WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian state capitals

  1. Human Capital As a Conditioning Factor to the Convergence Process Among the Brazilian States

    OpenAIRE

    Soukiazis, Elias; Cravo, Tulio

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence process among the Brazilian states using different concepts of convergence and giving special attention to the role of human capital as the conditioning factor to convergence. Different measures of human capital are used in the estimation of the convergence equations and the results show that they play a significant role in explaining the improvement of the standards of living of the Brazilian population. An interesting finding is that different levels of h...

  2. Characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescents in a Brazilian state capital

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins; Lidiane Cristina da Silva Alencastro

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p

  3. Autonomy and interdependence: beliefs of Brazilian mothers from state capitals and small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Mauro Luis; Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Macarini, Samira Mafioletti; Martins, Gabriela Dal Forno; Lordelo, Eulina da Rocha; Tokumaru, Rosana Suemi; Oliva, Angela Donate

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate characteristics of Brazilian mothers' beliefs system, in the dimensions of autonomy and interdependence. A group of 600 women, half from state capitals and half from small towns, participated in the study. They were individually interviewed with Scales of Allocentrism, Beliefs about Parental Practices and Socialization Goals. Paired and Independent samples t tests and Multivariate GLM were performed. The results indicate that although mothers from both contexts value autonomy, mothers inhabiting small towns considered the relational dimension as the most important; whereas mothers inhabiting capitals valued equally both dimensions, either in their beliefs about practices or in the socialization goals for their children. Mothers from small towns have a higher mean score for allocentrism than mothers living in capitals. Thus, place of residence proved to be a relevant variable in the modulation of maternal beliefs. Educational level was not a significant factor in the variables considered and with this group of mothers. The study results are discussed in terms of their contribution to the understanding of the complex relationship between dimensions of autonomy and interdependence in mothers' beliefs system. PMID:20977030

  4. Characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescents in a Brazilian state capital

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    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p<0.05. Most of the adolescents were girls and the variables (gender, age, relationship with aggressor, frequency/length of time of abuse, place of occurrence and its interruption varied according to the type of violence (bullying, physical, psychological, threat, sexual, witness, harassment, cyber-bullying, abandonment, neglect, child labor and parental alienation. The results represent the scene of violence suffered by adolescents, a reality that is poorly known and reported to official bodies, however, the descriptive data represent only part of the problem, highlighting the need to develop new studies to further investigate the various facets of the theme and to suggest new measures for facing violence in adolescence.

  5. [Time trend in adult obesity indicators in Brazilian state capitals, 2006-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Santos, Maria Aline Siqueira; Andrade, Silvania Suely Caribé de Araújo; Oliveira, Taís Porto; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Oliveira, Max Moura de; Jaime, Patrícia

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this article is to analyze time trends in excess weight (overweight, obesity and class III obesity) among adults (≥ 18 years of age) in Brazilian capitals between 2006 and 2013. It is a study of temporal trends in excess weight indicators using data from the telephone-based Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (Vigitel). The Prais regression model was performed. In 2013, the following statistics were observed in the adult population: overweight in 32.2%; obesity in 17.5%, and class III obesity in 1.5%. From 2006 to 2013, there was a significant increase in major indicators, for sex, age group, level of schooling (years) and regions. Overweight and obesity indicators demand attention since they result in a burden on the individual, society and health services. PMID:27076005

  6. Who seeks public treatment for substance abuse in Brazil? Results of a multicenter study involving four Brazilian state capitals

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    Sibele Faller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of alcohol and drug users who seek treatment at the Brazilian Unified Health System in Brazil.METHOD:A multicenter cross-sectional study involving five clinical and research centers located in four Brazilian state capitals was conducted with 740 in- and outpatients. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of neurological or severe psychiatric symptoms at the moment of the interview. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6 and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST were used to assess the severity of substance use and the problems related.RESULTS: There were significantly more men than women in the sample; mean age was 36 years. The drug most frequently used at all sites was alcohol (78%, followed by cocaine/crack (51%. Alcohol was the drug that most commonly motivated treatment seeking, at all centers. ASI-6 Summary Scores for Recent Functioning (SS-Rs were quite similar among centers. SS-Rs were compared between users who had never received treatment for psychoactive substance abuse (n = 265, 36.1% and those who had already been treated at one or more occasions (n = 470, 63.9%. This analysis revealed significant differences between the groups in the drug, psychiatric symptoms, legal, and family/social problems areas (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm previous evidence suggesting that the management of patients seeking drug abuse treatment should take several different aspects into consideration, e.g., education, employment, and family relationships, which often appear as areas of concern for these individuals.

  7. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvania Caribé Andrade; Rafael Moreira Claro; Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year) from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews) were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence ...

  8. Dr Brasilia and Mr. Nacala: the apparent duality behind the Brazilian state-capital nexus

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    TOMASO FERRANDO

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In August 2010 Brazil decided to limit foreign direct investments (FDIs in land, and attracted the attention of politicians as much as the fears of businessmen. However, few months before, in September 2009, it had concluded a trilateral agreement with Japan and Mozambique to implement agribusiness and contract farming on an area of ten million hectares in the Mozambican region of Nacala. In light of that, the paper analyses the apparent duality of the Brazilian politics, and concludes that, exactly like in the case of the novel by Robert Louis Stevenson, it is not a matter of pathology, but a voluntarily induced double personality which is strategic in positioning Brazil at the core of the global capitalist system.

  9. Clinical indicators of child development in the capitals of nine Brazilian states: the influence of regional cultural factors

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    André Laranjeira de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486, Brasília (p=0.371, Porto Alegre (p=0.987, Fortaleza (p=0.259, Recife (p=0.630, Salvador (0.370, São Paulo (p=0.238, Curitiba (p=0.870, and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06. DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of

  10. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  11. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006 to 51.0% (2012, with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  12. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-01-01

    In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor expl...

  13. Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in Brazilian state capitals: comments from the data of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases

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    Helder Oliveira e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of requests for serological testing for HIV infection in patients with Tuberculosis and the prevalence of such co-infection in Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District (DF, between 2004 and 2006. Methods: It was a retrospective epidemiological survey based in the data of Brazil’s Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. The data were collected in August, 2008. In the studied period, there were notified in SINAN, 35,639 cases of Tuberculosis in 2004, 37,520 in 2005 and 34,439 in 2006, in all the 26 state capitals and the DF. The percentage of patients with known serological status and the percentage of patients with positive testing for HIV infection within the patients with Tuberculosis varied widely among the capitals and among the time periods assessed. Results: The municipalities of Rio Branco and Macapá (North region showed the worse coverage of serological testing for HIV infection, with a frequency of not screening above 86.5% in the three years of the study. The best HIV screening coverage occurred in Campo Grande (Center-West region and Curitiba (South region, with frequencies of not testing fewer than 20.5%. The frequency of Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection varied from 64.5% in Florianópolis (South region, in 2004 to 0% in Rio Branco (North region, in 2006. Conclusion: In the study, the regional disparities for HIV serological testing in patients with Tuberculosis were observed. In order to achieve the goals for HIV screening in all patients with Tuberculosis there shall be necessary some operational adjustments and a greater commitment in the implantation of public policies directed for these populations.

  14. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Batista Fontana; Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers wil...

  15. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals

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    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.

  16. Políticas educacionais e desempenho escolar nas capitais brasileiras Educational policies and school performance in the Brazilian capitals of states

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    Fátima Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga a associação das políticas públicas sobre o desempenho das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras a partir dos dados relativos ao rendimento de alunos da 4ª série do ensino fundamental, aferidos pelo Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica nos anos 1999, 2001 e 2003. A investigação fez uso de modelos multiníveis de classificação cruzada para dar conta da relação entre o rendimento de alunos, redes de ensino e anos em que foi feita a avaliação, e implementou controles pelo nível socioeconômico dos alunos e pela composição social das redes de ensino. Os resultados apontam que as políticas educacionais associadas a melhor desempenho dos estudantes das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras são aquelas relacionadas aos processos de escolha meritocrática de diretores, à autonomia financeira, à implementação de sistemas de avaliação, ao atendimento em educação infantil e à formação superior de docentes. Conseqüências para a formulação da agenda das políticas educacionais são apresentadas.On the basis of data from the Brazilian National Assessment of Basic Education, this paper investigates, in the set of schools attached to each local authority within the capital of Brazilian states, the association of educational policies and 4th grade students' school performances, during the period of 1999-2003. Multilevel cross-classified models were used in order to take into account the structure of the data (students' performance, set of schools and assessment years. Also, the analysis included statistical control for students' socioeconomic levels and for their social composition within the set of schools under the administration of each local authority. The results indicate that merit-based processes for appointing principals, financial autonomy of schools, external assessment of schools, offer of pre-schools' enrollments, and a higher percentage of teachers with more than a high school

  17. INNOVATION PROCESS IN OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

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    Ricardo Floriani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the innovation process used by the open capital Brazilian companies and establish a ranking of the potentially innovative ones. For this, a questionnaire was sent to 484 companies with shares traded in Bovespa, receiving a response from 22. The innovation process is based on the model of Barrett and Sexton (2006. A summary of the results is presented below. (i Organizational Capabilities – 95.5% answered that they have incentives for innovation activities and 68.2% reported having procedures for all services. The leadership has a facilitator role encouraging the initiative (86.4% and promotes the maintenance of the group relationship (72.7%. Value risk taking, even through failures and prioritize the learning and experimenting new ideas. (ii Background of the innovation – reveals aspects of the capacity (internal or (external. Of the respondents, 59.1% developed internal activities of continuing P & D. Training to innovate is present in a continuous or occasional basis in 81.8% of the companies. The respondents characterize the economic environment as dynamic and the majority purchased software and equipments. In only 12 opportunities was a reference to obtaining patents as innovation protection measure. (iii Focus of innovation – the majority of the companies mentioned process or product innovation. Rewards are offered when the objectives are met and it is brought to attention when this does not occur. (iv Highlighted performance – the innovations achieved the expectations and created effects. The relevant benefits noticed were: improvement in quality of goods and services, increase of market share, increase of goods and services, and increase of productive capacity.

  18. Suicide among young people in selected Brazilian State capitals Suicídio de jovens nas principais capitais do Brasil

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    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes suicide among young Brazilians (15-24 years old in nine metropolitan areas. Mortality data for 1979-1998 were obtained from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. External causes are the main causes of death among youth, and suicide is the sixth most frequent of these causes. The distribution is heterogeneous, varying according to the social stratum, specific age group, sex, and means used to commit suicide. All cities analyzed showed increased suicide rates from 1979 to 1998 (from 3.5 to 5.0 per 100,000 inhabitants 15-24 years old. Salvador and Rio de Janeiro had the lowest suicide rates, while Porto Alegre and Curitiba had the highest. The principal means used by youth to commit suicide were hanging, strangling, and suffocation (Porto Alegre, followed by firearms and explosives (Belo Horizonte.O presente estudo analisa o comportamento dos suicídios de jovens nas capitais das nove Regiões Metropolitanas brasileiras. Utiliza os dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM do Ministério da Saúde, na faixa etária de 15 a 24 anos, no período de 1979 a 1998. As externas são as principais causes de óbito de jovens e entre elas o suicídio ocupa a 6ª posição, com uma distribuição heterogênea. Sua incidência varia em função dos diferentes espaços sociais, das faixas etárias específicas, do sexo e dos meios utilizados. Para o conjunto das capitais observou-se uma certa elevação das taxas de suicídios nos anos analisados, correspondendo a 3,5 (em 1979, 3,4 (1985, 4,0 (1990 e a 5,0 (em 1998 por 100.000 habitantes de 15 a 24 anos. Salvador e Rio de Janeiro tiveram as menores taxas de suicídio; em contrapartida, Porto Alegre e Curitiba apresentaram as maiores taxas. Os principais meios utilizados para perpetrar tais mortes foram o enforcamento, estrangulamento e sufocação, sobretudo em Porto Alegre, e a utilização de armas de fogo e explosivos, ressaltando-se sua utilização em

  19. KEY FACTORS IN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

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    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted in corporate finance regarding long-term investment and financing decisions. However, short-term asset investments play a significant role in the balance sheet of companies. Moreover, financial managers dedicate significantamounts of time and effort to the subject of working capital management, balancing current assets and liabilities. This paper provides insights regarding the key factors of working capital management by exploring the internal variables of a number of companies. This study used data from 2,976 Brazilian public companies from 2001 to 2008, and found that debt level, size and growth rate can affect the working capital management of companies.

  20. Social Inequalities and the Oral health in Brazilian Capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Janmille Valdivino; Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Despite the improvement of the lives of Brazilians, still persists a panorama of iniquities in health in Brazil. This ecological study evaluated the relationship of socioeconomic conditions and public health policy with oral health conditions in Brazilian capitals. Factor analysis was performed with the socioeconomic indicators, revealing two common factors: economic deprivation and socio-sanitary condition. Then, was executed multiple linear regression analysis for the oral health indicators (average DMFT 12 years, mean missing teeth and rate of decay of free population) with two factors in common and fluoridation of water supply. Multiple linear regression analysis to the DMFT of the capitals was estimated by the socio-sanitary conditions and fluoridation, adjusted by economic deprivation; whereas the model for the average missing teeth was estimated only for flu-oridation and economic deprivation, and finally, the model for the rate of caries-free population in the Brazilian capitals was estimated by economic and sociosanitary condition set by fluoridated water supplies. Therefore, the results indicate the need for social actions that impact on people's living conditions to reduce tooth decay. PMID:26221819

  1. Rio de Janeiro as Brazilian journalism capital

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Rollemberg

    2008-01-01

    The book paints a broad picture of the history of Rio press since the turn of the century Nineteenth to the twentieth century until the early years of the century, showing its influence on the rest of Brazil. The technological and stylistic innovations of the press, so as the social, cultural and political as much of Rio de Janeiro - until 1960 capital of the Republic - the country are also analyzed and presented by author, writing an important social web in which journalism has a role predom...

  2. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  3. Does Idiosyncratic Risk Matter in the Brazilian Capital Market?

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    José Roberto Securato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between idiosyncratic risk and diversified portfolio returns on Brazil’s capital market. Following Goyal and Santa-Clara (2003 and Bali et alii (2005 we use volatility measures that capture systematic and idiosyncratic risk. For the identification of the relationship between idiosyncratic risk and portfolio returns we use a time series framework regressing volatility measures and portfolio returns one step ahead from 1999:01 to 2006:03. Additionally, we carry out robustness tests to validate our results. We found no evidence of a relationship between idiosyncratic risk and portfolio returns for the Brazilian capital market. Our evidence is similar to those from Bali et alii (2005 for the US capital market, which challenges the Goyal e Santa-Clara (2003 findings.

  4. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

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    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a

  5. Why Does Capital Flow to Rich States?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Ariell Reshef; Bent Sorensen; Oved Yosha

    2007-01-01

    We study the determinants of net capital income flows within the United States. We analyze a simple multi-state neoclassical model in which total factor productivity varies across states and over time and capital flows freely across state borders. The model predicts that capital will flow to states with relatively high output growth. Since relative growth patterns are persistent such states are also high output states, which implies that high output will be associated with inflows of capital ...

  6. Varieties in State Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for pene...

  7. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

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    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  8. A mortalidade materna nas capitais brasileiras: algumas características e estimativa de um fator de ajuste Maternal mortality in Brazilian State Capitals: some characteristics and estimates for an adjustment factor

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    Ruy Laurenti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mortalidade materna pode ser considerada um excelente indicador de saúde, não só da mulher, mas da população geral; mostra, também, iniqüidades. A redução da mortalidade materna é uma das principais metas, estando também incluída nas Metas do Desenvolvimento do Milênio da ONU. OBJETIVO: Conhecer a qualidade da informação da mortalidade de mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, e estimar a razão de mortalidade materna (RMM e os fatores de ajuste para os dados oficiais, no conjunto das capitais de estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. METODOLOGIA: Adotou-se a metodologia RAMOS (a partir da declaração de óbito, entrevista no domicílio da mulher falecida, com preenchimento de questionário, sobre variáveis demográficas, epidemiológicas, clínicas e de acesso a serviços; seguiam-se consultas a prontuários médicos hospitalares e a laudos de autópsia. Após o resgate da informação, pôde ser feita análise das reais causas básicas, terminais e associadas. A população de estudo foi estimada em 7.332 mortes de mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, ocorridas no primeiro semestre de 2002, sendo 239 óbitos por causas maternas. A RMM foi de 54,3 por cem mil nascidos vivos (n.v., no conjunto de capitais, variando entre 42 por cem mil n.v. no Sul, e 73,2 por cem mil n.v. no Nordeste. O fator de ajuste para o conjunto das capitais brasileiras foi igual a 1,4; para as regiões (considerando apenas as capitais, variaram entre 1,08 na Região Norte e 1,83 na Região Sul. As mortes obstétricas diretas corresponderam a 67,1%, mostrando que assistência ao pré-natal, ao parto e ao puerpério deve ser aprimorada.INTRODUCTION: There is criticism as to the heterogeneity and reliability of mortality data in Brazilian Regions. However, official mortality statistics of State Capitals are more accurate and have adequate coverage. Reduction of maternal mortality is one of the world's major goals and it is measured by the Maternal Mortality Ratio. International

  9. Empirical analysis of Brazilian banks' capital buffers during the period 2001-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Cintra Belém

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International literature indicates that the capital buffers held by banks result notably from the trade-off that exists between the cost of holding capital, adjustment costs, and bankruptcy costs, which all have a direct impact on banks' capital structures. The aim of this paper is to study the degree of sensitivity of Brazilian banks' capital buffers to the determining factors established in the literature, by using a sample of 121 banks, covering the period from 2001 to 2011. The empirical analysis that was carried out found that there was a significant cost of adjusting capital buffers for the Brazilian banks. At the same time, bankruptcy cost indicated a positive relationship between risk profile and capital buffers, while the cost of holding capital did not exhibit statistical significance in the analysis.

  10. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the...... production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or...

  11. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia; Alessandra Carvalho de Vasconcelos; Márcia Martins Mendes De Luca

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG) segments of BM&FBoves...

  12. Cultural capital and the consumption of cultural goods: strategies used for status consumption among new middle class Brazilian women.

    OpenAIRE

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte; Cecilia Queirós Mattoso

    2014-01-01

    Holt (1998) investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010). This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining...

  13. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  14. Rawlsian justice and welfare-state capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, Ho-yin; 袁浩然

    2014-01-01

    Rawls emphasizes in his later writings that his theory of justice as fairness is not a defense of welfare-state capitalism. He argues that welfare-state capitalism cannot be an acceptable regime for justice as fairness because its ideal institutional description fails to satisfy the two principles of justice in various ways. Against Rawls, I argue in this thesis that his rejection of welfare-state capitalism is not justified. I begin by clarifying an ambiguity regarding what arrangements...

  15. Tendências da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais dos estados do Brasil, 1980-2004 Trends of cancer mortality in Brazilian state capitals, 1980-2004

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    Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    of state capitals comprises about a quarter of the total Brazilian population and for these cities mortality data available have a better quality than for the entire country, enabling analyses of trends in cancer rates based on more accurate data. METHODS: Mortality and population data were collected from government databases (SIM/DATASUS and IBGE, respectively. Age-adjusted (world standard and age-specific mortality rates were calculated for both genders . Linear regression was used to investigate changes in trends. RESULTS: For all cancers as a whole mortality rates declined throughout the study period for both men and women (-4.6% and -10.5%, respectively. For both genders , the cancer that decreased most was stomach cancer. Among men, lung cancer death rates presented a slight reduction, while prostate cancer rates increased. Among women, "uterus, site unspecified' presented a downward trend, while lung cancer rates increased. The trend for breast cancer remained stable, and cervix uterus rates showed a slight increase at the end of the period. CONCLUSION: As already seen in developed countries, all cancer mortality rates tended to decline in Brazilian state capitals over the period 1980-2004, a tendency largely due to a decline in stomach cancer death rates for both genders.

  16. China's state capitalism and world trade law

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Melding the power of the state with the power of capitalism, state-owned and state-controlled enterprises continue to control the commanding heights of the Chinese economy even though market-oriented reforms have led to a rapid expansion of the private sector in China. This article reflects on how China's practice of state capitalism challenges the world trading system and how WTO law, as interpreted by WTO Panels and the WTO Appellate Body (AB), addresses these challenges. The article conclu...

  17. Nature of the state economic expanded functions in the Brazilian economy*

    OpenAIRE

    NIEMEYER ALMEIDA FILHO

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The paper discusses the dynamics of capital accumulation in Latin America economies. The hypothesis is that in these economies the role of the State is comparatively broader than in the economies of the centers of the capitalism by structural reasons. The argument is mainly based on Marx and Kalecki, besides historical elements of Latin America economies, particularly the Brazilian economy. Then the paper explores the dynamics consequences of this nature at the national levels, concl...

  18. Return on capital of Brazilian electricity distributors: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the electricity distribution segment in Brazil from 1998 to 2005-after the conclusion of privatization process-trying to assess whether the return on capital invested was in line with the risk required in the segment. It concludes that the return on equity in Brazil was systematically negative until 2003. Only in 2005 did the distribution segment really begin to recover, showing profitability consistent with the estimated cost of equity. Comparisons with Argentine, Chilean and American companies reveal that firms in the latter two countries, generally managed to reward shareholders according to the opportunity cost of capital. Estimates are that to sustain annual growth of roughly 3.7% for the next decade, the entire electricity sector will demand US$ 7 billion in capital expenditures a year for the next decade, 67% for generation, 16% for transmission and 17% for distribution. In order to stimulate private capital investment, it is fundamental for the regulator, in the tariff revision processes, to consistently assure a rate of return on capital in line with the segment's real opportunity cost and therefore maintain the health of all the three segments without the burden of subsidies

  19. Cultural Capital and the Consumption of Cultural Goods: Strategies Used for Status Consumption Among New Middle Class Brazilian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Holt (1998 investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010. This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining factor in the consumption of status, being converted in tastes and consumption practices. The consumption of cultural products is critical to the building of the status strategies, however, the cultural products used may vary according to the greater or lesser cultural capital of the interviewees.

  20. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Denis Forte; Lucas Ayres Barros; Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys) and two strong results emerge: (a) profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b) asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of ...

  1. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  2. Secular trends in the rate of low birth weight in Brazilian State Capitals in the period 1996 to 2010 Tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer en las capitales brasileñas de 1996 a 2010 Tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer nas capitais brasileiras de 1996 a 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma Jane Ferreira Veloso

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Secular trends in rates of low birth weight in Brazilian state capital cities were evaluated for the period 1996 to 2010 using joinpoint regression models. The rates were calculated using data from the Live Births Information System. Newborns weighing less than 500g were excluded. Only data for capital cities was included since under-registration of births in these cities is lower and new trends can be detected earlier. There was a significant increase in the rate of low birth weight in the Brazilian capitals of the North Region, Northeast Region, South Region and Southeast Region up to 2003/2004, stabilizing thereafter. In the capitals of the Center-west Region the rate increased throughout the whole study period. The rate of low birth weight was higher in the capitals of the more developed regions. The rate of multiple births increased significantly in all Brazilian capitals, while the stillbirth rate decreased and showed a negative correlation with the rate of low birth weight. The increase in the rate of low birth weight may be partially explained by the increase in multiple births, an increase in the birth of infants weighing 500 to 999g and by the reduction in the stillbirth rate.La tendencia secular de la tasa de bajo peso al nacer de 1996 a 2010 en las capitales brasileñas se evaluó utilizando modelos de regresión joinpoint. Las tasas se calcularon a partir del Sistema de Información sobre Nacidos Vivos, excluyéndose recién nacidos con un peso A tendência secular da taxa de baixo peso ao nascer de 1996 a 2010 nas capitais brasileiras foi avaliada utilizando-se modelos de regressão joinpoint. As taxas foram calculadas a partir do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos, excluindo-se recém-nascido com peso < 500g. Foram incluídos apenas dados das capitais, onde o sub-registro é menor e novas tendências podem ser detectadas mais precocemente. A taxa de baixo peso ao nascer aumentou significantemente nas capitais

  3. Correlation between mean body mass index in the population and prevalence of obesity in Brazilian capitals: empirical evidence for a population-based approach of obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Lobato, Jackeline Christiane Pinto; Kale, Pauline Lorena; Velarde, Luis Guillermo Coca; Szklo, Moyses; Costa, Antonio José Leal

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between mean body mass index (BMI) and prevalence of obesity in adult populations living in Brazilian State capitals. Methods An ecological study was conducted, using data from the National Household Budget Survey conducted in July 2002 through June 2003, including a representative sample of 48.470 households. Pearson’s correlation and linear regression coefficients were estimated in order to define the relationships of m...

  4. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  5. Mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto e consumo alimentar em capitais brasileiras selecionadas Colorectal cancer mortality and diet patterns in selected Brazilian State capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Junqueira das Neves

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available As taxas de mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto mostram uma variação regional no Brasil e a heterogeneidade do padrão alimentar nas suas regiões geográficas poderia possivelmente explicar, pelo menos em parte, essas diferenças. Um estudo ecológico foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar possíveis associações entre padrões de consumo alimentar e taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade em capitais brasileiras selecionadas. O padrão de consumo alimentar em cada capital foi caracterizado com base no consumo de grupos de alimentos associados a essa neoplasia na literatura. Os dados de consumo de alimentos foram obtidos no ENDEF (Estudo Nacional de Despesas Familiares. A regressão linear múltipla foi utilizada para analisar as correlações entre as taxas de mortalidade e as variáveis alimentares. Essas taxas mostraram uma correlação positiva com o consumo de calorias, cereais, carnes, ovos/leite e legumes/frutas. Quando ajustado por consumo calórico total, carne e legumes/frutas foram as únicas variáveis que mantiveram uma correlação positiva. O modelo multivariado final com essas variáveis foi capaz de explicar 92% da variação das taxas de mortalidade nas capitais selecionadas. Esses resultados sugerem que diferenças no consumo calórico total e no consumo de carne e legumes/frutas poderiam explicar, parcialmente, os diferentes padrões de distribuição da mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto no Brasil.Mortality rates for colorectal cancer show regional variations in Brazil, and the heterogeneous dietary profile observed in its geographic regions could possibly explain, at least partially, these different patterns. An ecological study was conducted to identify possible associations between dietary consumption profiles and age-standardized mortality rates for colorectal cancer in selected state capitals. The dietary profile in each capital was characterized on the basis of the consumption of groups of foods

  6. Nature of the state economic expanded functions in the Brazilian economy*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIEMEYER ALMEIDA FILHO

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The paper discusses the dynamics of capital accumulation in Latin America economies. The hypothesis is that in these economies the role of the State is comparatively broader than in the economies of the centers of the capitalism by structural reasons. The argument is mainly based on Marx and Kalecki, besides historical elements of Latin America economies, particularly the Brazilian economy. Then the paper explores the dynamics consequences of this nature at the national levels, concluding that this condition gives a higher degree of instability.

  7. Práticas contraceptivas e iniciação sexual entre jovens de três capitais brasileiras Contraceptive practices and sexual initiation among young people in three Brazilian State capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian F. B. Marinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o uso de contraceptivos na primeira relação sexual de 2.790 homens e mulheres. Trata-se de inquérito domiciliar em três capitais brasileiras, com entrevistas de amostra probabilística (Pesquisa GRAVAD. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística. As variáveis foram agrupadas em: determinantes macrossociais, socialização e entrada na sexualidade, contexto da iniciação sexual e características da/o jovem e da/o parceira/o. A prevalência de foi de 68,3% e de 65,3% na dos homens. Entre elas, a contracepção associou-se à: renda familiar per capita, cor/raça e revistas femininas como fontes de informação sobre gravidez e contracepção. Para ambos os sexos, o uso foi mais freqüente quando houve conversa prévia sobre o tema entre parceiros, a iniciação sexual foi mais tardia e em motel, e o/a parceiro/a paciente. O tempo entre o início do relacionamento e a iniciação sexual mostrou-se associado ao uso na iniciação sexual dos rapazes. Fatores macrossociais parecem determinar a contracepção mais freqüente na iniciação sexual das mulheres, enquanto para os homens o contexto rela-cional é mais importante.This study investigated contraceptive use during first sexual intercourse among 2.790 young men and women. The GRAVAD household survey in three Brazilian capital cities involved interviews in a probabilistic sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used. Variables grouped as: macro-social, socialization and sexual initiation, context of sexual initiation, and characteristics of the interviewee and his or her partner. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 68.3% for women and 65.3% for men. Among women, contraception use was associated to: per capita monthly family income, color/race, and the use of women's magazines as a source of information on pregnancy and contraception. For both genders, use was more frequent when partners discussed pregnancy prevention before intercourse, when

  8. Credit risk in the pool-implications for private capital investments in Brazilian power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new Brazilian Electric Sector Regulation of 2004 introduced two negotiation markets: the regulated pool and the free market. Competition in the pool is enforced via energy auctions, where the winning generator has to sign long-term power purchase agreements simultaneously with all distributors at the bidding-price. To estimate the appropriate credit risk spread of the pool, we implement a clustering methodology to rank and rate the distributors. The results show an average spread between 5.75% and 8.5%, which corresponds to a credit rating of B- according to the spreads available in Reuters 2004. This estimation is at least 208 basis points higher than the credit rating Ba1/BB+ assigned to the distributors by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) in the periodic tariff revisions. Distributors with higher risk/spread are located in the South-Southeast, compared to the low risk/spread ones concentrated in the North-Northeast. We estimate the opportunity cost of capital in real terms in the range of 13-16% to account for the credit risk of the pool. Essential to determine the bidding price at the auctions, this estimation is higher than the 11.26% opportunity cost estimated by ANEEL. The pool's credit risk has to be taken into consideration, especially for compensating new private capital investments in Brazilian power generation

  9. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  10. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  11. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  12. Opportunities to improve the private capital in Brazilian electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian electricity supply industry has passed substantial changes in the last fifty years. In the 50's was almost completely controlled by foreign companies. In the 70's, it turned to be almost exclusively ruled by Federal and State Enterprises. In the 80's the electricity supply sector started a financial and institutional crises. Some changes, already in course, indicate new changes of it for the next years. This study give emphasis to: the reasons that lead to a fast and well succeeded State intervention in the post-war; the multiple reasons of the recent crisis in sector, trying to insert it in the general context of the country; the alternative that have being formulated to overcome the obstacles created by the crisis; and the main factors for an efficient re-structure of the Brazilian electricity sector for the next years, included privatisation. (author)

  13. Mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto e consumo alimentar em capitais brasileiras selecionadas Colorectal cancer mortality and diet patterns in selected Brazilian State capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrícia Junqueira das Neves; Rosalina Jorge Koifman; Inês Echenique Mattos

    2006-01-01

    As taxas de mortalidade por câncer de cólon e reto mostram uma variação regional no Brasil e a heterogeneidade do padrão alimentar nas suas regiões geográficas poderia possivelmente explicar, pelo menos em parte, essas diferenças. Um estudo ecológico foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar possíveis associações entre padrões de consumo alimentar e taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade em capitais brasileiras selecionadas. O padrão de consumo alimentar em cada capital foi caracteriza...

