions for the growth in this market.

  6. MicroRNAs and drought responses in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Agustina; Dias, Lara I; Mattos, Raphael S; Ferreira, Thaís H; Menossi, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing demand for renewable energy, and sugarcane is a promising bioenergy crop. In Brazil, the largest sugarcane producer in the world, sugarcane plantations are expanding into areas where severe droughts are common. Recent evidence has highlighted the role of miRNAs in regulating drought responses in several species, including sugarcane. This review summarizes the data from miRNA expression profiles observed in a wide array of experimental conditions using different sugarcane cultivars that differ in their tolerance to drought. We uncovered a complex regulation of sugarcane miRNAs in response to drought and discussed these data with the miRNA profiles observed in other plant species. The predicted miRNA targets revealed different transcription factors, proteins involved in tolerance to oxidative stress, cell modification, as well as hormone signaling. Some of these proteins might regulate sugarcane responses to drought, such as reduction of internode growth and shoot branching and increased leaf senescence. A better understanding on the regulatory network from miRNAs and their targets under drought stress has a great potential to contribute to sugarcane improvement, either as molecular markers as well as by using biotechnological approaches.

  7. Phytochemical profile of sugarcane and its potential health aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandeep Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum Linn. is an important perennial grass of Poaceae family, indigenous to tropical South Asia and Southeast Asia. It is cultivated worldwide due to the economical and medicinal value of its high yielding products. Sugarcane juice is well known as a raw material for the production of refined sugar and its wax is considered as a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax, which is of cosmetic and pharmaceutical interest. Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but during its processing, various other valuable products are also obtained in an unrefined form, such as, brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. Sugarcane juice is widely used in India in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, anuria, and other urinary diseases. Herein, we have summarized the different phytoconstituents and health benefits of sugarcane and its valuable products. The phytochemistry of sugarcane wax (obtained from the leaves and stalks of sugarcane, leaves, juice, and its products has revealed the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, -O- and -C-glycosides, and phenolic acids. The future prospective of some of the sugarcane products has been discussed, which needs a phytopharmacological study and has a great potential to be a valuable medicinal product.

  8. Registration of ‘CP 00-1101’ Sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane grown in a concentrated region near Lake Okeechobee in Florida produces 25% of the sugar produced in the U.S. The development of a constant supply of new sugarcane cultivars helps growers to respond to economic, pathological, and ecological pressures. The purpose of this research was to te...

  9. Impact of biotechnology on sugarcane agriculture and industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are nine key issues that can influence the productivity and sustainability of the sugarcane industry. These include land, soil fertility, water, variety, planting density, crop protection, cultural practices, harvesting and processing, and information technology. To all sugarcane farmers, it r...

  10. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Ofélia; Frazão, David; Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-07-27

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed in the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics suggesting different production technologies. A first list of sensory attributes was obtained for this beverage. Therefore, further research must be done in order to characterize this spirit drink, which has gained market value.

  11. Physicochemical and Sensorial Characterization of Honey Spirits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda

    2017-01-01

    Distilled spirits are usually made from fermented sugar-based materials, such as wines or fermented fruits, but other products can be used, namely berries or honey. In this work, an evaluation of honey spirits is done based on its physicochemical and sensory characteristics. Fourteen honey spirit samples of different brands of honey spirit were purchased at the market and from artisan Portuguese producers. Several analytical determinations, namely alcoholic strength, dry matter, density, total acidity, chromatic characteristics, methanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and higher alcohols were done to characterize all samples. The results pointed out several differences in physicochemical composition of samples. In general, these drinks are characterized by an alcohol strength between 37.4% and 53.0% and a low methanol content, quite null for most samples. Samples with higher ethanol content corresponded to the artisanal samples. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were also observed in the volatile composition and chromatic characteristics suggesting different production technologies. A first list of sensory attributes was obtained for this beverage. Therefore, further research must be done in order to characterize this spirit drink, which has gained market value. PMID:28749420

  12. A search for markers of sugarcane evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bacci Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane cultivars and other members of the Saccharinae subtribe, we identified the fast evolving ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (ITS = internal transcribed spacer; 5.8S = 5.8S ribosomal DNA region of the sugarcane genome in the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST genome project database. Parsimony analysis utilizing this region and homologs belonging to the 23 closely related Andropogoneae currently deposited in the GenBank database has shown sugarcane as the sister group of Saccharum sinense. However, because there are few parsimony-informative characters and high homoplasy in the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region we were not able to determine with confidence the phylogenetic relationship between sugarcane and some of the remaining members of Saccharine subtribe. To find alternatives for the phylogenetic reconstruction of sugarcane evolutionary history, we selected 17 markers (nuclear, chloroplastic or mitochondrial from the SUCEST database of which apha-tubulin, ribosomal protein L16 (rpl16 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase beta chain (rpoC2 were found to have a low incidence of polymorphism and comparable, or even faster, rates of evolution than the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region. We suggest that these markers should be considered as preferential choices for phylogenetic studies of Saccharinae subtribe.Com o propósito de determinar a relação filogenética entre a cana-de-açúcar e membros da subtribo Saccharinae, a região gênica nuclear ITS1-5,8S-ITS2 (ITS: espaçador interno transcrito; 5,8S: DNA ribossomal 5.8S, com alta taxa evolutiva, foi identificada no banco de dados do projeto genoma "Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag" (SUCEST. Uma análise através do método de parcimônia, utilizando esta região e seqüências homólogas de 23 Andropogoneae retiradas da base de dados GenBank, indicou que a cana-de-açúcar é o grupo-irmão de Saccharum sinense. No entanto, devido à pequena quantidade de caracteres

  13. Energetics of Brazilian ethanol: Comparison between assessment approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Triana, Carlos Ariel, E-mail: carlos.ramirez.triana@gmail.com [Faculty of Bussiness Administration, Economics and Accounting, Politecnico Grancolombiano, Calle 57 3-00 Este, Bogota, Postal Code 110231 (Colombia)

    2011-08-15

    As with any other bioenergy product, bioethanol production requires fossil fuel inputs; hence the alleged benefits of energy security and carbon mitigation depend on the extent to which these inputs are capable of drawing a substantive bioenergetic yield. Brazilian ethanol, made out of sugarcane, has been reported as the most efficient gasoline substitute that is commercially available nowadays. For that reason it has been the object of several analyses on the energetics, i.e. energy balances. These studies surprisingly vary widely according with the scholar approach and are not fully comparable among them due to divergences in the assessment method. This paper standardises results of the four most prominent authors in the field, establishing a point of comparison and drawing some light on the energetics studies on biofuels. The main result is shown in , which homogenises the outcomes for referred studies in terms of unit of assessment in the energy input analysis. Subsequently, this information is also charted () explaining the source of divergence among authors. This work ends with a short reference and comparison to some energy balance studies carried out on feedstocks of diverse nature, highlighting the potential that sugarcane-based bioethanol represents nowadays. - Highlights: > Distribution stage could reduce energy ratio but its contribution is not significant. > In Pimentel and Patzek there is an evident impact of the industrial stage. > A coincidence across the studies was the major impact of the agricultural stage. > Brazilian technology to produce ethanol was proved the most energy efficient one.

  14. Characterization of red ceramic pastes incorporated with sugarcane bagasse ash wastes; Caracterizacao de massa ceramica vermelha incorporada com residuo de cinzas de bagaco de cana-de-acucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, K.C.P.; Gurgel, R.F.; Holanda, J.N.F., E-mail: katiacpfaria@hotmail.co, E-mail: holanda@uenf.b [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados. Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos

    2010-07-01

    The alcohol industry is one sector that stands out most in the Brazilian agribusiness. Currently there is an increasing demand for sugar and ethanol for use as fuel. The processes of manufacturing these products generate large amounts of waste, the sugarcane bagasse ash waste one of the most abundant. For its chemical and mineralogical characteristics, this waste has aroused the interest of its reuse in the field of red ceramic. This study analyzes the characteristics of a red ceramic paste incorporated with up to 20 wt.% of waste. The following characteristics were performed: chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size, morphology, and Atterberg limits. The results show that the incorporation of sugarcane bagasse ash waste influences the physical-chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red ceramic paste. (author)

  15. Genetic population structure of sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, in sorghum, sugarcane, and Johnsongrass in the continental USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, an outbreak of Melanaphis sacchari, the sugarcane aphid, was reported in sorghum in Texas. Although this aphid has been reported in the continental U.S. since the 1920s, its occurrence was limited to Florida and Louisiana sugarcane. In just two years M. sacchari has been reported in almos...

  16. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  17. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  19. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisawitz, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. The Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) is a wide field-of-view space-based spatio-spectral interferometer designed to operate in the 25 to 400 micron wavelength range. This talk will summarize the SPIRIT mission concept, with a focus on the science that motivates it and the technology that enables it. Without mentioning SPIRIT by name, the astrophysics community through the NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee recently recommended this mission as the first in a series of space-based interferometers. Data from a laboratory testbed interferometer will be used to illustrate how the spatio-spectral interferometry technique works.

  20. 27 CFR 17.152 - Time of use of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... all the ingredients called for by its formula. (b) Spirits used in an ion exchange column. Distilled spirits used in recharging an ion exchange column, the operation of which is essential to the...

  1. Fungal rock phosphate solubilization using sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Gilberto O; Dias, Carla S; Silva, Ivo R; Júnior, José Ivo Ribeiro; Pereira, Olinto L; Costa, Maurício D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different doses of rock phosphate (RP), sucrose, and (NH(4))(2)SO(4) on the solubilization of RP from Araxá and Catalão (Brazil) by Aspergillus niger, Penicillium canescens, Eupenicillium ludwigii, and Penicillium islandicum were evaluated in a solid-state fermentation (SSF) system with sugarcane bagasse. The factors evaluated were combined following a 2(3) + 1 factorial design to determine their optimum concentrations. The fitted response surfaces showed that higher doses of RP promoted higher phosphorus (P) solubilization. The addition of sucrose did not have effects on P solubilization in most treatments due to the presence of soluble sugars in the bagasse. Except for A. niger, all the fungi required high (NH(4))(2)SO(4) doses to achieve the highest level of P solubilization. Inversely, addition of (NH(4))(2)SO(4) was inhibitory to P solubilization by A. niger. Among the fungi tested, A. niger stood out, showing the highest solubilization capacity and for not requiring sucrose or (NH(4))(2)SO(4) supplementation. An additional experiment with A. niger showed that the content of soluble P can be increased by adding higher RP doses in the medium. However, P yield decreases with increasing RP doses. In this experiment, the maximal P yield (approximately 60 %) was achieved with the lower RP dose (3 g L(-1)). Our results show that SSF can be used to obtain a low cost biofertilizer rich in P combining RP, sugarcane bagasse, and A. niger. Moreover, sugarcane bagasse is a suitable substrate for SSF aiming at RP solubilization, since this residue can supply the C and N necessary for the metabolism of A. niger within a range that favors RP solubilization.

  2. Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Guilherme P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ?meeting point? for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

  3. Silicon reduces impact of plant nitrogen in promoting stalk borer (Eldana saccharina) but not sugarcane thrips (Fulmekiola serrata) infestations in sugarcane

    OpenAIRE

    Keeping, Malcolm G.; Miles, Neil; Sewpersad, Chandini

    2014-01-01

    The stalk borer Eldana saccharina Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a major limiting factor in South African sugarcane production, while yield is also reduced by sugarcane thrips Fulmekiola serrata Kobus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Borer management options include appropriate nitrogen (N) and enhanced silicon (Si) nutrition; the effect of N on sugarcane thrips is unknown. We tested the effects of these nutrients, in combination with resistant (N33) and susceptible (N27) sugarcane cultivars, o...

  4. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  5. Klubi "Spirit" = Club Spirit / Hanno Soans ; tõlk. Liisi Ojamaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soans, Hanno, 1974-

    2000-01-01

    Eesti klubikultuurist 1990-ndatel. Klubi "Spirit" kujundusest. Sisearhitektid Tarmo Piirmets, Martti Siimann. Arhitekt Jüri Irik Arhitektuuribüroost Ehala & Irik. Projekt ja klubi valmis 2000. Flaierid kujundas Aadam Kaarma. 10 ill. Vaated, korruste plaanid

  6. 27 CFR 19.583 - Spirits for industrial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits for industrial use... for industrial use. (a) Containers. (1) Denatured spirits may be filled into glass or metal containers of a capacity not greater than 10 gallons. (2) Other spirits for industrial use may be filled into...

  7. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  8. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...: Distilled Spirits Plants in General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal law. The... language principles in order to improve the clarity and readability of the regulatory texts. DATES... regulated, and how taxes on distilled spirits are collected, under Federal law. Basic Definitions Distilled...

  9. "My spirit in my heart": identity experiences and challenges among American Indian two-spirit women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Simoni, Jane M; Ronquillo, Theresa; Bhuyan, Rupaleem

    2006-01-01

    Many Native women embrace the term two-spirit to capture their sexuality and gender expression. By analyzing the narratives of five two-spirit women who are Native activists, we explored contemporary understandings of the concept and what it means for Native communities. The incorporation of the identity within indigenous worldviews, its manifestation in terms of (be)coming out, and the triple stressors of heterosexism, racism, and sexism emerged as key themes.

  10. Xanthan production by Xanthomonas albilineans infecting sugarcane stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, María; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2008-03-13

    Xanthomonas albilineans is the causal organism of leaf scald, a bacterial vascular disease of sugarcane. Xanthomonas may invade the parenchyma between the bundles and cause reddened pockets of gum, identified as a xanthan-like polysaccharide. Since xanthan contains glucuronic acid, the ability of Xanthomonas to produce an active UDP glucose dehydrogenase is often seen as a virulence factor. X. albilineans axenically cultured did not secrete xanthans to Willbrink liquid media, but the use of inoculated sugarcane tissues for producing and characterizing xanthans has been required. A hypothesis about the role of sugarcane polysaccharides to assure the production of bacterial xanthan is discussed.

  11. Impacts of climate change in the sugarcane production in the center-south macro-region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Pereira, V.; Zullo, J., Jr.; Koga-Vicente, A.

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the most important results of a Project developed over four years by a research network having 19 researchers and 45 students. The main objective of this Project was to generate alcohol production scenarios as support for the formulation of public policy applied to the adaptation of the Brazilian sugar and alcohol industry to the possible climate changes. The study area was the center-south macro-region of Brazil, with the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás, that is the main producer area of sugarcane in the world. The scenarios were developed using the HadGEM2-ES and Miroc5 models of CMIP5/IPCC and did not show significant differences between them and were very close to those obtained with the HadCM3 and Miroc3 models of the AR4/IPCC. The results considering the sugarcane varieties grown nowadays indicate that in a scenario with changes in precipitation and temperatures, the main producing region will not have a decrease in municipalities with low climatic risk. Also the expansion region (South of Goiás and North-West of São Paulo) may become of high climatic risk, becoming an area where the artificial irrigation will be demanded. The challenge related to the water use and availability that already exists nowadays will be yet more important in the future. The expansion of Brazilian sugarcane production is being much more based on the territorial extension, i.e. by increasing the production area, than by increasing the productivity. The increased mechanization of cane harvesting improves the air quality and reduces the incidence of respiratory diseases. It is extremely important that incentives to mechanization be extended to other regions of the country since the end of burning benefits the health of people living close to the sugarcane fields. This confirms the need for planning this sector, with the development of new varieties and new production technologies considering the possible future climate

  12. Sugarcane Elongin C is involved in infection by sugarcane mosaic disease pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yushan; Deng, Yuqing; Cheng, Guangyuan; Peng, Lei; Zheng, Yanru; Yang, Yongqing, E-mail: yyq287346@163.com; Xu, Jingsheng, E-mail: xujingsheng@126.com

    2015-10-23

    Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrid) provides the main source of sugar for humans. Sugarcane mosaic disease (SMD) is a major threat to sugarcane production. Currently, control of SMD is mainly dependent on breeding resistant cultivars through hybridization, which is time-consuming. Understanding the mechanism of viral infection may facilitate novel strategies to breed cultivars resistant to SMD and to control the disease. In this study, a wide interaction was detected between the viral VPg protein and host proteins. Several genes were screened from sugarcane cDNA library that could interact with Sugarcane streak mosaic virus VPg, including SceIF4E1 and ScELC. ScELC was predicted to be a cytoplasmic protein, but subcellular localization analysis showed it was distributed both in cytoplasmic and nuclear, and interactions were also detected between ScELC and VPg of SCMV or SrMV that reveal ScELC was widely used in the SMD pathogen infection process. ScELC and VPgs interacted in the nucleus, and may function to enhance the viral transcription rate. ScELC also interacted with SceIF4E2 both in the cytoplasm and nucleus, but not with SceIF4E1 and SceIF4E3. These results suggest that ScELC may be essential for the function of SceIF4E2, an isomer of eIF4E. - Highlights: • We cloned ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3 from sugarcane accession Badila. • We examined interactions among VPg, ScELC, SceIF4E1, SceIF4E2 and SceIF4E3. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with VPgs of SCMV, SrMV and SCSMV. • We proofed that ScELC interacted with SceIF4E2 but not SceIF4E1 or SceIF4E3.

  13. Transgenic sugarcane overexpressing CaneCPI-1 negatively affects the growth and development of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Ribeiro, Carolina; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Falco, Maria Cristina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development. Knowledge of the major peptidase group present in the insect gut is critical when choosing the most effective inhibitor. S. levis larvae use cysteine peptidases as their major digestive enzymes, primarily cathepsin L-like activity. In this study, we developed transgenic sugarcane plants that overexpress sugarcane cysteine peptidase inhibitor 1 (CaneCPI-1) and assessed their potential through feeding bioassays with S. levis larvae. Cystatin overexpression in the transgenic plants was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and immunoblot assays. A 50% reduction of the average weight was observed in larvae that fed on transgenic plants in comparison to larvae that fed on non-transgenic plants. In addition, transgenic sugarcane exhibited less damage caused by larval attack than the controls. Our results suggest that the overexpression of CaneCPI-1 in sugarcane is a promising strategy for improving resistance against this insect.

  14. Physiological characterization of sugarcane's endophytic microbial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anar Janet Rodríguez Cheang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Excessive application of chemical nitrogen fertilisers and pesticides has badly affected the environment. This has led to great interest being shown in studying a crop's native microbial community and its benefit for plants. This paper was thus aimed at characterising sugarcane's endophytic microbial community. 5 sugar cane strains and 50 isolates were used. Gas chromatography was used for measuring nitrogenase activity and the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources and pH on cultures. Indol acetic (IAA production was detected by Dot-Immunobinding and Salkowski's method. These results show that 19 strains and isolates had nitrogenase activity, values ranging from 100 to SOOO/zg/mL; 6 of them produced IAA (values ranging from 1,7 to 2,5 //g/mL: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl-5, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 1-05, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus 4-02,17,30 and 305. It was demonstrated that culture medium nutrient sources and pH affected the nitrogenase activity of the strains representing the endophytic community. Key words: endophytic community, sugarcane, nitrogenase activity, indolacetic acid.

  15. Prospecting sugarcane genes involved in aluminum tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo D. Drummond

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the major factors that affect plant development in acid soils, causing a substantial reduction in yield in many crops. In South America, about 66% of the land surface is made up of acid soils where high aluminum saturation is one of the main limiting factors for agriculture. The biochemical and molecular basis of aluminum tolerance in plants is far from being completely understood despite a growing number of studies, and in the specific case of sugarcane there are virtually no reports on the effects of gene regulation on aluminum stress. The objective of the work presented in this paper was to prospect the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST data bank for sugarcane genes related to several biochemical pathways known to be involved in the responses to aluminum toxicity in other plant species and yeast. Sugarcane genes similar to most of these genes were found, including those coding for enzymes that alleviate oxidative stress or combat infection by pathogens and those which code for proteins responsible for the release of organic acids and signal transducers. The role of these genes in aluminum tolerance mechanisms is reviewed. Due to the high level of genomic conservation in related grasses such as maize, barley, sorghum and sugarcane, these genes may be valuable tools which will help us to better understand and to manipulate aluminum tolerance in these species.Alumínio (Al é um dos principais fatores que afetam o desenvolvimento de plantas em solos ácidos, reduzindo substancialmente a produtividade agrícola. Na América do Sul, cerca de 66% da superfície do solo apresenta acidez, onde a alta saturação de alumínio é uma das maiores limitações à prática agrícola. Apesar do crescente número de estudos, uma compreensão completa das bases bioquímicas e moleculares da tolerância ao alumínio em plantas está longe de ser alcançada. No caso da cana-de-açúcar, não há nada publicado sobre a regulação g

  16. Technology Aspect and Feasibility Analysis of Sugarcane Slash Management on dry land sugarcane Plantation

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sugar cane plantation have the potential to produce organic fertilizers such as compost from organic waste litter cane. Based on research conducted by Toharisman (1991), litter weight of harvested sugar cane reach 20-25 tons/ha. Litter is made up of the wood on the leaves, shoots, and sugarcane are not transported to the factory. Untapped potential by sugar cane plantations in an effort to increase sugar production. It is seen by still doing the burning litter after several d...

  17. Reproducible in vitro regeneration system for purifying sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tansgenic Lab

    2012-05-24

    May 24, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Reproducible in ... regeneration was varied from basal to top sections. Nevertheless ... 2005). The application of biotechnology to sugarcane is comparatively ..... Damon RA, Harvey WR (1987).

  18. Application of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disposal of this material is already causing environmental problems ... shortage in most of concrete making materials especially cement, resulting in an ... This study examined the potential use of sugarcane bagasse ash as a partial ...

  19. RB975242 and RB975201 - Late maturation sugarcane varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane varieties RB975201 and RB975242 were developed and released for harvest at the end of the season (late maturation in the CentralSouth region of Brazil. In specific environments, these varieties were compared with commercial standards in sugar yield per area. They are resistant to major sugarcane diseases and present the Bru1 gene of resistance to brown rust.

  20. Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. França

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A set of genes related to secondary metabolism was extracted from the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database and was used to investigate both the gene expression pattern of key enzymes regulating the main biosynthetic secondary metabolism pathways and the major classes of metabolites involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental and developmental cues. The SUCEST database was constructed with tissues in different physiological conditions which had been collected under varied situation of environmental stress. This database allows researchers to identify and characterize the expressed genes of a wide range of putative enzymes able to catalyze steps in the phenylpropanoid, isoprenoid and other pathways of the special metabolic mechanisms involved in the response of sugarcane to environmental changes. Our results show that sugarcane cDNAs encoded putative ultra-violet induced sesquiterpene cyclases (SC; chalcone synthase (CHS, the first enzyme in the pathway branch for flavonoid biosynthesis; isoflavone synthase (IFS, involved in plant defense and root nodulation; isoflavone reductase (IFR, a key enzyme in phenylpropanoid phytoalexin biosynthesis; and caffeic acid-O-methyltransferase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of lignin cell wall precursors. High levels of CHS transcripts from plantlets infected with Herbaspirillum rubri or Gluconacetobacter diazotroficans suggests that agents of biotic stress can elicit flavonoid biosynthesis in sugarcane. From this data we have predicted the profile of isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism in sugarcane and pointed the branches of secondary metabolism activated during tissue-specific stages of development and the adaptive response of sugarcane to agents of biotic and abiotic stress, although our assignment of enzyme function should be confirmed by careful biochemical and genetic supporting evidence.Este trabalho foi realizado com os objetivos de gerar uma coleção de genes

  1. The system of innovation of Brazilian sugar cane agribusiness; O sistema de inovacao da agroindustria canavieira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica], e-mail: furtado@ige.unicamp.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], e-mail: mirna@fem.unicamp.br; Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne Gaya [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico

    2008-07-01

    Ethanol has been recently of great interest due to two main reasons. First, it is a viable alternative to oil derivates used in light vehicles, which price has been substantially raised in the last years. In second place because ethanol is a renewable source of energy, that mitigates the emission of greenhouse effect gases. Although Brazil is losing its leadership of ethanol production for the United States, it raises internationally as the leading country to develop its ethanol production from biomass. Differently from the American system which relies on corn as principal raw material, Brazilian ethanol is produced from sugarcane. The Brazilian route shows up as much more competitive and much less pollution contributor than the American one. The objective of this work is to analyze the leading aspects of the Brazilian Innovation System built around the sugarcane industry. The Brazilian success in terms of sugarcane can not be understood just as based in a natural comparative advantage, but it is a result of accumulation of efforts which ended in a virtuous trajectory of technological learning, relying, mostly, in incremental innovations. That process had, as inflection point, the Pro Alcohol Program, launched after the first oil crisis in 1973. From that Program on, the agricultural industry started the diffusion of innovations making possible constant increases of productivity and cost reduction on its production. The technological advance brought benefit to the alcohol and sugar production, of which Brazil became the main world producer. This work is based on the approach of national systems of innovation, according to which the innovative performance of a country, region or even a sector, can not be learned only by focusing the efforts and performance of the companies. Innovation results from the interaction of actors from different institutional nature. To analyze the institutional arrangements as the basis to the innovative process, this work will get

  2. The SPIRIT Telescope Initiative: six years on

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckas, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Now in its sixth year of operation, the SPIRIT initiative remains unique in Australia, as a robust web-enabled robotic telescope initiative funded for education and outreach. With multiple modes of operation catering for a variety of usage scenarios and a fully supported education program, SPIRIT provides free access to contemporary astronomical tools for students and educators in Western Australia and beyond. The technical solution itself provides an excellent model for low cost robotic telescope installations, and the education program has evolved over time to include a broad range of student experiences-from engagement activities to authentic science. This paper details the robotic telescope solution, student interface and educational philosophy, summarises achievements and lessons learned and examines the possibilities for future enhancement including spectroscopy.

  3. Factors that Interfere in Dextran Production By Sugarcane Contaminating Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Celia Oliveira Hauly

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Dextrans are polysaccharides produced by microorganisms, specially bacterias from the Leuconostoc genus. Dextrans have a high molecular weigh and most of the glycosidic bonds are a(1®6. For the sugar manufacture, dextran is a problem which changes the quality of sugar and the industry efficiency. Dextrans are synthesized when the sugarcane is spoiled before the harvest period, through the sugarcane fissures, which permit the penetration of microorganisms that deteriorate the sugarcane. This work aims at improving the sugar quality and the industry efficiency by isolating dextran producing microorganisms, comparing the time of burning with the infection index and the dextran concentration in the sugarcane juice. Dextran producing microorganisms were isolated from sugarcane juice during the 97/98; 99/00 and 2001 harvests. The isolated strains were maintained in MRS agar at the temperature of 4°C. The fermentation was carried out in MRS broth for 72 hours at 28°C with 180 rpm. Dextran was analyzed by spectrophotometry at 485 nm. Only three isolated strains showed good dextran production. The average of dextran production in MRS broth was 390 mg%. It was observed that a burning period above 72 hours increases the sugarcane contamination and causes high dextran production, and consequently the reduction of the industry efficiency of the sugar factory.

  4. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-10-26

    Knowing yield potential and yield stability of sugarcane cultivars is of significance in guiding sugarcane breeding and rationalising regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites. The cane and sucrose yields of nine cultivars were higher than those of the control cultivar ROC22. From the perspective of cane yield, cultivars FN 40 and YZ 06-407 were well adapted to a wider range of conditions and produced relatively high cane yields in several pilot sites. From the perspective of sucrose yield, cultivars LC 03-1137, FN 38, FN 41, MT 01-77 and LC 05-136 were well adapted to a wide range of conditions and produced relatively high sucrose yields. Based on these results, three high yielding and widely adapted cultivars, namely, FN 39, LC 05-136, and YZ 05-51 were recommended for production in three major Chinese sugarcane planting areas. The results will provide a theoretical basis for recommending the effective use and rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China.

  5. The Rebellious Spirit of Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱

    2012-01-01

    Jane Eyre is most successful and popular novel. In presenting and establishing heroine's character, Charlotte Bronte emphasizes that Jane's rebellious spirit stems from her childhood. Her hard struggle to retain her dignity as a human being and her insistence on liberty and equality with man deeply impress the readers.Through analysis of the characters' dialogues and actions, Jane Eyre's strong personality is manifested at every stage of her life.

  6. Spirit of place: Bridging the 'epistemological gap'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nickola B. N.

    My work explores the psychological gap between humans and nature. Also how humanity is a parcel of nature and that the philosophy of spirit of place can create oneness through imagery, describing the landscape while also encompassing the 'larger frame' within the aesthetic. These transcendental moments connect with not only the landscape but to earth as a spiritual entity. My work is a response to the landscape and these moments.

  7. Promoting Scientific Spirit to Cultivate Scientific Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Scientific culture is an advanced culture that is based on scientific knowledge and supported by the scientific method, with scientific thinking as its core and scientific spirit as its soul. During the process of modernization, it has profound impacts on human society in terms of values, ethics, mode of thinking, lifestyle and code of conduct, offering human civilization an important ideological source, physical foundation, technological tool and effective carrier.

  8. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  9. Confucianism Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to explore the fundamental values of Confucianism ethics and its influence to the emergence of Capitalism. By using Weber's thesis on the relationship between Protestant ethics and the spirit of capitalism, this paper concludes that the three important values of Confucianism Ethics (ren: benevolence, humaneness, li: rightness, righteousness, and fittingness, and yi: rules of proper conduct, ritual, and rites are proposing people on how to become good human beings. If the Confucian follows these ethics properly, he/she will get the successful life. Although it is not guaranteed but the Confucianism ethics are still relevant to be practiced in contemporary situation. Some research findings recently showed that Confucianism ethics have really influence people to fulfill the "calling" (Weber's term and it has also power to increase the spirit of capitalism. The rise of Japan, China, and the four little dragons (including South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore is related to the development of Confucianism, and it directly brings down Weber's view point, which taught that Confucianism did not have the spirit of capitalism.

  10. Chasing spirits: Clarifying the spirit child phenomenon and infanticide in Northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Aaron R; Adongo, Philip B; Freydberg, Nicole; Hodgson, Abraham

    2010-08-01

    In the Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana, researchers and health interventionists describe a phenomenon wherein some children are subject to infanticide because they are regarded as spirit children sent "from the bush" to cause misfortune and destroy the family. This phenomenon remains largely misunderstood and misrepresented. Based upon both ethnographic research and verbal autopsy data from 2006 to 2007 and 2009, this paper clarifies the characteristics of and circumstances surrounding the spirit child phenomenon, the role it plays within community understandings of childhood illness and mortality, and the variations present within the discourse and practice. The spirit child is a complex explanatory model closely connected to the Nankani sociocultural world and understandings surrounding causes of illness, disability, and misfortune, and is best understood within the context of the larger economic, social, and health concerns within the region. The identification of a child as a spirit child does not necessarily indicate that the child was a victim of infanticide. The spirit child best describes why a child died, rather than how the death occurred. In addition to shaping maternal and child health interventions, these findings have implications for verbal autopsy assessments and the accuracy of demographic data concerning the causes of child mortality.

