WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian state capitals

  1. Human Capital As a Conditioning Factor to the Convergence Process Among the Brazilian States

    OpenAIRE

    Soukiazis, Elias; Cravo, Tulio

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the convergence process among the Brazilian states using different concepts of convergence and giving special attention to the role of human capital as the conditioning factor to convergence. Different measures of human capital are used in the estimation of the convergence equations and the results show that they play a significant role in explaining the improvement of the standards of living of the Brazilian population. An interesting finding is that different levels of h...

  2. Characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescents in a Brazilian state capital

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    Christine Baccarat de Godoy Martins

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this cross-sectional study was to describe the characteristics of violence suffered by high school adolescent students of public schools in a Brazilian state capital. The data correspond to 456 adolescent victims of violence, collected by means of a questionnaire and processed by Epi-Info, in which analyses considered a value of p<0.05. Most of the adolescents were girls and the variables (gender, age, relationship with aggressor, frequency/length of time of abuse, place of occurrence and its interruption varied according to the type of violence (bullying, physical, psychological, threat, sexual, witness, harassment, cyber-bullying, abandonment, neglect, child labor and parental alienation. The results represent the scene of violence suffered by adolescents, a reality that is poorly known and reported to official bodies, however, the descriptive data represent only part of the problem, highlighting the need to develop new studies to further investigate the various facets of the theme and to suggest new measures for facing violence in adolescence.

  3. Who seeks public treatment for substance abuse in Brazil? Results of a multicenter study involving four Brazilian state capitals

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    Sibele Faller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of alcohol and drug users who seek treatment at the Brazilian Unified Health System in Brazil.METHOD:A multicenter cross-sectional study involving five clinical and research centers located in four Brazilian state capitals was conducted with 740 in- and outpatients. The only exclusion criterion was the presence of neurological or severe psychiatric symptoms at the moment of the interview. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI-6 and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST were used to assess the severity of substance use and the problems related.RESULTS: There were significantly more men than women in the sample; mean age was 36 years. The drug most frequently used at all sites was alcohol (78%, followed by cocaine/crack (51%. Alcohol was the drug that most commonly motivated treatment seeking, at all centers. ASI-6 Summary Scores for Recent Functioning (SS-Rs were quite similar among centers. SS-Rs were compared between users who had never received treatment for psychoactive substance abuse (n = 265, 36.1% and those who had already been treated at one or more occasions (n = 470, 63.9%. This analysis revealed significant differences between the groups in the drug, psychiatric symptoms, legal, and family/social problems areas (p < 0.05.CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm previous evidence suggesting that the management of patients seeking drug abuse treatment should take several different aspects into consideration, e.g., education, employment, and family relationships, which often appear as areas of concern for these individuals.

  4. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvania Caribé Andrade; Rafael Moreira Claro; Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal; Carlos Augusto Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year) from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews) were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence ...

  5. [Watching TV and eating habits: the results from 2006 to 2014 in Brazilian state capitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Gomes, Fernanda Mendes Dias; Alves, Marana Hauck; Huth, Yara Rubia; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to analyze trends in TV watching in Brazil and to identify the association between this habit and food consumption in the Brazilian adult population from 2006 to 2014. Data were obtained from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) for the years 2006 to 2014. The daily habit of watching TV and consumption of fruits, vegetables, beans, meat, milk, sodas, and/or sweetened beverages were analyzed over the period, and their association was investigated using regression models. The proportion of adults that reported watching more than three hours of TV per day did not vary significantly over the years, but these individuals showed declining consumption of healthy foods and increasing consumption of unhealthy foods. This situation was observed in both sexes and in all age and schooling brackets. The habit of watching TV is associated with unhealthy eating. PMID:27653195

  6. [Watching TV and eating habits: the results from 2006 to 2014 in Brazilian state capitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Gomes, Fernanda Mendes Dias; Alves, Marana Hauck; Huth, Yara Rubia; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2016-09-19

    The objectives were to analyze trends in TV watching in Brazil and to identify the association between this habit and food consumption in the Brazilian adult population from 2006 to 2014. Data were obtained from the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL) for the years 2006 to 2014. The daily habit of watching TV and consumption of fruits, vegetables, beans, meat, milk, sodas, and/or sweetened beverages were analyzed over the period, and their association was investigated using regression models. The proportion of adults that reported watching more than three hours of TV per day did not vary significantly over the years, but these individuals showed declining consumption of healthy foods and increasing consumption of unhealthy foods. This situation was observed in both sexes and in all age and schooling brackets. The habit of watching TV is associated with unhealthy eating.

  7. Clinical indicators of child development in the capitals of nine Brazilian states: the influence of regional cultural factors

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    André Laranjeira de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluating the interaction between mother or caregiver and infant through the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development and investigating whether local and cultural influences during infant development affect these clinical indicators. INTRODUCTION: The Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development was created in order to fully assess infants' development and the subjective relationship between the babies and their caregivers. The absence of two or more Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Developments suggests a possibly inadequate mental development. Given the continental size of Brazil and its accentuated cultural differences, one might question how trustworthy these indicators can be when applied to each of the geographical regions of the country. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with 737 infants from the capitals of 9 Brazilian states. The size of the initial sample population was based on a pilot study carried out in the cities of São Paulo and Brasília. The ages of children were grouped: 0-3 months, 4-7 months, 8-11 months and 12-18 months. The chi-square test was used together with analyses by the statistical software SPSS 13.0. RESULTS: Statistical analysis of results from the different municipalities against the total sample did not reveal any statistically significant differences. Municipalities represented were Belém (p=0.486, Brasília (p=0.371, Porto Alegre (p=0.987, Fortaleza (p=0.259, Recife (p=0.630, Salvador (0.370, São Paulo (p=0.238, Curitiba (p=0.870, and Rio de Janeiro (p= 0.06. DISCUSSION: Care for mental development should be considered a public health issue. Its evaluation and follow-up should be part of the already available mother-child assistance programs, which would then be considered to provide "full" care to children. CONCLUSIONS: Local habits and culture did not affect the results of the Clinical Indicators of Risks in Infant Development indicators. Clinical Indicators of

  8. Trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults in 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the annual evolution of the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population of the 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District from 2006 to 2012. METHODS: Annual interviews (around 54,000 per year from VIGITEL (Surveillance System of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases through Telephone Interviews were used. Self-reported weight and height were used to estimate body mass index and nutritional status. Prevalence estimates of overweight and obesity are presented according to gender, age and schooling and to each city. Linear regression model was used to evaluate the time trend of prevalence. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight in adults in the 27 cities monitored by VIGITEL increased from 43.2% (2006 to 51.0% (2012, with an annual increase rate of 1.37%. Prevalence of obesity increased from 11.6% to 17.4%, with an annual increase rate of 0.89%. The study showed a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of overweight in all cities, and for both genders, all age groups and all levels of schooling. Similar trends were also verified for obesity. CONCLUSIONS: If the trends verified from 2006 to 2012 are maintained, in ten years, around two-thirds of the adults in Brazilian state capitals will be overweight, and a quarter will be obese. This perspective requests urgent response from government and intersectoral actions to combat the obesogenic environment.

  9. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  10. Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection in Brazilian state capitals: comments from the data of the Information System of Notifiable Diseases

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    Helder Oliveira e Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the frequency of requests for serological testing for HIV infection in patients with Tuberculosis and the prevalence of such co-infection in Brazilian state capitals and in the Federal District (DF, between 2004 and 2006. Methods: It was a retrospective epidemiological survey based in the data of Brazil’s Information System of Notifiable Diseases (SINAN. The data were collected in August, 2008. In the studied period, there were notified in SINAN, 35,639 cases of Tuberculosis in 2004, 37,520 in 2005 and 34,439 in 2006, in all the 26 state capitals and the DF. The percentage of patients with known serological status and the percentage of patients with positive testing for HIV infection within the patients with Tuberculosis varied widely among the capitals and among the time periods assessed. Results: The municipalities of Rio Branco and Macapá (North region showed the worse coverage of serological testing for HIV infection, with a frequency of not screening above 86.5% in the three years of the study. The best HIV screening coverage occurred in Campo Grande (Center-West region and Curitiba (South region, with frequencies of not testing fewer than 20.5%. The frequency of Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection varied from 64.5% in Florianópolis (South region, in 2004 to 0% in Rio Branco (North region, in 2006. Conclusion: In the study, the regional disparities for HIV serological testing in patients with Tuberculosis were observed. In order to achieve the goals for HIV screening in all patients with Tuberculosis there shall be necessary some operational adjustments and a greater commitment in the implantation of public policies directed for these populations.

  11. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals

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    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.

  12. Políticas educacionais e desempenho escolar nas capitais brasileiras Educational policies and school performance in the Brazilian capitals of states

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    Fátima Alves

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho investiga a associação das políticas públicas sobre o desempenho das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras a partir dos dados relativos ao rendimento de alunos da 4ª série do ensino fundamental, aferidos pelo Sistema de Avaliação da Educação Básica nos anos 1999, 2001 e 2003. A investigação fez uso de modelos multiníveis de classificação cruzada para dar conta da relação entre o rendimento de alunos, redes de ensino e anos em que foi feita a avaliação, e implementou controles pelo nível socioeconômico dos alunos e pela composição social das redes de ensino. Os resultados apontam que as políticas educacionais associadas a melhor desempenho dos estudantes das redes de ensino das capitais brasileiras são aquelas relacionadas aos processos de escolha meritocrática de diretores, à autonomia financeira, à implementação de sistemas de avaliação, ao atendimento em educação infantil e à formação superior de docentes. Conseqüências para a formulação da agenda das políticas educacionais são apresentadas.On the basis of data from the Brazilian National Assessment of Basic Education, this paper investigates, in the set of schools attached to each local authority within the capital of Brazilian states, the association of educational policies and 4th grade students' school performances, during the period of 1999-2003. Multilevel cross-classified models were used in order to take into account the structure of the data (students' performance, set of schools and assessment years. Also, the analysis included statistical control for students' socioeconomic levels and for their social composition within the set of schools under the administration of each local authority. The results indicate that merit-based processes for appointing principals, financial autonomy of schools, external assessment of schools, offer of pre-schools' enrollments, and a higher percentage of teachers with more than a high school

  13. Suicide among young people in selected Brazilian State capitals Suicídio de jovens nas principais capitais do Brasil

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    Edinilsa Ramos de Souza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes suicide among young Brazilians (15-24 years old in nine metropolitan areas. Mortality data for 1979-1998 were obtained from the Mortality Information System of the Ministry of Health. External causes are the main causes of death among youth, and suicide is the sixth most frequent of these causes. The distribution is heterogeneous, varying according to the social stratum, specific age group, sex, and means used to commit suicide. All cities analyzed showed increased suicide rates from 1979 to 1998 (from 3.5 to 5.0 per 100,000 inhabitants 15-24 years old. Salvador and Rio de Janeiro had the lowest suicide rates, while Porto Alegre and Curitiba had the highest. The principal means used by youth to commit suicide were hanging, strangling, and suffocation (Porto Alegre, followed by firearms and explosives (Belo Horizonte.O presente estudo analisa o comportamento dos suicídios de jovens nas capitais das nove Regiões Metropolitanas brasileiras. Utiliza os dados do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM do Ministério da Saúde, na faixa etária de 15 a 24 anos, no período de 1979 a 1998. As externas são as principais causes de óbito de jovens e entre elas o suicídio ocupa a 6ª posição, com uma distribuição heterogênea. Sua incidência varia em função dos diferentes espaços sociais, das faixas etárias específicas, do sexo e dos meios utilizados. Para o conjunto das capitais observou-se uma certa elevação das taxas de suicídios nos anos analisados, correspondendo a 3,5 (em 1979, 3,4 (1985, 4,0 (1990 e a 5,0 (em 1998 por 100.000 habitantes de 15 a 24 anos. Salvador e Rio de Janeiro tiveram as menores taxas de suicídio; em contrapartida, Porto Alegre e Curitiba apresentaram as maiores taxas. Os principais meios utilizados para perpetrar tais mortes foram o enforcamento, estrangulamento e sufocação, sobretudo em Porto Alegre, e a utilização de armas de fogo e explosivos, ressaltando-se sua utilização em

  14. KEY FACTORS IN WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT IN THE BRAZILIAN MARKET

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    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted in corporate finance regarding long-term investment and financing decisions. However, short-term asset investments play a significant role in the balance sheet of companies. Moreover, financial managers dedicate significantamounts of time and effort to the subject of working capital management, balancing current assets and liabilities. This paper provides insights regarding the key factors of working capital management by exploring the internal variables of a number of companies. This study used data from 2,976 Brazilian public companies from 2001 to 2008, and found that debt level, size and growth rate can affect the working capital management of companies.

  15. Social Inequalities and the Oral health in Brazilian Capitals.

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    da Silva, Janmille Valdivino; Machado, Flávia Christiane de Azevedo; Ferreira, Maria Angela Fernandes

    2015-08-01

    Despite the improvement of the lives of Brazilians, still persists a panorama of iniquities in health in Brazil. This ecological study evaluated the relationship of socioeconomic conditions and public health policy with oral health conditions in Brazilian capitals. Factor analysis was performed with the socioeconomic indicators, revealing two common factors: economic deprivation and socio-sanitary condition. Then, was executed multiple linear regression analysis for the oral health indicators (average DMFT 12 years, mean missing teeth and rate of decay of free population) with two factors in common and fluoridation of water supply. Multiple linear regression analysis to the DMFT of the capitals was estimated by the socio-sanitary conditions and fluoridation, adjusted by economic deprivation; whereas the model for the average missing teeth was estimated only for flu-oridation and economic deprivation, and finally, the model for the rate of caries-free population in the Brazilian capitals was estimated by economic and sociosanitary condition set by fluoridated water supplies. Therefore, the results indicate the need for social actions that impact on people's living conditions to reduce tooth decay. PMID:26221819

  16. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

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    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  17. Does Idiosyncratic Risk Matter in the Brazilian Capital Market?

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    José Roberto Securato

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the relationship between idiosyncratic risk and diversified portfolio returns on Brazil’s capital market. Following Goyal and Santa-Clara (2003 and Bali et alii (2005 we use volatility measures that capture systematic and idiosyncratic risk. For the identification of the relationship between idiosyncratic risk and portfolio returns we use a time series framework regressing volatility measures and portfolio returns one step ahead from 1999:01 to 2006:03. Additionally, we carry out robustness tests to validate our results. We found no evidence of a relationship between idiosyncratic risk and portfolio returns for the Brazilian capital market. Our evidence is similar to those from Bali et alii (2005 for the US capital market, which challenges the Goyal e Santa-Clara (2003 findings.

  18. Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market Factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital disclosure in the Brazilian capital market

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    Clea Beatriz Macagnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a reduction in agency costs. The proprietary costs theory indicates that information disclosure might increase the company’s costs. According to these theories, the likelihood that the managers will voluntarily disclose information depends on certain factors that are characteristic of the company. Understanding the disclosure of information regarding intangible assets, specifically human capital, has strategic relevance for enterprises because these features, although not always recorded in accounting, represent a competitive business edge in the current economy.Design/methodology/approach: The study examined 145 annual reports, representing 29 companies in the period of 2005-2009. The level of voluntary disclosure was determined through content analysis of annual reports using representative indicators of human capital information.Findings: The statistical results indicate that factors such as size, debt, growth and time of registration with the brazilian Securities and Exchange Commission explain the level of voluntary human capital disclosure of the companies studied.Originality/value: An important contribution of this research is the formulation and non-repudiation of the time of registration with the CVM hypothesis as a factor that explains the level of human capital disclosure because none of the revised studies have tested this hypothesis.Purpose: This paper presents a study on factors explaining the level of voluntary human capital information in companies with shares in the Brazilian stock exchange. Assuming the existence of information asymmetry between managers and shareholders, agency theory states that disclosure might lead to a

  19. Why Does Capital Flow to Rich States?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Ariell Reshef; Bent Sorensen; Oved Yosha

    2007-01-01

    We study the determinants of net capital income flows within the United States. We analyze a simple multi-state neoclassical model in which total factor productivity varies across states and over time and capital flows freely across state borders. The model predicts that capital will flow to states with relatively high output growth. Since relative growth patterns are persistent such states are also high output states, which implies that high output will be associated with inflows of capital ...

  20. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...

  1. Varieties in State Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ming Hua; Cui, Lin; Lu, Jiangyong

    2014-01-01

    for penetrating foreign markets. To understand how such idiosyncratic differences emerge, we conceptualize the heterogeneity of SOEs as an outcome of multiple institutional reform processes – administrative and fiscal decentralization, industrial restructuring, and market liberalization – which create diversity...... preferences. Recognition of SOEs’ organizational diversity holds important implications for theories on state-owned multinationals....

  2. A mortalidade materna nas capitais brasileiras: algumas características e estimativa de um fator de ajuste Maternal mortality in Brazilian State Capitals: some characteristics and estimates for an adjustment factor

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    Ruy Laurenti

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A mortalidade materna pode ser considerada um excelente indicador de saúde, não só da mulher, mas da população geral; mostra, também, iniqüidades. A redução da mortalidade materna é uma das principais metas, estando também incluída nas Metas do Desenvolvimento do Milênio da ONU. OBJETIVO: Conhecer a qualidade da informação da mortalidade de mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, e estimar a razão de mortalidade materna (RMM e os fatores de ajuste para os dados oficiais, no conjunto das capitais de estados brasileiros e Distrito Federal. METODOLOGIA: Adotou-se a metodologia RAMOS (a partir da declaração de óbito, entrevista no domicílio da mulher falecida, com preenchimento de questionário, sobre variáveis demográficas, epidemiológicas, clínicas e de acesso a serviços; seguiam-se consultas a prontuários médicos hospitalares e a laudos de autópsia. Após o resgate da informação, pôde ser feita análise das reais causas básicas, terminais e associadas. A população de estudo foi estimada em 7.332 mortes de mulheres de 10 a 49 anos, ocorridas no primeiro semestre de 2002, sendo 239 óbitos por causas maternas. A RMM foi de 54,3 por cem mil nascidos vivos (n.v., no conjunto de capitais, variando entre 42 por cem mil n.v. no Sul, e 73,2 por cem mil n.v. no Nordeste. O fator de ajuste para o conjunto das capitais brasileiras foi igual a 1,4; para as regiões (considerando apenas as capitais, variaram entre 1,08 na Região Norte e 1,83 na Região Sul. As mortes obstétricas diretas corresponderam a 67,1%, mostrando que assistência ao pré-natal, ao parto e ao puerpério deve ser aprimorada.INTRODUCTION: There is criticism as to the heterogeneity and reliability of mortality data in Brazilian Regions. However, official mortality statistics of State Capitals are more accurate and have adequate coverage. Reduction of maternal mortality is one of the world's major goals and it is measured by the Maternal Mortality Ratio. International

  3. EARNINGS MANAGEMENT AND ECONOMIC CRISES IN THE BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET

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    Aldy Fernandes da Silva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2008 economic crisis challenged accounting, either demanding recognition and measurement criteria well adjusted to this scenario or even questioning its ability to inform appropriately entities’ financial situation before the crisis occurred. So, our purpose was to verify if during economic crises listed companies in the Brazilian capital market tended to adopt earnings management (EM practices. Our sample consisted in 3,772 firm-years observations, in 13 years – 1997 to 2009. We developed regression models considering discretionary accruals as EM proxy (dependent variable, crisis as a macroeconomic factor (dummy variable of interest, ROA, market-to-book, size, leverage, foreign direct investment (FDI and sector as control variables. Different for previous EM studies two approaches were used in data panel regression models and multiple crises were observed simultaneously. Statistics tests revealed a significant relation between economic crisis and EM practices concerning listed companies in Brazil in both approaches used.

  4. Smoking trend indicators in Brazilian capitals, 2006-2013

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the trend of indicators related to smoking in the capitals of Brazil from 2006 to 2013. Information on smoking trends extracted from the survey of risk and protective factors for chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs are analyzed through telephone interviews - VIGITEL conducted from 2006-2013 for the adult population in Brazilian capitals. To estimate the trend, the simple linear regression model was used. The prevalence of smokers in Brazil showed a relative reduction of 0.62% for each year of the survey, ranging from 15.6% in 2006 to 11.3% in 2013. A decrease was observed in both sexes in all age ranges except between 55 and 64 years in all education levels and regions. The total population of former smokers remained stable, with a reduction for men. Smoking 20 or more cigarettes per day decreased from 4.6% (2006 to 3.4% (2013, or 0.162 percentage points per year. Passive smoking at home decreased among women 13.4% (2009 to 10.7% (2013, a reduction of 0.72% per annum. Passive smoking at work has remained stable over the period. The smoking trend reduced in the period in most indicators, reflecting the importance of the tobacco control actions in the country.

  5. Empirical analysis of Brazilian banks' capital buffers during the period 2001-2011

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    Vinícius Cintra Belém

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available International literature indicates that the capital buffers held by banks result notably from the trade-off that exists between the cost of holding capital, adjustment costs, and bankruptcy costs, which all have a direct impact on banks' capital structures. The aim of this paper is to study the degree of sensitivity of Brazilian banks' capital buffers to the determining factors established in the literature, by using a sample of 121 banks, covering the period from 2001 to 2011. The empirical analysis that was carried out found that there was a significant cost of adjusting capital buffers for the Brazilian banks. At the same time, bankruptcy cost indicated a positive relationship between risk profile and capital buffers, while the cost of holding capital did not exhibit statistical significance in the analysis.

  6. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

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    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia; Alessandra Carvalho de Vasconcelos; Márcia Martins Mendes De Luca

    2013-01-01

    The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG) segments of BM&FBoves...

  7. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays

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    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  8. Tendências da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais dos estados do Brasil, 1980-2004 Trends of cancer mortality in Brazilian state capitals, 1980-2004

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    Luiz Augusto Marcondes Fonseca

    2010-01-01

    of state capitals comprises about a quarter of the total Brazilian population and for these cities mortality data available have a better quality than for the entire country, enabling analyses of trends in cancer rates based on more accurate data. METHODS: Mortality and population data were collected from government databases (SIM/DATASUS and IBGE, respectively. Age-adjusted (world standard and age-specific mortality rates were calculated for both genders . Linear regression was used to investigate changes in trends. RESULTS: For all cancers as a whole mortality rates declined throughout the study period for both men and women (-4.6% and -10.5%, respectively. For both genders , the cancer that decreased most was stomach cancer. Among men, lung cancer death rates presented a slight reduction, while prostate cancer rates increased. Among women, "uterus, site unspecified' presented a downward trend, while lung cancer rates increased. The trend for breast cancer remained stable, and cervix uterus rates showed a slight increase at the end of the period. CONCLUSION: As already seen in developed countries, all cancer mortality rates tended to decline in Brazilian state capitals over the period 1980-2004, a tendency largely due to a decline in stomach cancer death rates for both genders.

  9. Corporate governance and internationalization of capital of brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz Grangeiro Ribeiro Maia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at analyzing comparatively the representativeness of foreign capital in the capital of Brazilian companies of the sectors construction and transports, considering their segments on the BM&FBovespa. The internationalization of the 66 companies in the sample was measured by the percentage of the company's share capital held by foreign investors, and governance by the company's participation on the “Differentiated Level of Corporate Governance” (DLCG segments of BM&FBovespa. Using a descriptive and a quantitative study, the results of applying the Mann-Whitney test for the percentage of foreign capital in the capital of DLCG firms and of companies listed on the traditional market indicate that there is a difference statistically significant between the two groups of firms, confirming the hypothesis of this research. The conclusion is that governance is a sign of the internationalization of capital companies, confirming the efficiency of the administration based on the theory of transaction costs.

  10. Relationship between social capital indicators and lifestyle in Brazilian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Mathias Roberto; Souza, Regina Kazue Tanno de; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Martinez-Gómez, David; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    The present study examined the relationship between indicators of social capital and health-related behaviors. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1,062 participants representative of the population aged 40 years or older from a city in Southern Brazil. The following indicators of social capital were examined: number of friends, number of people they could borrow money from when in need; extent of trust in community members; number of times members of the community help each other; community safety; and extent of membership in community activities. Also, an overall score of social capital including all indicators was calculated. A poor social capital was associated with insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.07-2.70), low consumption of fruits and vegetables (OR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24), and smoking (OR = 1.97; 95%CI: 1.21-3.21). No clear association was found between capital social and binge drinking. A score of social capital showed an inverse relationship with the number of prevalent risk behaviors (p social capital.

  11. Training for the challenges of sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    This article analyzes the training offered to municipal public employees to confront sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals. Based on a multiple case study, it focuses on the training programs offered in the 2010-2011 biennium by the municipal government for professionals and managers in the public health network. We analyzed 66 semi-structured interviews and written documents pertaining to the training actions. We observed an unequal investment among the capitals and a lack of specificity in the treatment of the themes. There is a considerable lack of institutional memory which complicates the analysis of professional training strategies. Healthcare was the field which trained their professionals the most, including the subject of notification in training content. We noted little investment in training oriented toward the prevention of violence and the promotion of protective relationships and links. We emphasized the inductive role of federal and state programs in the areas of Tourism and Education. Few initiatives included the participation of more than one public sector. We suggest the creation of a training plan about violence and the sexual rights of children and adolescents, and in particular about sexual violence.

  12. Return on capital of Brazilian electricity distributors: A comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the electricity distribution segment in Brazil from 1998 to 2005-after the conclusion of privatization process-trying to assess whether the return on capital invested was in line with the risk required in the segment. It concludes that the return on equity in Brazil was systematically negative until 2003. Only in 2005 did the distribution segment really begin to recover, showing profitability consistent with the estimated cost of equity. Comparisons with Argentine, Chilean and American companies reveal that firms in the latter two countries, generally managed to reward shareholders according to the opportunity cost of capital. Estimates are that to sustain annual growth of roughly 3.7% for the next decade, the entire electricity sector will demand US$ 7 billion in capital expenditures a year for the next decade, 67% for generation, 16% for transmission and 17% for distribution. In order to stimulate private capital investment, it is fundamental for the regulator, in the tariff revision processes, to consistently assure a rate of return on capital in line with the segment's real opportunity cost and therefore maintain the health of all the three segments without the burden of subsidies

  13. Cultural Capital and the Consumption of Cultural Goods: Strategies Used for Status Consumption Among New Middle Class Brazilian Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivânia Filomeno Ponte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Holt (1998 investigated the application of  the concept of consumption of cultural products as a means of acquiring status by conducting research in the United States and Turkey (Üstüner & Holt, 2010. This present research was based on this latest study and aimed to study the relationship between the consumption of cultural products and the consumption of status among Brazilian women in the new middle class. It was concluded that the cultural capital acts as a determining factor in the consumption of status, being converted in tastes and consumption practices. The consumption of cultural products is critical to the building of the status strategies, however, the cultural products used may vary according to the greater or lesser cultural capital of the interviewees.

  14. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

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    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  15. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  16. Práticas contraceptivas e iniciação sexual entre jovens de três capitais brasileiras Contraceptive practices and sexual initiation among young people in three Brazilian State capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian F. B. Marinho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou o uso de contraceptivos na primeira relação sexual de 2.790 homens e mulheres. Trata-se de inquérito domiciliar em três capitais brasileiras, com entrevistas de amostra probabilística (Pesquisa GRAVAD. Utilizou-se análise de regressão logística. As variáveis foram agrupadas em: determinantes macrossociais, socialização e entrada na sexualidade, contexto da iniciação sexual e características da/o jovem e da/o parceira/o. A prevalência de foi de 68,3% e de 65,3% na dos homens. Entre elas, a contracepção associou-se à: renda familiar per capita, cor/raça e revistas femininas como fontes de informação sobre gravidez e contracepção. Para ambos os sexos, o uso foi mais freqüente quando houve conversa prévia sobre o tema entre parceiros, a iniciação sexual foi mais tardia e em motel, e o/a parceiro/a paciente. O tempo entre o início do relacionamento e a iniciação sexual mostrou-se associado ao uso na iniciação sexual dos rapazes. Fatores macrossociais parecem determinar a contracepção mais freqüente na iniciação sexual das mulheres, enquanto para os homens o contexto rela-cional é mais importante.This study investigated contraceptive use during first sexual intercourse among 2.790 young men and women. The GRAVAD household survey in three Brazilian capital cities involved interviews in a probabilistic sample. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis was used. Variables grouped as: macro-social, socialization and sexual initiation, context of sexual initiation, and characteristics of the interviewee and his or her partner. The prevalence of contraceptive use was 68.3% for women and 65.3% for men. Among women, contraception use was associated to: per capita monthly family income, color/race, and the use of women's magazines as a source of information on pregnancy and contraception. For both genders, use was more frequent when partners discussed pregnancy prevention before intercourse, when

  17. Social capital, migration and the welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    2009-01-01

    to rescue the ageing populations in Western Europe. Though the modern welfare state seems in strong need of reform within a globalized world, it nevertheless enjoys strong support among voters in its present form. Thus, an empirical puzzle exists. Given the existing institutional set-up of the modern...... welfare state and based on data from our ongoing SoCap project, we suggest how more bridging social capital can be established between parallel societies and the rest of society. Our ‘institutions matter' model is tentative and needs to be tested rigorously in future empirical research....

  18. Prevalence of burnout syndrome in intensivist doctors in five Brazilian capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tironi, Márcia Oliveira Staffa; Teles, José Mário Meira; Barros, Dalton de Souza; Vieira, Débora Feijó Villas Bôas; da Silva Filho, Colbert Martins; Martins Júnior, Davi Felix; Matos, Marcos Almeida; Nascimento Sobrinho, Carlito Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of burnout in intensivist doctors working in adult, pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in five Brazilian capitals. Methods Descriptive epidemiological study with a random sample stratified by conglomerate with 180 intensivist doctors from five capitals representing the Brazilian geographic regions: Porto Alegre (RS), Sao Paulo (SP), Salvador (BA), Goiania (GO) and Belem (PA). A self-administered questionnaire examining sociodemographic data and the level of burnout was evaluated through the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results A total of 180 doctors were evaluated, of which 54.4% were female. The average age was 39 ± 8.1 years, 63.4% had specialization as the highest degree, 55.7% had up to 10 years of work experience in an intensive care unit, and 46.1% had the title intensive care specialist. Most (50.3%) had weekly workloads between 49 and 72 hours, and the most frequent employee type was salaried. High levels of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and inefficacy were found (50.6%, 26.1% and 15.0%, respectively). The prevalence of burnout was 61.7% when considering a high level in at least one dimension and 5% with a high level in three dimensions simultaneously. Conclusion A high prevalence of burnout syndrome among intensivist doctors was observed. Strategies for the promotion and protection of health in these workers must be discussed and implemented in hospitals. PMID:27737426

  19. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85). Bonding social capital (positive interaction) was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91). Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain. PMID:23289932

  20. Social capital and dental pain in Brazilian northeast: a multilevel cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Bianca Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited evidence on possible associations between social determinants and dental pain. This study investigated the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain in adolescents, adults and the elderly. Methods A population-based multilevel study was conducted involving 624 subjects from 3 age groups: 15–19, 35–44 and 65–74 years. They were randomly selected from 30 census tracts in three cities in the State of Paraíba, Brazil. A two-stage cluster sampling was used considering census tracts and households as sampling units. The outcome of study was the presence of dental pain in the last 6 months. Information on dental pain, demographic, socio-economic, health-related behaviors, use of dental services, self-perceived oral health and social capital measures was collected through interviews. Participants underwent a clinical examination for assessment of dental caries. Neighborhood social capital was evaluated using aggregated measures of social trust, social control, empowerment, political efficacy and neighborhood safety. Individual social capital assessment included bonding and bridging social capital. Multilevel logistic regression was used to test the relationship of neighborhood and individual social capital with dental pain after sequential adjustment for covariates. Results Individuals living in neighborhoods with high social capital were 52% less likely to report dental pain than those living in neighborhoods with low social capital (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.27-0.85. Bonding social capital (positive interaction was independently associated with dental pain (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.80-0.91. Last dental visit, self-perceived oral health and number of decayed teeth were also significantly associated with dental pain. Conclusions Our findings suggest that contextual and individual social capital are independently associated with dental pain.

  1. Influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras e Distrito Federal Regional influence on early consumption of foods other than breast milk in infants less than 6 months of age in Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina Dias Medici Saldiva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência regional no consumo precoce de alimentos diferentes do leite materno em menores de seis meses residentes nas capitais brasileiras. Analisaram-se dados de 18.929 crianças da II Pesquisa de Prevalência de Aleitamento Materno nas Capitais Brasileiras - 2008. As frequências do consumo de chá, sucos, leite artificial e mingau/papa foram calculadas para as capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras. Curvas do consumo foram obtidas pela análise de logitos e estimativas das razões de prevalência (RP por modelos de Poisson. O consumo de leite artificial foi maior quando comparado aos demais alimentos em todas as capitais. As capitais do Sul apresentaram a maior razão de prevalência para o consumo de chá (RP = 2,37 e as do Nordeste e Sudeste, para o consumo de outros tipos de leite (RP = 1,50 e 1,47 e de suco (RP = 1,57 e 1,55. Nas capitais do Nordeste, o consumo precoce de mingau/papa foi maior (RP = 3,0. A região tem influência no consumo precoce de alimentos, o que deve ser levado em consideração na elaboração de políticas públicas.The aim was to assess regional influences on food consumption in infants less than six months of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 18,929 infants participating in the Second Survey on Breastfeeding Prevalence in Brazilian State Capitals and the Federal District in 2008. Consumption rates for tea, fruit juices, formula milk, and porridge were calculated for the State capitals from the five geographic regions of the country. Food consumption was estimated by logit analyses and Poisson models. Differences in food consumption profile were observed between the different regions: tea was more common in State capitals in the South (RP = 2.37, while non-maternal milk (RP = 1.50 and 1.47 and juices (RP = 1.57 and 1.55 were more frequent in the Northeast and Southeast, respectively. Porridge was more common in the Northeast (RP = 3.0. Brazil's geographic regions

  2. Resultados do monitoramento dos Fatores de risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis nas capitais brasileiras por inquérito telefônico, 2008 Monitoring of Risk and Protective factors for Chronic Non Communicable Diseases by telephone survey in Brazilian State Capitals, 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os fatores de risco e proteção para Doenças Crônicas Não Transmissíveis - DCNT nas capitais do Brasil. METODOLOGIA: Foram analisadas informações provenientes do sistema de vigilância de fatores de risco e proteção para DCNT por inquérito telefônico - VIGITEL, em 2008. A amostra foi composta por 54 mil entrevistas sendo as frequências apresentadas para o conjunto das capitais por sexo, faixa etária e escolaridade. RESULTADOS: O estudo mostrou diferenças na prevalência de fatores de risco e proteção de DCNT entre sexos, idade e escolaridade. Os homens apresentaram maiores frequências de fatores de risco como fumo, excesso de peso, consumo de refrigerantes, carnes com excesso de gordura e bebidas alcoólicas. Os homens praticam mais atividade física no lazer. As mulheres se alimentam melhor e referem mais diagnóstico médico de doenças, como hipertensão arterial, dislipidemia e osteoporose, além de estado de saúde ruim. Em geral, os fatores de risco são mais frequentes na população de menor escolaridade. DISCUSSÃO: Estas informações devem redirecionar a implementação das políticas públicas com foco em um modo de viver mais saudável e escolhas individuais mais adequadas por parte da população adulta brasileira.OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of protective and risk factors for the most important chronic non communicable diseases in all Brazilian capitals, including the Federal District. METHODS: Data used were collected in 2008 through VIGITEL, an ongoing population-based telephone survey surveillance system implemented in all Brazilian State capitals since 2006. In 2008, over 54,000 interviews were completed over the phone with a random sample of individuals living in all 27 capitals. RESULTS: The analyses showed differences in the prevalence of determinants of chronic diseases by demographic characteristics such as gender, age and schooling. Men were more likely to be current smokers

  3. Tendências da frequência do consumo de feijão por meio de inquérito telefônico nas capitais brasileiras, 2006 a 2009 Trends in frequency of consumption of beans assessed by means of a telephone survey in Brazilian state capitals between 2006 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Velásquez-Meléndez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisar a tendência da frequência do consumo do feijão nos anos de 2006 a 2009 nas capitais brasileiras. Trata-se de uma série histórica utilizando a base de dados do Vigitel de todas as capitais brasileiras. O consumo de feijão foi descrito por meio da frequência relativa e a tendência foi avaliada utilizando-se regressão de Poisson. O consumo de feijão cinco ou mais vezes por semana variou de 71,85% (2006 a 65,79 (2009. Na maior faixa de frequência de consumo ao longo de todo o período estudado estão incluídas as capitais Goiânia, Belo Horizonte, Palmas, Cuiabá e Brasília. As pessoas com IMC na categoria adequado/baixo peso apresentaram as maiores frequências de consumo em relação aos indivíduos com sobrepeso e obesidade. Foi observada tendência significativa de redução do consumo regular de feijão segundo ano de realização da pesquisa, exceto para a categoria de idade entre os 45 e 54 anos. Ocorreu redução significativa da frequência do consumo do feijão pela população brasileira e a adoção de políticas de monitoramento e incentivo do consumo é necessária em função dos benefícios apresentados pela leguminosa.The scope of this paper was to analyze the trends of frequency of consumption of beans between the years 2006 and 2009 in the Brazilian capitals. This is a historical series using the Vigitel database for all Brazilian state capitals. Consumption of beans was described in terms of relative frequency and the trend was assessed using Poisson regression. Between 65.79% (2009 and 71.85% (2006 of participants reported consuming beans five or more days per week. The capitals Goiania, Belo Horizonte, Palmas, Brasilia and Cuiaba were in the highest frequency range of consumption throughout the study period. Individuals with a BMI in the appropriate and low weight category had the highest frequencies of consumption in comparison with the overweight and the obese. A significant reduction trend in the

  4. Determinants of the Capital Structure of Small and Medium Sized Brazilian Enterprises

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    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates the determinants of the capital structure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs using a unique database that includes over 19,000 Brazilian firms and spans 13 years of data. The econometric analysis employs the System Generalized Method of Moments estimator (GMM-Sys and two strong results emerge: (a profitability is negatively related to leverage, and (b asset growth is positively related to leverage. Both results are consistent with the pecking order theory of capital structure and suggest that SMEs tend to finance their expansion with debt only after exhausting their internal resources. Additionally, we find weaker evidence for the following: (a size is positively related to leverage, which can be interpreted as evidence that larger firms have more access to credit markets; (b riskier SMEs tend to be less financially leveraged, consistent with the bankruptcy cost arguments from trade-off theories; and (c the age of the firm is negatively related to financial leverage, suggesting that older SMEs may be slightly more conservative in their financing choices. Finally, the magnitude of the coefficient of lagged leverage shows the high persistence of this variable and is compatible with the hypothesis that SMEs adjust their debt/equity ratio towards a target value, although at a low speed.