  14. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  15. [Consumption of anxiolytic benzodiazepines: a correlation between SNGPC data and sociodemographic indicators in Brazilian capitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Ângelo José Pimentel de; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this article is to determine the distribution and frequency of consumption of anxiolytic benzodiazepines and the correlation between consumption and demographic, epidemiological, economic and social characteristics. It is an ecological study with a sample of 27 state capitals. Data collection was performed through the ANVISA database for the dispensation of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Clonazepam, Diazepam and Lorazepam in 2010-2012, the 2010 Demographic Census (IBGE), DATASUS and Medical Demographic Research. Descriptive statistical analysis and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for data analysis. The northern region has capitals with the lowest and the southeast has capitals with the highest average consumption of these products. The average consumption for the population of all capitals was 3.60 DHD. Alprazolam is the drug most dispensed by pharmacies and private drugstores with average 2.00 DHD for the capitals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 76% of the variation was explained by population density (β = 0.310 p = 0.045) and percentage of physicians (β = 0.507 p = 0.016). The consumption of short half-life anxiolytics has been on the increase, mainly in the cities of greater population density and concentration of physicians. PMID:26816166

  16. The internationalization of nuclear industry: state and capital in atomic relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)

  17. CAPITAL MARKET COINTEGRATION OF OLD AND NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Svilokos, Tonči

    2012-01-01

    The author investigates the degree of capital market cointegration of old and new EU member states, and examines whether, and to what extent, the global financial crisis had an effect on it. Capital markets are completely integrated if assets of equal risk have identical expected returns, irrespective of the location of the capital market. Therefore the risk that the investor agrees to take in the integrated international market is the result of common factors and it is not possible to divers...

  18. MEASURING THE PRODUCTIVITY OF CAPITAL IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafson, Cole R.

    1986-01-01

    The agricultural sector has operated in a period of high real interest rates for over half a decade. Some are concerned that this has limited capital availability and stagnated the historic capital for labor substitution occurring in the sector. This study proposes new procedures for estimating the aggregate production function of United States agriculture. Improvements include incorporation of total returns and revised measures of both durable and nondurable capital inputs. Results indicate ...

  19. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia, E-mail: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, E-mail: vparente@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  20. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  1. Contingent Convertibles and their Impacts on the Optimization of the Capital Structure of Brazilian Banks Under Basel III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cyganczuk Goes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks around the world maintain excess regulatory capital, whether to minimize capitalization costs or to mitigate risks of financial difficulties. However, it was only after the financial crisis of 2008 that the quality of capital gained greater importance among international regulators, through the Third Basel Accord (Basel III, which suggested a capital structure formed of the new equity and debt hybrid instruments, that is, Contingent Convertibles (CoCos, which have the main goal of recapitalizing banks automatically when they show signs of financial difficulties. Using the continuous-time structural model developed by Koziol and Lawrenz (2012, with December 2013 as a reference, this paper analyzes the capital structure of the 10 biggest Brazilian banks in terms of total assets, comparing their current structures - with only subordinated debts - with the structure proposed in Basel III, composed solely of contingent convertibles, with a view to verifying the influence of CoCos in banks' risks and evaluating the effectiveness of this Basel III recommendation. Through the evidence obtained using the model mentioned, this paper's main contribution is in demonstrating that the use of CoCos would optimize the capital structure of banks under the restrictions of Basel III, considering these are effective. If not, the automatic recapitalization of these instruments could be used for shareholders' own benefit, thus increasing the likelihood of banks experiencing financial difficulties, which could cause a new financial crisis, like that which occurred in 2008.

  2. State control, access to capital and firm performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Zhen Li; Xijia Su; Zhifeng Yang

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of state control on capital allocation and investment in China, where the government screens prospective stock issuers. We find that state firms are more likely to obtain government approval to conduct seasoned equity offerings than non-state firms. Further, non-state firms exhibit greater sensitivities of subsequent investment and stock performance to regulatory decisions on stock issuances than state firms. Our work suggests that state control of capital access distorts resource allocation and impedes the growth of non-state firms. We also provide robust evidence that financial constraints cause underinvestment.

  3. The internationalization of nuclear industry: state and capital in atomic relations; A internacionalizacao da industria nuclear: estado e capital em relacoes atomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Evaristo Santiago

    1986-03-15

    This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)

  4. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6% were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners. Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  5. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.; Aquino Estela M. L.; Barros Antoniel Pinheiro de

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6%) were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners). Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. ...

  6. Empreendedorismo na capital amazonense

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Aécio Flávio Ferreira da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This research was elaborated to evaluate entrepreneurship in the Capital of the Amazon State, Brazil. Its relevance is due to the non-existent literature in the subject of entrepreneurship, in the Northern Region of Brazil. The available Brazilian literary archive comprehends only the main cities located in the Southern and Northeastern Regions of the country. There is no research in the Northern Region – where the Amazon State and its Capital, Manaus, are found – and thus lies the reason for...

  7. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  8. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  9. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  10. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  11. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  12. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  13. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  14. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  15. The efficient market hypothesis of brazilian capital market, 2000-2010: an event study of distribution of dividends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moreira Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-strong form of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis - EMH, developed by Fama (1970, 1991, the prices reflect both the past and any information disclosed by companies, making impossible to an investor to get abnormal returns consistently, based on this type of information. In this paper we analyze the price behavior of common shares of 87 listed companies in the BM&FBovespa, in the announcements of 452 events of dividend distribution, occurred between January 2000 and September 2010, in order to identify the EMH in semi-strong form of Brazilian capital market. We used an event study, which evaluates abnormal returns of stocks relative to the market return (Ibovespa. The analysis of the abnormal return in the event window (10 days before and after the dividend distribution announcement showed an upward trend, with significant positive abnormal returns on days t-5, t-3, and t-1 to t+1. The results go in the direction of other studies of national literature and contribute to attest that the Brazilian capital market lacks the semi-strong form of informational efficiency.

  16. Social Capital and Happiness in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the association between social capital and average happiness in the United States. Social capital is measured as a multidimensional concept consisting of social trust and two different indicators of sociability. In order to employ the variation both over time and across states......, the data are organized in either a panel of nine US Census regions over the period 1983-1998 or in averages over this period in a cross-section of 48 states. The results show that social trust is positively associated with happiness while the potential effects of informal sociability at the level of...... society only appear significant in the regional estimates. The findings document the importance of social trust for average happiness but also hold more general implications for social capital theory....

  17. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006 Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006 Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-12-01

    Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. The rates of overall cancer mortality and major types were corrected by proportionally redistributing 50% of ill-defined causes of death and standardizing them by age according to the standard world population. Trend curves for Brazil and its major regions were calculated for state capitals and other municipalities according to sex, and were evaluated by means of simple linear regression. RESULTS: Among men, ascending mortality rates were observed for lung, prostate and colorectal cancer; declining rates for stomach cancer; and stable rates for esophagus cancer. Among women, mortality from breast, lung and colorectal cancer increased, and the rates for cervical and stomach cancer declined. Mortality evolution varied across the regions of Brazil, with distinct patterns between state capitals and other municipalities. CONCLUSIONS: The correction of mortality rates based on redistribution of ill-defined causes of death increased the magnitude of the overall cancer mortality in Brazil by approximately 10% in 1980 and 5% in 2006. In the inland municipalities no decrease or stability was identified, differently from what was observed in the state capitals. Limited scope of prevention actions and lower access to services of cancer diagnosis and treatment for the population living away from large urban centers may partly explain these differences.

  18. Organizational analysis of the Social Democracy Party of the Brazilian state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa MICELI KERBAUY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of organizational dynamics of political parties today, based on a study of the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB in the State of Sao Pãulo (period between 1988 to 2006. It is hypothesized that the structure and the institutional rules of a particular party, or even their election results, are insufficient to explain the inner workings, such as the role of party organization in the electoral system. An approach that articulates the relationship patterns, election results and posts held in the party, identified the factors that explain the political capital that circulated within the party and ensured its organizational dynamics over the period analyzed.

  19. Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Coulangeon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Empruntée à l’appareil conceptuel de l’économie, la notion de capital désigne en première analyse l’ensemble des ressources dont disposent les individus et les groupes et qui affectent leurs trajectoires, notamment dans les domaines scolaire, professionnel, matrimonial et familial. La sociologie contemporaine se saisit le plus souvent du concept pour en souligner les différentes espèces : capital économique, capital culturel et capital social, principalement. Si le capital économique désigne ...

  20. Comparison of capital structure and financial performance of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean companies O comportamento da estrutura de capital e a performance de firmas brasileiras, argentinas e chilenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosilene Marcon

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Capital structure and financial performance of Brazilian, Argentinean and Chilean companies were compared to identify differences using a multiple cross section study made of 1996 to 2005. Samples were taken from the Economatica® for examination of the variables of debt over PL (ENDV, operational profitability over total assets (ROAOP and profitability over PL (ROE. Variance analysis was used to detect significant differences between companies in these countries and the Scheffé test identified countries differing from the averages. Significant differences were found in average ENDV and ROAOP in five of the ten years and in ROE for seven years of these ten years. Brazilian companies, in general, differed from the Chilean and Argentinean ones; however, no significant differences were noted between the Argentinean and Chilean companies. Descriptive analysis showed that Brazilian companies had a higher ENDV for all the years, lower ROAOP during the first four years and a lower ROE for the period studied.Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar se a estrutura de capital e o desempenho financeiro diferem entre as empresas brasileiras, argentinas e chilenas. O estudo consiste em um cross section múltiplo que compreendeu o período de 1996 a 2005. A amostra foi extraída do Economática®, tendo como variáveis o endividamento sobre o PL (ENDV, a rentabilidade operacional sobre o ativo total (ROAOP e a rentabilidade sobre o PL (ROE. A fim de apurar se havia diferenças significativas entre as firmas dos três países, utilizou-se a Análise da Variância, e, para identificar em quais países diferem tais médias, utilizou-se o teste Scheffé. Os resultados apontaram diferenças significativas nas médias do ENDV e da ROAOP em cinco dos dez anos pesquisados, e na ROE houve diferenças significativas em sete dos dez anos analisados. Em geral, as empresas brasileiras diferem das chilenas e argentinas; no entanto, os resultados não apontaram diferen

  1. Análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel em cinco capitais brasileiras Analysis of the implementation of a mobile pre-hospital treatment system in five Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos descrição e análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência - SAMU. O texto é parte de uma pesquisa denominada Análise Diagnóstica de Implantação da Política Nacional de Redução de Acidentes e Violências. Estudamos a história recente da implantação, organização, recursos humanos, materiais e equipamentos do SAMU em cinco capitais (Curitiba - Paraná; Recife - Pernambuco; Brasília - Distrito Federal; Manaus - Amazonas; Rio de Janeiro que apresentam elevadas taxas de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Trabalhamos em quatro fases, cada qual agregando ciclos exploratórios, de trabalho de campo e de análise, triangulando dados quantitativos e qualitativos. Os resultados mostram que a implantação do SAMU constitui, hoje, um avanço do setor saúde e da sociedade. É preciso ainda completar a implantação de várias portarias quanto a veículos, pessoal e equipamentos; intensificar a articulação do pré-hospitalar móvel com as unidades de saúde; enfatizar informações geradas nesse subsistema visando ao melhor planejamento das ações; manter e promover a alta qualificação dos profissionais do SAMU. Este serviço veio oficializar, padronizar e regular um subsistema fundamental para salvar vidas.The article presents a description and analysis of the implementation of a pre-hospital treatment system (SAMU as part of the research project Diagnostic Analysis of the Implementation of a National Policy for the Reduction of Violence and Accidents. Implementation and organization of the SAMU service, together with the related materials, human resources, and equipment, was studied in five Brazilian State capitals with high morbidity and mortality rates from external causes: Curitiba (Paraná, Recife (Pernambuco, Brasília (Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, and Manaus (Amazonas. The study involved four phases, each developing exploratory and

  2. The Educational Achievement of Brazilian Adolescents: Cultural Capital and the Interaction between Families and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Leticia; Andrade, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Most studies find a positive correlation between family cultural capital and educational achievement. As compelling as the evidence on the advantages of family cultural capital for educational achievement is, most studies have focused on countries characterized by having a large middle class and high levels of income, not addressing societies with…

  3. Current state management of the consumer capital of domestic enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O. Golysheva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the current state of management by consumer business capital is carried out. It is based on three components: system of communications with consumers and external subjects, the history of relationship with them and the database about partners; portfolio management of trade marks (brands; the.

  4. Unions Feeling Chill on State Capital Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' unions find themselves on the defensive in states across the country, as governors and lawmakers press forward with proposals to target job protections and benefits that elected officials contend the public can no longer afford academically or financially. Many of those efforts are being driven by newly elected Republicans, who have…

  5. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A NORTHEASTERN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    CUNHA, Mirella Alves; ASSUNÇÃO, Gabriela Lins Medeiros; MEDEIROS, Iara Marques; FREITAS, Marise Reis

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common problem worldwide. Its clinical characteristics and susceptibility rates of bacteria are important in determining the treatment of choice and its duration. This study assessed the frequency and susceptibility to antimicrobials of uropathogens isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State capital, northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. A total of 1,082 positive samples were evaluated; E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (60.4%). With respect to the uropathogens susceptibility rates, the resistance of enterobacteria to ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was 24.4% and 50.6%, respectively. Susceptibility was over 90% for nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins. High resistance rates of uropathogens to quinolones and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim draws attention to the choice of these drugs on empirical treatments, especially in patients with pyelonephritis. Given the increased resistance of community bacteria to antimicrobials, local knowledge of susceptibility rates of uropathogens is essential for therapeutic decision making regarding patients with urinary tract infections. PMID:26910446

  6. The Influence of Environmental Disclosure on Capital Structure of Brazilian Companies listed on the BM&FBovespa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Mendes Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to verify the relationship between environmental disclosure and the capital structure of companies classified according to Law 10165 which provides for the National Environmental Policy for the period 2006 to 2010. To meet the proposed objectives were used as proxies for capital structure debt to verify the cost of debt and to verify the CAPM cost of equity. To measure the level of environmental disclosure content analysis was carried out in the notes, the management report and the report of the environmental information contained in the report of the Annual Information (IAN. We analyzed 89 companies with 95,020 sentences, and 5279 relating to environmental events, such 4819 relating to environmental information regarding positive and 460 negative environmental information. To investigate the relationship between these variables was used in the analysis panel with random effects adjusted by robust tool. The findings of this study demonstrate that environmental disclosure does not affect the cost of debt, ie, in the Brazilian market, the environmental information whether positive or negative does not drive the market to influence positively / negatively the cost of debt. However, the results showed that the positive environmental disclosure adversely affects the cost of equity demonstrating that "good environmental image of the company" leverage the company's credibility this crucial factor in reducing the risk of the company since the engagement with sustainability and generate savings for the effective and efficient use of resources eliminates and / or reduces the incidence of government regulations.

  7. Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capital markets and financial intermediation in the Baltic States. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and level of development of the financial system, discussing some of the unique characteristics of the Baltics, such as leasing; and comparing the structure of the Baltic financial systems to other European Union accession countries and/or euro zone averages, both of which serve as benchmarks. The paper also addresses some of the broader analytical q...

  8. A proposal for evaluation of the owner capital cost for the Brazilian electric power sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the owner capital cost of the brazilian electric sector, according to three methods: Comparable Accounting Earnings, that uses historical values in its measuring and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), elaborated from the expected values. The obtained results by using the CAE method showed that the Brazilian electric sector has not been rewarded in its real necessity of maintenance and expansion. From this observation, it was considered appropriated not to take this method in the methodology presently proposed, which will be using only the single average of the CAPM and DCF models. The use of the results single average of this model presents the advantage of selecting specific characteristics of each one, and diluting the effects of occasional peak values. The owner capital cost obtained from this work was the average value of 19.73% for the studied period - 1995/2003 (17.12% for 2003), proximate to the obtained result by ANEEL - brazilian agency of electric power - for investments in energy distribution in Brazil, 17.47%, while Minardi and Sanvicente (2003) obtained 36.06% for the owner capital cost of CEMIG in 2002, specifically.

  9. Estimating Physical Capital and Land for States and Sectors of the United States, 1850-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Chad; Tamura, Robert; Schoellman, Todd; Mulholland, Sean

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces new estimates of physical capital and land for the states of the United States covering up to 150 years, from 1850{2000. The estimates of physical capital are decomposed into estimates for agriculture, manufacturing, and a residual sector, while the estimates of land are for agriculture only. The paper describes the data sources and methodology used to generate the estimates. It provides sensitivity analysis when alternative choices are possible and comparison to alterna...

  10. Association between social capital and self-perception of health in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Roberto Loch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between social capital and social capital and self-perception of health based on examining the influence of health-related behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship.METHODS A cross-sectional study was used with 1,081 subjects, which is representative of the population of individuals aged 40 years or more in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil. The subjects who perceived their health as fine, bad or very bad were considered to have a negative self-perception of their health. The social capital indicators were: number of friends, people from whom they could borrow money from when needed; the extent of trust in community members; whether or not members of the community helped each other; community safety; and extent of participation in community activities. The behaviors were: physical activity during leisure time, fruits and vegetable consumption, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. The odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI 95% were calculated by binary logistic regression. The significance of mediation was verified using the Sobel test.RESULTS Following adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, subjects with fewer friends (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.08;1.80, those who perceived less frequently help from people in the neighborhood (OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01;1.68, who saw the violent neighborhood (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.01;1.74 and who had not participated in any community activity (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.07;1.80 had more negative self-perception of their health. Physical activity during leisure time was a significant mediator in the relationship between all social capital indicators (except for the borrowed money variable and self-perceived health. Fruit and vegetable consumption was a significant mediator of the relationship between the extent of participation in community activities and self-perceived health. Tobacco use and alcohol abuse did not seem to have a mediating role in any relationship

  11. Aspects of the Capital Markets’ Development from the CIS Member States and Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hîncu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of capital markets is an important process for the all economies, irrespective their degree of development, while the trends emphasized during the last decades marked some common tendencies of evolution. Practically, most of the tendencies manifested on global capital market are also relevant for the securities market of the CIS member states, still, one of them possessing a more relevant character (capital concentration and centralization; regulation and deregulation of capital market; capital market informatization, while the other ones – a lower degree of relevance (ascension of institutional investors on capital market; implementation of financial innovations; capital market integration and international cooperation; compartmentalization of secondary capital market and development of alternative secondary market etc. This article emphasizes some of the tendencies specific for the development of the capital market from the CIS member states and the Republic of Moldova.

  12. The Non-linearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exports in Brazil - evidences of regional differences

    OpenAIRE

    Fraga, Gilberto; Bacha, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The study of Brazilian export determinants is a very important issue to policy-markers, principally when the export determinants are different among the Brazilian states or regions. Human capital (measured by the average level of employee formal schooling) has been one of these determinants and this paper, basing on Dixit and Woodland (1982) model, aims to evaluate the role played by human capital in the evolution of Brazilian states exports from 1995 to 2006, highlighting the differences amo...

  13. Individual and Contextual Determinants of Periodontal Health in 12-Year-Old Schoolchildren in a Brazilian Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe periodontal health status and its association with individual and contextual factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in a midwest Brazilian capital city. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil and secondary data obtained from the local health authority. Data were collected through oral clinical examinations and interviews. For assessment of periodontal status two components of the community periodontal index (CPI were used: calculus and bleeding after probing. Dependent variable was presence of any periodontal condition. Independent individual variables were the children’s sex and color/race, and their mother’s level of schooling. Contextual variables were related to the schools (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the health districts. Rao-Scott test and multilevel Poisson analysis were performed. The prevalence of calculus and/or bleeding was 7%. Brown color, public schools, and those located in health district with intermediate socioeconomic indicators were associated to a higher prevalence of this condition. The prevalence of adverse periodontal condition was low and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual as well as contextual factors related to the schools and the geographic area.

  14. PETROBRAS - 50 years: the triumph of the brazilian potential; 50 anos da PETROBRAS: o triunfo do potencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    In the Brazilian trajectory preceding the 1998 Constitution marked by the problems inherent to the negotiations and political arrangements among the interests of the state bureaucracy, the Brazilian enterprises, and the international capital, the PETROBRAS puts its mark on the Brazilian industry construction and consolidation: that mark surmounts the restrict world wide and landmark of an industrialization more than expected.

  15. Voluntary disclosure of Value Chain in Financial Reports of Companies Brazilian Capital Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Costa Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the value chain with the aim to achieve competitive advantage in relation to their competitors and in order to reduce costs has become increasingly important for business organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether Brazilian organisations listed on Sao Paulo´s Stock Exchange (BOVESPA publish information relating to value chain management in their financial reports. In addition, this research aims to investigate the potential relationtionship between evidentiation of this information and two independent variables, gross margin and number of pages. Content Analysis was adopted in the management report and report notes of the year 2011. The analysis was based on the strategic cost management framework developed by Wrubel et al. (2010. The sample selected includes the ten largest non financial organizations, according to their total assets. Despite the fact that publishing the value chain management is not compulsory, it was observed that the businesses studied present on average 30 sentences regarding the topic in their reports. The category internal and external value chain activities represents 54.58% of the total sentences found. It has been found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of sentences disclosed and page number of reports, however, it was found that the same does not occur when attempted to correlate the gross margin. As a consequence, the hypothesis that gross margin could be a motivation for higher volume of information regarding value chain was not confirmed.

  16. Capitalismo Brasileiro e Responsabilidade Social Empresarial / Brazilian Capitalism and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins Zanitelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se dedica a levantar hipóteses sobre a responsabilidade social empresarial no Brasil. Para tanto, vale-se de duas vertentes distintas da literatura sobre comportamento das empresas, uma que procura definir os fatores, não apenas estratégicos, mas também institucionais, da responsabilidade social empresarial, e outra, conhecida como abordagem das “variedades de capitalismo”, que se empenha em descrever o impacto das diferentes instituições (normas e práticas características do capitalismo de cada país sobre a atuação das empresas. Foram elaboradas, como resultado, seis hipóteses sobre a conduta socialmente responsável das empresas no Brasil.Abstract: The paper raises hypotheses regarding corporate social responsibility in Brazil. It draws on two distinct branches of the literature concerning the behavior of firms, one that seeks to determine both the strategic and institutional factors conditioning firms’ social performance and other, known as the “varieties of capitalism” approach, describing the impact of different institutions (norms and practices featured by national capitalisms on firms’ strategies. As a result, six hypotheses about the social performance of enterprises in Brasil are formulated. Abstract: The paper raises hypotheses regarding corporate social responsibility in Brazil. It draws on two distinct branches of the literature concerning the behavior of firms, one that seeks to determine both the strategic and institutional factors conditioning firms’ social performance and other, known as the “varieties of capitalism” approach, describing the impact of different institutions (norms and practices featured by national capitalisms on firms’ strategies. As a result, six hypotheses about the social performance of enterprises in Brasil are formulated.

  17. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  18. The Contradictions of Uneven Development for States and Firms: Capital and State Rescaling in Peripheral Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quark, Amy Adams

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that processes of capital and state rescaling are generating new socio-spatial inequalities within nation-states. I explore rescaling in the understudied context of a peripheral region through the case of a global apparel merchant, Lands' End, and its decision to relocate its call and distribution centers to Dodgeville,…

  19. Aspects of the Capital Markets’ Development from the CIS Member States and Republic of Moldova

    OpenAIRE

    R. Hîncu; V. Iordachi

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of capital markets is an important process for the all economies, irrespective their degree of development, while the trends emphasized during the last decades marked some common tendencies of evolution. Practically, most of the tendencies manifested on global capital market are also relevant for the securities market of the CIS member states, still, one of them possessing a more relevant character (capital concentration and centralization; regulation and deregulation of capital mar...

  20. State-level social capital and suicide mortality in the 50 U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Daniel Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether state levels of social capital are associated with rates of completed suicides in the fifty U.S. states. To do this we regressed state-level suicide rates on an index of social capital, along with other variables known to influence suicide rates such as gun ownership, income inequality, alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, serious mental illness, unemployment, percent of population living in urban areas, poverty, population instability, and living in a "suicide belt" state. Suicide rates were aggregated from 1999 to 2002, and examined separately by sex and different race/ethnic groups. The results showed that White men and women in states with higher levels of social capital had significantly lower rates of suicide when controlling for the other influential variables. When we examined sub-dimensions of social capital, we found that community organizations (for White women) and group membership (for White men) were particularly strongly associated with lower suicide risk. PMID:25262314

  1. A proposal of cost evaluation of own capital for the Brazilian electric sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the own capital cost of the Brazilian electric sector, by using three methodologies: Comparable Accounting Results (CAR), using historical values for measurement, Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the CAPM, elaborated from expected values.The obtained results by using the CAR method indicated that the Brazilian electric power sector is not receiving remuneration according to the real maintenance and expansion necessities. Based on this observation, it was considered appropriated to discard the CAR method in the proposed methodology, therefore using the simply average of the CAPM e DCF models. By using the simply average of the models presents the advantage of capturing specific characteristics of each model, and to dilute effects of eventual extreme values.

  2. The Non-linearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exports in Brazil – evidences of regional differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Fraga; Carlos Bacha

    2011-01-01

    The study of Brazilian export determinants is a very important issue to policy-markers, principally when the export determinants are different among the Brazilian states or regions. Human capital (measured by the average level of employee formal schooling) has been one of these determinants and this paper, basing on Dixit and Woodland (1982) model, aims to evaluate the role played by human capital in the evolution of Brazilian states exports from 1995 to 2006, highlighting the differences amo...

  3. Profitability of venture capital investment in Europe and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Dantas Machado Rosa; Kristiina Raade

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the profitability of venture capital investment in Europe and the United States. It highlights the unfavourable profitability differential of European venture capital investment in comparison with the United States. The investment performance measures used are the internal rate of return (IRR) and investment multiples. The analysis covers aggregated industry returns and venture capital funds' returns aggregated by vintage year. It relies on the VentureXpert private equity ...

  4. THE NEW PROFILE FOR THE BRAZILIAN CONSUMER MARKET:RESEARCH ON THE STATE INDUCTION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rangel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pursues the discussion of the inductive role of the State in shaping up the new profile of the Brazilian market consumer. It presents the characteristics of the established logistical State as a response to the decline of the long overdue traditional structures of State, imposing new forms of analysis and observation to the development of the organizational strategies.

  5. THE NEW PROFILE FOR THE BRAZILIAN CONSUMER MARKET:RESEARCH ON THE STATE INDUCTION CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Rangel

    2012-01-01

    This paper pursues the discussion of the inductive role of the State in shaping up the new profile of the Brazilian market consumer. It presents the characteristics of the established logistical State as a response to the decline of the long overdue traditional structures of State, imposing new forms of analysis and observation to the development of the organizational strategies.

  6. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  7. Capital and the State: West German Neo-Orthodox State Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hugh Mosley

    1982-01-01

    The neo-orthodox, or political-economic approach to a theory of the state, which developed in Berlin and West Germany between 1970 and 1975, provides one of the major theoretical paradigms for the analysis of the capitalist state. It derives a theoretical conception of the form, function, and limits of the bourgeois state from Marx's analysis of capital. The paper surveys several major contributions to neo-orthodox state theory made by Müller and Neusüss, Altvater, and Blanke, Jurgens, and Ka...

  8. Cost of Capital Indicator for EU Member States - Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    GUILLEME MORENO David

    2008-01-01

    The actions taken in the framework of the Lisbon Strategy are intended to improve the competitiveness of the EU's economy. To properly monitor the progress resulting from those actions, some indicators have been identified. One of those indicators is on ¿cost of capital¿. The ¿cost of capital¿ is a key concept as it reflects the corporation¿s cost of investment funding. The purpose of this document is to outline the methodology recommended to develop a cost of capital indicator for EU n...

  9. Estimating a theoretical model of state banking competition using a dynamic panel: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Miessi Sanches

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set up a model of regional banking competition based on Bresnahan (1982, Lau (1982 and Nakane (2002. The structural model is estimated using data from eight Brazilian states and a dynamic panel. The results show that on average the level of competition in the Brazilian banking system is high, even tough the null of perfect competition can be rejected at the usual significance levels. This result also prevails at the state level: Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais have high degree of competition.

  10. Bank capital, the state contingency of banks' assets and its role for the transmission of shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kühl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of bank capital as a propagation channel of shocks is strongly pronounced in recent macroeconomic models. In this paper, we show how the evolution of bank capital depends on the share of non-state-contingent assets in banks' balance sheets and present the consequences for macroeconomic dynamics. State-contingent securities impact on banks' balance sheets through changes in their returns (and their prices), both of which depend on the current state of the economy. Nonstate-contingent ...

  11. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of Δ8(17) and Δ12(13) unsaturations, were obtained by 13C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  12. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink c...

  13. Fiscal Policy Impact on the State of Circulating Capital in the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Paranchuk Stepan V.; Chubka Olha M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the article lies in identification of impact of the fiscal policy on the state of circulating capital in the corporate sector in Ukraine and in other countries. The article underlines conceptual approaches to improvement of the state tax policy with consideration of a necessity of formation of own financial resources for formation of circulating capital by subjects of the corporate sector. It justifies scientific and practical measures on reduction of the tax load on the productio...