  11. Methane emissions from sugarcane vinasse storage and transportation systems: Comparison between open channels and tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Bruna Gonçalves; Carvalho, João Luís Nunes; Chagas, Mateus Ferreira; Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; Cerri, Carlos Clemente; Feigl, Brigitte Josefine

    2017-06-01

    Over the last few years the brazilian sugarcane sector has produced an average of 23.5 million liters of ethanol annually. This scale of production generates large amounts of vinasse, which depending on the manner that is disposed, can result significant greenhouse gas emissions. This study aimed to quantify the methane (CH4) emissions associated with the two most widespread systems of vinasse storage and transportation used in Brazil; open channel and those comprising of tanks and pipes. Additionally, a laboratory incubation study was performed with the aim of isolating the effects of vinasse, sediment and the interaction between these factors on CH4 emissions. We observed significant differences in CH4 emissions between the sampling points along the channels during both years of evaluation (2012-2013). In the channel system, around 80% of CH4 emissions were recorded from uncoated sections. Overall, the average CH4 emission intensity was 1.36 kg CO2eq m-3 of vinasse transported in open channels, which was 620 times higher than vinasse transported through a system of tanks and closed pipes. The laboratory incubation corroborated field results, suggesting that vinasse alone does not contribute significant emissions of CH4. Higher CH4 emissions were observed when vinasse and sediment were incubated together. In summary, our findings demonstrate that CH4 emissions originate through the anaerobic decomposition of organic material deposited on the bottom of channels and tanks. The adoption of coated channels as a substitute to uncoated channels offers the potential for an effective and affordable means of reducing CH4 emissions. Ultimately, the modernization of vinasse storage and transportation systems through the adoption of tank and closed pipe systems will provide an effective strategy for mitigating CH4 emissions generated during the disposal phase of the sugarcane ethanol production process.

  12. High value added lipids produced by microorganisms: a potential use of sugarcane vinasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Bruna Soares; Vieira, João Paulo Fernandes; Contesini, Fabiano Jares; Mantelatto, Paulo Eduardo; Zaiat, Marcelo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2017-12-01

    This review aims to present an innovative concept of high value added lipids produced by heterotrophic microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, using carbon sources, such as sugars, acids and alcohols that could come from sugarcane vinasse, which is the main byproduct from ethanol production that is released in the distillation step. Vinasse is a rich carbon source and low-cost feedstock produced in large amounts from ethanol production. In 2019, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply estimates that growth of ethanol domestic consumption will be 58.8 billion liters, more than double the amount in 2008. This represents the annual production of more than 588 billion liters of vinasse, which is currently used as a fertilizer in the sugarcane crop, due to its high concentration of minerals, mainly potassium. However, studies indicate some disadvantages such as the generation of Greenhouse Gas emission during vinasse distribution in the crop, as well as the possibility of contaminating the groundwater and soil. Therefore, the development of programs for sustainable use of vinasse is a priority. One profitable alternative is the fermentation of vinasse, followed by an anaerobic digester, in order to obtain biomaterials such as lipids, other byproducts, and methane. Promising high value added lipids, for instance carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), with a predicted market of millions of US$, could be produced using vinasse as carbon source, to guide an innovative concept for sustainable production. Example of lipids obtained from the fermentation of compounds present in vinasse are vitamin D, which comes from yeast sucrose fermentation and Omega 3, which can be obtained by bacteria and fungi fermentation. Additionally, several other compounds present in vinasse can be used for this purpose, including sucrose, ethanol, lactate, pyruvate, acetate and other carbon sources. Finally, this paper illustrates the potential market and

  13. ACID HYDROLYSIS OF HEMICELLULOSE FROM SUGARCANE BAGASSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PESSOA JR.

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of the hemicellulosic fraction of sugarcane bagasse by sulphuric acid was performed in laboratory (25 mL and semi-pilot (25 L reactors under different conditions of temperature, time and acid concentration. On the laboratory scale, the three highest recovery yields were obtained at: 140ºC for 10 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.4%; 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm (yield=73.9% and 150ºC for 20 min with 70 mgacid/gdm (yield=71.8%. These conditions were also used for hydrolysis in a semi-pilot reactor, and the highest xylose recovery yield (83.3% was obtained at 140ºC for 20 min with 100 mgacid/gdm

  14. Soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period: influence on soil chemical and physical properties and on sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roniram Pereira da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The planting of diversified crops during the sugarcane fallow period can improve the chemical and physical properties and increase the production potential of the soil for the next sugarcane cycle. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of various soil uses during the sugarcane fallow period on soil chemical and physical properties and productivity after the first sugarcane harvest. The experiment was conducted in two areas located in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º 14' 05'' S, 48º 17' 09'' W with two different soil types, namely: an eutroferric Red Latosol (RLe with high-clay texture (clay content = 680 g kg-1 and an acric Red Latosol (RLa with clayey texture (clay content = 440 g kg-1. A randomized block design with five replications and four treatments (crop sequences was used. The crop sequences during the sugarcane fallow period were soybean/millet/soybean, soybean/sunn hemp/soybean, soybean/fallow/soybean, and soybean. Soil use was found not to affect chemical properties and sugarcane productivity of RLe or RLa. The soybean/millet/soybean sequence improved aggregation in the acric Latosol.

  15. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane

  16. Sugarcane Genotype Performance in Three Environments (Based on Crop Cycle) at Mardan, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeders often face significant genotype x environment interactions in their trials grown under multiple environments. Hence, genotypes need to be tested for their stability across different environments keeping in view the significant interactions. An experiment comprising 28 sugarcane ge...

  17. Spatial distribution of nematodes in soil cultivated with sugarcane under different uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M. O.; Pedrosa, E. M. R.; Vicente, T. F. S.; Siqueira, G. M.; Montenegro, A. A. A.

    2012-04-01

    Sugarcane is a crop of major importance within the Brazilian economy, being an activity that generates energy and with high capacity to develop various economic sectors. Currently the greatest challenge is to maximize productivity and minimize environmental impacts. The plant-parasites nematodes have great expression, because influence directly the productive potential of sugarcane crops. Accordingly, little research has been devoted to the study of spatial variability of nematodes. Thus, the purpose of this work is to analyze the spatial distribution of nematodes in a soil cultivated with sugarcane in areas with and without irrigation, with distinct spacing of sampling to determine the differences between the sampling scales. The study area is located in the municipality of Goiana (Pernambuco State, Brazil). The experiment was conducted in two areas with 40 hectares each, being collected 90 samples at different spacing: 18 samples with spacing of 200.00 x 200.00 m, 36 samples with spacing of 20.00 m x 20.00 m and 36 samples with spacing of 2.00 m x 2.00 m. Soil samples were collected at deep of 0.00-0.20 m and nematodes were extracted per 300 cm3 of soil through centrifugal flotation in sucrose being quantified, classified according trophic habit (plant-parasites, fungivores, bacterivores, omnivores and predators) and identified in level of genus or family. In irrigated area the amount of water applied was determined considering the evapotranspiration of culture. The data were analyzed using classical statistics and geostatistics. The results demonstrated that the data showed high values of coefficient of variation in both study areas. All attributes studied showed log normal frequency distribution. The area B (irrigated) has a population of nematodes more stable than the area A (non-irrigated), a fact confirmed by its mean value of the total population of nematodes (282.45 individuals). The use of geostatistics not allowed to assess the spatial distribution of

  18. Molasses for ethanol: the economic and environmental impacts of a new pathway for the lifecycle greenhouse gas analysis of sugarcane ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal, Anand R; Kammen, Daniel M, E-mail: anandrg@berkeley.ed, E-mail: kammen@berkeley.ed [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall 3050, Berkeley 94720-3050 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Many biofuel standards, including California's recently adopted low carbon fuel standard, consider just one feedstock from one supplying country for the production of sugarcane ethanol: fresh mill-pressed cane juice from a Brazilian factory. While cane juice is the dominant feedstock for ethanol in most Brazilian factories, a large number of producers in Indonesia, India, and the Caribbean, and a significant number in Brazil, manufacture most of their ethanol from molasses, a low value co-product of raw sugar. Several producers in these countries have the capacity to export ethanol to California, but the GREET (from: greenhouse gas, regulated emissions and energy use in transportation) model, which is the LCA (lifecycle assessment) model of choice for most biofuel regulators including California, does not currently include this production pathway. We develop a modification to GREET to account for this pathway. We use the upstream and process lifecycle results from the existing GREET model for Brazilian ethanol to derive lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions for ethanol manufactured from any combination of molasses and fresh cane juice. We find that ethanol manufactured with only molasses as a feedstock with all other processes and inputs identical to those of the average Brazilian mill has a lifecycle GHG (greenhouse gas) rating of 15.1 gCO{sub 2}- eq MJ{sup -1}, which is significantly lower than the current California-GREET assigned rating of 26.6 gCO{sub 2}- eq MJ{sup -1}. Our model can be applied at any level of granulation from the individual factory to an industry-wide average. We examine some ways in which current sugarcane producers could inaccurately claim this molasses credit. We discuss methods for addressing this in regulation.

  19. Emphasizing humanities in medical education: Promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Tang, Wei

    2017-05-23

    In the era of the biological-psychological-social medicine model, an ideal of modern medicine is to enhance the humanities in medical education, to foster medical talents with humanistic spirit, and to promote the integration of scientific spirit and humanistic spirit in medicine. Throughout the United States (US), United Kingdom (UK), other Western countries, and some Asian countries like Japan, many medical universities have already integrated the learning of medical humanities in their curricula and recognized their value. While in China, although medical education reform over the past decade has emphasized the topic of medical humanities to increase the professionalism of future physicians, the integration of medical humanity courses in medical universities has lagged behind the pace in Western countries. In addition, current courses in medical humanities were arbitrarily established due to a lack of organizational independence. For various reasons like a shortage of instructors, medical universities have failed to pay sufficient attention to medical humanities education given the urgent needs of society. The medical problems in contemporary Chinese society are not solely the purview of biomedical technology; what matters more is enhancing the humanities in medical education and fostering medical talents with humanistic spirit. Emphasizing the humanities in medical education and promoting the integration of medical scientific spirit and medical humanistic spirit have become one of the most pressing issues China must address. Greater attention should be paid to reasonable integration of humanities into the medical curriculum, creation of medical courses related to humanities and optimization of the curriculum, and actively allocating abundant teaching resources and exploring better methods of instruction.

  20. First Report of Orange Rust of Sugarcane Caused by Puccinia kuehnii in Ivory Coast and Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange rust of sugarcane caused by Puccinia kuehnii was detected in Florida in 2007. It was hypothesized that the pathogen originated from Africa because brown rust of sugarcane (syn. common rust) was introduced to the Western Hemisphere from Africa. Requests for rust infected sugarcane samples were...

  1. Evaluation of the juice brix of wild sugarcanes (Saccharum spontaneum indigenous to Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Sakaigaichi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern sugarcane cultivars are derived from the interspecific crossing between Saccharum officinarum and wild sugarcane, Saccharum spontaneum. The introgression of valuable characteristics from wild sugarcane is recognized as extremely important, but this process typically requires long-term effort over multiple generations of backcrosses owing to the low sugar content of the initial interspecific hybrids. In this study, we aimed to identify Japanese wild sugarcanes with high juice brix in order to promote effective interspecific crossing of sugarcane. Sixty-four accessions from the Nansei Islands and 70 accessions from the Honshu were evaluated for juice brix. Wild sugarcanes with high juice brix were demonstrated to exist among wild sugarcanes indigenous to the Honshu. A significant difference was observed between the median juice brix values of wild sugarcanes of the Nansei Islands and those of the Honshu. The relationship between juice brix and stem traits was then examined in 20 wild sugarcanes, 10 each from the Nansei Islands and the Honshu. The reproducibility of juice brix value in both experiments was confirmed. In contrast to juice brix, stem traits, such as length, diameter, and volume, were typically smaller in wild sugarcanes from the Honshu. Moreover, a negative correlation was observed between the index of stem volume and juice brix. In this study, we identified outstanding wild sugarcanes with high juice brix. Using germplasms from the identified wild sugarcanes in interspecific crossing could contribute to the increases in both yield and sugar content.

  2. Louisiana sugarcane entomology: A look at the back and a peek at the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling insect pests is an important consideration for sugarcane farmers seeking to minimize losses and maximize profits. Research in managing insects has been conducted for almost as long as sugarcane has been grown in Louisiana. This presentation reviews Louisiana sugarcane entomology from the...

  3. Current Situation and Development Trend of the Sugarcane Industry in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenhui; PU

    2015-01-01

    Sugarcane is one of important crops in Indonesia. In this paper,the sugarcane production,sugar industry development,sugar consumption,sugar import and export business and related management policies are all be summarized. In the meantime,the future prospect of the sugarcane industry is expounded.

  4. Impact of sugarcane field residue and mill bagasse on seed germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research indicates that sugarcane field residue and sugarcane mill bagasse may be allelopathic. Allelopathy is the chemical interaction between plants, which may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. Previous research in Louisiana indicated that sugarcane field residue may inhibi...

  5. Computational identification and analysis of novel sugarcane microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiebaut Flávia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA-regulation of gene expression plays a key role in the development and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Deep sequencing analyses accelerate the process of small RNA discovery in many plants and expand our understanding of miRNA-regulated processes. We therefore undertook small RNA sequencing of sugarcane miRNAs in order to understand their complexity and to explore their role in sugarcane biology. Results A bioinformatics search was carried out to discover novel miRNAs that can be regulated in sugarcane plants submitted to drought and salt stresses, and under pathogen infection. By means of the presence of miRNA precursors in the related sorghum genome, we identified 623 candidates of new mature miRNAs in sugarcane. Of these, 44 were classified as high confidence miRNAs. The biological function of the new miRNAs candidates was assessed by analyzing their putative targets. The set of bona fide sugarcane miRNA includes those likely targeting serine/threonine kinases, Myb and zinc finger proteins. Additionally, a MADS-box transcription factor and an RPP2B protein, which act in development and disease resistant processes, could be regulated by cleavage (21-nt-species and DNA methylation (24-nt-species, respectively. Conclusions A large scale investigation of sRNA in sugarcane using a computational approach has identified a substantial number of new miRNAs and provides detailed genotype-tissue-culture miRNA expression profiles. Comparative analysis between monocots was valuable to clarify aspects about conservation of miRNA and their targets in a plant whose genome has not yet been sequenced. Our findings contribute to knowledge of miRNA roles in regulatory pathways in the complex, polyploidy sugarcane genome.

  6. Input of sugarcane post-harvest residues into the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luís Nunes Carvalho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. crops provide carbon (C for soil through straw and root system decomposition. Recently, however, sugarcane producers are considering straw to be removed for electricity or second generation ethanol production. To elucidate the role of straw and root system on the carbon supply into the soil, the biomass inputs from sugarcane straw (tops and dry leaves and from root system (rhizomes and roots were quantified, and its contribution to provide C to the soil was estimated. Three trials were carried out in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. All sites were cultivated with the variety SP81 3250 under the green sugarcane harvest. Yearly, post-harvest sugarcane residues (tops, dry leaves, roots and rhizomes were sampled; weighted and dried for the dry mass (DM production to be estimated. On average, DM root system production was 4.6 Mg ha-1 year-1 (1.5 Mg C ha-1 year-1 and 11.5 Mg ha-1 year-1 (5.1 Mg C ha-1 year-1 of straw. In plant cane, 35 % of the total sugarcane DM was allocated into the root system, declining to 20 % in the third ratoon. The estimate of potential allocation of sugarcane residues to soil organic C was 1.1 t ha-1 year-1; out of which 33 % was from root system and 67 % from straw. The participation of root system should be higher if soil layer is evaluated, a deeper soil layer, if root exudates are accounted and if the period of higher production of roots is considered.

  7. Consciousness, Mind, and Spirit: Three Levels of Human Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Ule

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article elucidates three important concepts and realities that refer to cognitive phenomena and are often (mistakenly used as synonyms: consciousness (slo. zavest, mind (slo. um, and spirit (slo. duh. They present three levels of human cognition: individual-experiential, individual-mental, and trans-individual-mental. Simply put: the concept of consciousness pertains to the waking mental life of a human being, while the concept of mind pertains to the ability and activity to consciously comprehend and understand contents and objects of human activity. I delineate three “types” of spirit: personal spirit, objective spirit, and the objectification of spirit in productions of human culture; I have doubts, however, about the existence of cosmic or super-cosmic dimensions of spirit, although some interpretations of quantum physics and modern cosmology suggest that such dimensions are possible.

  8. Research on how to build team spirit of enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Bingshun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to introduce the importance of team spirit in enterprisees. This article focuses on the team's meaning and the importance of modern enterprise organization, exploring the Chinese team construction of the enterprise and the problems that exist in team. Team spirit is the key point for team members to achieve the mutual goal. Team spirit is the spiritual pillar of the enterprise, without the spiritual pillar of enterprise, there will be no more energy and comp...

  9. Spirit Self-Portrait, Sols 329-330

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take the images combined into this mosaic view of the rover. The downward-looking view omits the mast on which the camera is mounted. It shows dust accumulation on Spirit's solar panels. The images were taken through the camera's 600-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters during Spirit's 329th and 330th martian days, or sols (Dec. 7 and 8, 2004).

  10. Wine, Spirits and the Lung: Good, Bad or Indifferent?

    OpenAIRE

    Kamholz, Stephan L

    2006-01-01

    The putative cardiovascular risks and benefits of the ingestion of wine and alcohol-containing spirits have been well publicized; however, less attention has been focused upon the health effects of wine and spirits consumption on the respiratory system. This paper will highlight epidemiologic, clinical and experimental data on the effects of wine and distilled spirits [and the chemical components thereof] on lung function, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease progression, lung cancer risk, r...

  11. Monod and the spirit of molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morange, Michel

    2015-06-01

    The founders of molecular biology shared views on the place of biology within science, as well as on the relations of molecular biology to Darwinism. Jacques Monod was no exception, but the study of his writings is particularly interesting because he expressed his point of view very clearly and pushed the implications of some of his choices further than most of his contemporaries. The spirit of molecular biology is no longer the same as in the 1960s but, interestingly, Monod anticipated some recent evolutions of this discipline.

  12. On Mars Exploration Rovers - Spirit and Opportunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 吴文忠

    2004-01-01

    NASA's twin Mars exploration rovers, now named Spirit and Opportunity, are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go.

  13. The Spirit that Strengthens Me: Merging the "Life of the Mind" with "Life in the Spirit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Katherine Grace

    2009-01-01

    Wholeness brings to mind the soul/spirit and, quite naturally, a discussion of what constitutes spirituality. In general, the definition of spirituality is associated with an attitude or way of life that may or may not be connected to Christian, Buddhist, Hindi, Jewish, or Muslim religions. Whether the approach to the topic is religious or…

  14. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. FERREIRA

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled beverage, with promising results. With a view to increasing efficiency and possibly attracting investments in the growing international market for new and exotic beverages, the aim of the present study was to optimize the orange press liquor spirit process and to evaluate the economic aspects of its production. The results showed that this process can yield a good quality beverage, comparable to the sugar cane spirit cachaça and other similar products, as well as having economic advantages and potential for immediate further growth, without extra investment costs.

  15. Identification and characterization of yeasts in sugarcane silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, C L S; Bravo Martins, C E C; Schwan, R F

    2010-11-01

    To enumerate the micro-organisms and to identify the yeast species present during the ensilage of different sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars. Samples of sugarcane silage were collected at 10, 20, 30 and 40 days from the start of fermentation. Population levels of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mesophilic facultative anaerobic (MFA) bacteria, filamentous fungi and yeasts were determined. Nine species of yeasts were classified according to traditional methods and confirmed using molecular techniques. LAB dominated the ensiling process of sugarcane, although yeasts were present at relatively high population levels throughout the whole fermentation period. The detected species of yeasts varied according to sugarcane cultivar and time of fermentation. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the predominant yeast, followed by Pichia anomala and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Knowledge of the population of micro-organisms in general, and of yeasts in particular, present during the fermentation of sugarcane is of fundamental importance in the development of more effective ensiling processes. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Plant Growth-Promoting Nitrogen-Fixing Enterobacteria Are in Association with Sugarcane Plants Growing in Guangxi, China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The current nitrogen fertilization for sugarcane production in Guangxi, the major sugarcane-producing area in China, is very high. We aim to reduce nitrogen fertilization and improve sugarcane production in Guangxi with the help of indigenous sugarcane-associated nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We initially obtained 196 fast-growing bacterial isolates associated with the main sugarcane cultivar ROC22 plants in fields using a nitrogen-deficient minimal medium and screened out 43 nitrogen-fixing isol...

  17. On the Nanliang Spirit%论南梁精神

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治立

    2012-01-01

    The Nanliang spirit is a revolutionary spirit cultivated in the revolutionary practice by the commu- nists, such as Liu Zhidan, Xie Zichang, Xi Zhongxun, who struggled in the revolutionary base area in the Shaanxi -Gansu border region during the agrarian revolution. It is an important part of the Chinese revolutionary spirit in history. Its rich contents are a concentrated expression of the revolutionists" historical mission and moral sentiment in the Shaanxi-Gansu Border Revolutionary Base. From a historical point of view, Nanliang spirit is the soviet area spirit of the Shaanxi-Gansu border revolutionary base. There are similarities and differences between the Nanling spirit and the spirits of central soviet area and other soviet areas. As the native revolutionary spirit in the northwest- ern base, it forms with the spirit of the central soviet area and the Long March spirit the beginning and origin of the Yan' an spirit. Nanliang spirit is an important composition of the old liberated area spirit. It started the develop- ment of Qingyang old liberated area spirit. To study and carry forward the Nanliang spirit is of great significance to promote modern political civilization, economic construction and cultural development.%南梁精神是土地革命时期陕甘边以刘志丹、谢子长、习仲勋为代表的共产党人在革命实践中培育的革命精神,是中国革命精神史的重要组成部分,其丰富的内涵是陕甘边革命者历史使命、道德情操的集中反映。南梁精神就是陕甘边苏区精神,与中央苏区精神及其他苏区精神既有共性,又有其个性和特色;南梁精神与中央苏区精神、长征精神同为延安精神的先河和源头;南梁精神是老区精神的重要构成部分,对庆阳老区精神的发展具有开创之功。研究和弘扬南梁精神对于推进现代政治文明、经济建设和文化发展具有重要的意义。

  18. Diatomite releases silica during spirit filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J; Gil, M L A; de la Rosa-Fox, N; Alguacil, M

    2014-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether diatomite is an inert filter aid during spirit filtration. Surely, any compound with a negative effect on the spirit composition or the consumer's health could be dissolved. In this study different diatomites were treated with 36% vol. ethanol/water mixtures and the amounts and structures of the extracted compounds were determined. Furthermore, Brandy de Jerez was diatomite- and membrane-filtered at different temperatures and the silicon content was analysed. It was found that up to 0.36% by weight of diatomite dissolved in the aqueous ethanol and amorphous silica, in the form of hollow spherical microparticles, was the most abundant component. Silicon concentrations in Brandy de Jerez increased by up to 163.0% after contact with diatomite and these changes were more marked for calcined diatomite. In contrast, reductions of more than 30% in silicon concentrations were achieved after membrane filtration at low temperatures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Perspectives on the changing spirit of GATT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Weinrichter

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the ECJ has treated the international legal framework of the external trade law of the Community with judicial self restraint. Especially the GATT was perceived as a forum for interstate negotiations driven by the spirit of intergovernmental reciprocity. Thus, the ECJ has concluded that the GATT should be protected from intrusion by national authorities and cannot be invoked directly before the court. However, in the context of new developments, GATT and WTO-law are increasingly seen differently: International trade rules can serve as a quasi-constitutional constraint on excessive national trade policy. Basic principles such as the Most Favored Nation clause, the principle of non-discrimination and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions are reinterpreted as protection of economic rights of individuals rather than as protection of interstate reciprocity. Application of GATT-rules by national authorities is thus essential for the effective implementation of the “spirit” of GATT to fight a potential bias in favor of protectionism. This article comments on the historic conditions and the development of this fundamental change in the perception of the spitit of the GATT and tries to assess its consequences.

  20. Perspectives on the changing spirit of GATT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Weinrichter

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the ECJ has treated the international legal framework of the external trade law of the Community with judicial self restraint. Especially the GATT was perceived as a forum for interstate negotiations driven by the spirit of intergovernmental reciprocity. Thus, the ECJ has concluded that the GATT should be protected from intrusion by national authorities and cannot be invoked directly before the court. However, in the context of new developments, GATT and WTO-law are increasingly seen differently: International trade rules can serve as a quasi-constitutional constraint on excessive national trade policy. Basic principles such as the Most Favored Nation clause, the principle of non-discrimination and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions are reinterpreted as protection of economic rights of individuals rather than as protection of interstate reciprocity. Application of GATT-rules by national authorities is thus essential for the effective implementation of the spirit of GATT to fight a potential bias in favor of protectionism. This article comments on the historic conditions and the development of this fundamental change in the perception of the spitit of the GATT and tries to assess its consequences.

  1. Conference report. Can spirit of Cairo survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, R

    1994-01-01

    Country representatives from around the globe came together at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) to draft a document in the spirit of compromise and unified intent. Marked controversy and conflict plagued the conference, both before and during the official meetings. Accord was nonetheless reached. The author wonders how long and to what extent the euphoria and compromise of the ICPD will last now that official talks are over. It is clear that paranoia and discord subsumed during the conference will persist, foment, and potentially resurface in confrontation over time. The South, for example, was upset about the failure of the conference to focus more upon development and environmental issues, while the Southern women's groups invested their energies into political ideologies and their development as a counterforce to international multinational scientific and corporate lobbies on pharmaceutical and contraceptive technologies. The women's caucus instead adopted a Western world view of sexuality which effectively permeated their lobbying and the conference. While dissent may resurface over time, the ICPD nonetheless set into motion positive processes for nongovernmental organization participation in a spirit of partnership within the UN systems and in the formulation of national policies and programs of their respective countries. In closing, the author expresses her regret that China and India maintained a low profile at the official meeting, and that Pakistan, rooted in Islam, spoke for the Indian subcontinent.

  2. Functional characterization of sugarcane mustang domesticated transposases and comparative diversity in sugarcane, rice, maize and sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Kajihara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transposable elements (TEs account for a large portion of plant genomes, particularly in grasses, in which they correspond to 50%-80% of the genomic content. TEs have recently been shown to be a source of new genes and new regulatory networks. The most striking contribution of TEs is referred as “molecular domestication”, by which the element coding sequence loses its movement capacity and acquires cellular function. Recently, domesticated transposases known as mustang and derived from the Mutator element have been described in sugarcane. In order to improve our understanding of the function of these proteins, we identified mustang genes from Sorghum bicolor and Zea mays and performed a phenetic analysis to assess the diversity and evolutionary history of this gene family. This analysis identified orthologous groups and showed that mustang genes are highly conserved in grass genomes. We also explored the transcriptional activity of sugarcane mustang genes in heterologous and homologous systems. These genes were found to be ubiquitously transcribed, with shoot apical meristem having the highest expression levels, and were downregulated by phytohormones. Together, these findings suggest the possible involvement of mustang proteins in the maintenance of hormonal homeostasis.

  3. Sugarcane maturity estimation through edaphic-climatic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpari Maximiliano Salles

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. grows under different weather conditions directly affecting crop maturation. Raw material quality predicting models are important tools in sugarcane crop management; the goal of these models is to provide productivity estimates during harvesting, increasing the efficiency of strategical and administrative decisions. The objective of this work was developing a model to predict Total Recoverable Sugars (TRS during harvesting, using data related to production factors such as soil water storage and negative degree-days. The database of a sugar mill for the crop seasons 1999/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 was analyzed, and statistical models were tested to estimate raw material. The maturity model for a one-year old sugarcane proved to be significant, with a coefficient of determination (R² of 0.7049*. No differences were detected between measured and estimated data in the simulation (P < 0.05.

  4. Pretreatment strategies for delignification of sugarcane bagasse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Grace Karp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The valorization of agro-residues by biological routes is a key technology that contributes to the development of sustainable processes and the generation of value-added products. Sugarcane bagasse is an agro-residue generated by the sugar and alcohol industry in Brazil (186 million tons per year, composed essentially of cellulose (32-44%, hemicellulose (27-32% and lignin (19-24%. The conversion of sugarcane bagasse into fermentable sugars requires essentially two steps: pretreatment and hydrolysis. The aim of the pretreatment is to separate the lignin and break the structure of lignocellulose, and it is one of the most critical steps in the process of converting biomass to fermentable sugars. The aim of this review is to describe different pretreatment strategies to promote the delignification of the sugarcane bagasse by thermo-chemical and biological processes.

  5. Comparative hydrolysis and fermentation of sugarcane and agave bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Salas, J M; Villa-Ramírez, M S; Veloz-Rendón, J S; Rivera-Hernández, K N; González-César, R A; Plascencia-Espinosa, M A; Trejo-Estrada, S R

    2009-02-01

    Sugarcane and agave bagasse samples were hydrolyzed with either mineral acids (HCl), commercial glucanases or a combined treatment consisting of alkaline delignification followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. Acid hydrolysis of sugar cane bagasse yielded a higher level of reducing sugars (37.21% for depithed bagasse and 35.37% for pith bagasse), when compared to metzal or metzontete (agave pinecone and leaves, 5.02% and 9.91%, respectively). An optimized enzyme formulation was used to process sugar cane bagasse, which contained Celluclast, Novozyme and Viscozyme L. From alkaline-enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse samples, a reduced level of reducing sugar yield was obtained (11-20%) compared to agave bagasse (12-58%). Selected hydrolyzates were fermented with a non-recombinant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Maximum alcohol yield by fermentation (32.6%) was obtained from the hydrolyzate of sugarcane depithed bagasse. Hydrolyzed agave waste residues provide an increased glucose decreased xylose product useful for biotechnological conversion.

  6. OPTIMIZED AGRICULTURAL PLANNING OF SUGARCANE USING LINEAR PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Salles Scarpari* and Edgar Gomes Ferreira de Beauclair**

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimized agricultural planning is a fundamental activity in business profitability because it can increase the returns from an operation with low additional costs. Nonetheless, the use of operations research adapted to sugarcane plantation management is still limited, resulting in decision-making at management level being primarily empirical. The goal of this work was to develop an optimized planning model for sugarcane farming using a linear programming tool. The program language used was General Algebraic Modelling System (GAMS as this system was seen to be an excellent tool to allow profit maximization and harvesting time schedule optimization in the sugar mill studied. The results presented support this optimized planning model as being a very useful tool for sugarcane management.