  5. The relevance of the capital structure in firm performance: a multivariate analysis of Brazilian publicly traded companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Kennedy Cruz Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic changes in recent years have made the dynamics of the Brazilian market more complex, which directly impacts the administration of large organizations, particularly in management tasks, such as decisions concerning the definition of the capital structure. The literature in this theoretical field is polarized in two seminal works: the first, by Durand (1952, 1959, discusses the existence of an optimal capital structure that maximizes the value of the firm; and, at the other end, the work by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963 considers that it is irrelevant how firms are financed. In this sense, the objective was to verify the effective interference of the capital structure in the performance of Brazilian firms listed on BM&FBOVESPA. The sample consisted of cross-sectional data that were selected from the most recent balance sheets of all companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, available in the Economática® database. The techniques used were the analysis of variance (ANOVA and discriminant analysis. Among the indicators used, it was observed that only general liquidity, the degree of immobilization, Tobin’s Q, and the opportunity for growth were significant at 1%. The results indicate that the capital structure is not directly related to the performance of Brazilian companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA. In the meantime, the results point to the consolidation of the financial theories expounded by Modigliani and Miller (1958, 1963, as opposed to the traditionalist current started in Durand’s studies (1952.

  6. [Consumption of anxiolytic benzodiazepines: a correlation between SNGPC data and sociodemographic indicators in Brazilian capitals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Ângelo José Pimentel de; Araújo, Aurigena Antunes de; Ferreira, Maria Ângela Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    The scope of this article is to determine the distribution and frequency of consumption of anxiolytic benzodiazepines and the correlation between consumption and demographic, epidemiological, economic and social characteristics. It is an ecological study with a sample of 27 state capitals. Data collection was performed through the ANVISA database for the dispensation of Alprazolam, Bromazepam, Clonazepam, Diazepam and Lorazepam in 2010-2012, the 2010 Demographic Census (IBGE), DATASUS and Medical Demographic Research. Descriptive statistical analysis and multiple linear regression analyses were performed for data analysis. The northern region has capitals with the lowest and the southeast has capitals with the highest average consumption of these products. The average consumption for the population of all capitals was 3.60 DHD. Alprazolam is the drug most dispensed by pharmacies and private drugstores with average 2.00 DHD for the capitals. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that 76% of the variation was explained by population density (β = 0.310 p = 0.045) and percentage of physicians (β = 0.507 p = 0.016). The consumption of short half-life anxiolytics has been on the increase, mainly in the cities of greater population density and concentration of physicians. PMID:26816166

  7. The internationalization of nuclear industry: state and capital in atomic relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)

  8. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia, E-mail: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, E-mail: vparente@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  9. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  10. State control, access to capital and firm performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oliver Zhen Li; Xijia Su; Zhifeng Yang

    2012-01-01

    We study the effect of state control on capital allocation and investment in China, where the government screens prospective stock issuers. We find that state firms are more likely to obtain government approval to conduct seasoned equity offerings than non-state firms. Further, non-state firms exhibit greater sensitivities of subsequent investment and stock performance to regulatory decisions on stock issuances than state firms. Our work suggests that state control of capital access distorts resource allocation and impedes the growth of non-state firms. We also provide robust evidence that financial constraints cause underinvestment.

  11. The association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health: a longitudinal study in Brazilian pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamarca Gabriela A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social conditions, social relationships and neighbourhood environment, the components of social capital, are important determinants of health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of neighbourhood and individual social capital with consistent self-rated health in women between the first trimester of pregnancy and six months postpartum. Methods A multilevel cohort study in 34 neighbourhoods was performed on 685 Brazilian women recruited at antenatal units in two cities in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Self-rated health (SRH was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy (baseline and six months after childbirth (follow-up. The participants were divided into two groups: 1. Good SRH – good SRH at baseline and follow-up, and, 2. Poor SRH – poor SRH at baseline and follow-up. Exploratory variables collected at baseline included neighbourhood social capital (neighbourhood-level variable, individual social capital (social support and social networks, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health-related behaviours and self-reported diseases. A hierarchical binomial multilevel analysis was performed to test the association between neighbourhood and individual social capital and SRH, adjusted for covariates. Results The Good SRH group reported higher scores of social support and social networks than the Poor SRH group. Although low neighbourhood social capital was associated with poor SRH in crude analysis, the association was not significant when individual socio-demographic variables were included in the model. In the final model, women reporting poor SRH both at baseline and follow-up had lower levels of social support (positive social interaction [OR 0.82 (95% CI: 0.73-0.90] and a lower likelihood of friendship social networks [OR 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37-0.99] than the Good SRH group. The characteristics that remained associated with poor SRH were low level of schooling, Black and Brown

  12. Contingent Convertibles and their Impacts on the Optimization of the Capital Structure of Brazilian Banks Under Basel III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Cyganczuk Goes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Banks around the world maintain excess regulatory capital, whether to minimize capitalization costs or to mitigate risks of financial difficulties. However, it was only after the financial crisis of 2008 that the quality of capital gained greater importance among international regulators, through the Third Basel Accord (Basel III, which suggested a capital structure formed of the new equity and debt hybrid instruments, that is, Contingent Convertibles (CoCos, which have the main goal of recapitalizing banks automatically when they show signs of financial difficulties. Using the continuous-time structural model developed by Koziol and Lawrenz (2012, with December 2013 as a reference, this paper analyzes the capital structure of the 10 biggest Brazilian banks in terms of total assets, comparing their current structures - with only subordinated debts - with the structure proposed in Basel III, composed solely of contingent convertibles, with a view to verifying the influence of CoCos in banks' risks and evaluating the effectiveness of this Basel III recommendation. Through the evidence obtained using the model mentioned, this paper's main contribution is in demonstrating that the use of CoCos would optimize the capital structure of banks under the restrictions of Basel III, considering these are effective. If not, the automatic recapitalization of these instruments could be used for shareholders' own benefit, thus increasing the likelihood of banks experiencing financial difficulties, which could cause a new financial crisis, like that which occurred in 2008.

  13. Allocation of foreign direct investment across brazilian states

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    Maurício Mesquita Bortoluzzo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has become increasingly important for the Brazilian economy: the ratio of FDI inflow to the country's gross domestic product (GDP increased from a 0.6% average in the 1980's to 2.5% from 2001 to 2010, according to data from UNCTAD. However, there is great inequality in the distribution of this investment among Brazilian federation units. This study aims at investigating the determining factors for the location of foreign direct investment across Brazilian states, based on an econometric study with panel data for the years 1995, 2000 and 2005. The results showed that foreign investment responded positively to consumer market size, quality of labor and transport infrastructure, but negatively to cost of labor and tax burden.

  14. The internationalization of nuclear industry: state and capital in atomic relations; A internacionalizacao da industria nuclear: estado e capital em relacoes atomicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira Junior, Evaristo Santiago

    1986-03-15

    This paper analyzes the causes and scope of the nuclear energy diffusion process in the capitalist world. It also aims at explaining Brazil's role in this process. The study contemplates two main concepts that are, here, considered to be driving and directing vectors: the World Capital and the Capitalist State. According to the expanded reproduction logic, World Capital forms the world nuclear productive subsystem, which commands and directs, in this process, hundreds (or thousands) of productive units, regardless of their geographical location, nationality or capital control. Thru the utilization of available public intervention tools, the Capitalist state has favored the formation of the world nuclear productive subsystem, thus guiding the accumulation process in the interior of this system. Therefore, the conclusion of the Nuclear Cooperation Agreement between Brazil and Germany and the resultant establishment of the Brazilian Nuclear Program (following the authoritarian model of public administration), is well fitted in the general dynamics of subordination/articulation of the Brazilian economy to the world economy and, particularly, to the world nuclear productive subsystem. (author)

  15. School trajectory and teenage pregnancy in three Brazilian state capitals

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    Almeida Maria da Conceição C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the relationship between school trajectory and incidence of teenage pregnancy. A cross-sectional residence-based questionnaire was applied, interviewing 4,634 youth ages 18 to 24 years, selected through a stratified three-stage sample. For the present study, young people ages 20 to 24 years (65.6% were chosen, with teenage pregnancy rates of 29.5% for females and 21.4% for males (in relation to their partners. Sexual debut was reported by 87% of women and 95.3% of men. The majority of young people reported irregular school trajectory, with 39% enrolled in school at the time of the study. Nearly half of those who had interrupted their studies at least once reported a teenage pregnancy. The main reasons for interrupting their studies were pregnancy and children for women and work for men. School dropout due to teenage pregnancy was mentioned by 40.1% of women for whom the outcome of pregnancy was a child. However, 20.5% had already dropped out of school before becoming pregnant.

  16. Empreendedorismo na capital amazonense

    OpenAIRE

    Filho, Aécio Flávio Ferreira da Silva

    2010-01-01

    This research was elaborated to evaluate entrepreneurship in the Capital of the Amazon State, Brazil. Its relevance is due to the non-existent literature in the subject of entrepreneurship, in the Northern Region of Brazil. The available Brazilian literary archive comprehends only the main cities located in the Southern and Northeastern Regions of the country. There is no research in the Northern Region – where the Amazon State and its Capital, Manaus, are found – and thus lies the reason for...

  17. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Iowa. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  18. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Minnesota. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen; Wraight, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  19. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Michigan. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  20. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Ohio. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  1. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Wisconsin. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Ellen; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Meyer, Cassandra

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  2. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Indiana. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Cassandra; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  3. State Policies on Human Capital Resource Management: Illinois. Human Capital Resource Management Technical Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Coby; Bhatt, Monica; Wraight, Sara; Behrstock, Ellen; Cushing, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Training, recruiting, developing, and supporting talented and effective educators throughout their careers is known as human capital resource management (HCRM) in education. HCRM has been identified in recent literature as one of the ways in which districts and states may increase school effectiveness and improve student learning (Heneman &…

  4. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  5. Social Capital and Happiness in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the association between social capital and average happiness in the United States. Social capital is measured as a multidimensional concept consisting of social trust and two different indicators of sociability. In order to employ the variation both over time and across states......, the data are organized in either a panel of nine US Census regions over the period 1983-1998 or in averages over this period in a cross-section of 48 states. The results show that social trust is positively associated with happiness while the potential effects of informal sociability at the level...... of society only appear significant in the regional estimates. The findings document the importance of social trust for average happiness but also hold more general implications for social capital theory....

  6. Comparison of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in the population with and without health insurance in the Brazilian capitals, 2011

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    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The article compares the risk and protective factors for Non-communicable Diseases (NCD, referred morbidity and access to preventive examinations in the population with and without health insurance in all Brazilian State capitals. METHODS: The study population consists of adults (≥ 18 years old living in households with landlines in 26 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. Estimates of selected variables are presented according to possession of health plans ("Yes" or "No" and sex. A post-stratification was performed according to age, gender and education in both populations, and prevalence ratios were calculated, adjusted for age and sex between people with and without health insurance for the risk and protective factors for NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 54,099 people at the age of 18 or older were evaluated, 47.4% of them were beneficiaries of health plans. The coverage of health insurance tends to increase with age and level of education. Compared to non-beneficiaries of health plans, beneficiaries were more likely to have protective factors, such as healthy eating, physical activity, coverage tests, such as mammography and Pap test, and lower prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor health assessment and hypertension. Alcohol abuse, consumption of excessively fat meats, overweight, obesity and diabetes were not associated with the variable possession of health insurance. When controlled by education, individuals who have health insurance generally have better indicators. CONCLUSION: This information is important to establish measures for reducing differences among people with and without health insurance.

  7. The efficient market hypothesis of brazilian capital market, 2000-2010: an event study of distribution of dividends

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    Daniel Moreira Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the semi-strong form of the Efficient Markets Hypothesis - EMH, developed by Fama (1970, 1991, the prices reflect both the past and any information disclosed by companies, making impossible to an investor to get abnormal returns consistently, based on this type of information. In this paper we analyze the price behavior of common shares of 87 listed companies in the BM&FBovespa, in the announcements of 452 events of dividend distribution, occurred between January 2000 and September 2010, in order to identify the EMH in semi-strong form of Brazilian capital market. We used an event study, which evaluates abnormal returns of stocks relative to the market return (Ibovespa. The analysis of the abnormal return in the event window (10 days before and after the dividend distribution announcement showed an upward trend, with significant positive abnormal returns on days t-5, t-3, and t-1 to t+1. The results go in the direction of other studies of national literature and contribute to attest that the Brazilian capital market lacks the semi-strong form of informational efficiency.

  8. Organizational analysis of the Social Democracy Party of the Brazilian state of São Paulo

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    María Teresa MICELI KERBAUY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article represents a theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of organizational dynamics of political parties today, based on a study of the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB in the State of Sao Pãulo (period between 1988 to 2006. It is hypothesized that the structure and the institutional rules of a particular party, or even their election results, are insufficient to explain the inner workings, such as the role of party organization in the electoral system. An approach that articulates the relationship patterns, election results and posts held in the party, identified the factors that explain the political capital that circulated within the party and ensured its organizational dynamics over the period analyzed.

  9. Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Coulangeon, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Empruntée à l’appareil conceptuel de l’économie, la notion de capital désigne en première analyse l’ensemble des ressources dont disposent les individus et les groupes et qui affectent leurs trajectoires, notamment dans les domaines scolaire, professionnel, matrimonial et familial. La sociologie contemporaine se saisit le plus souvent du concept pour en souligner les différentes espèces : capital économique, capital culturel et capital social, principalement. Si le capital économique désigne ...

  10. Current state management of the consumer capital of domestic enterprises

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    E.O. Golysheva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the analysis of the current state of management by consumer business capital is carried out. It is based on three components: system of communications with consumers and external subjects, the history of relationship with them and the database about partners; portfolio management of trade marks (brands; the.

  11. Análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel em cinco capitais brasileiras Analysis of the implementation of a mobile pre-hospital treatment system in five Brazilian state capitals

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    Maria Cecília de Souza Minayo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos descrição e análise da implantação do sistema de atendimento pré-hospitalar móvel (Serviço de Atendimento Móvel de Urgência - SAMU. O texto é parte de uma pesquisa denominada Análise Diagnóstica de Implantação da Política Nacional de Redução de Acidentes e Violências. Estudamos a história recente da implantação, organização, recursos humanos, materiais e equipamentos do SAMU em cinco capitais (Curitiba - Paraná; Recife - Pernambuco; Brasília - Distrito Federal; Manaus - Amazonas; Rio de Janeiro que apresentam elevadas taxas de morbimortalidade por causas externas. Trabalhamos em quatro fases, cada qual agregando ciclos exploratórios, de trabalho de campo e de análise, triangulando dados quantitativos e qualitativos. Os resultados mostram que a implantação do SAMU constitui, hoje, um avanço do setor saúde e da sociedade. É preciso ainda completar a implantação de várias portarias quanto a veículos, pessoal e equipamentos; intensificar a articulação do pré-hospitalar móvel com as unidades de saúde; enfatizar informações geradas nesse subsistema visando ao melhor planejamento das ações; manter e promover a alta qualificação dos profissionais do SAMU. Este serviço veio oficializar, padronizar e regular um subsistema fundamental para salvar vidas.The article presents a description and analysis of the implementation of a pre-hospital treatment system (SAMU as part of the research project Diagnostic Analysis of the Implementation of a National Policy for the Reduction of Violence and Accidents. Implementation and organization of the SAMU service, together with the related materials, human resources, and equipment, was studied in five Brazilian State capitals with high morbidity and mortality rates from external causes: Curitiba (Paraná, Recife (Pernambuco, Brasília (Federal District, Rio de Janeiro, and Manaus (Amazonas. The study involved four phases, each developing exploratory and

  12. Unions Feeling Chill on State Capital Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Teachers' unions find themselves on the defensive in states across the country, as governors and lawmakers press forward with proposals to target job protections and benefits that elected officials contend the public can no longer afford academically or financially. Many of those efforts are being driven by newly elected Republicans, who have…

  13. The Educational Achievement of Brazilian Adolescents: Cultural Capital and the Interaction between Families and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Leticia; Andrade, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Most studies find a positive correlation between family cultural capital and educational achievement. As compelling as the evidence on the advantages of family cultural capital for educational achievement is, most studies have focused on countries characterized by having a large middle class and high levels of income, not addressing societies with…

  14. The Causes of Fiscal Transparency: Evidence in the Brazilian States

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    Robson Zuccolotto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The transparency of governments to their citizens is seen as a necessary factor in democratic accountability and, consequently, in the consolidation of democracy. Although the importance of transparency in government is often highlighted, its causes are still unknown, especially in the Brazilian context. Following the trend of international empirical research, this exploratory study investigates the relationships between three sets of variables (current and past fiscal variables, socioeconomic variables and political variables and fiscal transparency in the Brazilian subnational context. To identify the relationship between fiscal, socioeconomic and political variables and fiscal transparency, the multiple linear regression technique was used. Prior to conducting the regression using the method of ordinary least squares, factor analysis was used, aiming to group the fiscal and socioeconomic variables into factors not only to reduce their quantity but also to eliminate their multicollinearity problems. Political variables, due to their qualitative nature, remained in their original form. The factor analysis sorted the variables into two groups: fiscal and socioeconomic factors. Because multiple regression allows only for the evaluation of the relationship between the parties included in the sample and the reference party, an F test was used to assess differences in the level of transparency among political parties. The results indicated that fiscal and socioeconomic variables explain the transparency levels of the Brazilian States. However, the political variables were not significant, indicating that the disclosure of fiscal information in Brazil seems not to be influenced by political ideologies. Furthermore, it is evident that the lack of a regulatory model of transparency in the budget process leads States to disclose a great deal of information about budget execution. Finally, the findings indicate that as an instrument for democratic

  15. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PATTERNS OF URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN A NORTHEASTERN BRAZILIAN CAPITAL

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    Mirella Alves CUNHA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection is a common problem worldwide. Its clinical characteristics and susceptibility rates of bacteria are important in determining the treatment of choice and its duration. This study assessed the frequency and susceptibility to antimicrobials of uropathogens isolated from community-acquired urinary tract infections in the city of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte State capital, northeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2010. A total of 1,082 positive samples were evaluated; E. coli was the most prevalent pathogen (60.4%. With respect to the uropathogens susceptibility rates, the resistance of enterobacteria to ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim was 24.4% and 50.6%, respectively. Susceptibility was over 90% for nitrofurantoin, aminoglycosides and third-generation cephalosporins. High resistance rates of uropathogens to quinolones and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim draws attention to the choice of these drugs on empirical treatments, especially in patients with pyelonephritis. Given the increased resistance of community bacteria to antimicrobials, local knowledge of susceptibility rates of uropathogens is essential for therapeutic decision making regarding patients with urinary tract infections.

  16. Estimating Brazilian Monthly GDP: a State-Space Approach

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    João Victor Issler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several contributions. The first is to employ a superior interpo lation method that enables to estimate, nowcastandforecast monthly Brazilian GDP for 1980-2012 in an integrated way-see Bernanke, Gertler, & Watson (1997[Systematic monetary policy and the effects of oil price shocks(Brookings Papers in Economic Activity No.1]. Second, along the spirit of Mariano & Murasawa (2003 [A new coincident index of business cycles based on monthly and quarterly series.Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(4, 427-443], we propose and test a myriad of interpolation models and interpolation auxiliary series-all coincident with GDP from a business-cycle dating point of view. Based on these results, we finally choose the most appropriate monthly indicator for Brazilian GDP. Third, this monthly GDP estimate is compared to an economic ac tivity indicator widely used by practitioners in Brazil-the Brazilian Economic Activity Index (IBC-Br. We found that our monthly GDP tracks economic ac tivity better than IBC-Br. This happens by construction, since our state-space approach imposes the restriction (discipline that our monthly estimate must add up to the quarterly observed series in any given quarter, which may not hold regarding IBC-Br. Moreover, our method has the advantage to be easily im plemented: it only requires conditioning on two observed series for estimation, while estimating IBC-Br requires the availability of hundreds of monthly series. Third, in a nowcasting and forecasting exercise, we illustrate the advantages of our integrated approach. Finally, we compare the chronology of recessions of our monthly estimate with those done elsewhere.

  17. Capital Markets and Financial Intermediation in the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper analyzes the capital markets and financial intermediation in the Baltic States. It provides a comprehensive overview of the structure and level of development of the financial system, discussing some of the unique characteristics of the Baltics, such as leasing; and comparing the structure of the Baltic financial systems to other European Union accession countries and/or euro zone averages, both of which serve as benchmarks. The paper also addresses some of the broader analytical q...

  18. The Influence of Environmental Disclosure on Capital Structure of Brazilian Companies listed on the BM&FBovespa

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    Sheila Mendes Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study to verify the relationship between environmental disclosure and the capital structure of companies classified according to Law 10165 which provides for the National Environmental Policy for the period 2006 to 2010. To meet the proposed objectives were used as proxies for capital structure debt to verify the cost of debt and to verify the CAPM cost of equity. To measure the level of environmental disclosure content analysis was carried out in the notes, the management report and the report of the environmental information contained in the report of the Annual Information (IAN. We analyzed 89 companies with 95,020 sentences, and 5279 relating to environmental events, such 4819 relating to environmental information regarding positive and 460 negative environmental information. To investigate the relationship between these variables was used in the analysis panel with random effects adjusted by robust tool. The findings of this study demonstrate that environmental disclosure does not affect the cost of debt, ie, in the Brazilian market, the environmental information whether positive or negative does not drive the market to influence positively / negatively the cost of debt. However, the results showed that the positive environmental disclosure adversely affects the cost of equity demonstrating that "good environmental image of the company" leverage the company's credibility this crucial factor in reducing the risk of the company since the engagement with sustainability and generate savings for the effective and efficient use of resources eliminates and / or reduces the incidence of government regulations.

  19. A proposal for evaluation of the owner capital cost for the Brazilian electric power sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the owner capital cost of the brazilian electric sector, according to three methods: Comparable Accounting Earnings, that uses historical values in its measuring and Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), elaborated from the expected values. The obtained results by using the CAE method showed that the Brazilian electric sector has not been rewarded in its real necessity of maintenance and expansion. From this observation, it was considered appropriated not to take this method in the methodology presently proposed, which will be using only the single average of the CAPM and DCF models. The use of the results single average of this model presents the advantage of selecting specific characteristics of each one, and diluting the effects of occasional peak values. The owner capital cost obtained from this work was the average value of 19.73% for the studied period - 1995/2003 (17.12% for 2003), proximate to the obtained result by ANEEL - brazilian agency of electric power - for investments in energy distribution in Brazil, 17.47%, while Minardi and Sanvicente (2003) obtained 36.06% for the owner capital cost of CEMIG in 2002, specifically.

  20. Tendência da mortalidade por câncer nas capitais e interior do Brasil entre 1980 e 2006 Tendencia de la mortalidad por cáncer en las capitales e interior de Brasil entre 1980 y 2006 Cancer mortality trends in Brazilian state capitals and other municipalities between 1980 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva

    2011-12-01

    .585.012 originados por cáncer entre 1980 y 2006 fueron obtenidos en el Sistema de Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, y los demográficos, en el Instituto Brasileño de Geografía y Estadística. Las tasas de mortalidad general por cáncer y principales tipos fueron corregidas redistribuyendo proporcionalmente 50% de las muertes mal definidas y estandarizándolas por edad según población patrón mundial. Las curvas de tendencia para Brasil y grandes regiones fueron calculadas para capitales y demás municipios según sexo y evaluadas por medio de regresión linear simple. RESULTADOS: Entre los hombres, las tasas de mortalidad para los cánceres de pulmón, próstata y colorrectal fueron ascendentes; declinantes para el de estomago y estables para el de esófago. Entre las mujeres, hubo aumento de la mortalidad por cáncer de mama, pulmón y colorrectal; y disminución de las tasas para los cánceres de cuello uterino y de estomago. La evolución de la mortalidad varió entre las regiones del País, con patrones distintos entre las capitales y demás municipios. CONCLUSIONES: La corrección de las tasas de mortalidad con redistribución de los óbitos mal definidos aumentó la magnitud de la mortalidad general por cáncer en Brasil en cerca de 10% en 1980 y 5% en 2006. En los municipios del interior no se observó tendencia de disminución o estabilidad como en las capitales. Menor alcance de las acciones de prevención y la dificultad de acceso a servicios diagnóstico y tratamiento para cáncer para la población residente fuera de los grandes centros urbanos pueden explicar, en parte, estas diferencias.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the corrected trend of overall cancer mortality and leading sites in the state capitals and other municipalities of Brazil between 1980 and 2006. METHODS: Data on deaths (n = 2,585,012 caused by cancer between 1980 and 2006 were obtained from Sistema de Informações sobre Mortalidade (Mortality Information System, and demographic data were provided by Instituto

  1. Health practices and expectations of Brazilians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Teresa Eliot

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic examination of Brazilian immigrant perspectives regarding healthcare in the U.S. included participant observation and interviews with 42 Brazilian transnationals. Data were analyzed using Agar's approach. Findings show that Brazilians accessed allopathic care only as a last resort after self-treatment strategies failed, that they tended to feel that diagnostic testing, referrals, and symptom-relieving prescriptions were imperative to good care, and that they expected more personal warmth, continuity of care, and more affectionate verbal and nonverbal cues than their U.S. clinicians provided. Recommendations to improve quality of healthcare to Brazilian transnationals in the USA are discussed. PMID:19172985

  2. Aspects of the Capital Markets’ Development from the CIS Member States and Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hîncu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolution of capital markets is an important process for the all economies, irrespective their degree of development, while the trends emphasized during the last decades marked some common tendencies of evolution. Practically, most of the tendencies manifested on global capital market are also relevant for the securities market of the CIS member states, still, one of them possessing a more relevant character (capital concentration and centralization; regulation and deregulation of capital market; capital market informatization, while the other ones – a lower degree of relevance (ascension of institutional investors on capital market; implementation of financial innovations; capital market integration and international cooperation; compartmentalization of secondary capital market and development of alternative secondary market etc. This article emphasizes some of the tendencies specific for the development of the capital market from the CIS member states and the Republic of Moldova.

  3. Association between social capital and self-perception of health in Brazilian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Roberto Loch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between social capital and social capital and self-perception of health based on examining the influence of health-related behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship.METHODS A cross-sectional study was used with 1,081 subjects, which is representative of the population of individuals aged 40 years or more in a medium-sized city in Southern Brazil. The subjects who perceived their health as fine, bad or very bad were considered to have a negative self-perception of their health. The social capital indicators were: number of friends, people from whom they could borrow money from when needed; the extent of trust in community members; whether or not members of the community helped each other; community safety; and extent of participation in community activities. The behaviors were: physical activity during leisure time, fruits and vegetable consumption, tobacco use and alcohol abuse. The odds ratios (OR and confidence intervals (CI 95% were calculated by binary logistic regression. The significance of mediation was verified using the Sobel test.RESULTS Following adjustment for demographic and clinical variables, subjects with fewer friends (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.08;1.80, those who perceived less frequently help from people in the neighborhood (OR = 1.30, 95%CI 1.01;1.68, who saw the violent neighborhood (OR = 1.33, 95%CI 1.01;1.74 and who had not participated in any community activity (OR = 1.39, 95%CI 1.07;1.80 had more negative self-perception of their health. Physical activity during leisure time was a significant mediator in the relationship between all social capital indicators (except for the borrowed money variable and self-perceived health. Fruit and vegetable consumption was a significant mediator of the relationship between the extent of participation in community activities and self-perceived health. Tobacco use and alcohol abuse did not seem to have a mediating role in any relationship

  4. Individual and Contextual Determinants of Periodontal Health in 12-Year-Old Schoolchildren in a Brazilian Capital City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to describe periodontal health status and its association with individual and contextual factors among 12-year-old schoolchildren in a midwest Brazilian capital city. This cross-sectional study included data from an oral health survey carried out in 2010 in the city of Goiania, Brazil and secondary data obtained from the local health authority. Data were collected through oral clinical examinations and interviews. For assessment of periodontal status two components of the community periodontal index (CPI were used: calculus and bleeding after probing. Dependent variable was presence of any periodontal condition. Independent individual variables were the children’s sex and color/race, and their mother’s level of schooling. Contextual variables were related to the schools (type and existence of toothbrushing program and its geographic location in the health districts. Rao-Scott test and multilevel Poisson analysis were performed. The prevalence of calculus and/or bleeding was 7%. Brown color, public schools, and those located in health district with intermediate socioeconomic indicators were associated to a higher prevalence of this condition. The prevalence of adverse periodontal condition was low and the inequalities in its distribution were determined by individual as well as contextual factors related to the schools and the geographic area.

  5. The Contradictions of Uneven Development for States and Firms: Capital and State Rescaling in Peripheral Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quark, Amy Adams

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that processes of capital and state rescaling are generating new socio-spatial inequalities within nation-states. I explore rescaling in the understudied context of a peripheral region through the case of a global apparel merchant, Lands' End, and its decision to relocate its call and distribution centers to Dodgeville,…

  6. PETROBRAS - 50 years: the triumph of the brazilian potential; 50 anos da PETROBRAS: o triunfo do potencial brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alveal, Carmen

    2007-07-01

    In the Brazilian trajectory preceding the 1998 Constitution marked by the problems inherent to the negotiations and political arrangements among the interests of the state bureaucracy, the Brazilian enterprises, and the international capital, the PETROBRAS puts its mark on the Brazilian industry construction and consolidation: that mark surmounts the restrict world wide and landmark of an industrialization more than expected.

  7. Voluntary disclosure of Value Chain in Financial Reports of Companies Brazilian Capital Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Costa Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the value chain with the aim to achieve competitive advantage in relation to their competitors and in order to reduce costs has become increasingly important for business organizations. The aim of this paper is to analyse whether Brazilian organisations listed on Sao Paulo´s Stock Exchange (BOVESPA publish information relating to value chain management in their financial reports. In addition, this research aims to investigate the potential relationtionship between evidentiation of this information and two independent variables, gross margin and number of pages. Content Analysis was adopted in the management report and report notes of the year 2011. The analysis was based on the strategic cost management framework developed by Wrubel et al. (2010. The sample selected includes the ten largest non financial organizations, according to their total assets. Despite the fact that publishing the value chain management is not compulsory, it was observed that the businesses studied present on average 30 sentences regarding the topic in their reports. The category internal and external value chain activities represents 54.58% of the total sentences found. It has been found that there is a significant positive correlation between the amount of sentences disclosed and page number of reports, however, it was found that the same does not occur when attempted to correlate the gross margin. As a consequence, the hypothesis that gross margin could be a motivation for higher volume of information regarding value chain was not confirmed.

  8. Capitalismo Brasileiro e Responsabilidade Social Empresarial / Brazilian Capitalism and Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Martins Zanitelli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo se dedica a levantar hipóteses sobre a responsabilidade social empresarial no Brasil. Para tanto, vale-se de duas vertentes distintas da literatura sobre comportamento das empresas, uma que procura definir os fatores, não apenas estratégicos, mas também institucionais, da responsabilidade social empresarial, e outra, conhecida como abordagem das “variedades de capitalismo”, que se empenha em descrever o impacto das diferentes instituições (normas e práticas características do capitalismo de cada país sobre a atuação das empresas. Foram elaboradas, como resultado, seis hipóteses sobre a conduta socialmente responsável das empresas no Brasil.Abstract: The paper raises hypotheses regarding corporate social responsibility in Brazil. It draws on two distinct branches of the literature concerning the behavior of firms, one that seeks to determine both the strategic and institutional factors conditioning firms’ social performance and other, known as the “varieties of capitalism” approach, describing the impact of different institutions (norms and practices featured by national capitalisms on firms’ strategies. As a result, six hypotheses about the social performance of enterprises in Brasil are formulated. Abstract: The paper raises hypotheses regarding corporate social responsibility in Brazil. It draws on two distinct branches of the literature concerning the behavior of firms, one that seeks to determine both the strategic and institutional factors conditioning firms’ social performance and other, known as the “varieties of capitalism” approach, describing the impact of different institutions (norms and practices featured by national capitalisms on firms’ strategies. As a result, six hypotheses about the social performance of enterprises in Brasil are formulated.

  9. Characterization of the brazilian alcohol program in the State of Sao Paulo: production costs to plants and distillery homogeneous groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ethanol producing plants in the State of Sao Paulo present variation in scale of production, productivity and cost structure. This paper presents production costs and analyses the competitiveness of neat ethanol with respect to gasoline, for each of the eight homogeneous groups of distilleries in operation in the State of Sao Paulo. The study shows that, at prices of march 1986, there is a variation of operational costs in the range of 1.46 to 1.95 cruzados per liter of hydrous ethanol. The reference price, including operational costs and interest on capital, varies from 2.47 to 3.15 cruzados per liter. These prices do not consider subsidies given by the Government under the Brazilian National Alcohol Program. The price of hydrous ethanol in Barrel Equivalent of Oil goes from 33.3 to 43.1 american dollars, showing that ethanol is not currently competitive with gasoline. (author)

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Risk-Based Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. A Appendix A to Part 208—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... risk-based capital measure to assist in the assessment of the capital adequacy of state member banks....

  11. State-level social capital and suicide mortality in the 50 U.S. states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan Daniel Lucia; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated whether state levels of social capital are associated with rates of completed suicides in the fifty U.S. states. To do this we regressed state-level suicide rates on an index of social capital, along with other variables known to influence suicide rates such as gun ownership, income inequality, alcohol abuse and dependence, drug abuse and dependence, serious mental illness, unemployment, percent of population living in urban areas, poverty, population instability, and living in a "suicide belt" state. Suicide rates were aggregated from 1999 to 2002, and examined separately by sex and different race/ethnic groups. The results showed that White men and women in states with higher levels of social capital had significantly lower rates of suicide when controlling for the other influential variables. When we examined sub-dimensions of social capital, we found that community organizations (for White women) and group membership (for White men) were particularly strongly associated with lower suicide risk. PMID:25262314

  12. A proposal of cost evaluation of own capital for the Brazilian electric sector; Uma proposta de avaliacao do custo do capital proprio para o setor de energia eletrica brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira L.

    2003-12-01

    This work studies the own capital cost of the Brazilian electric sector, by using three methodologies: Comparable Accounting Results (CAR), using historical values for measurement, Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) and the CAPM, elaborated from expected values.The obtained results by using the CAR method indicated that the Brazilian electric power sector is not receiving remuneration according to the real maintenance and expansion necessities. Based on this observation, it was considered appropriated to discard the CAR method in the proposed methodology, therefore using the simply average of the CAPM e DCF models. By using the simply average of the models presents the advantage of capturing specific characteristics of each model, and to dilute effects of eventual extreme values.

  13. THE NEW PROFILE FOR THE BRAZILIAN CONSUMER MARKET:RESEARCH ON THE STATE INDUCTION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rangel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pursues the discussion of the inductive role of the State in shaping up the new profile of the Brazilian market consumer. It presents the characteristics of the established logistical State as a response to the decline of the long overdue traditional structures of State, imposing new forms of analysis and observation to the development of the organizational strategies.

  14. THE NEW PROFILE FOR THE BRAZILIAN CONSUMER MARKET:RESEARCH ON THE STATE INDUCTION CAPACITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Rangel

    2012-01-01

    This paper pursues the discussion of the inductive role of the State in shaping up the new profile of the Brazilian market consumer. It presents the characteristics of the established logistical State as a response to the decline of the long overdue traditional structures of State, imposing new forms of analysis and observation to the development of the organizational strategies.

  15. Analysis of calls to the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services in a Brazilian capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Nonnemacher Luchtemberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is a documentary study to characterize Mobile First-Aid Medical Services calls that did not provide assistance in the state of Santa Catarina, SC, Brazil from 2007 to 2010. Data were collected from assistance reports, being noticed 393,912 prank phone calls to the institution. The main reason for the assistance not being provided was the removal of the victim by third parties. The others were refusal of care, the removal of the patient and incorrect address. There were significant differences (p<0.05 between the years under study concerning the calls received by the Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the number of prank phone calls received in the state macro-regions. The results indicate the need of investment in health education activities, reducing costs and increasing effectiveness. It is also necessary to improve communication between Mobile First-Aid Medical Services and the other services (Military Police and Fire Brigade reducing the number of assistance.

  16. Estimating a theoretical model of state banking competition using a dynamic panel: the Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio A. Miessi Sanches

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we set up a model of regional banking competition based on Bresnahan (1982, Lau (1982 and Nakane (2002. The structural model is estimated using data from eight Brazilian states and a dynamic panel. The results show that on average the level of competition in the Brazilian banking system is high, even tough the null of perfect competition can be rejected at the usual significance levels. This result also prevails at the state level: Rio Grande do Sul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Pernambuco and Minas Gerais have high degree of competition.

  17. 75 FR 29217 - Office of the Attorney General; Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems; Removal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... Capital Counsel Systems, 73 FR 75327 (Dec. 11, 2008). A Federal district court issued an injunction... entitled ``Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems'' to 28 CFR part 26. 72 FR 31217 (June 6..., reopening the comment period, 72 FR 44816, and the reopened comment period ended on September 24, 2007....

  18. Bank capital, the state contingency of banks' assets and its role for the transmission of shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kühl, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The role of bank capital as a propagation channel of shocks is strongly pronounced in recent macroeconomic models. In this paper, we show how the evolution of bank capital depends on the share of non-state-contingent assets in banks' balance sheets and present the consequences for macroeconomic dynamics. State-contingent securities impact on banks' balance sheets through changes in their returns (and their prices), both of which depend on the current state of the economy. Nonstate-contingent ...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... RESERVE SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. B Appendix B to Part 208—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State... capital adequacy of state member banks. 1 The principal objective of this measure is to place a...