  14. The Lure of Chinese State Capitalism in Latin America: Influence, Investments and Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Narins, Thomas Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes and explains a political-economic concept, defined here as the neoliberal-dirigiste continuum, which offers an explanation of the manner in which Chinese capital and Chinese State Capitalism have been invested and received in different ways across the distinct geographies and countries in Latin America over the last three decades. While bilateral trade is one measure used to gauge the attractiveness of the Chinese state capitalist model in targeted Latin American economies...

  15. IS THE BRAZILIAN FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY LAW (LRF) REALLY BINDING? EVIDENCE FROM STATE-LEVEL GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Barroso; Romero Rocha

    2004-01-01

    The adoption of a set of fiscal and budgetary institutions for a better macroeconomic performance has been gathering support in various governments. This article states that Institutions matters and adopts the New Institutional Economics framework in its approach. After a brief review of the literature and introduction to the Brazilian case, it poses the following question: Is the LRF really binding in restraining state's indebtedness? The institutional theory, which backed up the formulation...

  16. Industrial and intellectual capital clusters in the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Vanags, Alf; Basarova, Julija; Titova, Nellija

    2002-01-01

    Various recent developments, eg the 'new economic geography' as exemplified by say, Krugman, P. (1991) or work originating in the business literature (Porter 1998), point to industrial and intellectual capital clusters as key factors associated with economic development. Indeed recent evidence suggests that multiple clustering leads to higher regional economic development. This leads to the idea that clusters should be encouraged as for example in the Latvian context in Phare (2001), an idea ...

  17. Fiscal Policy Impact on the State of Circulating Capital in the Corporate Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranchuk Stepan V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of impact of the fiscal policy on the state of circulating capital in the corporate sector in Ukraine and in other countries. The article underlines conceptual approaches to improvement of the state tax policy with consideration of a necessity of formation of own financial resources for formation of circulating capital by subjects of the corporate sector. It justifies scientific and practical measures on reduction of the tax load on the production capital, that is, on that part of the fixed and circulating capital, which regularly and directly participates in creation of the added value. It offers a list of tax privileges for subjects of the corporate sector that direct profit into accumulation of the own capital base, including in the part of increase of the circulating capital. Realisation of the proposed recommendations should facilitate fast accumulation of financial resources for further formation of the circulating capital in the corporate sector, since this is an indispensable condition of high efficiency of corporate finance and economic activity in general.

  18. A State Level Investigation of the Associations among Intellectual Capital, Religiosity and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the degree to which state intellectual capital, state religiosity and reproductive health form a meaningful nexus of ecological relations. Though the specific magnitude of effects vary across outcomes, results from hierarchical regression analyses were consistent with the hypothesized path model indicating that a state's…

  19. A Study of State Tax Appropriations for Capital Needs in U.S. Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Delphine; Manns, Derrick; Katsinas, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of key issues related to capital and operating budget practices of state tax appropriations and policies at the state level, including new facilities construction, renovation, replacement and renewal which may exist between and among states by governance structure. Recognized "good practices" in capital…

  20. O uso do tabaco por estudantes de primeiro e segundo graus em dez capitais brasileiras: possíveis contribuições da estatística multivariada para a compreensão do fenômeno The use of tobacco by school children in ten Brazilian state capitals: possible contributions of multivariatc statistical analysis to an understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Serrano Barbosa

    1989-10-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o uso de tabaco por estudantes de primeiro e segundo graus de dez capitais brasileiras, utilizando técnicas estatísticas bi e multivariadas (modelo logit. Pela análise bi-variada detectou-se que o uso de tabaco está positivamente associado ao fato de o estudante trabalhar, freqüentar o curso noturno, estar atrasado nos estudos e ter pais fumantes. Pela aplicação de técnicas multivariadas e do modelo logit, verificou-se que as variáveis de maior peso são a defasagem escolar (no curso noturno e o fato de os pais fumarem (diurno. Discutiu-se a importância da utilização de técnicas multivariadas para a compreensão de fenômenos complexos como o do uso de tabaco e outros psicotrópicos.The use of tobacco among school children in ten Brazilian cities, by means of statistical techniques such as bivariate and multivariate analysis (Logit Model, was analyzed. Bivariate analysis revealed a positive association between the use of tobacco and the school child's non-academic occupation, evening course attendance, poor school performance, and parents' smoking habits. Multivariate techniques and the Logit Model showed that poor school performance (on the evening course and parents' smoking habits (on the day-time course were most significant variables. The importance of the utilization of multivariate technics for the real understanding of the various factors involved in complex behavior patterns such as the use of tobacco, alcohol and drugs, was discussed.

  1. Uma análise sobre a evidenciação das contas públicas das Capitais brasileiras = An analysis on the disclosure of public accounts of the brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dionísio Gomes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A transparência exigida para os atos de gestão da administração pública é uma ferramenta importante decontrole, que deve ser utilizada pelos cidadãos, para fiscalizar as ações dos governantes das três esferasdo governo: federal, estadual e municipal. A evidenciação das contas públicas está prevista na Lei nº 4.320,de 17 de março de 1964 e na Lei Complementar 101, de 04 de maio de 2000 (LRF. Esta pesquisa temcomo objetivo geral analisar se todas as capitais brasileiras estão evidenciando suas contas públicas, naInternet, em conformidade com o estabelecido na Lei n° 9.755/98 e no Art. 48 da LRF. Foram utilizadas aspesquisas descritiva, bibliográfica e qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada no sítio denominado deContas Públicas mantido pelo Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU e nos sítios das capitais brasileiras,incluindo a capital federal. Os resultados revelaram que das 27 capitais brasileiras, 13 não fizeram nenhumregistro de contas públicas no sítio de mesmo nome de responsabilidade do Tribunal de Contas da União(TCU, sendo que as demais (14 fizeram registros, mas faltam dados exigidos pela Lei 9755/98 e quenenhuma capital atende as exigências do Art. 48 da LRF.The transparency required for the acts of public administration management is an important tool of control,which should be used by citizens to oversee the actions of the rulers of the three spheres of government:federal, state and municipal levels. The disclosure of public accounts is provided in Law No. 4320 of March17, 1964 and the Complementary Law 101 of May 4, 2000 (LRF. This research aims at analyzing whetherall capital cities are showing their public accounts, the Internet, in accordance with the provisions of Law No.9.755/98 and Art 48 of the LRF. We used the exploratory research, literature and qualitative. Data collectionwas performed at the site known as the Public Accounts maintained by the Court of Audit (TCU and thesites of the Brazilian

  2. Up or down? Capital income taxation in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Polito, Vito

    2010-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that the Effective Marginal Tax Rate (EMTR) on income from capital has increased considerably in both the United States and the United Kingdom over the period 1982-2005. This evidence contradicts the corporate tax literature which predicts that the EMTR should instead fall over time as a result of increasing international capital mobility and higher tax competition between governments. This paper argues that this inconsistency is entirely due to the fact that EMTRs...

  3. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    Denmark exemplifies the puzzle of socioeconomic success in Scandinavia. Populations are thriving despite the world’s highest levels of tax and generous social benefits. Denmark would appear to be a land of paradise for free-riders and those who want ‘money for nothing’. However, the national...... personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight of...

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities and vaccination coverage: results of an immunisation coverage survey in 27 Brazilian capitals, 2007–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Rita Barradas; Sampaio de Almeida Ribeiro, Manoel Carlos; José Cássio de MORAES; Flannery, Brendan; ,

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 1988, Brazil's Unified Health System has sought to provide universal and equal access to immunisations. Inequalities in immunisation may be examined by contrasting vaccination coverage among children in the highest versus the lowest socioeconomic strata. The authors examined coverage with routine infant immunisations from a survey of Brazilian children according to socioeconomic stratum of residence census tract. Methods The authors conducted a household cluster survey in cen...

  5. Environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Program in the State of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work intends to analyze the environmental impacts from the Brazilian Alcohol Programme (PROALCOOL), specially for the State of Rio de Janeiro. Two distinct phases of the Programme were analyzed: production and consumption. For the former, priority was given to the industrial process, trying to identify the main pollutants and their quantities which are dropped into the rivers and launched to the atmosphere. In the same manner, we try to identify the main pollutants and their quantities for the consumption phase. (author)

  6. The Politics of Body Capital within Neoliberal Social Reproduction Systems: Freirean Critical Pedagogy Principles in Brazilian Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Antonio Jose; Rossatto, César Augusto

    2016-01-01

    Sports in our society are a source of enthusiasm for many people, reflecting their cultural values and at times social tensions. Body capital development in different countries follow the local culture and politics. Since schools tend to reproduce the culture at large, sports are also one intrinsic representation replicated. Physical education or…

  7. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals Caracterização diagnóstica dos serviços que atendem a vítimas de acidentes e violências em cinco capitais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.Este artigo caracteriza serviços que atendem as vítimas em capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras com altos índices de violências e acidentes. Analisam-se atividades e estratégias de atendimento, perfil das equipes, condições das instalações, equipamentos e insumos, serviços integrados de atenção e de registro de agravos e a ótica de gestores de saúde sobre demandas e necessidades para uma atenção de qualidade às vítimas. O acervo se constitui de 103 serviços: 34 de Recife, 25 de Rio de Janeiro, 18 de Manaus, 18 de Curitiba e 8 de Brasília. Os resultados ainda preliminares indicam: menor número de serviços com atendimentos voltados a idosos; pouco

  8. School Facilities Funding and Capital-Outlay Distribution in the States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, William; Wang, Wen

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, financing the construction of school facilities has been a local responsibility. In the past several decades, states have increased their support for school facilities. Using data collected from various sources, this study first classifies the design of capital aid programs in all 50 states into various categories based on the scope…

  9. CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS PROGRAM FOR THE OKLAHOMA STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION, 1965-75. PHASE TWO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEEK, JOHN E.; COFFELT, JOHN J.

    THIS STUDY UPDATES THE 1963 TEN-YEAR PROJECTION OF CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS FOR THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE OKLAHOMA STATE SYSTEM OF HIGHER EDUCATION. SPACE NEEDS OF THE STATE SYSTEM WERE DETERMINED BY A COMPARISON OF FACILITY INVENTORIES FOR CURRENT SPACE NEEDS AND PROJECTED SPACE NEEDS. THE SPACE NEEDS WERE TABULATED FOR CLASSROOMS, FACULTY OFFICES,…

  10. PROJECTION OF PENETRATION OF THE BROKER IN HOME BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET THROUGH LINEAR, GOMPERTZ AND FISHER – PRY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Kawamoto

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the theories of internationalization and competitiveness, the positioning of a Brazilian company from agribusiness industry, exporting meat and food that has become a major global player in this industry JBS - Friboi. This company has been internationalized very fast in recent years and become a global leader in beef production, the second to the production of chicken meat and third largest producer of pork in the U.S. (JBS, 2010). The case is emblematic of JBS when...

  11. On the relationship between mobility, population growth, and capital spending in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bassetto, Marco; McGranahan, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between public capital spending and population dynamics at the state level. Empirically, we document two robust facts. First, states with faster population growth do not spend more (per capita) to accommodate the needs of their growing population. Second, states whose population is more likely to leave do tend to spend more per capita than states with low gross emigration rates. To interpret these facts, we introduce an explicit, quantitative pol...

  12. Trade, merchant capital, industrial capital, and blocked capitalist development in early state economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Patterson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Trade, for many archaeologists, is the  a society employs to maintain or  its relations and linkages with  outside world. They also see trade as  motor of social and political-economic  leading to and culminating  the rise of civilization and the   states. , by focusing on  distribution of raw materials and,  typically the nature of trade rather than the social  that underlie the circulation of ., they rarely treat category itself as problematic.

  13. From Dijon to Washington - from the mustard capital to the capital of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASN and the NRC wish to promote their cooperation and regard the exchange of inspectors as mutually beneficial. After 6 years spent in the French nuclear safety authority, Autorite de surete nucleaire (ASN) in the field of inservice inspection and aging management, I was assigned in April 2009 to the American nuclear safety authority, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC or NRC). This assignment of 3 years should include two phases: a first stage in the Division of License Renewal (DLR) in the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR), where the license renewal represents an important item, and a second stage in the Office of New Reactors (NRO), in order to take part into the different activities linked to the licensing and engineering of new reactors. In this article, I will explain some of the main differences that struck me during my first months of assignment in DLR about the industrial background, the regulatory framework of nuclear power plants in the United States and the organization of the NRC. (author)

  14. PROJECTION OF PENETRATION OF THE BROKER IN HOME BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET THROUGH LINEAR, GOMPERTZ AND FISHER – PRY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kawamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the theories of internationalization and competitiveness, the positioning of a Brazilian company from agribusiness industry, exporting meat and food that has become a major global player in this industry JBS - Friboi. This company has been internationalized very fast in recent years and become a global leader in beef production, the second to the production of chicken meat and third largest producer of pork in the U.S. (JBS, 2010. The case is emblematic of JBS when analyzed under the concept of Porter's diamond applied to Brazil. This company gained scale and competitiveness with the access to natural resources of prodution (condition factor, but now it is necessary for maintenance its leading position, it requires a strategy grounded in innovation beyond just scale and operational excellence.

  15. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  16. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge. PMID:26061365

  17. The social function of contract law in Brazilian Civil Code: distributive justice versus efficiency – lessons from the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Timm, Luciano Benetti

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current status in Brazilian legal scholarship with regard to the interpretation of Section 421 of the new Civil Code that provides for respect of the social function of contracts. This is normally identified with the paternalist model of contract law and its idea of distributive justice, typical from the Welfare State legislation and policy. Second, the paper suggests a critical reading of this quasi consensus that is coming up among Brazilian juri...

  18. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI among elderly Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros IMC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI in a group of elderly Brazilians.Methods: The study participants were individuals between 60 and 90 years old, of both sexes, with different levels of education and income. Fifteen of 81 pictograms from the USP-DI were presented to the elderly subjects, individually, without subtitles and in random order, so that the participants’ understanding of the pictograms could be evaluated.Results: The study included 116 participants. Only one of the selected pictograms reached the comprehension criterion established by the International Organization for Standardization 3864. With regard to the relationship between understanding and sociodemographic characteristics, age, wage income, and level of education were all found to be significantly associated with participants’ understanding of some of the pictograms.Conclusion: Most of the USP-DI pictograms evaluated were not well understood by the elderly Brazilians. This finding indicates that such pictograms need to be culturally adapted for the Brazilian context if they are to serve their purpose effectively in this country. Keywords: pictograms, understanding, elderly, Brazil

  19. Autonomy of the state and development in the democratic capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Ianoni

    2013-01-01

    The paper argues that if the state, as an expression and part of a pact of domination, operates as a corporate actor with relative autonomy, vision and capacity to promote the development, it is a key institution to the economic transformation. Supported in the neo-Marxism, exposes the limits of institutionalist approach of autonomy of the state to explain its origin, but does not rule out this approach. Maintains that the class-balance theory of the state may explain its relative autonomy an...

  20. New Configuration of the Brazilian State: Liberty and Development in the Evolution of Government in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Reyes-Ricon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent events in the global economy have revitalized the debate about the size and functions of the State. The neoliberal discourse was put in check, reopening the discussions concerning Market Liberty and the importance of the State. Since the proclamation of the Republic, the Brazilian government has undergone numerous reforms, sometimes assuming a liberal, external market dependent orientation, while at other times assuming an authoritarian, developmental state-driven orientation. The aim of this article is to develop insights into the evolution of the governmental organization and reflect on the assumptions that lie behind the various reforms that have taken place since the beginning of the Republic. The theoretical framework is divided into three parts: Development and Liberty based on the perspectives of Friedrich Hayek and Amartya Sen; the role of the State and its impact on the economy and; the formats assumed by the Brazilian State throughout the history of the Republic. The latter part of the work returns to the theoretical framework, summarizing all that has been discussed in order to fulfil the aims of the study.

  1. Autonomy of the state and development in the democratic capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Ianoni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that if the state, as an expression and part of a pact of domination, operates as a corporate actor with relative autonomy, vision and capacity to promote the development, it is a key institution to the economic transformation. Supported in the neo-Marxism, exposes the limits of institutionalist approach of autonomy of the state to explain its origin, but does not rule out this approach. Maintains that the class-balance theory of the state may explain its relative autonomy and at the same time aid in understanding the historical experiences of social-developmentalist state action, particularly in the social democratic regimes and in the current Latin America.

  2. 76 FR 11705 - Office of the Attorney General; Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... to indigent capital defendants in State collateral proceedings. See 73 FR at 75332-33, 75337... Counsel Systems'' to 28 CFR part 26. 72 FR 31217. The comment period ended on August 6, 2007. The Department published a notice on August 9, 2007, reopening the comment period, 72 FR 44816, and the...

  3. [Prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato

    2016-06-01

    The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p <0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that poor education, not performing gainful activity, caesarean section, oligohydramnios, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia are independent factors associated with premature birth and/or low birth weight. For adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny. PMID:27276545

  4. Member State Outreach: Capitalizing on Synergies for Effective Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a time when the nuclear programmes of many States are expanding and the resources of the IAEA remain static, it is more important than ever to maximize the efficiency with which the Agency cooperates with Member States to ensure the effective implementation of safeguards. The Training Section of the Department of Safeguards is working to optimize training and outreach through coordinating with the efforts of other departments of the IAEA and Member States to reach as large an audience as possible within budget constraints. This paper will describe some of the efforts undertaken in 2014 that highlight this collaboration strategy, which include: support to the Division of Nuclear Security in training on Nuclear Material Accounting and Control; partnering with the Department of Technical Cooperation and the Member State Support Programme of Finland to hold a training course for nuclear power newcomers on the regulatory aspects of safeguards, security, emergency response and safety; and support to the Department of Nuclear Energy in the Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Missions (INIR) to assess the readiness of States' nuclear infrastructure in those States that are implementing new nuclear power programmes. In all three of these venues, the presentation of safeguards obligations and good practice were emphasized, although none of these events was exclusively dedicated to safeguards training. In fact, given the broader attendance of these forums, safeguards objectives and their relation to the objectives of related programmes will reach a wider audience in a more expansive context than traditional training methods. It is to be expected that this model will continue, ensuring that training and guidance for safeguards will benefit from the synergies of related training efforts well into the future. (author)

  5. Capitalism, the state and health care in the age of austerity: a Marxist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie. PMID:23279579

  6. Hipertensão arterial e alguns fatores de risco em uma capital brasileira High blood pressure and some risk factors in a brazilian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César B. Veiga Jardim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da hipertensão arterial (HA e de alguns fatores de risco cardiovasculares na população adulta de uma capital brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal, de base populacional, fundamentado em inquérito domiciliar de amostra aleatória simples (>18a. Questionários padronizados, colhidas informações sociodemográficas, realizadas medidas de PA (duas tomadas, peso, altura, circunferência abdominal. Dados armazenados (programa Microsoft Access e analisados através do programa Epi Info 6. Foi considerada última medida da PA (critério de HA ±140x90 mmHg. RESULTADOS: Avaliamos 1.739 pessoas (87% do previsto. Predomínio do sexo feminino (65,4%, média de idade de 39,7 anos (±15,6. A prevalência de HA foi de 36,4%, sendo maior entre homens (41,8% que entre mulheres (31,8%. Encontrada correlação positiva da HA com IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e faixa etária, enquanto o sexo feminino representou fator de proteção para o risco de hipertensão. Prevalência de sobrepeso 30,0% e de obesidade 13,6%. Sobrepeso maior entre as mulheres e obesidade entre os homens. Tabagismo teve prevalência de 20,1%, mais freqüente entre homens (27,1% que entre mulheres (16,4%. Sedentarismo presente em 62,3% da população, sem diferenças entre os sexos. Hábito da ingestão regular de bebidas alcoólicas em 44,4% dos indivíduos, mais freqüente entre homens. CONCLUSÃO: Indicadores de HA e de outros fatores de risco cardiovascular (em particular sobrepeso/obesidade mostram-se elevados. Esses dados reforçam a necessidade da implementação de medidas objetivas em âmbito nacional, visando combater esses agravos à saúde, com vistas à redução da morbidade e mortalidade por DCV.OBJECTIVES: Estimate the prevalence of hypertension and some cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population of a major city in Brazil. METHODS: Descriptive, observational, transversal population-based study

  7. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  8. Nonlinearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exportation in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberto Joaquim Fraga; Carlos José Caetano Bacha

    2012-01-01

    For Brazil to realize the economic benefits of competitive advantage, it is critically important that the country's policy makers have an awareness of the determinants of Brazilian exports. Our study aims to evaluate the role of human capital measured by the average years of workforce formal education, in the value of exports from each Brazilian state from 1995 through 2006, highlighting differences among the states and/or regions. Based on the Dixit and Woodland (1982) model, our empirical a...

  9. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Silva, Lucila Pereira

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p<0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis. PMID:23477765

  10. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  11. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in the Brazilian state of Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Costa Matos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR, physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05, no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08 as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.

  12. Two micro-models of tourism capitalism and the (re)scaling of state-business relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Erkuş-Öztürk; P. Terhorst

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to show that (i) there are two micro-models of tourism capitalism in Antalya (Turkey) and (ii) different trajectories of (re)scaling of state-business relations form an integral part of each model of tourism capitalism. The paper bridges two debates in the literature that generally a

  13. Book review: Refugees, capitalism and the British state: implications for social workers, volunteers and activists

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    "Refugees, Capitalism and the British State: Implications for Social Workers, Volunteers and Activists." Tom Vickers. Ashgate. 2012. --- In this period of economic crisis, public sector cuts, and escalating class struggles, Marxist theory offers social workers and service users important tools to help understand the structures of oppression they face and to devise effective means of resistance. This book uses Marxism’s lost insights, reinterpreting them for the current context by focusing ...

  14. Designing a Forex Trading and Equity Investment Strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Rizvan

    2008-01-01

    Construct the investment strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund. Identify profit making opportunities in Foreign Exchange (Forex) & Equities using both conventional and non-conventional indicators. The author is to articulate and document his current knowledge in the chosen area in order to stimuate ideas in creating potential investment strategies. Justify knowledge with actual results in a genuine live investment. Critique and evluate the effectiveness of the proposed investment ...

  15. Ideological State Apparatuses, Consumerism, and U.S. Capitalism: Lessons for the Left

    OpenAIRE

    Wolff, Richard D.

    2004-01-01

    Althusser's pioneering concept of "ideological state apparatuses" is extended to the unique role of consumerism as a particular ideology enabling and supporting U.S. capitalism. It is argued that rising levels of worker consumption have functioned effectively to compensate workers for (and thereby allow) rising rates of exploitation and their negative social effects. For such compensation to succeed requires that workers embrace an ideology stressing the importance of consumption, namely cons...

  16. Descrying the bourgeoisie: Sugar, capital and state in the Netherlands Indies, circa 1840-1884

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roger Knight

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to descry the existence of a significant colonial bourgeoisie in Java during the middle decades of the nineteenth century might appear futile. An old, and apparently still lingering, orthodoxy postulates a colonial state uniquely in thrall to a powerful bureaucracy: one that exercised so extensive a control over resources as to largely preclude bourgeois capital formation. On this reading, colonial proprietorship, notably in sugar, was seignorial in nature rather than bourgeois.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF CAPITALISM AND OF STATE IN PORTUGAL: PASSAGE OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL GROUPS DOMINATED BY THE PORTUGUESE CAPITAL FOR GROUPS DOMINATED BY MULTINATIONAL CAPITAL, AND OF A PROTECTOR STATE FOR A SUBSERVIENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénio Rosa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the capitalism characteristics in the Portuguese social formation, considering economic groups in Portugal before and after of April 25. Detailing the characteristics of these economic groups, the author concludes that the principal shareholders of most economic and financial groups operating in Portugal, are transnational groups, some companies belonging to foreign States and other large economic and financial groups operating on a global scale. Accordingly, the State role, given the fragility towards these groups, is of simple server and executor of policies dictated by these groups directly or, indirectly by international organizations that represent and defend their interests, like the IMF, the Commission European, the World Bank, even the OECD, etc. Argues that given the growing globalization and increased threats of all kinds, one needs in Portugal is a strong State that defend the national sovereignty, able of promote the growth and sustained development of the country, and to defend the Portuguese of threats and constant attacks to a life with a minimum of human dignity.

  18. Medieval capital markets. Markets for renten between state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduijn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The book is structured as follows. Chapter 1 introduces medieval Holland as a significant entity for institutional-economic development by discussing how the state created a county wide societal structure. As a proto-territorial state Holland had a uniform judiciary, a government apparatus that gave shape to the public sector and regulations aimed at the capital market. At the same time the counts of Holland profited from the capital market: they used funded debt to finance state formation. L...

  19. Demystifying "oxi" cocaine: Chemical profiling analysis of a "new Brazilian drug" from Acre State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Junior, Ronaldo C; Gomes, Cezar S; Goulart Júnior, Saulo S; Almeida, Fernanda V; Grobério, Tatiane S; Braga, Jez W B; Zacca, Jorge J; Vieira, Maurício L; Botelho, Elvio D; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2012-09-10

    Recent information from various sources suggests that a new illicit drug, called "oxi", is being spread across Brazil. It would be used in the smoked form and it would look like to crack cocaine: usually small yellowish or light brown stones. As fully released in the media, "oxi" would differ from crack cocaine in the sense that crack would contain carbonate or bicarbonate salts whereas "oxi" would include the addition of calcium oxide and kerosene (or gasoline). In this context, this work presents a chemical profiling comparative study between "oxi" street samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Acre (CP/AC) and samples associated with both international and interstate drug trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in Acre (FP/AC). The outcome of this work assisted Brazilian authorities to stop inaccurate and alarmist releases on this issue. It may be of good use by the forensic community in order to better understand matters in their efforts to guide local law enforcement agencies in case such claims reach the international illicit market. PMID:22571827

  20. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  1. Origem e ascensão do debate sobre o capital internacional na formação econômica brasileira (1889-1964 Origin and rise of the debate about international capital in the Brazilian economic formation (1889-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a origem e a ascensão do debate intelectual sobre o capital internacional na formação econômica brasileira, entre o início do período republicano e a eclosão do golpe militar em 1964. Esse período divide-se em “origem”, do final do século XIX a 1930, e “ascensão”, do Governo Vargas ao início do regime ditatorial em 1964. O primeiro momento situa os debates embrionários à problemática da atuação do capital estrangeiro que suscitaram as primeiras manifestações nacionalistas. A partir da Revolução de 1930, os governos se voltaram para a industrialização, mas tal estratégia jamais se mostrou plenamente autônoma à utilização de recursos externos. Nesse contexto histórico que, os pensadores brasileiros nos anos 50 e 60 passaram a debater sobre a questão do capital estrangeiro versus capital nacional naquele padrão de desenvolvimento que se consolidava. Palavras-chave: Capital internacional. Vias de desenvolvimento. Debate intelectual. The article discusses the origin and rise of the debate about international capital in the Brazilian economic formation, between the inception of the Republican period and the launch of 1964 coup d’etat. This period is divided into “origin”, from the last decade of 19th century to 1930, and “rise”, from the Vargas government to the military government in 1964. The first moment shows the preliminary debates arising from issues regarding the foreign capital dynamic that promoted the initial nationalistic manifestations. As of the 1930 revolution, governments invested in industrialization, but this strategy was never fully autonomous from the utilization of foreign resources. Within in this historical context, Brazilian intellectuals in the 50’s and 60’s started to discuss the foreign versus national capital issues in that new development pattern that was being setting across the country. Keywords: International capital. Ways of

  2. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  3. Droughts, Morality, State Politics and the Brazilian Semiarid Landscape: A Study of the São Francisco River Integration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørgum, Claudia Pastor Almeida Soares

    2008-01-01

    The poorest region of Brazil, the Northeast is prone to devastating multi-annual droughts, an inherent part of its geography. The Brazilian state attributes the poverty of the Northeast to the semiarid landscape and a supposed water deficit. The state defends a water diversion project on the biggest river of the region that is rejected by the local population and civil society organizations, as a definitive solution for the water deficit of a section of the semiarid landscape. Based on a larg...

  4. [Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil. PMID:23175295

  5. De intergenerationele reproductie van cultureel kapitaal in belichaamde, geïnstitutionaliseerde en geobjectiveerde vorm [The intergenerational reproduction of cultural capital in its embodied, institutionalized, and objectified states

    OpenAIRE

    Eijck, C.J.M. van; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.

    2009-01-01

    According to Bourdieu, cultural capital manifests itself in three states: the institutionalized state, the embodied state, and the objectified state. Empirical research using the notion of cultural capital has never operationalized the concept fully, i.e., using indicators of all three states. We provide such a threefold measurement of cultural capital for both respondents and their parents, which allows us to take a very detailed look at the process of the intergenerational transmission of c...

  6. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  7. Uma análise da correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA® no contexto das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto Correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added for publicly owned Brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odálio dos Santos

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata do tema da criação de valor, da forma como é medida pelo EVA® (Valor Econômico Adicionado e pelo MVA® (Valor de Mercado Agregado, duas metodologias desenvolvidas no final dos anos 80 pela empresa americana de consultoria Stern Stewart & Co. O EVA® é definido como a diferença entre o lucro operacional líquido depois de impostos e o custo do capital investido na empresa, enquanto o MVA® é determinado pela diferença entre o valor de mercado da empresa e o capital total nela investido. Um estudo realizado por G. Bennett Stewart III, que idealizou essas metodologias juntamente com o seu sócio Joel M. Stern, encontrou uma forte correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA®. Visando averiguar se tal resultado se aplica também ao caso das empresas brasileiras, os autores deste artigo realizaram uma pesquisa semelhante, baseada numa amostra formada por empresas de capital aberto cujas ações foram negociadas na Bovespa (Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo durante o período de 1996 a 2001.This article deals with value creation as measured by Economic Value Added (EVA® and Market Value (MVA® which are methods developed by an American consultant, Stern Stewart & Co, in the late l980's. Economic Value Added is defined as the difference between net operating profit after taxes and the cost of capital invested in a company, while Market Value Added is the difference between market value and the total capital invested in a company. G. Bennett Stewart III, who conceived this approach together with his partner Joel M. Stern, found a strong correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added. Our research investigated whether this also applies to a sample of publicly owned Brazilian companies traded on the São Paulo Stock Exchange between 1996 and 2001.