  7. SUGARCANE BAGASSE PULPING AND BLEACHING: THERMAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Fernandes Pereira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse in three stages. Initially sugarcane bagasse was subjected to a pre-treatment process with hydrolyzed acid to eliminate hemicellulose. Whole cellulosic fibers thus obtained were then subjected to a two-stage delignification process and finally to a bleaching process. The chemical structure of the resulting cellulose fibers was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD were used to analyze the effects of hydrolysis, delignification, and bleaching on the structure of the fibers. Two different thermal analysis techniques were used to study the bleaching cellulose fibers. These techniques confirmed that cellulose fibers were isolated from sugarcane bagasse. A future goal is to use these fibers as reinforcement elements in composites, organic-inorganic hybrid, and membranes for nanofiltration.

  8. Economic Perspectives of Sugarcane Crop in Pakistan: A Time Series Analysis (1970-2015 (Part 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rehman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between output of sugarcane crop, area under sugarcane crop, fertilizer consumption and agricultural GDP of Pakistan. The time series data used in this study were collected from the period of 1970-2015. Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF unit root test, Johansen Co-integration test and Ordinary Least Square an econometric technique have been used to analyze the data. The results of Johansen Co-integration test revealed that there exists a long-run relationship among output of sugarcane crop, area under sugarcane crop, fertilizer consumption and agricultural GDP of Pakistan. Regression results revealed that output of sugarcane crop and fertilizer consumption has significant and positive relationship with agricultural GDP while area under sugarcane crop has negative relationship. Therefore, this study recommended that Government of Pakistan should give high priority on the development of irrigation system and increase the cultivated area of sugarcane crop.

  9. 76 FR 75836 - Revisions to Distilled Spirits Plant Operations Reports and Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ..., and beer used for beverage purposes and distilled spirits used for nonbeverage purposes. Section 5001... number of plants authorized to produce or warehouse industrial spirits had begun to market spirits into...

  10. Isozyme Analysis on Different Varieties of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson M.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Isozymic and protein diversity among five sugarcane varieties viz., Co 6304, Co 85019, Co 8371, Co 89003 and Co 91010 were studied to understand the varietal interrelationship and to identify the biochemical marker for the disease resistance and stress tolerance. The standard technique of vertical gel electrophoresis PAGE was employed for size separation of isozymes. The gel was stained with different staining solutions for different isozyme systems viz. peroxidase, esterase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and proteins. Rf values of the banding profiles, similarity index and variation between the varieties were analysed. Among the four enzyme systems, peroxidase profile reveals the difference between the disease resistant / susceptible and abiotic stress tolerant / non tolerant varieties. The two isoperoxidase bands with Rf values 0.62 and 0.66 showed their presence in disease resistant and abiotic tolerant varieties. The presence of two marker bands (0.62, 0.66 of resistant and stress tolerant varieties suggest that the variety Co 6304 may also be resistant to smut, wilt and moderately resistant to red rot and tolerant to drought.

  11. Estimating Canopy Nitrogen Concentration in Sugarcane Using Field Imaging Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The retrieval of nutrient concentration in sugarcane through hyperspectral remote sensing is widely known to be affected by canopy architecture. The goal of this research was to develop an estimation model that could explain the nitrogen variations in sugarcane with combined cultivars. Reflectance spectra were measured over the sugarcane canopy using a field spectroradiometer. The models were calibrated by a vegetation index and multiple linear regression. The original reflectance was transformed into a First-Derivative Spectrum (FDS and two absorption features. The results indicated that the sensitive spectral wavelengths for quantifying nitrogen content existed mainly in the visible, red edge and far near-infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Normalized Differential Index (NDI based on FDS(750/700 and Ratio Spectral Index (RVI based on FDS(724/700 are best suited for characterizing the nitrogen concentration. The modified estimation model, generated by the Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR technique from FDS centered at 410, 426, 720, 754, and 1,216 nm, yielded the highest correlation coefficient value of 0.86 and Root Mean Square Error of the Estimate (RMSE value of 0.033%N (n = 90 with nitrogen concentration in sugarcane. The results of this research demonstrated that the estimation model developed by SMLR yielded a higher correlation coefficient with nitrogen content than the model computed by narrow vegetation indices. The strong correlation between measured and estimated nitrogen concentration indicated that the methods proposed in this study could be used for the reliable diagnosis of nitrogen quantity in sugarcane. Finally, the success of the field spectroscopy used for estimating the nutrient quality of sugarcane allowed an additional experiment using the polar orbiting hyperspectral data for the timely determination of crop nutrient status in rangelands without any requirement of prior

  12. 27 CFR 19.67 - Spirits produced in industrial processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industrial processes. 19.67 Section 19.67 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.67 Spirits produced in industrial processes. (a) Applicability. (1) Persons who produce spirits in industrial processes (including...

  13. 27 CFR 20.213 - Reuse of recovered spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reuse of recovered spirits. 20.213 Section 20.213 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Alcohol, Specially Denatured Rum, or Articles § 20.213 Reuse of recovered spirits. (a) If the...

  14. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  15. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  16. 27 CFR 31.47 - Warehouse receipts covering spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.47 Warehouse receipts covering spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  17. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  18. 27 CFR 19.348 - Determining age of mingled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining age of mingled spirits. 19.348 Section 19.348 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... the entire lot shall be the age of the youngest spirits contained in the lot. (Sec. 201, Pub. L. 85...

  19. 27 CFR 19.464 - Denatured spirits inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... inventories. 19.464 Section 19.464 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... of Articles Inventories § 19.464 Denatured spirits inventories. Each proprietor shall take a physical inventory of all denatured spirits in the processing account at the close of each calendar quarter and...

  20. BTL: a solution to increase energy efficiency in the Brazilian alcohol business

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza-Aguiar, Eduardo Falabella; Alves de Sousa, Sirlei Sebastiao; Barbosa de Oliveira, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    Brazil is the world largest producer of sugarcane, which has an energy potential of 1.2 barrels of petroleum per ton. On average, 55% of Brazilian sugarcane is converted into ethanol. When sugarcane is processed, the cane stalks are shredded and crushed to extract the cane juice while the fibrous outer residue (bagasse) is sent to the boiler to provide steam and electricity. With the availability of advanced cogeneration technologies, these units can nowadays employ the onsite bagasse resource to go beyond meeting their own energy requirements and produce surplus electricity. This work proposes a new route for 'green' diesel production. Gasification of biomass coupled with a high-conversion Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reactor. The FT synthesis produces hydrocarbons of different chain lengths from a synthesis gas (mixture of H{sub 2} and CO). The large hydrocarbons can be further hydrocracked to form mainly a high-quality diesel. The fraction of short hydrocarbons is used in a Combined Cycle with the unconverted syngas. The perspectives for application of this route - production of FT synthesis fuels based on biomass residue - ate promising in Brazil. (auth)

  1. Lithium storage into carbonaceous materials obtained from sugarcane bagasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsubara, Elaine Y.; Lala, Stella M.; Rosolen, Jose Mauricio, E-mail: rosolen@ffclrp.usp.b [University of Sao Paulo (FFCLRP/USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chemistry

    2010-07-01

    Carbonaceous materials with different structures are prepared by carbonization of sugarcane bagasse. Depending on carbonization conditions, it is possible to obtain soot rich in flakes or in honeycomb-shaped micrometric particles, whose concentration has large influence on lithium storage into electrodes. The soot rich in honeycomb-shaped particles provides the best electrochemical performance, with a reversible specific capacity of 310 mAh g{sup -1}. The results suggest that the sugarcane bagasse can be potentially used in the design of anodic materials for lithium ion batteries. (author)

  2. Spirit lodge, a Northern American shamanistic séance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åke Hultkrantz

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spirit Lodge is a variety of shamanism characterized by its divining functions. Herein lie its limitations: the shamanistic trance is there, and so are the helping spirits, but the curing activity so typical of shamanism is absent, or principally absent. The act of divining shows a certain affinity with the shamanistic pole-climbing performances and may originally have been related to these. The shaman does not himself make soul journeys to distant regions during the conjuring performance, except among the Arctic peoples where such journeys belong to the regular shamanistic pattern; instead, spirits are summoned and asked to make the necessary expeditions. These spirits represent different categories, but their leader, the control, is a ghost in several quarters. The spirits visit the shaman whilst the latter is in a trance; where soul journeys and, possibly, possession occur the ecstasy may be very deep, but this is not typical.

  3. Antagonism of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus (a sugarcane endosymbiont) against Xanthomonas albilineans (pathogen) studied in alginate-immobilized sugarcane stalk tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Yolanda; Blanch, María; Piñón, Dolores; Legaz, María-Estrella; Vicente, Carlos

    2005-04-01

    Xanthomonas albilineans, a pathogenic bacterium that produces leaf scald disease of sugarcane, secretes a xanthan-like gum that invades both xylem and phloem of the host. Xanthan production has been verified after experimental infection of stalk segments of healthy plants. Moreover, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont of sugarcane plants that antagonizes with X. albilineans by impeding the production of the bacterial gum. The physiological basis of this antagonism has been studied using tissues of sugarcane stalks previously inoculated with the endosymbiont, then immobilized in calcium alginate and maintained in a culture medium for Gluconacetobacter. Under these conditions, bacteria infecting immobilized tissues are able to secrete to the medium a lysozyme-like bacteriocin that inhibits the growth of X. albilineans.

  4. Sugarcane bagasse and castor oil polyurethane adhesive-based particulate composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fiorelli

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the potential use of sugarcane bagasse in two different fiber lengths (5 mm and 8 mm of the same density as a raw material for the production of particleboards, using castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive. The quality of the product that can be manufactured industrially was evaluated based on density, thickness swell (TS, absorption (WA, modulus of elasticity (MOE, modulus of rupture (MOR in static bending and internal bond (IB, according to the Brazilian NBR 14.810:2006 standard. The results revealed a significant difference between the particleboards made with 5-mm-long fibers and those made with 8-mm-long fibers. An analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM indicates that the interparticle spaces are filled with castor oil-based two-component polyurethane adhesive, contributing to improve the physicomechanical properties of the particleboards. A durability assessment based on accelerated aging tests shows that waterproofed particleboards can be used in moist environments.

  5. Sugarcane White Leaf Disease Incidences and Population Dynamic of Leafhopper Insect Vectors in Sugarcane Plantations in Northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabunta, Chiranan; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2015-04-01

    The work consisted of two experiments, i.e. Experiment 1 was conducted under controlled environments where sugarcane plants were used as hosts. This investigation aimed to monitor the occurrence of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease and the abundance of Leafhopper insect vectors and also the work aimed to provide useful information in understanding some aspects on epidemiology of the Sugarcane White Leaf disease. A Completely Randomized Design with three replications was used to justify growth and development of Leafhopper insects as affected by different temperatures: 20 (T1), 25 (T2), 30 (T3) and 35 degrees C (T4). Experiment 2 was carried out to determine the numbers of Leafhopper insects with the use of light traps in the sugarcane Field 1 (ratoon plants), Field 2 (newly planted), Field 3 (newly planted) and Field 4 (ratoon plants). The results of Experiment 1 showed that growth and development of Leafhopper insects were highly affected by temperatures i.e. the higher the environmental temperature the faster the growth and development of the insects to reach its full adulthood. At 20 degrees C, Leafhopper insects took 12 days to lay eggs whereas at 25 degrees C the insects took only 6 days. Male reached its adulthood approximately 9 days earlier than female when cultured at 25 degrees C and became approximately one week at 30 degrees C or higher. The results of Experiment 2 showed that the majority of Leafhopper insects were found within the months of June and July for both newly planted and ratoon crops. A small amount was found in May and August with an exceptional case of Field 4 where the highest number of Leafhopper insects was found in April followed by June and July. For Sugarcane White Leaf disease, the disease was found in all months of the year except February for Fields 2 and 3. Newly planted sugarcane plants attained much smaller percentages of disease than those of the ratoon plants.

  6. The Brazilian biofuels industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldemberg José

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is a biofuel that is used as a replacement for approximately 3% of the fossil-based gasoline consumed in the world today. Most of this biofuel is produced from sugarcane in Brazil and corn in the United States. We present here the rationale for the ethanol program in Brazil, its present 'status' and its perspectives. The environmental benefits of the program, particularly the contribution of ethanol to reducing the emission of greenhouse gases, are discussed, as well as the limitations to its expansion.

  7. Solidarity and Community Spirit during Evil Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONA-GRAZIA DIMA,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims both at identifying the various facets under which human solidarity manifested itself during the War of ethnic cleansing in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992-1995 and at highlighting the growing awareness of the community spirit in the same period of time, resulting in a part of the population being saved and in many spiritual and material values being preserved. The analysis is based on genuine interviews given by subjects involved in the events, all of which being collected in the volume Good People in an Evil Time by Dr. Svetlana Broz, a journalist, social activist and cardiologist (now president of the Bosnia-Herzegovina branch of GARIWO International. This book has been a best seller, and has been translated in many languages and presented over many tours in about 50 universities in the USA.

  8. The Holy Spirit and the early Church: The experience of the Spirit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van Oort

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, the present article explored the occurrence of special gifts of the Holy Spirit (charismata both in the New Testament and in a number of early Christian writers (e.g. Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian and Augustine. Secondly, it indicated how this experience of special charismata exerted its influence on the formulation of the most authoritative and ecumenical statement of belief, viz. the Creed of Nicaea-Constantinople (381.

  9. Identification of metalloprotease gene families in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H.P. Ramos

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Metalloproteases play a key role in many physiological processes in mammals such as cell migration, tissue remodeling and processing of growth factors. They have also been identified as important factors in the patho-physiology of a number of human diseases, including cancer and hypertension. Many bacterial pathogens rely on proteases in order to infect the host. Several classes of metalloproteases have been described in humans, bacteria, snake venoms and insects. However, the presence and characterization of plant metalloproteases have rarely been described in the literature. In our research, we searched the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST DNA library in order to identify, by homology with sequences deposited in other databases, metalloprotease gene families expressed under different conditions. Protein sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to search the SUCEST data bank. Conserved regions corresponding to different metalloprotease domains and sequence motifs were identified in the reads to characterize each group of enzymes. At least four classes of sugarcane metalloproteases have been identified, i.e. matrix metalloproteases, zincins, inverzincins, and ATP-dependent metalloproteases. Each enzyme class was analyzed for its expression in different conditions and tissues.Metaloproteases exercem papéis importantes em muitos processos fisiológicos em mamíferos tais como migração celular, remodelamento tecidual e processamento de fatores de crescimento. Estas enzimas estão envolvidas também na pato-fisiologia de um grande número de doenças humanas como hipertensão e câncer. Muitas bactérias patogênicas dependem de proteases para infectar o hospedeiro. Diversas classes de metaloproteases foram descritas em seres humanos, bactérias, venenos de serpentes e insetos. No entanto, a presença e a caracterização de metaloproteases em plantas estão pouco descritas na literatura. Neste trabalho, foi

  10. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    conditions of each surface. The rate goethite/(goethite+hematite) decreases the surface I to III this result is the variation of the source material that has an increase of clay which is characteristic of sandstone rock (Adamantine Formation) in the surface III. The rate kaolinite/(kaolinite+gibbsite) also shows a decrease of the surface I to the surface III. The spatial distribution pattern of mineralogy influenced the pattern of physical and chemical properties. On the surface III (with higher iron and gibbsite) had the best physical condition (lower density, higher porosity and aggregates) and greater phosphorus sorption. In this sense, the identification and mapping of the GSs, allowed a better understanding of cause and effect of the distribution of soils in the area, and the recognition of areas of controlled variability of soil attributes. These areas can be considered specific areas of management, useful for planning and management practices in the culture of sugarcane. Besides, suggesting criteria for the recognition of map units that would be equivalent to the future series of soils of the Brazilian System of Soil Classification.

  11. Sugarcane production under smallholder farming systems: Farmers preferred traits, constraints and genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Tena

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder sugarcane production sector is under researched and underdeveloped with limited industrial link and support. The objectives of this study were to assess the current state of sugarcane production, farmers’ perceived production constraints and preferred traits, and to collect germplasm grown by smallholder farmers in southern Ethiopia for strategic breeding and conservation. The study was conducted across 16 administrative zones, 28 districts and 56 peasant associations involving 560 smallholder sugarcane growers in southern Ethiopia using a participatory rural appraisal (PRA approach. Sugarcane genetic resources were collected through structured sampling. Findings from this study indicated that monocropping was identified as the predominant sugarcane farming system. Respondent farmers prioritized drought tolerance (21%, increased cane yield (20%, early maturity (18%, marketability (17%, and high biomass (14% as the top preferred traits of sugarcane. Ninety diverse sugarcane landraces were collected from homesteads of smallholder farmers. Findings from this study would serve as baseline information towards sugarcane research and development emphasising the constraints and preferences of smallholder sugarcane growers in Ethiopia or similar agro-ecologies. This is the first study to report farmers preferred traits and constraints, and genetic resources of sugarcane under smallholder farming systems in Ethiopia.

  12. The sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue: prospecting signal transduction in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Mendes Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available EST sequencing has enabled the discovery of many new genes in a vast array of organisms, and the utility of this approach to the scientific community is greatly increased by the establishment of fully annotated databases. The present study aimed to identify sugarcane ESTs sequenced in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br that corresponded to signal transduction components. We also produced a sugarcane signal transduction (SUCAST catalogue (http://sucest.lad.ic.unicamp.br/private/mining-reports/QG/QG-mining.htm that covered the main categories and pathways. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs encoding enzymes for hormone (gibberellins, ethylene, auxins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathways were found and tissue specificity was inferred from their relative frequency of occurrence in the different libraries. Whenever possible, transducers of hormones and plant peptide signaling were catalogued to the respective pathway. Over 100 receptors were found in sugarcane, which contains a large family of Ser/Thr kinase receptors and also photoreceptors, histidine kinase receptors and their response regulators. G-protein and small GTPases were analyzed and compared to known members of these families found in mammalian and plant systems. Major kinase and phosphatase pathways were mapped, with special attention being given to the MAP kinase and the inositol pathway, both of which are well known in plants.O sequenciamento de ESTs (etiquetas de sequencias transcritas tem possibilitado a descoberta de muitos novos genes em uma ampla variedade de organismos. Um aumento do aproveitamento desta informação pela comunidade científica tem sido possível graças ao desenvolvimento de base de dados contendo seqüências completamente anotadas. O trabalho aqui relatado teve como objetivo a identificação de ESTs de cana de açúcar seqüenciadas através do projeto SUCEST (http://sucest.lad.ic. unicamp.br que

  13. Rational regional distribution of sugarcane cultivars in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luo, Jun; Pan, Yong-Bao; Xu, Liping; Grisham, Michael Paul; Zhang, Hua; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present study, a heritability-adjusted genotype main effect plus genotype × environment (HA-GGE) biplot program was used to analyze the cane and sucrose yields of 44 newly released sugarcane cultivars at eight pilot test sites...

  14. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaker, Patricia D C; Palhares, Alessandra C; Taniguti, Lucas M; Peters, Leila P; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P; Vieira, Maria L C; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Aspergillus niger grown on sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman Gustavo H

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering that the costs of cellulases and hemicellulases contribute substantially to the price of bioethanol, new studies aimed at understanding and improving cellulase efficiency and productivity are of paramount importance. Aspergillus niger has been shown to produce a wide spectrum of polysaccharide hydrolytic enzymes. To understand how to improve enzymatic cocktails that can hydrolyze pretreated sugarcane bagasse, we used a genomics approach to investigate which genes and pathways are transcriptionally modulated during growth of A. niger on steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (SEB. Results Herein we report the main cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes with increased expression during growth on SEB. We also sought to determine whether the mRNA accumulation of several SEB-induced genes encoding putative transporters is induced by xylose and dependent on glucose. We identified 18 (58% of A. niger predicted cellulases and 21 (58% of A. niger predicted hemicellulases cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes, respectively, that were highly expressed during growth on SEB. Conclusions Degradation of sugarcane bagasse requires production of many different enzymes which are regulated by the type and complexity of the available substrate. Our presently reported work opens new possibilities for understanding sugarcane biomass saccharification by A. niger hydrolases and for the construction of more efficient enzymatic cocktails for second-generation bioethanol.

  16. RB962962, a sugarcane cultivar for late harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz José Oliveira Tavares de Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Northeast of Brazil, sugarcane cultivar RB962962 is harvested at the end of the cycle, between December and February, with a high sugar yield per area. Recommended for sandy soils of medium texture and fertility, it is resistant to the major diseases and fast-growing in plant and ratoon crops.

  17. Sugarcane soil fertility research: New data and current recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    If sugar and cane yields are to be optimized and profitability improved, it is critical that a sugarcane crop receive the proper levels of plant nutrients. Potassium (K) has been associated with plant water use and may aid in drought tolerance and disease resistance, phosphorus (P) is important for...

  18. RNAseq Transcriptional Profiling following Whip Development in Sugarcane Smut Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguti, Lucas M.; Peters, Leila P.; Creste, Silvana; Aitken, Karen S.; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Kitajima, João P.; Vieira, Maria L. C.; Monteiro-Vitorello, Claudia B.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane smut disease is caused by the biotrophic fungus Sporisorium scitamineum. The disease is characterized by the development of a whip-like structure from the primary meristems, where billions of teliospores are produced. Sugarcane smut also causes tillering and low sucrose and high fiber contents, reducing cane productivity. We investigated the biological events contributing to disease symptoms in a smut intermediate-resistant sugarcane genotype by examining the transcriptional profiles (RNAseq) shortly after inoculating the plants and immediately after whip emission. The overall picture of disease progression suggests that premature transcriptional reprogramming of the shoot meristem functions continues until the emergence of the whip. The guidance of this altered pattern is potentially primarily related to auxin mobilization in addition to the involvement of other hormonal imbalances. The consequences associated with whip emission are the modulation of typical meristematic functions toward reproductive organ differentiation, requiring strong changes in carbon partitioning and energy production. These changes include the overexpression of genes coding for invertases and trehalose-6P synthase, as well as other enzymes from key metabolic pathways, such as from lignin biosynthesis. This is the first report describing changes in the transcriptional profiles following whip development, providing a hypothetical model and candidate genes to further study sugarcane smut disease progression. PMID:27583836

  19. Mendel’s legacy lives through management of sugarcane pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entomology and classical Mendelian genetics have had a long association and Mendel’s legacy continues to live through sugarcane pests. In this paper, we discuss examples of that legacy as applied to conventional and molecular approaches to breeding for insect resistance. We also discuss the applicat...

  20. Sugarcane straw and the populations of pests and nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Luci Dinardo-Miranda

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The green cane harvesting represented a significant change in sugarcane ecosystem due to the presence of straw left on the soil and to the absence of fire. These two factors may affect the populations of pests and their natural enemies. Among the pests benefit from the green cane harvesting stand out the spittlebug, Mahanarva fimbriolata, the curculionid Sphenophorus levis and sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis. In areas of green cane harvesting, the population of these species grew faster than in areas of burnt cane. On the other hand, there are virtually no records of attacks by lesser cornstalk borers in areas of green cane harvesting. Populations of plant parasitic nematodes and the beetles Migdolus fryanus, very important pests of sugarcane, were apparently not affected by the green cane harvesting. Despite the absence of more consistent information, it appears that populations of ants and the giant borer Telchin licus can increase in green cane areas, due primarily to the difficulty of pest control. The partial or total removal of straw from the field represents an additional change to the ecosystem that could alter the status of pests and nematodes. It is likely that spittlebug, the curculionid S. levis and sugarcane borer populations decrease if a portion of the straw is removed from the field. However, the pest populations in areas where the straw is collected will not return to their original conditions at the time of burnt cane harvesting because the absence of fire will be maintained.

  1. Effect of Gasohol Production on the Sugarcane Industry in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanida Norasethasopon

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect ofgasohol production on sugarcane planting in Thailand. Pure ethanol of99.5 percent concentration is used to replace MTBE (Methyl TertiaryButyl Ether, which is normally used to increase octane number ofgasoline, to blend with gasoline at the rate of 10 percent to produceOctane 95 gasohol. There are several types of raw materials used inethanol production such as sugarcane, molasses, cassava, sweet potato, rice, corn, wheat, sweet sorghum, etc. The popular raw materials used in ethanol production in Thailand are molasses and cassava. Molasses are a by-product of sugar production process. They are the sugarcane residues that can no longer be extracted for more sugar. In many countries including Thailand, molasses are used as raw material to produce ethanol (1 ton of molasses can produce 260 liters of ethanol used in gasohol production. In this research, the researcher found that the problem of excess supply and low price of sugarcane can be solved if gasohol E20 or higher was used to replace the Octane 91 gasoline and Octane 95 gasoline.

  2. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with fertilizing treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHADIONO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Latief AS, Syarief R, Pramudya B, Muhadiono. 2010. Productivity of sugarcane plants of ratooning with various fertilizing treatments. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 43-47. This research aims to determine the sugarcane plants of ratooning productivity with low external input of fertilization treatment towards farmers can increase profits. The method used is the Completely Randomized Block Design (CRBD with four treatments and three repetitions (4x3. Sugarcane varieties R 579 planted in each patch experiment 5x5 m2. Dosage of fertilizer: P0 = 3.6 kg/year plot experiment was 100% dosage usage of chemical fertilizers used by farmers. Further dosages were P1 (75% = 2.7 kg/plot, P2 (50% = 1.8 kg/plot and P3 (0.25% = 0.9 kg/plot, each supplemented with fertilizer 5 mL of liquid organic/patch a year. Sugarcane crops with a variety of treatment showed no significant difference. The highest productivity was achieved at dosages of P2 (50% chemical fertilizers plus organic fertilizer is 21.67 kg per square meter. Chemical fertilizers can be saved 7 quintals per hectare a year or Rp 997,500 per year. Additional costs of liquid organic fertilizer Rp. 100,000 per hectare year and labor Rp 100,000 per hectare, so the additional advantage of saving farmers fertilizer Rp. 797,500 per year.

  3. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    my mord

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... to minimize the use of grains and cereals or other foods for ruminants ... rials tested were: 1) whole plant fresh sugarcane, variety CP 72-. 2086, with 13 ... was calculated by the weight loss of samples in bags during ruminal.

  4. Evaluating sugarcane diets for dairy cows using a digestion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Assis, A.G.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.

    2001-01-01

    To eliminate unnecessary feeding trials, a mechanistic model of sugarcane digestion was used in the search for suitable supplements to improve milk production. Milk production simulated by the model was compared with data observed in four feeding trials published in the tropical literature where cro

  5. Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2014-01-01

    Wet explosion pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse was investigated in pilot-scale with the aim of obtaining the highest possible sugar yield after pretreatment. The temperatures used were 155, 170, 185 and 200 C with or without addition of oxygen (0.6 MPa pressure). Enzymatic hydrolysis of washed...

  6. Lifecycle assessment of fuel ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ometto, A. R.; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Roma, W. N. L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the lifecycle assessment (LCA) of fuel ethanol, as 100% of the vehicle fuel, from sugarcane in Brazil. The functional unit is 10,000 km run in an urban area by a car with a 1,600-cm(3) engine running on fuel hydrated ethanol, and the resulting reference flow is 1,000 kg of eth...

  7. Feed Technology of Fibrous Sugarcane Residues for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuswandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundant sugarcane residue during shortage of roughage in dry season gives an opportunity to raise ruminants around sugarcane industries. However, these products are not widely used by farmers due to an assumption that the usage is inefficient and that the feed utilization technology is not widely recognized. Sugarcane fibrous residues (tops, bagasse and pith may be a potential feed component if pre-treated to increase its digestion and consumption by the animal, and/or supplemented by other ingredients to balance nutrients in the rumen as well as those for production purpose. Digestibility can be increased by chemical treatments such as ammoniation and other alkaline treatments, whereas consumption can be increased by physical treatments such as grinding, hammermilling or pelleting. Nutrients that are missing in these fibrous residues can be provided by addition of urea, molasses and minerals for maintenance need, and bypass nutrients (carbohydrates, protein and fats that are digested in the small intestine and available for tissue or milk synthesis. There are three options for development of livestock agribusiness based on fibrous sugarcane residues; however, these require several technologies to optimize the utilization of these residues.

  8. Importance and Status of Sugarcane Smut (Ustilago scitaminea) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, periodic assessment on the .... towards the last ratoon in all the three sugarcane plantations (Table 1). From the surveyed fields of ... Finchaa and the plantation with more than 50 years of smut history i.e. Wonji-Shoa, indicated that the ...

  9. A first formal approach to animal spirits beyond uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerasimos T. Soldatos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Standard Macroeconomics treats animal spirits as a source of uncertainty disturbing otherwise rational expectations. But, Keynesian animal spirits ensue from suboptimal emotional responses to socioeconomic status change beyond matters of uncertainty. This paper identifies such spirits with the disturbance from the optimal decision-making implied by an emotional well-being utility function. The introduction of a policy-maker, holding its own view of private welfare in a society of emotional individuals, generates by itself, i.e. in the absence of animal spirits, uniform business fluctuations. This is the result of the income redistribution needed to reconcile the policy-maker’s with the emotional individual’s view of private welfare. Consequently, if animal-spirits induced fluctuations are already present when a policy-maker is introduced in the economy, the aim of policy intervention should be the design of that income redistribution that would not aggravate the business cycle but that would end up in uniform only cycles, with the aid perhaps of discretionary interest rate policy. Nevertheless, if animal spirits do not exist when the policy-maker enters the system, the income-redistribution induced cycles may incite such spirits by themselves in which case the cycles will not be of the uniform type. All comes down to “income and emotion”, to an ageless and ecumenical fact of life, complicated purposefully or not by authority.

  10. Subsurface drip irrigation in different planting spacing of sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, R. C. M.; Barbosa, E. A. A.; Arruda, F. B.; Silva, T. J. A.; Sakai, E.; Landell, M. G. A.

    2012-04-01

    The use of subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) in sugarcane cultivation is an interesting cultural practice to improve production and allow cultivation in marginal lands due to water deficits conditions. The SDI provides better water use efficiency, due to the water and nutrients application in root zone plants. However, it is important to investigate the long-term effect of irrigation in the yield and technological quality in different ecological condition cultivation. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of SDI in sugarcane cultivated in different planting spacings on technological quality, yield and theoretical recoverable sugar during four cycles of sugarcane cultivation. The experiment was carried out at Colorado Mill, Guaíra, São Paulo State in Brazil, in a clay soil. The experiment was installed in randomized blocks, with six replications. The treatments were three different planting spacings (S1 - 1.5 m between rows; S2 - 1.8 m between rows and S3 - planting in double line of 0.5 m x 1.3 m between planting rows) which were subdivided in irrigated and non-irrigated plots. In S1 and S2 treatments were installed one drip line in each plant row and in treatment S3 one drip line was installed between the rows with smaller spacing (0.5 m). The RB855536 genotype was used and the planting date occurred in May, 25th 2005. The analyzed parameters were: percentage of soluble solids (brix), percent apparent sucrose juice (Pol), total recoverable sugar (ATR), yield and theoretically recoverable sugar (RTR). Four years of yield (plant cane and first, second and third ratoon) were analyzed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the averages compared by Duncan test at 5% probability. Two months before the first harvest a yield estimate was realized. According to the observed results the irrigated plants provided increase of about 20 % compared to non irrigated plants. However there was a great tipping of plants specially in irrigated plots. The

  11. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for the detection of Sugarcane mosaic virus and Sorghum mosaic virus in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for detecting Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) and Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) in sugarcane. Six sets of four primers corresponding to the conserved coat protein gene were designed for each virus and their succ...