  20. Solid state 13C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    13C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (13C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of Δ8(17) and Δ12(13) unsaturations, were obtained by 13C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  1. The Lure of Chinese State Capitalism in Latin America: Influence, Investments and Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Narins, Thomas Peter

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes and explains a political-economic concept, defined here as the neoliberal-dirigiste continuum, which offers an explanation of the manner in which Chinese capital and Chinese State Capitalism have been invested and received in different ways across the distinct geographies and countries in Latin America over the last three decades. While bilateral trade is one measure used to gauge the attractiveness of the Chinese state capitalist model in targeted Latin American economies...

  2. STATE-INDUCED SOCIAL CAPITAL AND ETHNIC INTEGRATION: THE CASE OF RUKUN TETANGGA IN PENANG, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Fazwan Ahmad Farouk

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of social capital have argued that individuals boundtogether in dense social networks, infused with norms of reciprocity and trust, are better able and more inclined to act collectively for mutual benefit and social purposes as opposed to atomised individuals. This is due to the fact that the existence of social capital enables groups and individuals to deal smoothly and efficiently with various economic and social issues. Social capital is therefore seen as “sociological superglue” that holds society together. The social capital thesis, however, is based on studies done mainly in mature Western democracies where ethnic and racial cleavages do not figure prominently in the social structure. Questions such as what are the necessary requisites for social capital to flourish in a society that is divided along racial, ethnic, and religious lines and what are its repercussions (the existence or absence of social capital have not been adequately addressed. Does the existence of social capital in such society have a moderating effect or will it polarise the society further?There is no doubt that norms of reciprocity and trust exist in all societies but do individuals in a highly polarised society trust other individuals from different ethnic or religious groups? In a modest attempt to address these issues, this article looks at the role of the state in generating social capital across racial, ethnic, and religious lines at the grass-roots level in the northern state of Penang, Malaysia. We argue that the creation of a “semi-autonomous” community organisations or a “state-induced social capital” plays a crucial role in fostering face-to-face interactionamong individuals of different ethnic and religious lines in an otherwise a highly polarised society. This line of argument calls into question the social capital thesis which takes the existence of social capital as a given and cannot be generated by institutional conditions.

  3. 12 CFR Appendix E to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks; Market Risk Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... SYSTEM (REGULATION H) Pt. 208, App. E Appendix E to Part 208—Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member... adequate capital to support that exposure. 1 This appendix supplements and adjusts the risk-based...

  4. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire; Lidia Moraes Ribeiro Jordão; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo Andrade; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink c...

  6. Industrial and intellectual capital clusters in the Baltic states

    OpenAIRE

    Vanags, Alf; Basarova, Julija; Titova, Nellija

    2002-01-01

    Various recent developments, eg the 'new economic geography' as exemplified by say, Krugman, P. (1991) or work originating in the business literature (Porter 1998), point to industrial and intellectual capital clusters as key factors associated with economic development. Indeed recent evidence suggests that multiple clustering leads to higher regional economic development. This leads to the idea that clusters should be encouraged as for example in the Latvian context in Phare (2001), an idea ...

  7. IS THE BRAZILIAN FISCAL RESPONSIBILITY LAW (LRF) REALLY BINDING? EVIDENCE FROM STATE-LEVEL GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Barroso; Romero Rocha

    2004-01-01

    The adoption of a set of fiscal and budgetary institutions for a better macroeconomic performance has been gathering support in various governments. This article states that Institutions matters and adopts the New Institutional Economics framework in its approach. After a brief review of the literature and introduction to the Brazilian case, it poses the following question: Is the LRF really binding in restraining state's indebtedness? The institutional theory, which backed up the formulation...

  8. [Prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in the a capital in the Brazilian Northeast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato

    2016-06-01

    The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny.

  9. [Education and competences for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): is it possible to find alternatives to the logic of late capitalism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo; Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Albuquerque, Verônica Santos; Cavalcanti, Felipe de Oliveira Lopes; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi Mitre

    2013-01-01

    The transformations that have revolutionized the labor market in contemporary society make it necessary to think of new alternatives for training health care professionals, thereby establishing a new approach to the health problems of individuals and collectives. Based on these considerations, this paper sets out to discuss training in health--based on the concept of competence--with a focus on education for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS), using attempts to analyze and propose an alternative to the system entrenched in the logic of late capitalism as a theoretical benchmark. It is thus a reflection on the subject, correlating theory and praxis, in constant and relentless movement of construction, deconstruction and (re)construction of propositions.

  10. Fiscal Policy Impact on the State of Circulating Capital in the Corporate Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paranchuk Stepan V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in identification of impact of the fiscal policy on the state of circulating capital in the corporate sector in Ukraine and in other countries. The article underlines conceptual approaches to improvement of the state tax policy with consideration of a necessity of formation of own financial resources for formation of circulating capital by subjects of the corporate sector. It justifies scientific and practical measures on reduction of the tax load on the production capital, that is, on that part of the fixed and circulating capital, which regularly and directly participates in creation of the added value. It offers a list of tax privileges for subjects of the corporate sector that direct profit into accumulation of the own capital base, including in the part of increase of the circulating capital. Realisation of the proposed recommendations should facilitate fast accumulation of financial resources for further formation of the circulating capital in the corporate sector, since this is an indispensable condition of high efficiency of corporate finance and economic activity in general.

  11. A State Level Investigation of the Associations among Intellectual Capital, Religiosity and Reproductive Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Charlie L.; Basalik, Debra

    2011-01-01

    The current study examines the degree to which state intellectual capital, state religiosity and reproductive health form a meaningful nexus of ecological relations. Though the specific magnitude of effects vary across outcomes, results from hierarchical regression analyses were consistent with the hypothesized path model indicating that a state's…

  12. Associations between Caries among Children and Household Sugar Procurement, Exposure to Fluoridated Water and Socioeconomic Indicators in the Brazilian Capital Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Martins Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this ecological study was to investigate the association between caries experience in 5- and 12-year-old Brazilian children in 2010 and household sugar procurement in 2003 and the effects of exposure to water fluoridation and socioeconomic indicators. Sample units were all 27 Brazilian capital cities. Data were obtained from the National Surveys of Oral Health; the National Household Food Budget Survey; and the United Nations Program for Development. Data analysis included correlation coefficients, exploratory factor analysis, and linear regression. There were significant negative associations between caries experience and procurement of confectionery, fluoridated water, HDI, and per capita income. Procurement of confectionery and soft drinks was positively associated with HDI and per capita income. Exploratory factor analysis grouped the independent variables by reducing highly correlated variables into two uncorrelated component variables that explained 86.1% of total variance. The first component included income, HDI, water fluoridation, and procurement of confectionery, while the second included free sugar and procurement of soft drinks. Multiple regression analysis showed that caries is associated with the first component. Caries experience was associated with better socioeconomic indicators of a city and exposure to fluoridated water, which may affect the impact of sugars on the disease.

  13. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight......Denmark exemplifies the puzzle of socioeconomic success in Scandinavia. Populations are thriving despite the world’s highest levels of tax and generous social benefits. Denmark would appear to be a land of paradise for free-riders and those who want ‘money for nothing’. However, the national...

  14. Uma análise sobre a evidenciação das contas públicas das Capitais brasileiras = An analysis on the disclosure of public accounts of the brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dionísio Gomes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A transparência exigida para os atos de gestão da administração pública é uma ferramenta importante decontrole, que deve ser utilizada pelos cidadãos, para fiscalizar as ações dos governantes das três esferasdo governo: federal, estadual e municipal. A evidenciação das contas públicas está prevista na Lei nº 4.320,de 17 de março de 1964 e na Lei Complementar 101, de 04 de maio de 2000 (LRF. Esta pesquisa temcomo objetivo geral analisar se todas as capitais brasileiras estão evidenciando suas contas públicas, naInternet, em conformidade com o estabelecido na Lei n° 9.755/98 e no Art. 48 da LRF. Foram utilizadas aspesquisas descritiva, bibliográfica e qualitativa. A coleta de dados foi realizada no sítio denominado deContas Públicas mantido pelo Tribunal de Contas da União (TCU e nos sítios das capitais brasileiras,incluindo a capital federal. Os resultados revelaram que das 27 capitais brasileiras, 13 não fizeram nenhumregistro de contas públicas no sítio de mesmo nome de responsabilidade do Tribunal de Contas da União(TCU, sendo que as demais (14 fizeram registros, mas faltam dados exigidos pela Lei 9755/98 e quenenhuma capital atende as exigências do Art. 48 da LRF.The transparency required for the acts of public administration management is an important tool of control,which should be used by citizens to oversee the actions of the rulers of the three spheres of government:federal, state and municipal levels. The disclosure of public accounts is provided in Law No. 4320 of March17, 1964 and the Complementary Law 101 of May 4, 2000 (LRF. This research aims at analyzing whetherall capital cities are showing their public accounts, the Internet, in accordance with the provisions of Law No.9.755/98 and Art 48 of the LRF. We used the exploratory research, literature and qualitative. Data collectionwas performed at the site known as the Public Accounts maintained by the Court of Audit (TCU and thesites of the Brazilian

  15. Caracterização diagnóstica dos serviços que atendem vítimas de acidentes e violências em cinco capitais brasileiras Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo caracteriza serviços que atendem as vítimas em capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras com altos índices de violências e acidentes.Analisam-se atividades e estratégias de atendimento, perfil das equipes, condições das instalações, equipamentos e insumos, serviços integrados de atenção e de registro de agravos e a ótica de gestores de saúde sobre demandas e necessidades para uma atenção de qualidade às vítimas. O acervo se constitui de 103 serviços: 34 de Recife, 25 do Rio de Janeiro, 18 de Manaus, 18 de Curitiba e 8 de Brasília. Os resultados ainda preliminares indicam: menor número de serviços com atendimentos voltados a idosos; pouco investimento em ações de prevenção; suporte social, atendimento ambulatorial, hospitalar e psicológico são as principais ações empreendidas; encaminhamentos das unidades básicas de saúde requerem atenção nas comunidades e famílias; necessidade de investimentos na capacitação dos profissionais para atendimento; registros precários e feitos manualmente. O texto da Política Nacional de Redução de Morbimortalidade por Acidentes e Violências é pouco conhecido e há desarticulação inter e intra-institucional e entre atendimento pré-hospitalar e de emergência. Em todas as cidades há insuficiência de serviços de reabilitação.This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce

  16. Diagnostic characterization of services providing care to victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian state capitals Caracterização diagnóstica dos serviços que atendem a vítimas de acidentes e violências em cinco capitais brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This article characterizes the services providing care to victims in five Brazilian regions with high violence and accident rates. It analyzes care activities and strategies, the profile of the teams, the conditions of installations, equipment and supplies, integrated care and registration services and the opinion of health managers with respect to the needs and requirements for a better care to the victims. The sample is composed by 103 services: 34 from Recife, 25 from Rio de Janeiro, 18 from Manaus, 18 from Curitiba and 8 from Brasília. The still preliminary results indicate: lower number of services focusing on the elderly; scarce investment in preventive actions; the principal actions carried out are social assistance, ambulatory and hospital care and psychological assistance; patients received from Basic Health Units require attention of the communities and families; need for investment in capacity building programs for professionals; precarious registries, data handled manually. The wording of the National Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence is not well-known and there is a lack of articulation among and inside sectors and between prehospital and emergency care services. Rehabilitation services are insufficient in all cities.Este artigo caracteriza serviços que atendem as vítimas em capitais das cinco regiões brasileiras com altos índices de violências e acidentes. Analisam-se atividades e estratégias de atendimento, perfil das equipes, condições das instalações, equipamentos e insumos, serviços integrados de atenção e de registro de agravos e a ótica de gestores de saúde sobre demandas e necessidades para uma atenção de qualidade às vítimas. O acervo se constitui de 103 serviços: 34 de Recife, 25 de Rio de Janeiro, 18 de Manaus, 18 de Curitiba e 8 de Brasília. Os resultados ainda preliminares indicam: menor número de serviços com atendimentos voltados a idosos; pouco

  17. Building Social and Cultural Capital among Young People in Disadvantaged Communities: Lessons from a Brazilian Sport-Based Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaaij, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the concepts of social and cultural capital as analytical tools for investigating the capacity of sport-based intervention programs to contribute to the personal, social and professional development of disadvantaged young people. It draws on survey data (n = 129) and qualitative interviews (n = 53) with participants of the…

  18. Trade, merchant capital, industrial capital, and blocked capitalist development in early state economies

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    Thomas C. Patterson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Trade, for many archaeologists, is the  a society employs to maintain or  its relations and linkages with  outside world. They also see trade as  motor of social and political-economic  leading to and culminating  the rise of civilization and the   states. , by focusing on  distribution of raw materials and,  typically the nature of trade rather than the social  that underlie the circulation of ., they rarely treat category itself as problematic.

  19. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Siqueira, André Machado; Alecrim, Maria das Graças Costa; Mourão, Maria Paula Gomes; Marchesini, Paola Barbosa; Albuquerque, Bernardino Cláudio; Nascimento, Joabi; Figueira, Élder Augusto Guimarães; Alecrim, Wilson Duarte; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912), malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge. PMID:26061365

  20. Malaria in the State of Amazonas: a typical Brazilian tropical disease influenced by waves of economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Souza Sampaio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, more than 99% of malaria cases are reported in the Amazon, and the State of Amazonas accounts for 40% of this total. However, the accumulated experience and challenges in controlling malaria in this region in recent decades have not been reported. Throughout the first economic cycle during the rubber boom (1879 to 1912, malaria was recorded in the entire state, with the highest incidence in the villages near the Madeira River in the Southern part of the State of Amazonas. In the 1970s, during the second economic development cycle, the economy turned to the industrial sector and demanded a large labor force, resulting in a large migratory influx to the capital Manaus. Over time, a gradual increase in malaria transmission was observed in peri-urban areas. In the 1990s, the stimulation of agroforestry, particularly fish farming, led to the formation of permanent Anopheline breeding sites and increased malaria in settlements. The estimation of environmental impacts and the planning of measures to mitigate them, as seen in the construction of the Coari-Manaus gas pipeline, proved effective. Considering the changes occurred since the Amsterdam Conference in 1992, disease control has been based on early diagnosis and treatment, but the development of parasites that are resistant to major antimalarial drugs in Brazilian Amazon has posed a new challenge. Despite the decreased lethality and the gradual decrease in the number of malaria cases, disease elimination, which should be associated with government programs for economic development in the region, continues to be a challenge.

  1. PROJECTION OF PENETRATION OF THE BROKER IN HOME BRAZILIAN CAPITAL MARKET THROUGH LINEAR, GOMPERTZ AND FISHER – PRY MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Kawamoto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the theories of internationalization and competitiveness, the positioning of a Brazilian company from agribusiness industry, exporting meat and food that has become a major global player in this industry JBS - Friboi. This company has been internationalized very fast in recent years and become a global leader in beef production, the second to the production of chicken meat and third largest producer of pork in the U.S. (JBS, 2010. The case is emblematic of JBS when analyzed under the concept of Porter's diamond applied to Brazil. This company gained scale and competitiveness with the access to natural resources of prodution (condition factor, but now it is necessary for maintenance its leading position, it requires a strategy grounded in innovation beyond just scale and operational excellence.

  2. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI among elderly Brazilians

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    Barros IMC

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI in a group of elderly Brazilians.Methods: The study participants were individuals between 60 and 90 years old, of both sexes, with different levels of education and income. Fifteen of 81 pictograms from the USP-DI were presented to the elderly subjects, individually, without subtitles and in random order, so that the participants’ understanding of the pictograms could be evaluated.Results: The study included 116 participants. Only one of the selected pictograms reached the comprehension criterion established by the International Organization for Standardization 3864. With regard to the relationship between understanding and sociodemographic characteristics, age, wage income, and level of education were all found to be significantly associated with participants’ understanding of some of the pictograms.Conclusion: Most of the USP-DI pictograms evaluated were not well understood by the elderly Brazilians. This finding indicates that such pictograms need to be culturally adapted for the Brazilian context if they are to serve their purpose effectively in this country. Keywords: pictograms, understanding, elderly, Brazil

  3. 77 FR 7559 - Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... not result in aggregate expenditures by State, local, and tribal governments or by the private sector... 154 certification procedure in the Federal Register on March 3, 2011, at 76 FR 11705. The comment... bar for at least five years and have at least three years of felony litigation experience.'' 76 FR...

  4. Capitalism, the state and health care in the age of austerity: a Marxist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie.

  5. Capitalism, the state and health care in the age of austerity: a Marxist analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam

    2013-01-01

    The capacity to provide satisfactory nursing care is being increasingly compromised by current trajectories of healthcare funding and governance. The purpose of this paper is to examine how well Marxist theories of the state and its relationship with capital can explain these trajectories in this period of ever-increasing austerity. Following a brief history of the current crisis, it examines empirically the effects of the crisis, and of the current trajectory of capitalism in general, upon the funding and organization of the UK and US healthcare systems. The deleterious effect of growing income inequalities to the health of the population is also addressed. Marx's writings on the state and its relation to the capitalist class were fragmentary and historically and geographically specific. From them, we can extract three theoretical variants: the instrumentalist theory of the state, where the state has no autonomy from capital; the abdication theory, whereby capital abstains from direct political power and relies on the state to serve its interests; and the class-balance theory, whereby the struggle between two opposed classes allows the state to assert itself. Discussion of modern Marxist interpretations includes Poulantzas's abdication theory and Miliband's instrumentalist theory. It is concluded that, despite the pluralism of electoral democracies, the bourgeoisie do have an overweening influence upon the state. The bourgeoisie's ownership of the means of production provides the foundation for its influence because the state is obliged to rely on it to manage the supply of goods and services and the creation of wealth. That power is further reinforced by the infiltration of the bourgeoisie into the organs of state. The level of influence has accelerated rapidly over recent decades. One of the consequences of this has been that healthcare systems have become rich pickings for the evermore confident bourgeoisie. PMID:23279579

  6. Impactos da assimetria de informação na estrutura de capital de empresas brasileiras abertas Impacts of information asymmetry on the capital structure of Brazilian publicly-traded firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Albanez

    2009-12-01

    the central presumption of the referred theory and to verify if the information asymmetry influences the financing decisions of Brazilian open capital firms in the period 1997-2007. In order to do so, proxy variables are used for information asymmetry, besides control variables that represent firms' characteristics. Panel data analysis is the technique used. As the main result, it was found that companies considered to have the lowest degree of information asymmetry are higher leveraged than the others when analyzing the level of total debt. That result is contrary to the pecking order theory, where these companies would have the opportunity to raise resources by emitting shares, due to the low probability of occurring problems derived from information asymmetry. However, this result supports the expected alternative relation, where companies with lower asymmetric information make it easier for their debt holders to evaluate their risk, what could increase the credit offer, favoring the use of debt by reducing the adverse selection costs and increasing the debt capacity of these companies. In doing so, it becomes important to also analyze the role of the risk when establishing a hierarchy of preferences adopted by Brazilian firms regarding alternative financing sources.

  7. Hipertensão arterial e alguns fatores de risco em uma capital brasileira High blood pressure and some risk factors in a brazilian capital

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    Paulo César B. Veiga Jardim

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da hipertensão arterial (HA e de alguns fatores de risco cardiovasculares na população adulta de uma capital brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, observacional e transversal, de base populacional, fundamentado em inquérito domiciliar de amostra aleatória simples (>18a. Questionários padronizados, colhidas informações sociodemográficas, realizadas medidas de PA (duas tomadas, peso, altura, circunferência abdominal. Dados armazenados (programa Microsoft Access e analisados através do programa Epi Info 6. Foi considerada última medida da PA (critério de HA ±140x90 mmHg. RESULTADOS: Avaliamos 1.739 pessoas (87% do previsto. Predomínio do sexo feminino (65,4%, média de idade de 39,7 anos (±15,6. A prevalência de HA foi de 36,4%, sendo maior entre homens (41,8% que entre mulheres (31,8%. Encontrada correlação positiva da HA com IMC, circunferência da cintura (CC e faixa etária, enquanto o sexo feminino representou fator de proteção para o risco de hipertensão. Prevalência de sobrepeso 30,0% e de obesidade 13,6%. Sobrepeso maior entre as mulheres e obesidade entre os homens. Tabagismo teve prevalência de 20,1%, mais freqüente entre homens (27,1% que entre mulheres (16,4%. Sedentarismo presente em 62,3% da população, sem diferenças entre os sexos. Hábito da ingestão regular de bebidas alcoólicas em 44,4% dos indivíduos, mais freqüente entre homens. CONCLUSÃO: Indicadores de HA e de outros fatores de risco cardiovascular (em particular sobrepeso/obesidade mostram-se elevados. Esses dados reforçam a necessidade da implementação de medidas objetivas em âmbito nacional, visando combater esses agravos à saúde, com vistas à redução da morbidade e mortalidade por DCV.OBJECTIVES: Estimate the prevalence of hypertension and some cardiovascular risk factors in the adult population of a major city in Brazil. METHODS: Descriptive, observational, transversal population-based study

  8. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  9. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Marcus Emanuel Barroncas; Costa, Lanna Jamile Corrêa da; Andrade, Fernanda Atanaena Gonçalves de; Silva, Lucila Pereira

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p<0.01), but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis. PMID:23477765

  10. Rabies in humans and non-human in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Emanuel Barroncas Fernandes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluate the relationship of positive cases of rabies with the continuing expansion of livestock production, and analyse the trends of this zoonosis in human population in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. The distribution of rabies cases was recorded between 1999 and 2004. Of 148 cases of rabies, 21% were in humans and 79% in non-human mammals. The rapid growth in livestock numbers seems to be associated with the increase of positive cases in bovine livestock transmitted by vampire bats. This idea is supported by positive and significant relationship of both events in time (p < 0.01, but failed when spatial distribution among regions of the state was considered. However, rabies cases tend to occur toward the northeastern of the state of Pará, where rabies cases are proportionally five times greater than other mesoregions, suggesting that increased livestock production may influence the increase of this zoonosis.

  11. Assessment of sanitation levels of sources of water in Osun State Capital, Nigeria

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    Felix A. Oginni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis including BOD and COD was carried out for sources of water in Oshogbo the Capital of the State of Osun. Seven water sampling areas were selected to cover the low, medium and high population density areas of the State Capital. Water samples were collected from five sources of water, namely, shallow well, borehole, stream, rain and river. Water samples were collected from the well, borehole and stream water sources from Dada Estate and Isale Oshun for low density population, Ayetoro, Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe for medium density, and Oke-Bale and Igbona for high density population areas. Three sampling points were undertaken for the rain water source while River Oshun source at Isale-Oshun was the 25th water sampling point. A total of 25 water quality parameters were analyzed for each of the 25 water sources sampled using the facility at the Rural Water And Environmental Sanitation Agency, RUWESA in Osun State Government Secretariat in Abere. Results indicated that 8 of the water quality parameters, pH, Turbidity; Magnesium hardness, Free Chlorine, Nitrite, Bacteriological, BOD and COD were not within Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON permitted water quality standards and are of concern to sanitation of potable water in the State Capital. The level of each parameter differs from source to source as well as from level of population densities. The sources that were adjudged polluted were Ogo-Oluwa and Oke-Ayepe well sources; Ogo-Oluwa, Oke-Bale and Igbona stream sources Oke-Bale Rain source.R and the River source at Isale-Oshun. The polluted sources are all within the medium and high population density areas of the State Capital.

  12. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in the Brazilian state of Bahia

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    André Costa Matos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR, physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05, no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08 as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.

  13. Two micro-models of tourism capitalism and the (re)scaling of state-business relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Erkuş-Öztürk; P. Terhorst

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to show that (i) there are two micro-models of tourism capitalism in Antalya (Turkey) and (ii) different trajectories of (re)scaling of state-business relations form an integral part of each model of tourism capitalism. The paper bridges two debates in the literature that generally a

  14. Book review: Refugees, capitalism and the British state: implications for social workers, volunteers and activists

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    "Refugees, Capitalism and the British State: Implications for Social Workers, Volunteers and Activists." Tom Vickers. Ashgate. 2012. --- In this period of economic crisis, public sector cuts, and escalating class struggles, Marxist theory offers social workers and service users important tools to help understand the structures of oppression they face and to devise effective means of resistance. This book uses Marxism’s lost insights, reinterpreting them for the current context by focusing ...

  15. Descrying the bourgeoisie: Sugar, capital and state in the Netherlands Indies, circa 1840-1884

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    G. Roger Knight

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to descry the existence of a significant colonial bourgeoisie in Java during the middle decades of the nineteenth century might appear futile. An old, and apparently still lingering, orthodoxy postulates a colonial state uniquely in thrall to a powerful bureaucracy: one that exercised so extensive a control over resources as to largely preclude bourgeois capital formation. On this reading, colonial proprietorship, notably in sugar, was seignorial in nature rather than bourgeois.

  16. Designing a Forex Trading and Equity Investment Strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Rizvan

    2008-01-01

    Construct the investment strategy for the New-State Capital Hedge Fund. Identify profit making opportunities in Foreign Exchange (Forex) & Equities using both conventional and non-conventional indicators. The author is to articulate and document his current knowledge in the chosen area in order to stimuate ideas in creating potential investment strategies. Justify knowledge with actual results in a genuine live investment. Critique and evluate the effectiveness of the proposed investment ...

  17. Medieval capital markets. Markets for renten between state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550)

    OpenAIRE

    Zuijderduijn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The book is structured as follows. Chapter 1 introduces medieval Holland as a significant entity for institutional-economic development by discussing how the state created a county wide societal structure. As a proto-territorial state Holland had a uniform judiciary, a government apparatus that gave shape to the public sector and regulations aimed at the capital market. At the same time the counts of Holland profited from the capital market: they used funded debt to finance state formation. L...

  18. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

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    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  19. 76 FR 15211 - Changes in Disease Status of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina With Regard to Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... trading relationships with CSF-affected regions. Because we have not declared the rest of Brazil to be... added the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina to the list of regions we recognize as free of foot-and... swine fever. We also added Santa Catarina to the list of regions that are subject to certain...

  20. RESPONSIBILITIES ABOUT AUDIT: REVIEW OF THE MANAGEMENT IN HEALTH PACT BETWEEN BRAZILIAN STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Solon Tajra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Health Pact presented a new proposal for strategic advancement and formalization in healthcare. In this moment, there was the necessity of signing the commitment management which gathered some of the commitments made by managers as auditing in health. The aim of this study is to analyze the performance of management responsibilities about audit in SUS in reference to the document among brazilian states. Documentary research was carried out from the data source available in the site of the Participatory Strategic Support / Ministry of Health. We observed satisfactory levels (80.77% in meeting these responsibilities. However, it is necessary to greater commitment of management, once the audit has taken over the process of health reform, significant policy making in ensuring the principles of effectiveness, efficiency, effectiveness and economy.

  1. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

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    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  2. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  3. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26082544

  5. Origem e ascensão do debate sobre o capital internacional na formação econômica brasileira (1889-1964 Origin and rise of the debate about international capital in the Brazilian economic formation (1889-1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macchione Saes

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a origem e a ascensão do debate intelectual sobre o capital internacional na formação econômica brasileira, entre o início do período republicano e a eclosão do golpe militar em 1964. Esse período divide-se em “origem”, do final do século XIX a 1930, e “ascensão”, do Governo Vargas ao início do regime ditatorial em 1964. O primeiro momento situa os debates embrionários à problemática da atuação do capital estrangeiro que suscitaram as primeiras manifestações nacionalistas. A partir da Revolução de 1930, os governos se voltaram para a industrialização, mas tal estratégia jamais se mostrou plenamente autônoma à utilização de recursos externos. Nesse contexto histórico que, os pensadores brasileiros nos anos 50 e 60 passaram a debater sobre a questão do capital estrangeiro versus capital nacional naquele padrão de desenvolvimento que se consolidava. Palavras-chave: Capital internacional. Vias de desenvolvimento. Debate intelectual. The article discusses the origin and rise of the debate about international capital in the Brazilian economic formation, between the inception of the Republican period and the launch of 1964 coup d’etat. This period is divided into “origin”, from the last decade of 19th century to 1930, and “rise”, from the Vargas government to the military government in 1964. The first moment shows the preliminary debates arising from issues regarding the foreign capital dynamic that promoted the initial nationalistic manifestations. As of the 1930 revolution, governments invested in industrialization, but this strategy was never fully autonomous from the utilization of foreign resources. Within in this historical context, Brazilian intellectuals in the 50’s and 60’s started to discuss the foreign versus national capital issues in that new development pattern that was being setting across the country. Keywords: International capital. Ways of

  6. Droughts, Morality, State Politics and the Brazilian Semiarid Landscape: A Study of the São Francisco River Integration Project

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørgum, Claudia Pastor Almeida Soares

    2008-01-01

    The poorest region of Brazil, the Northeast is prone to devastating multi-annual droughts, an inherent part of its geography. The Brazilian state attributes the poverty of the Northeast to the semiarid landscape and a supposed water deficit. The state defends a water diversion project on the biggest river of the region that is rejected by the local population and civil society organizations, as a definitive solution for the water deficit of a section of the semiarid landscape. Based on a larg...

  7. [Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil.

  8. [Regionalization and access to healthcare in Brazilian states: historical and political-institutional conditioning factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Viana, Ana Luiza d'Ávila; Machado, Cristiani Vieira; de Albuquerque, Mariana Vercesi; de Oliveira, Roberta Gondim; Iozzi, Fabíola Lana; Scatena, João Henrique Gurtler; Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Pereira, Adelyne Maria Mendes; Coelho, Ana Paula Santana

    2012-11-01

    This article examines the healthcare regionalization process in the Brazilian states in the period from 2007 to 2010, seeking to identify the conditions that favor or impede this process. Referential analysis of public policies and especially of historical institutionalism was used. Three dimensions sum up the conditioning factors of regionalization: context (historical-structural, political-institutional and conjunctural), directionality (ideology, object, actors, strategies and instruments) and regionalization features (institutionality and governance). The empirical research relied mainly on the analysis of official documents and interviews with key actors in 24 states. Distinct patterns of influence in the states were observed, with regionalization being marked by important gains in institutionality and governance in the period. Nevertheless, inherent difficulties of the contexts prejudice greater advances. There is a pressing need to broaden the territorial focus in government planning and to integrate sectorial policies for medium and long-term regional development in order to empower regionalization and to overcome obstacles to the access to healthcare services in Brazil. PMID:23175295

  9. Capitalizing China

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Fan; Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Despite a vast accumulation of private capital, China is not embracing capitalism. Deceptively familiar capitalist features disguise the profoundly unfamiliar foundations of "market socialism with Chinese characteristics." The Chinese Communist Party (CCP), by controlling the career advancement of all senior personnel in all regulatory agencies, all state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and virtually all major financial institutions state-owned enterprises (SOEs), and senior Party positions in all ...

  10. Between Lead Capitalism and Washington Consensus. The State and Economic Relations of China with Brasil, Chile and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    León-Manríquez, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Economic relations between China and Latin America differ according to two subregions. Regarding Mexico and Central America there is a meaningful competition, while South America is benefiting from the high demand of commodities from China. While the relation has a lot to do with the market, the state also plays an important role. In China, resilient central planning and state intervention breeds significant effects on the relationship with Latin America. The Brazilian government has also sou...

  11. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  12. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes Delir Corrêa; Cruz Rosane Pereira da; Vicente Joaquim Júlio; Pinto Roberto Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758) the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819), Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819) Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934) F...

  13. Corruption, political culture and negative social capital in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Baquero

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in strengthening Brazilian democracy has been the endurance of continued corruption on the part of state officials. The result has been the institutionalization of a political culture, which shows a growing alienation, and apathy of citizens regarding politics. This behavior has its origins in citizens´ perception that the state and public authorities cannot be trusted producing an inertial democracy with low stocks of social capital. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between corruption practices by state authorities and the structuring of a defective political culture in Brazil. The working hypothesis is that serious cases of institutionalized corruption are possible due to invisible social ties created among public authorities, producing social capital of a negative nature, which constraints the effective advancements in Brazilian democracy.

  14. The Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the insertion of the Brazilian State in its regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of nuclear weapons continues to appear as a focal point of International Relations. The efforts and concrete actions on disarmament, non-proliferation, and nuclear arms control are still issues that generate recurring tensions between States. However, in Brazil, there is little analysis of an academic nature about these issues and, with respect to current and prospective position of the Brazilian State in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime, studies and analysis are even more scarce, or incipient. The present dissertation has as its object of study to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the Regime arisen from NPT, and the Brazilian State insertion process in this Regime. Therefore our research work is structured in three areas: the first one is about the role of nuclear weapons in States security perception, the second is about NPT and its Regime, the third runs over the insertion of the Brazilian state in this regime. So, in summary, the research performed included the reasons that make a State to develop nuclear weapons, the NPT genesis and evolution of the perception of the meaning of that Treaty by the States, and the process and the degree of insertion of Brazil in the Nuclear Weapons Non- Proliferation Regime. The inquiry sought to place this object of study in the broader debate on Foreign Relations, based on the approaches of the discipline devoted to the question of managing the security of States, id est, the two approaches that constitute the mainstream of the discipline: the perspective theoretical liberal (and neoliberal variants) and realistic thinking (and neo-realist). Thus, we have used different theoretical lenses, which we think necessary for understanding the specific parts and causal connections between these parts of a complex issue. (author)

  15. Stakeholder and Social Capital Approaches as Explanations for Relationships between SMEs and State Officials in Different Transition Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study targets the determination of support that small and medium enterprises (SMEs) provide to government representatives of their choice (in the form of donations, influence through their networks, information, and votes). The study tests stakeholder and social capital approaches as legitimate explanations for SMEs' relationships with state representatives in different transition economies, specifically Belarus as a state-controlled transition economy and Ukraine as a rent-seeking state...

  16. Print Capitalism, New School and Circulation of Reading Models. A Brazilian Collection at the Primary Education Museum-Library in Portugal (1931-1950)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Maria Rita Almeida; Carvalho, Marta Maria Chagas

    2011-01-01

    The present article is the fruit of research on the circulation of Brazilian books from the "Atualidades Pedagogicas" collection at the "Biblioteca Museu do Ensino Primario" (Primary Education Museum-Library) in Lisbon. This library was headed by Adolfo Lima, one of the exponents of the Portuguese New School, and gave form to the movement's ideas…

  17. Understanding Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    du Gay, Paul; Morgan, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    if they are to be sustained. Such logics are stabilized to the degree that they can pass the tests which they set themselves. The chapter shows how the projective city has increasingly failed these tests. It has instead created a privileged group of ‘mobile citizens’ working with mobile, global capital in ways......This chapter places The New Spirit of Capitalism in the context of the development of capitalism over the last twenty years, up to and including the 200-7-8 financial crisis and the ongoing economic crisis which has developed out of this and is now focused on the relationship between state...... expenditures, political legitimacy and financial markets. Boltanski and Chiapello's analysis of the projective city and connexionist logic captures important elements of capitalism in the era of neo-liberalism. However, as their analysis shows, any such logics require ‘spirit’, legitimacy and justification...

  18. Arboviral diseases in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a perspective and analysis from a tertiary health & research center in Manaus, State of Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Paula Gomes Mourão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Fundação de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado (FMT-HVD, located in Manaus, the capital of the State of Amazonas (Western Brazilian Amazon, is a pioneering institution in this region regarding the syndromic surveillance of acute febrile illness, including arboviral infections. Based on the data from patients at the FMT-HVD, we have detected recurrent outbreaks in Manaus by the four dengue serotypes in the past 15 years, with increasing severity of the disease. This endemicity has culminated in the simultaneous circulation of all four serotypes in 2011, the first time this has been reported in Brazil. Between 1996 and 2009, 42 cases of yellow fever (YF were registered in the State of Amazonas, and 71.4% (30/42 were fatal. Since 2010, no cases have been reported. Because the introduction of the yellow fever virus into a large city such as Manaus, which is widely infested by Aedes mosquitoes, may pose a real risk of a yellow fever outbreak, efforts to maintain an appropriate immunization policy for the populace are critical. Manaus has also suffered silent outbreaks of Mayaro and Oropouche fevers lately, most of which were misdiagnosed as dengue fever. The tropical conditions of the State of Amazonas favor the existence of other arboviruses capable of producing human disease. Under this real threat, represented by at least 4 arboviruses producing human infections in Manaus and in other neighboring countries, it is important to develop an efficient public health surveillance strategy, including laboratories that are able to make proper diagnoses of arboviruses.

  19. She Is My Language Broker: How Does Cultural Capital Benefit Asian Immigrant Children in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md-Yunus, Sham'ah

    2011-01-01

    Cultural capital benefits Asian immigrant children when they become language brokers. This skill can also benefit their parents and families in the United States. Language brokering may shape and possibly enhance students' academic performance and can further children's linguistic and academic achievement. (Contains 2 figures and 1 table.)

  20. The Determinants of State Spending on Higher Education: How Capital Project Funding Differs from General Fund Appropriations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Erik C.; Tandberg, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Our fixed-effects panel data analysis of state spending on higher education fills a near void of studies examining capital expenditures on higher education. In our study, we found that political characteristics (e.g., interest group activity, organizational structure, and formal powers) largely account for differences between general fund and…

  1. Varieties of Capitalism, Varieties of Innovation? A Comparison of Old and New EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. C. Allen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks, firstly, to shed light on the main claim of the Varieties of Capitalism (VoC framework that socio-economic institutions can help to shape comparative advantage, and, secondly, to complement existing assessments that have relied predominantly on qualitative data and that have tended to focus on a few economic sectors. It examines the distribution of export success in a number of economic sectors, in which competitiveness is said to be characterised by either radical or incremental innovation, as well as exports in knowledge-intensive service sectors. Unlike previous studies it applies the framework to some of the new member states of the European Union in Central and Eastern Europe. This is an important area to examine the contentions of the VoC framework, because, if those arguments are correct, they should be applicable to the new member states. Moreover, it draws on the latest available data; for indicators measuring export success this is done at the lowest level of aggregation. In contrast to previous studies, a more appropriate measure of trade specialisation, revealed symmetric comparative advantage, is used. Whilst some of the evidence supports the VoC framework, much of it does not. This raises important conceptual and methodological issues that should be addressed by future research.