  8. Between Lead Capitalism and Washington Consensus. The State and Economic Relations of China with Brasil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    León-Manríquez, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Economic relations between China and Latin America differ according to two subregions. Regarding Mexico and Central America there is a meaningful competition, while South America is benefiting from the high demand of commodities from China. While the relation has a lot to do with the market, the state also plays an important role. In China, resilient central planning and state intervention breeds significant effects on the relationship with Latin America. The Brazilian government has also sou...

  9. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  10. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  11. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Delir Corrêa; Cruz Rosane Pereira da; Vicente Joaquim Júlio; Pinto Roberto Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) F...

  12. Factors Influencing Venture Capital Availability in Rural States: Possible Lessons Learned from West Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    David Hughes; Kris Mallory; Mihaela Szabo

    2005-01-01

    Venture capital has been identified by many as a vital element in the rapid economic growth of certain regions. The lack of access to capital, especially equity capital, has been identified as a major constraint to the economic growth of rural areas (i.e., venture capital access, as a centripetal force, concentrates rather than disperses economic activity). Researchers have advanced a focus on primarily urban sectors, such as information technologies, higher administration costs due to a lack...

  13. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  14. States, social capital and cooperation: looking back on 'Governing the Commons'

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    Denise L. Anthony

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods – the Internet.

  15. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  16. Stakeholder and Social Capital Approaches as Explanations for Relationships between SMEs and State Officials in Different Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study targets the determination of support that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) provide to government representatives of their choice (in the form of donations, influence through their networks, information, and votes). The study tests stakeholder and social capital approaches as legitimate explanations for SMEs' relationships with state representatives in different transition economies, specifically Belarus as a state-controlled transition economy and Ukraine as a rent-seeking state...

  17. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  18. Variations of welfare capitalism after the decline of state socialim: Bargaining societies on the basis of value orientations and resources of action

    OpenAIRE

    Holtmann, Dieter

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Capitalist societies as market-bargaining societies on the basis of resources of action: The idealtypical bargain between capital and labour; an alternative to Marx' theory of exploitation - Discussion of the model 2. A general typology of paths of societies in history and a characterisation of state socialism - People's capitalisms as perspective of development - What remains from Marx' ideas? 3. Variations of welfare capitalism after the decline of state socialism 3.1 National ...

  19. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  20. The Determinants of State Spending on Higher Education: How Capital Project Funding Differs from General Fund Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Erik C.; Tandberg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Our fixed-effects panel data analysis of state spending on higher education fills a near void of studies examining capital expenditures on higher education. In our study, we found that political characteristics (e.g., interest group activity, organizational structure, and formal powers) largely account for differences between general fund and…

  1. THE PRODUCTION OF THE CAPITALISM IN THE FIELD IN GENERAL TO THE PRODUCTION OF THE CAPITALISM IN THE BRAZILIAN FIELD: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE ENCAMPMENT CARLOS MARIGHELLA (MST/BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Leonan Alves Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article defends the thesis of that the occupation of the land is presented as a historical possibility to surpass of the great contradiction that demarcates the process of production in the capitalist way to produce the life: the expropriation of the worker of the field. The problematic concerning the process of production of the capitalism in the field in more general level and Brazil, its determination historic socials, and the risks of the process of institutionalization in a particular and singular. For in such a way, it carries through a sociological analysis of the process of production of the capitalism in the field, it reflects on the production of the capitalism in the field in Brazil, and displays the risks, for the workers, of the institutionalization of the expropriation and resistance in the scope of the social fights in the present time

  2. Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Innovation? A Comparison of Old and New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. C. Allen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks, firstly, to shed light on the main claim of the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC framework that socio-economic institutions can help to shape comparative advantage, and, secondly, to complement existing assessments that have relied predominantly on qualitative data and that have tended to focus on a few economic sectors. It examines the distribution of export success in a number of economic sectors, in which competitiveness is said to be characterised by either radical or incremental innovation, as well as exports in knowledge-intensive service sectors. Unlike previous studies it applies the framework to some of the new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe. This is an important area to examine the contentions of the VoC framework, because, if those arguments are correct, they should be applicable to the new member states. Moreover, it draws on the latest available data; for indicators measuring export success this is done at the lowest level of aggregation. In contrast to previous studies, a more appropriate measure of trade specialisation, revealed symmetric comparative advantage, is used. Whilst some of the evidence supports the VoC framework, much of it does not. This raises important conceptual and methodological issues that should be addressed by future research.

  3. Knowledge Management, Innovation and Intellectual Capital for Corporate Value in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleoca, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    dynamics of managerial decision-making and create new knowledge about time lags in returns on innovation and intellectual capital management. From the accounting perspective, the findings are highly relevant for knowledge productivity. The results indicate that innovation and intellectual capital are...

  4. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  5. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DISCLOSED VOLUME OF INVESTMENT IN INFORMATION SYSTMES AND MARKET VALUE OF OPEN CAPITAL BRAZILIAN COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRIC ENERGY SECTOR ANÁLISE DA RELAÇÃO ENTRE VOLUME DE INVESTIMENTOS EM SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÃO DIVULGADOS E VALOR DE MERCADO DAS EMPRESAS BRASILEIRAS DE CAPITAL ABERTO DO SETOR DE ENERGIA ELÉTRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria Gurgel Marinho Fernandes

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to identify how the market value of open capital Brazilian companies behaves in light of investment in information systems. The research sample consists 10 open capital Brazilian companies in the electric energy sector that had their administrative reports published on the site: Comissão de Valores Mobiliários, between 1997 and 2004. Investments in information system was identified on the companies’ Administration Report by the following terms: information system, information technology, generation work, electric energy distribution and transmit ion, system’s expansion, maintenance and security, telecommunications, electronic trades, e-business, Companies Resources Planning (CRP and professional practice and development. The methodology used involved log-linear returns estimated by Ordinary Least Squares (OLS for information in panel data, in which there is a combination of temporary series with transversals information (cross-section. In order to guarantee strong results, three types of panel data were tested. The research results emphasize the hypothesis H1, in which the value invested in information systems, circulated in the annual administration reports of open capital Brazilian electric energy block companies, affects the market value of these companies. The hypothesis H2, in which the magnitude of variation of this value it is a function of the variation in investment in information systems was rejected by this research. Keywords: Information system. Investment. Market value. Este trabalho tem o objetivo de identificar como o valor de mercado das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto se comporta diante de mudanças nos investimentos em sistemas de informação. A amostra da pesquisa é composta por 10 empresas brasileiras de capital aberto do setor de energia elétrica que possuem seus relatórios administrativos publicados no sítio da Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM, no período de 1997 a

  6. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  7. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseu Gus

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the risk factors prevalence for coronary artery disease in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and to identify their relation with the age bracket. METHODS - We carried out an observational, cross-sectional study of 1,066 adults older than 20 years in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. We investigated the risk factors: familial antecedents, systemic arterial hypertension, high levels of cholesterol and glycemia, overweight/obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A standardized questionnaire completed at the patients' dwellings by health agents were used; the data were stored in an EPI-INFO software database. The results were expressed with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS - The sample composition was of 51.8% females. The risk factors prevalences were: 1 sedentary lifestyle 71.3%; 2 familial antecedents: 57.3%; 3 overweight/obesity (body mass index >25: 54.7%; 4 smokers: 33.9%; 5 hypertension: 31.6% (considering >140/90mmHg and 14.4% (considering >160/95mmHg; 6 high glycemia (>126 mg/dL: 7%; 7 high cholesterol >240 mg/dL: 5.6%. CONCLUSION - The prevalence of the major risk factors for coronary artery disease in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul could be determined in a study that integrated public and private institutions.

  8. Occurrence of Haemophilus influenzae strains in three Brazilian states since the introduction of a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida A.E.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Few vaccines in history have induced such a dramatic decline in incidence over such a short period of time as the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate. This vaccine was introduced in 1988 in the United States, but only in 1999 was Hib immunization introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of Health as part of the routine infant National Immunization Program. The authors analyzed 229 H. influenzae (Hi isolates from Public Health Laboratories in three Brazilian states: Pernambuco (Northeast, N = 54, Santa Catarina (South, N = 19, and Rio de Janeiro (Southeast, N = 156. The isolates were collected from Brazilian children 0-10 years of age with meningitis and other infections from 1990 to 2003 and were part of the research collection of the National Institute of Quality Control in Health, FIOCRUZ. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping and biotyping. During the pre-vaccination period the prevalence infection due to Hib was of 165 isolates and only 2 non-b Hi among all the notified meningitis infections caused by Hi. Our results showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of Hib meningitis from 165 to 33 isolates after 1999. However, during the post-vaccination period of 2001-2003 we observed an increase in the number of non-b Hi isolates: only 2 non-b strains isolated from 1990 to 1999 and 29 from 1999 to 2003. Based on the present data, the authors emphasize the need for more sensitive epidemiological and bacteriological studies aiming the improvement of the available Hib vaccine, in order to protect the susceptible population to infections due to other serological types of Hi and the reevaluation of immunization schedules used by the National Immunization Program.

  9. THE COMMUNITY SOCIAL CAPITAL, A STRATEGY AGAINST POVERTY IN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE STATE OF GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the methods collide and sometimes opposed. The community Assembly, the safety, the slaughter, the tequio are part of some of these practices, which despite maintained indigenous families living conditions have not improved substantially and increasingly is more noticeable migration in search of employment, in different scenarios. The majority indigenous population inhabiting the Amuzgos of Guerrero State, Mixtecos, Tlapanecos and Nahuas, looking each one with its own peculiarities, survive. Poverty, marginalization and physical-geographical conditions determine the circle of the dire living conditions of these indigenous people. As happened in 2013 with the tropical storm "Manuel", where we witnessed the way how adverse natural phenomena stick stronger to weaker.

  10. Validity of internal structure of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory in a Brazilian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Bartholomeu; José Maria Montiel; Afonso Antonio Machado

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated internal structure validity of the CSAI-2. The sample comprised 172 in Brazilian athletes, both sexes and ages ranging from 14 to 58 years. The athletes attended to the following sports: basketball, soccer, handball, volleyball and jiu-jitsu. The CSAI-2 was collectively applied before training. Initially a confirmatory factor analysis was done, but the data did not fit the model. Then, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and, although the parallel analysis poi...

  11. Evaluation of capital investment in thermoelectric generation projects in the Brazilian electric sector using the real options theory; Avaliacao de investimento de capital em projetos de geracao termoeletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro usando teoria das opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alessandro de Lima

    2000-04-01

    In the Brazilian Electric System about 92% of the generated electricity is of hydraulic origin. Today the system is operating practically in the limit of your capacity. Solutions of short time to make possible the expansion of the offer of electricity generation go by the installation of cycle combining thermal using natural gas as fuel. In this dissertation, it was used the real options theory to evaluate generation assets in the Brazilian electricity sector. In Brazil, central operator dispatches a flexible thermal when the electricity spot price is larger than the operation costs. The operation decision is like an European call, where underlying asset is the electricity and the strike price is the operation cost. The value of the capacity is the sum of all decisions to operate the thermal unit, in the remaining life of unit. It was used Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming to evaluate this model. The problem is divided in two parts. In the first part, the base case is fixed and evaluated and the expected NPV and project risk are calculated in function of contract level. In the second part, many sensibilities are done in relation to base case. At the end, the value of flexibility is calculated for each contract level. (author)

  12. Trinidadian capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99) Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95) Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its histor...

  13. Long-range hospital capital requirements planning: the state of the art, a proposal for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, A J

    1984-01-01

    A Hospital Capital Requirements Planning System is proposed to channel competition through the use of a regional planning model. This model would help to reduce the social deadweight loss arising from competition-induced uncertainty. The system would increase the internal long-range planning capacity of hospitals and improve the quality of the applications presented for Certificate of Need review. Both health systems planners and investment bankers should have better information with which to evaluate hospital capital investment proposals. PMID:10269910

  14. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  15. Capital-Skill Complementarity: Does capital disaggregation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Juan; Lorca, Miguel; Parro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Using Chilean manufacturing plants data, we�find: (1) the elasticity of substitution between capital and skilled labor is lower than the elasticity of substitution between capital and unskilled labor, and (2) the higher the technological component of the capital stock the larger the size of complementarity between capital and skilled labor. Our�findings show that capital, as an aggregate input, may under(over) state the complementarity between labor and the type of capital these workers actua...

  16. The Impact of State Intervention on Social Capital of Fishermen Community in Small Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaria J Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of state intervention on social capital of fishermen community in small islands. The research was conducted in Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. The data was collected through in-depth interview and limited observation from twelve informants determined by snowball sampling. Questionnaires were also spread to about 40 respondents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively to explain research’s data and facts. The results of the research show that state intervention for the last ten years on small islands communities has impact on various aspects such as the diminishing loyalty and trust among locals to the government. Therefore, the intervention reduce the community’s participation, individually and collectively, in development activities. The situation, in turn, could affect the diminishing political capacity of the locals and government in the implementation of development in the islands. The state intervention, however, strengthened social solidarity, local value practices and the enthusiasm to understand religious values which in turn could tighten the internal bond of a community. This bond can become a potential strength to build communities in small islands. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan dampak intervensi negara pada kapital sosial komunitas nelayan di pulau-pulau kecil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi terbatas dari dua belas informan ditentukan oleh snowball sampling. Kuesioner juga menyebar ke 40 responden. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif untuk menjelaskan data penelitian dan fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi negara selama sepuluh tahun terakhir pada masyarakat pulau-pulau kecil memiliki dampak pada berbagai aspek seperti, mengurangi loyalitas dan kepercayaan di antara penduduk setempat kepada pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, partisipasi mereka, secara

  17. Bioassay guided purification of the antimicrobial fraction of a Brazilian propolis from Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Alencar Severino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilian propolis type 6 (Atlantic forest, Bahia is distinct from the other types of propolis especially due to absence of flavonoids and presence of other non-polar, long chain compounds, but presenting good in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Several authors have suggested that fatty acids found in this propolis might be responsible for its antimicrobial activity; however, so far no evidence concerning this finding has been reported in the literature. The goals of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the main pure fatty acids in the ethanolic extract and fractions and elucidate the chemical nature of the bioactive compounds isolated from Brazilian propolis type 6. Methods Brazilian propolis type 6 ethanolic extract (EEP, hexane fraction (H-Fr, major fatty acids, and isolated sub-fractions were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Three sub-fractions of H-Fr were obtained through preparative HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of EEP, H-Fr, sub-fractions, and fatty acids were tested against Staphyloccus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Results EEP and H-Fr inhibited the growth of the microorganisms tested; nevertheless, no antimicrobial activity was found for the major fatty acids. The three sub-fractions (1, 2, and 3 were isolated from H-Fr by preparative HPLC and only sub-fraction 1 showed antimicrobial activity. Conclusion a The major fatty acids tested were not responsible for the antimicrobial activity of propolis type 6; b Sub-fraction 1, belonging to the benzophenone class, was responsible for the antimicrobial activity observed in the present study. The identification of the bioactive compound will improve the development of more

  18. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

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    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  19. Green capitalism? Global climate change, global competition between states, and the prevention of the energy turnaround; Gruener Kapitalismus? Klimawandel, globale Staatenkonkurrenz und die Verhinderung der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, Jonas

    2011-07-01

    Transnational groups call for green capitalism as well as the governments of leading states. In spite of this, international climate conferences are failing, and CO2 emissions are ever-increasing. A climate catastrophe that will threaten the lives of millions is getting increasingly probable. The book states that green capitalism will be impossible unless the power of fossil industries can be broken. These industries are among the strongest and best-organized capital groups and have decisive relevance for the competition strategies of the most powerful states of the world. (orig./RHM)

  20. From capital to capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HOW easy it is for one who lives in Beijing, capital of the country, to have the impression that all things significant happen there! This is to forget how there are now many provincial capitals in China, that are rapidly modernizing. In order to achieve such modernization, these cities, like

  1. Creative industries in the capital cities of the Baltic States: Are there innovations in urban policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafel-Viia Külliki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of urban policy, resulting from ‘creative industries’ policy developments, is explored in this article, with respect to the Baltic capitals. Policy initiatives in the creative industries in Central and Eastern European cities have predominantly developed through policy transfers from Western Europe, with its long-term market economy experience. How adaptable are such policies for post-socialist cities? Using the concept of social innovation, this article describes mechanisms that facilitate policy acceptance and examines whether and how the development of creative industries has resulted in urban policy renewal in the Baltic capitals.

  2. Challenges of Governing Second-Growth Forests: A Case Study from the Brazilian Amazonian State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima Célia Guimarães Vieira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing ecological and social importance of second-growth and regenerating forests across much of the world, significant inconsistencies remain in the legal framework governing these forests in many tropical countries and elsewhere. Such inconsistencies and uncertainties undermine attempts to improve both the transparency and sustainability of management regimes. Here, we present a case-study overview of some of the main challenges facing the governance of second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in the Brazilian Amazon, with a focus on the state of Pará, which is both the most populous state in the Amazon and the state with the highest rates of deforestation in recent years. First, we briefly review the history of environmental governance in Brazil that has led to the current system of legislation governing second-growth forests and the forest restoration process in Pará. Next, we draw on this review to examine the kinds of legislative and operational impediments that stand in the way of the development and implementation of a more effective governance system. In particular, we highlight problems created by significant ambiguities in legal terminology and inconsistencies in guidance given across different levels of government. We also outline some persistent problems with the implementation of legal guidance, including the need to understand local biophysical factors in order to guide an effective restoration program, as well as difficulties presented by access to technical assistance, institutional support and financial resources for the establishment and monitoring of both existing secondary forests and newly regenerating areas of forest. Whilst we focus here on a Brazilian case study, we suggest that these kinds of impediments to the good governance of second-growth forests are commonplace and require more concerted attention from researchers, managers and policy makers.

  3. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government hate Cuba?" He…

  4. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  5. DIFFERENTIATED FINANCING SOURCES: THE IMPACT ON THE CAPITAL STRUCTURE OF BRAZILIAN SUGAR AND ALCOHOL COMPANIES FONTES DIFERENCIADAS DE FINANCIAMENTO: IMPACTO NA ESTRUTURA DE CAPITAL DE USINAS BRASILEIRAS DE AÇÚCAR E ÁLCOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Albanez

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the debt composition of sugar and ethanol companies from the center-south area of the country in five year-harvest (01/02, 02/03, 03/04, 04/05 and 05/06. It is tried to incorporate institutional factors to the capital structure analysis of the companies, such as the access to different sources, as well as to know the importance of those resources in the capital structure of the analyzed companies. Thus, it is tried to understand the participation of different financing lines used by the firms in their indebtedness, which are grouped in four categories: differentiated lines in national currency, differentiated lines in foreign currency, market lines in national currency and market lines in foreign currency. The research also tries to identify whether the companies used, in the analyzed period, the strategies of low debt and/or high liquidity to compensate the high interest rates of the national market. The sample is composed by 35 companies that process around 33% of the sugar cane of the country. The main results showed that the companies used mainly resources from differentiated lines in national currency and from market lines in foreign currency. It is also verified that, on average, the companies presented a debt level around 30%, in which prevails the use of long-term debt, and high liquidity levels through the period. It is noticed that the access to differentiated financing lines have influenced the financing decisions taken by the companies, since the use of these lines prevailed in all of the years, which ratifies the importance of including institutional factors in the capital structure analysis of the companies. Este artigo analisa a composição do endividamento de usinas de açúcar e álcool da região centro-sul do país em cinco anos-safra (01/02, 02/03, 03/04, 04/05 e 05/06. Procura-se incorporar fatores institucionais à análise da estrutura de capital das empresas, como o acesso a diferentes fontes de

  6. PETRÓLEO BRASILEIRO S.A.: AN INTERNATIONALIZED BRAZILIAN STATE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Dalla Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrobras is the largest governmental firm in Brazil and has a solid path of internationalization. This paper explores how Petrobras grew in the domestic market and, in the light of the theory of the internationalization of the firm, moved on towards the international market. First, it shows the beginning steps of Petrobras. It then follows Petrobras’ internationalization moves to three geographic areas (America, Eurasia and Africa, all in a context of a global dispute for oil exploration, production and distribution. In the conclusion, it is showed that Petrobras’ main revenues still come from the Brazilian market. Its expansion to international markets, however, has grown in absolute terms and also in sophistication. Petrobras started with a strategy of searching for new sources of oil (inputs and progressed to a new phase, focused on selling final goods and developing technology for exploration in deeper waters.

  7. Validity of internal structure of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory in a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated internal structure validity of the CSAI-2. The sample comprised 172 in Brazilian athletes, both sexes and ages ranging from 14 to 58 years. The athletes attended to the following sports: basketball, soccer, handball, volleyball and jiu-jitsu. The CSAI-2 was collectively applied before training. Initially a confirmatory factor analysis was done, but the data did not fit the model. Then, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and, although the parallel analysis pointed out the adequacy of a two factor model, the three factor model was the one that best explained the test's theory, with some items excluded from the analysis. The factor's precision was taken by means of Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlation index and showed good results.

  8. Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Geoquimica Organica Molecular e Ambiental; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de RMN de Solidos; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    {sup 13}C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of {Delta}{sup 8(17)} and {Delta}{sup 12(13)} unsaturations, were obtained by {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  9. International competitiveness of brazilian and paraná state`s coffe complex / Competitividade internacional do complexo cafeeiro brasileiro e paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vasques Cintra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.

  10. Urban air pollution: a representative survey of PM2.5 mass concentrations in six Brazilian cities

    OpenAIRE

    de Miranda, Regina Maura; de Fatima Andrade, Maria; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Astolfo, Rosana; de Andre, Paulo Afonso; Saldiva, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In urban areas of Brazil, vehicle emissions are the principal source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The World Health Organization air quality guidelines state that the annual mean concentration of PM2.5 should be below 10 μg m−3. In a collaboration of Brazilian institutions, coordinated by the University of São Paulo School of Medicine and conducted from June 2007 to August 2008, PM2.5 mass was monitored at sites with high traffic volumes in six Brazilian state capitals. We employed grav...

  11. Determinantes de estrutura de capital no mercado brasileiro: análise de regressão com painel de dados no período 1999-2003 Determinant factors of capital structure in the Brazilian market: an analysis of the regression with data covering the period from 1999 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre os fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das companhias abertas que atuam no mercado brasileiro. Foi utilizada uma amostra de 91 empresas cobrindo o período de 1999 a 2003. Na realização deste trabalho foi utilizada uma técnica de estimativa mais forte, conjugando Panel Data Dinâmico, que combina dados de corte transversal com séries temporais, com um instrumento de método de momento generalizado. Como proxies de estrutura de capital e alavancagem, foram usados os conceitos contábil e de mercado e seus resultados foram comparados. Em consonância com a literatura da área, foram selecionadas as seguintes variáveis: liquidez corrente, tamanho da empresa, rentabilidade, oportunidade de crescimento, risco de negócio, economia fiscal e crescimento de vendas, tangibilidade, coeficiente de variação e risco de falência. Para os testes, foram utilizados os instrumentos econométricos de GMM e AH. Os resultados econométricos demonstraram-se robustos pelas técnicas utilizadas. Os resultados de análise obtidos foram bastante consistentes com as teorias de Pecking Order e de Trade-off. Esses resultados, também, estão em linha com os observados em estudos similares realizados em diversos países.This article presents the results of an investigation about the determinant factors of the capital structure of publicly held companies that operate in the Brazilian market. The sample group consisted of 91 companies, covering the period from 1999 to 2003. A stronger estimation technique conjugating Dynamic Panel Data, which combines cross-section data with time-series, with a generalized method of moments (GMM tool was used in the performance of this study. The accounting and market concepts were used as capital structure and leverage proxies, and their results were compared. In conformity with literature from the area, the following variables were selected: current ratio

  12. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  13. Religion, Human Capital Investments and the Family in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what is known, based on analyses of micro-level U.S. data, about the role of religion in various interrelated decisions that people make over the life cycle, including investments in secular human capital, cohabitation, marriage, divorce, family size and employment. It also identifies gaps in our knowledge, and suggests agenda items for future research in the field. These include use of statistical models that allow for non-linearities in the effects associated w...

  14. THE COMMUNITY SOCIAL CAPITAL, A STRATEGY AGAINST POVERTY IN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE STATE OF GUERRERO

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián González-Romo; Juan Maldonado-Montalvo

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the me...

  15. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes, PR

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School...

  16. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  17. Prevalence of precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer in Japanese-Brazilians in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Priscila; Marques, Sílvio Alencar; Hirai, Amélia Toyomi; Marques, Mariangela E A; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique; Yamada, Sérgio

    2009-05-01

    Precancerous lesions and skin cancer are infrequent in Asians, and have received little documentation in the literature. Brazil has the world's largest contingent of Japanese immigrants and their descendants, and 70% live in the State of São Paulo. The prevalence of such skin lesions in Japanese-Brazilians is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancer in first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians over 30 years of age, without miscegenation, living in the city of Bauru, São Paulo State, in 2006. Of the 567 Japanese-Brazilians that underwent dermatological examination, actinic keratosis was diagnosed in 76, with a mean age of 68.9 years, and a single case of basal cell carcinoma was detected in a 39-year-old female patient. In Japan, prevalence of actinic keratosis varies from 0.76% to 5%, and the incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer is 1.2 to 5.4/100 thousand. Japanese-Brazilians from Bauru showed a 13.4% prevalence of actinic keratoses and earlier age at onset. Proximity to the Equator and a history of farming contribute to these higher rates. Presence of solar melanosis was associated with a 1.9-fold risk of developing actinic keratosis. PMID:19488481

  18. Erotic Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jensen, Benjamin; Engstrøm, Emma; Maas, Jannik; Majchrzak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    This project “Erotic Capital” concerns the topic and theory of Erotic Capital, coined by Catherine Hakim. The idea of Erotic Capital derives from Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of Personal Capitals – in this, Erotic Capital is discussed as an additional Personal Capital. In connection to the investigation of the theory Erotic Capital, certain theories of Feminism, Masculinity, Femininity, Gender and Cultural Differences are explored and examined. This is done in order to study how these theories...

  19. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  20. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  1. A questão social, o trabalho e o Estado: visões das elites parlamentares brasileiras The social issue, labor and State: the view of Brazilian parliamentary elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Ranincheski

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A questão social - como uma aporia e potencial crise de legitimidade do sistema capitalista atual - tem mobilizado o pensamento sociológico e outros campos, como o político e o econômico.O presente artigo é uma análise dos discursos das elites parlamentares brasileiras relativos a projetos de leis trabalhistas apresentados na Câmara de Deputados na emergência do capitalismo do século XX. Foram analisados 73 discursos dos deputados brasileiros e 4.490 projetos presentes em uma década de plenário. Demonstra-se que o tema da questão social, mais especificamente o do trabalho, foi entendido no campo da política parlamentar como uma dimensão relacional, com abordagens sobre o papel do Estado, o modelo econômico e as movimentações sociais.The social issue as an aporetic one and a potential source for a legitimacy crisis of the capitalist system has mobilized sociological thinking and other fields such as the political and the economic.The current paper is the discourse analysis from Brazilian parliamentary elites' speeches concerning labor legislation drafts presented at the Parliament during the emergence of the twentieth century capitalism. Seventy-three speeches from Brazilian parliament members and 4,490 drafts during the period of a decade were analyzed. The social issue in Parliament politics, particularly the labor one, is seen as a relational dimension with different approaches on the role of State, the economic model and social movements.

  2. Escaping the Holocaust: human and health capital of refugees to the United States, 1940-42

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Matthias; Rei, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale persecution of Jews during World War II generated massive refugee movements. Using data from 20,441 predominantly Jewish passengers from 19 countries traveling from Lisbon to New York between 1940 and 1942, we analyze the last wave of refugees escaping the Holocaust and verify the validity of height as a proxy for human and health capital. We further show this episode of European migration displays well-known features of migrant self-selection: early migrants were taller than ...

  3. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Adventistas do Sétimo Dia da capital e do interior paulista Prevalence of arterial hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists of the São Paulo state capital and inner area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Bagno Eleutério da Silva

    2012-04-01

    .674-16.893; 3 recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (OR 2.725; 95% CI: 1.275-5.821; 4 being retired (OR 8.846; 95% CI: 1.406-55.668; and 5 being responsible for family income (OR 0.422; 95% CI: 0.189-0.942. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension among Adventists was lower as compared with that reported in Brazilian studies, and it was lower in the São Paulo state capital as compared with that in the inner São Paulo state, possibly because of the better socioeconomic conditions and life habits of the former.

  4. [Research program for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): the contribution to health management and services in Paraiba State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celino, Suely Deysny de Matos; Costa, Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante de

    2013-01-01

    The shared management in health of the Research Program for the Unified Health System (PPSUS) has the purpose of funding research in priority areas for the health of the Brazilian population. The scope of this qualitative study is to understand the researchers' perception of the contribution of research funded by the PPSUS invitations to bid in the State of Paraiba, for resolving the priority health problems of the Paraiba population, for reducing regional inequalities in health and for bolstering the management of SUS. A documentary survey of the bids and final reports of research and a semi-structured interview with 28 coordinators of these studies was conducted. Triangulation strategy of data was used and subsequently subjected to content analysis, which converged with the categories: solving the health problems; reducing regional inequalities; contribution to management. Paraiba state needs adjustments such that the PPSUS can be fully implemented, ensuring that the knowledge generated can be converted into health policies and actions, since the research funded respond to the health needs of the population and difficulties in SUS management. PMID:23338510

  5. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  6. 中国国有经济固定资本存量初步测算%The Preliminary Measurement of Fixed Capital Stocks of State-owned Economy of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益煊; 吴优

    2003-01-01

    The accounting of fixed capital stocks is very important in balance sheet accounting. And it is also an unsolved lasting problem of governmental statistics of China. On the basis of relevant researching projects, the paper conducts estimation of state-owned fixed capital stocks, and thereby constructs the foundation of the accounting of fixed capital stocks of the whole society.