  12. The Spirit of Western Business Ethics and Its Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi wei

    2008-01-01

    The development of socialist market economy needs the power support provided by western business ethics. To build the culture ofmodern business ethics in our country, we need absorb the useful spirit of business ethics from western business culture and use for reference. Basedon the analysis of the main spirit of Western business ethics, this paper puts forward that we must stress the role of business, establish an appropriateattitude towards profits, and mold a 'rational spirit of modem business in the process of building modem business culture in our country.

  13. Sugarcane Serine Peptidase Inhibitors, Serine Peptidases, and Clp Protease System Subunits Associated with Sugarcane Borer (Diatraea saccharalis) Herbivory and Wounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Ane H.; Mingossi, Fabiana B.; Dias, Renata O.; Franco, Flávia P.; Vicentini, Renato; Mello, Marcia O.; Moura, Daniel S.; Silva-Filho, Marcio C.

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane’s (Saccharum spp.) response to Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: (Crambidae) herbivory was investigated using a macroarray spotted with 248 sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) encoding serine peptidase inhibitors, serine peptidases. and Clp protease system subunits. Our results showed that after nine hours of herbivory, 13 sugarcane genes were upregulated and nine were downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, nine were similar to serine peptidase inhibitors and four were similar to Bowman-Birk Inhibitors (BBIs). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these sequences belong to a phylogenetic group of sugarcane BBIs that are potentially involved in plant defense against insect predation. The remaining four upregulated genes included serine peptidases and one homolog to the Arabidopsis AAA+ chaperone subunit ClpD, which is a member of the Clp protease system. Among the downregulated genes, five were homologous to serine peptidases and four were homologous to Arabidopsis Clp subunits (three homologous to Clp AAA+ chaperones and one to a ClpP-related ClpR subunit). Although the roles of serine peptidase inhibitors in plant defenses against herbivory have been extensively investigated, the roles of plant serine peptidases and the Clp protease system represent a new and underexplored field of study. The up- and downregulated D. saccharalis genes presented in this study may be candidate genes for the further investigation of the sugarcane response to herbivory. PMID:27598134

  14. The aptitude of the soils for the production of sugarcane. Part 2: Comparison of two methods at ‘Ciudad Caracas’ sugarcane mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Arzola Pina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to compare two methods for determining the aptitude of soils for growing Sugarcane in Cuba. The information was provided by three sugarcane farms owned by Ciudad Caracas sugarcane mill in the municipality of Santa Isabel de Las Lajas in Cienfuegos. The information of the soils from each farm was taken from the 1:25 000 scale cadastral maps designed by Ministerio de la Agricultura (MINAG. Rainfall data was collected from the nearby stations rain gauges. And the sugarcane yield was reported by each farm. The aptitude of the soils was determined by two methods (AGRO 24 de 1993 y Arzola de 1999 using the information available. Results showed that both methods are appropriate for selecting soils with higher productive potential, and are a useful tool for making right decisions for optimizing the land use at each sugarcane farm.

  15. 27 CFR 27.75 - Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. 27.75 Section 27.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER General Requirements Exemptions § 27.75 Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer for quality control purposes. Samples of distilled spirits, wine, and beer in...

  16. 27 CFR 19.349 - Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. 19.349 Section 19.349 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... of Spirits § 19.349 Mingled spirits or wines held in tanks. When spirits of less than 190 degrees...

  17. 27 CFR 19.57 - Recovery and reuse of denatured spirits in manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. 19.57 Section 19.57 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... denatured spirits in manufacturing processes. The following persons are not, by reason of the activities...) Manufacturers who use denatured spirits, or articles or substances containing denatured spirits, in a process...

  18. Phosphorus fertilization and lime application and its effect on sugarcane growth, yield and borer attack in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Walter Rasche Alvarez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Both soil phosphorus (P and soil acidity are the key factors in soil fertility management and of - ten limits crop production in subtropical agriculture. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of lime and different P rates on sugarcane variety and their interactive effect on the sugar cane borer attack. A three factorial experiment containing, two sugarcane varieties i. e., (SP81-3250 and RB-956911; with and without application of agricultural lime (3.5 t ha-1 and four P rates i. e., (0, 20, 40 and 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 was ca - rried out at the research field area of Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil during 2011-12. It assessed a sugarcane stalk length, b stem diameter; c number of internodes, d number of stalk ha-1, e stalk yield, f °Brix and g Intensity of infestation Index. Results indicated that, the stalk yields of RB-956911 and SP81-3250 was 106.6 and 139.8 Mg ha-1, respectively. The °Brix was between 18.60 % and 18.00 %, respectively. The Intensity of infestation Index was 2.76 % for the RB-956911 and 3.65 % for the SP81-3250. The lime application showed significant results only on the borer attack. Phosphorus application increased the sugarcane yield from 105.9 Mg ha-1 to 136.5 Mg ha-1 with 60 kg of P2O5 ha-1. The application of phosphorus increased sugarcane productivity but it does not contribute which increase the borer attack.

  19. On The Substitution of Energy Sources: The Effect of Flex Fuel Vehicles in the Brazilian Light Road Transportation Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Kamimura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available e substitution process resultant of the competition between two energy sources for the same market based on dynamic forecasting model derived from biomathematics, previously applied by authors in the Brazilian gasoline/hydrated ethanol consumption market is analyzed. The hydrated ethanol restriction supply due to decreasing production as a consequence of international price of sugar increasing was the prevailing motive of the forecast breaking. Again the stop and go process adopted by sugarcane private sector was the main reason of hydrated ethanol decreasing production

  20. Population genetics of the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Alves Lopes; Liriana Belizário Cantagalli; Ana Lucia Paz Barateiro Stuchi; Claudete Aparecida Mangolin; Maria Claudia Colla Ruvolo-Takasusuki

    2014-01-01

    Diatraea saccharalis is the principal pest of sugarcane in Brazil and is found throughout the sugarcane crop. Information about its population genetics is scarce, but population genetic analysis is of particular importance as a basis for a successful pest control program. Pest control requires a constant evaluation of genetic variability so that appropriate strategies can be employed. In this study, the structure of D. saccharalis populations in sugarcane crops was analyzed with PCR-RAPD (Pol...

  1. Flooding Tolerance of Sugarcane in Relation to Growth, Physiology and Root Structure

    OpenAIRE

    HIDAKA, Tetsushi; KARIM, Md. Abdul

    2007-01-01

    Different abiotic stresses, such as typhoon, excess water from the torrential rains, flooding during summer in the low lying areas and drought hinder sugarcane productivity. This study was initiated to analyze flooding induced changes in growth, physiology and root structure of sugarcane. A Japanese sugarcane variety, NiF8, was grown in pots inside a glasshouse under natural light and flooded for one month. Flooding increased root, leaf, stalk and total dry weight. Three different kinds of ro...

  2. Building Team Spirit in Organization Management Through a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building Team Spirit in Organization Management Through a System Approach. ... Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... This remains the situation and a major management problem wherespecialization has been over emphasized ...

  3. Healing words: becoming a spirit-host in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, John

    2011-08-01

    In discussion of healing processes in sub-Saharan Africa, emphasis is characteristically placed on the role of performance. Yet in spirit mediumship, speech is also an important element in therapeutic practices. In Madagascar, the spirits (tromba) are often of exotic origins (frequently in time as well as space) and the language used is likewise exotic. A complex of techniques of enchantment is employed: amongst them, music, changes of dress, the burning of perfumes and incense, rum, putting matches in the mouth, or the use of herbal medicines. Sometimes artefacts, such as - in the case discussed - a large model ship, are employed. Although the setting is shrine-like, the techniques are at once both dynamic and eclectic, collapsing time and space into a single embodied moment when the spirit speaks through the vehicle of the medium. Such 'spirit-speech' is itself empowered and empowering, cathartic and curative.

  4. The Rebellious Spirit of Minnie Wright in“Trifles”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金蕾

    2015-01-01

    By depicting an invisible but a round character Minnie Wright in "Trifles"--an investigation of a murder mystery,Susan Glaspell reveals a woman radical rebel,thereby disclosing the theme of awaking female rebellious spirit.

  5. The Rebellious Spirit of Minnie Wright in“Trifles”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金蕾

    2015-01-01

    By depicting an invisible but a round character Minnie Wright in“Trifles”--an investigation of a murder mystery,Susan Glaspell reveals a woman radical rebel,thereby disclosing the theme of awaking female rebellious spirit.

  6. Professor Witold Nowicki - a greatly spirited pathologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincewicz, A; Szepietowska, A; Sulkowski, S

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a complete overview of the scientific, professional and social activity of a great Polish pathologist, Witold Nowicki (1878-1941), from mainly Polish-written, original sources with a major impact on mostly his own publications. The biographical commemoration of this eminent professor is not only due to the fact that he provided a profound microscopic characterization of pneumatosis cystoides in 1909 and 1924. Nowicki greatly influenced the development of anatomical pathology in Poland, having authored over 82 publications, with special reference to tuberculosis, lung cancer, sarcomatous carcinomas, scleroma and others. However, the first of all his merits for the readership of Polish pathologists was his textbook titled Anatomical Pathology, which was a basic pathology manual in pre-war Poland. Witold Nowicki - as the head of the academic pathological anatomy department and former dean of the medical faculty - was shot with other professors by Nazi Germans in the Wuleckie hills in Lvov during World War Two. Professor Nowicki was described as being "small in size but great in spirit" by one of his associates, and remains an outstanding example of a meticulous pathologist, a patient tutor and a great social activist to follow.

  7. Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Meteor Search by Spirit, Sol 668 The panoramic cameras on NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers are about as sensitive as the human eye at night. The cameras can see the same bright stars that we can see from Earth, and the same patterns of constellations dot the night sky. Scientists on the rover team have been taking images of some of these bright stars as part of several different projects. One project is designed to try to capture 'shooting stars,' or meteors, in the martian night sky. 'Meteoroids' are small pieces of comets and asteroids that travel through space and eventually run into a planet. On Earth, we can sometimes see meteoroids become brilliant, long 'meteors' streaking across the night sky as they burn up from the friction in our atmosphere. Some of these meteors survive their fiery flight and land on the surface (or in the ocean) where, if found, they are called 'meteorites.' The same thing happens in the martian atmosphere, and Spirit even accidentally discovered a meteor while attempting to obtain images of Earth in the pre-dawn sky back in March, 2004 (see http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/spirit/20040311a.html, and Selsis et al. (2005) Nature, vol 435, p. 581). On Earth, some meteors come in 'storms' or 'showers' at predictable times of the year, like the famous Perseid meteor shower in August or the Leonid meteor shower in November. These 'storms' happen when Earth passes through the same parts of space where comets sometimes pass. The meteors we see at these times are from leftover debris that was shed off of these comets. The same kind of thing is predicted for Mars, as well. Inspired by calculations about Martian meteor storms by meteor scientists from the University of Western Ontario in Canada and the Centre de Recherche en Astrophysique de Lyon in France, and also aided by other meteor research colleagues from NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, scientists on the rover team

  8. SPIRITS: Uncovering Unusual Infrared Transients with Spitzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Bally, John; Masci, Frank; Cody, Ann Marie; Bond, Howard E.; Jencson, Jacob E.; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Cao, Yi; Contreras, Carlos; Dykhoff, Devin A.; Amodeo, Samuel; Armus, Lee; Boyer, Martha; Cantiello, Matteo; Carlon, Robert L.; Cass, Alexander C.; Cook, David; Corgan, David T.; Faella, Joseph; Fox, Ori D.; Green, Wayne; Gehrz, R. D.; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Johansson, Joel; Khan, Rubab M.; Lau, Ryan M.; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Milne, Peter; Mohamed, Shazrene; Morrell, Nidia; Monson, Andy; Moore, Anna; Ofek, Eran O.; O' Sullivan, Donal; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Perez, Andres; Perley, Daniel A.; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A.; Shenoy, Dinesh; Smith, Nathan; Surace, Jason; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Whitelock, Patricia A.; Williams, Robert

    2017-04-01

    We present an ongoing, five-year systematic search for extragalactic infrared transients, dubbed SPIRITS—SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey. In the first year, using Spitzer/IRAC, we searched 190 nearby galaxies with cadence baselines of one month and six months. We discovered over 1958 variables and 43 transients. Here, we describe the survey design and highlight 14 unusual infrared transients with no optical counterparts to deep limits, which we refer to as SPRITEs (eSPecially Red Intermediate-luminosity Transient Events). SPRITEs are in the infrared luminosity gap between novae and supernovae, with [4.5] absolute magnitudes between -11 and -14 (Vega-mag) and [3.6]-[4.5] colors between 0.3 mag and 1.6 mag. The photometric evolution of SPRITEs is diverse, ranging from 7 mag yr-1. SPRITEs occur in star-forming galaxies. We present an in-depth study of one of them, SPIRITS 14ajc in Messier 83, which shows shock-excited molecular hydrogen emission. This shock may have been triggered by the dynamic decay of a non-hierarchical system of massive stars that led to either the formation of a binary or a protostellar merger.

  9. SPIRITS: SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, Mansi; Cao, Yi; Surace, Jason; Helou, George; Williams, Robert; Kulkarni, Shri; Smith, Nathan; Armus, Lee; Bond, Howard; Cantiello, Matteo; Gehrz, Robert; Kobulnicky, Chip; Langer, Norbert; Levesque, Emily; Masci, Frank; Mohamed, Shazrene; Ofek, Eran; Parthasarathy, Mudumba; Tang, Sumin; van Dyk, Schuyler; Whitelock, Patricia

    2013-10-01

    The dynamic mid-infrared sky is hitherto largely unexplored. We propose the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) --- a systematic search of 242 nearby galaxies within 20 Mpc, on timescales ranging between a day to a year, to a depth of 20 mag. In preparation for SPIRITS, we undertook three pilot programs: searching the WISE data stream for variables in nearby galaxies, mining the Spitzer Heritage Archive, and Spitzer follow-up of optically discovered transients. Our results are encouraging and motivate our design of SPIRITS to fill in missing pieces in our understanding of the end points of stellar evolution. We expect to discover explosive transients (ILRT, LRN, CNe, SNe), eruptive variables (LBV, RSG, YSG, AGB, RSG) and possibly new phenomena. SPIRITS will be the definitive study to ascertain the rate and origin of two new classes of red gap transients, quantify the contribution of classical novae to galactic chemical evolution and uncover supernovae buried in starbursts. SPIRITS will also systematically probe mass loss rates and dust formation in the most massive stars. SPIRITS will yield a census of supergiant variability and asymptotic giant branch variability in diverse galaxy environments. SPIRITS will likely discover the first extragalactic 'Born Again Giant' stars. The SPIRITS team is committed to a concomitant ground-based NIR and optical survey and extensive, panchromatic follow-up: 110 nights of near-IR imaging, 66 nights of optical imaging and 60 nights of spectroscopy annually. Follow-up will serve to maximize the discovery potential of our requested 994 hrs of Spitzer/IRAC observing time. We believe it is time that the Spitzer Great Observatory add another time-domain jewel in its crown.

  10. Spirit-guided care: Christian nursing for the whole person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lyn S; Walker, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare today is challenged to provide care that goes beyond the medical model of meeting physical needs. Despite a strong historical foundation in spiritual whole person care, nurses struggle with holistic caring. We propose that for the Christian nurse, holistic nursing can be described as Spirit-guided care--removing oneself as the moiatiating force and allowing Christ, in the furm of the Holy Spirit, to flow through and guide the nurse in care of patients and families.

  11. Should the‘Wolf Spirit' Be Enshrined as Corporate Culture?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Jiang Rong's novel Wolf Totem was a hit in 2004, generating in many people a longing for the "wolf spirit." Before long, the totem began to be widely worshipped in the corporate world. As wolf chic gained momentum, a series of books such as The Way of Wolves, The Wolf Spirit of Enterprises, The Soul of Wolves and Think Like Wolves rolled off the printing presses,

  12. Residual biomass potential of commercial and pre-commercial sugarcane cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Guimarães de Andrade Landell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is an efficient and sustainable alternative for energy generation compared to non-renewable sources. Currently, during the mechanized harvest process, the straw left in the field can be used in part for the second generation ethanol and increasing the electric energy production. Thus, this study aimed to provide information on the potential for residual biomass cultivars of sugarcane cropping system. This study provides the following information: yield of straw, depending on the calculated leaf area index and the number of tillers per linear meter; primary energy production of several sugarcane genotypes; contribution of dry tops and leaves; biomass yield; and evaluation of fiber, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Preliminary results obtained by researchers of the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and reCviews related studies are presented. The results suggest that the production of sugarcane straw content varies according to the cultivars; the greater mass of sugarcane straw is in the top leaves and that the potential for the crude energy production of sugarcane per area unit can be increased using fiber-rich species or species that produce more straw. The straw indexes was shown to be a good indicator and allow the estimation of straw volumes generated in a sugarcane crop. The cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin composition in sugarcane is distinct among varieties. Therefore, it is possible to develop distinct biomass materials for energy production and for the development of sugarcane mills using biochemical processes and thermal routes.

  13. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  14. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Lucas Carvalho Basilio; Stürmer, Sidney Luiz; Lambais, Marcio Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning). Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development. PMID:25477936

  15. Early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development in sugarcane under two harvest management systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Carvalho Basilio de Azevedo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is grown on over 8 million ha in Brazil and is used to produce ethanol and sugar. Some sugarcane fields are burned to facilitate harvesting, which can affect the soil microbial community. However, whether sugarcane pre-harvest burning affects the community of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and symbioses development is not known. In this study, we investigated the early impacts of harvest management on AMF spore communities and root colonization in three sugarcane varieties, under two harvest management systems (no-burning and pre-harvest burning. Soil and root samples were collected in the field after the first harvest of sugarcane varieties SP813250, SP801842, and RB72454, and AMF species were identified based on spore morphology. Diversity indices were determined based on spore populations and root colonization determined as an indicator of symbioses development. Based on the diversity indices, spore number and species occurrence in soil, no significant differences were observed among the AMF communities, regardless of harvest management type, sugarcane variety or interactions between harvest management type and sugarcane variety. However, mycorrhiza development was stimulated in sugarcane under the no-burning management system. Our data suggest that the sugarcane harvest management system may cause early changes in arbuscular mycorrhiza development.

  16. Homogeneous Modification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Graft Copolymerization in Ionic Liquid for Oil Absorption Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane bagasse, lignocellulosic residue from the sugar industry, is an abundant and renewable bioresource on the earth. The application of ionic liquids in sugarcane bagasse biorefinery is gaining increasing interest. The homogeneous modification of sugarcane bagasse by free radical initiated graft copolymerization of acrylate monomers using 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride as solvent was performed. A variety of sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers with different weight percent gain were prepared via adjusting the monomer dosage. FT-IR studies confirmed the success in attaching the poly(acrylate side chains onto sugarcane bagasse. Oil absorbency studies suggested that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers were potential biobased materials for effective treatment of ester-based oils. SEM studies showed that the sugarcane bagasse graft copolymers displayed a dense morphology structure. Thermogravimetric analysis demonstrated that the thermal stability of sugarcane bagasse decreased after the homogeneous modification by the graft copolymerization. The present study provides an alternative strategy to convert sugarcane bagasse into a value-added functional biobased material.

  17. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Stocks of Different Hawaiian Sugarcane Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Tirado-Corbalá

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane has been widely used as a biofuel crop due to its high biological productivity, ease of conversion to ethanol, and its relatively high potential for greenhouse gas reduction and lower environmental impacts relative to other derived biofuels from traditional agronomic crops. In this investigation, we studied four sugarcane cultivars (H-65-7052, H-78-3567, H-86-3792 and H-87-4319 grown on a Hawaiian commercial sugarcane plantation to determine their ability to store and accumulate soil carbon (C and nitrogen (N across a 24-month growth cycle on contrasting soil types. The main study objective establish baseline parameters for biofuel production life cycle analyses; sub-objectives included (1 determining which of four main sugarcane cultivars sequestered the most soil C and (2 assessing how soil C sequestration varies among two common Hawaiian soil series (Pulehu-sandy clay loam and Molokai-clay. Soil samples were collected at 20 cm increments to depths of up to 120 cm using hand augers at the three main growth stages (tillering, grand growth, and maturity from two experimental plots at to observe total carbon (TC, total nitrogen (TN, dissolved organic carbon (DOC and nitrates (NO−3 using laboratory flash combustion for TC and TN and solution filtering and analysis for DOC and NO−3. Aboveground plant biomass was collected and subsampled to determine lignin and C and N content. This study determined that there was an increase of TC with the advancement of growing stages in the studied four sugarcane cultivars at both soil types (increase in TC of 15–35 kg·m2. Nitrogen accumulation was more variable, and NO−3 (<5 ppm were insignificant. The C and N accumulation varies in the whole profile based on the ability of the sugarcane cultivar’s roots to explore and grow in the different soil types. For the purpose of storing C in the soil, cultivar H-65-7052 (TC accumulation of ~30 kg·m−2 and H-86-3792 (25 kg·m−2 rather H-78

  18. NDVI to Detect Sugarcane Aphid Injury to Grain Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, N C; Backoulou, G F; Brewer, M J; Giles, K L

    2015-06-01

    Multispectral remote sensing has potential to provide quick and inexpensive information on sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), pest status in sorghum fields. We describe a study conducted to determine if injury caused by sugarcane aphid to sorghum plants in fields of grain sorghum could be detected using multispectral remote sensing from a fixed wing aircraft. A study was conducted in commercial grain sorghum fields in the Texas Gulf Coast region in June 2014. Twenty-six commercial grain sorghum fields were selected and rated for the level of injury to sorghum plants in the field caused by sugarcane aphid. Plant growth stage ranged from 5.0 (watery ripe) to 7.0 (hard dough) among fields; and plant injury rating from sugarcane aphid ranged from 1.0 (little or no injury) to 4.0 (>40% of plants displaying injury) among fields. The normalized differenced vegetation index (NDVI) is calculated from light reflectance in the red and near-infrared wavelength bands in multispectral imagery and is a common index of plant stress. High NDVI indicates low levels of stress and low NDVI indicates high stress. NDVI ranged from -0.07 to 0.26 among fields. The correlation between NDVI and plant injury rating was negative and significant, as was the correlation between NDVI and plant growth stage. The negative correlation of NDVI with injury rating indicated that plant stress increased with increasing plant injury. Reduced NDVI with increasing plant growth probably resulted from reduced photosynthetic activity in more mature plants. The correlation between plant injury rating and plant growth stage was positive and significant indicating that plant injury from sugarcane aphid increased as plants matured. The partial correlation of NDVI with plant injury rating was negative and significant indicating that NDVI decreased with increasing plant injury after adjusting for its association with plant growth stage. We demonstrated that remotely sensed imagery acquired from grain

  19. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  20. Enhanced ethanol production from sugarcane juice by galactose adaptation of a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of Pichia kudriavzevii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaliwal, S.S.; Oberoi, H.S.; Sandhu, S.K.; Nanda, D.; Kumar, D.; Uppal, S.K.

    2011-01-01

    The thermotolerant yeast strain isolated from sugarcane juice through enrichment technique was identified as a strain of Pichiakudriavzevii (Issatchenkiaorientalis) through molecular characterization. The P. kudriavzevii cells adapted to galactose medium produced about 30% more ethanol from sugarcan

  1. Fiber composition of a diversity panel of the world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) and related grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The world collection of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrids) and related grasses (WCSRG) is an important genetic resource for sugarcane and energy cane (Saccharum hybrids) breeding. Fiber components and structural carbohydrates in bioenergy feedstocks are utilized for conversion to lignocellulosic biofuel....

  2. Molecular Detection of Endophytic Bacteria on Plantlet Tissue of Sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIWIK EKO WIDAYATI

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic bacteria live in plant host tissues without causing any symptoms. The aim of this study was to examine the indigenous endophytic bacteria on sugarcane plantlets produced from the young leaf cells by using tissue culture techniques. To detect the existence of endophytic bacteria in the plantlet tissue, a series of molecular method based on PCR were applied by using ribosomal intergenic spacer (RIS primer followed by 16S rDNA partial sequence and single strand conformation polymorphism (SCCP. The results showed that the molecular method could detect the existence of bacteria in the tissues. Using the same methods, the bacteria were also found in other developmental stages of sugarcane (explants, differentiated tissues and callus.

  3. Genomic evidence of intraspecific recombination in sugarcane mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhi, Abinash; Ramu, Karri

    2011-04-01

    The sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) of the genus potyvirus, which primarily affects maize, sugarcane, sorghum, abaca, and grasses, occurs worldwide and causes significant economic loss. Using the full genome sequences of SCMV and several recombination detection methods, in this study we report that recombination is the major driving force in the evolution and emergence of several new variants of SCMV. We reported eight highly significant (P < 0.001) recombination break points, majority of which are located within 6K1-VPg-NIaPro-NIb region, thus indicating a region for recombination hotspot. The observation of commonalities of same recombination events among the SCMV isolates between the countries (Spain and Mexico), and within the country (within China, and within Mexico), suggests common origin of the isolates in respective regions.

  4. Microalgae cultivation in sugarcane vinasse: Selection, growth and biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Hugo; Cereijo, Carolina R; Teles, Valérya C; Nascimento, Rodrigo C; Fernandes, Maiara S; Brunale, Patrícia; Campanha, Raquel C; Soares, Itânia P; Silva, Flávia C P; Sabaini, Priscila S; Siqueira, Félix G; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2017-03-01

    Sugarcane ethanol is produced at large scale generating wastes that could be used for microalgae biomass production in a biorefinery strategy. In this study, forty microalgae strains were screened for growth in sugarcane vinasse at different concentrations. Two microalgae strains, Micractinium sp. Embrapa|LBA32 and C. biconvexa Embrapa|LBA40, presented vigorous growth in a light-dependent manner even in undiluted vinasse under non-axenic conditions. Microalgae strains presented higher biomass productivity in vinasse-based media compared to standard Bold's Basal Medium in cultures performed using 15L airlift flat plate photobioreactors. Chemical composition analyses showed that proteins and carbohydrates comprise the major fractions of algal biomass. Glucose was the main monosaccharide detected, ranging from 46% to 76% of the total carbohydrates content according to the strain and culture media used. This research highlights the potential of using residues derived from ethanol plants to cultivate microalgae for the production of energy and bioproducts.

  5. Spittlebug impacts on sugarcane quality and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina Ravaneli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the impacts of spittlebug (Mahanarva fimbriolata attack on sugarcane quality and ethanol production. Technological and microbiological parameters of juice and fermentation process were evaluated in ten fermentation cycles and two harvest seasons. Treatments consisted of different spittlebug stalk damage levels: control, with 100% of apparently healthy stalks; medium, with 15% of damaged or dry stalks (DDS; high, with 30% of DDS; and very high, with 60% of DDS. Spittlebug attack caused significant losses in cane quality, reducing total soluble solids, sucrose content, total reducing sugars, and pH, and increasing total phenolic compounds, and total and volatile juice acidity. The fermentation process was also significantly affected, resulting in lower ethanol content in wine. There was an increase in acetaldehyde concentration in the distillate. The spittlebug attack caused negative impacts on sugarcane quality and fermentation process, and these impacts are stronger in late season harvests.

  6. Process Alternatives for Second Generation Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F. Furlan, Felipe; Giordano, Roberto C.; Costa, Caliane B. B.

    2015-01-01

    on the economic feasibility of the process. For the economic scenario considered in this study, using bagasse to increase ethanol production yielded higher ethanol production costs compared to using bagasse for electric energy production, showing that further improvements in the process are still necessary.......In ethanol production from sugarcane juice, sugarcane bagasse is used as fuel for the boiler, to meet the steam and electric energy demand of the process. However, a surplus of bagasse is common, which can be used either to increase electric energy or ethanol production. While the first option uses...... already established processes, there are still many uncertainties about the techno-economic feasibility of the second option. In this study, some key parameters of the second generation ethanol production process were analyzed and their influence in the process feasibility assessed. The simulated process...

  7. Viruses causing mosaic disease in sugarcane and their genetic diversity in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D-L; Park, J-W; Mirkov, T E; Zhou, G-H

    2008-01-01

    A survey of cultivated hybrid sugarcane (Saccharum inter-specific hybrid) and noble sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) in southern China for the presence of Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV), Sorghum mosaic virus (SrMV) and Sugarcane streak mosaic virus (SCSMV) was conducted by RT-PCR from the years 2003 to 2006. SCMV and SrMV, but not SCSMV, were found. A high incidence of SCMV and SrMV coinfection was revealed in both hybrid and noble sugarcanes. All coinfected plants showed mosaic symptom, whereas plants infected with a single virus were symptomatic or asymptomatic. It appears that virus mixtures are more virulent than single infections. The nucleotide sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 33 SCMV and 10 SrMV isolates from this study were compared to those of CP genes of SCMV and SrMV reported in GenBank. One hundred and seventy-three SCMV isolates, with the exception of MDB and Abaca strains, can be grouped into five groups, which include three previously known groups, the sugarcane (SCE), maize (MZ), and Thailand groups, and two newly identified groups, the noble sugarcane (NSCE) and Brazil groups. Twenty-two SrMV isolates were divided into two groups, HS (hybrid sugarcane) and NS (noble sugarcane) groups. Five out of eight SrMV hybrid isolates belonged to the HS group, and two SrMV noble isolates and three hybrid isolates were within the NS group. Interestingly, the three hybrid isolates within the NS group were isolated from hybrid sugarcane co-infected with SCMV. This indicates that SCMV helps the NS group SrMV to infect hybrid sugarcane.