  2. State Education as High-Yield Investment: Human Capital Theory in European Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Donald

    2011-01-01

    Human Capital Theory has been an increasingly important phenomenon in economic thought over the last 50 years. The central role it affords to education has become even more marked in recent years as the concept of the "knowledge economy" has become a global concern. In this paper, the prevalence of Human Capital Theory within European…

  3. THE PRODUCTION OF THE CAPITALISM IN THE FIELD IN GENERAL TO THE PRODUCTION OF THE CAPITALISM IN THE BRAZILIAN FIELD: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE ENCAMPMENT CARLOS MARIGHELLA (MST/BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Leonan Alves Ferreira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article defends the thesis of that the occupation of the land is presented as a historical possibility to surpass of the great contradiction that demarcates the process of production in the capitalist way to produce the life: the expropriation of the worker of the field. The problematic concerning the process of production of the capitalism in the field in more general level and Brazil, its determination historic socials, and the risks of the process of institutionalization in a particular and singular. For in such a way, it carries through a sociological analysis of the process of production of the capitalism in the field, it reflects on the production of the capitalism in the field in Brazil, and displays the risks, for the workers, of the institutionalization of the expropriation and resistance in the scope of the social fights in the present time

  4. Is steady-state capitalism viable? A review of the issues and an answer in the affirmative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2011-02-01

    Most ecological economists believe that the transition to a steady-state economy is necessary to ensure ecological sustainability and to maximize a nation's economic welfare. While some observers agree with the necessity of the steady-state economy, they are nonetheless critical of the suggestion made by ecological economists-in particular, Herman Daly-that a steady-state economy is compatible with a capitalist system. First, they believe that steady-state capitalism is based on the untenable assumption that growth is an optional rather than in-built element of capitalism. Second, they argue that capitalist notions of efficient resource allocation are too restrictive to facilitate the transition to an "ecological" or steady-state economy. I believe these observers are outright wrong with their first criticism and, because they misunderstand Daly's vision of a steady-state economy, are misplaced with their second criticism. The nature of a capitalist system depends upon the institutional framework that supports and shapes it. Hence, a capitalist system can exist in a wide variety of forms. Unfortunately, many observers fail to recognize that the current "growth imperative" is the result of capitalist systems everywhere being institutionally designed to grow. They need not be designed this way to survive and thrive. Indeed, because continued growth is both existentially undesirable and ecologically unsustainable, redesigning capitalist systems through the introduction of Daly-like institutions would prove to be capitalism's savior. What's more, it would constitute humankind's best hope of achieving sustainable development.

  5. THE COMMUNITY SOCIAL CAPITAL, A STRATEGY AGAINST POVERTY IN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE STATE OF GUERRERO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián González-Romo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the methods collide and sometimes opposed. The community Assembly, the safety, the slaughter, the tequio are part of some of these practices, which despite maintained indigenous families living conditions have not improved substantially and increasingly is more noticeable migration in search of employment, in different scenarios. The majority indigenous population inhabiting the Amuzgos of Guerrero State, Mixtecos, Tlapanecos and Nahuas, looking each one with its own peculiarities, survive. Poverty, marginalization and physical-geographical conditions determine the circle of the dire living conditions of these indigenous people. As happened in 2013 with the tropical storm "Manuel", where we witnessed the way how adverse natural phenomena stick stronger to weaker.

  6. Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseu Gus

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the risk factors prevalence for coronary artery disease in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and to identify their relation with the age bracket. METHODS - We carried out an observational, cross-sectional study of 1,066 adults older than 20 years in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul. We investigated the risk factors: familial antecedents, systemic arterial hypertension, high levels of cholesterol and glycemia, overweight/obesity, smoking and sedentary lifestyle. A standardized questionnaire completed at the patients' dwellings by health agents were used; the data were stored in an EPI-INFO software database. The results were expressed with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS - The sample composition was of 51.8% females. The risk factors prevalences were: 1 sedentary lifestyle 71.3%; 2 familial antecedents: 57.3%; 3 overweight/obesity (body mass index >25: 54.7%; 4 smokers: 33.9%; 5 hypertension: 31.6% (considering >140/90mmHg and 14.4% (considering >160/95mmHg; 6 high glycemia (>126 mg/dL: 7%; 7 high cholesterol >240 mg/dL: 5.6%. CONCLUSION - The prevalence of the major risk factors for coronary artery disease in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul could be determined in a study that integrated public and private institutions.

  7. Occurrence of Haemophilus influenzae strains in three Brazilian states since the introduction of a conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Almeida A.E.C.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Few vaccines in history have induced such a dramatic decline in incidence over such a short period of time as the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib conjugate. This vaccine was introduced in 1988 in the United States, but only in 1999 was Hib immunization introduced by the Brazilian Ministry of Health as part of the routine infant National Immunization Program. The authors analyzed 229 H. influenzae (Hi isolates from Public Health Laboratories in three Brazilian states: Pernambuco (Northeast, N = 54, Santa Catarina (South, N = 19, and Rio de Janeiro (Southeast, N = 156. The isolates were collected from Brazilian children 0-10 years of age with meningitis and other infections from 1990 to 2003 and were part of the research collection of the National Institute of Quality Control in Health, FIOCRUZ. Bacterial strains were characterized by serotyping and biotyping. During the pre-vaccination period the prevalence infection due to Hib was of 165 isolates and only 2 non-b Hi among all the notified meningitis infections caused by Hi. Our results showed a significant decrease in the prevalence of Hib meningitis from 165 to 33 isolates after 1999. However, during the post-vaccination period of 2001-2003 we observed an increase in the number of non-b Hi isolates: only 2 non-b strains isolated from 1990 to 1999 and 29 from 1999 to 2003. Based on the present data, the authors emphasize the need for more sensitive epidemiological and bacteriological studies aiming the improvement of the available Hib vaccine, in order to protect the susceptible population to infections due to other serological types of Hi and the reevaluation of immunization schedules used by the National Immunization Program.

  8. Trinidadian capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-01-01

    [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99) Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95) Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its histor...

  9. Evaluation of capital investment in thermoelectric generation projects in the Brazilian electric sector using the real options theory; Avaliacao de investimento de capital em projetos de geracao termoeletrica no setor eletrico brasileiro usando teoria das opcoes reais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alessandro de Lima

    2000-04-01

    In the Brazilian Electric System about 92% of the generated electricity is of hydraulic origin. Today the system is operating practically in the limit of your capacity. Solutions of short time to make possible the expansion of the offer of electricity generation go by the installation of cycle combining thermal using natural gas as fuel. In this dissertation, it was used the real options theory to evaluate generation assets in the Brazilian electricity sector. In Brazil, central operator dispatches a flexible thermal when the electricity spot price is larger than the operation costs. The operation decision is like an European call, where underlying asset is the electricity and the strike price is the operation cost. The value of the capacity is the sum of all decisions to operate the thermal unit, in the remaining life of unit. It was used Monte Carlo Simulation and Dynamic Programming to evaluate this model. The problem is divided in two parts. In the first part, the base case is fixed and evaluated and the expected NPV and project risk are calculated in function of contract level. In the second part, many sensibilities are done in relation to base case. At the end, the value of flexibility is calculated for each contract level. (author)

  10. Capital-Skill Complementarity: Does capital disaggregation matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Juan; Lorca, Miguel; Parro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Using Chilean manufacturing plants data, we�find: (1) the elasticity of substitution between capital and skilled labor is lower than the elasticity of substitution between capital and unskilled labor, and (2) the higher the technological component of the capital stock the larger the size of complementarity between capital and skilled labor. Our�findings show that capital, as an aggregate input, may under(over) state the complementarity between labor and the type of capital these workers actua...

  11. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  12. The Impact of State Intervention on Social Capital of Fishermen Community in Small Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaria J Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the impact of state intervention on social capital of fishermen community in small islands. The research was conducted in Barrang Lompo Island, Makassar. The data was collected through in-depth interview and limited observation from twelve informants determined by snowball sampling. Questionnaires were also spread to about 40 respondents. The data was then analyzed qualitatively to explain research’s data and facts. The results of the research show that state intervention for the last ten years on small islands communities has impact on various aspects such as the diminishing loyalty and trust among locals to the government. Therefore, the intervention reduce the community’s participation, individually and collectively, in development activities. The situation, in turn, could affect the diminishing political capacity of the locals and government in the implementation of development in the islands. The state intervention, however, strengthened social solidarity, local value practices and the enthusiasm to understand religious values which in turn could tighten the internal bond of a community. This bond can become a potential strength to build communities in small islands. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mendiskusikan dampak intervensi negara pada kapital sosial komunitas nelayan di pulau-pulau kecil. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Pulau Barrang Lompo, Makassar. Pengumpulan data dilakukan melalui wawancara mendalam dan observasi terbatas dari dua belas informan ditentukan oleh snowball sampling. Kuesioner juga menyebar ke 40 responden. Data tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif untuk menjelaskan data penelitian dan fakta. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa intervensi negara selama sepuluh tahun terakhir pada masyarakat pulau-pulau kecil memiliki dampak pada berbagai aspek seperti, mengurangi loyalitas dan kepercayaan di antara penduduk setempat kepada pemerintah. Oleh karena itu, partisipasi mereka, secara

  13. Green capitalism? Global climate change, global competition between states, and the prevention of the energy turnaround; Gruener Kapitalismus? Klimawandel, globale Staatenkonkurrenz und die Verhinderung der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rest, Jonas

    2011-07-01

    Transnational groups call for green capitalism as well as the governments of leading states. In spite of this, international climate conferences are failing, and CO2 emissions are ever-increasing. A climate catastrophe that will threaten the lives of millions is getting increasingly probable. The book states that green capitalism will be impossible unless the power of fossil industries can be broken. These industries are among the strongest and best-organized capital groups and have decisive relevance for the competition strategies of the most powerful states of the world. (orig./RHM)

  14. Bioassay guided purification of the antimicrobial fraction of a Brazilian propolis from Bahia state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Alencar Severino

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brazilian propolis type 6 (Atlantic forest, Bahia is distinct from the other types of propolis especially due to absence of flavonoids and presence of other non-polar, long chain compounds, but presenting good in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activity. Several authors have suggested that fatty acids found in this propolis might be responsible for its antimicrobial activity; however, so far no evidence concerning this finding has been reported in the literature. The goals of this study were to evaluate the antibacterial activity of the main pure fatty acids in the ethanolic extract and fractions and elucidate the chemical nature of the bioactive compounds isolated from Brazilian propolis type 6. Methods Brazilian propolis type 6 ethanolic extract (EEP, hexane fraction (H-Fr, major fatty acids, and isolated sub-fractions were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, high resolution gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (HRGC-FID, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Three sub-fractions of H-Fr were obtained through preparative HPLC. Antimicrobial activity of EEP, H-Fr, sub-fractions, and fatty acids were tested against Staphyloccus aureus ATCC 25923 and Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt 1600 using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. Results EEP and H-Fr inhibited the growth of the microorganisms tested; nevertheless, no antimicrobial activity was found for the major fatty acids. The three sub-fractions (1, 2, and 3 were isolated from H-Fr by preparative HPLC and only sub-fraction 1 showed antimicrobial activity. Conclusion a The major fatty acids tested were not responsible for the antimicrobial activity of propolis type 6; b Sub-fraction 1, belonging to the benzophenone class, was responsible for the antimicrobial activity observed in the present study. The identification of the bioactive compound will improve the development of more

  15. EXPORT INCENTIVE PROGRAMS: A STUDY ABOUT BRAZILIAN SME’S FROM SANTA CATARINA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Regina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The reality of the Brazilian economy during the last decade has influenced many companies to get new markets to expand to other parameters of competition. The export incentive programs created by the government, is an example of this, and he has performed positively, strengthening the relationship of resources and capacity to develop sales strategies and relationships with the external market. With the use of financial incentive programs for export, companies can enjoy the competitiveness and advantages related to cost of goods or services, and thus help them achieve a satisfactory goal with the export activity. Careful to promote exports, the Brazilian government creates lines of financial incentives that can meet the needs of Brazilian companies. These floor plane are known as advances on exchange contracts (ACC, Advances on foreign exchange delivered (ACE, Program for Export – (Proex among others. Santa Catarina has been active in the export process of the country, accounting for significant numbers for the trade balance. The target of this study is to understand the reactions of the business of Santa Catarina in the use of financial incentives for export. The research method adopted, as to the purposes of research, the research was exploratory and the means of investigation was a qualitative field research through interviews. The results showed that the reasons these companies entering in the international market, have been opening new markets, new business opportunities and increase the export volume. Financial incentives are most commonly used by companies to Advance on Export Contracts (ACC and Advances on Foreign Exchange Delivered (ACE.

  16. Intellectual Capital: A Bibliometric Analysis and a Mapping of the Research Carried out Between 2000 and 2006 in Three Brazilian Forums Capital Intelectual: Análise Bibliométrica e Mapeamento da Pesquisa no Período de 2000 a 2006 em Três Fóruns Brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliani Rover

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a panoramic view of the area of Intellectual Capital (IC on the basis of a bibliometric study and of a mapping of the publications collected in the procedeeings of the Congresso USP and EnANPAD and in the Journals which regularly publish studies on the topic. To this end, an exploratory was carried out, having both bibliometry and analysis of content as tools. The investigation revised 75 papers published between 2000 and 2006, yielding the following results as concerns bibliometry: most papers are predominantly practical; there is a balance between primary and secondary sources; most empirical studies were carried out in Brazilian public/private organizations; most studies were approach from both a quanti- and a qualitative perspective; Stewart, Edvinsson e Malone, Brooking and Sveiby were the main authors drawn upon. The mapping yielded the following results: most studies addressed internal users; the main tendencies are: IC disclosure, accountability and measurement; IC management; Human Capital Theory; relationship of IC with both performance and debts; intellectual property; and, relationship between IC and IT; recommendation for further research refer to replication of the empirical investigations with expansion of sampling and of time span, and construction of IC evaluation/mensuration models.

  17. From capital to capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    HOW easy it is for one who lives in Beijing, capital of the country, to have the impression that all things significant happen there! This is to forget how there are now many provincial capitals in China, that are rapidly modernizing. In order to achieve such modernization, these cities, like

  18. Cuban Education in Neo-liberal Times: Socialist Revolutionaries and State Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malott, Curry

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines the events that have led to Cuba's current engagement with global capitalism and the implications for Cuban education. The author looks at what Noam Chomsky (1999) has repeatedly referred to as "Cuba's trouble making in the hemisphere," such as it is. The author answers the question, "Why does the US government hate Cuba?" He…

  19. Knowledge Management, Innovation and Intellectual Capital for Corporate Value in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleoca, Lavinia

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic capabilities of 74 publicly listed U.S. companies are examined to determine their knowledge management’s effects on shareholder value. R&D practices, patenting and intellectual capital are examined in a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis to offer insights into the temporal dyna...

  20. Equality and Human Capital: Conflicting Concepts within State-Funded Adult Education in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a critique of the concept of equality as it informs the White Paper on Adult Education: Learning for Life (2000). It also outlines the extent to which human capital theory can be seen to have effectively colonised lifelong learning from the outset of its adoption by the European Union with highly constraining implications for…

  1. PETRÓLEO BRASILEIRO S.A.: AN INTERNATIONALIZED BRAZILIAN STATE COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Dalla Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrobras is the largest governmental firm in Brazil and has a solid path of internationalization. This paper explores how Petrobras grew in the domestic market and, in the light of the theory of the internationalization of the firm, moved on towards the international market. First, it shows the beginning steps of Petrobras. It then follows Petrobras’ internationalization moves to three geographic areas (America, Eurasia and Africa, all in a context of a global dispute for oil exploration, production and distribution. In the conclusion, it is showed that Petrobras’ main revenues still come from the Brazilian market. Its expansion to international markets, however, has grown in absolute terms and also in sophistication. Petrobras started with a strategy of searching for new sources of oil (inputs and progressed to a new phase, focused on selling final goods and developing technology for exploration in deeper waters.

  2. Solid state {sup 13}C NMR analysis of Brazilian cretaceous ambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Ricardo; Azevedo, Debora A., E-mail: ricardopereira@iq.ufrj.b, E-mail: debora@iq.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Geoquimica Organica Molecular e Ambiental; San Gil, Rosane A.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IQ/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de RMN de Solidos; Carvalho, Ismar S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia; Fernandes, Antonio Carlos S. [Museu Nacional (MN/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia e Paleontologia

    2011-07-01

    {sup 13}C cross polarization with magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ({sup 13}C CPMAS NMR) spectra have been obtained for the first time to three Cretaceous amber samples from South America. The samples were dated to Lower Cretaceous and collected in sediments from the Amazonas, Araripe and Reconcavo basins, Brazil. All samples have very similar spectra, consistent with a common paleobotanical source. Some aspects of the spectra suggest a relationship between Brazilian ambers and Araucariaceae family, such as intense resonances at 38-39 ppm. All samples are constituted by polylabdane structure associated to Class Ib resins, constituted by polymers of labdanoid diterpenes. Finally, information concerning some structural changes during maturation, such as isomerization of {Delta}{sup 8(17)} and {Delta}{sup 12(13)} unsaturations, were obtained by {sup 13}C NMR analyses. The results concerning botanical affinities are in accordance with previous results obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). (author)

  3. International competitiveness of brazilian and paraná state`s coffe complex / Competitividade internacional do complexo cafeeiro brasileiro e paranaense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vasques Cintra

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to analyze the determinants aspects of the competitiveness of the exportations of the coffee complex in Paraná State between 1990 and 2003 . The study intends to systematize: the recent literature on the subject, focusing the competitiveness of the main products of the brazilian guideline of exportations. A critical review of literature was made about the theories of international trade and competitiveness. It was characterized the dynamics of the complex of Brazilian coffee. The article identifies the competitive advantages of the Paraná coffee (green, roasted, soluble and special in relation to the competing countries; discusses the barriers to imports imposed to the brazilian coffee by the importing countries, and ends with the possible public and private policies favorable to the competitiveness of the coffee exportations.O objetivo deste artigo é analisar os determinantes da competitividade das exportações do complexo cafeeiro paranaense entre 1990 e 2003. O estudo pretende sistematizar: a literatura recente sobre o tema, enfocando a competitividade de um dos principais produtos da pauta de exportações brasileira e do Paraná. Realizou-se a revisão crítica da literatura das teorias do comércio internacional e da competitividade e em seguida, caracterizou-se a dinâmica do complexo cafeeiro do brasileiro e paranaense. O artigo identifica as vantagens competitivas do café paranaense (verde, torrado, solúvel e especial em relação aos países concorrentes; discute as barreiras às importações impostas ao café brasileiro pelos países importadores; e finaliza com as possíveis políticas públicas e privadas favoráveis à competitividade das exportações de café.

  4. Assessment of collection schemes for packaging and other recyclable waste in European Union-28 Member States and capital cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyring, Nicole; Dollhofer, Marie; Weißenbacher, Jakob; Bakas, Ioannis; McKinnon, David

    2016-09-01

    The Waste Framework Directive obliged European Union Member States to set up separate collection systems to promote high quality recycling for at least paper, metal, plastic and glass by 2015. As implementation of the requirement varies across European Union Member States, the European Commission contracted BiPRO GmbH/Copenhagen Resource Institute to assess the separate collection schemes in the 28 European Union Member States, focusing on capital cities and on metal, plastic, glass (with packaging as the main source), paper/cardboard and bio-waste. The study includes an assessment of the legal framework for, and the practical implementation of, collection systems in the European Union-28 Member States and an in depth-analysis of systems applied in all capital cities. It covers collection systems that collect one or more of the five waste streams separately from residual waste/mixed municipal waste at source (including strict separation, co-mingled systems, door-to-door, bring-point collection and civic amenity sites). A scoreboard including 13 indicators is elaborated in order to measure the performance of the systems with the capture rates as key indicators to identify best performers. Best performance are by the cities of Ljubljana, Helsinki and Tallinn, leading to the key conclusion that door-to-door collection, at least for paper and bio-waste, and the implementation of pay-as-you-throw schemes results in high capture and thus high recycling rates of packaging and other municipal waste. PMID:27357560

  5. Determinantes de estrutura de capital no mercado brasileiro: análise de regressão com painel de dados no período 1999-2003 Determinant factors of capital structure in the Brazilian market: an analysis of the regression with data covering the period from 1999 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Toshiro Nakamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de uma investigação sobre os fatores determinantes da estrutura de capital das companhias abertas que atuam no mercado brasileiro. Foi utilizada uma amostra de 91 empresas cobrindo o período de 1999 a 2003. Na realização deste trabalho foi utilizada uma técnica de estimativa mais forte, conjugando Panel Data Dinâmico, que combina dados de corte transversal com séries temporais, com um instrumento de método de momento generalizado. Como proxies de estrutura de capital e alavancagem, foram usados os conceitos contábil e de mercado e seus resultados foram comparados. Em consonância com a literatura da área, foram selecionadas as seguintes variáveis: liquidez corrente, tamanho da empresa, rentabilidade, oportunidade de crescimento, risco de negócio, economia fiscal e crescimento de vendas, tangibilidade, coeficiente de variação e risco de falência. Para os testes, foram utilizados os instrumentos econométricos de GMM e AH. Os resultados econométricos demonstraram-se robustos pelas técnicas utilizadas. Os resultados de análise obtidos foram bastante consistentes com as teorias de Pecking Order e de Trade-off. Esses resultados, também, estão em linha com os observados em estudos similares realizados em diversos países.This article presents the results of an investigation about the determinant factors of the capital structure of publicly held companies that operate in the Brazilian market. The sample group consisted of 91 companies, covering the period from 1999 to 2003. A stronger estimation technique conjugating Dynamic Panel Data, which combines cross-section data with time-series, with a generalized method of moments (GMM tool was used in the performance of this study. The accounting and market concepts were used as capital structure and leverage proxies, and their results were compared. In conformity with literature from the area, the following variables were selected: current ratio

  6. THE COMMUNITY SOCIAL CAPITAL, A STRATEGY AGAINST POVERTY IN INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE STATE OF GUERRERO

    OpenAIRE

    Adrián González-Romo; Juan Maldonado-Montalvo

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous peoples of Guerrero show different tradeoffs in their ways of dealing with such adverse reality that afflicts them , first struggling to maintain the traditions and customs , using their customary community practices to maintain unity and confront the inhumane living conditions through what has been called community organization , considered part of the concept of social capital and the other institutions that do their thing trying to find solutions to this problem , however the me...

  7. Religion, Human Capital Investments and the Family in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lehrer, Evelyn Lilian

    2009-01-01

    This paper critically reviews what is known, based on analyses of micro-level U.S. data, about the role of religion in various interrelated decisions that people make over the life cycle, including investments in secular human capital, cohabitation, marriage, divorce, family size and employment. It also identifies gaps in our knowledge, and suggests agenda items for future research in the field. These include use of statistical models that allow for non-linearities in the effects associated w...

  8. Intellectual Capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herbert W.; Pierce, Jennifer Burek

    2002-01-01

    This review focuses on intellectual capital and its relationship to information professionals. Discusses asset recognition; national practices and the acceptance of intellectual capital; definitions of intellectual capital; measuring intellectual capital, including multiple and single variable measures; managing intellectual capital; and knowledge…

  9. Trinidadian capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin A. Yelvington

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Capitalism: An Ethnographic Approach. DANIEL MILLER. Oxford: Berg, 1997. x + 357 pp. (Cloth £39.00, Paper £17.99 Women, Labour and Politics in Trinidad and Tobago: A History. RHODA E. REDDOCK. London: Zed, 1994. vi + 346 pp. (Cloth £39.95, Paper £15.95 Despite the underdeveloped state of the scholarship on its admittedly short sugar plantation slavery period, we now have a corpus of studies on various aspects of capitalism in Trinidad - from its historical advent (Sebastien 1978 to its twentieth-century manifestation in the petroleum sector (Seers 1964; Sandoval 1983, and from the ethnic structure of labor markets (Camejo 1971; Harewood 1971 and the role of capitalism in racial/ethnic inequality (Henry 1993; Coppin & Olsen 1998 to the way ethnicity affects business, big (Button 1981; Parris 1985; Centre for Ethnic Studies 1993 and small (Ryan & Barclay 1992; Griffith 1997, and the way ethnicity and gender are used in class recruitment (Yelvington 1995. There are also a number of fine working-class histories (e.g., Rennie 1973; Ramdin 1982; Basdeo 1983 and important works on the labor riots and strikes and the nature of the colonial state during the crises of the 1930s (e.g., Thomas 1987; Singh 1994. The two books under review here complement the works mentioned above, and they complement each other as well: Reddock's deals with the way capitalism up to the mid-century was buttressed by colonial politics, and explores how this formation engendered certain kinds of political responses, while Miller approaches capitalism through the assumption that fundamental changes in the post-Oil Boom period (ca. 1973-80 brought about considerable autonomy between production and consumption that can and should now be read through an analysis of the cultural circulation of images and commodities in the society. These books are both noteworthy because they engage in explicit theorizing on what capitalism was and is, and what it did and

  10. Erotic Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jensen, Benjamin; Engstrøm, Emma; Maas, Jannik; Majchrzak, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    This project “Erotic Capital” concerns the topic and theory of Erotic Capital, coined by Catherine Hakim. The idea of Erotic Capital derives from Pierre Bourdieu’s theory of Personal Capitals – in this, Erotic Capital is discussed as an additional Personal Capital. In connection to the investigation of the theory Erotic Capital, certain theories of Feminism, Masculinity, Femininity, Gender and Cultural Differences are explored and examined. This is done in order to study how these theories...

  11. Individual and contextual factors associated with verbal bullying among Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azeredo, CM; Levy, RB; Araya, R.; Menezes, PR

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have been carried out in low- middle-income countries assessing contextual characteristics associated with bullying. This study aimed to assess the relative importance of contextual (school and city) and individual-level factors to explain the variance in verbal bullying among a nationally representative sample of Brazilian adolescents. Methods 59,348 students from 1,453 schools and 26 state capitals and the Federal District participated in the National Survey of School...

  12. 75 FR 19915 - Changes in Disease Status of the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina with Regard to Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Catarina has a control program and a national plan sufficient to respond quickly to any emergencies related... identified. The Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture may approve emergency CSF or FMD vaccinations if necessary... and Biosecurity Domestic movement controls within Brazil are stringent. The Brazilian Ministry...

  13. Escaping the Holocaust: human and health capital of refugees to the United States, 1940-42

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Matthias; Rei, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale persecution of Jews during World War II generated massive refugee movements. Using data from 20,441 predominantly Jewish passengers from 19 countries traveling from Lisbon to New York between 1940 and 1942, we analyze the last wave of refugees escaping the Holocaust and verify the validity of height as a proxy for human and health capital. We further show this episode of European migration displays well-known features of migrant self-selection: early migrants were taller than ...

  14. Frequencies of CCR5-D32, CCR2-64I and SDF1-3’A mutations in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV seropositive subjects and seronegative individuals from the state of Pará in Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott Carvalhaes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of genetic polymorphisms of chemokine receptors CCR5-delta32, CCR2-64I and chemokine (SDF1-3’A mutations were studied in 110 Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1 seropositive individuals (seropositive group and 139 seronegative individuals (seronegative group from the population of the northern Brazilian city of Belém which is the capital of the state of Pará in the Brazilian Amazon. The CCR5-delta32 mutation was found in the two groups at similar frequencies, i.e. 2.2% for the seronegative group and 2.7% for the seropositive group. The frequencies of the SDF1-3’A mutation were 21.0% for the seronegative group and 15.4% for the seropositive group, and the CCR2-64I allele was found at frequencies of 12.5% for the seronegative group and 5.4% for the seropositive group. Genotype distributions were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations in both groups, suggesting that none of the three mutations has a detectable selective effect. Difference in the allelic and genotypic frequencies was statistically significant for the CCR2 locus, the frequency in the seronegative group being twice that found in the seropositive group. This finding may indicate a protective effect of the CCR2-64I mutation in relation to HIV transmission. However, considering that the CCR2-64I mutation has been more strongly associated with a decreased risk for progression for AIDS than to the resistance to the HIV infection, this could reflect an aspect of population structure or a Type I error.

  15. Social Capital and Sexual Risk-Taking Behaviors Among Older Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Iftekhar

    2016-09-01

    Using the General Social Survey (GSS) 2012, a national household-based probability sample of non-institutionalized U.S. adults, this study examined the association of social capital and sexual risk behaviors among older adults aged 55 years and older. Of the 547 respondents, 87% reported not using condoms during their last intercourse, and nearly 15% reported engaging in sexual risk behaviors, such as casual sex, paid sex, male to male sex, and drug use. Binary logistic regression results showed that age, gender, marital status, education, race, sexual orientation, and sexual frequencies were significant predictors of older adults' unprotected sex. Social capital was not a predictor of unprotected sex but was positively associated with other human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease (HIV/STD) risk behaviors such as sex with strangers, having multiple sex partners, injecting drugs, and having male to male sex. Findings of this study highlight the importance of HIV/STD prevention programs for older adults. PMID:25245384

  16. Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em Adventistas do Sétimo Dia da capital e do interior paulista Prevalence of arterial hypertension among Seventh-Day Adventists of the São Paulo state capital and inner area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilane Bagno Eleutério da Silva

    2012-04-01

    .674-16.893; 3 recalling the last time one's blood pressure was measured (OR 2.725; 95% CI: 1.275-5.821; 4 being retired (OR 8.846; 95% CI: 1.406-55.668; and 5 being responsible for family income (OR 0.422; 95% CI: 0.189-0.942. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hypertension among Adventists was lower as compared with that reported in Brazilian studies, and it was lower in the São Paulo state capital as compared with that in the inner São Paulo state, possibly because of the better socioeconomic conditions and life habits of the former.

  17. [Research program for the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): the contribution to health management and services in Paraiba State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celino, Suely Deysny de Matos; Costa, Gabriela Maria Cavalcanti; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante de

    2013-01-01

    The shared management in health of the Research Program for the Unified Health System (PPSUS) has the purpose of funding research in priority areas for the health of the Brazilian population. The scope of this qualitative study is to understand the researchers' perception of the contribution of research funded by the PPSUS invitations to bid in the State of Paraiba, for resolving the priority health problems of the Paraiba population, for reducing regional inequalities in health and for bolstering the management of SUS. A documentary survey of the bids and final reports of research and a semi-structured interview with 28 coordinators of these studies was conducted. Triangulation strategy of data was used and subsequently subjected to content analysis, which converged with the categories: solving the health problems; reducing regional inequalities; contribution to management. Paraiba state needs adjustments such that the PPSUS can be fully implemented, ensuring that the knowledge generated can be converted into health policies and actions, since the research funded respond to the health needs of the population and difficulties in SUS management. PMID:23338510

  18. 中国国有经济固定资本存量初步测算%The Preliminary Measurement of Fixed Capital Stocks of State-owned Economy of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王益煊; 吴优

    2003-01-01

    The accounting of fixed capital stocks is very important in balance sheet accounting. And it is also an unsolved lasting problem of governmental statistics of China. On the basis of relevant researching projects, the paper conducts estimation of state-owned fixed capital stocks, and thereby constructs the foundation of the accounting of fixed capital stocks of the whole society.

  19. State-owned capital management budget study in Liuzhou city%柳州市国有资本经营预算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋涛; 覃诗敏

    2014-01-01

    柳州市国有资本经营预算从2011年起试行,柳州市国有资本经营预算的试行依据中央、广西的政策,借鉴了其它省市的经验。文章重点分析柳州市开展国有资本经营预算的情况,针对当前开展国有资本经营预算存在问题,提出了进一步完善国有资本经营预算的政策建议。%State-owned capital operation budget from 2011 onwards trial in Liuzhou city, trial of state-owned capital management budget, according to the central Guangxi policy .Learn from the experience of other provinces. Articles focus on the situation analysis conducted in Liuzhou of state-owned capital operation budget Problems for the current conduct of state-owned capital operation budget, proposed to further improve the state-owned capital operation budget policy recommendations.

  20. Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Jan; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual capital (IC) consists of human capital, organizational capital, and relational capital, and their relationships. It has been said to be important to explain the difference between market value and book value of a firm, but measurement of IC is more likely to be important because...

  1. Teaching Assessment for Teacher Human Capital Management: Learning from the Current State of the Art. WCER Working Paper No. 2011-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony T.; Heneman, Herbert G., III; Kimball, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the current state of the art in teaching assessment. The major goal of the study was to examine a sample of assessment systems and then develop a specification for a state-of the art performance assessment system to be used for human capital management functions. The authors hope was that this specification would…

  2. Análisis organizacional del Partido de la Democracia Social Brasileña en el estado de San Pablo (1988-2006 Organizational analysis of the Social Democracy Party of the Brazilian state of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa MICELI KERBAUY

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo representa un enfoque teórico-metodológico para el análisis de la dinámica organizacional de los partidos políticos en la actualidad, a partir de una investigación realizada sobre el Partido de la Democracia Social Brasileña (PSDB en el estado de San Pablo (periodo entre 1988 hasta 2006. Se partió de la hipótesis de que la estructura y las normas institucionales de determinado partido, o incluso sus resultados electorales, son insuficientes tanto para explicar el funcionamiento interno, como el papel de la organización partidaria en el sistema político electoral. Mediante un enfoque que articula los patrones de relaciones, los resultados electorales y la ocupación de cargos partidarios, se identificaron los factores que explican el capital político que circuló en el interior del partido y garantizó su dinámica organizacional a lo largo del periodo analizado.The article represents a theoretical and methodological approach to the analysis of organizational dynamics of political parties today, based on a study of the Party of Brazilian Social Democracy (PSDB in the State of Sao Pãulo (period between 1988 to 2006. It is hypothesized that the structure and the institutional rules of a particular party, or even their election results, are insufficient to explain the inner workings, such as the role of party organization in the electoral system. An approach that articulates the relationship patterns, election results and posts held in the party, identified the factors that explain the political capital that circulated within the party and ensured its organizational dynamics over the period analyzed.

  3. Amazonia Introduced to General Relativity: The May 29, 1919, Solar Eclipse from a North-Brazilian Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispino, Luís C. B.; de Lima, Marcelo C.

    2016-09-01

    In 1919, A. C. D. Crommelin and C. R. Davidson, British astronomers from the Greenwich Observatory in England, passed by Amazonia on their Brazilian journey aiming to measure the bending of stars' light rays during the total solar eclipse of May 29, 1919, and thereby put the theory of general relativity to the test. In the context of Crommelin's and Davidson's visit, we discuss how Amazonia was introduced to Einstein's theory of gravitation, and also the observations and repercussions of the May 29, 1919, solar eclipse in Belém, capital city of the North-Brazilian Pará state.

  4. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  5. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  6. Nematode parasites of marsupials and small rodents from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delir Corrêa Gomes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.

  7. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest gives way to other land uses in Santa Catarina state

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Siminski; Alfredo Celso Fantini

    2010-01-01

    Deforestation permits (1,753) submitted to the state environmental agency (Fatma) in Santa Catarina state, Brazil, were analyzed in order to establish the profile of applicants, the reasons for request, and the methodological characteristics of forest inventory. The results show that 71% of applications were from individuals, and the economic use of land was the major reason for requisition. Reforestation with exotic species was the greatest demand (43%), representing 22 thousand hectares. Ra...

  8. Investigando portais de governo eletrônico de estados no Brasil: muita tecnologia, pouca democracia Investigating e-gov portals in brazilian states: much technology, little democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Gomes de Pinho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga portais de governos estaduais no Brasil, para detectar os movimentos do governo eletrônico que pretendem aprofundar a democracia por meio de processos digitais. Procedeu-se à investigação de nove portais dos estados considerados mais desenvolvidos do país e do Distrito Federal. O modelo de análise contempla, por um lado, os aspectos mais tecnológicos dos portais e como estes disponibilizam informações para os cidadãos, de maneira a criar facilidades para as suas vidas. Por outro - e este é o aspecto mais importante -, os referentes a accountability e a participação popular, no sentido de verificar como os portais (e os governos considerados têm se constituído em um experimento de aprofundamento da democracia no Brasil e de realização de um novo tipo de sociedade: a digital. O quadro teórico enfatiza as categorias de governo eletrônico, accountability e participação popular. Os resultados não são animadores, convergindo com a experiência internacional, e são atribuídos à trajetória conservadora e autoritária do Estado no Brasil. Pondera-se, também, que todos esses processos, tanto do ponto de vista da absorção dos parâmetros da sociedade digital quanto do desenvolvimento da democracia, ainda estão em construção na sociedade brasileira.This article investigates portals of state governments in Brazil in order to find out the steps taken by the e-gov to improve democracy through digital processes. The article is focused on portals in nine of the more economically developed states, plus the country's capital, Brasilia. The analytical model looks at, in one sense, the more technologically advanced features of the portals and how these websites make available information to citizens in a way to make their lives easier. In the other, and this is the most important point, the article deals with the features concerning accountability and popular participation in order to verify how the portals (and

  9. Middle proterozoic supra crustal and brazilian orogeny in the southeast Ceara state: a mono cyclic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oros belt is situated in the southeastern part of Ceara state, Brazil, and geologically pertains to the Borborema province. This belt comprises a volcano-sedimentary sequence of middle proterozoic age resting unconformably upon basement of Archean/low proterozoic age. In the geological map of Ceara state, this belt displays an elongate shape towards N-S, turning to ENE-WSW in the south, and reaches 12 km wide in the central park. This paper describes the relationships between the country rocks and the supra crustal sequence, as well as the plutonic intrusions and their tectonic metamorphic evolution. New Rb-Sr whole-rock dates are presented which are very important to separate anorogenic and syn-orogenic granites. (author)

  10. Understanding of pictograms from the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) among elderly Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Barros IMC; Alcântara TS; Mesquita AR; Bispo ML; Rocha CE; Moreira VP; Lyra Junior DP

    2014-01-01

    Izadora MC Barros, Thaciana S Alcântara, Alessandra R Mesquita, Monica L Bispo, Chiara E Rocha, Vagner Porto Moreira, Divaldo P Lyra Junior Laboratory of Teaching and Research in Social Pharmacy (LEPFS), Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Sergipe, São Cristóvão, Brazil Objective: To assess the understanding and cultural acceptability of the United States Pharmacopeia Dispensing Information (USP-DI) in a group of elderly ...