  7. Análisis organizacional del Partido de la Democracia Social Brasileña en el estado de San Pablo (1988-2006 Organizational analysis of the Social Democracy Party of the Brazilian state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa MICELI KERBAUY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo representa un enfoque teórico-metodológico para el análisis de la dinámica organizacional de los partidos políticos en la actualidad, a partir de una investigación realizada sobre el Partido de la Democracia Social Brasileña (PSDB en el estado de San Pablo (periodo entre 1988 hasta 2006. Se partió de la hipótesis de que la estructura y las normas institucionales de determinado partido, o incluso sus resultados electorales, son insuficientes tanto para explicar el funcionamiento interno, como el papel de la organización partidaria en el sistema político electoral. Mediante un enfoque que articula los patrones de relaciones, los resultados electorales y la ocupación de cargos partidarios, se identificaron los factores que explican el capital político que circuló en el interior del partido y garantizó su dinámica organizacional a lo largo del periodo analizado.The article represents a theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of organizational dynamics of political parties today, based on a study of the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB in the State of Sao Pãulo (period between 1988 to 2006. It is hypothesized that the structure and the institutional rules of a particular party, or even their election results, are insufficient to explain the inner workings, such as the role of party organization in the electoral system. An approach that articulates the relationship patterns, election results and posts held in the party, identified the factors that explain the political capital that circulated within the party and ensured its organizational dynamics over the period analyzed.

  8. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  9. Teaching Assessment for Teacher Human Capital Management: Learning from the Current State of the Art. WCER Working Paper No. 2011-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the current state of the art in teaching assessment. The major goal of the study was to examine a sample of assessment systems and then develop a specification for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management functions. The authors hope was that this specification would…

  10. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Delir Corrêa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  11. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

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    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  12. Landscape structure in the northern coast of Paraná state, a hotspot for the brazilian Atlantic Forest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Emed Kauano

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The "Serra do Mar" region comprises the largest remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The coast of the Paraná State is part of the core area of the "Serra do Mar" corridor and where actions for biodiversity conservation must be planned. In this study we aimed at characterizing the landscape structure in the APA-Guaraqueçaba, the largest protected area in this region, in order to assist environmental policies of this region. Based on a supervised classification of a mosaic of LANDSAT-5-TM satellite images (from March 2009, we developed a map (1:75,000 scale with seven classes of land use and land cover and analyzed the relative quantities of forests and modified areas in slopes and lowlands. The APA-Guaraqueçaba is comprised mainly by the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (68.6% of total area and secondary forests (9.1%, indicating a forested landscape matrix; anthropogenic and bare soil areas (0.8% and the Pasture/Grasslands class (4.2% were less representative. Slopes were less fragmented and more preserved (96.3% of Dense Ombrophilous Forest and secondary forest than lowlands (71.3%, suggesting that restoration initiatives in the lowlands must be stimulated in this region. We concluded that most of the region sustains well-conserved ecosystems, highlighting the importance of Paraná northern coast for the biodiversity maintenance of the Atlantic Forest.

  13. A preliminary evaluation of environmental indexes of great hydropower plants localized in various Brazilian states and geographical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predominantly tropical climate and the predominance of plateaus in Brazil contributed to the development of a high hydroelectric potential, which determined the choice of hydropower plants as main technology of electricity generation. Though this is a renewable source, dams must being established to guarantee high amount of water all over the year generating high environmental and social impact. One of the ways to evaluate environmental impacts caused by large hydropower plants is adoption of environmental indexes which are formed by ratio of installed or firm power with dam area of a hydropower plant. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact caused by these dams through the use of environmental indexes. Statistical instruments were utilized to evaluate environmental indexes in the five Brazilian regions, twenty six states, and fifteen main rivers (where at least three large hydropower plants are encountered). The periods when each hydropower plant operation was initiated were also considered. In this study, the greatest media values were found in South, Southeast, and Northeast regions respectively, and the smallest media values were found in North and Mid-West regions, respectively. More, the greatest encountered media indexes were also found in dams established in the 1950s. (author)

  14. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest gives way to other land uses in Santa Catarina state

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Siminski; Alfredo Celso Fantini

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation permits (1,753) submitted to the state environmental agency (Fatma) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil, were analyzed in order to establish the profile of applicants, the reasons for request, and the methodological characteristics of forest inventory. The results show that 71% of applications were from individuals, and the economic use of land was the major reason for requisition. Reforestation with exotic species was the greatest demand (43%), representing 22 thousand hectares. Ra...

  15. Possibilities of using cogeneration by the wood industry at the Brazilian state of Amazonas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the potential of using the residues from the wood industry for electric power generation in the Itacoatiara community, 230 km far from the Manaus city, state of Amazonas, Brazil, representing the second largest electric power market of the state. The work analyses the potential considering the economic, environmental factors and the instruments for economic regulation for the use of energy renewable sources by the isolated electric power generation systems

  16. 27 Al and 29 Si NMR use in the solid state for Brazilian material characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has aimed to use nuclear magnetic resonance for studying clay sample fractionation steps, from Campina Grande (State of Paraiba, Brazil), to be used as raw material for catalysts preparation. 27 Al and 29 Si NMR spectra were presented and analysed, and the results shown quartz and feldspars presence

  17. Estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio: testes no Brasil Capital structure, dividends and interests on equity: tests in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Seikitsi Futema

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in

  18. Entre negociação e conflito: gênero e coerção sexual em três capitais brasileiras Negotiation and conflict: gender and sexual coercion in three Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Cordeiro

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a temática da coerção sexual a partir de dados coletados, entre os anos de 2001 e 2002, pelo inquérito populacional realizado em três capitais brasileiras (Rio de Janeiro, Salvador e Porto Alegre, na etapa quantitativa da pesquisa Gravidez na adolescência: estudo multicêntrico sobre jovens, sexualidade e reprodução no Brasil (GRAVAD. Os resultados aqui apresentados se referem às perguntas do questionário de entrevistas que contemplaram aspectos das práticas de negociação em torno do sexo, as experiências passíveis de serem identificadas como coerção sexual e valores sexuais dos jovens entrevistados. Os informantes eram homens e mulheres, entre 18 e 24 anos. A análise do material aponta a importância dos contextos específicos de interação e das dinâmicas e convenções locais de interação sexual entre os gêneros na configuração de determinados comportamentos enquanto formas de sexo forçado. Busca-se assim relativizar a noção positivada de violência presente em parte da literatura internacional sobre o tema.This article discusses sexual coercion based on a population survey data, collected between 2001 and 2002, in three Brazilian capitals (Rio de Janeiro, Salvador e Porto Alegre - Gravad Research. The results presented refer to questions about aspects of sexual negotiation, taken as possible experiences to be identified as sexual coercion, as well as youth values and opinions concerned to sexuality. The interviews were applied to males and females aged 18-24. Analysis of the empirical data points to the importance of specific scripts and to local dynamics and beliefs in the sexual interaction between genders in terms of identifying some behaviors as ways of forced sex. We aim to relativize the notion of violence that is much present in great part of the international literature about this theme.

  19. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  20. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  1. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) among elderly Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Barros IMC; Alcântara TS; Mesquita AR; Bispo ML; Rocha CE; Moreira VP; Lyra Junior DP

    2014-01-01

    Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS), Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) in a group of elderly ...

  2. OCCURRENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEPATITIS C IN A WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON STATE

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    Gabriel de Deus VIEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Hepatitis C causes a major impact on public health due to the high prevalence in the population. Objectives Evaluate the epidemiological data of hepatitis C in the State of Rondônia, Brazil. Methods Data from hepatitis C were analyzed during the period 2002 to 2012, assigned by the Agency for Sanitary Vigilance of the State of Rondônia. The variables studied were: year of diagnosis, gender, age, associated disease, exposure to risk factors and clinical presentation. Results Eight hundred fifty-nine cases were reported during the study period. Of this total, 542 (63.1% cases were male. In relation to age group, the one with the highest number of cases was between 40-59 years (54%, followed by 20-39 years (33.5%. In relation to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs association, 1.8% of patients had HIV and 2.1% other type of sexually transmitted disease. About exposure to risk factors, 288 (28.1% individuals were exposed to a surgical procedure. Was also analyzed the clinical form of the disease, 9.9% are in acute disease and 91.1% in the chronic phase. Conclusions In the State of Rondônia, hepatitis C had a mean annual incidence of 5.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants, similar to the national rate.

  3. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  4. Dental caries and tooth loss in adults in a Brazilian southeastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze dental caries experience of adults living in the southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil, according to some socio-demographic conditions of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,159 school teachers and workers (35 to 44 years old from 29 cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 92.3% were dentate and the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 21.0 and the mean number of decayed teeth was 1.1, with no significant difference among adults from regions with and without fluoridation. Male subjects presented the highest mean values of "D" (decayed teeth and "M" (missing teeth components. The percentage of caries-free subjects was higher among white subjects, as well as the mean number of teeth present in the mouth. The mean values of the "F" component (filled teeth [9.81] and present teeth [19.3] were higher for adults from fluoridated water regions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the worse condition observed was the early tooth loss in all groups. In addition, people with worse socio-demographic conditions had worse oral health conditions. It is expected that oral health programs targeted to this population could be established with the goal of improving the oral health conditions of this population and hence the maintenance of the teeth for a longer period in function.

  5. The Formation of the Brazilian State and the Uses of its Foreign Policy in the Light of the Process of Identity Construction. Definition of Key Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Pereyra-Doval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on its construction of identity, a State defines key situations. The aim of this paper is to analyze those milestones in the process of identity construction in Brazil, which caused its early differentiation from other Latin American countries. Consequently, we divide it into four sections. The first explains the differentiating aspect of identity. The second analyzes the process of independence. The third makes the difference from consolidation process of the national space, also going through the development process of this space. Finally, the Brazilian option is described as being closer to the United States as a reference center while it left the European area.

  6. Displaced Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie A. Ramey; SHAPIRO, MATTHEW D

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency with which physical capital can be reallocated across sectors. It presents a model of a firm selling specialized capital in a thin resale market. The model predicts that the selling price depends not only on the sectoral specificity of capital, but also on the thinness of the market and the discount factor of the firm. It then provides empirical evidence on the sectoral mobility of capital based on equipment-level data from aerospace industry auctions. These ...

  7. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk factors in Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemias in adults in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, and to identify its relation to risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based, observational study with sampling through conglomerates and stratified according to socioeconomic levels, sex, and age, with 1,039 individuals. Risk factors, familial history, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. RESULTS: The following prevalences were observed: of dyslipidemias 24.2%; of hypercholesterolemia, 4.2%; of elevated LDL-C, 3.5%; of low HDL-C, 18.3%; and of hypertriglyceridemia, 17.1%. The following mean levels were observed: cholesterol, 187.6± 33.7 mg/dL; LDL-C, 108.7±26.8 mg/dL; HDL-C, 48.5±7.7 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 150.1±109.8 mg/dL. The following variables showed a positive correlation with dyslipidemia: increased age (P<0.001, male sex (P<0.001, low familial income (P<0.001, familial history (P<0.01, overweight/obesity (P<0.001, waist measure (P<0.001, high blood pressure (P<0.001, and diabetes mellitus (P<0.001. The following variables had no influence on dyslipidemias: ethnicity, educational level, smoking habits, and sedentary lifestyle. CONCLUSION: The frequency of lipid changes in the population studied was high, suggesting that measures for the early diagnosis should be taken, in association with implementation of programs for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis.

  8. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40

  9. Capital budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Dorel BERCEANU; Costel IONAŞCU

    2009-01-01

    This paper has like objective to present some aspects concerning capital budgeting. So, after a short introduction where we specify necessary conditions for a decision situation and we define investment decision and capital budgeting we made a large presentation of stages of capital budgeting process.

  10. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelescu, Florin-Marius

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resu...

  11. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Surajit

    2008-01-01

    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  12. What Drives Venture Capital Fundraising?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul A. Gompers; Josh Lerner

    1999-01-01

    We examine the determinants of venture capital fundraising in the U.S. over the past twenty-five years. We study industry aggregate, state-level, and firm-specific fundraising to determine if macroeconomic, regulatory, or performance factors affect venture capital activity. We find that shifts in demand for venture capital appear to have a positive and important impact on commitments to new venture capital funds. Commitments by taxable and tax-exempt investors seem equally sensitive to change...

  13. Capital and chaos : fragile states, political risk and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Benjamin A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile states are trapped in cycles of poverty, violence, and instability. War and instability deter investment. Low investment retards growth, and lack of growth engenders further conflict and instability. One path out of this equilibrium is for fragile states to succeed in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) while political risk remains high. My dissertation explores firm-level variation in how investors experience and respond to political risk, identifying types of investors who ar...

  14. Parental ethnotheories: a study with mothers living in the capital and countryside of Santa Catarina State / Etnoteorias parentais: um estudo com mães residentes no interior e na capital de Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mafioletti Macarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate parental ethnotheories of mothers living in the capital city and in the countryside of Santa Catarina State. In each cultural environment, fifty mothers were interviewed based on scales that evaluated their beliefs about childrearing practices, socialization goals and degree of familism. Results from the capital demonstrated a predominance of autonomous-related elements for practices and familism, whereas in terms of socialization goals, mothers valued the autonomy of the child. In the countryside, relational aspects were identified for socialization goals and familism. However, for beliefs about childrearing practices it has been noted emphasis on autonomy. The conclusion was that both contexts are characterized by an autonomous-related self, although with different emphases according to the dimension investigated.

  15. The global capital leviathan

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, William I.

    2011-01-01

    The money mandarins of global capitalism and their political agents are utilizing the global crisis to impose brutal austerity and attempting to dismantle what is left of welfare systems and social states in Europe, North America and elsewhere. The budgetary and fiscal crises that supposedly justify spending cuts and austerity are contrived. They are a consequence of the unwillingness or inability of states to challenge capital and their disposition to transfer the burden of the crisis to wor...

  16. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  17. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  18. Molecular characterization of sickle cell anemia in the Northern Brazilian state of Pará.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lemos Cardoso, Greice; Guerreiro, João Farias

    2010-01-01

    To assess alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles, beta-thalassemia mutations and haplotypes linked to the HBB*S cluster in a sample of 130 unrelated sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients (55% female) from Belém, Pará State, for their possible effects on the patients' survival. -alpha(3.7), -alpha(42), -alpha(20.5), and -(MED) alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles were investigated using multiplex gap-PCR method. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the beta-globin gene amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haplotypes were determined by analysis of six polymorphic restriction sites [(1) XmnI-5'gammaG, (2) HindIII-gammaG, (3) HindIII-gammaA, (4) HincII-psibeta, (5) HincII-3'psibeta, and (6) HinfI-5'beta] followed by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Twenty-one patients (16%) presented -alpha3.7 thalassemia. Sixteen of those (76%) were heterozygous (-alpha3.7/alphaalpha) and 5 (24%) were homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7). -Alpha(4.2), -alpha(20.5) and -(MED) deletions were not found. Nine cases of sickle cell-beta thalassemia were found and four different beta-thal mutations were identified: beta(+) -88 (C>T), 3.8%; beta(+) codon 24 (T > A), 1.5%; beta(+) IVSI-110 (G > A), 0.7% and beta (IVSI-1 (G > A), 0.7%. No differences according to age were observed in -alpha(3.7) deletion, beta-thalassemia and HHB*S haplotypes distribution. Our results suggest that although alpha- and beta-thalassemia and betaS haplotypes may have modulating effect on clinical expression and hematological parameters of SCA, these genetic variables probably have little influence on the subjects' survival. PMID:20737602

  19. Building Capacity for Tracking Human Capital Development and Its Mobility across State Lines. Policy Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" provides a review of the past five years of the cost and value of higher education, which have gained increased policymaker, consumer, and media attention. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has worked with four of its member states (Hawai'i, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) to…

  20. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  1. Refurbishing State Capitalism: A Policy Analysis of Efforts to Rebalance China’s Political Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher A. McNally; Chaminade University

    2014-01-01

    "This article provides an analysis of policy initiatives aimed at rebalancing China's political economy, especially those contained in the 12th Five Year Plan and other recent pronouncements. The objective is to generate a conceptual examination of these policy measures, thereby highlighting their basic intent and purpose. The analysis shows that the Chinese leadership intends to pursue policies that can centralize, standardize and regulate the political economy under continued state guidance...

  2. Human Capital and Earnings of Female Immigrants to Australia, Canada, and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Antecol, Heather; Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Stephen J. Trejo

    2002-01-01

    Census data for 1990/91 indicate that Australian and Canadian female immigrants have higher levels of English fluency, education (relative to native-born women), and income (relative to native-born women) than do U.S. female immigrants. A prominent explanation for this skill deficit of U.S. immigrant women is that the United States receives a much larger share of immigrants from Latin America than do the other two countries. Similar to previous findings for male immigrants, the apparent skill...

  3. Etnoteorias parentais: um estudo com mães residentes no interior e na capital de Santa Catarina Parental ethnotheories: a study with mothers living in the capital and countryside of Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mafioletti Macarini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo investigar etnoteorias parentais em mães residentes na capital e interior de Santa Catarina. Foram aplicadas escalas de crenças sobre práticas de cuidado, metas de socialização e alocentrismo familiar em 50 mães de cada contexto cultural. Os resultados na capital indicaram predomínio de elementos autônomo-relacionais em práticas e alocentrismo familiar, enquanto que em termos de metas, as mães valorizaram a autonomia da criança. No interior, no que se refere a metas de socialização e alocentrismo familiar, foram identificados aspectos relacionais. Contudo, em termos de crenças sobre práticas de criação, constatou-se maior valorização da autonomia. Concluiu-se que ambos os contextos caracterizam-se por um modelo de self autônomo-relacional, embora com diferentes ênfases de acordo com a dimensão investigada.The aim of this study was to investigate parental ethnotheories of mothers living in the capital city and in the countryside of Santa Catarina State. In each cultural environment, fifty mothers were interviewed based on scales that evaluated their beliefs about childrearing practices, socialization goals and degree of familism. Results from the capital demonstrated a predominance of autonomous-related elements for practices and familism, whereas in terms of socialization goals, mothers valued the autonomy of the child. In the countryside, relational aspects were identified for socialization goals and familism. However, for beliefs about childrearing practices it has been noted emphasis on autonomy. The conclusion was that both contexts are characterized by an autonomous-related self, although with different emphases according to the dimension investigated.

  4. Varieties in state capitalism: Outward FDI strategies of central and local state-owned enterprises from emerging economy countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Hua Li; Lin Cui; Jiangyong Lu

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for penetrating foreign markets. To understand how such idiosyncratic differences emerge, we conceptualize the heterogeneity of SOEs as an outcome of multiple institutional reform processes – administrative a...

  5. O Capital Intelectual segundo o Entendimento de Gestores de Empresas Brasileiras

    Intellectual Capital under the View of Brazilian Enterprises Managers

    El Capital Intelectual en el Entender de Gestores de Empresas Brasileñas

    OpenAIRE

    Antunes, Maria Thereza Pompa

    2005-01-01

    RESUMOEste estudo objetivou avaliar o nível de entendimento do conceito de Capital Intelectual dos gestores de grandes empresas brasileiras, comparativamente ao conceito exposto na literatura, a fim de se levantarem subsídios que possam mostrar a tendência do seu desenvolvimento e aplicação na realidade econômica e empresarial brasileira. A pesquisa do tipo exploratória e descritiva foi baseada em uma amostra composta por 30 gestores. A análise dos dados, tratados por meio do método qualitati...

  6. Plant species richness and floristic composition change along a rice-pasture sequence in subsistence farms of Brazilian Amazon, influence on the fallows biodiversity (Benfica, State of Para)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja, Danielle; Miranda, L. D. S.; Velasquez, Elena; Lavelle, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Along the Amazonian pioneer front in the Brazilian state of Pari, smallholder farmers manually clear primary rain forest every year to grow rice prior to sowing pastures that they will use for 5-20 years. Species richness and floristic composition of the weedy species were studied in 20 plots along a farming succession, from rice fields, to 1-year-old, 4-8-year-old and over 10-year-old pastures planted to Brachiaria brizantha. In the early phases of the farming cycle reduction in the average ...

  7. Late Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics from a savanna-forest ecotone in Roraima state, northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Meneses, Maria Ecilene Nunes; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Two sediment cores from Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps have been studied by pollen and charcoal analysis. The cores Fazenda Cigana (FC) and Terra Indígena Aningal (TIA) were taken from a savanna-forest ecotone area in the Roraima State, northern Brazilian Amazon. Based on 5 radiocarbon dates, these records allow the reconstruction of the vegetation fire and climate dynamics during the past 1550 years. At the FC site was recorded a higher proportion of forest cover, suggesting local wetter climatic conditions favorable for forest expansion, especially by gallery forests, between 1550 and 1400 cal yr BP. Stands of M. flexuosa started to establish on the site indicating sufficient soil moisture. From 1400 to 1050 cal yr BP, forest cover retreated while savanna, and the Mauritia palm swamp expanded considerably. The FC site was marked by savanna and Mauritia cover with a slight increase of forest between ca. 1050 and 900 cal yr BP. From 900 to 300 cal yr BP the savanna and palm swamp taxa became dominant and the forest area decreased. At the TIA site the savanna cover was dominant between 1200 and 1000 cal yr BP. From 1000 to 700 forest expanded while savanna and Mauritia palm swamp reduced. Between 700 and 300 cal yr BP savanna and Mauritia palm swamp increased and forest area decreased. The high amount of charred particles found in the sediments, indicate fires with a marked increase between 1400 to 1000 cal yr BP (FC site) and 700 to 300 cal yr BP (TIA site), and probably caused the retreat of forest cover during these two time intervals. The relatively lower fire activity after 300 cal yr BP until present-day favored the increase of forested area at both TIA and FC sites. The arrival of the European settler and the subsequent introduction of cattle, is suggested as the main reason for the decrease of fire in the study region. The results point the fire caused by indigenous people as the principal controlling factor for forest and savanna dynamics during the past

  8. Day labourers in Pretoria, Windhoek and the United States - a comparison of two capitals and a different world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Schenck

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the economic dynamics of day labouring in two Southern African capital cities, namely Windhoek and Pretoria, against the background of the experiences of day labourers in a developed country such as the United States. Problem investigated: People waiting at the side of the road, hoping to obtain a piece job for the day, is a typical phenomenon in a situation where people are forced to venture into the informal sector to generate an income. Day labour is a national and international phenomenon that seems to be on the increase. Literature on the similarities and differences across different geographical areas and levels of economic development is limited, however. Approach: For the purpose of this study, day labourers in Pretoria were the subject of a case study which was compared with studies done in Windhoek and the United States during the same period, namely 2003 to 2004. The general demographics of day labourers in these two cities were investigated, as well as their employment history and the income earned. Findings and implications: Day labourers in Pretoria and Windhoek were mainly male, fairly young, generally low skilled, earning low and uncertain levels of income and working under harsh conditions. This corresponds to the demographic characteristics of day labourers in the United States. In both the United States and Southern Africa, day labour pays poorly. It was found that day labourers seldom earn more than the subsistence level of income for the respective countries discussed in this paper. A significant portion of day labourers in Pretoria, Windhoek and the United States previously held formal sector jobs. The biggest difference is to be found in the future prospects of day labourers. The opportunity for day labourers in the United States to make the transition into the formal sector of the economy is far better than for their counterparts in Southern Africa.Value of the research: The

  9. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because it...... forms a starting point for understanding and managing value-creating processes. Three distinct agendas within IC management and research can be identified. The first concerns to measure the components of IC, the second attempts to relate indicators to effects using statistical models, while the third...

  10. Planning the nuclear contribution to the Brazilian power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermo-electric power in Brazil accounts for less than 20% of the total generating capacity. Brazil's power is essentially generated hydraulically, which ensures the growing development. The electric energy consumption keeps growing, with an annual average rate of 13% over the last five years. The present installed capacity is 20,000MW(e) and 185,000MW(e) are forecast for the year 2000. Most of the hydraulic resources are located in remote areas of the country very far from the consumption centres. In addition to the American-made nuclear power station under construction in Angra dos Reis with a power capacity of 626MW(e), the agreement signed in June 1975 between the Federal Republic of Germany and Brazil covers two more units, each of 1245MW(e) capacity, to be erected at the same site and planned to come into operation in 1982 and 1983. Several joint German-Brazilian companies will be established in the country for reactor and fuel manufacture. The Brazilian state holding nuclear company, Empresas Nucleares Brasileiras S A (Nuclebras), will participate in the formation of all joint companies with at least 51% of the capital investment. During the period of the agreement the Brazilian Government will encourage the development of technology and reduce the dependence on energy imports. Brazil's target is full independence in nuclear technology in about 15 years. (author)

  11. State of municipal solid waste management in Delhi, the capital of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delhi is the most densely populated and urbanized city of India. The annual growth rate in population during the last decade (1991-2001) was 3.85%, almost double the national average. Delhi is also a commercial hub, providing employment opportunities and accelerating the pace of urbanization, resulting in a corresponding increase in municipal solid waste (MSW) generation. Presently the inhabitants of Delhi generate about 7000 tonnes/day of MSW, which is projected to rise to 17,000-25,000 tonnes/day by the year 2021. MSW management has remained one of the most neglected areas of the municipal system in Delhi. About 70-80% of generated MSW is collected and the rest remains unattended on streets or in small open dumps. Only 9% of the collected MSW is treated through composting, the only treatment option, and rest is disposed in uncontrolled open landfills at the outskirts of the city. The existing composting plants are unable to operate to their intended treatment capacity due to several operational problems. Therefore, along with residue from the composting process, the majority of MSW is disposed in landfills. In absence of leachate and landfill gas collection systems, these landfills are a major source of groundwater contamination and air pollution (including generation of greenhouse gases). This study describes and evaluates the present state of municipal solid waste management in Delhi. The paper also summarizes the proposed policies and initiatives of the Government of Delhi and the Municipal Corporation of Delhi to improve the existing MSW management system

  12. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty; René Poccard-Chapuis; Isabel Drigo; Emilie Coudel; Sophie Plassin; François Laurent; Marcelo Thâles

    2015-01-01

    Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this...

  13. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory en...

  14. Capital gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  15. Celebration Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Boykoff, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.

  16. Impact of venture capital on economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Laurinavičius, Antanas

    2014-01-01

    Object of the research is public venture capital as a tool of venture capital market incentive, innovative business start-up financing, and state policy, which helps addressing imperfect/inefficient market situations where private venture capital does not access all market players. Purpose of the research is to reveal the importance of public venture capital to the national venture capital sector, its impact on the economy and, based on the experience of European countries, to create a hypoth...

  17. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  18. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  19. Building a "Smiling Brazil"? Implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy in a health region in the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Guerra Aquilante

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a case study on the implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy (PNSB, known as "Smiling Brazil", in the cities of the Regional Health Department of Araraquara (DRS III in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was given to the municipal oral health coordinators, an interview with oral health care professionals and managers was conducted, and the official data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health were coded to assess the policy's scope: (i expansion and qualification of actions; (ii work conditions; (iii care; (iv access; and (v planning and management. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were linked by methods triangulation. In terms of PNSB implementation, the majority of the cities (52.6% were classified as "good", with 42.1% classified as "bad". Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, despite strides in oral health care and access to different levels of care, the cities still experience difficulties in implementing the policy's principles.

  20. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  1. Fatores associados ao uso pesado de álcool entre estudantes das capitais brasileiras Factores asociados al uso pesado de alcohol entre estudiantes de las capitales brasileras Factors associated with heavy alcohol use among students in Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F Galduróz

    2010-04-01

    el uso pesado de alcohol y los factores estudiados fueron analizadas por medio de regresión logística, considerando nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Del total de estudiantes, 4.286 (8,9% hicieron uso pesado de alcohol en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El análisis por regresión logística mostró asociación entre relaciones malas o regulares con padre (OR= 1,46 y madre (OR =1,61 y uso pesado de alcohol. Seguir una religión (OR=0,83 se mostró inversamente asociado a este tipo de consumo de alcohol. La práctica de deportes y el hecho de que la madre se perciba como liberal, no mostraron significancia en el modelo. Hubo mayor prevalencia del uso pesado de alcohol entre los estudiantes que trabajaban. CONCLUSIONES: Uniones familiares más coherentes y seguir una religión pueden prevenir el uso abusivo de alcohol entre estudiantes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heavy use of alcohol among students and family, personal and social factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including public school students aged ten to 18 from 27 Brazilian capital cities in 2004. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire that was adapted from a World Health Organization instrument. A representative sample comprising 48,155 students was stratified by census tracts and clusters (schools. The associations between heavy alcohol use and the factors studied were analyzed using logistic regression at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Of all students, 4,286 (8.9% reported heavy alcohol use in the month prior to the interview. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between fair or poor relationship with the father (OR = 1.46 and the mother (OR = 1.61 and heavy use of alcohol. Following a religion (OR = 0.83 was inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Sports practice and mother perceived as a "liberal" person had no significance in the model. However, a higher prevalence of heavy use of alcohol was seen among working

  2. DOSTOYEVSKI'S "CAPITAL"

    OpenAIRE

    GUNAL, E. Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Dostoyevski who was always in need of money and in debt, wrote two great novels about capital: "Idiot" and "Crime and Punishment". In these novels the writer tries to prove the negative effects of capital on people. This article particularly focuses on "Crime and Punishment". Because crime is discussed as the multi-dimensional factor in this work. Moreover, it is claimed that in the troika of crime which formed of Raskolnikov, Svidrigaylov and Luzhin, Luzhin is the most dangerous character w...

  3. Intellectual Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Mardešič, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The work is focused on intellectual capital and its reporting of intangible assets. First part of the work defines the basic theoretical principles, which are an essential part of the work for understanding the issue. Literature review discusses the various components of intellectual capital and focuses on their function within organizations. Work also discusses various approaches of literature and the authors developing a complex theoretical basis for this issue. The following practical part...

  4. The Development of Character Education Model Based on Strengthening Social Capital for Students of State Islamic University (UIN) Sunan Kalijaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Sri M.; Dardiri, Achmad; Zuchdi, Darmiyati

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the concept of character education model that is appropriate for students to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga and also to find out the teaching materials design of character education based on social capital to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. This research is motivated by…

  5. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... investment company that holds itself out as a money market mutual fund under SEC Rule 2a-7 (17 CFR 270.2a-7... for possible adjustments in light of any significant changes in the economy, financial markets, and... perpetual preferred stock. In addition, as a general matter, Tier 1 capital excludes goodwill; amounts...