  8. Reliability evaluation and analysis of sugarcane 7000 series harvesters in sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Najafi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The performance of agricultural machines depends on the reliability of the equipment used, the maintenance efficiency, the operation process, the technical expertise of workers, etc. As the size and complexity of agricultural equipment continue to increase, the implications of equipment failure become even more critical. Machine failure probability is (1-R and R is machine reliability (Vafaei et al., 2010. Moreover, system reliability is the probability that an item will perform a required function without failure under stated conditions for a stated period of time (Billinton and Allan, 1992. Therefore, we must be able to create an appropriate compromise between maintenance methods and acceptable reliability levels. Precision failure data gathering in a farm is a worthwhile work, because these can represent a good estimate of machine reliability combining the effects of machine loading, surrounding effects and incorrect repair and maintenance. Each machine based on its work conditions, parts combinationand manufacturing process follows a failures distribution function depending on the environment where the machine work and the machine’s specifications (Meeker and Escobar, 1998. General failures distributions for contiguous data are normal, log-normal, exponential and Weibull (Shirmohamadi, 2002. Each machine can represent proportionate behavior with these functions in short or long time. Materials and methods: The study area was the Hakim Farabi agro-industry Company located 35 kilometers south of Ahvaz in Iran. Arable lands of this company are located in 31 to 31°10 N latitude and 45 to 48°36 E longitudes. The region has dry and warm climate. A total of 24 Austoft 7000 sugarcane chopper harvester are being used in the company. Cane harvesters were divided into 3 group consisting of old, middle aged and new. From each group, one machine was chosen. Data from maintenance reports of harvesters which have been recorded within 400

  9. Heat stress assessment among workers in a Nicaraguan sugarcane farm

    OpenAIRE

    Cortez, Orlando Delgado

    2009-01-01

    Background: Heat illness is a major cause of preventable morbidity worldwide. Workers exposed to intense heat can become unable to activate compensation mechanisms, putting their health at risk. Heat stress also has a direct impact on production by causing poor task performance and it increases the possibility of workrelated morbidity and injuries. During the sugarcane harvest period, workers are exposed to excessive sunlight and heat from approximately 6 am to 3 pm. A first assessment of hea...

  10. Genotype-specific microsatellite (SSR) markers for the sugarcane germplasm in the Karst region of Guizhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is the first report on SSR-based molecular evaluation of genetic variability among sugarcane genotypes from the Karst region of China that provides useful information for local sugarcane improvement. Eighteen sugarcane genotypes including 13 active cultivars and five elite QT-series clones bred l...

  11. Oil spill sorption using raw and acetylated sugarcane bagasse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Behnood; Bagher Anvaripour; Nematollah Jaafarzadeh; Masoome Farasati

    2016-01-01

    In the recent decades oil spills in the aquatic environments are one of the major sources of environmental pollutions, which are steadily growing with the increase in oil consumption. Adsorption is a rapid and cost effective processto minimize the environmental impacts of oil spills andcleanup these pollutants. In this work, the crude oil sorption capacity was examined with raw sugarcane bagasse and acetylated sugarcane bagasse. Results show that the acetylated bagasse was significantly more oleophilic than the raw bagasse and acetylation reaction can increase bagasse oil sorption ability by about 90%. The maximum sorption capacities of acetylated bagasse were obtained about 11.3 g and 9.1 g in dry system (crude oil sorption) and oil layer sorption, respectively. The physicochemical characteristics of the sorbents such as composition, water solubility, moisture content and density were measured according to ASTM standard methods. Also Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of raw and acetylated bagasse was performed to investigate the effect of acetylation on sugarcane bagasse structure.

  12. Land Suitability Assessment for Sugarcane in "Herois de Caxito" (Angola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baert, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of the soils surrounding the sugarcane plantation at "Herois de Caxito" (7068 ha is assessed. The main goal is to identify land suitability for the enlargement of the present plantation, using FAO land evaluation models (modified to suit Herois de Caxito conditions and GIS. Calculations of the radiationthermal production potential (RPP, land production potential (LPP, irrigation suitability index, and evaluation of the irrigation water quality are done. The water-limited production potential (WPP is found equal to the RPP, because water needs were fully met under irrigation. Maps showing the spatial distribution of the LPP and the suitability for irrigation are generated. The matching of irrigation and fertility indices has shown that, about 40% of the soils with good fertility for sugarcane production present low suitability for irrigation, the main limitations being the very fine texture and the drainage. The available surface water at Herois de Caxito (Dande river is of very good quality for irrigation of sugarcane.

  13. Survey of transposable elements in sugarcane expressed sequence tags (ESTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi Magdalena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST project has produced a large number of cDNA sequences from several plant tissues submitted or not to different conditions of stress. In this paper we report the result of a search for transposable elements (TEs revealing a surprising amount of expressed TEs homologues. Of the 260,781 sequences grouped in 81,223 fragment assembly program (Phrap clusters, a total of 276 clones showed homology to previously reported TEs using a stringent cut-off value of e-50 or better. Homologous clones to Copia/Ty1 and Gypsy/Ty3 groups of long terminal repeat (LTR retrotransposons were found but no non-LTR retroelements were identified. All major transposon families were represented in sugarcane including Activator (Ac, Mutator (MuDR, Suppressor-mutator (En/Spm and Mariner. In order to compare the TE diversity in grasses genomes, we carried out a search for TEs described in sugarcane related species O.sativa, Z. mays and S. bicolor. We also present preliminary results showing the potential use of TEs insertion pattern polymorphism as molecular markers for cultivar identification.

  14. Lime pretreatment and fermentation of enzymatically hydrolyzed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Sarita C; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Costa, Aline C

    2013-03-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was subjected to lime (calcium hydroxide) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis for second-generation ethanol production. A central composite factorial design was performed to determine the best combination of pretreatment time, temperature, and lime loading, as well as to evaluate the influence of enzymatic loadings on hydrolysis conversion. The influence of increasing solids loading in the pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis stages was also determined. The hydrolysate was fermented using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and continuous mode. In the continuous fermentation, the hydrolysates were concentrated with molasses. Lime pretreatment significantly increased the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse without the need for prior particle size reduction. In the optimal pretreatment conditions (90 h, 90 °C, 0.47 glime/g bagasse) and industrially realistic conditions of hydrolysis (12.7 FPU/g of cellulase and 7.3 CBU/g of β-glucosidase), 139.6 kglignin/ton raw bagasse and 126.0 kg hemicellulose in the pretreatment liquor per ton raw bagasse were obtained. The hydrolysate from lime pretreated sugarcane bagasse presented low amounts of inhibitors, leading to ethanol yield of 164.1 kgethanol/ton raw bagasse.

  15. Urea in sugarcane-based diets for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Ferreira Santiago

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of adding four levels (0, 4, 8 and 12 g/kg, as fed of a mixture (9:1 of urea and ammonium sulfate (UAs to sugarcane on feed intake and digestibility, productive performance and metabolism of nitrogen compounds of dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (12.6±0.5 kg/d of milk, 225±90 days in milk were distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares, receiving diets with the same amount of nitrogen (125 g crude protein/kg of dry matter. Concentrate feed was supplied at a ratio of 1 kg for each 3 kg of milk produced. The sugarcane presented 21.9 ºBrix. The level of UAs did not affect intake, total digestibility of diet components, milk production or milk components. Increasing UAs level linearly increased concentration of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, urinary excretion of nitrogen and contribution of non-urea nitrogen in the urinary excretion and linearly reduced milk production/urinary excretion of nitrogen ratio. In spite of the linear increase of PUN with increased urea, the maximum value observed (14.31 mg/dL was below the threshold value of 20 mg/dL, above which reproductive function may be compromised. In diets with sugarcane for dairy cows with production below 15 kg/day, the UAs level may be raised from 0 to 12 g/kg natural matter without impairing performance.

  16. Expression Analysis of Sugarcane Aquaporin Genes under Water Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manassés Daniel da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work is a pioneer study specifically addressing the aquaporin transcripts in sugarcane transcriptomes. Representatives of the four aquaporin subfamilies (PIP, TIP, SIP, and NIP, already described for higher plants, were identified. Forty-two distinct aquaporin isoforms were expressed in four HT-SuperSAGE libraries from sugarcane roots of drought-tolerant and -sensitive genotypes, respectively. At least 10 different potential aquaporin isoform targets and their respective unitags were considered to be promising for future studies and especially for the development of molecular markers for plant breeding. From those 10 isoforms, four (SoPIP2-4, SoPIP2-6, OsPIP2-4, and SsPIP1-1 showed distinct responses towards drought, with divergent expressions between the bulks from tolerant and sensitive genotypes, when they were compared under normal and stress conditions. Two targets (SsPIP1-1 and SoPIP1-3/PIP1-4 were selected for validation via RT-qPCR and their expression patterns as detected by HT-SuperSAGE were confirmed. The employed validation strategy revealed that different genotypes share the same tolerant or sensitive phenotype, respectively, but may use different routes for stress acclimation, indicating the aquaporin transcription in sugarcane to be potentially genotype-specific.

  17. Estimation of herbicide bioconcentration in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz Cerdeira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important crop for sugar and biofuel production in Brazil. Growers depend greatly on herbicides to produce it. This experiment used herbicide physical-chemical and sugarcane plant physiological properties to simulate herbicide uptake and estimate the bioconcentration factor (BCF. The (BCF was calculated for the steady state chemical equilibrium between the plant herbicide concentration and soil solution. Plant-water partition coefficient (sugarcane bagasse-water partition coefficient, herbicide dilution rate, metabolism and dissipation in the soil-plant system, as well as total plant biomass factors were used. In addition, we added Tebuthiuron at rate of 5.0kg a.i. ha-1 to physically test the model. In conclusion, the model showed the following ranking of herbicide uptake: sulfentrazone > picloram >tebuthiuron > hexazinone > metribuzin > simazine > ametryn > diuron > clomazone > acetochlor. Furthermore, the highest BCF herbicides showed higher Groundwater Ubiquity Score (GUS index indicating high leaching potential. We did not find tebuthiuron in plants after three months of herbicide application

  18. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect's digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms.

  19. Isolation and Characterisation of Endophytic Nitrogen Fixing Bacteria in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muangthong, Ampiga; Youpensuk, Somchit; Rerkasem, Benjavan

    2015-04-01

    Endophytic nitrogen fixing bacteria were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of industrial variety (cv. U-Thong 3; UT3), wild and chewing sugarcane plants grown for 6 weeks in nitrogen (N)-free sand. Eighty nine isolates of endophytic bacteria were obtained on N-free agar. An acetylene reduction assay (ARA) detected nitrogenase activity in all 89 isolates. Three isolates from the chewing (C2HL2, C7HL1 and C34MR1) sugarcane and one isolate from the industrial sugarcane (UT3R1) varieties were characterised, and their responses to different yeast extract concentrations were investigated. Three different responses in nitrogenase activity were observed. Isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1 exhibited major increases with the addition of 0.005% yeast extract, C34MR1 exhibited no response, and UT3R1 exhibited a significant decrease in nitrogenase activity with 0.005% yeast extract. In all the isolates, nitrogenase activity decreased with further increase of the yeast extract to 0.05%. The highest nitrogenase activity was observed in isolates C2HL2 and C7HL1, which had 16S rRNA gene sequences that were closely related to Novosphingobium sediminicola and Ochrobactrum intermedium, respectively.

  20. Fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different operational settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. G. Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The interventions performed during the mechanized harvesting are essential to improve the operational performance of sugarcane harvesters and reduce operational costs. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the fuel consumption of a sugarcane harvester in different forward speeds and engine rotations. Harvesting was conducted in a green cane plot, with the variety RB 855156. Flow meters were installed in the harvester's fuel supply system and an electronic device was used for data acquisition. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme (3 x 2, using three engine rotations and two forward speeds, with six replicates. Harvesting capacity and fuel consumption per hour, per area and per ton of harvested sugarcane were analyzed. The results were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test. The variations in engine rotation did not affect the performance for harvesting capacity, but influenced fuel consumption. Forward speed influenced both harvesting capacity and fuel consumption.

  1. Thermotolerant and mesophylic fungi from sugarcane bagasse and their prospection for biomass-degrading enzyme production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Silveira Lamanes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nineteen fungi and seven yeast strains were isolated from sugarcane bagasse piles from an alcohol plant located at Brazilian Cerrado and identified up to species level on the basis of the gene sequencing of 5.8S-ITS and 26S ribosomal DNA regions. Four species were identified: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus sydowii and Aspergillus fumigatus, and the isolates were screened for the production of key enzymes in the saccharification of lignocellulosic material. Among them, three strains were selected as good producers of hemicellulolitic enzymes: A. niger (SBCM3, A. sydowii (SBCM7 and A. fumigatus (SBC4. The best β-xylosidase producer was A. niger SBCM3 strain. This crude enzyme presented optimal activity at pH 3.5 and 55 °C (141 U/g. For β-glucosidase and xylanase the best producer was A. fumigatus SBC4 strain, whose enzymes presented maximum activity at 60 °C and pH 3.5 (54 U/g and 4.0 (573 U/g, respectively. All these crude enzymes presented stability around pH 3.0–8.0 and up to 60 °C, which can be very useful in industrial processes that work at high temperatures and low pHs. These enzymes also exhibited moderate tolerance to ethanol and the sugars glucose and xylose. These similar characteristics among these fungal crude enzymes suggest that they can be used synergistically in cocktails in future studies of biomass conversion with potential application in several biotechnological sectors.

  2. A relative resistance Ratio for Evaluation of Stem Borer Susceptibility Among Sugarcane Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar), is a major pest of sugarcane in Louisiana and Texas. Cultivar resistance to E. loftini was evaluated in commercial and experimental sugarcane cultivars in four replicated field studies between 2009 and 2012. A relative resistance ratio was developed t...

  3. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds in vinasse, a byproduct of sugarcane-ethanol distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae), is a worldwide pest of livestock. Recent outbreaks of stable flies in sugarcane fields in Brazil have become a serious problem for livestock producers. Larvae and pupae found inside sugarcane stems after harvesting may indicate that stable fli...

  4. The presence and implication of soluble, swollen, and insoluble starch at the sugarcane factory and refinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch impurity concentrations in sugarcane are country dependent and in recent years there has been a general world-wide increase. This has occurred mostly because of one or a combination of the following: (i) increased mechanical processing of unburnt (green) sugarcane; (ii) varying environmental...

  5. Building organic matter of long-term sugarcane soils in a temperate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineral soils with a history of sugarcane monoculture cropping contain less soil organic matter (-35%), and plant macro- and micronutrients, including N (-20%), K (-26%), S (-7%), Ca (-8%), B (-33%), Zn (-88%), Mn (-29%), and Cu (-26%), than adjacent non-cultivated soils. Harvesting sugarcane ‘green...

  6. Regeneration of sugarcane elite breeding lines and engineering of stem borer resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Xing; Deng, Haihua; Xu, Jin-Ling; Li, Qi; Wang, Lian-Hui; Jiang, Zide; Zhang, Hai Bao; Li, Qiwei; Zhang, Lian-Hui

    2006-02-01

    Five elite sugarcane breeding lines were tested for efficiency in embryogenesis and plant regeneration. All of them produced regenerative embryogenic calli but with varied efficiencies. To engineer strongly insect-resistant sugarcanes, the GC content of a truncated cry1Ac gene, which encodes the active region of Cry1Ac insecticidal delta-endotoxin, was increased from the original 37.4 to 47.5% following the sugarcane codon usage pattern. The synthetic cry1Ac gene (s-cry1Ac) was placed under the control of maize ubiquitin promoter and introduced by microprojectile bombardment into the embryogenic calli of sugarcane lines YT79-177 and ROC16. Southern blotting analysis showed that multicopies of s-cry1Ac were integrated into the genomes of transgenic sugarcane lines. Immunoblotting analysis identified 18 transgenic lines expressing detectable levels of s-Cry1Ac, which were estimated in the range of 1.8-10.0 ng mg(-1) total soluble proteins. Four transgenic and two parental lines were assayed for sugarcane stem borer resistance in leaf tissue feeding trials and greenhouse plant assays. The results showed that, while the untransformed control lines were severely damaged in both leaves and stems, the transgenic sugarcane lines expressing high levels of s-Cry1Ac proteins were highly resistant to sugarcane stem borer attack, resulting in complete mortality of the inoculated insects within 1 week after inoculation.

  7. Genetic analysis of resistance gene analogues from a sugarcane cultivar resistant to red rot disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the important approaches for disease control in sugarcane is to develop a disease resistant variety; this may be accomplished through identification of resistance genes in sugarcane. In this study, PCR primers targeting the conserved motifs of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS) class and kinas...

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based detection of Colletotrichum falcatum causing red rot in sugarcane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red rot, caused by Colletotrichum falcatum, is a destructive disease prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Disease-free sugarcane planting materials are essential as the pathogen spreads primarily through infected setts. The present study was undertaken to develop loop-mediated isothermal...

  9. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  10. The sugarcane-biofuel expansion and dairy farmers' responses in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteiro Novo, A.L.; Jansen, K.; Slingerland, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in São Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales

  11. Life cycle assessment of sugarcane ethanol production in India in comparison to Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsiropoulos, Ioannis; Faaij, André P C; Seabra, Joaquim E A; Lundquist, Lars; Schenker, Urs; Briois, Jean François; Patel, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: India's biofuel programme relies on ethanol production from sugarcane molasses. However, there is limited insight on environmental impacts across the Indian ethanol production chain. This study closes this gap by assessing the environmental impacts of ethanol production from sugarcane molas

  12. Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A.A.; Araujo, W.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic ba

  13. Development and integration of an SSR-based molecular identity database into sugarcane breeding program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane breeding is very difficult and it takes 12 to 14 years to develop a new cultivar for commercial production. This is because sugarcane varieties are highly polyploid, inter-specific hybrids with 100 to 130 chromosomes that may vary across geographical areas. Other obstacles/constraints incl...

  14. Location Contributions Determined via GGE Biplot Analysis of Multievironment Sugarcane Genotype-Performance Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selection for productive sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) cultivars in Florida has been more successful for organic than sand soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the contributions of the location with a sand soil to the final stage of multi-environment testing of sugarcane genotypes in Flor...

  15. Biplot evaluation of test environments and identification of mega-environments for sugarcane cultivars in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaluation of test environments and classification of regional ecological zones are the two key issues in regional testing of sugarcane cultivars. In the present study, sugarcane yield data from a three-year nationwide field trial involving 21 cultivars and 14 pilot test locations were analyzed by u...

  16. First year in operating a mechanical detrasher system at a sugarcane factory in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past 2 years, a new prototype mechanical detrasher system was built at a Louisiana sugarcane factory by American Biocarbon LLC. It was built to remove sugarcane trash (top stalks and leaves) before processing, and for the manufacture and sale of value-added-products from the removed trash,...

  17. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  18. Postharvest accumulation of resveratrol and piceatannol in sugarcane with enhanced antioxidant activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new plant source, sugarcane, was used to produce the stilbenes piceatannol and resveratrol. Both stilbenes were identified in sugarcane billet stalks (12 mm) after incubation at room temperature for 3 days. Low concentrations of piceatannol (30.6 ug/g) and resveratrol (12.3 ug/g) were detected a...

  19. A mixed model QTL analysis for sugarcane multiple-harvest-location trial data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastina, M.M.; Malosetti, M.; Gazaffi, R.; Mollinari, M.; Margarido, G.R.A.; Oliveira, K.M.; Pinto, L.R.; Souza, A.P.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Garcia, A.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane-breeding programs take at least 12 years to develop new commercial cultivars. Molecular markers offer a possibility to study the genetic architecture of quantitative traits in sugarcane, and they may be used in marker-assisted selection to speed up artificial selection. Although the perfor

  20. Diversity of cultivated endophytic bacteria from sugarcane: genetic and biochemical characterization of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendes, R.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A.A.; Araujo, W.L.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere and from inside the roots and stems of sugarcane plants grown in the field in Brazil. Endophytic bacteria were found in both the roots and the stems of sugarcane plants, with a significantly higher density in the roots. Many of the cultivated endophytic

  1. Mexican rice borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) oviposition site selection stimuli on sugarcane, and potential field applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T; Castro, Boris A

    2010-08-01

    The Mexican rice borer, Eoreuma loftini (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae), a key pest of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) and rice, Oryza sativa L., in Texas, has not been controlled with chemical insecticides or biological agents, but some sugarcane varieties have shown degrees of resistance. Assessment of selected sugarcane leaf characteristics indicate that preference for oviposition sites is mostly determined by the presence of a leaf fold and secondarily by the availability of dry leaf tissue, both of which are antixenotic nonchemical stimuli. We suggest that breeding sugarcane lines bearing leaves that do not fold on drying could provide substantial antixenotic resistance against the Mexican rice borer. Previously identified antixenotic chemical stimuli, i.e., low quantities or absence of important nutrients in green leaf tissue, only become apparent when resistant and susceptible sugarcane varieties are compared. Varietal differences in oviposition preference, however, were not observed on excised dry leaf tissue, indicating that expression of resistance in terms of chemical stimuli requires detection of biochemicals in nearby living leaf tissue. Excised dry sugarcane leaves retain the two dominant nonchemical oviposition preference stimuli for Mexican rice borers, and the leaves effectively trapped eggs away from intact plants when dry leaves were used as "mulch" at the bottom of greenhouse cages. Under commercial sugarcane field conditions, bundled dry leaves also collected Mexican rice borer eggs. Possible applications of dry sugarcane leaf substrate for egg scouting and for trapping eggs are discussed.

  2. The Sugarcane-Biofuel Expansion and Dairy Farmers' Responses in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, Andre; Jansen, Kees; Slingerland, Maja

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane for biofuels is a highly contentious issue. The growth of sugarcane area has occurred simultaneously with a reduction of dairy production in Sao Paulo state, the primary production region for sugar and ethanol in Brazil. This paper analyses different dairy farm rationales to continue dairy production in the context of a…

  3. Green-cane harvest of sugarcane effects on biomass and energy yields and nutrient removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane yields in Louisiana can approach 40 dry Mg ha-1, making sugarcane an attractive biofuel feedstock as well as a profitable sugar crop. Existing technology used in green-cane harvesting can be used to allow chopper harvester extractor fans to remove variable amounts of extraneous leaf materi...

  4. Crop rotation biomass and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi effects on sugarcane yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson Jose; Rossi, Fabricio; Guirado, Nivaldo; Teramoto, Juliana Rolim Salome [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Polo Regional Centro Sul; Azcon, Rozario [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC), Granada (Spain). Estacao Experimental de Zaidin; Cantarela, Heitor [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Solos e Recursos Ambientais; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Odontologia. Dept. de Odontologia Social], Email: ambrosano@apta.sp.gov.br; Schammass, Eliana Aparecida [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IZ), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Zootecnia; Muraoka, Takashi; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar Ocheuze [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Ungaro, Maria Regina Goncalves [Agencia Paulista de Tecnologia dos Agronegocios (APTA/IAC), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. Agronomico. Centro de Plantas Graniferas

    2010-07-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is an important crop for sugar production and agro-energy purposes in Brazil. In the sugarcane production system after a 4- to 8-year cycle crop rotation may be used before replanting sugarcane to improve soil conditions and give an extra income. This study had the objective of characterizing the biomass and the natural colonization of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) of leguminous green manure and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in rotation with sugarcane. Their effect on stalk and sugar yield of sugarcane cv. IAC 87-3396 grown subsequently was also studied. Cane yield was harvested in three subsequent cuttings. Peanut cv. IAC-Caiapo, sunflower cv. IAC-Uruguai and velvet bean (Mucuna aterrimum Piper and Tracy) were the rotational crops that resulted in the greater percentage of AMF. Sunflower was the specie that most extracted nutrients from the soil, followed by peanut cv. IAC-Tatu and mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The colonization with AMF had a positive correlation with sugarcane plant height, at the first cut (p = 0.01 and R = 0.52) but not with the stalk or cane yields. Sunflower was the rotational crop that brought about the greatest yield increase of the subsequent sugarcane crop: 46% increase in stalk yield and 50% in sugar yield compared with the control. Except for both peanut varieties, all rotational crops caused an increase in net income of the cropping system in the average of three sugarcane harvests. (author)

  5. Effect of growing media and fertilization on sugarcane flowering under artificial photoperiod

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Variety Development Program in Houma, LA aims to maximize the number of panicles available for crossing through artificial manipulation of the environment. In a three-year study, the effect of growing media, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction on sugarcane flowering (%...

  6. The demand for distilled spirits: an empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCornac, D C; Filante, R W

    1984-03-01

    Economic and social factors that explain variations in the consumption of distilled spirits among political jurisdictions are examined. Particular emphasis is placed on the economic roles of price and the unemployment rate. Using multivariate-analysis regression, equations are estimated for three separate time periods of 1970-1975. In addition, a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis is undertaken for the entire time period. The dependent variable is the apparent per capita consumption of distilled spirits. The independent variables include price, availability and socioeconomic factors that determine consumption patterns. The results indicate that the price elasticity of demand for distilled spirits inelastic, and implies that a 1% change in price will result in a less than 1% change in the amount purchased, everything else being equal. A rise in price will increase total revenue. Thus, a tax increase on the commodity will generate an increase in tax revenue. The unemployment rate is shown to have a significant impact on the consumption of distilled spirits. The results suggest that further study into the relationship between unemployment and the consumption of distilled spirits is desirable.

  7. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Bright Soil Churned by Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit drove 22.7 meters (74 feet) toward the southwest on the 1,861st Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's mission on Mars (March 28, 2009). After the drive, the rover took this image with its front hazard-avoidance camera, looking back at the tracks from the drive. As usual since losing the use of its right-front wheel in 2006, Spirit drove backwards. The immobile right-front wheel churned up a long stripe of bright soil during this drive. Where Spirit has found such bright soil in the past, subsequent analysis of the composition found concentrations of sulfur or silica that testified to past action of water at the site. When members of the rover team saw the large quantity of bright soil exposed by the Sol 1861 drive, they quickly laid plans to investigate the composition with Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. The Sol 1861 drive took the rover past the northwest corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate,' making progress on a route around the western side of Home Plate. The edge of Home Plate forms the horizon on the right side of this image. Husband Hill is on the horizon on the left side. For scale, the parallel rover wheel tracks are about 1 meter (40 inches) apart. The rover's hazard-avoidance cameras take 'fisheye' wide-angle images.

  9. Influência do material do alambique na composição química das aguardentes de cana-de-açúcar The influence of the material used in building the distiller in the sugar-cane-spirit chemical profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo F. Nascimento

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes variations in the profile of the main volatile organic compounds present in Brazilian sugar cane spirits distilled in copper and stainless steel distillers. The main organic compounds: aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, alcohols and esters, were determined through High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and High Resolution Gas Cromatography (HRGC. The spirits produced in copper distillers exhibit higher contents of aldehydes with respect to the ones produced in stainless steel. The inverse is true with respect to the higher alcohol and ester contents. No significant variation has been observed for the carboxylic acids.

  10. Nutritional and productive performance of dairy cows fed corn silage or sugarcane silage with or without additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Felipe Leite; Rodrigues, João Paulo Pacheco; Detmann, Edenio; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Castro, Marcelo Messias Duarte; Trece, Aline Souza; Silva, Tadeu Eder; Fischer, Vivian; Weiss, Kirsten; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intake, digestibility, and performance of dairy cows fed corn silage, fresh sugarcane, and sugarcane ensiled in three different forms. Twenty-five Holstein cows at 114 ± 12.6 days in milk (DIM) were used. A randomized block design was adopted, using an arrangement of repeated measures over time. The following treatments were tested: corn silage (CS); fresh sugarcane (FS); sugarcane silage without additives (SCS); sugarcane silage enriched with calcium oxide at 5 g/kg of forage (SCSc); and sugarcane silage enriched with Lactobacillus buchneri at 5 × 10(4) cfu/kg of forage (SCSb). The roughage to concentrate ratio was 60:40 for the CS diet and 40:60 for the sugarcane-based diets. The dry matter intake (DMI) as a function of body weight had a downward trend for the cows fed sugarcane silage, compared with those fed FS. The sugarcane silages had higher digestibilities of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), and neutral detergent fiber (NDFap), compared with FS. The use of L. buchneri or calcium oxide improved the diet's digestibility. The use of FS, sugarcane silage, or sugarcane silage with additives had no effects on milk and fat-corrected milk yield, compared to corn silage. Cows fed FS presented lower milk total solids content and had a downward trend for milk fat, compared with cows fed sugarcane-silage diets. Cows fed sugarcane silages produced milk with higher casein stability in the alcohol test than cows fed fresh-sugarcane diet. Sugarcane silage, with or without additives, did not reduce the intake of dairy cows, and the use of additives improved the fiber's digestibility.

  11. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  12. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  13. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  14. Brazilian minister sets global goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Marco Antonio Raupp, the mathematical physicist who is now Brazil's minister of science, technology and innovation, talks to Physics World about the challenges and opportunities for Brazilian research.

  15. Soil bacterial community shifts associated with sugarcane straw removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Laisa; Gumiere, Thiago; Andreote, Fernando; Cerri, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Brazil, the adoption of the mechanical unburned sugarcane harvest potentially increase the quantity of residue left in the field after harvesting. Economically, this material has a high potential for second generation ethanol (2G) production. However, crop residues have an essential role in diverse properties and processes in the soil. The greater part of the uncertainties about straw removal for 2G ethanol production is based on its effects in soil microbial community. In this sense, it is important to identify the main impacts of sugarcane straw removal on soil microbial community. Therefore, we conducted a field study, during one year, in Valparaíso (São Paulo state - Brazil) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial community. Specifically, we wanted: i) to compare the rates of straw removal and ii) to evaluate the effects of straw decomposition on soil bacterial groups over one year. The experiment was in a randomized block design with treatments arranged in strip plot. The treatments are different rates of sugarcane straw removal, namely: no removal, 50, 75 and 100% of straw removal. Soil sampling was carried out at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months after the sugarcane harvest (August 2015). Total DNA was extracted from soil using the PowersoilTM DNA Isolation kit. And the abundance of bacterial in each soil sample was estimated via quantification of 16S rRNA gene. The composition of the bacterial communities was estimated via terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis, and the T-RF sizes were performed on a 3500 Genetic Analyzer. Finally, the results were examined with GeneMapper 4.1 software. There was bacterial community shifts through the time and among the rates of sugarcane straw removal. Bacterial community was firstly determined by the time scale, which explained 29.16% of total variation. Rates of straw removal explained 11.55% of shifts on bacterial community. Distribution through the time is an important

  16. A structured approach to target starch solubilisation and hydrolysis for the sugarcane industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marsha R; Rose, Ingrid; Chung, Yoo Jin; Eggleston, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In sugarcane processing, starch is considered an impurity that negatively affects processing and reduces the quality of the sugar end-product. In the last decade, there has been a general world-wide increase in starch concentrations in sugarcane. Industrial α-amylases have been used for many years to mitigate issues arising from starch in the sugarcane industry. Mixed results have prompted further studies of the behaviour of different physical forms of starch and their interactions with α-amylases during processing. By using corn starch as a reference in model juices and syrups, processing parameters, activities, and hydrolysis of insoluble, swollen, and soluble starch forms were evaluated for two commercial α-amylases with high (HT) and intermediate (IT) temperature stability, respectively. The ability of starch to solubilise across a sugarcane factory is largely limited by increased Brix values. Optimum target locations and conditions for the application of α-amylases in sugarcane processing are discussed in detail.