  11. Phytochemical evidence for the plant origin of Brazilian propolis from São Paulo state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankova, V; Boudourova-Krasteva, G; Sforcin, J M; Frete, X; Kujumgiev, A; Maimoni-Rodella, R; Popov, S

    1999-01-01

    Propolis and plant secretions from three species, most frequently mentioned as botanical sources of the bee glue in Brazil (Baccharis dracunculifolia, Araucaria angustifolia and Eucalyptus citriodora) have been investigated using GC-MS. Based on chemical evidence, B. dracunculifolia was shown to be the main propolis source in São Paulo state. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of all four materials were also tested, the most active being propolis and Baccharis leaf exudate. PMID:10431391

  12. OCCURRENCE AND SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEPATITIS C IN A WESTERN BRAZILIAN AMAZON STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel de Deus VIEIRA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Context Hepatitis C causes a major impact on public health due to the high prevalence in the population. Objectives Evaluate the epidemiological data of hepatitis C in the State of Rondônia, Brazil. Methods Data from hepatitis C were analyzed during the period 2002 to 2012, assigned by the Agency for Sanitary Vigilance of the State of Rondônia. The variables studied were: year of diagnosis, gender, age, associated disease, exposure to risk factors and clinical presentation. Results Eight hundred fifty-nine cases were reported during the study period. Of this total, 542 (63.1% cases were male. In relation to age group, the one with the highest number of cases was between 40-59 years (54%, followed by 20-39 years (33.5%. In relation to sexually transmitted diseases (STDs association, 1.8% of patients had HIV and 2.1% other type of sexually transmitted disease. About exposure to risk factors, 288 (28.1% individuals were exposed to a surgical procedure. Was also analyzed the clinical form of the disease, 9.9% are in acute disease and 91.1% in the chronic phase. Conclusions In the State of Rondônia, hepatitis C had a mean annual incidence of 5.1 cases/100,000 inhabitants, similar to the national rate.

  13. [Building a "Smiling Brazil"? Implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy in a health region in the State of São Paulo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Aline Guerra; Aciole, Geovani Gurgel

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a case study on the implementation of the Brazilian National Oral Health Policy (PNSB), known as "Smiling Brazil", in the cities of the Regional Health Department of Araraquara (DRS III) in São Paulo State. A structured questionnaire was given to the municipal oral health coordinators, an interview with oral health care professionals and managers was conducted, and the official data provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Health were coded to assess the policy's scope: (i) expansion and qualification of actions; (ii) work conditions; (iii) care; (iv) access; and (v) planning and management. The quantitative and qualitative analyses were linked by methods triangulation. In terms of PNSB implementation, the majority of the cities (52.6%) were classified as "good", with 42.1% classified as "bad". Approximately 10 years after launching the PNSB, despite strides in oral health care and access to different levels of care, the cities still experience difficulties in implementing the policy's principles.

  14. Estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio: testes no Brasil Capital structure, dividends and interests on equity: tests in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Seikitsi Futema

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A estrutura de capital e os dividendos são dois dos temas mais estudados em finanças corporativas. Em 2002, Fama e French estudaram esses dois temas simultaneamente dentro do contexto das teorias de tradeoff estática e pecking order. A análise conjunta significa reconhecer que o dividendo afeta a estrutura de capital e vice-versa, o que gera um problema de endogeneidade. Estendendo o estudo de Fama e French e adaptando a análise para a realidade brasileira com a inclusão de mais uma variável dependente, os juros sobre o capital próprio, o objetivo deste artigo é analisar as relações conjuntas da estrutura de capital, dividendos e juros sobre o capital próprio das empresas brasileiras para o período de 1995 a 2004. Em linhas gerais, os resultados confirmam boa parte das previsões das teorias, embora a distribuição de lucros no Brasil ainda seja muito baixa, comparada com a americana. A lucratividade demonstrou ser a variável explicativa de maior peso e influência tanto para a distribuição de lucros como para a alavancagem.Capital structure and dividends have been frequently studied in corporate finance. In 2002, Fama and French simultaneously analyzed these two subjects in the context of tradeoff and pecking order theories. The simultaneous analysis means acknowledging that dividend influences capital structure and vice versa, leading to an endogeneity problem. Extending and adapting Fama and French's study to the Brazilian environment and including yet another dependent variable, i.e. interest on equity, this article aims to analyze the relationship among capital structure, dividends and interest on equity in the context of Brazilian companies. The analysis comprises the period from 1995 to 2004. Results corroborate many of the predictions of tradeoff and pecking order theories, despite the fact that dividend payout in Brazil is low when compared to the United States. Profitability was the most significant variable in

  15. Culture, state and varieties of capitalism: a comparative study of life insurance markets in Hong Kong and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cheris Shun-Ching

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the interplay between local culture, the state, and economic actors' agency in producing variation across markets. I adopt a political-cultural approach to examining why life insurance has been far more popular in Taiwan than Hong Kong, despite the presence of a cultural taboo on the topic of premature death in both societies. Based on interview data and documentary references, the findings reveal that as an independent state, the Taiwanese government heavily protected domestic insurance firms during their emergence. These domestic firms adopted a market-share approach by re-defining the concept of life insurance to accommodate the local cultural taboo. The colonial Hong Kong government, on the other hand, adopted laissez-faire policies that essentially favoured foreign insurance firms. When faced with the tension between local adaptation and the profitability of the business, these foreign firms chose the latter. Their reluctance to accommodate local cultures, however, resulted in a smaller market. I argue that state actions mediate who the dominant economic players are and that the nature of the dominant players affects the extent of localization. Specifically, the presence of competitive domestic players alongside transnational corporations is more likely to produce varieties of capitalism.

  16. Capital and chaos : fragile states, political risk and foreign direct investment

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Benjamin A. T.

    2012-01-01

    Fragile states are trapped in cycles of poverty, violence, and instability. War and instability deter investment. Low investment retards growth, and lack of growth engenders further conflict and instability. One path out of this equilibrium is for fragile states to succeed in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI) while political risk remains high. My dissertation explores firm-level variation in how investors experience and respond to political risk, identifying types of investors who ar...

  17. Dental caries and tooth loss in adults in a Brazilian southeastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze dental caries experience of adults living in the southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil, according to some socio-demographic conditions of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,159 school teachers and workers (35 to 44 years old from 29 cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 92.3% were dentate and the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 21.0 and the mean number of decayed teeth was 1.1, with no significant difference among adults from regions with and without fluoridation. Male subjects presented the highest mean values of "D" (decayed teeth and "M" (missing teeth components. The percentage of caries-free subjects was higher among white subjects, as well as the mean number of teeth present in the mouth. The mean values of the "F" component (filled teeth [9.81] and present teeth [19.3] were higher for adults from fluoridated water regions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the worse condition observed was the early tooth loss in all groups. In addition, people with worse socio-demographic conditions had worse oral health conditions. It is expected that oral health programs targeted to this population could be established with the goal of improving the oral health conditions of this population and hence the maintenance of the teeth for a longer period in function.

  18. Displaced Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Valerie A. Ramey; SHAPIRO, MATTHEW D

    1998-01-01

    This paper studies the efficiency with which physical capital can be reallocated across sectors. It presents a model of a firm selling specialized capital in a thin resale market. The model predicts that the selling price depends not only on the sectoral specificity of capital, but also on the thinness of the market and the discount factor of the firm. It then provides empirical evidence on the sectoral mobility of capital based on equipment-level data from aerospace industry auctions. These ...

  19. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  20. Low-head hydropower assessment of the Brazilian State of São Paulo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artan, Guleid A.; Cushing, William Matthew; Mathis, Melissa; Tieszen, Larry L.

    2014-01-01

    This study produced a comprehensive estimate of the magnitude of hydropower potential available in the streams that drain watersheds entirely within the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Because a large part of the contributing area is outside of São Paulo, the main stem of the Paraná River was excluded from the assessment. Potential head drops were calculated from the Digital Terrain Elevation Data,which has a 1-arc-second resolution (approximately 30-meter resolution at the equator). For the conditioning and validation of synthetic stream channels derived from the Digital Elevation Model datasets, hydrography data (in digital format) supplied by the São Paulo State Department of Energy and the Agência Nacional de Águas were used. Within the study area there were 1,424 rain gages and 123 streamgages with long-term data records. To estimate average yearly streamflow, a hydrologic regionalization system that divides the State into 21 homogeneous basins was used. Stream segments, upstream areas, and mean annual rainfall were estimated using geographic information systems techniques. The accuracy of the flows estimated with the regionalization models was validated. Overall, simulated streamflows were significantly correlated with the observed flows but with a consistent underestimation bias. When the annual mean flows from the regionalization models were adjusted upward by 10 percent, average streamflow estimation bias was reduced from -13 percent to -4 percent. The sum of all the validated stream reach mean annual hydropower potentials in the 21 basins is 7,000 megawatts (MW). Hydropower potential is mainly concentrated near the Serra do Mar mountain range and along the Tietê River. The power potential along the Tietê River is mainly at sites with medium and high potentials, sites where hydropower has already been harnessed. In addition to the annual mean hydropower estimates, potential hydropower estimates with flow rates with exceedance probabilities of 40

  1. Prevalence of dyslipidemia and risk factors in Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian State of Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Luiz José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of dyslipidemias in adults in the city of Campos dos Goytacazes, in the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro, and to identify its relation to risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based, observational study with sampling through conglomerates and stratified according to socioeconomic levels, sex, and age, with 1,039 individuals. Risk factors, familial history, blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were determined. RESULTS: The following prevalences were observed: of dyslipidemias 24.2%; of hypercholesterolemia, 4.2%; of elevated LDL-C, 3.5%; of low HDL-C, 18.3%; and of hypertriglyceridemia, 17.1%. The following mean levels were observed: cholesterol, 187.6± 33.7 mg/dL; LDL-C, 108.7±26.8 mg/dL; HDL-C, 48.5±7.7 mg/dL; and triglycerides, 150.1±109.8 mg/dL. The following variables showed a positive correlation with dyslipidemia: increased age (P<0.001, male sex (P<0.001, low familial income (P<0.001, familial history (P<0.01, overweight/obesity (P<0.001, waist measure (P<0.001, high blood pressure (P<0.001, and diabetes mellitus (P<0.001. The following variables had no influence on dyslipidemias: ethnicity, educational level, smoking habits, and sedentary lifestyle. CONCLUSION: The frequency of lipid changes in the population studied was high, suggesting that measures for the early diagnosis should be taken, in association with implementation of programs for primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis.

  2. Crony Capitalism: Caricature or Category?

    OpenAIRE

    Mazumdar, Surajit

    2008-01-01

    This paper, part of a series on Crony Capitalism and Contemporary India, examines the conceptual meaning of the term crony capitalism, which has acquired considerable popularity since it was used as an explanation for the East Asian crisis. The paper argues that the conception of crony capitalism as a description of a distinct kind of capitalism associated with the State playing a key role in the allocation process suffers from serious deficiencies and therefore does not provide a suitable fr...

  3. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  4. Natural radionuclides in the Brazilian coast region: 1. Estuarine complex Cananeia-Iguape, Sao Paulo State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franca, E.J. de; Ferreira, Fabiano S.; Silva Neto, Paulo C.; Farias, Emerson E.G. de; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Ribeiro, Andreza P., E-mail: ejfranca@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: biologofabiano10@gmail.com, E-mail: ptpoli@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: emersonemiliano@yahoo.com.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Mangrove forests are of utmost important ecosystems for biogeochemical transport processes in a global scale because of the preferential transport via sediments and organic matter from continents to oceans. Such ecosystems are the richest biodiversity areas, in which bioaccumulation of chemical substances can be expected for some species, in this case, there is a lack of knowledge of natural radionuclides accumulation in mangrove vegetation. This work encompasses the first results obtained for the Estuarine Complex Cananeia-Iguape, a peculiar coast area of the Sao Paulo State, Brazil. In 2011, leaf samples of Rhyzophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa trees with perimeter at the breast height higher than 15 cm were collected in the conservation unit Parque Estadual Ilha do Cardoso. Sample preparation consisted of leaf washing, oven-drying, milling in porcelain mortar at the particle size lower than 0.5 mm. Portions of 10 g were transferred to polyethylene vials of appropriate geometry for the analysis by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Reference materials were analyzed together to evaluate the quality of the analytical procedure. K-40 was preferentially allocated in leaves. Some accumulation in leaves was noticed for Pb-210 and Ac-228 depending on the species, indicating differences of radionuclide distribution in the mangrove vegetation. (author)

  5. Building Capacity for Tracking Human Capital Development and Its Mobility across State Lines. Policy Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2014-01-01

    This issue of "Policy Insights" provides a review of the past five years of the cost and value of higher education, which have gained increased policymaker, consumer, and media attention. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education (WICHE) has worked with four of its member states (Hawai'i, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington) to…

  6. 76 FR 11705 - Office of the Attorney General; Certification Process for State Capital Counsel Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... not want it to be posted online, you must include the phrase ``CONFIDENTIAL BUSINESS INFORMATION'' in... motivation to seek chapter 154 certification for their States. See 73 FR at 75329-30. Section 26.21 of the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 28...

  7. Molecular characterization of sickle cell anemia in the Northern Brazilian state of Pará.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lemos Cardoso, Greice; Guerreiro, João Farias

    2010-01-01

    To assess alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles, beta-thalassemia mutations and haplotypes linked to the HBB*S cluster in a sample of 130 unrelated sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients (55% female) from Belém, Pará State, for their possible effects on the patients' survival. -alpha(3.7), -alpha(42), -alpha(20.5), and -(MED) alpha+-thalassemia deletion alleles were investigated using multiplex gap-PCR method. Characterization of beta-thalassemia mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the beta-globin gene amplified through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Haplotypes were determined by analysis of six polymorphic restriction sites [(1) XmnI-5'gammaG, (2) HindIII-gammaG, (3) HindIII-gammaA, (4) HincII-psibeta, (5) HincII-3'psibeta, and (6) HinfI-5'beta] followed by restriction digestion and agarose gel electrophoresis. Twenty-one patients (16%) presented -alpha3.7 thalassemia. Sixteen of those (76%) were heterozygous (-alpha3.7/alphaalpha) and 5 (24%) were homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7). -Alpha(4.2), -alpha(20.5) and -(MED) deletions were not found. Nine cases of sickle cell-beta thalassemia were found and four different beta-thal mutations were identified: beta(+) -88 (C>T), 3.8%; beta(+) codon 24 (T > A), 1.5%; beta(+) IVSI-110 (G > A), 0.7% and beta (IVSI-1 (G > A), 0.7%. No differences according to age were observed in -alpha(3.7) deletion, beta-thalassemia and HHB*S haplotypes distribution. Our results suggest that although alpha- and beta-thalassemia and betaS haplotypes may have modulating effect on clinical expression and hematological parameters of SCA, these genetic variables probably have little influence on the subjects' survival. PMID:20737602

  8. Analysis of the astronomical concepts presented by teachers of some Brazilian state schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Pereira Gonzaga, Edwon

    2013-01-01

    The reason for the development of this work is based on the fact that many teachers of the basic education level (EL) don't deal with concepts related to astronomy, but when they do so they just follow didactic books, which contain many conceptual errors. Astronomy is one of the subjects being taught in the EL and it is part of the proposals of the Education Ministry and the Education Department of the State of São Paulo; but it is a fact that several researchers point out many mistakes in teaching Astronomy. Their purpose is to minimize some deficiencies, and this aim was worked out in an Academical Extension Course for Teachers from the Directorate of Regional (DR) Teaching (Mauá, Ribeirão Pires and Rio Grande da Serra) with the following objectives: to raise alternative conceptions; to provide supplemental instruction of teachers by means of lectures, discussions and workshops, and to check the learning success after the course. Therefore, sixteen questions were applied before and after the course, so that quite satisfactory results could be established afterwards: 100.0% of the teachers knew the names of the phases of the moon, 97.0% understood that the Solar System is composed by eight planets, 78.1% were able to explain how a "Lunar Eclipse" occurs, a "Solar Eclipse" and a "Solstice", 72.7% knew how to explain the occurrence of the seasons of the year; 64.5% explained the occurrence of the equinox correctly, 89.7% were able to define properly the term "comet"; 63.6% defined "Asteroid", 54.5% "meteor"; 58.1% "galaxy", and 42.4% "planet".

  9. The Social Capital of Blacks and Whites: Differing Effects of the Mass Media in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Thorson, Esther

    2006-01-01

    This study relied on telephone survey interviews of adults in two U.S. metropolitan areas to examine whether the relationship between mass media use and social capital varies according to ethnicity. A multigroup approach taken with structural equation modeling validates a four-factor model of social capital for Blacks and Whites and then, with the…

  10. Varieties in state capitalism: Outward FDI strategies of central and local state-owned enterprises from emerging economy countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Hua Li; Lin Cui; Jiangyong Lu

    2014-01-01

    Institutional diversity characterizing state-owned enterprises (SOEs) from emerging economies holds critical but under-examined implications for their internationalization activities. Different types of SOEs can exhibit distinct motivations, strategic resources, and adaptive capabilities for penetrating foreign markets. To understand how such idiosyncratic differences emerge, we conceptualize the heterogeneity of SOEs as an outcome of multiple institutional reform processes – administrative a...

  11. Day labourers in Pretoria, Windhoek and the United States - a comparison of two capitals and a different world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Schenck

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the economic dynamics of day labouring in two Southern African capital cities, namely Windhoek and Pretoria, against the background of the experiences of day labourers in a developed country such as the United States. Problem investigated: People waiting at the side of the road, hoping to obtain a piece job for the day, is a typical phenomenon in a situation where people are forced to venture into the informal sector to generate an income. Day labour is a national and international phenomenon that seems to be on the increase. Literature on the similarities and differences across different geographical areas and levels of economic development is limited, however. Approach: For the purpose of this study, day labourers in Pretoria were the subject of a case study which was compared with studies done in Windhoek and the United States during the same period, namely 2003 to 2004. The general demographics of day labourers in these two cities were investigated, as well as their employment history and the income earned. Findings and implications: Day labourers in Pretoria and Windhoek were mainly male, fairly young, generally low skilled, earning low and uncertain levels of income and working under harsh conditions. This corresponds to the demographic characteristics of day labourers in the United States. In both the United States and Southern Africa, day labour pays poorly. It was found that day labourers seldom earn more than the subsistence level of income for the respective countries discussed in this paper. A significant portion of day labourers in Pretoria, Windhoek and the United States previously held formal sector jobs. The biggest difference is to be found in the future prospects of day labourers. The opportunity for day labourers in the United States to make the transition into the formal sector of the economy is far better than for their counterparts in Southern Africa.Value of the research: The

  12. Plant species richness and floristic composition change along a rice-pasture sequence in subsistence farms of Brazilian Amazon, influence on the fallows biodiversity (Benfica, State of Para)

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja, Danielle; Miranda, L. D. S.; Velasquez, Elena; Lavelle, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Along the Amazonian pioneer front in the Brazilian state of Pari, smallholder farmers manually clear primary rain forest every year to grow rice prior to sowing pastures that they will use for 5-20 years. Species richness and floristic composition of the weedy species were studied in 20 plots along a farming succession, from rice fields, to 1-year-old, 4-8-year-old and over 10-year-old pastures planted to Brachiaria brizantha. In the early phases of the farming cycle reduction in the average ...

  13. Late Holocene vegetation and fire dynamics from a savanna-forest ecotone in Roraima state, northern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Meneses, Maria Ecilene Nunes; da Costa, Marcondes Lima; Behling, Hermann

    2013-03-01

    Two sediment cores from Mauritia flexuosa palm swamps have been studied by pollen and charcoal analysis. The cores Fazenda Cigana (FC) and Terra Indígena Aningal (TIA) were taken from a savanna-forest ecotone area in the Roraima State, northern Brazilian Amazon. Based on 5 radiocarbon dates, these records allow the reconstruction of the vegetation fire and climate dynamics during the past 1550 years. At the FC site was recorded a higher proportion of forest cover, suggesting local wetter climatic conditions favorable for forest expansion, especially by gallery forests, between 1550 and 1400 cal yr BP. Stands of M. flexuosa started to establish on the site indicating sufficient soil moisture. From 1400 to 1050 cal yr BP, forest cover retreated while savanna, and the Mauritia palm swamp expanded considerably. The FC site was marked by savanna and Mauritia cover with a slight increase of forest between ca. 1050 and 900 cal yr BP. From 900 to 300 cal yr BP the savanna and palm swamp taxa became dominant and the forest area decreased. At the TIA site the savanna cover was dominant between 1200 and 1000 cal yr BP. From 1000 to 700 forest expanded while savanna and Mauritia palm swamp reduced. Between 700 and 300 cal yr BP savanna and Mauritia palm swamp increased and forest area decreased. The high amount of charred particles found in the sediments, indicate fires with a marked increase between 1400 to 1000 cal yr BP (FC site) and 700 to 300 cal yr BP (TIA site), and probably caused the retreat of forest cover during these two time intervals. The relatively lower fire activity after 300 cal yr BP until present-day favored the increase of forested area at both TIA and FC sites. The arrival of the European settler and the subsequent introduction of cattle, is suggested as the main reason for the decrease of fire in the study region. The results point the fire caused by indigenous people as the principal controlling factor for forest and savanna dynamics during the past

  14. Measuring Capital

    OpenAIRE

    W. Erwin Diewert

    2003-01-01

    The paper revisits Harper, Berndt and Wood (1989) and calculates Canadian reproducible capital services aggregates under alternative assumptions about the form of depreciation, the opportunity cost of capital and the treatment of capital gains. Five different models of depreciation are considered: (1) one hoss shay; (2) straight line depreciation; (3) declining balance or geometric depreciation; (4) linearly declining efficiency profiles and (5) linearly increasing maintenance profiles. The l...

  15. GROSS CAPITAL FORMATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH DURING EARLY 2000’S IN EU-MEMBER AND CANDIDATES STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin-Marius PAVELESCU

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to reveal the correlation between the gross capital formation and the gross domestic product in countries of the European Union in 2007, during the period 1999-2006. The evaluation is made both on demand side and on supply side. On the demand side we take into account the gross capital formation dynamics and structure and the gross domestic product dynamics. On the supply side calculate the capital accumulation efficiency, through modification of the formulae resulted from Domar’s economic growth model in order to emphasise the impact of domestic demand and net export changes. In the end we present some conclusions and proposals for gross capital formation contribution to economic growth methodology improvement.

  16. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

    OpenAIRE

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty; René Poccard-Chapuis; Isabel Drigo; Emilie Coudel; Sophie Plassin; François Laurent; Marcelo Thâles

    2015-01-01

    Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this...

  17. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory en...

  18. 关于进一步做好利用外资工作的若干意见%Several Opinions of the State Council On Further Utilizing Foreign Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    国务院

    2010-01-01

    @@ Utilizing foreign capital is the important content in China's basic state policy of opening up to the outside world. China has positively been attracting foreign investment and promoted industrial upgrad-ing and technical progress since the opening up, with foreign-invested enterprises being the important component of the national economy. At present, Chinese advantage over utilizing foreign capital remains obvi-ous. For the purpose of raising the quality and level of utilizing foreign capital and better giving full play to utilizing foreign capital in boosting scientific innovation, industrial upgrading and regional coordinated and balanced development, the following opinions are hereby put forward:

  19. Capital gains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines African and Middle East oil and natural gas project financing. Capital markets financing, Ras Laffan's project bonds, capital market issues in Saudi Arabia, the movement toward gas and away from oil, and Islamic opportunities are discussed, African and Middle East oil and gas projects are listed. (UK)

  20. Celebration Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Boykoff, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Capitalism is a nimble shapeshifter. In this talk Jules Boykoff draws from the history of the Olympic Games to offer a theory of “celebration capitalism,” a form of modern-day economics that complements Naomi Klein’s “disaster capitalism” marked by neoliberalism: privatization, deregulation, and free-market rhetoric.

  1. Postindustrial Capitalism and the Problems with Bourdieu's Social and Cultural Capital in Understanding the Black/White Achievement Gap in the United States and United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocombe, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    This hermeneutical essay demonstrates why and how Pierre Bourdieu's social reproduction theory is neither an adequate explanation for understanding praxis nor the Black/White academic achievement gap in contemporary postindustrial economies like that of the United States and the United Kingdom. The underlining hypothesis of the work is that the…

  2. CAPITAL STRUCTURE AND VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becsky-Nagy Patricia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Venture capital significantly changes the capital structure of the portfolio company at the time of the investment. Venture capitalists contribute to the company’s success through their active involvement in the management and their added value appears in the increase of the value of the equity. At the same time with taking active role in the management, agency problem occurs, that complicates the cooperation and the success of exit. In this article we search the answer for the question whether the preferred equity, that are commonly used in the US for bridging the agency problem, are used and able to help Hungarian venture capitalists to manage agency problems. On the other hand we examined how the venture capital affect capital structure, how the venture capitalists value added appear in the capital structure. During the evaluation of the three case studies, we came to the conclusion, that the venture capital investments have positive effect on the liabilities of the enterprises, as the capital structure indexes show. However, the investors need the ownership, which help them to step up resolutely, when things change for the worse, and companies need the expertise, which the investors bring with their personal assistance. The investor’s new attitude also has positive effect on a mature company, which has an experienced leader, because he can show another aspect, as a person who come from outside. During the examination of the capital structure, we cannot disregard the events of the company’s environment, which have effects on the firm. The investor’s decisions also appear different ways. Because of this, every venture capital investment is different, just as the capital structure of the firms, in which they invest.

  3. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  4. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field. PMID:24676181

  5. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  6. Capitalism and African business cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars and practitioners once commonly linked 'African culture' to a distinctive 'African capitalism', at odds with genuine capitalism and the demands of modern business. Yet contemporary African business cultures reveal that a capitalist ethos has taken hold within both state and society. The success and visibility of an emergent, and celebrated, class of African big business reveals that business and profit are culturally acceptable. Existing theories of African capitalism are ill-equippe...

  7. Population data of 16 autosomal STR loci of the Powerplex ESX 17 System in a Brazilian Population from the State of São Paulo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Prado Oliveira e Sousa, Maria Luiza; de Oliveira, Marco Aurelio Tuena; Auler-Bittencout, Eloisa A; Soares-Vieira, Jose Arnaldo; Munoz, Daniel Romero; Iwamura, Edna Sadayo Miazato

    2014-07-01

    The State of São Paulo is the most populous state in Brazil, including approximately one fifth of the population of the country. In addition to a strong economy, the state has relatively good social indicators when compared with the rest of the country. The capital city, also called São Paulo, is the sixth largest city in the world. Its population is considered the most multicultural and racially mixed in Brazil. Currently, the largest populations in São Paulo are of Italian, Lebanese, Spanish and Japanese origin, and the state has the largest number of Northeasterners outside of the Northeast region. This population structure may lead to a particular genotype frequency. In this context, the formation of a new database containing the allele frequencies of five new genetic markers (D2S441, D10S1248, D22S1045, D1S1656 and D12S391) in a sample population is relevant. The allele frequencies of 16 STR loci, including the five new European Standard Set (ESS) loci, were calculated in a sample of 1088-1098 unrelated individuals, who geographically represent the Capital city.

  8. Intellectual Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Mardešič, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    The work is focused on intellectual capital and its reporting of intangible assets. First part of the work defines the basic theoretical principles, which are an essential part of the work for understanding the issue. Literature review discusses the various components of intellectual capital and focuses on their function within organizations. Work also discusses various approaches of literature and the authors developing a complex theoretical basis for this issue. The following practical part...

  9. The Development of Character Education Model Based on Strengthening Social Capital for Students of State Islamic University (UIN) Sunan Kalijaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarni, Sri M.; Dardiri, Achmad; Zuchdi, Darmiyati

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to find out the concept of character education model that is appropriate for students to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga and also to find out the teaching materials design of character education based on social capital to build character of students of UIN Sunan Kalijaga. This research is motivated by…

  10. O efeito da liberalização da conta de capital sobre a política fiscal: uma avaliação do caso brasileiro recente The effects of the capital account liberalization on the fiscal policy: an evaluation of the recent Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Carlos de Castro Pires

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been some agreement that capital account liberalization have provided restriction on economic policies. This paper provides some evidence for Brazil. I find evidence that capital account liberalization provided limits to fiscal policy in Brazil and its effects can depend on exchange rate policy.

  11. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital Adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels....

  12. Fatores associados ao uso pesado de álcool entre estudantes das capitais brasileiras Factores asociados al uso pesado de alcohol entre estudiantes de las capitales brasileras Factors associated with heavy alcohol use among students in Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos F Galduróz

    2010-04-01

    el uso pesado de alcohol y los factores estudiados fueron analizadas por medio de regresión logística, considerando nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Del total de estudiantes, 4.286 (8,9% hicieron uso pesado de alcohol en el mes anterior a la entrevista. El análisis por regresión logística mostró asociación entre relaciones malas o regulares con padre (OR= 1,46 y madre (OR =1,61 y uso pesado de alcohol. Seguir una religión (OR=0,83 se mostró inversamente asociado a este tipo de consumo de alcohol. La práctica de deportes y el hecho de que la madre se perciba como liberal, no mostraron significancia en el modelo. Hubo mayor prevalencia del uso pesado de alcohol entre los estudiantes que trabajaban. CONCLUSIONES: Uniones familiares más coherentes y seguir una religión pueden prevenir el uso abusivo de alcohol entre estudiantes.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between heavy use of alcohol among students and family, personal and social factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including public school students aged ten to 18 from 27 Brazilian capital cities in 2004. Data was collected using an anonymous, self-report questionnaire that was adapted from a World Health Organization instrument. A representative sample comprising 48,155 students was stratified by census tracts and clusters (schools. The associations between heavy alcohol use and the factors studied were analyzed using logistic regression at a 5% significance level. RESULTS: Of all students, 4,286 (8.9% reported heavy alcohol use in the month prior to the interview. The logistic regression analysis showed an association between fair or poor relationship with the father (OR = 1.46 and the mother (OR = 1.61 and heavy use of alcohol. Following a religion (OR = 0.83 was inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption. Sports practice and mother perceived as a "liberal" person had no significance in the model. However, a higher prevalence of heavy use of alcohol was seen among working

  13. Análise da relação entre gerenciamento de resultados e custo de capital em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBOVESPA = Analysis of the Relationship Between Results-Based Management and Cost of Equity in Brazilian Companies Listed in BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanne Dias de Moura

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou analisar a relação entre o gerenciamento de resultados contábeis e o custo de capital próprio e de terceiros em empresas brasileiras listadas na BM&FBovespa. Para tal, realizou-se pesquisa descritiva, conduzida por meio de análise documental e abordagem quantitativa dos dados referentes ao período de 2010 a 2013 de uma amostra composta de 217 empresas. Os resultados evidenciaram que houve elevação do custo de capital próprio. No que tange ao custo de capital de terceiros, quando analisado por meio da variável Kd, constatou-se que ocorreu uma pequena redução de 31,81% para 28,37%. Ao analisar o custo de capital de terceiros, por meio da variável Ki, constatou-se que houve aumento de 23,94% para 30,13%. Os resultados evidenciaram destaque para os gerenciamentos de baixas proporções, principalmente a partir do ano de 2011. Também entre as empresas analisadas aquelas com menor gerenciamento de resultados não apresentavam menor custo de capital próprio e de terceiros. The study aimed at analyzing the relationship between results-based management and the company's cost of equity and its third party in Brazilian companies listed in BM&FBovespa. To this end, a descriptive research was conducted through documentary analysis and quantitative analysis of the data from 2010 to 2013 from a sample of 217 companies. The results revealed that the cost of equity rose in the period of 2010 to 2013. With respect to the cost of third party, when analyzed by Kd variable, it was found out a slight decrease from 31,81% to 28,37%. When analyzing the cost of third party by Ki variable, it was noticed an increase from 23,94% to 30,13% between 2010 and 2013. As for management, the results showed significance for the low proportion managements, especially since 2011. The results also showed that, among the analyzed companies, those with lower results-based management did not have lower cost of equity and third party.

  14. Estimativas mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo pública no Brasil (2002-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio H. M. dos Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta estimativas inéditas de séries mensais da formação bruta de capital fixo (FBCF das administrações públicas no Brasil de 2002 a 2010. A estimação exigiu um esforço significativo de pesquisa. Em primeiro lugar, realizou-se uma análise criteriosa dos conceitos da contabilidade pública e da contabilidade nacional, enfatizando-se as peculiaridades do processo orçamentário brasileiro que enviesam as estimativas anuais dos investimentos públicos divulgadas nas estatísticas oficiais e que afetam a precisão das informações de alta frequência. Em segundo lugar, desenvolveram-se procedimentos para mitigar estes problemas. Por fim, buscou-se contornar a escassez de informações dos governos subnacionais solicitando-se informações adicionais de centenas de contadores públicos, técnicos ou secretários de Fazenda/Planejamento de todos os estados da Federação, do Distrito Federal (DF e dos maiores municípios.This article presents new monthly estimates of the gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government for the 2002-2010 years. A significant research effort was made to carry out the estimations. First, the many differences between the concepts of "public investment" (as used in the Brazilian public accounting manuals and "gross fixed capital formation of the general government" (as used in the United Nations System of National Accounts were carefully identified, and so were the peculiarities of the Brazilian budget process that distort official estimates of the annual gross fixed capital formation of the Brazilian general government and affect the precision of naive estimates of the same variable in higher frequencies. Second, several procedures were developed to correct or mitigate these problems. Finally, additional information was obtained from 20 out of 26 Brazilian states, the federal district, and tens of (large municipalities in order to allow us to circumvent the relative scarcity of

  15. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  16. The Distinctiveness of Nordic Welfare States in the Transformation to the Projective City and the New Spirits of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Boltanski and Chiapello identify a new mode of organizing capitalism which they identify in terms of project work and mobility. They argue that the problem for this mode of organizing is the inequalities which it sets up between those who are mobile and those who are immobile. The rewards in term...... the abilities of men and women, young and old, able-bodied and disabled — to participate in this new economy....

  17. A Model of Optimal Allocations of Physical Capital and Human Capital in Three Sectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shaobo; XUE Minggao

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops an endogenous economic growth model about allcation of physical and human capital in three sectors. Optimal allocation of physical capital and human capital in three sectors is derived, the fraction of physical and human capital in each sector is positively related. The balanced values and the growth rates at steady state are given under certain conditions.Finally relations between the fractions of human capital and parameters are analyzed elaborately.

  18. Intelligence Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maid Pajevic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of BiH? Historical context implies greater responsibility of OSA BiH in realising its preventive function of protecting security of BiH and its citizens. Theoretical frame of the intelligence capital implies that the system of security and intelligence of BiH should be able to respond to strategic questions: to know-what, to know – why, to know – how, to know – who.

  19. Intelligence Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Maid Pajevic

    2011-01-01

    The author of this article presents a new theoretical concept of intelligence capital, with which he explains the multi-meaningful term ‘intelligence’. The author offers a conceptual frame „intelligence capital“ as a generic complex consisting of four interactively linked elements. The contribution of this article is, among other things, an answer to a question: What is an applicative value of intelligence capital as a new theoretical concept for the sys­tem of security and intelligence of Bi...

  20. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  1. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to create a perspective of rural education. The concept of rural education was initially developed within the Movement of Landless Workers (MST and other social movements from the political pressure and demands for the state to take over public education / field took dimension of public policy. This complex situation currently directs rural schools, a critical perspective that seeks an education beyond the capital.

  2. Unsustainable growth, unsustainable capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    problems, but serve to further highlight the difficulties of changing capitalism towards sustainability. In a profit-oriented economy, capital accumulation is a prime driving force, and non-growth for the economy at large tends to result in serious economic and social crises. On the other hand, a de......This article argues that there is a fundamental contradiction between a profit-oriented economic system and long-term environmental sustainability. The 'solutions' that are proposed by mainstream environmental economists as well as their 'ecological economy' colleagues do not solve the central...... according to which the powers and mechanisms of the natural world are considered totally controllable by humans as if they were mere epiphenomena of the human world. On the other hand, the assumptions of certain ecological economists about the possibility of steady-state capitalism disregard the relation...

  3. Allergy Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... McAllen, TX The report looks at 3 important factors: Pollen score Allergy medication usage Availability of Board-certified allergists This year’s report named Jackson, Mississippi, as the top Spring Allergy Capital due to its: Higher than average pollen Higher ...

  4. Capital Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    "Social capital" describes the strength of community as measured by the connections and levels of trust among its members. These connections are both formal and informal and the benefits include better health and better academic achievement. In this article, the author proposes two types of experiments to determine whether the relationship between…

  5. Capital Challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China is on its way to establishing its own venture capital industry Venture capitalists will find no safe haven worldwide as the prospects for the majority of economies to pick up remain dim for the next two years. Still, if some of them have the money and

  6. Multi-level Governance of Land Use Changes in the Brazilian Amazon: Lessons from Paragominas, State of Pará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Gabrielle Piketty

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Land use governance in the Brazilian Amazon has undergone significant changes in the last decade. At the national level, law enforcement capacity has increased and downstream industries linked to commodity chains responsible for deforestation have begun to monitor some of their suppliers’ impacts on forests. At the municipal level, local actors have launched a Green Municipality initiative, aimed at eliminating deforestation and supporting green supply chains at the territorial level. In this paper, we analyze the land use transition since 2001 in Paragominas—the first Green Municipality—and discuss the limits of the governance arrangements underpinning these changes. Our work draws on a spatially explicit analysis of biophysical variables and qualitative information collected in interviews with key private and public stakeholders of the main commodity chains operating in the region. We argue that, up to now, the emerging multi-level scheme of land governance has not succeeded in promoting large-scale land use intensification, reforestation and rehabilitation of degraded lands. Moreover, private governance mechanisms based on improved product standards, fail to benefit from potential successful partnerships between the public and private sector at the territorial level. We propose a governance approach that adopts a broader territorial focus as a way forward.

  7. Venture Capital Initiative: Ohio's School Improvement Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Soonhwa; Loadman, William E.