  6. The Distinctiveness of Nordic Welfare States in the Transformation to the Projective City and the New Spirits of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Boltanski and Chiapello identify a new mode of organizing capitalism which they identify in terms of project work and mobility. They argue that the problem for this mode of organizing is the inequalities which it sets up between those who are mobile and those who are immobile. The rewards in terms...

  7. Uma análise da correlação entre o EVA® e o MVA® no contexto das empresas brasileiras de capital aberto Correlation between Economic Value Added and Market Value Added for publicly owned Brazilian companies

    OpenAIRE

    José Odálio dos Santos; Roberto Watanabe

    2005-01-01

    Este artigo trata do tema da criação de valor, da forma como é medida pelo EVA® (Valor Econômico Adicionado) e pelo MVA® (Valor de Mercado Agregado), duas metodologias desenvolvidas no final dos anos 80 pela empresa americana de consultoria Stern Stewart & Co. O EVA® é definido como a diferença entre o lucro operacional líquido depois de impostos e o custo do capital investido na empresa, enquanto o MVA® é determinado pela diferença entre o valor de mercado da empresa e o capital total nela i...

  8. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  9. Estimativas mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo pública no Brasil (2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. M. dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estimativas inéditas de séries mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo (FBCF das administrações públicas no Brasil de 2002 a 2010. A estimação exigiu um esforço significativo de pesquisa. Em primeiro lugar, realizou-se uma análise criteriosa dos conceitos da contabilidade pública e da contabilidade nacional, enfatizando-se as peculiaridades do processo orçamentário brasileiro que enviesam as estimativas anuais dos investimentos públicos divulgadas nas estatísticas oficiais e que afetam a precisão das informações de alta frequência. Em segundo lugar, desenvolveram-se procedimentos para mitigar estes problemas. Por fim, buscou-se contornar a escassez de informações dos governos subnacionais solicitando-se informações adicionais de centenas de contadores públicos, técnicos ou secretários de Fazenda/Planejamento de todos os estados da Federação, do Distrito Federal (DF e dos maiores municípios.This article presents new monthly estimates of the gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government for the 2002-2010 years. A significant research effort was made to carry out the estimations. First, the many differences between the concepts of "public investment" (as used in the Brazilian public accounting manuals and "gross fixed capital formation of the general government" (as used in the United Nations System of National Accounts were carefully identified, and so were the peculiarities of the Brazilian budget process that distort official estimates of the annual gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government and affect the precision of naive estimates of the same variable in higher frequencies. Second, several procedures were developed to correct or mitigate these problems. Finally, additional information was obtained from 20 out of 26 Brazilian states, the federal district, and tens of (large municipalities in order to allow us to circumvent the relative scarcity of

  10. Análise da relação entre gerenciamento de resultados e custo de capital em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBOVESPA = Analysis of the Relationship Between Results-Based Management and Cost of Equity in Brazilian Companies Listed in BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar a relação entre o gerenciamento de resultados contábeis e o custo de capital próprio e de terceiros em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para tal, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva, conduzida por meio de análise documental e abordagem quantitativa dos dados referentes ao período de 2010 a 2013 de uma amostra composta de 217 empresas. Os resultados evidenciaram que houve elevação do custo de capital próprio. No que tange ao custo de capital de terceiros, quando analisado por meio da variável Kd, constatou-se que ocorreu uma pequena redução de 31,81% para 28,37%. Ao analisar o custo de capital de terceiros, por meio da variável Ki, constatou-se que houve aumento de 23,94% para 30,13%. Os resultados evidenciaram destaque para os gerenciamentos de baixas proporções, principalmente a partir do ano de 2011. Também entre as empresas analisadas aquelas com menor gerenciamento de resultados não apresentavam menor custo de capital próprio e de terceiros. The study aimed at analyzing the relationship between results-based management and the company's cost of equity and its third party in Brazilian companies listed in BM&FBovespa. To this end, a descriptive research was conducted through documentary analysis and quantitative analysis of the data from 2010 to 2013 from a sample of 217 companies. The results revealed that the cost of equity rose in the period of 2010 to 2013. With respect to the cost of third party, when analyzed by Kd variable, it was found out a slight decrease from 31,81% to 28,37%. When analyzing the cost of third party by Ki variable, it was noticed an increase from 23,94% to 30,13% between 2010 and 2013. As for management, the results showed significance for the low proportion managements, especially since 2011. The results also showed that, among the analyzed companies, those with lower results-based management did not have lower cost of equity and third party.

  11. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  12. A Model of Optimal Allocations of Physical Capital and Human Capital in Three Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shaobo; XUE Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops an endogenous economic growth model about allcation of physical and human capital in three sectors. Optimal allocation of physical capital and human capital in three sectors is derived, the fraction of physical and human capital in each sector is positively related. The balanced values and the growth rates at steady state are given under certain conditions.Finally relations between the fractions of human capital and parameters are analyzed elaborately.

  13. Intelligence Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maid Pajevic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of BiH? Historical context implies greater responsibility of OSA BiH in realising its preventive function of protecting security of BiH and its citizens. Theoretical frame of the intelligence capital implies that the system of security and intelligence of BiH should be able to respond to strategic questions: to know-what, to know – why, to know – how, to know – who.

  14. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to create a perspective of rural education. The concept of rural education was initially developed within the Movement of Landless Workers (MST and other social movements from the political pressure and demands for the state to take over public education / field took dimension of public policy. This complex situation currently directs rural schools, a critical perspective that seeks an education beyond the capital.

  15. Intelligence Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Maid Pajevic

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of Bi...

  16. Evaluation of the accomplishment of the Brazilian regulation 'Portaria No. 453/98' in mammography X-ray sets installed in the Sergipe state, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work was done an evaluation of the accomplishment of the regulation 'Portaria No. 453/98' of the Ministry of Health in mammography machine installed in the Sergipe state, Brazil. The quality control procedures were carried out in 23 equipments currently used in clinical routine. The testing methodologies are described in documents of two Brazilian institutions: ANVISA and Brazilian College of Radiology. The following results are expressed on percentage of equipments that were in conformity with minimum requirement of the regulation, considering separately the three kinds of the tests above mentioned. About mechanical parts: compression force (70%), coincidence between the radiation field and the radiographic film (80%) and distortion of the plate compression (47%). About image analysis: performance and reproducibility of the automatic exposure control (54% and 63% respectively), and image quality (84%). In the item beam radiation quality: reproducibility and linearity of the air rate kerma (100% and 84% respectively). In the automatic processors were monitored the following parameters: temperature (70%), pH (65%) and dry-to-dry processing time (25%). The unsatisfactory test results of the plate compression and automatic exposure control jeopardize the expected balance between dose distribution and image quality. This unbalance has significant effects on image nonuniformity and/or a localized dose increment. Even though the results of the tests of image quality and air Kerma rate can be considered satisfactory they are not enough for a full evaluation because they do not take into account the interaction with the object of interest: the breast. The results of the time processing suggest that the operators must change the parameters of the technique employed, attempting to maintain the image quality without resulting in an increase of the absorbed dose. (author)

  17. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this paper, we analyze the land use transition since 2001 in Paragominas—the first Green Municipality—and discuss the limits of the governance arrangements underpinning these changes. Our work draws on a spatially explicit analysis of biophysical variables and qualitative information collected in interviews with key private and public stakeholders of the main commodity chains operating in the region. We argue that, up to now, the emerging multi-level scheme of land governance has not succeeded in promoting large-scale land use intensification, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Moreover, private governance mechanisms based on improved product standards, fail to benefit from potential successful partnerships between the public and private sector at the territorial level. We propose a governance approach that adopts a broader territorial focus as a way forward.

  18. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...

  19. Dream capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    John Tomasi’s Free Market Fairness represents an heroic attempt to bridge the gap between Rawlsian ‘high liberals’ and the advocates of classical liberalism/contemporary libertarianism. I argue that Tomasi’s project fails, above all because it cannot give a compelling account of contemporary (American) capitalism or of its capacity to deliver free market fairness.

  20. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  1. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  2. Re-Thinking Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Bukač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.

  3. Optimal capital income taxation in a two sector economy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Sheikh

    2007-01-01

    We extend the celebrated Chamley-Judd result of zero capital income tax and show that the steady state optimal capital income tax is nonzero, in general. In particular, we find that the optimal plan involves zero capital income tax in investment sector and a nonzero capital income tax in consumption sector. In a two sector neoclassical economy, interdependence of labour and capital margins allows the government to choose an optimal policy that involves nonzero tax on capital income. The disto...

  4. Life-Cycle Wage Growth and Heterogeneous Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Sanders; Christopher Taber

    2012-01-01

    Wages grow rapidly for young workers, and the human capital investment model is the classic framework to explain this growth. While estimation and the theory of human capital have traditionally focused on general human capital, both have evolved toward models of heterogeneous human capital. In this article, we review and evaluate the current state of this literature. We exposit the classic model of general human capital investment and extend it to show how a model of heterogeneous human capit...

  5. Community Development and Local Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Munasib, Abdul B.A.

    2007-01-01

    While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. The findings show that even after accounting for various demographic and economic characteristics, the HDI explains the variation in a number of social capital levels (especially thos...

  6. Community Development and Local Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Anil, Bulent; Munasib, Abdul B.A.

    2010-01-01

    While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. The literature has a long tradition of examining the effect of social capital on local economic growth and development. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. We begin by devising a measurement tool, a Human Development In...

  7. Tendências temporais no consumo de tabaco nas capitais brasileiras, segundo dados do VIGITEL, 2006 a 2011 Tendencias temporales en el consumo de tabaco en las capitales brasileñas, según datos de VIGITEL, 2006 a 2011 Trends in tobacco consumption from 2006 to 2011 in Brazilian capitals according to the VIGITEL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Gomes Campos da Luz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a tendência de indicadores do tabagismo nas capitais brasileiras, segundo dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL em adultos, 2006 a 2011. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão linear simples (a = 5%. Houve redução da prevalência de fumantes e fumantes pesados entre homens e entre indivíduos com idade de 35 a 54 anos. Para fumantes, também houve redução no estrato de 9 a 11 anos de estudo e regiões Norte e Centro-oeste. Para fumantes pesados, a queda foi na Região Nordeste. A política regulatória adotada pelo Brasil tem sido responsável pelo declínio nas prevalências do tabaco.El objetivo fue analizar la tendencia de indicadores del tabaquismo en las capitales brasileñas, según datos del Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL en adultos, de 2006 a 2011. Fue utilizado el modelo de regresión lineal simple (a = 5%. Hubo una reducción de la prevalencia de fumadores y fumadores crónicos entre hombres y entre individuos con edad de 35 a 54 años. En los fumadores, también hubo reducción en el estrato de 9 a 11 años de estudio y regiones Norte y Centro-oeste. En los fumadores crónicos, la caída fue en la región Nordeste. La política regulatoria adoptada por Brasil ha sido responsable del declive en las prevalencias del tabaco.The aim of this study was to analyze trends in indicators of smoking in Brazilian State capitals, according to the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL in adults, from 2006 to 2011. A simple linear regression model was used (a = 5%. There was a decrease in the prevalence of smokers and heavy smokers among men and in individuals 35 to 54 years of age. Smoking also decreased among individuals with 9-11 years of schooling and in the Northeast, North, and

  8. Política, agricultura e a reconversão do capital do tráfico transatlântico de escravos para as finanças brasileiras na década de 1850 Politics, agriculture and the reconversion of the transatlantic slave trade capital to Brazilian finances in 1850'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Vitorino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como, após 1850, com a cessação do tráfico transatlântico de africanos escravos, o capital, antes engatado nesse negócio, passou a irrigar o meio circulante (a moeda e o crédito, reforçando, assim, a economia de mercado já existente na Corte Imperial, mas, a partir de então, com força para configurar nesta cidade uma economia urbana de profundas conseqüências para os agricultores escravistas do Vale do Paraíba ligados ao comércio exterior, e dependentes do crédito e da moeda ali alocados. O assentamento urbano do capital dos mercadores negreiros foi deliberado pelo Partido Conservador.The article emphasizes how, after 1850, with the cessation of the transatlantic African slave trade, the capital, rather linked in this business, passed to irrigate the finance capital (the coin and the credit, reinforcing, then, the trade economy also extant in the Imperial Court but, hereafter, stronger enough to build in this city a urban economy with profoundest consequences to the farms of the Vale do Paraíba who used slaves, were linked in the foreign trade, and were dependent of the credit and of the coin allocated there. The urban settlement of the black slave trade capital was deliberate by the Conservative Party.

  9. Building Social Capital for Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.

  10. Molecular epidemiology of livestock rabies viruses isolated in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco from 2003 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochizuki Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited or no epidemiological information has been reported for rabies viruses (RABVs isolated from livestock in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba (PB and Pernambuco (PE. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular epidemiology of RABVs circulating in livestock, especially cattle, in these areas between 2003 and 2009. Findings Phylogenetic analysis based on 890 nt of the nucleoprotein (N gene revealed that the 52 livestock-derived RABV isolates characterized here belonged to a single lineage. These isolates clustered with a vampire bat-related RABV lineage previously identified in other states in Brazil; within PB and PE, this lineage was divided between the previously characterized main lineage and a novel sub-lineage. Conclusions The occurrences of livestock rabies in PB and PE originated from vampire bat RABVs, and the causative RABV lineage has been circulating in this area of northeastern Brazil for at least 7 years. This distribution pattern may correlate to that of a vampire bat population isolated by geographic barriers.

  11. Ajuste fiscal nos estados: uma análise do período 1998-2006 Fiscal adjustment in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wulff Gobetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a forma de enquadramento dos estados ao Programa de Ajuste Fiscal (PAF e à Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF, destacando seus impactos nas escolhas de alocação dos recursos públicos e na taxa de investimento. Os resultados obtidos após minucioso trabalho de depuração das bases de dados confirmam a melhoria da situação financeira de estados no período posterior à LRF, mas sugerem que existe um trade-off entre os indicadores fiscais, de um lado, e os investimentos e gastos em infraestrutura, de outro, exigindo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e sustentabilidade do ajuste fiscal. Os dados orçamentários analisados também apontam evidências de contabilidade criativa.The objective of this article is to offer an analysis of the accommodation by Brazilian states with Fiscal Adjustment Program and with Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA, showing their impacts on the choices of public resources allocation and on the investment rate. The results obtained after detailed work of data depuration confirm the improvement of financial situation of the states in the period post FRA, but also suggest the existence of a trade-off between fiscal indicators and infrastructure investment, demanding a reflection about the quality and the sustainability of the fiscal adjustment. The budget data analyzed also indicate evidences of creative accountability.

  12. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  13. Contagious Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Peter T. Leeson; Russell S. Sobel

    2006-01-01

    Is capitalism contagious? Since WWI, global foreign policy has treated economic freedom/repression like a virus that spreads between countries. Most recently, the ?domino theory? of freedom has played prominently in U.S. foreign policy toward Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean during the Cold War, and the Middle East during the War on Terror. This paper investigates the spread of economic freedom between nations. Our analysis considers two potential channels of this spread: geography and ...

  14. An example of income distribution inequality problem in Turkey: Inequity created by wage policy in state economic enterprise on income distribution and its relation to human capital theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Cam

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article; salaries of "career occupations" dependent on act of number 657 İn Turkey and wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857(Labor Law are compared to state an example of income distribution inequality in Turkey. This study consists of three sections. In the first section, the importance of wage policy in income distribution policy is explained. In second section, wage formation and education and employment relations are taken İn hand İn the frame of assumptions of human capital theory. In the last section, wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857 and salaries of career occupations dependent on act of number 657 are compared in a state economics enterprise which displays activity in energy sector in Turkey.

  15. Crenças e práticas de cuidado entre mães residentes em capitais e pequenas cidades Brasileiras Beliefs and care practices of mothers living in Brazilian capital cities and small towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dal Forno Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Na presente pesquisa foram comparadas crenças e práticas de cuidado de mães de cidades pequenas e capitais brasileiras. Participaram do estudo 307 mães de cidades pequenas e 299 de capitais, as quais responderam a uma escala que avalia cuidados primários e estimulação. Os resultados indicaram que mães das cidades pequenas afirmaram realizar significativamente mais práticas de cuidados primários do que mães das capitais e estas afirmaram realizar e valorizar significativamente mais práticas de estimulação. Uma maior idade da criança e maior nível educacional da mãe explicaram significativamente a estimulação. Conclui-se que existe certa similaridade nas práticas e crenças das mães, que são independentes do lugar onde elas residem, assim como diferentes ênfases nas práticas de cuidado, dependendo da influência de variáveis sociodemográficas em cada contexto.This study aimed to compare both beliefs and care practices of mothers living in capital cities and small towns. Three hundred seven mothers living in capital cities and 299 in small towns answered a scale that assesses primary care and stimulation. A sociodemographic questionnaire has also been used. The results indicated that mothers from small towns reported developing significantly more practices of primary care than the ones who live in the capitals. Mothers from the capitals value and practice more stimulation than primary care. The age of the child and the educational level of the mother explained significantly the stimulation results. Therefore, it seems there is some similarity in the practices and beliefs of mothers which are independent of the context where they live. There are also different emphases on health care practices, but these are influenced by sociodemographic variables depending on each context.

  16. Taxing foreign capital in Brazil: a sequential game

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    João Ricardo M. G. Costa Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging market economies have witnessed a surge in capital inflows as a result of monetary expansion in developed countries in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis. In this paper, we have modeled the Brazilian decision to tax foreign capital inflows, which were deemed to hurt country’s firm’s competitiveness as they made the Real currency stronger. We have presented a game between three players in which each agent maximizes its utility function in a sequential framework. The main result is that with everything else held constant the Brazilian government’s decision to tax foreign capital leads to an increase in domestic interest rates. Cost of capital should raise as a consequence of the strategic behavior of involved actors, namely the government, domestic banks and foreign investors. A cautious approach on those measures is then warranted.

  17. From the 'Miracle' to the 'Lost Decade': intersectoral transfers and external credit in the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Grinberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the Brazilian experience from the 'Economic Miracle' to the 'Lost Decade'. Its aim is to advance an alternative measurement of the flows of extraordinary wealth (i.e. ground-rent and net external credit available for appropriation in the Brazilian economy and to asses their relevance in sustaining the process of accumulation of industrial capital. That is done in order to provide further and more accurate evidence to the claim that the evolution of the Brazilian process of capital accumulation has been extremely dependent on the evolution of those masses of extraordinary wealth.

  18. Evolução de indicadores socioeconômicos e da mortalidade cardiovascular em três estados do Brasil Evolution of socioeconomic indicators and cardiovascular mortality in three brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porto Soares

    2013-02-01

    Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, and in their capitals, between 1980 and 2008, with socioeconomic indicators collected from 1949 onwards. METHODS: Population and death data were obtained from the Brazilian Unified Health System databank (Datasus. Mortality rates due to the following were calculated and adjusted by use of the direct method and compensated for poorly defined causes: ischemic heart diseases; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; poorly defined causes; and all causes. Child mortality data were obtained from state and municipal health secretariats and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. Information on gross domestic product (GDP and educational level was obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea. The mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators were correlated by using the estimation of Pearson linear coefficients to determine optimized year lag. The inclination coefficients of the regression between the dependent variable "disease" and the independent variable "socioeconomic indicator" were estimated. RESULTS: The three states showed a reduction in mortality, which was especially due to a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, mainly of cerebrovascular diseases. The decrease in cardiovascular mortality was preceded by a reduction in child mortality, an elevation in the per capita GDP, and an increase in the educational level, and a strong correlation between indicators and mortality rates was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The three indicators showed an almost maximum correlation with the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Such relationship indicates the importance of improving quality of life to reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  19. Economic Analysis of Social Common Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzawa, Hirofumi

    2005-06-01

    Social common capital provides members of society with those services and institutional arrangements that are crucial in maintaining human and cultural life. The term æsocial common capital' is comprised of three categories: natural capital, social infrastructure, and institutional capital. Natural capital consists of all natural environment and natural resources including the earth's atmosphere. Social infrastructure consists of roads, bridges, public transportation systems, electricity, and other public utilities. Institutional capital includes hospitals, educational institutions, judicial and police systems, public administrative services, financial and monetary institutions, and cultural capital. This book attempts to modify and extend the theoretical premises of orthodox economic theory to make them broad enough to analyze the economic implications of social common capital. It further aims to find the institutional arrangements and policy measures that will bring about the optimal state of affairs.

  20. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais

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    Elizângela Guedes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp, ompA (457-bp, and ompB (720-bp. The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks.The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  1. Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential and Determination of Clonal Profile in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Different Brazilian States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Priscila Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Pinheiro, Luiza; de Almeida Martins, Lisiane; Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified Staphylococcus aureus as the most common agent involved in food poisoning. However, current research highlights the importance of toxigenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from food. The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cows with bovine subclinical mastitis regarding the presence of genes responsible for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and of the tst-1 gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and to determine the clonal profile of the isolates carrying any of the genes studied. A total of 181 strains isolated in different Brazilian states, including the South, Southeast, and Northeast regions, were analyzed. The sea gene was the most frequent, which was detected in 18.2% of the isolates, followed by seb in 7.7%, sec in 14.9%, sed in 0.5%, see in 8.2%, seg in 1.6%, seh in 25.4%, sei in 6.6%, and ser in 1.6%. The sej, ses, set, and tst-1 genes were not detected in any of the isolates. The typing of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed important S. aureus and S. epidermidis clusters in different areas and the presence of enterotoxin genes in lineages isolated from animals that belong to herds located geographically close to each other. PMID:27092525

  2. Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential and Determination of Clonal Profile in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Different Brazilian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Priscila Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Pinheiro, Luiza; de Almeida Martins, Lisiane; Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified Staphylococcus aureus as the most common agent involved in food poisoning. However, current research highlights the importance of toxigenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from food. The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cows with bovine subclinical mastitis regarding the presence of genes responsible for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and of the tst-1 gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and to determine the clonal profile of the isolates carrying any of the genes studied. A total of 181 strains isolated in different Brazilian states, including the South, Southeast, and Northeast regions, were analyzed. The sea gene was the most frequent, which was detected in 18.2% of the isolates, followed by seb in 7.7%, sec in 14.9%, sed in 0.5%, see in 8.2%, seg in 1.6%, seh in 25.4%, sei in 6.6%, and ser in 1.6%. The sej, ses, set, and tst-1 genes were not detected in any of the isolates. The typing of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed important S. aureus and S. epidermidis clusters in different areas and the presence of enterotoxin genes in lineages isolated from animals that belong to herds located geographically close to each other. PMID:27092525

  3. Estimate of radiation doses to workers in underground mines of coal and fluorite in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and considerations on the optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentrations of radon in the environment of underground mines above 1000 - 1500 Bq/m3 are internationally considered to require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of the present work were to determine the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consisted in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m3. The inefficiency of the ventilation system and the liberation of radon during the various explosions may have contributed to the high concentrations of radon in these mines since the concentration of radium in the rocks (normal and weathered granites) and in the minerals (green and purple fluorides) that compose the mining environment are not high. The modification of the ventilation system of one of the fluorite mines was sufficient to reduce the radon concentration to levels of the order of 500 Bq/m3. The weathered granite contributes more significantly to the increase of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air than the other rocks here studied, i.e. normal granite as well as green and purple

  4. Human Capital Investment, Cash Flow Risk and Capital Structure Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaolan

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation explores the financial effects of firms' growing reliance on intangible capital in their production technology. I examine the fundamental link between the cash flow risk, financial decision-making and the accumulation of firm-level intangible capital both in theory and in empirics. In Chapter one, I document that public firms in the United States that provide better insurance against productivity shocks to their workers experience higher cash flow volatility. Difference in i...

  5. História, estado e educação: uma leitura sobre o Estado brasileiro (1971-2000 History, state and education: a reading of the Brazilian State (1971-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaiofatto Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta alguns resultados de pesquisa realizada sobre se e como o tema Estado e Educação foi abordado na produção acadêmica brasileira, no período compreendido entre 1971 a 2000. Foram pesquisados cinco Anais de Associações Nacionais de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa e quinze periódicos, das áreas de Educação, Economia, Administração, História, e Ciências Sociais. Buscou-se compreender as perspectivas das áreas, considerando-se o contexto histórico das décadas em que os trabalhos foram produzidos, e evidenciando seus nexos, contribuições e limitações. Neste artigo, é abordada a caracterização do Estado brasileiro, pelos autores dos trabalhos investigados, em especial quanto a três referências principais, que aparecem ao longo de todo o período: Estado capitalista/reprodutor da ordem social; Estado autoritário/centralizador; e Estado ineficiente/omisso, buscando-se compreendê-las em relação ao contexto histórico.This article presents the results of the research about how the State and Education topic were dealt with in the Brazilian academic production between 1971 and 2000. We have researched five Proceedings of Post-Graduation and National Research Associations and fifteen journals in the areas of Economy, Administration, History, Social Sciences and Education, focusing on four titles in each one of them, in considering the total production of the period. We tried to understand the perspectives of the areas. We have considered the historical context of the decades in which those works were produced, highlighting their contributions and limitations. In this article, we approach the characterization of the Brazilian State by the authors of researched works, especially concerning the three main references that appear throughout the period: the capitalist State/producer of social order; the authoritarian State/centralizer; and the inefficient State / the absent state. We seek to understand them in their

  6. Movimento de mulheres negras: trajetória política, práticas mobilizatórias e articulações com o Estado brasileiro Afro-Brazilian women's social movement: political trajectory, mobilization practices and articulations with the Brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Santos Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a trajetória e consolidação do Movimento de Mulheres Negras (MMN na cena pública brasileira ao longo dos últimos trinta anos. Através de entrevistas com militantes pioneiras e participantes desse movimento social bem como de levantamento de fontes documentais, o estudo teve o intuito de compreender quais processos subjazem a constituição desse novo sujeito coletivo, seus dilemas e redes de solidariedade com outros movimentos sociais, o lugar das hierarquias de gênero e raça em suas reivindicações, além do seu processo de institucionalização/burocratização e sua articulação com o Estado brasileiro.This paper examines the trajectory and consolidation process of the Afro-Brazilian Women's Social Movement in the public sphere over the last thirty years. Trough interviews with activists and participants of this social movement as well as survey of documental sources, the study had the aim to understand those processes that underlying the constitution of these collective political subjects, and their dilemmas and solidarity networks with other social movements. Furthermore, this paper also discusses the role of hierarchies of gender and race in the Afro-Brazilian Women's Social Movement claims, and its process of institutionalization / bureaucratization along with its articulation with the Brazilian state.

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA ANGHEL-ENESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.

  8. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  9. 75 FR 69851 - Changes in Disease Status of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina With Regard to Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ... vesicular disease, classical swine fever, and African swine fever. We are also adding Santa Catarina to the... disease, classical swine fever, and African swine fever while continuing to protect the United States from...-mouth disease (FMD), African swine fever (ASF), classical swine fever (CSF), and swine vesicular...

  10. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among brazilian university students: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. METHODS: This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1% and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%. Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug. RESULTS: Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83, marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11 and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79 compared to FR students. CONCLUSION: Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  11. Paracoccidioidomycosis in a western Brazilian Amazon State: Clinical-epidemiologic profile and spatial distribution of the disease

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    Gabriel de Deus Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PCM is considered one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Methods: This is a clinical, epidemiological, retrospective, quantitative study of PCM cases in patients attending the National Health Service in the State of Rondônia in 1997-2012. The examined variables included sex, age group, year of diagnosis, education level, profession, place of residence, diagnostic test, prior treatment, medication used, comorbidities and case progress. Results: During the study period, 2,163 PCM cases were registered in Rondônia, and the mean annual incidence was 9.4/100,000 people. The municipalities with the highest rates were located in the southeastern region of Rondônia, and the towns of Pimenteiras do Oeste and Espigão do Oeste had the highest rates in the state, which were 39.1/100,000 and 37.4/100,000 people, respectively. Among all cases, 90.2% and 9.8% were observed in men and women, respectively, and most cases (58.2% were observed in patients aged between 40 and 59 years. Itraconazole was used to treat 91.6% (1,771 of cases, followed by sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim (4.4% [85] of cases. One hundred thirty-one (6% patients died. Conclusions: The State of Rondônia has a high incidence of PCM, and the municipalities in the southeastern region of the state were found to have the highest incidence rates of this disease. Our findings suggest that Rondônia is the state in the northern region with the highest mortality rate for PCM.

  12. Do Borders Matter for Social Capital? Economic Growth and Civic Culture in U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    John F Helliwell

    1996-01-01

    The paper first assesses regional and ethnic group differences in social trust and memberships in both Canada and the United States. The ethnic categories people choose to describe themselves are as important as regional differences, but much less important than education, in explaining differences in trust. Respondents who qualify their nationality by any of seven adjectives, a feature more prevalent in the United States than in Canada, (black, white, Hispanic and Asian in the United States;...

  13. Capital formation in Brazil and the electrical sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some economical and political aspects of electric power investment in Brazil are presented, including the Brazilian situation in a word view; the problems of expansion in 90 decade; the capital public formation was negative; the negative saving deficit; the monthly tariff in electric power sector and the potential and costs of hydroelectric power. (C.G.C.)

  14. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama; Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Ana Karina Dias Salman; Ângelo Mansur Mendes; Marivaldo Rodrigues Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  15. The operational and logistic experience on transportation of Brazilian spent nuclear fuel to the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 a shipment of 127 spent MTR fuel assemblies was made from IEA-R1 Research Reactor located at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, Brazil to Savannah River Site Laboratory (SRS) in the United States. This paper describes the operational and logistic experience on this transportation made by IPEN staff, EDLOW International Company and the Consortium NCS/GNS. (author)

  16. Medieval capital markets. Markets for renten between state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduijn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The book is structured as follows. Chapter 1 introduces medieval Holland as a significant entity for institutional-economic development by discussing how the state created a county wide societal structure. As a proto-territorial state Holland had a uniform judiciary, a government apparatus that gave

  17. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how the...... perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  18. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    they are to be sustained. Such logics are stabilized to the degree that they can pass the tests which they set themselves. The chapter shows how the projective city has increasingly failed these tests. It has instead created a privileged group of ‘mobile citizens’ working with mobile, global capital in...... ways that increasingly depend on a static, immobile group who are poorly paid, whose employment rights have been undermined and whose political voice is increasingly ignored. The chapter shows how Boltanski's pragmatist approach to critique as emergent from the experience of the actors themselves...... rather than being imposed by the analyst provides the basis for an understanding of how social and artistic critiques emerge. Whilst recognizing that New Spirits inevitably bears the marks of its origins in the particular context of France in the late 1990s, the chapter argues that there are key aspects...