  17. Discrimination of sugarcane according to cultivar by 1H NMR and chemometric analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G.; Silva, Lorena M.A.; Choze, Rafael; Liao, Luciano M. [Laboratorio de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Honda, Neli K.; Alcantara, Glaucia B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Several technologies for the development of new sugarcane cultivars have mainly focused on the increase in productivity and greater disease resistance. Sugarcane cultivars are usually identified by the organography of the leaves and stems, the analysis of peroxidase and esterase isoenzyme activities and the total soluble protein as well as soluble solid content. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) associated with chemometric analysis has proven to be a valuable tool for cultivar assessment. Thus, this article describes the potential of chemometric analysis applied to 1H high resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) and NMR in solution for the investigation of sugarcane cultivars. For this purpose, leaves from eight different cultivars of sugarcane were investigated by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy in combination with chemometric analysis. The approach shows to be a useful tool for the distinction and classification of different sugarcane cultivars as well as to access the differences on its chemical composition. (author)

  18. Analysis on Protection of GI Product Xiangshan Spirit and Suggestions of Its Industrial Supervision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From name, historic stories, reputation, traffic and location factors, and natural factors as production and processing, water, raw material and yeast, this paper firstly analyzes key factors for protection of GI product Xiangshan Spirit. Then, it discusses differences in quality characteristics between Xiangshan Spirit and other rice flavor type spirits. Besides, industrial development of Xiangshan Spirit is analyzed from residues of pesticides, quality of water for making wine, and exclusive use of geographical indication Xiangshan Spirit. Finally, it puts forward following suggestions, including formulating and implementing local standard GI Product Xiangshan Spirit, strengthening quality control over rice raw material, implementing "enterprise + base" industrial model, and support group enterprises with government as leader.

  19. Conflicts between Spirit and Body in Sons and Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵佳

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the conflicts between spirit and body that exist among characters in Sons and Lovers. By stating the complicated relationships of Mr. and Mrs. Morel, two sons and their mother, and the protagonist Paul and two women, Miriam and Clara, spirit and body collides and conflicts emerge from time to time. Conflicts between blood ties and lovers' affairs, moral principles and incest, and chastity and lust are reflected on char-acters, especially Paul in the novel. It concludes that Mrs. Morel's influence on Paul's spirit and thought is great. Her spiritual domination on Paul is the main factor for these conflicts. Her death at the end of the story will be a brand-new start of Paul's life.

  20. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  1. The spirit of hypnosis: doing hypnosis versus being hypnotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapko, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    The spirit of hypnosis is reflected in the belief that people are more resourceful than they realize and through hypnosis can create meaningful possibilities. Thus, it is puzzling why hypnosis isn't better regarded. Do we present as too internally conflicted to inspire others' confidence? Do we overstate the dangers of hypnosis and scare people away? Do we define hypnosis as such a unique approach that others don't see its relevance for their work? Self-exploration is important if we want to ensure we are not unwittingly adding to our image problems as a field. Beyond these considerations, the novel and spirited application of hypnosis in the context of captive elephant breeding is discussed, as is a personal acknowledgment of some of the pioneers who manifested the spirit of hypnosis.

  2. Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter. This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring. The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006. Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007. In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken. On the horizon, the highest point is 'McCool Hill

  3. ‘Do not quench the Spirit!’ The discourse of the Holy Spirit in earliest Christianity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Jan Lietaert Peerbolte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Trinitarian discourse of the 4th and 5th centuries grew out of earlier developments, whilst at the same time reflecting a renewal over against the language of the earliest Christian sources. This article reflects on the way in which early Christianity thought about the Holy Spirit and developed a new discourse on the basis of earlier, Jewish traditions. It situates the development of the idea of the Holy Spirit as God’s presence in past and present within the social history of the developing Christian movement, and shows how this idea was connected to the concept of apostolic succession. Thus, emerging Christianity legitimised itself and its social structures by the theology of the Holy Spirit. Its message was presented as old instead of new, as the Holy Spirit had foretold the Christ event. Its organisation was seen as divinely inspired, because its leaders were thought to be endowed with the Spirit. In this development, the narrative of Luke-Acts has thoroughly influenced the way in which Christianity developed a new discourse to present itself as old.

  4. Population dynamics of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus in sugarcane cultivars and its effect on plant growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Rojas, J; Caballero-Mellado, J

    2003-11-01

    Different experiments have estimated that the contribution of biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is largely variable among sugarcane cultivars. Which bacteria are the most important in sugarcane-associated BNF is unknown. However, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus has been suggested as a strong candidate responsible for the BNF observed. In the present study, bacteria-free micropropagated plantlets of five sugarcane cultivars were inoculated with three G. diazotrophicus strains belonging to different genotypes. Bacterial colonization was monitored under different nitrogen fertilization levels and at different stages of plant growth. Analysis of the population dynamics of G. diazotrophicus strains in the different sugarcane varieties showed that the bacterial populations decreased drastically in relation to plant age, regardless of the nitrogen fertilization level, bacterial genotype or sugarcane cultivars. However, the persistence of the three strains was significantly longer in some cultivars (e.g., MEX 57-473) than in others (e.g., MY 55-14). In addition, some strains (e.g., PAl 5(T)) persisted for longer periods in higher numbers than other strains (e.g., PAl 3) inside plants of all the cultivars tested. Indeed, the study showed that the inoculation of G. diazotrophicus may be beneficial for sugarcane plant growth, but this response is dependent both on the G. diazotrophicus genotype and the sugarcane variety. The most positive response to inoculation was observed with the combination of strain PAl 5(T) and the variety MEX 57-473. Although the positive effect on sugarcane growth apparently occurred by mechanisms other than nitrogen fixation, the results show the importance of the sugarcane variety for the persistence of the plant-bacteria interaction, and it could explain the different rates of BNF estimated among sugarcane cultivars.

  5. Mineralization of sugar-cane straw in soil amended with vinasse (a sugar-cane alcohol industry byproduct) and nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Cellulose is the most abundant vegetable organic compound, being derived mainly from plant residues. The decomposition of sugar-cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) straw was studied in a period up to 90 days, through variables related to the carbon cycle, such as respiratory activity and CM-cellulase (CM, cellulose microcrystalline) and CMC-cellulase (CMC, carboxymethylcellulose) activities. The treatments consisted of 0, 0.5 and 1.0% of straw, in the presence and absence of vinasse (a sugar-cane...

  6. Analytical color analysis of irradiated sugar cane spirit with grapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Juliana A.; Delabio, Aline S., E-mail: jujuba_angelo@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: aline_sd_timao@hotmail.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia em Piracicaba (FATEP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Harder, Marcia N.C.; Moraes, Liz M.B.; Silva, Lucia C.A.; Arthur, Paula B.; Arthur, Valter, E-mail: mnharder@terra.com.br, E-mail: lizmarybueno@gmail.com, E-mail: lcasilva@cena.usp.br, E-mail: paula.arthur@hotmail.com, E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to irradiate a Sugar Cane Spirit with grapes by gamma radiation (Co60) aiming the color alteration like an aging parameter. The Sugar Cane Spirit is a distilled beverage and in order that bouquet and flavor are enhanced, usually the Sugar Cane Spirit goes through a process of maturation in wooden barrels or in bottles with the presence of wood chips, which alters their appearance. However, is possible to get this same result with the use of gamma radiation from Co60 and there is a possibility of indicative the premature aging by the Sugar Cane Spirit color change, through the extraction of grape phenolic compounds. The Sugar Cane Spirit samples were prepared with grapes type Crimson in polypropylene bottles. The samples was irradiated at doses of 0 (control); 0.3KGy; 2kGy and 6kGy, subsequently were performed the colorimetric analyzes in periods of 5; 10; 20 and 50 days after the irradiation treatment. There was no significant statistical difference for the parameters L; a; b; Chrome and Hue-Angle, at 5; 10 and 20 days. On the 50th day only the parameter a shows significant statistical difference at the dose of 0.3kGy, that was higher than 2kGy and 6kGy doses, but not differ the between the control sample. So by the showed results was concluded that the irradiation at doses of 0.3Gy, 2kGy and 6kGy, do not change the color of the Sugar Cane Spirit. (author)

  7. [Effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit under low nitrogen condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-bo; Peng, Dong-hai; Qin, Liu-dong; Xing, Yong-xiu; Li, Yang-rui; Yang, Li-tao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the effects of sugarcane-soybean intercropping on cane yield, quality and economic benefit, three sugarcane cultivars (B8, ROC22 and GT21) planted under sugarcane monoculture and sugarcane-soybean intercropping with low nitrogen fertilization (urea application of 150 kg · hm(-2)). The field design was a split-plot with the cropping pattern being the principal factor and the sugarcane cultivar being the secondary factor. The results showed that the millable stalks, stalk diameter, cane yield and sugar production were significantly affected by sugarcane-soybean intercropping while the cane quality wasn' t changed obviously. Compared with sugarcane monoculture, the stalk diameter, millable stalks, cane yield and sugar production in the intercropping system were increased by 5.1%-8.7%, 7.9%-31.0%, 9.0%-40.5% and 5.6%-39.5%, respectively. The total incomes of cane and soybean, and sugar and soybean were increased by 58900-79300 yuan · hm(-2) and 58300-77200 yuan · hm(-2), respectively. Among the three sugarcane cultivars in the sugarcane-soybean intercropping pattern, the economic benefit was the highest in ROC22, while the ratoon cane yields of GT21 and B8 were higher than that of ROC22. The results also indicated that sugarcane-soybean intercropping is an effective planting method to reduce nitrogen fertilizer application and increase economic income in sugarcane production.

  8. Dissociative trance and spirit possession: Challenges for cultures in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Ventriglio, Antonio; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    The cross-cultural validity of dissociative possession and trance disorders is a matter of some debate, limiting research and meaningful interpretation of prevalence data. Intimate to these concerns is the status of spirit possession categories studied in the social sciences, particularly anthropology. These two categories are phenomenologically related and display similar epidemiological associations. In India, dissociative and conversion disorders are fairly common in clinical settings. There is no doubt that there are true cultural variations in possession and trance disorders. A new framework may enable clinicians to better understand possession states and spirit possession. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. American Spirit in Uncle Tom’s Cabin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧嘉丽

    2015-01-01

    <正>I.The American Spirit Reflected in Uncle Tom’s Cabin In most people’s opinions,Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a novel which exploded the Civil War and truly described the dreadful life of black people,in my opinion,however,the American spirit reflects in Uncle Tom’s Cabin is the truly reason to the whole course of the Civil War,it is also one of the most important prime movers in the later development of the whole nation,it is a systemic theory of Americans’thoughts

  10. On Li Zhi's Theory of Growing up in Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjiang

    2006-01-01

    The theory of growing up in spirit is the core of Li Zhi's thought.The theory attempts to get rid of the limit of the rigid ethical doctrine of Confucianismand to encourage growth in a helpful person for the benefit of the country,which demands both a free environment of society and enough courage and insight of the individual.At the same time,the criterion of growing up in spirit indicates the limitation of Li Zhi's thought.His free exploration,however,provides various revelations for us.

  11. BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES OF SPIRIT PRODUCTION WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kayshev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A content of biologically active compounds (BAC with signified pharmacological activity in distillers grains was proved. It is prospective for applications of these grains as a raw material resource of pharmaceuticals. A composition of BAC distillers grains received from wheat, corn, barley, millet at different spirit enterprises which use hydro fermentative grain processing. Considering polydispersity of distillers grains they were separated on solid and liquid phases preliminary. Physical and chemical characteristics of distillers grains' liquid base were identified. Elementary composition of distillers grains is signified by active accumulation of biogenic elements (phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron and low content of heavy metals. The solid phase of distillers grains accumulates carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen in high concentration. The liquid phase of distillers grains contains: proteins and amino acids (20-46%, reducing sugars (5,6%-17,5%, galacturonides (0,8-1,4%, ascorbic acid (6,2-11,4 mg%. The solid base of distillers grains contains: galacturonides (3,4-5,3%, fatty oil (8,4-11,1% with predomination of essential fatty acids, proteins and amino acids (2,1-2,5%, flavonoids (0,4-0,9%, tocopherols (3,4-7,7 mg%. A method of complex processing of distillers grains based on application of membrane filtering of liquid phase and liquid extraction by inorganic and organic solvents of solid phase, which allows almost full extraction of the sum of biologically active compounds (BAC from liquid phase (Biobardin BM and solid phase (Biobardin UL. Biobardin BM comprises the following elements: proteins and amino acids (41-69%, reducing sugars (3,5-15,6%, fatty oil (0,2-0,3%, flavonoids (0,2-0,7%, ascorbic acid (17-37 mg%. Biobardin UL includes: oligouronids (16,4-19,5%, proteins and amino acids (11-21%, fatty oil (3,2-4,9% which includes essential acids; flavonoids (0,6-1,5%, tocopherols (6,6-10,2 mg%, carotinoids (0,13-0,21 mg

  12. Soil carbon stocks in response to management changes due to vinasse application in sugarcane production in southeast of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes Zani, Caio; Simoes Barneze, Arlete; Clemente Cerri, Carlos

    2014-05-01

    Brazilian commodities, such as ethanol, are looking for sustainable production to suit the international market demands. Thus, studies about variations in soil carbon (C) stocks on the ethanol production are essential. Researches in relation of land use change are already been developed; however information about management changes on the sugarcane production is needed. According to Six et al. (2004) changing the management to conservationist practices can provide an organic matter accumulation to the soil and in a long-term, can increase the soil C stocks. The vinasse is a waste product of the sugarcane industry fuel which contains potassium and considerable quantities of other mineral nutrients. It is estimated that for each litre of ethanol produced is generated approximately 13 L of vinasse. Nowadays, almost all vinasse is applied to the soil as fertigation (Soares et al., 2009). The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in soil C stocks after the management change with or without vinasse application into sugarcane production in southeast Brazil. The soil sampling was carried out in a fuel industry located in São Paulo state, on July 2013. This area was always used a conventional management at least 34 years with application of mineral fertilizer. However, in the mid of 1990, one part of this area started to use vinasse as source of potassium in sugarcane production. In view of this, we conducted the experiment in these two areas of conventional management: i) without vinasse and ii) with vinasse application. Soil samples were collected in the nine trenches in each site: three trenches at 1 m soil depth and six mini-trenches up to 0.3 m. Samples were used to calculate the bulk density using the undisturbed method with a steel cylinder. Total C was measured by dry combustion on Carbon Analyzer - LECO® CN 2000®. The results showed that C content was a decrease with an increase soil depth. Soil C stocks for areas without vinasse application and vinasse

  13. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  14. 27 CFR 24.65 - Claims for wine or spirits lost or destroyed in bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., registry number, and location of the distilled spirits plant which produced the spirits; (2) The serial... fermentation in bottles, by artificial carbonation, and by bulk processing; and (3) Claims covering losses...

  15. Identification of sugarcane genes involved in the purine synthesis pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Jancso

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide synthesis is of central importance to all cells. In most organisms, the purine nucleotides are synthesized de novo from non-nucleotide precursors such as amino acids, ammonia and carbon dioxide. An understanding of the enzymes involved in sugarcane purine synthesis opens the possibility of using these enzymes as targets for chemicals which may be effective in combating phytopathogen. Such an approach has already been applied to several parasites and types of cancer. The strategy described in this paper was applied to identify sugarcane clusters for each step of the de novo purine synthesis pathway. Representative sequences of this pathway were chosen from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI database and used to search the translated sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database using the available basic local alignment search tool (BLAST facility. Retrieved clusters were further tested for the statistical significance of the alignment by an implementation (PRSS3 of the Monte Carlo shuffling algorithm calibrated using known protein sequences of divergent taxa along the phylogenetic tree. The sequences were compared to each other and to the sugarcane clusters selected using BLAST analysis, with the resulting table of p-values indicating the degree of divergence of each enzyme within different taxa and in relation to the sugarcane clusters. The results obtained by this strategy allowed us to identify the sugarcane proteins participating in the purine synthesis pathway.A via de síntese de purino nucleotídeos é considerada uma via de central importância para todas as células. Na maioria dos organismos, os purino nucleotídeos são sintetizados ''de novo'' a partir de precursores não-nucleotídicos como amino ácidos, amônia e dióxido de carbono. O conhecimento das enzimas envolvidas na via de síntese de purinas da cana-de-açúcar vai abrir a possibilidade do uso dessas enzimas como alvos no desenho

  16. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.C. Silva

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794 (Lepidoptera: Crambidae is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2, which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides called gloverins. Analyses using the ImageMaster 2D software showed pI 8.94 of the HDs1 spot, which is similar to that described to Hyalophora gloveri gloverin (pI 8.5. Moreover, the 14-kDa molecular mass of the spot HDs1 is compatible to that of gloverins isolated from the hemolymph of Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa armigera and H. gloveri. Antimicrobial assays with partially purified fractions containing the HDs1 and HDs2 polypeptides demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report of antimicrobial polypeptides in D. saccharalis, and the identification of these peptides may help in the generation of new strategies to control this pest.

  17. Induction of a gloverin-like antimicrobial polypeptide in the sugarcane borer Diatraea saccharalis challenged by septic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J L C; Barbosa, J F; Bravo, J P; Souza, E M de; Huergo, L F; Pedrosa, F O; Esteves, E; Daffre, S; Fernandez, M A

    2010-05-01

    Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius, 1794) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) is an important pest for Brazilian sugarcane. In the present study, we detected two distinct spots in hemolymph from septic injured larvae (HDs1 and HDs2), which are separated by 2DE gel electrophoresis. Both spots were subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis, which revealed the sequence VFGTLGSDDSGLFGK present in both HDs1 and HDs2. This sequence had homology and 80% identity with specific Lepidoptera antimicrobial peptides called gloverins. Analyses using the ImageMaster 2D software showed pI 8.94 of the HDs1 spot, which is similar to that described to Hyalophora gloveri gloverin (pI 8.5). Moreover, the 14-kDa molecular mass of the spot HDs1 is compatible to that of gloverins isolated from the hemolymph of Trichoplusia ni, Helicoverpa armigera and H. gloveri. Antimicrobial assays with partially purified fractions containing the HDs1 and HDs2 polypeptides demonstrated activity against Escherichia coli. This is the first report of antimicrobial polypeptides in D. saccharalis, and the identification of these peptides may help in the generation of new strategies to control this pest.

  18. A transcriptomic survey of Migdolus fryanus (sugarcane rhizome borer) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Darlan Gonçalves; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano Takeshi; Pedezzi, Rafael; Santiago, Adelita Carolina; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane, a major crop grown in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world, is produced mainly for sucrose, which is used as a sweetener or for the production of bioethanol. Among the numerous pests that significantly affect the yield of sugarcane, the sugarcane rhizome borer (Migdolus fryanus, a cerambycidae beetle) is known to cause severe damage to the crops in Brazil. The absence of molecular information about this insect reinforces the need for studies and an effective method to control this pest. In this study, RNA-Seq technology was employed to study different parts of M. fryanus larvae. The generated data will help in further investigations about the taxonomy, development, and adaptation of this insect. RNA was extracted from six different parts (head, fat body, integument, hindgut, midgut, and foregut) using Trizol methodology. Using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and the Trinity platform, trimming and de novo assembly was performed, resulting in 44,567 contigs longer than 200 nt for a reunion of data from all transcriptomes, with a mean length of 1,095.27 nt. Transcripts were annotated using BLAST against different protein databanks (Uniprot/Swissprot, PFAM, KEEG, SignalP 4.1, Gene Ontology, and CAZY) and were compared for similarity using a Venn diagram. Differential expression patterns were studied for select genes through qPCR and FPKM comprising important protein families (digestive peptidases, glucosyl hydrolases, serine protease inhibitors and otopetrin), which allowed a better understanding of the insect’s digestion, immunity and gravity sensorial mechanisms. PMID:28248990

  19. Patterns of expression of cell wall related genes in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima D.U.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Our search for genes related to cell wall metabolism in the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database (http://sucest.lbi.dcc.unicamp.br resulted in 3,283 reads (1% of the total reads which were grouped into 459 clusters (potential genes with an average of 7.1 reads per cluster. To more clearly display our correlation coefficients, we constructed surface maps which we used to investigate the relationship between cell wall genes and the sugarcane tissues libraries from which they came. The only significant correlations that we found between cell wall genes and/or their expression within particular libraries were neutral or synergetic. Genes related to cellulose biosynthesis were from the CesA family, and were found to be the most abundant cell wall related genes in the SUCEST database. We found that the highest number of CesA reads came from the root and stem libraries. The genes with the greatest number of reads were those involved in cell wall hydrolases (e.g. beta-1,3-glucanases, xyloglucan endo-beta-transglycosylase, beta-glucosidase and endo-beta-mannanase. Correlation analyses by surface mapping revealed that the expression of genes related to biosynthesis seems to be associated with the hydrolysis of hemicelluloses, pectin hydrolases being mainly associated with xyloglucan hydrolases. The patterns of cell wall related gene expression in sugarcane based on the number of reads per cluster reflected quite well the expected physiological characteristics of the tissues. This is the first work to provide a general view on plant cell wall metabolism through the expression of related genes in almost all the tissues of a plant at the same time. For example, developing flowers behaved similarly to both meristematic tissues and leaf-root transition zone tissues. Besides providing a basis for future research on the mechanisms of plant development which involve the cell wall, our findings will provide valuable tools for plant engineering in the

  20. EFFICIENCY OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIA (PGPR IN SUGARCANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Morgado González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR are an alternative for promoting sugarcane (Saccharum spp. development. Growth promotion was evaluated in sugarcane vitroplants inoculated separately with twenty-four strains of seven different bacterial species. Total indole synthesis and phosphate solubilization activity were determined in each strain. The experimental unit was one 5 L pot filled with a sterile mixture of farm soil-agrolite and one plant. The experimental design was completely random. Inoculation consisted of 1.0 mL of bacterial suspension (1 × 107 CFU. Plant height, stem diameter, number of shoots, leaf area and dry matter of shoot and root were determined every two weeks. The Ochrobactrum anthropi strains N208 and IMP311 and Pseudomonas luteola IMPCA244 had the highest production of total indoles (116.69, 115.70 and 117.34 µg mL-1, respectively. The Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strains CA158 and 79 exhibited the highest values of phosphate solubilization (222.43 and 216.38 µg mL-1, respectively. In general, plant height increased 27.75%, stem diameter 30.75%, number of tillers 38.5%, leaf area 49%, aerial dry matter 59.75% and root dry matter 59.5%. P. luteola, P. f luorescens, O. anthropi and S. maltophilia exhibited the highest values of the leaf area index, net assimilation, and relative and absolute growth rates. P. luteola IMPCA244, O. anthropi IMP311, Aeromonas salmonicida N264, Burkholderia cepacia N172, P. f luorescens N50 and S. maltophilia 79 promoted the highest values in different response variables throughout the study. Before using these strains as sugarcane biofertilizer, additional studies are required.

  1. Saccharification of Sugarcane Bagasse by Enzymatic Treatment for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. M.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The escalating demands for traditional fossil fuels with unsecured deliverance and issues of climate change compel the researchers to develop alternative fuels like bioethanol. This study examines the prospect of biofuel production from high carbohydrate containing lignocellulosic material, e.g. sugarcane bagasse through biological means. Methodology and Results: Cellulolytic enzymes were collected from the culture filtrate of thermotolerant Trichodermaviride grown on variously pre-treated sugarcane bagasse. CMCase and FPase enzyme activities were determined as a measure of suitable substrate pre-treatment and optimum condition for cellulolytic enzyme production. The highest CMCase and FPase activity was found to be 1.217 U/ml and 0.109 U/ml respectively under the production conditions of 200 rpm, pH 4.0 and 50 °C using steamed NaOH treated bagasse as substrate. SEM was carried out to compare and confirm the activity of cellulolytic enzymes on sugarcane bagasse. Saccharification of pre-treated bagasse was carried out with crude enzymes together using a two-factor experimental design. Under optimized conditions the pre-treated bagasse was saccharified up to 42.7 % in 24 h. The hydrolysate was concentrated by heating to suitable concentration and then used for fermentation by an indigenous isolate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. With 50 and 80 % brix containing liquor the concentration of alcohol was 0.579 % and 1.15 % respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: This is the first report in Bangladesh for the production of cellulosicethanol using local isolates. Though the rate of alcohol production was very low, a great impetus in this field can maximize the production thereby meet the demand for fuel in future.

  2. Oxisol subsurface chemical attributes related to sugarcane productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landell Marcos Guimarães de Andrade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the great homogeneity found in the morphological characteristics of Oxisols, there is great chemical diversity in subsurface layers of these soils. Studies indicate that crop yield presents significant correlation with the chemical attributes of the subsurface, which, are more stable than attributes found in the plough layer, subject to greater alterations as a consequence of agricultural exploration. This work evaluated the effects of subsurface chemical attributes of Oxisols of the South Central region of Brazil, on the yield of sugarcane clones and of variety RB72454, during the first, second and third cropping cycles. Productivity data were obtained between 1993 and 1998. Soils were characterized in terms of their mechanical analysis and chemical traits at 0.8 to 1.0 m; correlation studies between these attributes and mean daily productivity as well as multiple regression analysis were also carried out; variables were selected based on their R² values by means of the stepwise procedure. The subsurface chemical traits of the Oxisols influenced sugarcane productivity, especially the 3rd harvest; the clone productivity model for the 3rd harvest as a function of base saturation and phosphorus content presented R² = 0.31, i.e., 31% of the variation in sugarcane yield (t ha-1 day-1 can be explained by these two attributes. For variety RB72454, 47% of that variation is explained by the sum of bases and contents of calcium and organic matter. Variations on productivity at 1st and 2nd harvests can be better explained by pHwater.

  3. Abiotic Limits for Germination of Sugarcane Seed in Relation to Environmental Spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, J S; Rae, A L; Bonnett, G D

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane is a vegetatively propagated crop and hence the production of seed and its fate in the environment has not been studied. The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires a research effort to understand sugarcane reproductive biology. This study contributes to this understanding by defining the abiotic limits for sugarcane seed germination. Using seed from multiple genetic crosses, germination was measured under different light regimes (light and dark), temperatures (from 18 °C to 42 °C) and water potentials (from 0 MPa to -1 MPa); cardinal temperatures and base water potential of germination were estimated based on the rates of germination. We found that sugarcane seed could germinate over a broad range of temperatures (from 11 °C to 42 °C) with optima ranging from 27 °C to 36 °C depending on source of seed. Water potentials below -0.5 MPa halved the proportion of seed that germinated. By comparing these limits to the environmental conditions in areas where sugarcane grows and has the potential to produce seed, water, but not temperature, will be the main limiting factor for germination. This new information can be taken into account when evaluating any risk of weediness during the assessment of GM sugarcane.

  4. Transcriptome Profile Analysis of Sugarcane Responses to Sporisorium scitaminea Infection Using Solexa Sequencing Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qibin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular basis of sugarcane-smut interaction, it is important to identify sugarcane genes that respond to the pathogen attack. High-throughput tag-sequencing (tag-seq analysis by Solexa technology was performed on sugarcane infected with Sporisorium scitaminea, which should have massively increased the amount of data available for transcriptome profile analysis. After mapping to sugarcane EST databases in NCBI, we obtained 2015 differentially expressed genes, of which 1125 were upregulated and 890 downregulated by infection. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that the differentially expressed genes involve in many cellular processes. Pathway analysis revealed that metabolic pathways and ribosome function are significantly affected, where upregulation of expression dominates over downregulation. Differential expression of three candidate genes involved in MAP kinase signaling pathway, ScBAK1 (GenBank Accession number: KC857629, ScMapkk (GenBank Accession number: KC857627, and ScGloI (GenBank Accession number: KC857628, was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR analysis concluded that the expression of these genes were all up-regulated after the infection of S. scitaminea and may play a role in pathogen response in sugarcane. The present study provides insights into the molecular mechanism of sugarcane defense to S. scitaminea infection, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of sugarcane-smut interaction.

  5. Model-free kinetics applied to sugarcane bagasse combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramajo-Escalera, B.; Espina, A.; Garcia, J.R. [Department of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry, University of Oviedo, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sosa-Arnao, J.H. [Mechanical Engineering Faculty, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), P.O. Box 6122, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nebra, S.A. [Interdisciplinary Center of Energy Planning, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), R. Shigeo Mori 2013, 13083-770 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2006-09-15

    Vyazovkin's model-free kinetic algorithms were applied to determine conversion, isoconversion and apparent activation energy to both dehydration and combustion of sugarcane bagasse. Three different steps were detected with apparent activation energies of 76.1+/-1.7, 333.3+/-15.0 and 220.1+/-4.0kJ/mol in the conversion range of 2-5%, 15-60% and 70-90%, respectively. The first step is associated with the endothermic process of drying and release of water. The others correspond to the combustion (and carbonization) of organic matter (mainly cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin) and the combustion of the products of pyrolysis. (author)

  6. Extracellular Hydrolysis of Starch in Sugarcane Cell Suspensions 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretzki, A.; dela Cruz, A.; Nickell, L. G.

    1971-01-01

    Evidence is presented for the increased excretion of amylolytic enzymes into a sugarcane cell culture medium when starch was substituted for sucrose as an energy source. The excretion was further enhanced by the inclusion of 1 μm gibberellic acid in the nutrient medium. The growth rate of the cells increased after they became adapted to starch relative to cells grown on sucrose, but the rate of amylolytic enzyme excretion remained unaltered. Amylolytic enzymes in the medium included α-amylase but the identity of one or more other enzymes related to starch hydrolysis remains in doubt. PMID:16657831

  7. Enzyme loading dependence of cellulose hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Martín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, either delignified or non-delignified, was studied as a function of enzyme loading. Hydrolysis experiments were carried out using five enzyme loadings (2.5 to 20 FPU/g cellulose and the concentration of solids was 2% for both materials. Alkaline delignification improved cellulose hydrolysis by increasing surface area. For both materials, glucose concentrations increased with enzyme loading. On the other hand, enzyme loadings higher than 15 FPU/g did not result in any increase in the initial rate, since the excess of enzyme adsorbed onto the substrate restricted the diffusion process through the structure.

  8. Ozone decay on stainless steel and sugarcane bagasse surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Corrêa, Jorge A.; Oliveira, Carlos; Amorim, Jayr

    2013-07-01

    Ozone was generated using dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure to treat sugarcane bagasse for bioethanol production. It was shown that interaction of ozone molecules with the pretreatment reactor wall (stainless steel) needs to be considered during bagasse oxidation in order to evaluate the pretreatment efficiency. The decomposition coefficients for ozone on both materials were determined to be (3.3 ± 0.2) × 10-8 for stainless steel and (2.0 ± 0.3) × 10-7 for bagasse. The results have indicated that ozone decomposition has occurred more efficiently on the biomass material.

  9. Chinese Wrestling,Chinese Traditional Spirit to Be Succeeded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian; Guo Yan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese Wrestling which has been exercised for thousands of years, has a history of as long as the Chinese People China's Foreign Trade exclusively interviewed 72-year old Mr. Li Baoru, Head of the Chinese Wrestling Team. He stressed: "Chinese Wrestling will not become extinct, because it is the symbol of the Chinese Spirit."