    In 1994 the Ohio State Legislature established Venture Capital to support school restructuring. The Venture Capital school initiative is a concept borrowed from the business community in which the corporate entity provides risk capital to parts of the organization to stimulate creative ideas and to provide opportunities for local entities to try…

  8. Re-Thinking Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Bukač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of social capital has been used very often in sociological researches over the last two decades. Measuring social capital in civil society, neighborhoods and educational systems is merely a part of its popular usage. Many sociologists tend to use the concept of social capital very freely and therefore expand the definition of social capital. The author’s personal experience indicates that there have been a great number of academic discussions, research planning and public speeches implementing the notion of social capital without taking a detailed consideration of what that concept truly entails. By overviewing the available literature on social capital, it is actually no wonder that both sociologists and the noted concept were in this confusing situation. As Field stated in his book Social Capital (Key Ideas, published in 2008, his work was “the first attempt to provide an extended introduction on increasingly influential concept of social capital” (Field 1. Quibria notes that even though there is a vast number of research conducted on social capital in many academic fields and with various approaches ‘the concept of social capital remains largely elusive’’(1. That obviously is not an obstacle because there is a constantly growing interest in social capital. A vast body of research concerning, measuring, and defining social capital is available today, which helps a researcher to analyze and compare all of the perspectives concerning social capital. This can be of great importance when researchers approach a somewhat new subject of research such as online communication and, more specifically, online games.

  9. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab

  10. Life-Cycle Wage Growth and Heterogeneous Human Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Sanders; Christopher Taber

    2012-01-01

    Wages grow rapidly for young workers, and the human capital investment model is the classic framework to explain this growth. While estimation and the theory of human capital have traditionally focused on general human capital, both have evolved toward models of heterogeneous human capital. In this article, we review and evaluate the current state of this literature. We exposit the classic model of general human capital investment and extend it to show how a model of heterogeneous human capit...

  11. Optimal capital income taxation in a two sector economy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim, Sheikh

    2007-01-01

    We extend the celebrated Chamley-Judd result of zero capital income tax and show that the steady state optimal capital income tax is nonzero, in general. In particular, we find that the optimal plan involves zero capital income tax in investment sector and a nonzero capital income tax in consumption sector. In a two sector neoclassical economy, interdependence of labour and capital margins allows the government to choose an optimal policy that involves nonzero tax on capital income. The disto...

  12. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  13. Community Development and Local Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Munasib, Abdul B.A.

    2007-01-01

    While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. The findings show that even after accounting for various demographic and economic characteristics, the HDI explains the variation in a number of social capital levels (especially thos...

  14. Community Development and Local Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Jeffrey L.; Anil, Bulent; Munasib, Abdul B.A.

    2010-01-01

    While a substantial amount of research has been devoted to showing what social capital does, research explaining social capital itself lags behind. The literature has a long tradition of examining the effect of social capital on local economic growth and development. In this paper we examine whether local economic development can explain the variation in social capital across various geographical clusters in the state of Georgia. We begin by devising a measurement tool, a Human Development In...

  15. Política, agricultura e a reconversão do capital do tráfico transatlântico de escravos para as finanças brasileiras na década de 1850 Politics, agriculture and the reconversion of the transatlantic slave trade capital to Brazilian finances in 1850'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Vitorino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo enfoca como, após 1850, com a cessação do tráfico transatlântico de africanos escravos, o capital, antes engatado nesse negócio, passou a irrigar o meio circulante (a moeda e o crédito, reforçando, assim, a economia de mercado já existente na Corte Imperial, mas, a partir de então, com força para configurar nesta cidade uma economia urbana de profundas conseqüências para os agricultores escravistas do Vale do Paraíba ligados ao comércio exterior, e dependentes do crédito e da moeda ali alocados. O assentamento urbano do capital dos mercadores negreiros foi deliberado pelo Partido Conservador.The article emphasizes how, after 1850, with the cessation of the transatlantic African slave trade, the capital, rather linked in this business, passed to irrigate the finance capital (the coin and the credit, reinforcing, then, the trade economy also extant in the Imperial Court but, hereafter, stronger enough to build in this city a urban economy with profoundest consequences to the farms of the Vale do Paraíba who used slaves, were linked in the foreign trade, and were dependent of the credit and of the coin allocated there. The urban settlement of the black slave trade capital was deliberate by the Conservative Party.

  16. Tendências temporais no consumo de tabaco nas capitais brasileiras, segundo dados do VIGITEL, 2006 a 2011 Tendencias temporales en el consumo de tabaco en las capitales brasileñas, según datos de VIGITEL, 2006 a 2011 Trends in tobacco consumption from 2006 to 2011 in Brazilian capitals according to the VIGITEL survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline Gomes Campos da Luz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a tendência de indicadores do tabagismo nas capitais brasileiras, segundo dados do Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (VIGITEL em adultos, 2006 a 2011. Foi utilizado modelo de regressão linear simples (a = 5%. Houve redução da prevalência de fumantes e fumantes pesados entre homens e entre indivíduos com idade de 35 a 54 anos. Para fumantes, também houve redução no estrato de 9 a 11 anos de estudo e regiões Norte e Centro-oeste. Para fumantes pesados, a queda foi na Região Nordeste. A política regulatória adotada pelo Brasil tem sido responsável pelo declínio nas prevalências do tabaco.El objetivo fue analizar la tendencia de indicadores del tabaquismo en las capitales brasileñas, según datos del Sistema de Vigilancia de Factores de Riesgo y Protección para Enfermedades Crónicas por Encuesta Telefónica (VIGITEL en adultos, de 2006 a 2011. Fue utilizado el modelo de regresión lineal simple (a = 5%. Hubo una reducción de la prevalencia de fumadores y fumadores crónicos entre hombres y entre individuos con edad de 35 a 54 años. En los fumadores, también hubo reducción en el estrato de 9 a 11 años de estudio y regiones Norte y Centro-oeste. En los fumadores crónicos, la caída fue en la región Nordeste. La política regulatoria adoptada por Brasil ha sido responsable del declive en las prevalencias del tabaco.The aim of this study was to analyze trends in indicators of smoking in Brazilian State capitals, according to the Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Illnesses Using a Telephone Survey (VIGITEL in adults, from 2006 to 2011. A simple linear regression model was used (a = 5%. There was a decrease in the prevalence of smokers and heavy smokers among men and in individuals 35 to 54 years of age. Smoking also decreased among individuals with 9-11 years of schooling and in the Northeast, North, and

  17. Building Social Capital for Internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Braga Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital may be defined as social relationships that confer actual or potential benefits. It can therefore beunderstood as a particular type of resource. Recent research has drawn attention to how connections andrelationships (networking both at home and abroad can be crucially important for small and medium-sizedenterprises (SMEs seeking to export or invest abroad. However, relatively little is known about how SMEsinitiate, develop and maintain network relationships. This paper reports a study of 32 British SMEs exporting, orattempting to export, to Brazil and of domestic institutional agencies whose role was to facilitate businessconducted between British and Brazilian SMEs. The study explored both the functions of social capital for theSMEs and the process whereby it was developed. Its findings confirm the value of social capital in internationalentrepreneurship. It can provide information, interpretation, market opportunities, and some degree of protectionagainst the risks associated with foreignness, newness and smallness. The study also confirms the vitalimportance of personal trust in sustaining social capital between small firms.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of livestock rabies viruses isolated in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba and Pernambuco from 2003 - 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochizuki Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited or no epidemiological information has been reported for rabies viruses (RABVs isolated from livestock in the northeastern Brazilian states of Paraíba (PB and Pernambuco (PE. The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular epidemiology of RABVs circulating in livestock, especially cattle, in these areas between 2003 and 2009. Findings Phylogenetic analysis based on 890 nt of the nucleoprotein (N gene revealed that the 52 livestock-derived RABV isolates characterized here belonged to a single lineage. These isolates clustered with a vampire bat-related RABV lineage previously identified in other states in Brazil; within PB and PE, this lineage was divided between the previously characterized main lineage and a novel sub-lineage. Conclusions The occurrences of livestock rabies in PB and PE originated from vampire bat RABVs, and the causative RABV lineage has been circulating in this area of northeastern Brazil for at least 7 years. This distribution pattern may correlate to that of a vampire bat population isolated by geographic barriers.

  19. Ajuste fiscal nos estados: uma análise do período 1998-2006 Fiscal adjustment in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Wulff Gobetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar a forma de enquadramento dos estados ao Programa de Ajuste Fiscal (PAF e à Lei de Responsabilidade Fiscal (LRF, destacando seus impactos nas escolhas de alocação dos recursos públicos e na taxa de investimento. Os resultados obtidos após minucioso trabalho de depuração das bases de dados confirmam a melhoria da situação financeira de estados no período posterior à LRF, mas sugerem que existe um trade-off entre os indicadores fiscais, de um lado, e os investimentos e gastos em infraestrutura, de outro, exigindo uma reflexão sobre a qualidade e sustentabilidade do ajuste fiscal. Os dados orçamentários analisados também apontam evidências de contabilidade criativa.The objective of this article is to offer an analysis of the accommodation by Brazilian states with Fiscal Adjustment Program and with Fiscal Responsibility Act (FRA, showing their impacts on the choices of public resources allocation and on the investment rate. The results obtained after detailed work of data depuration confirm the improvement of financial situation of the states in the period post FRA, but also suggest the existence of a trade-off between fiscal indicators and infrastructure investment, demanding a reflection about the quality and the sustainability of the fiscal adjustment. The budget data analyzed also indicate evidences of creative accountability.

  20. An example of income distribution inequality problem in Turkey: Inequity created by wage policy in state economic enterprise on income distribution and its relation to human capital theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Cam

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article; salaries of "career occupations" dependent on act of number 657 İn Turkey and wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857(Labor Law are compared to state an example of income distribution inequality in Turkey. This study consists of three sections. In the first section, the importance of wage policy in income distribution policy is explained. In second section, wage formation and education and employment relations are taken İn hand İn the frame of assumptions of human capital theory. In the last section, wages of labor dependent on act of number 4857 and salaries of career occupations dependent on act of number 657 are compared in a state economics enterprise which displays activity in energy sector in Turkey.

  1. Instrumental Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Valerio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available During the history of human kind, since our first ancestors, tools have represented a mean to reach objectives which might otherwise seemed impossibles. In the called New Economy, where tangibles assets appear to be losing the role as the core element to produce value versus knowledge, tools have kept aside man in his dairy work. In this article, the author's objective is to describe, in a simple manner, the importance of managing the organization's group of tools or instruments (Instrumental Capital. The characteristic conditions of this New Economy, the way Knowledge Management deals with these new conditions and the sub-processes that provide support to the management of Instrumental Capital are described.

  2. Triads of capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    of capital means a coherent stock of capital, including social, cultural and physical capital, which belongs to a local community. The case of civic organization in rural Denmark 1800-1900 shows how the three capitals successively acted as driving forces: physical capital about year 1800, social capital....... The hypothesis is that three forms of capital have the potential to act as driving forces: social capital, cultural capital and physical capital, the latter operationaliz­ed as buildings. A new concept, triad of capital, is introduced to analyze the interrelationship between these three forms of capital. A triad...... about year 1880, and cultural capital about year 1900. In each case, one form of capital changed the two others in a chain reaction process, which ultimately led to a major reorganization of the triads of capital in the local rural communities....

  3. Taxing foreign capital in Brazil: a sequential game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo M. G. Costa Filho

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Emerging market economies have witnessed a surge in capital inflows as a result of monetary expansion in developed countries in the aftermath of the 2008 crisis. In this paper, we have modeled the Brazilian decision to tax foreign capital inflows, which were deemed to hurt country’s firm’s competitiveness as they made the Real currency stronger. We have presented a game between three players in which each agent maximizes its utility function in a sequential framework. The main result is that with everything else held constant the Brazilian government’s decision to tax foreign capital leads to an increase in domestic interest rates. Cost of capital should raise as a consequence of the strategic behavior of involved actors, namely the government, domestic banks and foreign investors. A cautious approach on those measures is then warranted.

  4. Evolução de indicadores socioeconômicos e da mortalidade cardiovascular em três estados do Brasil Evolution of socioeconomic indicators and cardiovascular mortality in three brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Porto Soares

    2013-02-01

    Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, and in their capitals, between 1980 and 2008, with socioeconomic indicators collected from 1949 onwards. METHODS: Population and death data were obtained from the Brazilian Unified Health System databank (Datasus. Mortality rates due to the following were calculated and adjusted by use of the direct method and compensated for poorly defined causes: ischemic heart diseases; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; poorly defined causes; and all causes. Child mortality data were obtained from state and municipal health secretariats and from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. Information on gross domestic product (GDP and educational level was obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Applied Economic Research (Ipea. The mortality rates and socioeconomic indicators were correlated by using the estimation of Pearson linear coefficients to determine optimized year lag. The inclination coefficients of the regression between the dependent variable "disease" and the independent variable "socioeconomic indicator" were estimated. RESULTS: The three states showed a reduction in mortality, which was especially due to a decrease in cardiovascular mortality, mainly of cerebrovascular diseases. The decrease in cardiovascular mortality was preceded by a reduction in child mortality, an elevation in the per capita GDP, and an increase in the educational level, and a strong correlation between indicators and mortality rates was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The three indicators showed an almost maximum correlation with the reduction in cardiovascular mortality. Such relationship indicates the importance of improving quality of life to reduce cardiovascular mortality.

  5. Trial and Practice: A Study on Jiangsu Province State Capital Running and Budget%先行先试:江苏省国有资本经营预算的实践探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文秀

    2011-01-01

    江苏省国有资产面广量大,近年来,通过不断探索与实践,已建立起两级三层的国有资产管理体制框架,制定并出台国有资本经营预算相关政策。依据这些政策规定,江苏省开展国有资本经营预算工作的先行先试,为构建国有资本经营预算体系奠定一定的基础。最后提出,江苏省当前的实践探索应当重点防止国有资产流失;加快设立国有资本经营预算专门职能机构,并加强立法;建立健全国有资本经营预算配套制度。%Jiangsu Province is one of the few provinces who played a piloting role in implementing state capital operating budget. In recent years, after continuous explorations and practices, Jiangsu Province established a two-grade-three-level state capital management system frame, placed and performed the state capital profit management policies, explicitly stipulated the state capital profit' s charge body, scope, rate and expend methods. Meanwhile, following the management methods, certain foundation to establish state capital operating budget system is formed based on the pilot implementation. Current explorations and practices should be focused on avoiding state capital' s erosion, building up special functional departments, strengthening legislation, and establishing and completing state capital running and budget policies.

  6. From the 'Miracle' to the 'Lost Decade': intersectoral transfers and external credit in the Brazilian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Grinberg

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the Brazilian experience from the 'Economic Miracle' to the 'Lost Decade'. Its aim is to advance an alternative measurement of the flows of extraordinary wealth (i.e. ground-rent and net external credit available for appropriation in the Brazilian economy and to asses their relevance in sustaining the process of accumulation of industrial capital. That is done in order to provide further and more accurate evidence to the claim that the evolution of the Brazilian process of capital accumulation has been extremely dependent on the evolution of those masses of extraordinary wealth.

  7. Detection of Rickettsia rickettsii in the tick Amblyomma cajennense in a new Brazilian spotted fever-endemic area in the state of Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Guedes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated rickettsial infection in Amblyomma spp. ticks collected in a farm in Coronel Pacheco, a Brazilian spotted fever (BSF endemic area. A total of 78 A. cajennense and 78 A. dubitatum free-living adult ticks were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting a fragment of the rickettsial gene gltA. Only one pool of three A. cajennense ticks showed the expected product by PCR. This pool was further tested by PCR using sets of primers targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA, and ompB. All reactions yielded the expected bands that by sequencing, showed 100% identity to the corresponding sequences of the Rickettsia rickettsii gene fragments gltA (1063-bp, ompA (457-bp, and ompB (720-bp. The minimal infection rate of R. rickettii in the A. cajennense population was 1.28% (at least one infected tick within 78 ticks.The present study showed molecular evidence for the presence of R. rickettsii in A. cajennense from a BSF-endemic area in Coronel Pacheco, state of Minas Gerais. Although R. rickettsii has been previously reported infecting A. cajennense ticks in Brazil and other Latin American countries, the present study performed the first molecular characterization of R. rickettsii from the tick A. cajennense.

  8. Detection of Enterotoxigenic Potential and Determination of Clonal Profile in Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Bovine Subclinical Mastitis in Different Brazilian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Priscila Luiza; Moraes Riboli, Danilo Flávio; Pinheiro, Luiza; de Almeida Martins, Lisiane; Vasconcelos Paiva Brito, Maria Aparecida; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified Staphylococcus aureus as the most common agent involved in food poisoning. However, current research highlights the importance of toxigenic coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) isolated from food. The aim of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cows with bovine subclinical mastitis regarding the presence of genes responsible for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins and of the tst-1 gene encoding toxic shock syndrome toxin 1, and to determine the clonal profile of the isolates carrying any of the genes studied. A total of 181 strains isolated in different Brazilian states, including the South, Southeast, and Northeast regions, were analyzed. The sea gene was the most frequent, which was detected in 18.2% of the isolates, followed by seb in 7.7%, sec in 14.9%, sed in 0.5%, see in 8.2%, seg in 1.6%, seh in 25.4%, sei in 6.6%, and ser in 1.6%. The sej, ses, set, and tst-1 genes were not detected in any of the isolates. The typing of the isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis revealed important S. aureus and S. epidermidis clusters in different areas and the presence of enterotoxin genes in lineages isolated from animals that belong to herds located geographically close to each other. PMID:27092525

  9. Estimate of radiation doses to workers in underground mines of coal and fluorite in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and considerations on the optimisation of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentrations of radon in the environment of underground mines above 1000 - 1500 Bq/m3 are internationally considered to require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of the present work were to determine the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consisted in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m3. The inefficiency of the ventilation system and the liberation of radon during the various explosions may have contributed to the high concentrations of radon in these mines since the concentration of radium in the rocks (normal and weathered granites) and in the minerals (green and purple fluorides) that compose the mining environment are not high. The modification of the ventilation system of one of the fluorite mines was sufficient to reduce the radon concentration to levels of the order of 500 Bq/m3. The weathered granite contributes more significantly to the increase of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air than the other rocks here studied, i.e. normal granite as well as green and purple

  10. Estimate of radiation doses to workers in underground mines of coal and fluorite in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina and considerations on the optimisation of radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Carlos Eduardo Lima dos; Vignol, Maria Lidia; Conceicao, Rommulo Vieira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias], e-mail: carlos.lima@ufrgs.br; Xavier, Ana Maria; Gouvea, Vandir; Macacini, Jose Flavio [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: axavier@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The inhalation of radon present in underground mines can imply in the deposition of its descendants in the lungs, which may cause harm to the lungs tissues and induce cancer. Concentrations of radon in the environment of underground mines above 1000 - 1500 Bq/m{sup 3} are internationally considered to require protective measures for the miners. The objectives of the present work were to determine the concentrations of radon in air, as well as the resulting doses due to the presence of this radionuclide in three underground mines of fluorite and three underground mines of coal in the State of Santa Catarina. The concentration of radon was measured employing two types of detectors of nuclear tracks (SSNTD), the LEXAN and the CR-39. This detection method consisted in counting, with the help of a microscope, tracks resulting from the interaction of alpha particles with the film, due to the penetration of Rn-222 in the interior of the detector chamber and its decaying process. The average dose to the workers of the coal mines was estimated as 0.7 mSv/a, value inferior to the limit of 1 mSv/a established by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) for members of the public. On the other hand, the fluorite mines showed much higher concentrations of radon and superior to 1000 Bq/m{sup 3}. The inefficiency of the ventilation system and the liberation of radon during the various explosions may have contributed to the high concentrations of radon in these mines since the concentration of radium in the rocks (normal and weathered granites) and in the minerals (green and purple fluorides) that compose the mining environment are not high. The modification of the ventilation system of one of the fluorite mines was sufficient to reduce the radon concentration to levels of the order of 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. The weathered granite contributes more significantly to the increase of the concentration of Rn-222 in the air than the other rocks here studied, i.e. normal granite as well as

  11. Do Borders Matter for Social Capital? Economic Growth and Civic Culture in U.S. States and Canadian Provinces

    OpenAIRE

    John F Helliwell

    1996-01-01

    The paper first assesses regional and ethnic group differences in social trust and memberships in both Canada and the United States. The ethnic categories people choose to describe themselves are as important as regional differences, but much less important than education, in explaining differences in trust. Respondents who qualify their nationality by any of seven adjectives, a feature more prevalent in the United States than in Canada, (black, white, Hispanic and Asian in the United States;...

  12. História, estado e educação: uma leitura sobre o Estado brasileiro (1971-2000 History, state and education: a reading of the Brazilian State (1971-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gaiofatto Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta alguns resultados de pesquisa realizada sobre se e como o tema Estado e Educação foi abordado na produção acadêmica brasileira, no período compreendido entre 1971 a 2000. Foram pesquisados cinco Anais de Associações Nacionais de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa e quinze periódicos, das áreas de Educação, Economia, Administração, História, e Ciências Sociais. Buscou-se compreender as perspectivas das áreas, considerando-se o contexto histórico das décadas em que os trabalhos foram produzidos, e evidenciando seus nexos, contribuições e limitações. Neste artigo, é abordada a caracterização do Estado brasileiro, pelos autores dos trabalhos investigados, em especial quanto a três referências principais, que aparecem ao longo de todo o período: Estado capitalista/reprodutor da ordem social; Estado autoritário/centralizador; e Estado ineficiente/omisso, buscando-se compreendê-las em relação ao contexto histórico.This article presents the results of the research about how the State and Education topic were dealt with in the Brazilian academic production between 1971 and 2000. We have researched five Proceedings of Post-Graduation and National Research Associations and fifteen journals in the areas of Economy, Administration, History, Social Sciences and Education, focusing on four titles in each one of them, in considering the total production of the period. We tried to understand the perspectives of the areas. We have considered the historical context of the decades in which those works were produced, highlighting their contributions and limitations. In this article, we approach the characterization of the Brazilian State by the authors of researched works, especially concerning the three main references that appear throughout the period: the capitalist State/producer of social order; the authoritarian State/centralizer; and the inefficient State / the absent state. We seek to understand them in their

  13. THE IMPORTANCE OF VENTURE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA ANGHEL-ENESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Created in the United States of America, Venture Capital is an asset class which attracted recently the attention of the policy makers all over the world. But the concept is still not clearly defined and understood. This paper attempts at introducing in the concept, its characteristics, and reviewing some of the benefits Venture Capital investments can bring at both the macroeconomic level, by looking at the correlation with the economic growth, and at the microeconomic level, for the portfolio companies.

  14. Trends in alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students: 1989 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Zila M; Prado, Mariangela Cainelli Oliveira; Sanudo, Adriana; Carlini, Elisaldo A; Nappo, Solange A; Martins, Silvia S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze temporal trends of the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use among Brazilian students. METHODS We analyzed data published between 1989 and 2010 from five epidemiological surveys on students from the 6th to the 12th grade of public schools from the ten largest state capitals of Brazil. The total sample consisted of 104,104 students and data were collected in classrooms. The same collection tool – a World Health Organization self-reporting questionnaire – and sampling and weighting procedures were used in the five surveys. The Chi-square test for trend was used to compare the prevalence from different years. RESULTS The prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use varied among the years and cities studied. Alcohol consumption decreased in the 10 state capitals (p < 0.001) throughout 21 years. Tobacco use also decreased significantly in eight cities (p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of alcohol use was found in the Southeast region in 1993 (72.8%, in Belo Horizonte) and the lowest one in Belem (30.6%) in 2010. The highest past-year prevalence of tobacco use was found in the South region in 1997 (28.0%, in Curitiba) and the lowest one in the Southeast in 2010 (7.8%, in Sao Paulo). CONCLUSIONS The decreasing trend in the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use among students detected all over the Country can be related to the successful and comprehensive Brazilian antitobacco and antialcohol policies. Despite these results, the past-year prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year remained high in all Brazilian regions. PMID:26465662

  15. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized Approach for Risk-Weighted... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition...

  16. Paracoccidioidomycosis in a western Brazilian Amazon State: Clinical-epidemiologic profile and spatial distribution of the disease

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    Gabriel de Deus Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is a systemic infection caused by the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. PCM is considered one of the most important systemic mycoses in Latin America. Methods: This is a clinical, epidemiological, retrospective, quantitative study of PCM cases in patients attending the National Health Service in the State of Rondônia in 1997-2012. The examined variables included sex, age group, year of diagnosis, education level, profession, place of residence, diagnostic test, prior treatment, medication used, comorbidities and case progress. Results: During the study period, 2,163 PCM cases were registered in Rondônia, and the mean annual incidence was 9.4/100,000 people. The municipalities with the highest rates were located in the southeastern region of Rondônia, and the towns of Pimenteiras do Oeste and Espigão do Oeste had the highest rates in the state, which were 39.1/100,000 and 37.4/100,000 people, respectively. Among all cases, 90.2% and 9.8% were observed in men and women, respectively, and most cases (58.2% were observed in patients aged between 40 and 59 years. Itraconazole was used to treat 91.6% (1,771 of cases, followed by sulfamethoxazole in combination with trimethoprim (4.4% [85] of cases. One hundred thirty-one (6% patients died. Conclusions: The State of Rondônia has a high incidence of PCM, and the municipalities in the southeastern region of the state were found to have the highest incidence rates of this disease. Our findings suggest that Rondônia is the state in the northern region with the highest mortality rate for PCM.

  17. Movimento de mulheres negras: trajetória política, práticas mobilizatórias e articulações com o Estado brasileiro Afro-Brazilian women's social movement: political trajectory, mobilization practices and articulations with the Brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Santos Rodrigues

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa a trajetória e consolidação do Movimento de Mulheres Negras (MMN na cena pública brasileira ao longo dos últimos trinta anos. Através de entrevistas com militantes pioneiras e participantes desse movimento social bem como de levantamento de fontes documentais, o estudo teve o intuito de compreender quais processos subjazem a constituição desse novo sujeito coletivo, seus dilemas e redes de solidariedade com outros movimentos sociais, o lugar das hierarquias de gênero e raça em suas reivindicações, além do seu processo de institucionalização/burocratização e sua articulação com o Estado brasileiro.This paper examines the trajectory and consolidation process of the Afro-Brazilian Women's Social Movement in the public sphere over the last thirty years. Trough interviews with activists and participants of this social movement as well as survey of documental sources, the study had the aim to understand those processes that underlying the constitution of these collective political subjects, and their dilemmas and solidarity networks with other social movements. Furthermore, this paper also discusses the role of hierarchies of gender and race in the Afro-Brazilian Women's Social Movement claims, and its process of institutionalization / bureaucratization along with its articulation with the Brazilian state.

  18. Medieval capital markets. Markets for renten between state formation and private investment in Holland (1300-1550)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuijderduijn, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The book is structured as follows. Chapter 1 introduces medieval Holland as a significant entity for institutional-economic development by discussing how the state created a county wide societal structure. As a proto-territorial state Holland had a uniform judiciary, a government apparatus that gave

  19. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama; Rodrigo Barros Rocha; Ana Karina Dias Salman; Ângelo Mansur Mendes; Marivaldo Rodrigues Figueiró

    2013-01-01

    Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha) destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape ch...

  20. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  1. Religion as a protective factor against drug use among brazilian university students: a national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carolina Gomes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between religiosity and drug use among Brazilian university students. METHODS: This manuscript is part of the "First Nationwide Survey on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drugs among College Students in the 27 Brazilian State Capitals". In this study, 12,595 university students were divided into two groups according to their attendance at religious services: frequent attenders (FR; 39.1% and non-frequent attenders (NFR; 60.8%. Subsequently, we analyzed their responses to a structured, anonymous questionnaire on drug use and other behaviors. Individual multivariate logistic regression models tested the association between religiosity and drug use (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and at least one illicit drug. RESULTS: Drug use over the last 30 days was higher among NFR students even after controlling for demographic variables. NFR students were more likely to use alcohol OR = 2.52; 95% CI: 2.08-3.06, tobacco (2.83; 2.09-3.83, marijuana (2.09; 1.39-3.11 and at least one illicit drug (1.42; 1.12-1.79 compared to FR students. CONCLUSION: Religiosity was found to be a strongly protective factor against drug use among Brazilian university students. However, more studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which religiosity exerts this protective influence.

  2. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified......Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... flexible commoditization that more commonly is touted as tearing social relations apart. By interrogating a keenly debated contemporary work regime through an approach to sociality rooted in a rich and distinct anthropological legacy, the volume also makes a novel contribution to the anthropological...

  3. Leveraging organisational cultural capital

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    R Scheel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Organisational culture discourse mandates a linear approach of diagnosis, measurement and gap analysis as standard practice in relation to most culture change initiatives. Therefore, a problem solving framework geared toward “fixing�? and/or realigning an organisation’s culture is usually prescribed. The traditional problem solving model seeks to identify gaps between current and desired organisational cultural states, inhibiting the discovery of an organisation’s unique values and strengths, namely its cultural capital. In pursuit of discovering and leveraging organisational cultural capital, a descriptive case study is used to show how an Appreciative Inquiry process can rejuvenate the spirit of an organisation as a system-wide inquiry mobilises a workforce toward a shared vision.

  4. First report of Ditylenchus gallaeformans in Miconia albicans from the Brazilian Cerrado, State of Goiás

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    Rodrigo Vieira da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae, whose common name is canela-de-velha, is a native plant of the tropical region that is abundant in the Cerrado biome. A nematode species was found parasitizing M. albicans, causing severe deformation and gall-like structures on the infected leaves and inflorescences. Morphological, morphometric and molecular characterizations identified the nematode as Ditylenchus gallaeformans. This nematode has great potential as a biocontrol agent of plants in the family Melastomataceae, which are invasive weeds in ecosystems of the Pacific Islands. This is the first report of D. gallaeformans parasitizing M. albicans in the Cerrado of the state of Goiás.

  5. Placing social capital

    OpenAIRE

    G Mohan; J Mohan

    2002-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper looks at the relevance and contributions of social capital analysis to human geography and vise versa. The authors start by defining social capital and clarifying and distinguishing concepts, and critiques of Putnam's work. Social capital is simultaneously an economic, sociological, political, and geographical concept, but it must be distinguished from human capital, cultural capital, and networks. Social capital can be relevant to human geographers because ...

  6. 《汉书·地理志》所载侯国城市时问断限考%Textual Research on the Time Boundary of "Hanshu Dilizhi" Recorded Marquis-States Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖爱玲

    2012-01-01

    There are 241 marquis-states capitals during later period of the Western Han Dynasty recorded by "Hanshu Dilizhi", but those names as indicated are far less than that amount. Previous scholars had considerable research on the issue yet still can not resolve the deficiency. Through arranging and comparing the time, marquis- states capitals' enfeoffment and abolition, which recorded by lists of "Hanshu", this article finally confirm that the time boundary of marquis-states capitals recorded by "Hanshu Dilizhi" is dated in March of the second year of Suihe in the reign of emperor Cheng of the Han Dynasty (March 7 BC). It fills up the deficiency of 241 marquis-states capitals.%《汉书·地理志》载西汉末年侯国城市241个,然志中名目又不及此数。前辈学者对此多有研究,然终不能补足。通过对《汉书》诸表所栽侯国城市的分封、存废等时间排比,最终确认《汉志》所载侯国城市的时间断限为成帝绥和二年三月(公元前7年3月),并补足了241个侯国城市之数。

  7. Risk factors associated with the transmissionof Brazilian spotted fever in the Piracicaba river basin, State of São Paulo, Brazil

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    Celso Eduardo de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is a disease transmitted by ticks for which the etiological agent is Rickettsia rickettsii. The present essay evaluates the risk factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF in the time period between 2003 and 2013 in the Piracicaba river basin, state of São Paulo. METHODS : This essay presents a retrospective study to identify the factors associated with the transmission of cases of BSF among all suspected cases identified by the System for Epidemiological Surveillance of São Paulo (CVE. After the description of temporal distribution (onset of symptoms and the environmental and demographic variations of the confirmed and discarded cases, a multiple logistic regression model was applied. RESULTS : We searched 569 probable locations of infection (PLI with 210 (37% confirmed cases of BSF and 359 (63% discarded cases. The associated variables for the confirmation of BSF in the multiple logistic model using a confidence interval (CI of 95% were age (OR = 1.025 CI: 1.015-1.035, the presence of Amblyomma sculptum in the environment (OR = 1.629 CI: 1.097-2.439, the collection of ticks from horses (OR = 1.939 CI: 0.999-3.764, the presence of capybaras (OR = 1.467 CI: 1.009-2.138, an urban environment (OR = 1.515 CI: 1.036-2.231, and the existence of a dirty pasture (OR = 1.759 CI: 1.028-3.003. CONCLUSIONS : The factors associated with the confirmation of BSF cases included an urban environment, age, presence of the A. sculptum vector, the collection of ticks from horses, the presence of a capybara population, and a dirty pasture environment.

  8. Compostos Secundários em Cachaças Produzidas no Estado de Minas Gerais Secundary Compounds in Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirits (“Cachaça” Manufactured in Minas Gerais State

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    Norma Eliane Pereira

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Os componentes da cachaça classificados como secundários constituem um grupo de produtos minoritários oriundos do processo de fermentação. Esses, especialmente os ésteres e aldeídos, são responsáveis pelo aroma e sabor dos destilados em geral, porém, quando se encontram acima dos limites estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, podem comprometer a qualidade da cachaça e ser prejudicial à saúde. Com o intuito de avaliar os compostos secundários de aguardentes provenientes de várias localidades do Estado de Minas Gerais, foram coletadas 45 amostras aleatoriamente e conduzidas ao Laboratório de Análise Físico-Química de Aguardente (LAFQA da UFLA, no período de agosto de 2000 a julho de 2001. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que há diferenças altamente significativas entre as amostras analisadas para acidez volátil, ésteres, aldeídos e álcoois superiores. De todas as amostras analisadas, sete apresentaram excesso de álcoois superiores, duas de aldeídos e três de acidez volátil; portanto, 24,44% das aguardentes encontravam-se fora dos padrões de qualidade estabelecidos pelo MAPA (1997.The Brazilian sugar-cane spirit chemical compounds classified like secondary compounds are one group of Brazilian sugar-cane spirit minor compounds formed during the fermentation process. That compounds are important for the taste and flavor of spirits in general, mainly esters and aldehydes. However, that compounds are above the standard quality established by Agriculture Ministry (MAPA, they can affect the Brazilian sugar-cane spirit quality and be harmful to the health. Aiming to evaluate the sugar-cane spirit secondary compounds from diverse sites at Minas Gerais State, 45 samples were randomized sampled and taken to the Brazilian Sugar-Cane Spirit Analysis Laboratory of UFLA during the period of August of 2000 to July of 2001. The results showed that there were high and significant statistical

  9. Introduction: Between Capitalism, the State, and the Grassroots: Mexico′s Contribution to a Global Conservation Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Haenn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This introduction situates Mexico in the research on conservation and society, illustrating some nuances and characteristics of the Mexican model of biodiversity conservation in relation to neoliberal economic development and state formation. The paper critiques the way neoliberalism has become a common framework to understand conservation′s social practices. Drawing on the ethnographies collected in this special section, the paper considers the importance of state formation and disorganised neoliberalism as intertwined phenomena that explain conservation outcomes. This approach lends itself to the papers′ ethnographic descriptions that demonstrate a particular Mexican form of conservation that sits alongside a globalised biodiversity conservation apparatus. The introduction presents some additional analytical interpretations: 1 conservation strategies rooted in profit-driven models are precarious; 2 empirical cases show the expansion of both state structures and capitalist markets via conservation; and 3 non-capitalist approaches to conservation merit greater consideration.

  10. A multilevel analysis of key forms of community- and individual-level social capital as predictors of self-rated health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2006-09-01

    Communities may be rich or poor in a variety of stocks of social capital. Studies that have investigated relations among these forms and their simultaneous and combined health effects are sparse. Using data on a sample of 24,835 adults (more than half of whom resided in core urban areas) nested within 40 U.S. communities from the Social Capital Benchmark Survey, correlational and factor analyses were applied to determine appropriate groupings among eight key social capital indicators (social trust, informal social interactions, formal group involvement, religious group involvement, giving and volunteering, diversity of friendship networks, electoral political participation, and non-electoral political participation) at each of the community and individual levels. Multilevel logistic regression models were estimated to analyze the associations between the grouped social capital forms and individual self-rated health. Adjusting the three identified community-level social capital groupings/scales for one another and community- and individual-level sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics, each of the odds ratios of fair/poor health associated with living in a community one standard deviation higher in the respective social capital form was modestly below one. Being high on all three (vs. none of the) scales was significantly associated with 18% lower odds of fair/poor health (odds ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval = 0.69-0.98). Adding individual-level social capital variables to the model attenuated two of the three community-level social capital associations, with a few of the former characteristics appearing to be moderately significantly protective of health. We further observed several significant interactions between community-level social capital and one's proximity to core urban areas, individual-level race/ethnicity, gender, and social capital. Overall, our results suggest primarily beneficial yet modest health effects of key summary forms of

  11. The political ecology of Palk Bay fisheries: geographies of capital, fisher conflict, ethnicity and nation-state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Menon; M. Bavinck; J. Stephen; R. Manimohan

    2015-01-01

    Indian trawl fishers in the Palk Bay regularly engage in cross-border fishing to the detriment of Sri Lankan artisanal fishers whose nets are irreparably damaged. Increasing tension between Indian trawl fishers from the state of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lankan artisanal fishers from the Northern Province

  12. Uma análise do capital humano sobre o nível de renda dos estados brasileiros: MRW versus Mincer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Cangussu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O capital humano, a produtividade e o capital físico são considerados os principais fatores na determinação do PIB per capita das economias. Conforme a abordagem neoclássica, a acumulação de capital humano explica praticamente um terço da variação do rendimento per capita entre os países. No entanto, ainda persistem discussões sobre as formas em que esse fator afeta o PIB per capita. O objetivo do presente estudo é comparar duas formas funcionais da função de produção para os Estados brasileiros: as propostas por Solow (1956 e por Mincer (1974. Também foram feitas estimações do retorno marginal da educação, além da realização de uma análise da importância do capital humano na determinação do PIB per capita utilizando diferentes métodos de estimação, no período 1980-2002. Os resultados rejeitaram a especificação neoclássica com inclusão do capital humano em favor da minceriana. Adicionalmente, o retorno marginal estimado da educação foi de 15%, e os resultados empíricos sustentam a teoria de que o capital humano é um dos principais fatores na determinação do nível de renda.Human capital, productivity and physical capital are considered the main factors in the economies' GDP per capita determination. According to the neoclassical approach, human capital accumulation explains about a third of the variation in per capita income across countries. However, there is no consensus on the ways in which human capital influences GDP per capita. The present study's goal is to compare two production functions functional forms for the Brazilian States: the one developed by Solow (1956 and the one developed by Mincer (1974. The marginal return of education also has been estimated and we have analyzed the relevance of human capital on GDP per capita determination through a variety of estimation methods, for the 1980-2002 period. The empirical results rejected the neoclassical specification with human capital in favor

  13. Global Climate Change Consequences Changing the Middle Sea Level in the Brazilian Coast: Impacts on Ceará State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, E. G.; Pires, L. B. M.; Pinto, V. K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, man started to generate increasing amounts of waste and pollutants, which on a large scale in the long term is causing a series of climate change consequences, both globally as well as locally. One of the many effects of these changes has been reflected in the ocean levels, depending on various factors. Thus, the population living in coastal areas suffers from the negative effects of the advancement of ocean waters. The coast of northeastern Brazil is an example of this, especially the state of Ceará coast. The state of Ceará has 573 km of coastline, a region that has suffered extensive erosion, in which the Middle Sea Level (MSL) changes exert a significant influence. The coastal plain is a strip of land of small extent, with an average width of 2.5 km, formed depending on the availability of high sediment stocks provided through the action of wind, marine, or river processes, individually in combination with each other. In many beaches it is observed that the strip of beach is narrow due to the presence of topographic elevations carved into sharp cliffs. Between periods of high tide and low tide, often rocky beach features are observed that have recently formed. The waves control the stretches of beach which are mostly sandy. This paper presents a survey about the evidence already apparent on the rise in the MSL and correlates it with the advance of the sea on the coast of Ceará, as well as assesses the possible consequences of this process. Therefore, a literature search was conducted in relevant scientific publications. The data used are from the station "Global Sea Level Observing System - GLOSS" which maintains a tide gauge installed in Ceará in Fortaleza. The analyses show that the phenomenon has caused a lot of inconvenience to the people, streets have disappeared, as well as several buildings located along the coast. The sea advances destroyed beaches and have promoted an accelerated level of erosion, changing the

  14. Ecological features of titica vine (Heteropsis flexuosa (Kunth GS Bunting in Rondônia State, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELLINY M. BENTES GAMA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the forest structure with H. flexuosa in Rondônia State, as a first step in developing sustainable harvest and conservation guidelines for the species. Crown attributes, total height (m and diameter at breast height ≥ 10 (cm of trees and palms with H. flexuosa were evaluated in three permanent plots (100 m x 150 m each randomized in 219 ha. A total of 22 botanical families hosted H. flexuosa. It was not observed any specific preference for the species standing up itself. Nevertheless it was frequently associated to Burseraceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Annonaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Myristicaceae and species with thick bark like Schweilera coriacea, Protium sp. and Licania membranaceae. The species was less frequent with taller and broader trees and tended to develop in understory light condition. Trunks or branches were the main position for the attaching of H. flexuosa (90.83% and a low frequency of other lianas was observed on the same host trees. These highlight the need to promote appropriate management practices for root harvesting and species conservation in order to maintain the species in open ombrophylus forest habitat.