  19. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  20. Placing social capital

    OpenAIRE

    G Mohan; J Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper looks at the relevance and contributions of social capital analysis to human geography and vise versa. The authors start by defining social capital and clarifying and distinguishing concepts, and critiques of Putnam's work. Social capital is simultaneously an economic, sociological, political, and geographical concept, but it must be distinguished from human capital, cultural capital, and networks. Social capital can be relevant to human geographers because ...

  1. Firms’ capital structure and the bankruptcy law design:e vidence from Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Funchal; Mateus Clóvis

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of changes in creditors? priority order defined by the bankruptcy law on firms? capital structure. Taking advantage of the Brazilian bankruptcy law Reform and using firms? balance sheet data, we obtain results in line with theories that predict the effects on the capital structure due to changes in creditors? expectations. We find evidence of an increase in the debt portion of the capital structure.

  2. Compostos Secundários em Cachaças Produzidas no Estado de Minas Gerais Secundary Compounds in Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirits (“Cachaça” Manufactured in Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Eliane Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes da cachaça classificados como secundários constituem um grupo de produtos minoritários oriundos do processo de fermentação. Esses, especialmente os ésteres e aldeídos, são responsáveis pelo aroma e sabor dos destilados em geral, porém, quando se encontram acima dos limites estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, podem comprometer a qualidade da cachaça e ser prejudicial à saúde. Com o intuito de avaliar os compostos secundários de aguardentes provenientes de várias localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 45 amostras aleatoriamente e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente (LAFQA da UFLA, no período de agosto de 2000 a julho de 2001. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que há diferenças altamente significativas entre as amostras analisadas para acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos e álcoois superiores. De todas as amostras analisadas, sete apresentaram excesso de álcoois superiores, duas de aldeídos e três de acidez volátil; portanto, 24,44% das aguardentes encontravam-se fora dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pelo MAPA (1997.The Brazilian sugar-cane spirit chemical compounds classified like secondary compounds are one group of Brazilian sugar-cane spirit minor compounds formed during the fermentation process. That compounds are important for the taste and flavor of spirits in general, mainly esters and aldehydes. However, that compounds are above the standard quality established by Agriculture Ministry (MAPA, they can affect the Brazilian sugar-cane spirit quality and be harmful to the health. Aiming to evaluate the sugar-cane spirit secondary compounds from diverse sites at Minas Gerais State, 45 samples were randomized sampled and taken to the Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirit Analysis Laboratory of UFLA during the period of August of 2000 to July of 2001. The results showed that there were high and significant statistical

  3. Risk factors associated with the transmissionof Brazilian spotted fever in the Piracicaba river basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Celso Eduardo de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE. After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI with 210 (37% confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63% discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035, the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439, the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764, the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138, an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231, and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003. CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment.

  4. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

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    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  5. Determinantes da Estrutura de Capital das Empresas Brasileiras: uma abordagem em regress˜ao quantílica

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Resende Oliveira; Benjamin Miranda Tabak; José Guilherme de Lara Resende; Daniel Oliveira Cajueiro

    2012-01-01

    This work examines the determinants of the capital structure of Brazilian companies between the years 2000 and 2009. Based on quantile regression model and on the comparison with conventional models (least squares and fixed effects), the work provides better understanding of capital structure to reveal the available information on quantiles. This was not observed in Brazilian previous studies that analyzed only the general trend of the determinant's parameters. According to the results, we co...

  6. Introduction: Between Capitalism, the State, and the Grassroots: Mexico′s Contribution to a Global Conservation Debate

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    Nora Haenn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction situates Mexico in the research on conservation and society, illustrating some nuances and characteristics of the Mexican model of biodiversity conservation in relation to neoliberal economic development and state formation. The paper critiques the way neoliberalism has become a common framework to understand conservation′s social practices. Drawing on the ethnographies collected in this special section, the paper considers the importance of state formation and disorganised neoliberalism as intertwined phenomena that explain conservation outcomes. This approach lends itself to the papers′ ethnographic descriptions that demonstrate a particular Mexican form of conservation that sits alongside a globalised biodiversity conservation apparatus. The introduction presents some additional analytical interpretations: 1 conservation strategies rooted in profit-driven models are precarious; 2 empirical cases show the expansion of both state structures and capitalist markets via conservation; and 3 non-capitalist approaches to conservation merit greater consideration.

  7. Global Climate Change Consequences Changing the Middle Sea Level in the Brazilian Coast: Impacts on Ceará State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, E. G.; Pires, L. B. M.; Pinto, V. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, man started to generate increasing amounts of waste and pollutants, which on a large scale in the long term is causing a series of climate change consequences, both globally as well as locally. One of the many effects of these changes has been reflected in the ocean levels, depending on various factors. Thus, the population living in coastal areas suffers from the negative effects of the advancement of ocean waters. The coast of northeastern Brazil is an example of this, especially the state of Ceará coast. The state of Ceará has 573 km of coastline, a region that has suffered extensive erosion, in which the Middle Sea Level (MSL) changes exert a significant influence. The coastal plain is a strip of land of small extent, with an average width of 2.5 km, formed depending on the availability of high sediment stocks provided through the action of wind, marine, or river processes, individually in combination with each other. In many beaches it is observed that the strip of beach is narrow due to the presence of topographic elevations carved into sharp cliffs. Between periods of high tide and low tide, often rocky beach features are observed that have recently formed. The waves control the stretches of beach which are mostly sandy. This paper presents a survey about the evidence already apparent on the rise in the MSL and correlates it with the advance of the sea on the coast of Ceará, as well as assesses the possible consequences of this process. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in relevant scientific publications. The data used are from the station "Global Sea Level Observing System - GLOSS" which maintains a tide gauge installed in Ceará in Fortaleza. The analyses show that the phenomenon has caused a lot of inconvenience to the people, streets have disappeared, as well as several buildings located along the coast. The sea advances destroyed beaches and have promoted an accelerated level of erosion, changing the

  8. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  9. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  10. Os procedimentos adotados pelo tribunal de contas do Piauí para a verificação das receitas e despesas vinculadas à educação The procedures adopted by the audit office (ao of the Brazilian state of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Davies

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa procedimentos do Tribunal de Contas (TC do Piauí para a verificação da receita e despesa vinculada à educação, constatando a oscilação e pouca clareza e firmeza na definição destes procedimentos. Por exemplo, embora a Constituição Estadual previsse o percentual mínimo de 30% em manutenção e desenvolvimento do ensino (MDE, o TC só passou a exigir este cumprimento a partir de uma resolução sua de 1998. Mesmo assim, admitiu que, no caso de Teresina e outros municípios, esta exigência viesse a ser cumprida gradualmente e só alcançasse os 30% em 2002. Em 2004, no entanto, reduziu esta exigência para 25%. Com relação à contabilização de receitas e despesas, os procedimentos também variaram. A Resolução n. 1.606, de 1998, por exemplo, não detalhou as receitas vinculadas à MDE. Na definição de despesas classificadas como MDE, o TC acrescentou alguns itens não previstos nos artigos 70 e 71 da LDB, confundindo gastos legalmente definidos como MDE com os classificados pela Lei do Orçamento Público.This paper examines the procedures adopted by the Audit Office (AO of the Brazilian State of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education. It found that such procedures oscillate and are not very clearly and firmly defined. For example, although the State Constitution of Piauí stipulates that a minimum of 30% of tax revenue be earmarked to the legally-defined concept of maintenance and development of education (MDE, the AO only began to require it be enforced after a resolution issued in 1998. Yet, it allowed the capital city of Teresina and other townships to only gradually comply with it and reach 30% in the year of 2002. In 2004, however, the AO reduced this requirement to 25% (the minimum set by the Federal Constitution. As for the accounting of revenues and expenditures, procedures have also varied. Resolution 1.606 (1998, for example, does not detail the revenues linked to MDE

  11. Planning for a Multi-Campus Merger: Implications for Library Services and Resources at Penn State University's Capital College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimatz, Lisa R.; White, Gary W.; Crawford, Gregory A.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the strategic planning process for the merger between the libraries of Penn State University's Harrisburg and Schuykill campuses. Examines the merger's potential impact on library services and resources. Discusses possible solutions to meeting the information needs of the merged institutions. (Author/AEF)

  12. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  13. Representações sociais da depressão no ensino médio: um estudo sobre duas capitais Social representations of depression in gymnasium: a research about two Brazilian capital cities

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    Natália Ferreira Damião

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou identificar os fatores psicossociais que interferem na etiologia da depressão e apreender as representações sociais (RS da depressão no coletivo de adolescentes inseridos no contexto do ensino médio da rede pública e privada das cidades de Teresina/PI e Natal/RN. Participaram da pesquisa 505 sujeitos, dentre os quais 269 são de Teresina e 236 de Natal. Utilizou-se o Inventário de Depressão Infantil e a Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras (TALP. A amostra da cidade de Teresina/PI apresentou um maior índice de sintomatologia comparada à cidade de Natal/RN. Relativo ao sexo houve diferenças estatísticas significativas: os sujeitos do sexo masculino apresentam traços depressivos mais relacionados a problemas de conduta e obediência, enquanto as garotas desenvolveriam traços mais subjetivos. A partir da análise dos dados obtidos no TALP, constatou-se que as RS dos sujeitos pesquisados, de modo geral, demonstram inadequação do sujeito depressivo nas inter-relações psicoafetivas e psicossociais.Research objectives were to identify psychosocial factors that influence in the etiology of depression, to apprehend and to compare the social representations of depression elaborated by teenagers in Gymnasium, in public and private schools from two Northeastern Brazil capital cities, being them Natal/RN and Teresina/PI. 505 subjects took part in this research, being 269 from Teresina and 236 from Natal. It was used as instrument the Children Depression Inventory and Words Free Association Test (WFAT. The sample from Teresina/PI presented a symptomatology index higher than Natal/RN's. About genres differences, it was verified that the masculine genre subjects present depressive signs more related to obedience and conduct problems, as the girls would develop more subjective signs. Analysis of the data taken from WFAT found out that the social representations from the analyzed subjects, in general, show unfitness

  14. Atendimento pré-hospitalar ao idoso vítima de violência em cinco capitais brasileiras Pre-hospital attendance to elders victims of violence in five Brazilian capitals

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    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as características e a operacionalização no cotidiano da atenção pré-hospitalar aos idosos vítimas de violências e acidentes de cinco capitais (Manaus, Recife, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro e Curitiba, abordando ainda suas capacidades, seus obstáculos e potencialidades. Pautou-se na triangulação de métodos quantitativos e qualitativos. Analisaram-se dados de oitenta serviços da atenção pré-hospitalar móvel e fixa: 32 em Manaus; 18 em Recife; dez em Brasília; 12 no Rio de Janeiro e oito em Curitiba. Entre os achados estão as diferenças (de tamanho e diversidade de categorias profissionais e dificuldades das equipes para identificar, atender e notificar os casos por falta de capacitação; pouca atuação preventiva; quase nenhum envolvimento com a família e orientação a ela; praticamente nenhum atendimento ao autor da agressão; incipiente articulação e parcerias da rede, sobretudo dos serviços pré-hospitalares com os hospitalares.This article reviews the characteristics and operation in the daily routine of a pre-hospital care to the elderly victims of violence and accidents in five capitals (Manaus, Recife, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba. Besides that, it analyses their abilities, and potential obstacles. It was based on the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods analyzing data from 80 departments of mobile and fixed pre-hospitals: 32 in Manaus, 18 in Recife, 10 in Brasilia, 12 in Rio de Janeiro and eight in Curitiba. Among the findings are the differences in size and diversity of occupational categories and difficulties of the teams to identify, serve and report cases for lack of training, limited preventive action, almost no involvement and guidance to the family, practically no attention to the perpetrator; incipient articulation and partnership network, especially regarding on pre-hospital services and the hospital.

  15. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  16. Capital Structure Decisions: Evidence from Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Xin Yu

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines the determinants of capital structure in Singapore listed companies. Most prior empirical studies investigate the determinants of capital structure in developed countries, particularly in the United States and Europe, with only a few examining this topic in Asia Pacific. This dissertation focuses on Singapore to find out the factors that affect Singapore listed companies’ capital structure decision. The dissertation uses panel data from the Worldscope database which...

  17. National accounting and capital

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Hartwick

    2012-01-01

    National Accounting and Capital presents definitive solutions to current problems in national accounting practice. Professor Hartwick deals expertly with problems in accounting natural capital, financial capital and skills capital and communicates his solutions in specially designed national accounting tables or matrices.

  18. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  19. The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo, Santos and Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Amélia Luzio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo (capital, Santos and Campinas, in order to understand their material, social and political impacts, the progress in the process of breaking away from the psychiatric ward model, and the establishment of creative and productive groups, required to build up the psychosocial treatment in regard to mental health, as well as to evaluate the contribution that the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System had on the psychiatric reform in the mentioned cities. The research, which is the basis of this paper, is part of a thesis regarding mental health care, whereby the innovative projects implemented in those cities served as framework and basis for comparison to analyze mental health policy in small and medium-sized cities and towns in the state of São Paulo.

  20. Is the CAPM Dead or Alive in the Brazilian Market?

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Joe Akira; Edson Bastos e Santos

    2009-01-01

    The central purpose of this work is to test the Sharpe-Lintner-Black Capital Asset Pricing Model in the Brazilian equity market. We have concluded that the CAPM is dead in the Brazilian equity market because, besides using the market premiums to explain the panel equity premiums, there are also some anomalies, such as, the firm size, the equity price-to-book value, the dividend yield, and the price-earnings ratio. Furthermore, by using the recent panel cointegration FMOLS (fully modified OLS)...

  1. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  2. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  3. Capitalism and human flourishing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    What interpretation of human flourishing, what ideas of value does capitalism in practice embody and promote? To address this question the paper clarifies first that "capitalism" must be understood as more than merely a system of private property and markets. It contains "the prerogative of capital", in which surplus remains with the owners of capital, and "the perspective of capital", in which hired work is defined as a cost. The question must also be distinguished from more conventional one...

  4. Capitalism and justification

    OpenAIRE

    Birešev Ana

    2009-01-01

    Weber's thesis that the spirit of capitalism was preexistent to the rise of capitalism itself inspired many sociologist to search for the cultural background of contemporary forms of capitalism. In this paper, the author focuses on and makes comparisons of three approaches of such kind. The one approach draws from Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello who examine the development of 'new spirit of capitalism' by focusing on the interrelation of two macroactors - capitalism and critique; the other on...

  5. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  6. Education - an investment in human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neamţu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.

  7. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  8. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  9. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  10. Intangible Capital and Ramsey Capital Taxation (updated)

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Conesa; Begoña Domínguez

    2009-01-01

    The standard analysis of optimal fiscal policy in the neoclassical growth model, e.g. Chamley (1986) and Judd (1985), aggregates different types of assets into a unique capital good and all sorts of capital taxes into a unique capital tax. There, the optimal capital tax rate is very high in the short-run and zero in the long-run and, inevitably, time-inconsistent. This paper shows that this classic result does not hold in a more disaggregated framework. As proposed in McGrattan and Prescott (...

  11. Public Capital, Private Capital and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Bucci

    2012-01-01

    A growth model is presented in which productive government expenditure takes the form of a stock. Private and public capital interact with each other in two ways. The first is related to the specification of the aggregate production function (Cobb-Douglas vs. CES). The second has to do with the rates of investment in the two types of capital, and arises from the law of motion of public capital. The share of public capital devoted to output production can be exogenous or endogenous. In this fr...

  12. Human Capital a Part of Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Fedoryshina

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...

  13. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  14. Equity Valuation and Accounting Numbers: Applying Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models to Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how accounting variables explain cross-sectional stocks returns in Brazilian capital markets. The analysis is based on Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models. These models predict that stock returns are a function of net income, change in profitability, invested capital, changes in opportunity growths and discount rate. Generally, the empirical results for the Brazilian capital market are consistent with the theoretical relations that models describe, similarly to the results found in the US. Using different empirical tests (pooled regressions, Fama-Macbeth and panel data the results and coefficients remain similar, what support the robustness of our findings.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of the teaching of Homeopathy in undergraduate Pharmacy Courses in Brazilian states Paraná and Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Salvador Gamarra Junior; Karen Denez; Susan Andreise Cipriano Baracho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Homeopathy and other integrative and complementary health practices were included in the Brazilian public health system (SUS) under a formal policy established by the Health Ministry in 2006 [1]. This led to an increase in the demand of homeopathic assistance, not accompanied by a corresponding increase in human and material resources [2,3,4]. On the other hand, an evaluation of market demands carried out by the Education Ministry (MEC) in 2000 led to a reform of the syllable of...

  16. “Fettered” and “unfettered” capitalism in J.A. Schumpeter’s concept of Tax State and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Sledzik

    2015-01-01

    Economic development and transformation processes, have become much more intense in economic reality in the last years than they have ever been before. At this time has raised a lot of questions about the causes of the actual Global Crisis, future crises, the factors affecting the modern economy, about the essence of contemporary capitalism, demographic problems and overgrown bureaucracy. The most spectacular threat to capitalism, (based on private entrepreneurship) according to Schumpeter, s...

  17. Pyramid Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Diwan, Ishac; Keefer, Philip; Schiffbauer, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses an original database of 469 politically connected firms under the Mubarak regime in Egypt to explore the economic effects of close state-business relations. Previous research has shown that political connections are lucrative. The paper addresses several questions raised by this research. Do connected firms receive favorable regulatory treatment? They do: connected firms ar...

  18. Homespun Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Part of the state's job is to promote wealth creation that also provides public goods to enhance the broader population's life-chances. These systems for organizing economic life in a national political economy generally have to conform with widely held conceptions of how the economy should work to...

  19. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  20. A estrutura de capital da micro e pequena empresa de Blumenau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Regina dos Santos Parisotto

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento das micro e pequenas empresas na economia brasileira é indiscutível; um fator que preocupa, no entanto, é o alto nível de mortalidade dessas empresas. No ano de 2004, o SEBRAE apontou em pesquisa realizada, que 42% dos empresários responderam, como causas das dificuldades e razões para o fechamento das empresas, a falta de capital de giro. Tal fato motivou a realização dessa pesquisa, cujo objetivo foi de verificar como é formada a estrutura de capital da micro e pequena empresa blumenauense. Para atingir-se o objetivo proposto, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva, e os procedimentos foram: levantamento de dados, por meio de pesquisa de campo, bem como documental e bibliográfica. A amostra selecionada foi de 68 de um total de 76.258 micros e pequenas empresas blumenauenses (fonte: JUCESC, Florianópolis - SC, usando-se fórmula estatística de população finita, com 90% de confiança e 70% de desvio padrão. Os questionários foram aplicados pessoalmente. As conclusões foram que, na maioria das empresas pesquisadas, não está presente a visão de estrutura de capital. Os empresários atuam de acordo com as possibilidades, no momento dos acontecimentos dos fatos, utilizando os recursos que têm com maior disponibilidade e facilidade de captação, o que nem sempre se mostra a melhor opção. As empresas pesquisadas mostram que os recursos de capital de giro são provenientes, em 46,7% dos casos, de capital de terceiros a uma taxa média de 3,4%, quando poderiam pagar para captar recursos para investimentos uma taxa média de 1,9%.The growth of micro and small businesses in the Brazilian economy is unquestionable.However, worrying factor is the high leveI of mortality rate of these businesses. lnthe year of 2004, SEBRAE (Brazilian Support Service to Micro and Small Businessespresented the resu/t of survey in which 42% of the entrepreneurs pointed the lack ofworking capital as the cause of difficu/ties and c/osing down

  1. Genetic divergence between populations of the stingless bee uruçu amarela (Melipona rufiventris group, Hymenoptera, Meliponini: is there a new Melipona species in the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Garcia Tavares

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Allozyme, microsatellite and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD molecular markers were used to investigate the within and between population genetic variability and between population genetic differentiation of the Brazilian stingless bee uruçu amarela (nominally Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier, 1836 present in savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais (MG. We found low levels of within population variability, although there were a large number of private alleles that specifically characterized these populations. The F ST values indicated a high level of genetic diversity between populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA showed a high degree of population differentiation between the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats, confirmed by population pairwise F ST data. Principal coordinates analysis and unweighted pair-group method using an arithmetic average (UPGMA dendrograms also confirmed that in Minas Gerais the savanna populations (M. rufiventris were genetically distinct from those present in the Atlantic forest (M. mondury. In addition, populations from locations near the towns of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas were genetically different from those collected in other localities in the savanna. Our data indicate that populations of uruçu amarela found in the savanna and Atlantic forest habitats of Minas Gerais state should be treated separately for conservation purposes and that special attention should be given to the populations found in the region of Dom Bosco and Brasilândia de Minas until their taxonomic status is clarified.

  2. Capital Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOCHEN

    2005-01-01

    On November 15, 2004, Wang Jirong, vice director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), led a team of officials to the top floor of the CCTV tower in western Beijing. They were there to look at the city's boiler chimneys and identify those belching black-smoke. Under the blue sky, the visibility was extremely good, at around 30 kilometers. But when Wang's eyes shifted to the west, he coul not help noticing a massive smoke cap,

  3. Capital Bancário e Crédito no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Takuo Yoshida Junior

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between bank capital and lending in the Brazilian market from 2003 to 2012, by adapting the methodology used by Berrospide and Edge (2010. Initially, we estimate a long-term target capital, actively managed by each bank, and then we compute the banks’ capital surpluses. In a second step, we investigate whether this capital surplus is related to the change in non-earmarked credit using panel data regressions. The results show a positive relationship between the change in loans and the capital surplus, stronger in the second part of the sample period (after September/2008, but yet economically modest, contradicting the assumption of constant leverage. Similar results are obtained using direct observable accounting indicators of bank capital. There is no significant relationship between capital and credit growth in governmental banks.

  4. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  5. Financing working capital

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Popengă; Mirela Popescu

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some particularities regarding the following aspects: what is working capital; shows alternative net working capital financing strategies, ranging from the most to least risky; also some sources of short-term finance

  6. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    Within current research on social capital, a gap exists between political history analyses at the macro level and classical, sociological analyses at the meso and micro levels. Following up on  earlier work, the main purpose of this paper is to mediate between the two conflicting stances...... represented by Putnam and Portes. The paper raises the following question: Is it possible to detect the historical driving forces behind the building of both beneficial and harmful social capital? Driving forces are defined as structural determinants, which change human organization at all levels. The...... hypothesis is that three forms of capital have the potential to act as driving forces: social capital, cultural capital and physical capital, the latter operationaliz­ed as buildings. A new concept, triad of capital, is introduced to analyze the interrelationship between these three forms of capital. A triad...

  7. 31 CFR 223.7 - Investment of capital and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Investment of capital and assets. 223.7 Section 223.7 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... WITH THE UNITED STATES § 223.7 Investment of capital and assets. The cash capital and other funds...

  8. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  9. In-use product stocks link manufactured capital to natural capital

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wei-Qiang; Graedel, T. E.

    2015-01-01

    The determination of long-term in-use stocks of manufactured products can complement existing monetary approaches to measuring manufactured capital and helps to explore the linkage between manufactured capital and natural capital in terms of materials transfer. The development of new products, substitution among products, and the historical evolution of in-use product stocks in the United States reveal the increase in variety, improvement in quality, and growth in quantity of US manufactured ...

  10. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  11. Os efeitos das diferentes formas de capital no desempenho escolar: um estudo à luz de Bourdieu e de Coleman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Bonamino

    2010-01-01

    different forms of capital and their familial mobilization on the reading performance of Brazilian students who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA held in 2000. The data was analyzed using models of linear regression and the analysis of conglomerates. The results suggest that the variables related to the different types of capital have significant effects on school performance, especially social capital and its mobilization by the network of family support.

  12. Measuring Irish capital

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Mary J.

    2007-01-01

    Irish National Income and Expenditure Accounts do not contain information on capital stocks or capital services estimation. Estimates of the national capital stock and the depreciation of its fixed assets are basic macroeconomic aggregates and are integral components for many modelling exercises. This paper will present a detailed asset-level analysis of the stocks and depreciation of Irish fixed assets and the capital formation flows used to derive them. It will apply an improved perpetual i...

  13. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  14. Institutions, Capital, and Growth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The international development community has encouraged investment in physical and human capital as a precursor to economic progress. Recent evidence shows, however, that increases in capital do not always lead to increases in output. We develop a growth model where the allocation and productivity of capital depends on a country's institutions. We find that increases in physical and human capital lead to output growth only in countries with good institutions. In countries with bad institutions...

  15. Human Capital Persistence and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rudi; Ferraz, Claudio; Soares, Rodrigo R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of human capital persistence in explaining long-term development. We exploit variation induced by a state-sponsored settlement policy that attracted a pool of immigrants with higher levels of schooling to particular regions of Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th century. We show that municipalities that received settlements experienced increases in schooling that persisted over time. One century after the policy, localities that received state-sponsored settlem...

  16. CONTROLS ON CAPITAL MOVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, capital mobility was encouraged across national borders, because it was considered that such capital can seek the highest rate of return. However, recent global financial developments have shown that, due to contagion, the mobility of capital flows can cause severe financial imbalances. In the context of globalization, liberalization or maintaining controls on capital flows is a current topic, more debated by economists. This topic is very important, due to the impact of liberalization decision or maintaining controls on capital flows has on the overall macroeconomic framework. The paper analyzes the relationship between capital flows’ control and the income per capita, the degree of central bank independence, democracy country, the foreign exchange regime. Also, it analyzes the effectiveness in time of capital controls, taking account of financial system development and potential risks of instability. Over time, it was observed that a period in which they have imposed restrictions on capital movements was followed by a removal of such restrictions, and vice versa. Cyclic change of capital movements regime corresponds to the cyclic evolution of the global economy. Full capital account liberalization led to the emergence of currency and financial crises, so that the idea of maintaining controls on capital is not rejected by economists. After a full liberalization of capital flows, there is a change in the mentality of an increasing number of economists, who support the maintenance of controls, in a gradual liberalization.

  17. Four Books on Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, W.

    2009-01-01

    Christoph Deutschmann Kapitalistische Dynamik: Eine gesellschaftstheoretische Perspektive. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag, 2008 Geoffrey Ingham Capitalism. Oxford, Polity, 2008 John McMurtry The Cancer Stage of Capitalism. London, Pluto, 1999 Frederic L. Pryor The Future of U.S. Capitalism. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002

  18. Trade and Capital Flows: A Financial Frictions Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero; Antras, Pol

    2007-01-01

    The classical Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell paradigm states that trade and capital mobility are substitutes, in the sense that trade integration reduces the incentives for capital to flow to capital-scarce countries. In this paper we show that in a world with heterogeneous financial development, the classic conclusion does not hold. In particular, in less financially developed economies (South), trade and capital mobility are complements. Within a dynamic framework, the complementarity carries over...

  19. Revenue and Welfare Implications for a Capital Gains Tax Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Hendershott, Patric H.; Eric Toder; Yunhi Won

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model to simulate both the effects of a preferential capital-gains tax rate on total income tax revenues and the effects of a revenue-neutral substitution between a capital gains preference and marginal income tax rates on economic efficiency and the distribution of income. In the simulations, a capital gains preference increases efficiency by reducing tax distortions between untaxed assets (household and state and local capital) and taxable business sect...

  20. The determinants of capital structure: Some evidence from banks

    OpenAIRE

    Heider, Florian; Gropp, Reint

    2008-01-01

    This paper documents that standard cross-sectional determinants of firm leverage also apply to the capital structure of large banks in the United States and Europe. We find a remarkable consistency in sign, significance and economic magnitude. Like non-financial firms, banks appear to have stable capital structures at levels that are specific to each individual bank. The results suggest that capital requirements may only be of second-order importance for banks’ capital structures and confirm ...

  1. Analysis of nursing home capital reimbursement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boerstler, Heidi; Carlough, Tom; Schlenker, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    An increasing number of States are using a fair-rental approach for reimbursement of nursing home capital costs. In this study, two variants of the fair-rental capital-reimbursement approach are compared with the traditional cost-based approach in terms of after-tax cash flow to the investor, cost to the State, and rate of return to investor. Simulation models were developed to examine the effects of each capital-reimbursement approach both at specific points in time and over various periods ...

  2. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  3. Ocorrência de vírus em batata em sete estados do Brasil Virus occurrence in potatoes in seven Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Ávila

    2009-12-01

    do teste de detecção por ELISA revelou a possibilidade de infecção latente por PVY em níveis relevantes na cultivar Asterix.Viruses are responsible for the quick degeneration of potato seed-tubers. In the tropics, where aphid vectors are constantly present and the structure of virus populations is dynamic, the disease pressure is enormous. Therefore, the knowledge of such dynamics is definitely an extremely valuable tool towards the sustainability of the national potato production. In this study, we report a broad survey of virus occurrence in potato, in Brazil. In addition, we studied the distribution of the Potato virus Y (PVY strains associated with mosaic symptoms on potatoes. In 2005 and 2006, we visited potato fields in seven Brazilian States. We collected leaves of symptomatic plants (1,256 samples and also at random (360 samples. In addition, in several fields a visual assessment was carried out to estimate mosaic and leafroll incidence. From the 1,256 samples with symptoms, 840 tested serologically were positive to PVY (66.9%, 128 to PLRV (10.2%, 79 to PVS (6.3%, and none to PVX. Serology using DAS-ELISA and also biological and RT-PCR tests revealed an almost exclusive occurrence of the PVY necrotic strain, predominantly the necrotic subgroup PVY NTN. The analysis of a sub-sample representing all surveyed Counties indicated that the necrotic strain was universally present. Cultivars Asterix, Atlantic, Agata, Achat, Baronesa, Baraka, Bintje, Caesar, Cupido, Marijke, Monalisa, Panda, and Vivaldi, although displaying different susceptibility levels, were all infected by PVY NTN. The analysis of leaves collected at random showed similar results. PLRV was identified in four States (Minas Gerais, Bahia, Paraná, and Santa Catarina, while PVS was present in the State of São Paulo as well. PVX was found in only one sample collected at random in Serra do Salitre, State of Minas Gerais. The contrast between visual evaluation and the results of the detection test

  4. Family and Landed Property Relations Regarded As a Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllopoulos, Nikolaos

    2006-01-01

    Putnam states that ‘the most fundamental form of social capital is the family.’ Bourdieu sees the family as the main site of accumulation and transmission of social capital, while Newton states that ‘the family may also be the most fundamental source of social capital.’ Social capital literature tends to emphasize the role of families in constructing social capital, be this within family networks or beyond in community networks. This paper aims at identifying ways to link exclusive fo...