  10. 27 CFR 19.394 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.394 Section 19.394 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... which are labeled as bottled-in-bond for domestic consumption shall meet the requirements in 27 CFR...

  11. 27 CFR 19.597 - Kind of spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... more than 160 degrees of proof, which lack the taste, aroma, and other characteristics generally... distilled at less than 190 degrees of proof which lack the taste, aroma, and other characteristics generally...) Spirits distilled from fruit at or above 190 degrees of proof, if intended for use in wine...

  12. Between Body and Spirit: The Liminality of Pedagogical Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the pedagogical, transformative aspects of education as a relation, viewing such transformation as occurring in the liminal space between body and spirit. In order to explore this liminal space more thoroughly, the article first outlines a case for why liminality is of educational and not only of pedagogical concern, building…

  13. Body-Mind-Spirit Practice for Healthy Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Kyoung Othelia; Yoon, Hyunsook; Lee, Jungui; Yoon, Jiyoung; Chang, Eunjin

    2012-01-01

    This community-based, health promotion intervention for seniors provided a comprehensive review of the effect of body-mind-spirit (BMS) interventions on health behaviors. The 12-week curriculum offered sessions on exercise, nutrition, sexuality, leisure, stress management, cognitive behavioral therapy, forgiveness, and happiness. Gerontological…

  14. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. The Spirit of Investigation: Modifying Pascal and Fibonacci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Real, Francis

    2008-01-01

    Using investigations in teaching mathematics has for many years become an established feature of most curricula around the world. Investigations can be a vehicle for enabling children to experience the genuine excitement that comes from mathematical discovery. The true spirit of inquiry and investigation lies in the mind-set that continually asks…

  16. Engaging in Educational Leadership: The Generosity of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Maenette; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study presents key principles and a model of engaged leadership in indigenous communities. Engaged leadership champions children and youth, delivers learning and teaching within the context of place and spirit, and occurs in partnerships with diverse communities. Stories of educational leaders grounded in the concepts of "ha," place,…

  17. Divine empowerment: The Holy Spirit and church revitalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. DeVries

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How do principles of church revitalisation correlate with the divine work of the Holy Spirit? This article argues that the Spirit is the primary agent of church revitalisation, and churchleaders should cooperate with the Spirit as he works for revitalisation. Thus the Spirit empowers church leaders who are used by him to revive, renew, and revitalise a church community. After briefly defining the Spirit’s empowerment with biblical examples, this article examines the underlying principles of empowerment for church leaders, followed by briefly considering methodology for church revitalisation. The author concludes by suggesting several signs of biblical empowerment in a local church community.Goddelike bemagtiging: Die Heilige Gees en kerkherstel. Watter plek beklee die goddelike werking van die Heilige Gees in die beginsels van kerkherstel? Hierdie artikel poneer dat die Heilige Gees die primêre agent is om nuwe lewe in die kerk te bring en kerkleiers behoort onder leiding van die Heilige Gees hulle hiervoor te beywer. Die Heilige Gees bemagtig dus die kerkleiers wat Hy gebruik om ’n kerklike gemeenskap te laat herleef, te vernuwe en hulle te besiel met lewenskragtigheid. Die Gees se bemagtiging word kortliks aan die hand van bybelse voorbeelde gedefineer, waarna die grondliggende beginsels vir die bemagtiging van die kerkleiers ondersoek word. Daarna word die metodologie om nuwe lewenskrag in die kerk te bring kortliks oorweeg. Die outeur sluit af deur verskeie tekens uit te lig wat op skriftuurlike bemagtiging van die Heilige Gees in die plaaslike kerkgemeenskap dui.

  18. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Engaging in Educational Leadership: The Generosity of Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Maenette; Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This study presents key principles and a model of engaged leadership in indigenous communities. Engaged leadership champions children and youth, delivers learning and teaching within the context of place and spirit, and occurs in partnerships with diverse communities. Stories of educational leaders grounded in the concepts of "ha," place,…

  20. What is the Spirit of the English Grammar Teaching?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang Zhao

    2016-01-01

    In China,English is a foreign language,not a second language.Chinese students can't learn English well without learning its gram?mar first.As for English teachers,the most important is to help the students to grasp the spirit of English grammar learning.

  1. 27 CFR 20.104 - Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinegar. 20.104 Section 20.104 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Statements of Process Approval Policies § 20.104 Residual alcohol in spirit vinegar. Commercial strength (40 grain) vinegar made from specially denatured alcohol may contain trace amounts of residual alcohol,...

  2. Fostering the creative spirit in teaching-learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunkers, Sandra Schmidt

    2009-10-01

    This author describes creativity and the development of several curriculum projects fostering the creative spirit in the nursing academy as well as in other health sciences. It introduces Dr. Barbara Condon's column describing the use of artistic expression, framed by the humanbecoming school of thought, in a senior level nursing course at Briar Cliff University.

  3. QIANLONG Xianmao Liquor,Healthy Modern Chinese Spirits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Brewing process Qianlong Xianmao Liquor and series products completely meet the trend and requirement of"Green,Environmentfriendly,Healthy and Nature".While many Chinese spirits manufacturers are still dealing with liver-harming problems,Qianlong Xianmao Liquor has already moved on healthy liquor road.

  4. Exploring the Food Environment on the Spirit Lake Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Swaha; Gold, Abby; McKay, Lacey; Azure, Lane; Larson, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand the food environment of the Fort Totten community on the Spirit Lake reservation in east-central North Dakota, as perceived by tribal members and employees at Cankdeska Cikana Community College (CCCC). According to a 2010 report from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, the food…

  5. Interdependencies between Biofuel, Fuel and Food Prices: The Case of the Brazilian Ethanol Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Bentivoglio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is currently the world’s largest sugar producer and exporter, as well as the world’s largest producer and consumer of sugarcane ethanol as a transportation fuel. The growth of this market originates from a combination of government policies and technological change, in both the sugarcane ethanol processing sector and the manufacture of flex-fuel vehicles. In recent years however, ethanol production has been questioned due to its possible impact on food prices. The present paper aims to explore the impact of Brazilian ethanol prices on sugar and gasoline prices. The relationships between a times series of these prices are investigated using a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM, supported by Granger Causality tests. In addition, Impulse Response Functions (IRFs and Forecast Error Variance Decompositions (FEVD are computed in order to investigate the dynamic interrelationships within these series. Our results suggest that ethanol prices are affected by both food and fuel prices, but that there is no strong evidence that changes in ethanol prices have an impact on food prices.

  6. 27 CFR 19.241 - Operations bond-distilled spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and adjacent bonded wine cellar. 19.241 Section 19.241 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... wine cellar. (a) General. A wine cellar under the provisions of 27 CFR part 24 shall be treated as... subpart G for the production of distilled spirits; and (2) Such wine cellar and distilled spirits plant...

  7. 27 CFR 28.40 - Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: distilled spirits and wine. 28.40 Section 28.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO... Provisions Evidence of Exportation and Use § 28.40 Evidence of exportation: distilled spirits and wine. The exportation of any shipment of distilled spirits or wine may be evidenced by: (a) A copy of the export bill of...

  8. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  9. 27 CFR 24.237 - Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spirits added to juice or concentrated fruit juice. 24.237 Section 24.237 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.237 Spirits added to juice or...

  10. 27 CFR 1.83 - Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. 1.83 Section 1.83 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms... UNDER THE FEDERAL ALCOHOL ADMINISTRATION ACT, NONINDUSTRIAL USE OF DISTILLED SPIRITS AND WINE, BULK... Bottling § 1.83 Acquiring or receiving distilled spirits in bulk for addition to wine. Persons...

  11. 27 CFR 19.203 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. 19.203 Section 19.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... spirits plant and bonded wine cellar premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous bonded wine cellar desiring to alternate the use of each premises by extension...

  12. 27 CFR 19.532 - Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... use in wine production. 19.532 Section 19.532 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Withdrawals Withdrawal of Spirits Without Payment of Tax § 19.532 Withdrawals of spirits for use in wine production. Wine spirits may be withdrawn to a bonded wine cellar without payment of tax for use in...

  13. 27 CFR 24.91 - Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine or spirits. 24.91 Section 24.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Conveyance of Wine Or Spirits on Wine Premises § 24.91 Conveyance of untaxpaid wine or spirits....

  14. 27 CFR 17.155 - Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing intermediate products. 17.155 Section 17.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... USED IN MANUFACTURING NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Claims for Drawback Spirits Subject to Drawback § 17.155 Spirits consumed in manufacturing intermediate products. Spirits consumed in the manufacture of...

  15. Dynamics of the spirit possession phenomenon in Eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja-Liisa Swantz

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the spirit possession phenomenon is related in this study to the more general question of the role of religious institutions as part in the development process of a people living in a limited geographical area of a wider national society. It is assumed that religion, like culture in general, has its specific institutional forms as result of the historical development of a society, but at the same time religion is a force shaping that history. People's cultural resources influence their social and economic development and form a potential creative element in it'. Some of the questions to be asked are: "How are specific religious practices related to the dynamics of change in the societies in question? What is the social and religious context in which the spirit possession phenomenon occurs in them? What social and economic relations get their expression in them? To what extent is spirit possession in this case a means of exerting values and creatively overcoming a crisis or conflict which the changing social and economic relations impose on the people? The established spirit possession cults are here seen as the institutional forms of religious experience. At the same time it becomes evident that there is institutionalization in process as well as deinstitutionalization of spirit possession where it occurs outside established institutional forms. Institution is taken as a socially shared form of behaviour the significance of which is commonly recognized by those who share it. By the term spirit possession cult is meant a ritual form of spirit possession of a group which is loosely organized and without strict membership. The context of the study is four ethnic groups in Eastern Tanzania, near the coast of the Indian Ocean. The general theme of the project is The Role of Culture in the Restructuring of Tanzanian Rural Areas. The restructuring refers to a villagisation programme carried out in the whole country. People are being

  16. Generation potential of electric power surplus with the biogas produced from anaerobic bio digestion of vinasse in Brazilian sugar-ethanol industry; Potencial de geracao de excedentes de energia eletrica com o biogas produzido a partir da biodigestao da vinhaca na industria sucro-alcooleira brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamonica, Helcio Martins [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia

    2006-07-01

    This work evaluates the electric power potential of the Brazilian sugarcane industry using the biogas produced by vinasse biodigestion in internal combustion engine driven generators. The electric power surplus based on crop 2004/05 ethanol production data is 9,292 TJ/year (2.6 TWh/year), 0.75% of the total electric power consumption in Brazil during the year of 2003. In spite of its considerable potential the determined minimum selling price for its produced energy of R$ 89.98/GJ (R$ 323.92/MWh) is expensive for present Brazilian electric power market price. (author)

  17. New Record Five-Wheel Drive, Spirit's Sol 1856 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11962 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,856th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 23, 2009). The center of the view is toward the west-southwest. This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 25.82 meters (84.7 feet) west-northwestward earlier on Sol 1856. This is the longest drive on Mars so far by a rover using only five wheels. Spirit lost the use of its right-front wheel in March 2006. Before Sol 1856, the farthest Spirit had covered in a single sol's five-wheel drive was 24.83 meters (81.5 feet), on Sol 1363 (Nov. 3, 2007). The Sol 1856 drive made progress on a route planned for taking Spirit around the western side of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' A portion of the northwestern edge of Home Plate is prominent in the left quarter of this image, toward the south. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. Highly improved chromium (III uptake capacity in modified sugarcane bagasse using different chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves Dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on improving chromium (III uptake capacity of sugarcane bagasse through its chemical modification with citric acid and/or sodium hydroxide. The chemical modifications were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, with an evident peak observed at 1730 cm-1, attributed to carbonyl groups. Equilibrium was reached after 24 h, and the kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order model. The highest chromium (III maximum adsorption capacity (MAC value was found when using sugarcane bagasse modified with sodium hydroxide and citric acid (58.00 mg g-1 giving a MAC value about three times greater (20.34 mg g-1 than for raw sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Thermal Decomposition and Kinetics of Rigid Poly-urethane Foams Derived from Sugarcane Bagasse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Yongbin; XU Jingwei; PANG Hao; ZHANG Rongli; LIAO Bing

    2009-01-01

    Rigid polyurethane foams were fabricated with five kinds of liquefied sugarcane bagasse polyols(LBP).The foams derived from sugarcane bagasse were investigated by thermogra-vimetric analysis(TGA),and the thermal degradation data were analyzed using the Coast-Redfern method and Ozawa method to obtain the reaction order and activation energy.The results indicate that the sugarcane bagasse-foams exhibit an excellent heat-resistant property,whereas their pyrolysis procedures are quite complicated.The reaction as first order only takes place from 250 to 400℃,and the pyrolysis activation energies vary from 20 to 140 kJ/mol during the whole pyrolysis process.

  20. Sugarcane proteomics: establishment of a protein extraction method for 2-DE in stalk tissues and initiation of sugarcane proteome reference map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalraj, Ramesh Sundar; Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Veluswamy, Ganesh Kumar; Ramanujan, Rahul Pathirickal; Muthurajan, Raveendran; Palaniyandi, Malathi; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep; Viswanathan, Rasappa

    2010-06-01

    Sugarcane is an important commercial crop cultivated for its stalks and sugar is a prized commodity essential in human nutrition. Proteomics of sugarcane is in its infancy, especially when dealing with the stalk tissues, where there is no study to date. A systematic proteome analysis of stalk tissue yet remains to be investigated in sugarcane, wherein the stalk tissue is well known for its rigidity, fibrous nature, and the presence of oxidative enzymes, phenolic compounds and extreme levels of carbohydrates, thus making the protein extraction complicated. Here, we evaluated five different protein extraction methods in sugarcane stalk tissues. These methods are as follows: direct extraction using lysis buffer (LB), TCA/acetone precipitation followed by solubilization in LB, LB containing thiourea (LBT), and LBT containing tris, and phenol extraction. Both quantitative and qualitative protein analyses were performed for each method. 2-DE analysis of extracted total proteins revealed distinct differences in protein patterns among the methods, which might be due to their physicochemical limitations. Based on the 2-D gel protein profiles, TCA/acetone precipitation-LBT and phenol extraction methods showed good results. The phenol method showed a shift in pI values of proteins on 2-D gel, which was mostly overcome by the use of 2-D cleanup kit after protein extraction. Among all the methods tested, 2-D cleanup-phenol method was found to be the most suitable for producing high number of good-quality spots and reproducibility. In total, 30 and 12 protein spots commonly present in LB, LBT and phenol methods, and LBT method were selected and subjected to eLD-IT-TOF-MS/MS and nESI-LC-MS/MS analyses, respectively, and a reference map has been established for sugarcane stalk tissue proteome. A total of 36 nonredundant proteins were identified. This is a very first basic study on sugarcane stalk proteome analysis and will promote the unexplored areas of sugarcane proteome

  1. Relationships between nutrients and sucrose concentrations in sugarcane juice and use of juice analysis for nutrient diagnosis in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Watanabe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane is an important economic crop in southwest Japan, but its production is decreasing. To increase sugar production, both sugarcane yield and quality should be improved. Fertilizer management is one of the factors that influence sugarcane quality. We accordingly focused on nutrients present in sugarcane juice and attempted to identify the key factors affecting sugarcane quality. We collected sugarcane samples from 2013 to 2015 from all of the sugar mills in Japan and examined the relationships between juice nutrients and sucrose concentration. Juice analysis over 3 year showed that potassium (K+ and chloride (Cl− were the most abundant cation and anion in the juice and that both negatively correlated with the sucrose concentration. K+ and Cl− concentrations significantly varied depending on production areas and those with higher K+ and Cl− concentrations had a low sucrose concentration. This finding suggests that sugarcane in those areas may have been supplied with these two ions in excess. Electrical conductivity (EC in the juice always positively correlated with K+ and Cl− concentrations. EC may thus be a reliable indicator of K+ and Cl− concentrations and could be used for nutrient diagnosis because of its ease of measurement. For improving sugarcane quality, we recommend that potassium chloride, which supplies both K+ and Cl− and is a commonly used potassium fertilizer for sugarcane production in Japan, should be used in lower quantities in a year following one in which the EC of sugarcane juice at harvest is found to be high.

  2. SPIRITS 15c and SPIRITS 14buu: Two Obscured Supernovae in the Nearby Star-Forming Galaxy IC 2163

    CERN Document Server

    Jencson, Jacob E; Johansson, Joel; Contreras, Carlos; Castellón, Sergio; Bond, Howard E; Monson, Andrew J; Masci, Frank J; Cody, Ann Marie; Andrews, Jennifer E; Bally, John; Cao, Yi; Fox, Ori D; Gburek, Timothy; Gehrz, Robert D; Green, Wayne; Helou, George; Hsiao, Eric; Morrell, Nidia; Phillips, Mark; Prince, Thomas A; Simcoe, Robert A; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Williams, Robert

    2016-01-01

    SPIRITS---SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey---is an ongoing survey of nearby galaxies searching for infrared (IR) transients with Spitzer/IRAC. We present the discovery and follow-up observations of one of our most luminous ($M_{[4.5]} = -17.1\\pm0.4$ mag, Vega) and red ($[3.6] - [4.5] = 3.0 \\pm 0.2$ mag) transients, SPIRITS 15c. The transient was detected in a dusty spiral arm of IC 2163 ($D\\approx35.5$ Mpc). Pre-discovery ground-based imaging revealed an associated, shorter-duration transient in the optical and near-IR (NIR). NIR spectroscopy showed a broad ($\\approx 8400$ km s$^{-1}$), double-peaked emission line of He I at $1.083 \\mu$m, indicating an explosive origin. The NIR spectrum of SPIRITS 15c is similar to that of the Type IIb SN 2011dh at a phase of $\\approx 200$ days. Assuming $A_V = 2.2$ mag of extinction in SPIRITS 15c provides a good match between their optical light curves. The IR light curves and the extreme $[3.6]-[4.5]$ color cannot be explained using only a standard extinction l...

  3. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  4. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse using Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Wong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to produce bioethanol from sugarcane bagasse using fermentation process and to determine the effect of pH and temperature on bioethanol yield. Enzymes such as alpha- amylase and glucoamylase were used to breakdown the cellulose in sugarcane bagasse. Saccharomyces cerevisiea, (yeast also was used in the experiment for fermentation. Five samples were prepared at different pH was varied to determine the effects of pH on ethanol yield at 370 C and another five samples were prepared to determine the effect of temperature on ethanol yield, the pH was kept constant at 4.5. The ethanol concentrations were determined by running the samples in High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that at highest ethanol concentration was obtained pH 4.5 and temperature 350C. This indicated that pH 4.5 and 350C was the optimum parameter for the yeast to produce ethanol.

  5. Process integration and pinch analysis in sugarcane industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prado, Adelk de Carvalho; Pinheiro, Ricardo Brant [UFMG, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], E-mail: rbp@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Process integration techniques were applied, particularly through the Pinch Analysis method, to sugarcane industry. Research was performed upon harvest data from an agroindustrial complex which processes sugarcane plant in excess of 3.5 million metric tons per year, producing motor fuel grade ethanol, standard quality sugar, and delivering excess electric power to the grid. Pinch Analysis was used in assessing internal heat recovery as well as external utility demand targets, while keeping the lowest but economically achievable targets for entropy increase. Efficiency on the use of energy was evaluated for the plant as it was found (the base case) as well as for five selected process and/or plant design modifications, always with guidance of the method. The first alternative design (case 2) was proposed to evaluate equipment mean idle time in the base case, to support subsequent comparisons. Cases 3 and 4 were used to estimate the upper limits of combined heat and power generation while raw material supply of the base case is kept; both the cases did not prove worth implementing. Cases 5 and 6 were devised to deal with the bottleneck of the plant, namely boiler capacity, in order to allow for some production increment. Inexpensive, minor modifications considered in case 5 were found unable to produce reasonable outcome gain. Nevertheless, proper changes in cane juice evaporation section (case 6) could allow sugar and ethanol combined production to rise up to 9.1% relative to the base case, without dropping cogenerated power. (author)

  6. Use of sugarcane straw ash for zeolite synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Alves Fungaro, Thais Vitória da Silva Reis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The amount of biomass combustion residue is growing nowadays due to constant increasing demands of biomass utilization. The biomass ash produced currently is disposed on agricultural fields. The presence of metals, chlorine, sulphur and other species may have significant impacts on soils and the recycling of soil nutrient. The main challenge is related to the increase of possible applications of this byproduct. Sugarcane straw ash (SCSA was used in a study on synthesis of zeolitic material by alkaline conventional hydrothermal treatment. Different experimental conditions, such as, reaction time, alkali hydroxide concentration and liquid/solid ratio were studied. Raw ash material and synthesis products were characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy powder, X-ray diffraction, cation exchange capacity and scanning electron microscopic. The presence of zeolite hydroxysodalite confirms successful conversion of native SCSA into zeolitic material. Sugarcane straw ash utilization minimizes the environmental impact of disposal problems and further appears as an alternative for the future sustainable large-scale management of biomass ash.

  7. Reuse of sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) to produce ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, A E; Teixeira, S R; Santos, G T A; Costa, F B; Longo, E

    2011-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is a residue resulting from the burning of bagasse in boilers in the sugarcane/alcohol industry. SCBA has a very high silica concentration and contains aluminum, iron, alkalis and alkaline earth oxides in smaller amounts. In this work, the properties of sintered ceramic bodies were evaluated based on the concentration of SCBA, which replaced non-plastic material. The ash was mixed (up to 60 wt%) with a clayed raw material that is used to produce roof tiles. Prismatic probes were pressed and sintered at different temperatures (up to 1200 °C). Technological tests of ceramic probes showed that the addition of ash has little influence on the ceramic properties up to 1000 °C. X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis data showed that, above this temperature the ash participates in the sintering process and in the formation of new important phases. The results reported show that the reuse of SCBA in the ceramic industry is feasible.

  8. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  9. Effects of white spirits on rat brain 5-HT receptor functions and synaptic remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Henrik Rye; Plenge, P.; Jørgensen, O.S.

    2001-01-01

    Previously, inhalation exposure to different types of white spirit (i.e. complex mixtures of aliphatic, aromatic, alkyl aromatic, and naphthenic hydrocarbons) has been shown to induce neurochemical effects in rat brains. Especially, the serotonergic system was involved at the global, regional...... applied as indices for synaptic remodeling in forebrain, hippocampus, and entorhinal cortex. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 0, 400, or 800 ppm of aromatic (20 vol.% aromatic hydrocarbons) or dearomatized white spirit (catalytically hydrogenated white spirit) in the inhaled air for 6 h/day, 7 days...... that inhalation exposure to high concentrations of white spirit may be neurotoxic to rats, especially the aromatic white spirit type....

  10. Selection of checkpoints provided by the ergonomic checkpoints in agriculture tool for mechanized sugarcane harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucy Rodrigues Ferreira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The changing work dynamics of sugarcane harvesting owing to increasing mechanization has submitted workers to new working conditions, including interaction with machinery and equipment, thereby changing the profile of work-related diseases and injuries. One of the ways to solve problems resulting from the impact of mechanization on working conditions is the use of instruments that allow risk identification from man-labor ratio. This study aimed at selecting checkpoints applicable to mechanized sugarcane harvesting provided by the Ergonomic Checkpoints in Agriculture tool. A literature review of the mechanical sugarcane harvesting stages was conducted and, in light of its particularities, checkpoints provided by the aforementioned tool were analyzed. As a result, there were identified thirty-four checkpoints with potential application to mechanical sugarcane harvesting.

  11. Heat exposure in sugarcane workers in Costa Rica during the non-harvest season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Crowe

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This observational pilot study was carried out at three sugarcane companies in Costa Rica. Its main objective was to determine the potential for heat stress conditions for workers in one sugarcane-growing region in Costa Rica during the maintenance (non-harvest period.Wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT variables were measured with a heat stress meter and threshold value limits and the Sweat Rate Indexes were calculated for each workplace. It was determined that workers in this study were in heat stress conditions. Costa Rica is likely to experience warmer temperatures and increased heat waves in the coming decades. It is therefore important to take action to decrease current and future heat-related risks for sugarcane workers in both harvest and non-harvest conditions and in all sugarcane growing regions in Costa Rica. It is also necessary to improve guidelines and occupational health standards for protecting worker health and productivity in the tropics.

  12. Frost Damage Detection in Sugarcane Crop Using Modis Images and Srtm Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudorff, B.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Adami, M.

    2011-12-01

    Brazil is the largest world producer of sugarcane which is used to produce almost equal proportions of either sugar (food) or ethanol (biofuel). In recent years sugarcane crop production has increased fast to meet the growing market demand for sugar and ethanol. This increase has been mainly due to expansion in crop area, but sugarcane production is also subjected to several factors that influence both the agricultural crop yield (tons of stalks/ha) and the industrial yield (kg of sugar/ton of stalks). Sugarcane is a semi-perennial crop that experiences major growth during spring and summer seasons with large demands for water and high temperatures to produce good stalk formation (crop yield). The harvest is performed mainly during fall and winter seasons when water availability and temperature should be low in order to accumulate sucrose in the stalks (industrial yield). These favorable climatic conditions for sugarcane crop are found in several regions in Brazil, particularly in São Paulo state, which is the major sugarcane producer in Brazil being responsible for almost 60% of its production. Despite the favorable climate in São Paulo state there is a certain probability of frost occurrence from time to time that has a negative impact on sugarcane crop, particularly on industrial yield, reducing the amount of sugar in the stalks; having consequences on price increase and product shortage. To evaluate the impact of frost on sugarcane crop, in the field, on a state level, is not a trivial task; however, this information is relevant due to its direct impact on the consumer market. Remote sensing images allow a synoptic view and present great potential to monitor large sugarcane plantations as has been done since 2003 in São Paulo state by the Canasat Project with Landsat type images (http://www.dsr.inpe.br/laf/canasat/en/). Images acquired from sensors with high temporal resolution such as MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) present the

  13. Mathematic Models for Analysis of Quality Components in Sugarcane Juice with Fourier Transform Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gan; TAN Zhong-wen; LIANG Ji-nan; LONG Yong-hui; ZHOU Xue-qiu

    2003-01-01

    With the technique of Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy, the calibration models for quantitative analysis of sucrose and polarization in sugarcane juice were developed by using transmission mode and calibrating with partial least square (PIS) algorithm. The determination coefficients (R2)of the predicted models for sucrose and polarization in juice were 0. 9980 and 0. 9979 respectively; the root mean square errors of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0. 143 and 0. 155% for sucrose and polarization in juice respectively. The predictive errors measured by FT-NIR were close to those by routine laboratory methods. The results demonstrated that the FT-NIR methods had high accuracy and they were able to replace the routine laboratory analysis. It was also demonstrated that as a rapid and accurate measurement, the FT-NIR technique had potential applications in quality control of mill sugarcane, establishment of payment system based on sugarcane quality, and selection of clones in sugarcane breeding.

  14. Polyphasic characterization of Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus isolates obtained from different sugarcane varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Helma V; Dos Santos, Samuel T; Perin, Liamara; Teixeira, Kátia R Dos S; Reis, Veronica M; Baldani, José I

    2008-10-01

    A polyphasic approach was applied to characterize 35 G. diazotrophicus isolates obtained from sugarcane varieties cultivated in Brazil. The isolates were analyzed by phenotypic (use of different carbon sources) and genotypic tests (ARDRA and RISA-RFLP techniques). Variability among the isolates was observed in relation to the carbon source use preference. Glucose and sucrose were used by all isolates in contrast to myo-inositol, galactose and ribose that were not metabolized. The results of the analysis showed the presence of two groups clustered at 68% of similarity. The genetic distance was higher when RISA-RFLP analysis was used. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequences from isolates showed that all of them belonged to the G. diazotrophicus species. Neither effect of the plant part nor sugarcane variety was observed during the cluster analysis. The observed metabolic and genetic variability will be helpful during the strain selection studies for sugarcane inoculation in association with sugarcane breeding programs.

  15. Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Grown in Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Xie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Field and laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of bioethanol production using the juice of sugarcane grown in heavy metal-contaminated soils. The results suggest that the sugar concentration was not adversely affected when the sugarcane was grown in the heavy metal-contaminated soil. Although the juice of sugarcane grown in contaminated soil contained elevated levels of heavy metals, sugar fermentation and ethanol production were not adversely affected when five selected yeast species were used to mediate the processes. The preliminary research findings obtained from this study have implications for developing cost-effective technologies for simultaneous bioethanol production and soil clean-up using heavy metal-contaminated soils for energy sugarcane farming.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Sugarcane Molasses for Ethanol Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamipour Mohammad Sadegh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sweet sorghum juice and traditional ethanol substrate i.e. sugarcane molasses were used for ethanol production in this work. At the end of the fermentation process, the sweet sorghum juice yielded more ethanol with higher ethanol concentration compared to sugarcane molasses in all experiments. The sweet sorghum juice had higher cell viability at high ethanol concentrations and minimum sugar concentration at the end of the fermentation process. The ethanol concentration and yield were 8.9% w/v and 0.45 g/g for sweet sorghum in 80 h and 6.5% w/v and 0.37 g/g for sugarcane molasses in 60 h, respectively. The findings on the physical properties of sweet sorghum juice revealed that it has better physical properties compared to sugarcane molasses, resulting to enhanced performance of sweet sorghum juice for ethanol production

  17. A catchment-scale irrigation systems model for sugarcane Part 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-03-28

    Mar 28, 2008 ... The model, ACRUCane, operates as a submodel within the ACRU agrohydrological ... sugarcane and water resources management, none of these pro- ..... A common trend observed in ERC and cane yield estimates was the ...

  18. AMMI analysis to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio Inácio da Silveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sugarcane (Saccharum sp. is one of the most important crops in Brazil. The high demand for sugarcane-derived products has stimulated the expansion of sugarcane cultivation in recent years, exploring different environments. The adaptability and the phenotypic stability of sugarcane genotypes in the Minas Gerais state, Brazil, were evaluated based on the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI method. We evaluated 15 genotypes (13 clones and two checks: RB867515 and RB72454 in nine environments. The average of two cuttings for the variable tons of pol per hectare (TPH measure was used to discriminate genotypes. Besides the check RB867515 (20.44 t ha-1, the genotype RB987935 showed a high average TPH (20.71 t ha-1, general adaptability and phenotypic stability, and should be suitable for cultivation in the target region. The AMMI method allowed for easy visual identification of superior genotypes for each set of environments.