  15. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  16. Reforestation feasibility in area formerly used for cattle rasing in the state of Rondônia, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelliny de Matos Bentes Gama

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Little knowledge on initial behavior of native tree species in recovering landscapes in the Amazon is a current concern for expanding reforestation in the region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the establishment of native tree species that could be used for reforestation in area previously covered by a pasture of brachiaria grass (Brachiaria brizantha destined for intensive cattle rasing in the State of Rondônia. For this, there were performed previous diagnostic of landscape changes and the election of tree species based on the ecological group information. Some of the critical macronutrients for plant growth were supplied in the holes to alleviate nutrient deficiencies. In addition, growth and survival parameters were taken to evaluate the initial behavior of species. Six native tree species planted with different combinations (10mx10m, 5mx5m and 3mx3m had survival rate and growth (total height, girth stem and crown projection area measured in different intervals: 6-month, 12-month and 24-month after planting. All the species presented survival rate over 90% at 24 months and comparable growth indices to other native species under similar situation and in the region. Overall, Schizolobium amazonicum (bandarra, the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande and Colubrina glandulosa (sóbrasil averaged over 90% the highest girth stem growth all over the area. S. amazonicum and the non-identified legume tree 1 (acácia grande presented the best results for height and canopy area growth parameters, respectively. The combination among native tree species from initial successional ecological groups and fertilizer was favorable to promote reforestation in the conditions of the study area in Rondônia.

  17. Os procedimentos adotados pelo tribunal de contas do Piauí para a verificação das receitas e despesas vinculadas à educação The procedures adopted by the audit office (ao of the Brazilian state of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Davies

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa procedimentos do Tribunal de Contas (TC do Piauí para a verificação da receita e despesa vinculada à educação, constatando a oscilação e pouca clareza e firmeza na definição destes procedimentos. Por exemplo, embora a Constituição Estadual previsse o percentual mínimo de 30% em manutenção e desenvolvimento do ensino (MDE, o TC só passou a exigir este cumprimento a partir de uma resolução sua de 1998. Mesmo assim, admitiu que, no caso de Teresina e outros municípios, esta exigência viesse a ser cumprida gradualmente e só alcançasse os 30% em 2002. Em 2004, no entanto, reduziu esta exigência para 25%. Com relação à contabilização de receitas e despesas, os procedimentos também variaram. A Resolução n. 1.606, de 1998, por exemplo, não detalhou as receitas vinculadas à MDE. Na definição de despesas classificadas como MDE, o TC acrescentou alguns itens não previstos nos artigos 70 e 71 da LDB, confundindo gastos legalmente definidos como MDE com os classificados pela Lei do Orçamento Público.This paper examines the procedures adopted by the Audit Office (AO of the Brazilian State of Piauí to check the revenues and expenditures linked to education. It found that such procedures oscillate and are not very clearly and firmly defined. For example, although the State Constitution of Piauí stipulates that a minimum of 30% of tax revenue be earmarked to the legally-defined concept of maintenance and development of education (MDE, the AO only began to require it be enforced after a resolution issued in 1998. Yet, it allowed the capital city of Teresina and other townships to only gradually comply with it and reach 30% in the year of 2002. In 2004, however, the AO reduced this requirement to 25% (the minimum set by the Federal Constitution. As for the accounting of revenues and expenditures, procedures have also varied. Resolution 1.606 (1998, for example, does not detail the revenues linked to MDE

  18. Low Health System Performance, Indigenous Status and Antivenom Underdosage Correlate with Spider Envenoming Severity in the Remote Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Gomes, André Alexandre; Silva, Iran Mendonça; Sachett, Jacqueline; Ferreira, Luiz Carlos Lima; Oliveira, Sâmella; Sabidò, Meritxell; Chalkidis, Hipócrates; Barbosa Guerra, Maria Graças Vale; Salinas, Jorge Luis; Wen, Fan Hui; Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Background A better knowledge of the burden and risk factors associated with severity due to spider bites would lead to improved management with a reduction of sequelae usually seen for this neglected health problem, and would ensure proper use of antivenoms in remote localities in the Brazilian Amazon. The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of spider bites reported in the state of Amazonas in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and to investigate potential risk factors associated with severity of envenomation. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a case-control study in order to identify factors associated with spider bite severity in the Western Brazilian Amazon from 2007 to 2014. Patients evolving to any severity criteria were considered cases and those with non-severe bites were included in the control group. All variables were retrieved from the official Brazilian reporting systems. Socioeconomical and environmental components were also included in a multivariable analysis in order to identify ecological determinants of incidence and severity. A total of 1,181 spider bites were recorded, resulting in an incidence of 4 cases per 100,000 person/year. Most of the spider bites occurred in males (65.8%). Bites mostly occurred in rural areas (59.5%). The most affected age group was between 16 and 45 years old (50.9%). A proportion of 39.7% of the bites were related to work activities. Antivenom was prescribed to 39% of the patients. Envenomings recorded from urban areas [Odds ratio (OR) = 0.40 (95%CI = 0.30–0.71; pmedian [OR = 0.64 (95%CI = 0.39–0.75; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.90 (95%CI = 1.28–2.40; p300 km away from the state capital Manaus [OR = 1.53 (95%CI = 1.15–2.02; p = 0.003)] and living in a municipality with a MHSPI 300 km away from the state capital Manaus could be contributing factors to higher severity of spider envenomings in this area, as well as to antivenom underdosage. PMID:27227455

  19. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  20. Atendimento pré-hospitalar ao idoso vítima de violência em cinco capitais brasileiras Pre-hospital attendance to elders victims of violence in five Brazilian capitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Ferreira Deslandes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as características e a operacionalização no cotidiano da atenção pré-hospitalar aos idosos vítimas de violências e acidentes de cinco capitais (Manaus, Recife, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro e Curitiba, abordando ainda suas capacidades, seus obstáculos e potencialidades. Pautou-se na triangulação de métodos quantitativos e qualitativos. Analisaram-se dados de oitenta serviços da atenção pré-hospitalar móvel e fixa: 32 em Manaus; 18 em Recife; dez em Brasília; 12 no Rio de Janeiro e oito em Curitiba. Entre os achados estão as diferenças (de tamanho e diversidade de categorias profissionais e dificuldades das equipes para identificar, atender e notificar os casos por falta de capacitação; pouca atuação preventiva; quase nenhum envolvimento com a família e orientação a ela; praticamente nenhum atendimento ao autor da agressão; incipiente articulação e parcerias da rede, sobretudo dos serviços pré-hospitalares com os hospitalares.This article reviews the characteristics and operation in the daily routine of a pre-hospital care to the elderly victims of violence and accidents in five capitals (Manaus, Recife, Brasília, Rio de Janeiro and Curitiba. Besides that, it analyses their abilities, and potential obstacles. It was based on the triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods analyzing data from 80 departments of mobile and fixed pre-hospitals: 32 in Manaus, 18 in Recife, 10 in Brasilia, 12 in Rio de Janeiro and eight in Curitiba. Among the findings are the differences in size and diversity of occupational categories and difficulties of the teams to identify, serve and report cases for lack of training, limited preventive action, almost no involvement and guidance to the family, practically no attention to the perpetrator; incipient articulation and partnership network, especially regarding on pre-hospital services and the hospital.

  1. Representações sociais da depressão no ensino médio: um estudo sobre duas capitais Social representations of depression in gymnasium: a research about two Brazilian capital cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ferreira Damião

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa objetivou identificar os fatores psicossociais que interferem na etiologia da depressão e apreender as representações sociais (RS da depressão no coletivo de adolescentes inseridos no contexto do ensino médio da rede pública e privada das cidades de Teresina/PI e Natal/RN. Participaram da pesquisa 505 sujeitos, dentre os quais 269 são de Teresina e 236 de Natal. Utilizou-se o Inventário de Depressão Infantil e a Técnica de Associação Livre de Palavras (TALP. A amostra da cidade de Teresina/PI apresentou um maior índice de sintomatologia comparada à cidade de Natal/RN. Relativo ao sexo houve diferenças estatísticas significativas: os sujeitos do sexo masculino apresentam traços depressivos mais relacionados a problemas de conduta e obediência, enquanto as garotas desenvolveriam traços mais subjetivos. A partir da análise dos dados obtidos no TALP, constatou-se que as RS dos sujeitos pesquisados, de modo geral, demonstram inadequação do sujeito depressivo nas inter-relações psicoafetivas e psicossociais.Research objectives were to identify psychosocial factors that influence in the etiology of depression, to apprehend and to compare the social representations of depression elaborated by teenagers in Gymnasium, in public and private schools from two Northeastern Brazil capital cities, being them Natal/RN and Teresina/PI. 505 subjects took part in this research, being 269 from Teresina and 236 from Natal. It was used as instrument the Children Depression Inventory and Words Free Association Test (WFAT. The sample from Teresina/PI presented a symptomatology index higher than Natal/RN's. About genres differences, it was verified that the masculine genre subjects present depressive signs more related to obedience and conduct problems, as the girls would develop more subjective signs. Analysis of the data taken from WFAT found out that the social representations from the analyzed subjects, in general, show unfitness

  2. Racial disparity in capital punishment and its impact on family members of capital defendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    A review of the literature was conducted to explore the continuing racial disparity in capital punishment and its effects on family members of African American capital defendants. Statistical studies conducted on both the state and national level conclude that racial bias influences all stages of the death penalty process, with race of the victim being one of the most significant factors. This racial bias places an added burden on family members of African American capital defendants. While research has explored the impact of capital punishment on family members of capital defendants, the unique experiences of family members of African American defendants has not been addressed in the research literature.

  3. National accounting and capital

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Hartwick

    2012-01-01

    National Accounting and Capital presents definitive solutions to current problems in national accounting practice. Professor Hartwick deals expertly with problems in accounting natural capital, financial capital and skills capital and communicates his solutions in specially designed national accounting tables or matrices.

  4. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Capitalism and human flourishing?

    OpenAIRE

    Gasper, D.R.

    2009-01-01

    What interpretation of human flourishing, what ideas of value does capitalism in practice embody and promote? To address this question the paper clarifies first that "capitalism" must be understood as more than merely a system of private property and markets. It contains "the prerogative of capital", in which surplus remains with the owners of capital, and "the perspective of capital", in which hired work is defined as a cost. The question must also be distinguished from more conventional one...

  6. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    OpenAIRE

    Suciu T.

    2009-01-01

    The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist soc...

  7. Capitalism and justification

    OpenAIRE

    Birešev Ana

    2009-01-01

    Weber's thesis that the spirit of capitalism was preexistent to the rise of capitalism itself inspired many sociologist to search for the cultural background of contemporary forms of capitalism. In this paper, the author focuses on and makes comparisons of three approaches of such kind. The one approach draws from Luc Boltanski and Ève Chiapello who examine the development of 'new spirit of capitalism' by focusing on the interrelation of two macroactors - capitalism and critique; the other on...

  8. CAPITALIZATION AND PRE-CAPITALIZATION OF A COMMERCIAL BANK; INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SOURCES OF THE GAIN OF THE CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrianovа E. P.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals the question of the need of increase of capitalization and pre-capitalization of commercial banks in detail. A question of participation of the state in the development of the banking system of Russia has been considered as well

  9. The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo, Santos and Campinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Amélia Luzio

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian psychiatric reform: historical and technical-supportive aspects of experiences carried out in the cities of São Paulo (capital, Santos and Campinas, in order to understand their material, social and political impacts, the progress in the process of breaking away from the psychiatric ward model, and the establishment of creative and productive groups, required to build up the psychosocial treatment in regard to mental health, as well as to evaluate the contribution that the SUS (Brazilian Public Health System had on the psychiatric reform in the mentioned cities. The research, which is the basis of this paper, is part of a thesis regarding mental health care, whereby the innovative projects implemented in those cities served as framework and basis for comparison to analyze mental health policy in small and medium-sized cities and towns in the state of São Paulo.

  10. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  11. Social capital, economics, and health: new evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Richard M; Brown, Timothy T

    2008-10-01

    In introducing this Special Issue on Social Capital and Health, this article tracks the popularization of the term and sheds light on the controversy surrounding the term and its definitions. It sets out four mechanisms that link social capital with health: making information available to community members, impacting social norms, enhancing the health care services and their accessibility in a community, and offering psychosocial support networks. Approaches to the measurement of social capital include the Social Capital Community Benchmark Survey (SCCBS) developed by Robert Putnam, and the Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), which looks at community voluntary organizations using public data available for the entire United States. The article defines community social capital (CSC) as the extent and density of trust, cooperation, and associational links and activity within a given population. Four articles on CSC are introduced in two categories: those that address behaviors -- particularly utilization of health services and use of tobacco, alcohol, and drugs; and those that look at links between social capital and physical or mental health. Policy implications include: funding and/or tax subsidies that would support the creation of social capital; laws and regulations; and generation of enthusiasm among communities and leaders to develop social capital. The next steps in the research programme are to continue testing the mechanisms; to look for natural experiments; and to find better public policies to foster social capital.

  12. Education - an investment in human capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Neamţu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Formal education, personal abilities and the health state play an important role in this paper. Those are all essential constituent elements of the human capital. In the present paper we intend to present briefly the fundamental concepts of the human capital, with an emphasis on education and abilities. We also mark out the importance of the human capital development in the purpose of maintaining the development and the motivation of the human resources, which are the main premises organizations need to capitalize. The higher education has a determinant role in the attainment of this desideratum.

  13. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  14. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  15. A Shift towards Academic Capitalism in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka; Kaidesoja, Tuukka

    2014-01-01

    Academic capitalism is currently a widely studied topic amongst higher education scholars, especially in the United States. This paper demonstrates that the theory of academic capitalism also provides a fruitful perspective for analysing the restructuring of Finnish higher education since the 1990s, although with reservations. It will be argued…

  16. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the...

  17. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  18. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  19. The economic impacts of the upstream activities after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry; Impactos economicos da exploracao e producao apos a abertura da industria petrolifera brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canelas, Andre [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico]. E-mail: canelas@ppe.ufrj.br

    2004-07-01

    This paper analyzes the macroeconomic impacts of the investments in the oil and gas upstream, which took place after the reform of the Brazilian oil industry. The reason why I chose to analyze such a period of time was the institutional change which took place in the Brazilian oil industry after the Brazilian Parliament approved Law n. 9.478 in 1997. The law represented the new regulation of the activities related to the oil industry in Brazil. Since then, there has been a very large amount of capital spending in the oil and gas upstream, not only by PETROBRAS, the state-owned oil company, but also by the oil companies which entered the Brazilian oil industry after it was opened to foreign and private upstream investments. This paper analyses the economic impacts of these upstream investments by PETROBRAS and by the new players in Brazil, addressing the impacts of these investments on the generation of aggregate value and yield and the economic activity of other industries. This paper is dedicated, in its entirety, to Prof. Carmen Alveal, whose knowledge, support, encouragement and friendship were, for me, the most important of all, professionally and morally. (author)

  20. “Fettered” and “unfettered” capitalism in J.A. Schumpeter’s concept of Tax State and economic development

    OpenAIRE

    Karol Sledzik

    2015-01-01

    Economic development and transformation processes, have become much more intense in economic reality in the last years than they have ever been before. At this time has raised a lot of questions about the causes of the actual Global Crisis, future crises, the factors affecting the modern economy, about the essence of contemporary capitalism, demographic problems and overgrown bureaucracy. The most spectacular threat to capitalism, (based on private entrepreneurship) according to Schumpeter, s...

  1. Human Capital a Part of Social Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Inna Fedoryshina

    2014-01-01

    The article considers the content and the structure of human capital. The term “human capital” is viewed as people’s abilities toparticipate in the production process in order to make use of their potential skills. A particular attention is paid to the meaning ofsocial capital and its role in the formation of human capital. It is proven that there is not much research on the connection betweenhuman and social capital. Human development index in Ukraine and 20 leading counties of the global ra...

  2. Capital disadvantage: America's failing capital investment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, M E

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. system of allocating investment capital is failing, putting American companies at a serious disadvantage and threatening the long-term growth of the nation's economy. The problem, says Michael Porter, goes beyond the usual formulation of the issue: accusations of "short-termism" by U.S. managers, ineffective corporate governance by directors, or a high cost of capital. The problem involves the external capital allocation system by which capital is provided to companies, as well as the system by which companies allocate capital internally. America's system is marked by fluid capital and a financial focus. Other countries--notably Japan and Germany--have systems with dedicated capital and a focus on corporate position. In global competition, where investment increasingly determines a company's capacity to upgrade and innovate, the U.S. system does not measure up. These conclusions come out of a two-year research project sponsored by the Harvard Business School and the Council on Competitiveness. Porter recommends five far-reaching reforms to make the U.S. system superior to Japan's and Germany's: 1. Improve the present macroeconomic environment. 2. Expand true ownership throughout the system so that directors, managers, employees, and even customers and suppliers hold positions as owners. 3. Align the goals of capital providers, corporations, directors, managers, employees, customers, suppliers, and society. 4. Improve the information used in decision making. 5. Foster more productive modes of interaction and influence among capital providers, corporations, and business units. PMID:10121317

  3. 获得国有资本经营预算资金支持的策略建议%Suggested Policy to Obtain State Capital Operational Budget Support

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李心福

    2012-01-01

    国有资本经营预算制度建立的主要目的之一是调整国有经济布局和结构。国有企业积极争取国有资本经营预算资金的支持,不仅可以达到国家产业布局和经济结构调整的目的,还可以加速企业的发展。要获得国有资本经营预算资金的支持,应认真研究和正确选择申报项目的相关策略。%One of the purposes to establish budget system for using state capital is to adjust national economy lay- out and structure. That state - owned enterprise actively tries to get support of state capital operational budget can not only achieve the goal of national industry layout and of adjustment of economical structure, but also promote the de- velopment of the enterprise. To obtain state capital operational budget support, we must earnestly study and correctly select the related policy of project to be applied.

  4. Homespun Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seabrooke, Leonard

    2012-01-01

    Part of the state's job is to promote wealth creation that also provides public goods to enhance the broader population's life-chances. These systems for organizing economic life in a national political economy generally have to conform with widely held conceptions of how the economy should work ...

  5. Capital Punishment: An International Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Edy

    1983-01-01

    The debate over the death penalty in the United States has implications beyond our borders. Because of the lack of universal standards governing its use, only those countries which have abolished capital punishment may, with any moral authority, denounce its exploitation as an instrument of political expediency. (IS)

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the teaching of Homeopathy in undergraduate Pharmacy Courses in Brazilian states Paraná and Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Salvador Gamarra Junior; Karen Denez; Susan Andreise Cipriano Baracho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Homeopathy and other integrative and complementary health practices were included in the Brazilian public health system (SUS) under a formal policy established by the Health Ministry in 2006 [1]. This led to an increase in the demand of homeopathic assistance, not accompanied by a corresponding increase in human and material resources [2,3,4]. On the other hand, an evaluation of market demands carried out by the Education Ministry (MEC) in 2000 led to a reform of the syllable of...

  7. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  8. Equity Valuation and Accounting Numbers: Applying Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models to Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how accounting variables explain cross-sectional stocks returns in Brazilian capital markets. The analysis is based on Zhang (2000 and Zhang and Chen (2007 models. These models predict that stock returns are a function of net income, change in profitability, invested capital, changes in opportunity growths and discount rate. Generally, the empirical results for the Brazilian capital market are consistent with the theoretical relations that models describe, similarly to the results found in the US. Using different empirical tests (pooled regressions, Fama-Macbeth and panel data the results and coefficients remain similar, what support the robustness of our findings.

  9. Capital Moves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAOCHEN

    2005-01-01

    On November 15, 2004, Wang Jirong, vice director of the State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), led a team of officials to the top floor of the CCTV tower in western Beijing. They were there to look at the city's boiler chimneys and identify those belching black-smoke. Under the blue sky, the visibility was extremely good, at around 30 kilometers. But when Wang's eyes shifted to the west, he coul not help noticing a massive smoke cap,

  10. Modulation of aerosol radiative forcing due to mixing state in clear and cloudy-sky: A case study from Delhi National Capital Region, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Parul; Dey, Sagnik; Srivastava, Atul K.; Singh, Sachchidanand; Tiwari, Suresh; Agarwal, Poornima

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol properties change with the change in mixing state of aerosols and therefore it is a source of uncertainty in estimated aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) from observations or by models assuming a specific mixing state. The problem is important in the Indo-Gangetic Basin, Northern India, where various aerosol types mix and show strong seasonal variations. Quantifying the modulation of ARF by mixing state is hindered by lack of knowledge about proper aerosol composition. Hence, first a detailed chemical composition analysis of aerosols for Delhi National capital region (NCR) is carried out. Aerosol composition is arranged quantitatively into five major aerosol types - accumulation dust, coarse dust, water soluble (WS), water insoluble (WINS), and black carbon (BC) (directly measured by Athelometer). Eight different mixing cases - external mixing, internal mixing, and six combinations of core- shell mixing (BC over dust, WS over dust, WS over BC, BC over WS, WS over WINS, and BC over WINS; each of the combinations externally mixed with other species) have been considered. The spectral aerosol optical properties - extinction coefficient, single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (g) for each of the mixing cases are calculated and finally 'clear-sky' and 'cloudy-sky' ARF at the top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) and surface are estimated using a radiative transfer model. Comparison of surface-reaching flux for each of the cases with MERRA downward shortwave surface flux reveals the most likely mixing state. 'BC-WINS+WS+Dust' show least deviation relative to MERRA during the pre-monsoon (MAMJ) and monsoon (JAS) seasons and hence is the most probable mixing states. During the winter season (DJF), 'BC-Dust+WS+WINS' case shows the closest match with MERRA, while external mixing is the most probable mixing state in the post-monsoon season (ON). Lowest values for both TOA and surface 'clear-sky' ARF is observed for 'BC-WINS+WS+ Dust' mixing case. TOA ARF is 0.28±2

  11. O professor pesquisador nas universidades públicas no contexto da internacionalização do capital: a produtividade do trabalho imaterial superqualificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João dos Reis Silva Júnior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article's purpose is to understand the mercantilist process of the Brazilian public university and its institutional identity. We aim at understanding this event as a process of social streamlining, with origin at the reformed state and as a part of the legacy of the twentieth century with links to the internationalization of capitalism, which ended as a target of the naturalization of the public fund by capital, and resulting in the reforms of the Brazilien republican intitutions. The university, not without opposition from social, political and trade union movements and from intellectuals who still resist, is being transformed into an institution ruled by the capital and the state, with the market as a mediator. The market rationality has become the core of the policy (which should be the public administration directed for human being, with perverse consequences for the popular democratic government, which is distant from its origin, for the more critic intellectual thinking, to the left parties, for research on higher education public policy, but, over all, for the object that matters here: the activities and training of the teacher and the researcher of the public state universities in general. In addition, it is intended to show that the process of rationalization in its current historical form has as also historical essence the rationality of the social capitalism formation and it indirectly shows the course of this event.

  12. Casino Capitalism and Its Legitimacy Impact on the Politico-administrative State in Macau Der Kasino-Kapitalismus in Macau und seine Bedeutung für die Legitimität des politisch-administrativen Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Lo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Casino capitalism has its dialectical tendencies in Macau. On the one hand, it stimulates economic growth, provides employment, and strengthens the post-colonial state in Macau during the period of economic boom. On the other hand, casino capitalism can widen the income gap between the rich and the poor, generate addictive gambling, and de-legitimize the post-colonial state in Macau during the global and regional economic downturn. The weaknesses of the politico-administrative state in Macau, including the absence of institutional checks and balances, the frail civil society and the relatively docile mass media, have magnified the negative impacts of casino capitalism on Macau. In response to the negative ramifications, the Macau government has taken measures to be more interventionist, to enhance social welfare, and to prepare contingency plans that would tackle the sudden bankruptcy of any casinos. The central government in Beijing also displays contradictory considerations when it deals with Macau’s casino development, supporting the casino industry while simultaneously encouraging the Macau government to diversify its economy. Overall, casino capitalism not only has contradictory impacts on the Macau city-state but also reveals the inherent contradictions of Beijing’s policy toward the territory’s over-dependence on the casino economy. Der Kasino-Kapitalismus ruft in Macao widersprüchliche TEndenzen hervor: Einerseits stimuliert er das wirtschaftliche Wachstum und stärkt den post-kolonialen Staat in wirtschaftlichen Boomphasen, andererseits kann er aber auch dazu beitragen, dass sich die Einkommensunterschiede zwischen ärmeren und wohlhabenderen Schichten verstärken und damit in Krisenphasen zur Deligitimierung des postkolonialen Staates beitragen.

  13. Solow Residuals Without Capital Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burda, Michael C.; Severgnini, Battista

    2014-01-01

    We use synthetic data generated by a prototypical stochastic growth model to assess the accuracy of the Solow residual (Solow, 1957) as a measure of total factor productivity (TFP) growth when the capital stock in use is measured with error. We propose two alternative measurements based on current...... measurement problems are particularly severe for economies still far from their steady state. This drawback of the Solow residual is thus most acute in applications in which its accuracy is most highly valued. As an application, we compute and compare TFP growth measures for developing countries in the Heston...... investment expenditures: one eliminates the capital stock by direct substitution, while the other employs generalized differences of detrended data and the Malmquist index. In short samples, these measures can exhibit consistently lower root mean squared errors than the Solow–Törnqvist counterpart. Capital...

  14. Capital Bancário e Crédito no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Takuo Yoshida Junior

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between bank capital and lending in the Brazilian market from 2003 to 2012, by adapting the methodology used by Berrospide and Edge (2010. Initially, we estimate a long-term target capital, actively managed by each bank, and then we compute the banks’ capital surpluses. In a second step, we investigate whether this capital surplus is related to the change in non-earmarked credit using panel data regressions. The results show a positive relationship between the change in loans and the capital surplus, stronger in the second part of the sample period (after September/2008, but yet economically modest, contradicting the assumption of constant leverage. Similar results are obtained using direct observable accounting indicators of bank capital. There is no significant relationship between capital and credit growth in governmental banks.

  15. Measuring Irish capital

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Mary J.

    2007-01-01

    Irish National Income and Expenditure Accounts do not contain information on capital stocks or capital services estimation. Estimates of the national capital stock and the depreciation of its fixed assets are basic macroeconomic aggregates and are integral components for many modelling exercises. This paper will present a detailed asset-level analysis of the stocks and depreciation of Irish fixed assets and the capital formation flows used to derive them. It will apply an improved perpetual i...

  16. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  17. Human Capital Persistence and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Rudi; Ferraz, Claudio; Soares, Rodrigo R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of human capital persistence in explaining long-term development. We exploit variation induced by a state-sponsored settlement policy that attracted a pool of immigrants with higher levels of schooling to particular regions of Brazil in the late 19th and early 20th century. We show that municipalities that received settlements experienced increases in schooling that persisted over time. One century after the policy, localities that received state-sponsored settlem...

  18. Four Books on Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Streeck, W.

    2009-01-01

    Christoph Deutschmann Kapitalistische Dynamik: Eine gesellschaftstheoretische Perspektive. Wiesbaden, VS Verlag, 2008 Geoffrey Ingham Capitalism. Oxford, Polity, 2008 John McMurtry The Cancer Stage of Capitalism. London, Pluto, 1999 Frederic L. Pryor The Future of U.S. Capitalism. New York, Cambridge University Press, 2002

  19. Revenue and Welfare Implications for a Capital Gains Tax Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Hendershott, Patric H.; Eric Toder; Yunhi Won

    1990-01-01

    This paper uses a general equilibrium model to simulate both the effects of a preferential capital-gains tax rate on total income tax revenues and the effects of a revenue-neutral substitution between a capital gains preference and marginal income tax rates on economic efficiency and the distribution of income. In the simulations, a capital gains preference increases efficiency by reducing tax distortions between untaxed assets (household and state and local capital) and taxable business sect...

  20. Trade and Capital Flows: A Financial Frictions Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Caballero; Antras, Pol

    2007-01-01

    The classical Heckscher-Ohlin-Mundell paradigm states that trade and capital mobility are substitutes, in the sense that trade integration reduces the incentives for capital to flow to capital-scarce countries. In this paper we show that in a world with heterogeneous financial development, the classic conclusion does not hold. In particular, in less financially developed economies (South), trade and capital mobility are complements. Within a dynamic framework, the complementarity carries over...

  1. Os efeitos das diferentes formas de capital no desempenho escolar: um estudo à luz de Bourdieu e de Coleman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Bonamino

    2010-01-01

    different forms of capital and their familial mobilization on the reading performance of Brazilian students who participated in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA held in 2000. The data was analyzed using models of linear regression and the analysis of conglomerates. The results suggest that the variables related to the different types of capital have significant effects on school performance, especially social capital and its mobilization by the network of family support.

  2. Systematic risk variations (beta convertible debenture brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Drumond Pinto Coelho Antonino

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available purpose of this article is to analyze the impact of issuing convertible debentures on the systematic risk of Brazilian companies. Some applied researches in the U.S. capital market (STEIN, 1992; LEWIS et al, 2002; RAI, 2005 indicate that convertible debentures may be used as an alternative financing source when adverse selection problem makes stock issuing unattractive financing source. The analysis of Brazilian companies that issued convertible debentures recorded in the period from 1998 to 2006 and that presented liquidity on the market indicated that variation in beta, on average, is positive. These results are coherent with the signaling hypothesis and with the absence of convertible debenture issuing in 2005 and 2006 on the Brazilian market. They also may be related to the precarious financial situation of issuing companies, observed by the analysis of some financial indicators in year of issue and in two pre- e post-issuing years.

  3. EMPHASIZING SOCIAL ISSUES TOWARD SUSTAINABLE SUPPLY CHAIN: A BRAZILIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minelle Enéas da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From sustainability perspective, the supply chain management strategy can use different indicators related to Triple Bottom Line to improve its practices. Some studies in the topic have focused only environmental issues; however in some cases the social issues should be considered as a core of the sustainable strategies. Considering this view, the paper aims to highlight the relevance of social issues in the Brazilian context toward sustainable supply chain. Therefore, a theoretical essay was conducted using the literature about sustainable supply chain in relation to the Brazilian perspective to understand how it is possible to use new approaches for a more emphasis on social issues. The discussions indicates that to re-conceptualize the social relations in supply chains, it's necessary to use corporate social responsibility and social capital approaches to create a better discussion about sustainable supply chain. The proposal starts a discussion in the Brazilian context to stimulate new scholars to study this topic.

  4. Ocorrência de vírus em batata em sete estados do Brasil Virus occurrence in potatoes in seven Brazilian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Ávila

    2009-12-01

    do teste de detecção por ELISA revelou a possibilidade de infecção latente por PVY em níveis relevantes na cultivar Asterix.Viruses are responsible for the quick degeneration of potato seed-tubers. In the tropics, where aphid vectors are constantly present and the structure of virus populations is dynamic, the disease pressure is enormous. Therefore, the knowledge of such dynamics is definitely an extremely valuable tool towards the sustainability of the national potato production. In this study, we report a broad survey of virus occurrence in potato, in Brazil. In addition, we studied the distribution of the Potato virus Y (PVY strains associated with mosaic symptoms on potatoes. In 2005 and 2006, we visited potato fields in seven Brazilian States. We collected leaves of symptomatic plants (1,256 samples and also at random (360 samples. In addition, in several fields a visual assessment was carried out to estimate mosaic and leafroll incidence. From the 1,256 samples with symptoms, 840 tested serologically were positive to PVY (66.9%, 128 to PLRV (10.2%, 79 to PVS (6.3%, and none to PVX. Serology using DAS-ELISA and also biological and RT-PCR tests revealed an almost exclusive occurrence of the PVY necrotic strain, predominantly the necrotic subgroup PVY NTN. The analysis of a sub-sample representing all surveyed Counties indicated that the necrotic strain was universally present. Cultivars Asterix, Atlantic, Agata, Achat, Baronesa, Baraka, Bintje, Caesar, Cupido, Marijke, Monalisa, Panda, and Vivaldi, although displaying different susceptibility levels, were all infected by PVY NTN. The analysis of leaves collected at random showed similar results. PLRV was identified in four States (Minas Gerais, Bahia, Paraná, and Santa Catarina, while PVS was present in the State of São Paulo as well. PVX was found in only one sample collected at random in Serra do Salitre, State of Minas Gerais. The contrast between visual evaluation and the results of the detection test

  5. Is Capitalism Ethical?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suciu T.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper have set off from the question: is the present capitalism ethical? We started with the delimitation and correlation of the concepts of ethics, morals, morality. Further on, we analysed the evolution of capitalism in connection with morals. Based on this research, we came to the conclusion that the capitalist system has undergone through three stages: moral capitalism, amoral capitalism, and immoral capitalism. We concluded by implying that the corporate capitalist society is immoral, that it cannot regulate itself and that the government’s assistance is needed to inoculate the ethics.

  6. Analysis of capital spending and capital financing among large US nonprofit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing. PMID:22515040

  7. Analysis of capital spending and capital financing among large US nonprofit health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Louis J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the recent trends (2006 to 2009) in capital spending among 25 of the largest nonprofit health systems in the United States and analyzes the financing sources that these large nonprofit health care systems used to fund their capital spending. Total capital spending for these 25 nonprofit health entities exceeded $41 billion for the four-year period of this study. Less than 3 percent of total capital spending resulted in mergers and acquisition activities. Total annual capital spending grew at an average annual rate of 17.6 percent during the first three year of this study's period of analysis. Annual capital spending for 2009 fell by more than 22 percent over prior year's level due to the impact of widespread disruption in US tax-exempt variable rate debt markets. While cash inflow from long-term debt issues was a significant source of capital financing, this study's primary finding was that operating cash flow was the predominant source of capital spending funding. Key words: nonprofit, mergers and acquisitions (M&A), capital spending, capital financing.

  8. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  9. INTERPRETING OVERALL INEQUALITY IN CHINA: THE ROLES OF PHYSICAL CAPITAL, HUMAN CAPITAL AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng LI; Westlund, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between overall inequality in China and the contributions of physical capital, human capital and social capital. The investment in physical capital tends to enlarge overall inequality while human capital helps to reduce the inequality. Human capital appears to be more influential than physical capital in overall inequality reduction in the research period. Social capital (people's social networks) however, does not seem to exert any impact on overall i...

  10. CAPITAL FLOWS AND THEIR SECTORAL DESTINATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petris Sorina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, New European Union Member States have made large capital inflows, which led to a credit crunch and recession. Whether they are foreign direct investment, or banking flows, capital inflows ultimately affect GDP, depending on how they are invested. In the specialty literature, analysis of capital flows was done especially in terms of their structure, with a lack of analysis in terms of final destination of capital inflows. Therefore, we analyzed the effect of capital inflows on GDP in the New Member States of the European Union (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania and Slovakia over the last economic cycle. Based on experiences of the new Member States during the recent boom and crisis, the paper studies the impact of capital inflows on GDP growth, inflows channeled to economic sectors, such as real estate and corporate investment sector. The results of this research tries to highlight the extent to which the final destination of capital flows is important for the evolution of GDP.

  11. Human Capital, Bankruptcy and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan B. Berk; Richard Stanton; Josef Zechner

    2007-01-01

    We derive a firm's optimal capital structure and managerial compensation contract when employees are averse to bearing their own human capital risk, while equity holders can diversify this risk away. In the presence of corporate taxes, our model delivers optimal debt levels consistent with those observed in practice. It also makes a number of predictions for the cross-sectional distribution of firm leverage. Consistent with existing empirical evidence, it implies persistent idiosyncratic diff...