  5. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  6. The Budgetary Repercussions of Capital Convictions

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Control of public spending and revenues is increasingly being left to states and localities. In order to understand the consequences of such a movement on the distribution of social spending, it is necessary to understand how fiscal distress will affect state and local budgets. This paper exploits the large and unexpected negative shock to county budgets imposed by the presence of capital crime trials, first to understand the real incidence of the cost of capital convictions, and second to un...

  7. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu T.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.

  8. Analysis of capital spending and capital financing among large US nonprofit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing. PMID:22515040

  9. "Estamos reorganizando o capitalismo brasileiro" "We are reorganizing brazilian capitalism"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasilio Sallum Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Em entrevista com o sociólogo Brasilio Sallum Jr. o presidente Fernando Henrique Cardoso discute aspectos centrais do seu governo, com destaque para questões relativas à política econômica e à integração latino-americana. As conseqüências políticas e culturais da crescente diferenciação da sociedade brasileira e dos seus modos de inserção no campo internacional também são discutidas.In an interview with sociologist Brasilio Sallum Jr., President Fernando Henrique Cardoso discusses central features of his Administration, mainly concerning points of economic policy and of Latino-american integration. Also are discussed the political and cultural consequences of the country's growing social differentiation and of its modes of inclusion in the international field.

  10. "Estamos reorganizando o capitalismo brasileiro" "We are reorganizing brazilian capitalism"

    OpenAIRE

    Brasilio Sallum Jr

    1997-01-01

    Em entrevista com o sociólogo Brasilio Sallum Jr. o presidente Fernando Henrique Cardoso discute aspectos centrais do seu governo, com destaque para questões relativas à política econômica e à integração latino-americana. As conseqüências políticas e culturais da crescente diferenciação da sociedade brasileira e dos seus modos de inserção no campo internacional também são discutidas.In an interview with sociologist Brasilio Sallum Jr., President Fernando Henrique Cardoso discusses central fea...

  11. INTERPRETING OVERALL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL CAPITAL, HUMAN CAPITAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...

  12. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  13. CAPITAL FLOWS AND THEIR SECTORAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.

  14. Mortality from epilepsy: Brazil (capitals), 1980-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide data about age, gender, time and space variation by means of mortality statistics from epilepsy in Brazil. METHOD: It was used demographic and mortality data obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health, regarding Brazil (capitals) over the calendar years 1980-2007. For the description of the data it was used Microsoft Office Excel 2007 spreadsheet, and figuring of trends by linear regression, GraphPad Prism 5.0. RESULTS: There is a tendency to elderly mortality, and m...

  15. Human Capital, Bankruptcy and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk; Richard Stanton; Josef Zechner

    2007-01-01

    We derive a firm's optimal capital structure and managerial compensation contract when employees are averse to bearing their own human capital risk, while equity holders can diversify this risk away. In the presence of corporate taxes, our model delivers optimal debt levels consistent with those observed in practice. It also makes a number of predictions for the cross-sectional distribution of firm leverage. Consistent with existing empirical evidence, it implies persistent idiosyncratic diff...

  16. Capital Utilization and Capital Accumulation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Matthew D.

    1986-01-01

    A firm may acquire additional capital input by purchasing new capital or by increasing the utilization of its current capital. The margin between capita accumulation and capital utilization is studied in a model of dynamic factor demand where the firm chooses capital, labor, and their rates of utilization. A direct measure of capital utilization -- the work week of capital -- is incorporated into the theory and estimates. The methodology advocated by Hansen and Singleton (1982) is used to obt...

  17. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  18. Evaluation of Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S. Maia Clemente

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines capital requirement for financial institutions in order to cover market risk stemming from exposure to foreign currencies. The models examined belong to two groups according to the approach involved: standardized and internal models. In the first group, we study the Basel model and the model adopted by the Brazilian legislation. In the second group, we consider the models based on the concept of value at risk (VaR. We analyze the single and the double-window historical model, the exponential smoothing model (EWMA and a hybrid approach that combines features of both models. The results suggest that the Basel model is inadequate to the Brazilian market, exhibiting a large number of exceptions. The model of the Brazilian legislation has no exceptions, though generating higher capital requirements than other internal models based on VaR. In general, VaR-based models perform better and result in less capital allocation than the standardized approach model applied in Brazil.

  19. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  20. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling. Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index, using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8.RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities

  2. 8 April 2011 - Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology A. Mercadante Oliva signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; visiting LHC superconducting magnet test hall with J.M. Jimenez.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    8 April 2011 - Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology A. Mercadante Oliva signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; visiting LHC superconducting magnet test hall with J.M. Jimenez.

  3. Prevalence of precancerous skin lesions and non-melanoma skin cancer in Japanese-Brazilians in Bauru, São Paulo State, Brazil Prevalência de lesões pré-neoplásicas e tumores cutâneos não melanomas em nipo-brasileiros residentes na cidade de Bauru, São Paulo, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Ishioka; Sílvio Alencar Marques; Amélia Toyomi Hirai; Mariangela E. A. Marques; Sérgio Henrique Hirata; Sérgio Yamada

    2009-01-01

    Precancerous lesions and skin cancer are infrequent in Asians, and have received little documentation in the literature. Brazil has the world's largest contingent of Japanese immigrants and their descendants, and 70% live in the State of São Paulo. The prevalence of such skin lesions in Japanese-Brazilians is unknown. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancer in first and second-generation Japanese-Brazilians over 30 years of age, without misc...

  4. Helminthological records of six-banded armadillos Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Patos county, Paraíba state, including new morphological data on Trichohelix tuberculata (Parona and Stossich, 1901) Ortlepp, 1922 and proposal of Hadrostrongylus ransomi nov. comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, E G L; Araújo de Lima, R C; Tebaldi, J H; Athayde, A C R; Nascimento, A A

    2009-05-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal helminthfauna composition of six-banded armadillos from the Brazilian semi-arid region. Gastrointestinal contents of six road-killed adult animals from Patos County, Paraíba State, were analyzed. Six species of nematodes, comprising five genera and four families, were recovered from the analyzed animals. New morphological data on Trichohelix tuberculata is given, along with a new taxonomical proposal for Hadrostrongylus ransomi (Travassos, 1935) n. comb. This is the first record for parasitic helminths in this host from the Brazilian semi-arid. PMID:19675948

  5. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  6. Employment generation in Brazilian coffee regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, Flavia M. M.; Joaquim J. M. Guilhoto; Imori, Denise; Sakon, Fernando M.; Camargo, Fernanda S.; Vegro, Celso L. R.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the specific characteristics of coffee production on each of the main Brazilian states producers of arabica (Coffea arabica) and robusta coffee (Coffea canephora), a better understanding of the structural links between production and industrialization of coffee on those states and the national economy can provide subsides for implementation of public policies, essential to plan the coffee production and increase the sector competitiveness. Therefore, this study analyzed the employment ...

  7. Capital mobility. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (i...

  8. Development and Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Fafchamps, Marcel

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines social capital and its relation with economic development. We focus on the role that interpersonal relationships play in social exchange, whether through the market or through the provision of public goods. By facilitating search and trust, social capital can increase the efficiency of social exchange where formal institutions are weak. But the benefits from social capital are likely to be unequally distributed. Given these features, documenting empirically the benefits of...

  9. Determinants of Soil Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Ekbom, Anders

    2008-01-01

    This paper combines knowledge from soil science and economics to estimate economic determinants of soil capital. Explaining soil capital facilitates a better understanding of constraints and opportunities for increased agricultural production and reduced land degradation. This study builds on an unusually rich data set that combines data on soil capital (represented by chemical and physical properties) and economic data on household characteristics, labor supply, crop allocation, and conserva...

  10. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  11. Human capital and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente, Ángel de la

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the empirical literature on human capital and productivity and summarizes the results of my own work on the subject. On balance, the available evidence suggests that investment in education has a positive, significant and sizable effect on productivity growth. According to my estimates, moreover, the social returns to investment in human capital are higher than those on physical capital in most EU countries and in many regions of Spain.

  12. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  13. Intangible Capital Accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Mihalache Arsenie-Samoil

    2010-01-01

    The new economy based on globalization is increasingly important, which shows the decisive role played by intangible capital in achieving the competitive advantage of companies. However, this intangible capital is the hidden side of a company's value, as it represents the company's intangible resources, which cannot be measured by the financial metrics used to measure tangible resources. Given the functional importance of intangible capital, several models several models were proposed by the ...

  14. Human Capital and Retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Alders, P.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by learning-by-doing. The human capital of an employee is subject to depreciation when knowledge of technologies becomes obsolete. After a shock in technology, the worker depreciates on his human capi...

  15. Institutions and Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Lerner, Josh; Tåg, Joacim

    2012-01-01

    We survey the literature on venture capital and institutions and present a case study comparing the development of the venture capital market in the US to Sweden. Our literature survey underscores that the legal environment, financial market development, the tax system, labor market regulations, and public spending on research and development correlates with venture capital activities across countries. Our case study suggests these institutional differences led to the later development of an ...

  16. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose ...... to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  17. Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uwem J. Ituen; Imoh Johnson; Ndifreke Nyah

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing flood prone areas in Uyo Capital City with a view to suggesting control measures. It used 2008 NigerSat imagery, soil texture, rainfall, and road network data of Uyo. With Multi-criteria evaluation technique, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and single output map algebra were employed to generate flood hazard map of Uyo. The DEM was used to generate contours, terrain elevation, slope, a...

  18. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  19. Does social capital determine health? Evidence from eight transition countries

    OpenAIRE

    d'Hombres, Beatrice; Rocco, Lorenzo; Suhrcke, Marc; McKee, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This paper starts from an empirical assessment of different dimensions of social capital in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The level of social capital is lower in CEE-CIS countries compared to other countries in Europe and beyond. We then use a unique data source to carefully investigate the impact of social capital on individual self-reported health for eight countries from the Commonwealth of Independent States ...

  20. Énvironmental Economics and Venture Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Emanuel Shachmurove; Yochanan Shachmurove

    2010-01-01

    What are the effects of macroeconomic variables on venture-backed capital investment in environmentally friendly industries in the United States? What is the significance of location in determining both the number of deals and amount of investment by venture capital in the Clean-tech industry? The Clean-tech sector encompasses those firms that actively incorporate environmental concerns into their products and services. The sector contains environmentally progressive companies from many diffe...

  1. The estimation of the commercial capital - goodwill

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia ANTONESCU; Daniela SIMINICA

    2008-01-01

    The notion of commercial capital is used in present bookkeeping law in Romania and it represents the part from the commercial capital that is not mentioned in other elements of patrimony, but which take part at the maintenance or the development of the unity as: the customers, the commercial good custom, the reputation, outlets. For the evaluation of the commercial fund must be taken into account the fact that the requests stated in the international standards of applicable bookkeeping, the s...

  2. O Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro e as propostas de integração das comunidades indígenas no estado nacional Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute and suggestions for the integration of native people communities into the brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Tadeu Mota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No século XIX, a construção do Estado nacional foi levada adiante pela eficácia da persuasão ou pela força da guerra. A expansão agro-pastoril, em territórios ainda não conquistados aos índios, fez parte dessa construção. Novas áreas foram ocupadas, novos territórios incorporados, e o Estado nacional trabalhou no sentido de demarcar essas novas fronteiras, fazendo-se presente nesses territórios. A ocupação de territórios indígenas, a modernização e as idéias de europeização foram praticas que marcaram a sociedade nacional no século XIX. Dessa forma, as populações indígenas tornavam-se um obstáculo para a consolidação desse Estado em expansão. Muitas foram as formulações sobre como resolver a questão e várias delas foram gestadas no Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro e veiculadas pela Revista do IHGB, desde a sua fundação. Entendemos que muitas dessas formas de pensamento imprimiam a direção a ser seguida na elaboração das políticas indigenistas do Império e das províncias, e que a RIHGB foi um importante meio de divulgação dessas idéias por todo o Brasil. Assim, propomo-nos a verificar o rol de sugestões que os freqüentadores das reuniões do IHGB elaboraram e discutiram como sendo a solução para a “questão indígena”, nessa segunda metade do século XIX, que foram impressas nas paginas da Revista do IHGB, da sua fundação até 1889.In the nineteenth century, the national state was built both through persuasion and war. The agro-pastoral expansion into territories not yet taken from the Indians is part of this construction, when new areas and territories were occupied and incorporated into the agricultural frontier and the national state marked these new frontiers by its institutional presence. The nineteenth-century Brazilian society was marked by native people’s territory occupation by the agricultural frontier, by modernization and Europe-oriented ideas. Thus the native

  3. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  4. PANDORA - Survey of Brazilian cardiologists about cholesterol reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Raul D.; Spósito Andrei C.; Santos José Ernesto dos; Fonseca Francisco H.; Moriguchi Emílio H; Martinez Tania L. R.; Armaganijam Dikran; Timerman Sérgio; Timerman Ari; Nicolau José C.; Ramires José A. F.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report about a group of physicians' understanding of the recommendations of the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, and about the state of the art of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Through the use of a questionnaire on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis prevention, and recommendations for lipid targets established by the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, 746 physicians, 98% cardiologists, were evaluated. RESULTS:Eight...

  5. Capital-intensive reactors in capital-short countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most prominent of the capital-short countries is probably the United States, at least when it comes to building new electrical generating capacity. Investors are disenchanted with nuclear power after a number of regulatory fiascos. At a cost of $3000 to $5000 per kilowatt, utilities need to raise too much capital to build large nuclear power plants. The cost of smaller plants relate more directly to the financial ability of the utility to sustain the risk of construction. Through the benefits of standardization and shorter lead time will be able to satisfy the problems arising from fluctuations in demand and could provide incremental power in smaller quantities so that utilities are not confronted with rate shock issues, regulatory and political reassessments, and the like. New methods of financing power plants in developing countries, structural changes in financial contracts, and increased government support to reassure investors should improve the chances that nuclear power remains a viable option

  6. Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane A. Cardoso; Ilan Goldfajn

    1998-01-01

    This paper creates an index of capital controls to analyze the determinants of capital flows to Brazil, accounting for the endogeneity of capital controls by considering a government that sets controls in response to capital flows. It finds that the government reacts strongly to capital flows by increasing controls on inflows during booms and relaxing them in moments of distress. The paper estimates a vector autoregression with capital flows, controls, and interest differentials. It shows tha...

  7. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  8. Human Capital and Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Alders

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  9. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individual variability of brain function with both biological and cultural origins. Based on this approach, Brazilian studies on aphasic children and illiterate aphasic persons were disseminated internationally. In the 1970s, cognitive neuropsychology began in England, highlighting dysfunctions in reading and writing processes. The characteristics of writing systems within each language became relevant for the manifestations of acquired dyslexia. Brazilian studies showed deficits in Portuguese and Japanese writing caused by brain lesions. During this scientific journey, scientific societies and postgraduate programs in Brazil were created to facilitate exchanges and communication among young researchers. By the end of the last century and in the early 2000s, the growth of the neuropsychology of aging raised awareness of the complexity of sociocultural factors, not only on language research but also according to the level of education, frequency of reading and writing habits, school type, and interactions among these factors and biological factors, especially between the level of education and age. From this historical standpoint, we outline future directions and perspectives in the field of Brazilian neuropsychology.

  10. CESSÃO DE CRÉDITO E RESTRIÇÃO DE CAPITAL: UM ESTUDO COM BANCOS BRASILEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Fernandes Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between capital restriction and credit assignment operations carried out by Brazilian banks. The analysis period, between June 2004 and June 2009 - when credit assignments increased almost by 20 times, in face of a 162% growth in credit volume - includes the 2008/2009 financial crisis, an exogenous shock to Brazilian financial system during which financial institutions faced difficulties due to the reduction in fund raising by means of free and inter-bank deposits. This also allows observing whether capital restriction effects on credit assignment are higher during financial crises. The results indicate that an increase in capital restriction – own or third parties’ – is related to the expansion of credit assignment operations of Brazilian banks

  11. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal, and......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises the...

  12. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all t...... social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital.......The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all the...

  13. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s. PMID:2122167

  14. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  15. Christianity between Capitalism and Socialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bogešić

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is in an unsustainable state. There is a crisis in our political systems, economies, finances and, what is worse, in our morals and value standards. On one side, American capitalism is burdened with the struggle for profit and social justice, and on the other, Europe is burdened with a grand unifying project as a way of building stability and security. Where is the Christian church in all of this? What does Christianity offer? Is there a Christian socialism? Regardless of how the system is named – be it capitalism, socialism or something else - only a system without the basic objective of profit maximization, one that does not consume resources to the point of their exhaustion, beyond its borders, one which is not based on greed, only considering its own well-being, and that does not blame others for its mistakes, but the one that is aware of its neighbor, only that one has a future.

  16. Human capital in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development

  17. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  18. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  19. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  20. Autumn,the Autumn of the Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    The ode "To Autumn" written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word "climax" means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism: although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.

  1. Autumn,the Autumn of the Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The ode “To Autumn” written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word“climax”means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism:although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.

  2. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318

  3. Inter Local Government Capital Budget Execution Comparism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Olurankinse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Unrealistic capital budgeting has long been the bane of social economic development in Nigeria and of course, at the local government level. Local governments are established with specific functions to assist the state and federal government to bring about effective rural development and good governance at the grassroots level. Approach: Both fiscal and physical evaluation of the performances of this tier of government in ondo state reveals a low level of performance both in terms of physical development and provision of social welfare services require to enhance the quality of life at the grassroots level. Those responsible for the management of funds at this level ascribed their poor performances to underfunding. This study therefore aims at finding out if truly this claim of underfunding is actually the cause of their poor performance. The study will look at the total capital budget allocation to some selected local governments visa is their actual spending. A sample of nine local governments was selected using random sampling technique based on their settlement pattern. Results: A comparative analysis was done to determine which local government has the largest rate of capital budget execution. The result shows that the local government with the least capital allocation has the largest rate of capital budget execution. Conclusion: The study concludes that the performance of any local government is not a function of availability of huge capital funds but ability to utilize the scarce resources to achieve optimum result.

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  5. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  6. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla; Werneck Marcos Azeredo; Lucas Simone; Abreu Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the profess...

  7. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalizat...

  8. The capital budgeting manual

    OpenAIRE

    Segelod, Esbjörn

    1995-01-01

    There has been very many postal surveys of capital budgeting practice, but almost no studies of the written routines that fix the practice of those groups that use a capital budgeting manual. This article fills this vacuum by describing and analysing the capital budgeting manuals used by major Swedish groups, most of whom are multinationals. Changes in the manuals during the last 30 years are studied using hvo earlier Swedish studies of manuals from the 60’s and 70’s. Comparisons are made wit...

  9. Capital Humano y Productividad

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel de la Fuente

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo contiene un breve panorama de la literatura empírica sobre capital humano y productividad y resume los resultados de mi propio trabajo sobre el tema. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que la inversión en educación tiene un efecto positivo, significativo y cuantitativamente importante sobre el crecimiento de la productividad. De acuerdo con mis estimaciones, además, la rentabilidad social de la inversión en capital humano es mayor que la del capital físico en la mayor p...

  10. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  11. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  12. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  13. Determinants of Capital Structure: A Cross-Country Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, James

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a cross-country comparison of capital structure; specifically its firm level determinants and how these fluctuate between both Japan and the United States to test the efficacy of competing capital structure theories within contrasting institutional traditions. The purpose of the study is to bring to light the possible effect of such institutional differences on the capital structure decision for financial managers. I utilize a pre-crisis sample of 292 firms, 147 from Japan and 1...

  14. On capital gain taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Miglo

    2008-01-01

    This note provides an explanation for why tax rates on capital gains are usually lower than ordinary income tax rates based on manager's agency problem related to "empire-building" or the underinvestment problem.

  15. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  16. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...... of social divisions. This leads to a discussion of four core questions: first, are there signs of a strong individualism and, correspondingly, a weak social structuring of lifestyles? The study does not find support for this view. Second, does classical highbrow culture play a central role as a marker...

  17. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  18. Leveraging health capital at the workplace: an examination of health reporting behavior among Latino immigrant restaurant workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the choices made by a sample of Latino immigrant restaurant workers in regard to their health management, particularly in response to illness and injury. I draw on 33 interviews with kitchen staff employed in the mainstream restaurant industry in San Jose, California, and Houston, Texas, in 2006 and 2007. I argue that workers must consider complex power relationships at work in weighing the advantages of calling in sick, using protective equipment, seeking medical care, or filing a workers' compensation claim. These decisions implicate direct and opportunity costs, such as risk of job loss and missed opportunities for advancement. Workers consequently leverage their health capital to meet their economic needs, to assert their autonomy at the workplace, and to ultimately reject the stigma of illness and injury. PMID:23017892

  19. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confidential data on the (internal) leverage of foreign affiliates of US multinationals, we find that thin capitalization rules affect multinational firm capital structure in a significant way. Specifically, restri...

  20. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  1. Cultural capital and demand

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Ateca - Amestoy

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we develop a theoretical model that investigates the demand for cultural goods under the assumption of cultural capital and rational addiction. We also consider the effect of a policy intervention in order to raise the initial stock of cultural capital of a given individual, both on individual demand and on supply. Finally, we discuss on the effectiveness of such policies by translating our model to a dynamic framework.

  2. Religion, Science and Capitalisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rehbein, Boike

    2014-01-01

    This paper enquires into the relation between capitalism, religion and the philosophy of science. We would tend to suppose that there are only superficial and accidental links between them. A closer analysis reveals, however, that the epistemology of contemporary science is still based on a certain interpretation of Christianity and linked to a particular type of capitalism. Science developed after Galileo and Descartes aims at universal truth but was founded on the notion of the Christian ...

  3. Embodied human capital unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraku, Klajdi; Naqvi, Nadeem; Rexhepi, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Adam Smith (1776) devoted the first three chapters to the division of labor in his Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. This process, carried far enough, eventually results in a divergence between the distributions of supplies and demands of such horizontally-differentiated distinct types of human capital embodied in different persons, leading to the emergence of Embodied Human Capital Unemployment. We illustrate the relevance of this new concept of unemployment to the...

  4. Social Capital and Conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Alia Aghajanian

    2012-01-01

    Conflict is either caused by, or brings about, drastic changes in the underlying social relationships between members of a community involved in the conflict. The conflict literature has taken note, and a growing number of studies attempt to determine the relationship between conflict and social capital. Unfortunately, there are many problems that have plagued the social capital literature, and conflict studies have failed to address these. This paper aims to provide a critical analysis of th...

  5. Entrepreneurship and heterogeneous capital

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is ultimately about the arrangement of resources into productive activi-ties. Much of the entrepreneurship literature, however, has focused on the demand side of the market. While resource heterogeneity is a feature of many theories of the firm, such theories are not built on a systematic theory of capital. We show how the approach to capital developed by the Austrian school of economics provides a natural bridge between theory of entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm. ...

  6. Venture capital and internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvová, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a new and comprehensive dataset on worldwide investments to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. Our results from the perspectives of (i) venture capitalists, (ii) portfolio companies, (iii) portfolio companies' countries and (iv) pairs of venture capitalists' and portfolio companies' countries suggest that some factors, such as viable stock markets, boost investments by dome...

  7. Measuring Natural Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dariana Tani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of establishing a system of natural capital accounting. Natural capital is integral to the economy and yet it is routinely taken for granted because the goods and services it provides are generally freely available. The consequence is that without prices, these resources are not being allocated efficiently within the economy and opportunities for significant gains in well-being and the possibility of long-term future growth are being lo...

  8. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has

  9. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic ...... serve as institutional models for countries and regions aiming to increase their future level of social capital. More rigorous empirical research is needed within this field.......How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...

  10. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  11. Piketty's capital and social policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piachaud, David

    2014-12-01

    Piketty's Capital (2014) primarily describes and analyses changes in the distribution of wealth and annual incomes. This paper focuses on his policy proposals that make up Part Four of the book. Piketty defends the 'social state' but he discusses it largely in terms of distribution and redistribution between tax units. This neglects the important role of social policy in promoting recognition and redistribution of income and opportunities that is related to gender, race, disability and sexual orientation. Nor does Piketty consider inequalities in health which effect life-time incomes, nor the impact of housing policies on house prices and the distribution of wealth. It is argued that Piketty's approach to social security is simplistic and plays down the complexity of competing policy goals. On taxation, Piketty defends progressive taxation and proposes a global capital levy. The latter proposal runs into formidable problems in seeking global taxation in a world of nation states. Rather than seeking a policy that is, for the foreseeable future, wholly politically impractical, a case is made for less idealistic but more practical and urgent tax coordination between nations to address the widespread avoidance of taxation that large corporations and the very wealthy are now permitted - taxation on which the future of the social state depends. The importance of human and social capital, which are largely set aside by Piketty, are discussed. Finally,it is argued that his approach to policy is to describe trends and propose amelioration of growing inequality rather than to identify causes of the trends and propose policies that might address the causes. Nevertheless, the importance of his work in bringing issues of inequality to the fore, especially among economists, is recognized and applauded. PMID:25516347

  12. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to analyse the relationship between intellectual capital and financial capital using a case study. This makes it possible to discuss how intellectual capital is related to value creation with a degree of nuance that is absent from most statistical studies of relationships...... between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...... interviews. This allows the development of a nuanced account of the performance of intellectual capital. This account questions the universality of the linear model typically found in statistical studies. The model makes it possible to show how items of intellectual capital not only interact but also compete...

  13. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas; Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh;

    2014-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs' human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination, provide......, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international networking....... added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social capital...

  14. Christianity between Capitalism and Socialism

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Bogešić

    2010-01-01

    Modern society is in an unsustainable state. There is a crisis in our political systems, economies, finances and, what is worse, in our morals and value standards. On one side, American capitalism is burdened with the struggle for profit and social justice, and on the other, Europe is burdened with a grand unifying project as a way of building stability and security. Where is the Christian church in all of this? What does Christianity offer? Is there a Christian socialism? Regardless of how t...

  15. Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Patrick; Kvist, Jon; Marx, Paul;

    2015-01-01

    In this introduction to the special issue, we review the various debates spurred by Esping-Andersen’s The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Tracing its impact since the book’s publication in 1990, we show that Three Worlds continues to be the point of reference for comparative welfare state...... research. A content analysis of articles in the Journal of European Social Policy citing the book indicates that Three Worlds may even have obtained a paradigmatic status and that its claims and findings are often taken for granted rather than challenged. We conclude that Three Worlds has become a classic...

  16. Occupational Therapy in capitalist society and its professional insertion in the Brazilian Social Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldez Cavalcante Bezerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a reflection on the insertion of occupational therapists in the work social division, as professional employees, and the relation between this and the capitalist state, aiming to reflect on the process of formation and development of Occupational Therapy as a profession, within the context of changes in work practices and social policies. Documental and literature searches were carried out using a methodological approach based the Marxian and Marxist referential, aiming to reflect upon the subject matter under an ontological perspective. It was possible to identify that the insertion of Occupational Therapy, within the work social division, is configured as a result of a historical process dependent on forms of state intervention on the expressions of social issues and configuration of class struggle and on the conformation of state social policies in the context of monopolist capitalism. Within the Brazilian context, Occupational Therapy has undergone a process of professional reconfiguration marked by the incorporation of new professional attributions and areas, as a result of societal changes in the country.

  17. Trade Barriers on Capital Goods

    OpenAIRE

    VURAL, Gülfer

    2015-01-01

    Capital goods play a major role in international trade. World production of capital goods and R&D activity are highly concentrated in some developed countries. Most of the countries, especially developing countries import the most of their capital equipment from some leading capital goods exporter countries. Therefore technological advances can be transmitted across borders through trade in capital goods. In international trade countries face trade costs. Trade costs can be in the form of...

  18. Communication Capital Productivity: National Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Naumik Ekaterina G.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers suggestions for assessing communication capital productivity; the contradictions that affect the value of the communication efficiency of capital (the union of the agents of the market of communication services and products allows them to increase the communication capital productivity and to decrease communication capital productivity of competitors) are formulated; the dependence of productivity on the number of communication capital customers of the communication network...

  19. Social Capital Access and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Bauernschuster; Oliver Falck; Stephan Heblich

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of social capital access on entrepreneurship. Social capital helps entrepreneurs to overcome resource constraints. This is especially important in small communities where we often see a lack of market-oriented institutions such as venture capital firms. Entrepreneurs gain access to social capital via club memberships. Combining differences in the number of individual club memberships with differences in the importance of social capital across communities, we identify...

  20. The value of an intercâmbio: brazilian student mobility, bilateralism & international education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Spears

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s emergence in the global economy as a member of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa states has prompted the federal government to establish the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program (Science Without Borders in order to advance the country’s social capital and infrastructure in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math related disciplines and industries. Public and private investment in the Scientific Mobility Program has transformed the way in which Brazilian government, universities, and citizenry places value the intercâmbio (student exchange experience in the United States. STEM-related disciplines are now disproportionately funded versus social sciences, humanities, and fine arts fields. This development has altered the way in which student mobility in the United States is given worth and changed the trajectory of international education in Brazil. This research provides a conceptual analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program by using a critical political economy perspective. The essay conceptualizes the Science Without Borders initiative at global, national, and local levels. This research also explores what implications the bilateral U.S.-Brazil Educational Partnership may have on future policy, practice, and ultimately, funding of Brazilian student mobility. A emergência do Brasil no âmbito da economia mundializada como participante do BRIC (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul mobilizou o governo federal brasileiro a estabelecer um programa estatal de mobilidade acadêmica (Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras de modo a fazer avançar o capital social do país (general intellect e a infraestrutura em STEM (Ciência, Tecnologia, Engenharia e Matemática relacionadas à indústria. Investimentos públicos e privados no programa de mobilidade acadêmica transformaram o modo como o governo brasileiro e as universidades valorizam o intercâmbio estudantil com os Estados Unidos. As