  19. Reducing dissolved inorganic nitrogen in surface runoff water from sugarcane production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A J; Bartley, R; Armour, J D; Brodie, J E; Thorburn, P J

    2012-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) lost from farms, especially as the highly bioavailable dissolved inorganic form, may be damaging Australia's Great Barrier Reef (GBR). As sugarcane is the dominant cropping system in GBR catchments, its N management practises are coming under increasing scrutiny. This study measured dissolved inorganic N lost in surface runoff water and sugarcane productivity over 3 years. The experiment compared the conventional fertiliser N application rate to sugarcane (average 180kg N/ha/year) and a rate based on replacing N exported in the previous crop (average 94kg N/ha/year). Dissolved inorganic N losses in surface water were 72%, 48% and 66% lower in the three monitored years in the reduced N fertiliser treatment. There was no significant difference in sugarcane yield between the two fertiliser N treatments, nor any treatment difference in soil mineral N - both of these results are indicators of the sustainability of the lower fertiliser N applications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of a novel mastrevirus in sugarcane germplasm collections in Florida, Guadeloupe and Reunion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wardatou Boukari; Ricardo I Alcala-Briseno; Simona Kraberger; Emmanuel Fernandez; Denis Filloux; Jean-Heinrich Daugrois; Jack C Comstock; Jean-Michel Lett; Darren P Martin; Arvind Varsani; Philippe Roumagnac; Jane E Polston; Philippe C Rott

    2017-01-01

    .... Methods A virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics approach was used to detect mastrevirus sequences in 717 sugarcane samples from Florida (USA), Guadeloupe (French West Indies), and Reunion (Mascarene Islands...

  1. Binding of soluble glycoproteins from sugarcane juice to cells of Acetobacter diazotrophicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz, M E; de Armas, R; Barriguete, E; Vicente, C

    2000-09-01

    Sugarcane produces two different pools of glycoproteins containing a heterofructan as glycidic moiety, tentatively defined as high-molecular mass (HMMG) and mid-molecular mass (MMMG) glycoproteins. Both kinds of glycoproteins can be recovered in sugarcane juice. Fluorescein-labelled glycoproteins are able to bind to Acetobacter diazotrophicus cells, a natural endophyte of sugarcane. This property implies the aggregation of bacterial cells in liquid culture after addition of HMMG or MMMG. Anionic glycoproteins seem to be responsible for the binding activity whereas cationic fraction is not retained on the surface ofA. diazotrophicus. Bound HMMG is competitively desorbed by sucrose whereas MMMG is desorbed by glucosamine or fructose. On this basis, a hypothesis about the discriminatory ability of sugarcane to choose the compatible endophyte from several possible ones is proposed.

  2. Specific Diversity of Metarhizium Isolates Infecting Aeneolamia spp. (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) in Sugarcane Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Domínguez, C; Guzmán-Franco, A W; Carrillo-Benítez, M G; Alatorre-Rosas, R; Rodríguez-Leyva, E; Villanueva-Jiménez, J A

    2016-02-01

    Spittlebugs from the genus Aeneolamia are important pests of sugarcane. Although the use of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizum anisopliae s.l. for control of this pest is becoming more common in Mexico, fundamental information regarding M. anisopliae in sugarcane plantations is practically non-existent. Using phylogenetic analysis, we determined the specific diversity of Metarhizium spp. infecting adult spittlebugs in sugarcane plantations from four Mexican states. We obtained 29 isolates of M. anisopliae s.str. Haplotype network analysis revealed the existence of eight haplotypes. Eight selected isolates, representing the four Mexican states, were grown at different temperatures in vitro; isolates from Oaxaca achieved the greatest growth followed by isolates from Veracruz, San Luis Potosi and Tabasco. No relationship was found between in vitro growth and haplotype diversity. Our results represent a significant contribution to the better understanding of the ecology of Metarhizum spp. in the sugarcane agroecosystem.

  3. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  4. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  5. Soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus changes under sugarcane expansion in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, André L.C., E-mail: andrefranco@usp.br [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Cherubin, Maurício R. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Pavinato, Paulo S.; Cerri, Carlos E.P. [Department of Soil Science, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Pádua Dias 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Six, Johan [Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Tannenstrasse 1, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Davies, Christian A. [Shell Technology Centre Houston, 3333 Highway 6 South, Houston, TX 77082 (United States); Cerri, Carlos C. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of São Paulo, Av. Centenário 303, 13416-000 Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Historical data of land use change (LUC) indicated that the sugarcane expansion has mainly displaced pasture areas in Central–Southern Brazil, globally the largest producer, and that those pastures were prior established over native forests in the Cerrado biome. We sampled 3 chronosequences of land use comprising native vegetation (NV), pasture (PA), and sugarcane crop (SC) in the sugarcane expansion region to assess the effects of LUC on soil carbon, nitrogen, and labile phosphorus pools. Thirty years after conversion of NV to PA, we found significant losses of original soil organic matter (SOM) from NV, while insufficient new organic matter was introduced from tropical grasses into soil to offset the losses, reflecting in a net C emission of 0.4 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1}. These findings added to decreases in {sup 15}N signal indicated that labile portions of SOM are preserved under PA. Afterwards, in the firsts five years after LUC from PA to SC, sparse variations were found in SOM levels. After more than 20 years of sugarcane crop, however, there were losses of 40 and 35% of C and N stocks, respectively, resulting in a rate of C emission of 1.3 Mg ha{sup −1} yr{sup −1} totally caused by the respiration of SOM from C4-cycle plants. In addition, conversion of pastures to sugarcane mostly increased {sup 15}N signal, indicating an accumulation of more recalcitrant SOM under sugarcane. The microbe- and plant-available P showed site-specific responses to LUC as a function of different P-input managements, with the biological pool mostly accounting for more than 50% of the labile P in both anthropic land uses. With the projections of 6.4 Mha of land required by 2021 for sugarcane expansion in Brazil to achieve ethanol's demand, this explanatory approach to the responses of SOM to LUC will contribute for an accurate assessment of the CO{sub 2} balance of sugarcane ethanol. - Highlights: • An explanatory approach to the responses of soil C, N and P to

  6. Epicoccum nigrum P16, a sugarcane endophyte, produces antifungal compounds and induces root growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léia Cecilia de Lima Fávaro

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in Brazil, mainly because of its use in biofuel production. Recent studies have sought to determine the role of sugarcane endophytic microbial diversity in microorganism-plant interactions, and their biotechnological potential. Epicoccum nigrum is an important sugarcane endophytic fungus that has been associated with the biological control of phytopathogens, and the production of secondary metabolites. In spite of several studies carried out to define the better conditions to use E. nigrum in different crops, little is known about the establishment of an endophytic interaction, and its potential effects on plant physiology. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report an approach based on inoculation followed by re-isolation, molecular monitoring, microscopic analysis, plant growth responses to fungal colonization, and antimicrobial activity tests to study the basic aspects of the E. nigrum endophytic interaction with sugarcane, and the effects of colonization on plant physiology. The results indicate that E. nigrum was capable of increasing the root system biomass and producing compounds that inhibit the in vitro growth of sugarcane pathogens Fusarium verticillioides, Colletotrichum falcatum, Ceratocystis paradoxa, and Xanthomomas albilineans. In addition, E. nigrum preferentially colonizes the sugarcane surface and, occasionally, the endophytic environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our work demonstrates that E. nigrum has great potential for sugarcane crop application because it is capable of increasing the root system biomass and controlling pathogens. The study of the basic aspects of the interaction of E. nigrum with sugarcane demonstrated the facultative endophytism of E. nigrum and its preference for the phylloplane environment, which should be considered in future studies of biocontrol using this species. In addition, this work contributes to the knowledge of the interaction of this

  7. Tensile Strength Assessment of Injection-Molded High Yield Sugarcane Bagasse-Reinforced Polypropylene

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse was treated to obtain sawdust, in addition to mechanical, thermomechanical, and chemical-thermomechanical pulps. The obtained fibers were used to obtain reinforced polypropylene composites prepared by injection molding. Coupling agent contents ranging from 2 to 10% w/w were added to the composite to obtain the highest tensile strength. All the composites included 30% w/w of reinforcing fibers. The tensile strength of the different sugarcane bagasse fiber composites were test...

  8. Physical and Mechanical Characterization of Sugarcane Bagasse Particleboards for Civil Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Rosane Battistelle; Danielle Fujino; Ana Luiza Silva; Barbara Bezerra; Ivaldo Valarelli

    2016-01-01

    In the worldwide market of particleboard production, the use of alternative raw materials is increasing, due to high demand and lack of traditional raw material, despite efforts of reforestation. In Brazil, the main agricultural commodity is sugarcane due to the copious production of sugar and ethanol. In the state of São Paulo alone approximately 140 million tons of sugarcane bagasse are produced every year, from which around 70% is burned for energy production, not adding value to th...

  9. Challenges in Bioenergy Production from Sugarcane Mills in Developing Countries: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Guido Colombo; William Ocampo-Duque; Fabio Rinaldi

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide energy policies are moving towards a reduction of fossil fuels’ share in the energy mix and to invest in renewable and green energy sources. Biomass is one of these, and it represents, in the form of sugarcane, a strategic source in Colombia, especially in the Valle del Cauca. In this region, the sugarcane industry is able to convert the energy content of the cane into different energy products, such as ethanol, electricity, and high-pressure steam, which are cogenerated via bagass...

  10. Effect of intercropping on nematodes in two small-scale sugarcane farming systems in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Two trials were planted on sandy soils on small-scale grower farms to study the effect of intercropping on the nematode fauna, soil and plant fertility and sugarcane yield. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and sugar bean (Phaseolus limensis) were intercropped between the sugarcane rows in the first trial; velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were intercropped in the second trial. These practices were compared to a standard aldicarb (nematicide) treatment and an untreat...

  11. Identification of smut-responsive genes in sugarcane using cDNA-SRAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N; Zhang, Y Y; Xiao, X H; Huang, L; Wu, Q B; Que, Y X; Xu, L P

    2015-06-18

    Sugarcane smut, caused by the fungus Sporisorium scitamineum, is one of the main diseases that affect sugarcane worldwide. In the present study, the cDNA-SRAP technique was used to identify genes that are likely to be involved in the response of sugarcane to S. scitamineum infection. In total, 21 bands with significant differential expression during cDNA-SRAP analysis were cloned and sequenced. Real-time qPCR confirmation demonstrated that expression of 19 of these 21 differential bands was consistent with the expression observed during cDNA-SRAP analysis, with a deduced false positive rate of 9.5%. Sequence alignment indicated that 18 of 19 differentially expressed genes showed homologies from 19% to 100% to certain genes in GenBank, including the following genes: topoisomerase (EU048780), ethylene insensitive (EU048778), and tetraspanin (EU048770). A real-time qPCR assay showed that during 0-72 h after pathogen infection, expression of the topoisomerase and the ethylene insensitive genes was upregulated, whereas expression of the tetraspanin gene was downregulated, identical to the expression patterns observed under salicylic acid treatment. Therefore, all three genes are thought to play a role during S. scitamineum challenge, but with different functions. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of cDNA-SRAP in differential gene expression analysis of sugarcane during a sugarcane-S. scitamineum interaction. The results obtained also contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with sugarcane-S. scitamineum interactions.

  12. Modeling of Production and Quality of Bioethanol Obtained from Sugarcane Fermentation Using Direct Dissolved Sugars Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Velazquez-Marti; Sergio Pérez-Pacheco; Juan Gaibor-Chávez; Paola Wilcaso

    2016-01-01

    Bioethanol production from sugarcane represents an opportunity for urban-agricultural development in small communities of Ecuador. Despite the fact that the industry for bioethanol production from sugarcane in Brazil is fully developed, it is still considered expensive as a small rural business. In order to be able to reduce the costs of monitoring the production process, and avoid the application of expensive sensors, the aim of this research was modeling the kinetics of production of bioeth...

  13. Identification of xanthans isolated from sugarcane juices obtained from scalded plants infected by Xanthomonas albilineans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaniella, Blanca; Rodríguez, C W; Piñón, Dolores; Vicente, C; Legaz, María-Estrella

    2002-04-25

    The exudate gum produced by Xanthomonas albilineans, a specific sugarcane pathogen, has been isolated from juices of diseased sugarcane stalks, hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid, and the hydrolysate analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. Sucrose. cellobiose, mannose, glucose, glucose-1-P and glucuronic acid were identified as the major components of the polysaccharide isolated from diseased stalks. Juices from healthy stalks contained maltose instead of cellobiose. The chemical nature of this polysaccharide is discussed.

  14. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Levorato, Mario; Frota, Yuri

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtai...

  15. Brazilian Portuguese Words for Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gies, Sheila; Cassidy, Tracy Diane

    2009-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese is the Portuguese spoken in Brazil, which has slight differences from the Portuguese spoken in Portugal. One may try to understand such differences by comparing them with the dissimilarities between the American English and the British English. Although this article does not intend to establish potential differences between Brazilian Portuguese and Portuguese spoken in other countries, such as Portugal, it is important to bear in mind that divergences in meaning of words ...

  16. Economic Crises and the Complexity of Animal Spirits Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigore PIROŞCĂ

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The rationale of this research goes into the origins of the economic crises from a different way of economic thinking, hence the professional interest on bringing again into the light the concept of animal spirits, used for the first time from classic liberals like David Hume, developed by doctrine founder John Maynard Keynes, and captured as groundbreaking economic crisis hypothesis in Nobel Prize laureates’ books like George Akerlof. A familiar account of the last financial crisis underlines the collapse of confidence and evaporation of trust which leaded to failure of corporate governance and easy money policy. Nor were these problems of recent origin; they were rooted in deep structural changes in the economy that date back many years. Financial innovations overheated the world economy and gained steam because of irrational exuberance over a risk free better future. Considering the evidence analyzed in this paper work, this approach of economic crisis through animal spirits puts forward new highlights of economic thought.

  17. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    , and predatory democracy. This book provides a portrait of Indonesia’s contradictory democracy through a series of biographical accounts of political entrepreneurs, from the political ‘periphery’ of North Maluku and the ‘political centre’ of East Java respectively. Each biographical account is focused on one...... contentious area of democracy in Indonesia – elections, corruption, decentralization, and regional representation. The chapters explore the intimate ways in which the political world and the spirit world are entangled. The core argument of the book is that Indonesia’s seemingly peculiar problems...... with democracy and spirits in fact reflect a set of contradictions within democracy itself. The book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Asian Studies, anthropology and political science and relevant for the study of Indonesian politics and democracy in Asia and beyond....

  18. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Time for a Change; Spirit's View on Sol 1843

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,843rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 10, 2009). South is in the middle. North is at both ends. The rover had driven 36 centimeters downhill earlier on Sol 1854, but had not been able to get free of ruts in soft material that had become an obstacle to getting around the northeastern corner of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' The Sol 1854 drive, following two others in the preceding four sols that also achieved little progress in the soft ground, prompted the rover team to switch to a plan of getting around Home Plate counterclockwise, instead of clockwise. The drive direction in subsequent sols was westward past the northern edge of Home Plate. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  20. Project-Based Organizations and the New Spirit of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello’s analysis of recent changes in capitalism – Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme - is an important contribution to the sociological analysis of capitalism. The aim of this paper is to present their main argument. It is argued that a particular important aspect...... of their analysis is the ideal-typical model of the new spirit of capitalism, the ideological underpinning of project-based organizations in ‘The Project World’. It is argued that the ideal-typical model of the Project World is the most elaborated description of the ‘cultural code’ of the emergent form...... of capitalist organizations. Last, it is discussed how we may obtain empirical evidence to test the hypothesis of a major change in capitalist organizational forms as well as in the recent spirit of capitalism....

  1. Project-Based Organizations and the New Spirit of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    Luc Boltanski and Eve Chiapello’s analysis of recent changes in capitalism – Le nouvel esprit du capitalisme - is an important contribution to the sociological analysis of capitalism. The aim of this paper is to present their main argument. It is argued that a particular important aspect...... of their analysis is the ideal-typical model of the new spirit of capitalism, the ideological underpinning of project-based organizations in ‘The Project World’. It is argued that the ideal-typical model of the Project World is the most elaborated description of the ‘cultural code’ of the emergent form...... of capitalist organizations. Last, it is discussed how we may obtain empirical evidence to test the hypothesis of a major change in capitalist organizational forms as well as in the recent spirit of capitalism....

  2. Dust Accumulation and Cleaning of the MER Spirit Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, J. A.; Lemmon, M. T.; Johnson, J. R.; Cantor, B. A.; Stella, P. M.; Chin, K. B.; Wood, E. G.

    2012-12-01

    The solar array of the NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit was expected to accumulate so much dust after ninety Martian days (sols) that it could no longer provide enough energy to guarantee continued surface operations. Instead, due in part to low dust accumulation rates and numerous dust cleaning events, Spirit carried out surface operations for over 2200 sols (over three Mars years). During this time period, the rover experienced four Martian winters and several dust storms. Because the sources of solar energy loss are known, the solar array energy output offers a tool to quantitatively estimate the loading and aeolian removal of dust from the solar array each sol. We will discuss the accumulation of dust on the solar panels as a proxy for dust movement at Gusev Crater over the course of the entire mission.

  3. Characterization and evaluation of coconut aroma produced by Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 in solid state fermentation on sugarcane bagasse

    OpenAIRE

    Fadel,Hoda Hanem Mohamed; Mahmoud,Manal Gomaa; Asker,Mohsen Mohamed Selim; Lotfy,Shereen Nazeh

    2015-01-01

    Background Sugarcane bagasse was shown to be an adequate substrate for the growth and aroma production by Trichoderma species. In the present work the ability of Trichoderma viride EMCC-107 to produce high yield of coconut aroma in solid state fermentation (SSF) by using sugarcane bagasse as solid substrate was evaluated. The produced aroma was characterized. Results Total carbohydrates comprised the highest content (43.9% w/w) compared with the other constituents in sugarcane bagasse. The se...

  4. A Shallow Analysis of the Covenant Spirit in Bible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 冯育军

    2016-01-01

    In the Bible, the word"contract" is the core concept, which refers to the covenant between God and man to regulate people's behavior, to give people the interests of the world, and to form an interactive relationship. In this paper, the three important contracts concluded by God and man, namely,"Noah's covenant","Abraham's covenant","David's covenant", this article explores the spirit of contract in the Bible.

  5. Society and the British Army: Implications for Fighting Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    doctrinal definition , albeit sometimes referred to by different names, such as “warrior spirit” and “warrior ethos.” Examples of such studies include...ADP Land Operations’ definition of fighting spirit. These criteria are, “initiative, courage, resilience, determination and toughness.” Indicators of...societal individualism, with an increasing proportion of the public explaining the causes of poverty in individualistic terms, rather than societal

  6. On the Formation Course of Rebellious Spirit in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yulin

    2004-01-01

    The novel "Jane Eyre" is written by Charlotte Bronte, an England Authoress in 19th century. It successfully creats a lady-Jane Eyre, who is brave to rebel and strive for freedom, equality and dignity. The rebellious spirit grown in Jane Eyre is personal and magic. It is not born, but tightly connected with her humble status, vagrant living conditions and personal unfortunate life.

  7. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  8. Spirit's View Beside 'Home Plate' on Sol 1823 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11971 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,823rd Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (Feb. 17, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the view is toward the south-southwest. The rover had driven 7 meters (23 feet) eastward earlier on Sol 1823, part of maneuvering to get Spirit into a favorable position for climbing onto the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' However, after two driving attempts with negligible progress during the following three sols, the rover team changed its strategy for getting to destinations south of Home Plate. The team decided to drive Spirit at least partway around Home Plate, instead of ascending the northern edge and taking a shorter route across the top of the plateau. Layered rocks forming part of the northern edge of Home Plate can be seen near the center of the image. Rover wheel tracks are visible at the lower edge. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  9. Puumeelsuse ülistus - Spirit of Nature / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline puitarhitektuuri näitus 11.09.- 31.10.2008 Lahtis (Soome) Pro Puu galeriis. Eksponeeritakse Renzo Piano (Itaalia), Kengo Kuma (Jaapan), Richard Leplastrier'i (Austraalia), Peter Zumthor'i (Šveits) ja Jose Cruz Ovalle (Tšiili) loomingut. 2008. aastal pälvis Spirit of Nature auhinna tšiili arhitekt Jose Cruz Ovalle (sünd. 1948). Tema eluloolisi andmeid, looming, portreefoto

  10. Puumeelsuse ülistus - Spirit of Nature / Agneta Land

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Land, Agneta

    2008-01-01

    Rahvusvaheline puitarhitektuuri näitus 11.09.- 31.10.2008 Lahtis (Soome) Pro Puu galeriis. Eksponeeritakse Renzo Piano (Itaalia), Kengo Kuma (Jaapan), Richard Leplastrier'i (Austraalia), Peter Zumthor'i (Šveits) ja Jose Cruz Ovalle (Tšiili) loomingut. 2008. aastal pälvis Spirit of Nature auhinna tšiili arhitekt Jose Cruz Ovalle (sünd. 1948). Tema eluloolisi andmeid, looming, portreefoto

  11. Sugarcane exergy calculation; Calculo de la exergia de la cana de azucar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P, Maria I.; Nebra P, Silvia A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: mariai@fem.unicamp.br.; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; Martinez R, Arnaldo [Universidade de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica. Centro de Estudios de Refrigeracion Luis Fernando Brossard Perez]. E-mail: arnaldo@fim.ceefe.uo.edu.cu

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a sugarcane exergy calculation, carried out considering the material as constituted by dry fiber and juice, being the last one that includes all the sucrose and water present in sugarcane. The variation intervals of sugarcane chemical composition and consequently the chemical composition of fibre and juice were obtained from a bibliography research. the finals results show that, the fibre exergy, as was considered totally dry and without sucrose, is a function of it chemical composition only. The quotient between the exergy and low calorific value has a middle value of 1,14 and the middle value of it exergy was 2329 kJ/kg of cane. Based on the environmental reference proposed by Szargut for the sugarcane juice exergy determination, it was obtained that the mixture component of the juice exergy has no piratical influence in the total exergy juice value, being the value of the reactive exergy component the determining of a middle value of sugarcane juice exergy of 2814,25 kJ/kg of juice and 2380Kj/Kg of cane. The sugarcane exergy value obtained for 8-18% of fiber, 75-82% of water and 14.5-22% of sucrose was 4709Kj/kg of cane. (author)

  12. Effect of a bacterial inoculum and additive on dry matter in situ degradability of sugarcane silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos A Reyes-Gutirrez; Oziel D Montaez-Valdez; Ramn Rodrguez-Macias; Mario Ruz-Lpez; Eduardo Salcedo-Prez; Cndido E Guerra-Medina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a bacterial inoculum and a handmade additive to sugarcane silage (SCS) on the in situ digestibility of dry matter (DM). The treatments were:T1) sugarcane silage (SCS) and T2) sugar-cane silage with 1%inoculum and 1%additive (SCS+). The bacterial inoculum consisted of 10.0%molasses, 1.0%yogurt, 5.0%chicken manure, 0.5%urea, and 83.0%water, and the additive was formulated with 1.0%urea, 0.1%ammonium sulfate, and 0.25%phosphorus. In situ dry matter digestibility (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped with ruminal ifstulas. Cows were fed with ensiled sugarcane supplemented with 1 kg of commercial concentrate. 5 g of ground sample for each sugarcane treatment were weighted in nylon bags and incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The DMD (%) was higher (P<0.05) for SCS+for al incubation times when compared with SCS. There were no differences in ruminal pH between the treatments for al the incubation times. The data suggested that the sugarcane silage with bacterial inoculum and additive could be an alternative for providing forage for ruminants during the season of low growth and quality grass.

  13. Identification of sense and antisense transcripts regulated by drought in sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembke, Carolina Gimiliani; Nishiyama, Milton Yutaka; Sato, Paloma Mieko; de Andrade, Rodrigo Fandiño; Souza, Glaucia Mendes

    2012-07-01

    Sugarcane is an important sugar and energy crop that can be used efficiently for biofuels production. The development of sugarcane cultivars tolerant to drought could allow for the expansion of plantations to sub-prime regions. Knowledge on the mechanisms underlying drought responses and its relationship with carbon partition would greatly help to define routes to increase yield. In this work we studied sugarcane responses to drought using a custom designed oligonucleotide array with 21,901 different probes. The oligoarrays were designed to contain probes that detect transcription in both sense and antisense orientation. We validated the results obtained using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). A total of 987 genes were differentially expressed in at least one sample of sugarcane plants submitted to drought for 24, 72 and 120 h. Among them, 928 were sense transcripts and 59 were antisense transcripts. Genes related to Carbohydrate Metabolism, RNA Metabolism and Signal Transduction were selected for gene expression validation by qPCR that indicated a validation percentage of 90%. From the probes presented on the array, 75% of the sense probes and 11.9% of the antisense probes have signal above background and can be classified as expressed sequences. Our custom sugarcane oligonucleotide array provides sensitivity and good coverage of sugarcane transcripts for the identification of a representative proportion of natural antisense transcripts (NATs) and sense-antisense transcript pairs (SATs). The antisense transcriptome showed, in most cases, co-expression with respective sense transcripts.

  14. Study of postures in sugarcane cutters in the Pontal of Paranapanema-SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Anchieta Messias, Iracimara; Okuno, Emico

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of sugarcane monoculture in Brazil in the last decades has pointed out to the necessity of considering the question of sugarcane cutters occupational health. In this work we present a cross-sectional study aiming to examine the occupational posture of a group of sugarcane cutters, which work in a cane field located in the region of Pontal do Paranapanema- SP, Brazil. The study was made using the Ergonomic Analysis of Work - EAW methodology and the postural analysis method by Win-OWAS. Through the obtained records of postures, it was observed that during a workday the sugarcane cutters remain standing erect on two legs or in one leg 66% of the time and that their trunk remain tilted and in rotation, according to 63% of the positions categorized. It was also observed that the sugarcane cutter trunk performs repetitive and boundless movements during his routine of work, which can expose this individual to additional wear of their musculoskeletal functions. The activities in which the individual engages have favorable or adverse influence on his posture. The repetitive movements involved in specialized occupations are equivalent to repeated exercises, thus may be responsible for the excessive development of certain muscle groups. The study suggests that the postures adopted by sugarcane cutters can overload their musculoskeletal system and predispose the cutters to work-related musculoskeletal diseases.

  15. [Trait stability and test site representativeness of sugarcane varieties based on GGE-biplot analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Zhang, Hua; Deng, Zu-Hu; Que, You-Xiong

    2012-05-01

    Arithmetic mean method is commonly used to evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties, and variance analysis is applied to estimate the errors in regional trials. However, it is difficult to accurately evaluate the differences of the varieties due to the discrepancies across test sites and years. In this paper, GGE-biplot method was adopted to analyze the data from the regional trials with seven sugarcane varieties at five sites from 2008 to 2009, aimed to objectively evaluate the yield stability and adaptability of sugarcane varieties in China. Among the test sugarcane varieties, Funong No. 30 had higher cane yield and better yield stability, Yuegan No. 18 had higher sugar content and better trait stability, Funong No. 28 and Yunzhe 99-91 had high sucrose content and trait stability, while Yuegan No. 16 had the highest cane yield and sugar content but ordinary stability. In the test sites, Zhangzhou City in Fujian Province and Suixi City in Guangdong Province had the best representativeness and discrimination. This study showed that GGE-biplot analysis provided a simple and effective method to analyze the high yield and stability of sugarcane varieties in regional trials, and supplied the basis for the approval and extension of new sugarcane varieties.

  16. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  17. Dust Devil in Spirit's View Ahead on Sol 1854 (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11960 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images that have been combined into this stereo, 180-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,854th Martian day, or sol, of Spirit's surface mission (March 21, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The rover had driven 13.79 meters (45 feet) westward earlier on Sol 1854. West is at the center, where a dust devil is visible in the distance. North on the right, where Husband Hill dominates the horizon; Spirit was on top of Husband Hill in September and October 2005. South is on the left, where lighter-toned rock lines the edge of the low plateau called 'Home Plate.' This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  18. View Ahead After Spirit's Sol 1861 Drive (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Left-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Right-eye view of a color stereo pair for PIA11977 NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this stereo, 210-degree view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,861st to 1,863rd Martian days, or sols, of Spirit's surface mission (March 28 to 30, 2009). This view combines images from the left-eye and right-eye sides of the navigation camera. It appears three-dimensional when viewed through red-blue glasses with the red lens on the left. The center of the scene is toward the south-southwest. East is on the left. West-northwest is on the right. The rover had driven 22.7 meters (74 feet) southwestward on Sol 1861 before beginning to take the frames in this view. The drive brought Spirit past the northwestern corner of Home Plate. In this view, the western edge of Home Plate is on the portion of the horizon farthest to the left. A mound in middle distance near the center of the view is called 'Tsiolkovsky' and is about 40 meters (about 130 feet) from the rover's position. This view is presented as a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction.

  19. Framing the policy debate over spirits excise tax in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatoński, Mateusz; Hawkins, Benjamin; McKee, Martin

    2016-12-23

    Industry lobbying remains an obstacle to effective health-oriented alcohol policy. In 2013, an increase in excise tax on spirits was announced by the Polish government. This article presents a qualitative analysis of the public debate that ensued on the potential economic, health and social effects of the policy. It focuses on how competing groups, including industry actors, framed their position and sought to dominate the debate. Online archives of five Polish national newspapers, two spirits trade associations, and parliamentary and ministerial archives were searched. A thematic content analysis of the identified sources was conducted. The overall findings were compared with existing research on the framing of the Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) debate in the UK. A total of 155 sources were analysed. Two main frames were identified: health, and economic The spirits industry successfully promoted the economic frame in their own publications and in the media. The debate was dominated by arguments about potential growth of the grey market and losses in tax revenue that might result from the excise tax increase. The framing of the debate in Poland differed from the framing of the MUP debate in the United Kingdom. The Polish public health community was unsuccessful in making health considerations a significant element of the alcohol policy debate. The strategies pursued by UK health advocates offer lessons for how to make a more substantial impact on media coverage and promote health-oriented legislation.

  20. Jung, spirits and madness: lessons for cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, Joan D

    2003-06-01

    An understanding of the nature and meaning of 'dissociative,' 'altered' or unusual states ultimately turns on the meaning and definition of consciousness. The view of consciousness from the discipline of psychiatry is largely based on a biomedically endorsed, culturally specific perspective of 'normal' consciousness as an integrated pattern of quotidian relationships with the 'observable' physical world. This perspective underlies the nosology for mental disorders, particularly psychoses, suggesting irreconcilable difference in cognition and affect of persons with these diagnostic labels. This article reviews some theories of Carl Gustav Jung regarding the structure and content of human consciousness and their relationship to aspects of 'dementia praecox' or 'schizophrenia.' It traces the origin and development of these ideas in part to Jung's early contact with, and intense interest in spiritualists and spirits, to later influences comprised of his own altered states (dreams and fantasies) and his involvement with patients diagnosed as schizophrenic. Data on current Spiritist beliefs and healing practices focused on 'madness' (i.e. most often diagnosed as schizophrenia in mental health settings), are described to explore parallels with Jung's ideas on the structure and dynamics of the psyche. These parallels are of special interest because the experience of spirits is ubiquitous, not well explained and often rejected as meaningful by psychiatrists and clinical psychologists. Jung, however, offers a cogent explanation of spirit phenomena as manifestations of the unconscious. A concluding section suggests contributions to cultural psychiatry by Jung.