  12. THE EFFECT OF HUMAN CAPITAL ON SOCIAL CAPITAL AMONG ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    HANNES OTTÓSSON; KIM KLYVER

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected from 714 entrepreneurs in a random sample of 10,000 Danes, this study provides an investigation of the effect of human capital on social capital among entrepreneurs. Previous entrepreneurship research has extensively investigated the separated effect of human capital and social capital on different entrepreneurial outputs. The study takes a step back and investigates how these two capital concepts are related — specifically how human capital influences social capital. In ...

  13. Capital Utilization and Capital Accumulation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, Matthew D.

    1986-01-01

    A firm may acquire additional capital input by purchasing new capital or by increasing the utilization of its current capital. The margin between capita accumulation and capital utilization is studied in a model of dynamic factor demand where the firm chooses capital, labor, and their rates of utilization. A direct measure of capital utilization -- the work week of capital -- is incorporated into the theory and estimates. The methodology advocated by Hansen and Singleton (1982) is used to obt...

  14. Dietary patterns of Brazilian adolescents: results of the Brazilian National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Letícia Ferreira; Castro, Inês Rugani Ribeiro de; Levy, Renata Bertazzi; Cardoso, Letícia de Oliveira; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to identify dietary patterns in Brazilian adolescents, describe their distributions in Brazil's State capitals and Federal District, and analyze the correlations with the Municipal Human Development Index (HDI-M). The study analyzed a sample of 60,954 ninth-graders from public and private schools who participated in the National School-Based Health Survey (PeNSE) in 2009. Cluster analysis was used to characterize dietary patterns. Three patterns were identified: healthy (27.7%), unhealthy (34.6%), and mixed (37.7%). Adolescents in the country's Southeast, South, and Central West regions showed a higher proportion of the healthy eating pattern. HDI-M showed a positive correlation with the healthy pattern and a negative correlation with the mixed pattern. The identification of different dietary patterns within and between regions and according to HDI-M highlights the need for better knowledge of each local context in terms of both the magnitude of events and the examination of determinants within these different realities.

  15. Evaluation of Foreign Exchange Risk Capital Requirement Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo S. Maia Clemente

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines capital requirement for financial institutions in order to cover market risk stemming from exposure to foreign currencies. The models examined belong to two groups according to the approach involved: standardized and internal models. In the first group, we study the Basel model and the model adopted by the Brazilian legislation. In the second group, we consider the models based on the concept of value at risk (VaR. We analyze the single and the double-window historical model, the exponential smoothing model (EWMA and a hybrid approach that combines features of both models. The results suggest that the Basel model is inadequate to the Brazilian market, exhibiting a large number of exceptions. The model of the Brazilian legislation has no exceptions, though generating higher capital requirements than other internal models based on VaR. In general, VaR-based models perform better and result in less capital allocation than the standardized approach model applied in Brazil.

  16. 8 April 2011 - Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology A. Mercadante Oliva signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; visiting LHC superconducting magnet test hall with J.M. Jimenez.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    8 April 2011 - Brazilian Minister of State for Science and Technology A. Mercadante Oliva signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni; visiting LHC superconducting magnet test hall with J.M. Jimenez.

  17. Helminthological records of six-banded armadillos Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) from the Brazilian semi-arid region, Patos county, Paraíba state, including new morphological data on Trichohelix tuberculata (Parona and Stossich, 1901) Ortlepp, 1922 and proposal of Hadrostrongylus ransomi nov. comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, E G L; Araújo de Lima, R C; Tebaldi, J H; Athayde, A C R; Nascimento, A A

    2009-05-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the gastrointestinal helminthfauna composition of six-banded armadillos from the Brazilian semi-arid region. Gastrointestinal contents of six road-killed adult animals from Patos County, Paraíba State, were analyzed. Six species of nematodes, comprising five genera and four families, were recovered from the analyzed animals. New morphological data on Trichohelix tuberculata is given, along with a new taxonomical proposal for Hadrostrongylus ransomi (Travassos, 1935) n. comb. This is the first record for parasitic helminths in this host from the Brazilian semi-arid.

  18. Estado de Direito e seus Quatro Grandes Desafios na América Latina na Atualidade: uma leitura a / State of Law and its four great challenges on actual Latin America: a reading from Brazilian's reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Antônio Bedin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto apresenta as dimensões fundamentais do Estado de Direito em seu sentido jurídico-institucional e verifica se essas dimensões foram acolhidas pelas ordens jurídicas dos países da América Latina, em especial pela ordem jurídica brasileira. Além disso, o trabalho analisa os quatro grandes desafios dessaestrutura jurídico-institucional na atualidade nos países latino-americanos.Abstract:This paper presents the State of Law fundamental dimensions in its institutional-legal sense, and analyzes if these dimensions were adopted by the legal systems of the Latin American countries, especially by the Brazilian legal system. This paper also investigates the current four major challenges of this institutional legal framework in Latin America.

  19. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  20. A critique of social capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    This article critiques the concepts of communitarianism and social capital as used in the United States and in Europe. For the United States, the author focuses on Robert Putnam's understanding of both concepts, showing that the apolitical analysis of the Progressive Era, of the progressive developments in Northern Italy, and of the situation of labor unions in the United States is not only insufficient but wrong. The critique also includes the difference between U.S. communitarianism and its European versions, Christian democracy and New Labour, and the limitations of both approaches. The uses and misuses of these concepts in the political debate are discussed. PMID:12211285

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Matias Freire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities.METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar(Brazilian National School Health Survey were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling. Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index, using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8.RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities

  2. Socioeconomic inequalities and changes in oral health behaviors among Brazilian adolescents from 2009 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Maria do Carmo Matias; Jordão, Lidia Moraes Ribeiro; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Andrade, Silvânia Suely Caribé de Araújo; Peres, Marco Aurelio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze oral health behaviors changes over time in Brazilian adolescents concerning maternal educational inequalities. METHODS Data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Saúde do Escolar (Brazilian National School Health Survey) were analyzed. The sample was composed of 60,973 and 61,145 students from 26 Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District in 2009 and 2012, respectively. The analyzed factors were oral health behaviors (toothbrushing frequency, sweets consumption, soft drink consumption, and cigarette experimentation) and sociodemographics (age, sex, race, type of school and maternal schooling). Oral health behaviors and sociodemographic factors in the two years were compared (Rao-Scott test) and relative and absolute measures of socioeconomic inequalities in health were estimated (slope index of inequality and relative concentration index), using maternal education as a socioeconomic indicator, expressed in number of years of study (> 11; 9-11; ≤ 8). RESULTS Results from 2012, when compared with those from 2009, for all maternal education categories, showed that the proportion of people with low toothbrushing frequency increased, and that consumption of sweets and soft drinks and cigarette experimentation decreased. In private schools, positive slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption in 2012 and higher cigarette experimentation in both years among students who reported greater maternal schooling, with no significant change in inequalities. In public schools, negative slope index of inequality and relative concentration index indicated higher soft drink consumption among students who reported lower maternal schooling in both years, with no significant change overtime. The positive relative concentration index indicated inequality in 2009 for cigarette experimentation, with a higher prevalence among students who reported greater maternal schooling. There were no inequalities for

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Part 325 - Statement of Policy on Risk-Based Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Risk-Based Capital Capital adequacy is one of the critical factors that the FDIC is required to analyze... capital adequacy for insured state nonmember banks and (2) standards for determining when an insured bank... as a useful tool for assessing capital adequacy, the FDIC believes there is a need for a...

  4. The Impact of Community Bonding and Bridging Social Capital on Educational Performance in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menahem, Gila

    2011-01-01

    The study examines two issues of the relationship between social capital and educational performance: the different effects of bridging and bonding social capital on urban educational performance and the contextual effects of social capital. The main argument states that bonding and bridging social capital are differently related to educational…

  5. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  6. Flood Hazard Assessment and Decisions Support Using Geographic Information System: A Case Study of Uyo Capital City, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Uwem J. Ituen; Imoh Johnson; Ndifreke Nyah

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing flood prone areas in Uyo Capital City with a view to suggesting control measures. It used 2008 NigerSat imagery, soil texture, rainfall, and road network data of Uyo. With Multi-criteria evaluation technique, the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and single output map algebra were employed to generate flood hazard map of Uyo. The DEM was used to generate contours, terrain elevation, slope, a...

  7. Human Capital and Retirement

    OpenAIRE

    Alders, P.

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by learning-by-doing. The human capital of an employee is subject to depreciation when knowledge of technologies becomes obsolete. After a shock in technology, the worker depreciates on his human capi...

  8. Capital mobility. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt, H. W.

    2000-01-01

    The article analyses the problem of international capital mobility which the Asian crisis has highlighted. It points out that the problem of capital mobility ("hot money" panics) has a long history, but globalization, the opening up of national economies and technological advance have increased the risks. The article discusses four policy debated which are being pursued in the large Asian crisis literature: (i) the pros and cons of capital controls; (ii) the choice of exchange rate regime; (i...

  9. Human capital and productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Fuente, Ángel de la

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the empirical literature on human capital and productivity and summarizes the results of my own work on the subject. On balance, the available evidence suggests that investment in education has a positive, significant and sizable effect on productivity growth. According to my estimates, moreover, the social returns to investment in human capital are higher than those on physical capital in most EU countries and in many regions of Spain.

  10. ACCOUNT INSTRUMENT CAPITAL BORROWED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holt Gheorghe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting up business capital is made from different sources and their use coordinates its policy aims, issues that affect the overall efficiency and thus differentiate companies with the same profile of activity and a similar level of capital advanced in the economic cycle. Thus financial structure, the average cost of capital used in the mechanism how the financial management of the company, of particular importance for this.

  11. KVA: Capital Valuation Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Green; Chris Kenyon

    2014-01-01

    Credit (CVA), Debit (DVA) and Funding Valuation Adjustments (FVA) are now familiar valuation adjustments made to the value of a portfolio of derivatives to account for credit risks and funding costs. However, recent changes in the regulatory regime and the increases in regulatory capital requirements has led many banks to include the cost of capital in derivative pricing. This paper formalises the addition of cost of capital by extending the Burgard-Kjaer (2013) semi-replication approach to C...

  12. Fukuyama on social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignjatović Suzana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to provide a synthesis of Fukuyama's theory of social capital Three different conceptual issues are discussed in the article: definition paradigmatic framework, and methodology. Another aspect of Fukuyama's concept of social capital is discussed from the perspective of Fukuyama's great popularity in public policy since the nineties. The concluding part of the paper deals with Fukuyama's place in academic and policy discourse on social capital.

  13. Handbook of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The Handbook of Social Capital balances the ‘troika' of sociology, political science and economics by offering important contributions to the study of bonding and bridging social capital networks. This inter-disciplinary Handbook intends to serve as a bridge for students and scholars within all...... the social sciences. The contributors explore the different scientific approaches that are all needed if international research is to embrace both the bright and the more shadowy aspects of social capital....

  14. Piketty’s Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Øjvind

    2016-01-01

    Piketty’s Capital in Twenty-First Century has posed a totally new platform for the discussion of the economy and capitalism. Piketty has reinvented the classical political economy founded by Adam Smith in his 1776 Wealth of Nations. Piketty has shown via massive historical research how growth...... and inequality have developed since 1793. Piketty’s conclusion is that the French Revolution did not change the existing inequality either in the medium or in the long term. Piketty’s prediction is that a new form of global capitalism will arise, patrimonial capitalism, in which inequality will develop further...

  15. Social Capital Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldam, Martin; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2005-01-01

      This report has two purposes: The first purpose is to present our 4-page question­naire, which measures social capital. It is close to the main definitions of social capital and contains the most successful measures from the literature. Also it is easy to apply as discussed. The second purpose...... is to present the social capital database we have collected for 21 countries using the question­naire. We do this by comparing the level of social capital in the countries covered. That is, the report compares the marginals from the 21 surveys....

  16. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  17. The estimation of the commercial capital - goodwill

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia ANTONESCU; Daniela SIMINICA

    2008-01-01

    The notion of commercial capital is used in present bookkeeping law in Romania and it represents the part from the commercial capital that is not mentioned in other elements of patrimony, but which take part at the maintenance or the development of the unity as: the customers, the commercial good custom, the reputation, outlets. For the evaluation of the commercial fund must be taken into account the fact that the requests stated in the international standards of applicable bookkeeping, the s...

  18. The Performance of Intellectual Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Vijaya; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    between human, organisational, relational and financial capital. Design/methodology/approach – The paper uses a case study of a firm that invests in intellectual capital in order to develop financial capital. It traces the relationship between intellectual capital elements and financial capital via...

  19. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Szklo, André Salem; Costa, Letícia Casado; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4) had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2) smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8) smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use among young people

  20. ERICA: smoking prevalence in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeska Carvalho Figueiredo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalences of tobacco use, tobacco experimentation, and frequent smoking among Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated participants of the cross-sectional, nation-wide, school-based Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, which included 12- to 17-year-old adolescents from municipalities of over 100 thousand inhabitants. The study sample had a clustered, stratified design and was representative of the whole country, its geographical regions, and all 27 state capitals. The information was obtained with self-administered questionnaires. Tobacco experimentation was defined as having tried cigarettes at least once in life. Adolescents who had smoked on at least one day over the previous 30 days were considered current cigarette smokers. Having smoked cigarettes for at least seven consecutive days was an indicator for regular consumption of tobacco. Considering the complex sampling design, prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were estimated according to sociodemographic and socio-environmental characteristics. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents. Among these, 18.5% (95%CI 17.7-19.4 had smoked at least once in life, 5.7% (95%CI 5.3-6.2 smoked at the time of the research, and 2.5% (95%CI 2.2-2.8 smoked often. Adolescents aged 15 to 17 years had higher prevalences for all indicators than those aged 12 to 14 years. The prevalences did not differ significantly between sexes. The highest prevalences were found in the South region and the lowest ones, in the Northeast region. Regardless of sex, the prevalences were found to be higher for adolescents who had had paid jobs, who lived with only one parent, and who reported having been in contact with smokers either inside or outside their homes. Female public school adolescents were found to smoke more than the ones from private schools. CONCLUSIONS Tobacco use among adolescents is still a challenge. Intending to reduce the prevalence of tobacco use

  1. O Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro e as propostas de integração das comunidades indígenas no estado nacional Brazilian Historical and Geographical Institute and suggestions for the integration of native people communities into the brazilian state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Tadeu Mota

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available No século XIX, a construção do Estado nacional foi levada adiante pela eficácia da persuasão ou pela força da guerra. A expansão agro-pastoril, em territórios ainda não conquistados aos índios, fez parte dessa construção. Novas áreas foram ocupadas, novos territórios incorporados, e o Estado nacional trabalhou no sentido de demarcar essas novas fronteiras, fazendo-se presente nesses territórios. A ocupação de territórios indígenas, a modernização e as idéias de europeização foram praticas que marcaram a sociedade nacional no século XIX. Dessa forma, as populações indígenas tornavam-se um obstáculo para a consolidação desse Estado em expansão. Muitas foram as formulações sobre como resolver a questão e várias delas foram gestadas no Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro e veiculadas pela Revista do IHGB, desde a sua fundação. Entendemos que muitas dessas formas de pensamento imprimiam a direção a ser seguida na elaboração das políticas indigenistas do Império e das províncias, e que a RIHGB foi um importante meio de divulgação dessas idéias por todo o Brasil. Assim, propomo-nos a verificar o rol de sugestões que os freqüentadores das reuniões do IHGB elaboraram e discutiram como sendo a solução para a “questão indígena”, nessa segunda metade do século XIX, que foram impressas nas paginas da Revista do IHGB, da sua fundação até 1889.In the nineteenth century, the national state was built both through persuasion and war. The agro-pastoral expansion into territories not yet taken from the Indians is part of this construction, when new areas and territories were occupied and incorporated into the agricultural frontier and the national state marked these new frontiers by its institutional presence. The nineteenth-century Brazilian society was marked by native people’s territory occupation by the agricultural frontier, by modernization and Europe-oriented ideas. Thus the native

  2. Capital Flows to Brazil: The Endogeneity of Capital Controls

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane A. Cardoso; Ilan Goldfajn

    1998-01-01

    This paper creates an index of capital controls to analyze the determinants of capital flows to Brazil, accounting for the endogeneity of capital controls by considering a government that sets controls in response to capital flows. It finds that the government reacts strongly to capital flows by increasing controls on inflows during booms and relaxing them in moments of distress. The paper estimates a vector autoregression with capital flows, controls, and interest differentials. It shows tha...

  3. Linguistic Capital Pays Dividends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linse, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Some 37 million U.S. residents speak Spanish at home and more than 55% of them say they also speak English. That creates what is called linguistic capital. Although linguistic capital is difficult to quantify, it is enormously valuable and is determined by an individual's language competency, and is too frequently wasted instead of being…

  4. The Genesis of Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    2004-01-01

     This paper aims to offer a framework of interpreting the “evolution” of capitalism that is reaching every corner of the world and has achieved greater legitimacy than at any time in human history. It covers an interdisciplinary discussion on the development of market capitalism that has been cha...

  5. Venture capital and internationalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2011-01-01

    Cross-border investments represent a substantial share of venture capital activities. We use a comprehensive dataset on investments worldwide to analyze the internationalization of venture capital financing. We postulate that cross-border activity is shaped by macroeconomic factors in the venture ca

  6. Human Capital and Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Alders

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the relation between human capital and retirement when the age of retirement is endogenous. This relation is examined in a life-cycle earnings model. An employee works full time until retirement. The worker accumulates human capital by training- on-the-job and by

  7. 78 FR 76973 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ..., and 225 Regulations H, Q, and Y RIN 7100-AD 87 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions, Prompt Corrective Action, Standardized...-Based Capital Rule, and Market Risk Capital Rule AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...

  8. Social Capital in Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peter Ping; Redding, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of social capital in Asia. Social capital is trust and appears in two main forms: relational, based on societal norms, and systemic, based on societal institutions. The relational encourages personalistic transactions; and systemic trust, supports more formal......, and usually larger, transactions backed by law. For economic development, the systemic form becomes crucial but needs to be compatible with relational norms. The dimensions of social capital are often dual in nature. This article employs a theory that accepts this and analyses the phenomena as yin......–yang balancing, seeing trust as a culturally determined enabler of social cooperation. The evolutions of trustworthiness in Japan, China, and the Philippines are analysed. This article contributes to the literature on varieties of capitalism and business systems as well as that on social capital. It raises...

  9. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  10. Corporal and capital punishment of juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, H C

    1990-01-01

    There is a previously unobserved connection between corporal punishment of public school children and capital punishment of juveniles. Both are barometers of acceptable levels of violent punishment and their elimination is a hallmark of a maturing and decent society. Within a majority of the eighteen states where school authorities most frequently strike children are housed 25 of the nation's 28 juvenile death row inmates. On average, the homicide rates of these jurisdictions are two and a half times greater than those that have abolished both state-sanctioned corporal and capital punishment or limit death sentences to those age eighteen and older at the time of their crime(s). Most of the eighteen state abolitions of corporal punishment occurred in the 1980's. The US Supreme Court has ruled both corporal and capital punishment of juveniles constitutional. Additional state legislative abolition of both is anticipated in the 1990s.

  11. Capital Markets Union for Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the U...... and other non-Euro Member States, as well as a commitment to the Single Market.......The merits of the “Capital Markets Union” project lie with its political importance, rather than its legal coherence or significance. Despite a number of substantial flaws, the initiation of this project comes at the right time. The Commission first and foremost sends a political message to the UK...

  12. Human capital in nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 7, 2010, as part of the Atomexpo 2010 exhibition, a round-table discussion took place on the topic Human capital in the nuclear industry: challenges and solutions. The article summarizes reports made during the meeting. Tatiana Kozhevnikova, deputy director general of the Rosatom Corporation, made a report about the strategy and best human resource management practices in member companies of the Corporation. She briefly described the state of the human capital in the Russian nuclear industry and outlined the key provisions of the human resource management strategy. Attendees to the round-table discussion elaborated further on the key statements of the report. The discussion has given an evidence that the Russian nuclear industry is giving an enormous importance to human resource management and is firmly intended on successfully tacking the issues associated with the provision of sufficient staff for the industry's safe and efficient development

  13. CESSÃO DE CRÉDITO E RESTRIÇÃO DE CAPITAL: UM ESTUDO COM BANCOS BRASILEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Fernandes Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between capital restriction and credit assignment operations carried out by Brazilian banks. The analysis period, between June 2004 and June 2009 - when credit assignments increased almost by 20 times, in face of a 162% growth in credit volume - includes the 2008/2009 financial crisis, an exogenous shock to Brazilian financial system during which financial institutions faced difficulties due to the reduction in fund raising by means of free and inter-bank deposits. This also allows observing whether capital restriction effects on credit assignment are higher during financial crises. The results indicate that an increase in capital restriction – own or third parties’ – is related to the expansion of credit assignment operations of Brazilian banks

  14. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  15. Inter Local Government Capital Budget Execution Comparism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Olurankinse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Unrealistic capital budgeting has long been the bane of social economic development in Nigeria and of course, at the local government level. Local governments are established with specific functions to assist the state and federal government to bring about effective rural development and good governance at the grassroots level. Approach: Both fiscal and physical evaluation of the performances of this tier of government in ondo state reveals a low level of performance both in terms of physical development and provision of social welfare services require to enhance the quality of life at the grassroots level. Those responsible for the management of funds at this level ascribed their poor performances to underfunding. This study therefore aims at finding out if truly this claim of underfunding is actually the cause of their poor performance. The study will look at the total capital budget allocation to some selected local governments visa is their actual spending. A sample of nine local governments was selected using random sampling technique based on their settlement pattern. Results: A comparative analysis was done to determine which local government has the largest rate of capital budget execution. The result shows that the local government with the least capital allocation has the largest rate of capital budget execution. Conclusion: The study concludes that the performance of any local government is not a function of availability of huge capital funds but ability to utilize the scarce resources to achieve optimum result.

  16. Autumn,the Autumn of the Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The ode “To Autumn” written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word“climax”means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism:although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.

  17. Autumn,the Autumn of the Capitalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商滔

    2015-01-01

    The ode "To Autumn" written by Keats in September of 1819,seemingly describes the work and effect of Autumn on specific aspects of nature.Indeed,the poet wants to satire the capitalism in his contemporary times by singing the praises of a season bestowed with the ability to bless.It’s known to the word that the autumn is the climax of the year.While the capitalism in that time is in the state like the autumn,reaching the peak of its development.The word "climax" means the beginning of the down.So Keats’ pretending to praise autumn,in fact,implies a prophet given to his contemporary capitalism: although the autumn harvests all in the world,what the capitalism has achieved is preparing itself for death like the autumn’s malevolent job of being ready for wintry death.

  18. Capitated contracting of integrated health provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, G J; Dynan, L; Burns, L R

    This paper examines global capitation of integrated health provider organizations that link physicians and hospitals, such as physician-hospital organizations and management service organizations. These organizations have proliferated in recent years, but their contracting activity has not been studied. We develop a conceptual model to understand the capitated contracting bargaining process. Exploratory multivariate analysis suggests that global capitation of these organizations is more common in markets with high health maintenance organization (HMO) market share, greater numbers of HMOs, and fewer physician group practices. Additionally, health provider organizations with more complex case mix, nonprofit status, more affiliated physicians, health system affiliations, and diversity in physician organizational arrangements are more likely to have global capitation. Finally, state regulation of provider contracting with self-insured employers appears to have spillover effects on health plan risk contracting with health providers. PMID:10711318

  19. Crise e reforma do Estado e da Universidade Brasileira: implicações para o trabalho docente Crisis and reform of Brazilian State and University: implications for the teaching work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Mancebo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute o novo papel que o Estado capitalista assume, em face da mundialização do capital, e as conseqüências daí advindas para a política educacional, especialmente para a educação superior. Aborda, ainda, os efeitos dessa reforma na organização do trabalho docente, face ao intenso processo de privatização das instituições de educação superior, destacando a neoprofissionalização do ensino e a mercadorização da produção de conhecimentos.The work discusses the new roles that the capitalist State assumes, as a cause of the mundialization of capital, and the consequences resulted for educational politics, specially for the high education. It boards, still, the effects occurred in organization of teaching work, face to the intense process of privatization of institutions of high education, detaching the neoprofissionalization of teaching and the marketing of knowledge production.

  20. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  1. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  2. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  3. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  4. Capital Humano y Productividad

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel de la Fuente

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo contiene un breve panorama de la literatura empírica sobre capital humano y productividad y resume los resultados de mi propio trabajo sobre el tema. En conjunto, la evidencia disponible sugiere que la inversión en educación tiene un efecto positivo, significativo y cuantitativamente importante sobre el crecimiento de la productividad. De acuerdo con mis estimaciones, además, la rentabilidad social de la inversión en capital humano es mayor que la del capital físico en la mayor p...

  5. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  6. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  7. Social capital, mental health and biomarkers in Chile: assessing the effects of social capital in a middle-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riumallo-Herl, Carlos Javier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-03-01

    In high-income countries, higher social capital is associated with better health. However, there is little evidence of this association in low- and middle-income countries. We examine the association between social capital (social support and trust) and both self-rated and biologically assessed health outcomes in Chile, a middle-income country that experienced a major political transformation and welfare state expansion in the last two decades. Based on data from the Chilean National Health Survey (2009-10), we modeled self-rated health, depression, measured diabetes and hypertension as a function of social capital indicators, controlling for socio-economic status and health behavior. We used an instrumental variable approach to examine whether social capital was causally associated with health. We find that correlations between social capital and health observed in high-income countries are also observed in Chile. All social capital indicators are significantly associated with depression at all ages, and at least one social capital indicator is associated with self-rated health, hypertension and diabetes at ages 45 and above. Instrumental variable models suggest that associations for depression may reflect a causal effect from social capital indicators on mental well-being. Using aggregate social capital as instrument, we also find evidence that social capital may be causally associated with hypertension and diabetes, early markers of cardiovascular risk. Our findings highlight the potential role of social capital in the prevention of depression and early cardiovascular disease in middle-income countries.

  8. Leveraging health capital at the workplace: an examination of health reporting behavior among Latino immigrant restaurant workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Shannon

    2012-12-01

    This article examines the choices made by a sample of Latino immigrant restaurant workers in regard to their health management, particularly in response to illness and injury. I draw on 33 interviews with kitchen staff employed in the mainstream restaurant industry in San Jose, California, and Houston, Texas, in 2006 and 2007. I argue that workers must consider complex power relationships at work in weighing the advantages of calling in sick, using protective equipment, seeking medical care, or filing a workers' compensation claim. These decisions implicate direct and opportunity costs, such as risk of job loss and missed opportunities for advancement. Workers consequently leverage their health capital to meet their economic needs, to assert their autonomy at the workplace, and to ultimately reject the stigma of illness and injury. PMID:23017892

  9. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  10. HUMAN CAPITAL INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Student Ioana - Julieta Josan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Once with the development of the human capital theory, the education received an economic value. Leading theorists and specialists in the field have shown that the remarkable economic effects of the investments in education influence the chances of acquiring a job and earnings, demonstrating how the theory justifies such an investment. At the hand, the allocation of resources in human capital brings performance and benefits to companies investing in their employees. Also, the investment in human capital is strategic for any country that seeks to create a knowledge economy. Considering the above arguments, the aim of this paper is to highlight the characteristics of investment in human capital, the types of investment, the factors of education investment and the entities interested in investing and their benefits.

  11. Cultural Capital Today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Skjøtt-Larsen, Jakob; Rosenlund, Lennart

    2008-01-01

    of social divisions. This leads to a discussion of four core questions: first, are there signs of a strong individualism and, correspondingly, a weak social structuring of lifestyles? The study does not find support for this view. Second, does classical highbrow culture play a central role as a marker......Based on Danish survey data subjected to correspondence analysis, this article aims at carrying out a critical assessment of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social differentiation in advanced societies as a multi-dimensional phenomenon. As his theory goes, capital volume (economic + cultural capital......) and capital composition (the relative weight of the two) are the main dimensions of social differentiation, which structure the space of social positions as well as the space of lifestyles. The central discussion of the article concerns the character of cultural capital, and the role it plays in the formation...

  12. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  13. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confidential data on the (internal) leverage of foreign affiliates of US multinationals, we find that thin capitalization rules affect multinational firm capital structure in a significant way. Specifically, restri...

  14. Capital mobility, tax competition, and lobbying for redistributive capital taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Lorz, Jens Oliver

    1996-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of international capital mobility on redistributive capital taxation and on lobbying activities by interest groups. It employs a model where different capital endowments lead to a conflict between households concerning their most preferred capital tax rate. Three main results are derived: First, redistributive source based capital taxes or subsidies decline as international tax competition intensifies. Second, lobbying activities of certain interest groups may e...

  15. Religion, Science and Capitalisms

    OpenAIRE

    Rehbein, Boike

    2014-01-01

    This paper enquires into the relation between capitalism, religion and the philosophy of science. We would tend to suppose that there are only superficial and accidental links between them. A closer analysis reveals, however, that the epistemology of contemporary science is still based on a certain interpretation of Christianity and linked to a particular type of capitalism. Science developed after Galileo and Descartes aims at universal truth but was founded on the notion of the Christian ...

  16. Entrepreneurship and heterogeneous capital

    OpenAIRE

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Klein, Peter G.

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is ultimately about the arrangement of resources into productive activi-ties. Much of the entrepreneurship literature, however, has focused on the demand side of the market. While resource heterogeneity is a feature of many theories of the firm, such theories are not built on a systematic theory of capital. We show how the approach to capital developed by the Austrian school of economics provides a natural bridge between theory of entrepreneurship and the theory of the firm. ...

  17. Measuring Natural Capital

    OpenAIRE

    Dariana Tani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of establishing a system of natural capital accounting. Natural capital is integral to the economy and yet it is routinely taken for granted because the goods and services it provides are generally freely available. The consequence is that without prices, these resources are not being allocated efficiently within the economy and opportunities for significant gains in well-being and the possibility of long-term future growth are being lo...

  18. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  19. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has

  20. Private equity and regulatory capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Bongaerts; E. Charlier

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the capital requirements directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under different approaches. F

  1. Capital structure in the global shipping industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis emerged from a particular financial crisis that started in the United States and being rapidly propagated all over the world. It did not affect a limited region or a limited economic sector. This crisis induced significant changes in all management areas, including financial management. This study is focused on financing strategies adopted by shipping companies during the crisis, analyzing relevant factors for a specific issue - the capital structure. The research methodology proposed for this analysis on relevant factors that could explain the capital structure of shipping is OLS regression applied on selected variables derived from the financial statements of the major shipping companies. The dependent variables reflecting capital structure are book value to total liabilities ratio and book value to total debt ratio. The explanatory variables are derived from the theory of capital structure. This study empirically illustrates the relevance of the capital structure theory for the studied economic sector and is a useful tool for the shipping companies, providing relevant information about the optimal capital structure adopted by shipping companies and about factors that influence this decision during a crisis period.

  2. Entrepreneurs’ human and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayegheh Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Rezaei, Shahamak; Schøtt, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: It is widely acknowledged that entrepreneurs’ human capital in form of education and social capital in form of networking are mutually beneficial and also that both human and social capital benefit their performance. Here, the hypothesis is that human and social capital, in combination......, provide added value and jointly add a further boost to performance, specifically if the form of exporting. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor provides data on 52,946 entrepreneurs, who reported on exporting and networking for advice. Hierarchical linear modelling shows that human capital promotes social...... capital, that human capital and social capital (specifically networking in the international environment, work-place, professions and market, but not in the private sphere) both benefit export directly and that human capital amplifies the benefit of social capital, especially through international...

  3. Communication Capital Productivity: National Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Naumik Ekaterina G.

    2012-01-01

    The article offers suggestions for assessing communication capital productivity; the contradictions that affect the value of the communication efficiency of capital (the union of the agents of the market of communication services and products allows them to increase the communication capital productivity and to decrease communication capital productivity of competitors) are formulated; the dependence of productivity on the number of communication capital customers of the communication network...

  4. Crescimento pró-pobre: análise dos estados brasileiros entre 1995 e 2007 Pro-poor growth: an analysis of the Brazilian states between 1995 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Silveira Pinto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa o crescimento pró-pobre nas 27 unidades federativas do Brasil entre 1995 e 2007. Inicialmente, examina-se a literatura recente sobre o tema e apresentam-se três indicadores para mensurar a relação entre crescimento, desigualdade e pobreza. Em seguida, calcula-se, através de dados de painel, a elasticidade renda-pobreza para o Brasil e suas 27 UFs. Finalmente, estimam-se curvas de incidência do crescimento (GIC e taxas de crescimento pró-pobre (RPPG para cada estado nos períodos 1995-2007, 1995-2001 e 2001-2007. Os resultados demonstram que a pobreza caiu rapidamente no Brasil desde 2001, mas ainda existe grande discrepância entre estados e regiões. Ademais, demonstra-se a diferença entre extensão e profundidade da pobreza.This article analyzes the pro-poor growth in the 27 Brazilian states between 1995 and 2007. Initially, it examines the recent literature about the subject and presents three indicators to quantify the relationship among growth, inequality and poverty. Following, it calculates, through panel data analysis, the growth elasticity of poverty in Brazil and across its states. Finally, it estimates growth incidence curves (GIC and rates of pro-poor growth (RPPG for three periods: 1995-2007, 1995-2001 and 2001-2007. The results show that poverty has been rapidly diminishing in Brazil since 2001, but there is still a huge discrepancy among some states and regions. Moreover, there comes up a clear difference between the headcount index and the "deepness" of poverty.

  5. Occupational Therapy in capitalist society and its professional insertion in the Brazilian Social Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldez Cavalcante Bezerra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a reflection on the insertion of occupational therapists in the work social division, as professional employees, and the relation between this and the capitalist state, aiming to reflect on the process of formation and development of Occupational Therapy as a profession, within the context of changes in work practices and social policies. Documental and literature searches were carried out using a methodological approach based the Marxian and Marxist referential, aiming to reflect upon the subject matter under an ontological perspective. It was possible to identify that the insertion of Occupational Therapy, within the work social division, is configured as a result of a historical process dependent on forms of state intervention on the expressions of social issues and configuration of class struggle and on the conformation of state social policies in the context of monopolist capitalism. Within the Brazilian context, Occupational Therapy has undergone a process of professional reconfiguration marked by the incorporation of new professional attributions and areas, as a result of societal changes in the country.

  6. Search for cytotoxic agents in multiple Laurencia complex seaweed species (Ceramiales, Rhodophyta harvested from the Atlantic Ocean with emphasis on the Brazilian State of Espírito Santo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika M. Stein

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of new anti-cancer drugs of algal origin represents one of the least explored frontiers in medicinal chemistry. In this regard, the diversity of micro- and macroalgae found in Brazilian coastal waters can be viewed as a largely untapped natural resource. In this report, we describe a comparative study on the cytotoxic properties of extracts obtained from the Laurencia complex: Laurencia aldingensis, L. catarinensis, L. dendroidea, L. intricata, L. translucida, L. sp, and Palisada flagellifera. All of these species were collected in the coastal waters of the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Four out of the twelve samples initially investigated were found to show significant levels of toxicity towards a model tumor cell line (human uterine sarcoma, MES-SA. The highest levels of cytotoxicity were typically associated with non-polar (hexane algal extracts, while the lowest levels of cytotoxicity were found with the corresponding polar (methanol extracts. In this report, we also describe a biological model currently in development that will not only facilitate the search for new anti-cancer drug candidates of algal origin, but also permit the identification of compounds capable of inducing the destruction of multi-drug resistant tumors with greater efficiency than the pharmaceuticals currently in clinical use.

  7. Análise comparativa dos dispositivos de saúde do trabalhador nas constituições estaduais brasileiras Workers' health in Brazilian state constitutions: a comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Barros de Oliveira

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo trata de uma análise sumária dos dispositivos legais relacionados à área de Saúde do Trabalhador, encontrados nas Constituições dos Estados Brasileiros. Compara, de forma qualitativa e quantitativa, os diversos dispositivos, segundo sua presença, abrangência e importância, mediante a adoção de critérios preestabelecidos de análise em quatro grupos de atributos: estabelecimento de diretrizes/geração, controle e utilização de informações/intervenção sobre os ambientes de trabalho/garantia de direitos de cidadania. A análise evidenciou a intenção do legislador de conferir ao Sistema Único de Saúde atribuições em Saúde do Trabalhador, possibilitando a implementação de novas práticas.This article briefly analyzes the legal measures related to workers' health in the various Brazilian state constitutions. It makes a qualitative and quantitative comparison of the different provisions based on the presence, weight, and relevance ascribed to the issue, using predefined attributes: statement of guidelines; production, control, and utilization of information; labor intervention; guarantee of rights. The analysis showed legislators' intent to allocate power to the Unified Health System in the field of workers' health so as to allow for new practices in this area.

  8. Variations in the abundance of three Parulidae species in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius R. Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the distribution of abundance of three species of warblers in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF: Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi, the Golden-Crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus and the White-Rimmed Warbler (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Three types of forests comprise this region of the Atlantic Forest: seasonal semi-deciduous forest (SF, mixed rain forest (MF and dense rain forest (DF. These forest types occur at different elevations: SF ranging from 200 to 800 m, MF ranging from 800 to 1,200 m and DF ranging from sea level up to 2,000 m. We used point counts in fifteen study areas distributed in the three forest types. The White-Rimmed Warbler and the Tropical Parula had higher abundances in MF, and their abundance was positively correlated with the elevation. The Golden-Crowned Warbler did not present a significant difference in abundance among the forest types, and no correlation between abundance and elevation was found. We suggest that the difference in the occupancy of the forest strata by the Golden-Crowned Warbler is because this species is more generalist and thus less sensitive to variations in the vegetation structure among the forests types when compared to the other two warbler species.Nós avaliamos as distribuições de abundância em três espécies de parulídeos na porção sul da Mata Atlântica do Brasil: a Mariquita (Parula pitiayumi, o Pula-pula (Basileuterus culicivorus e o Pula-pula-assobiador (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Três diferentes tipos de formações florestais compõem esta região da Mata Atlântica: a floresta estacional semidecidual (FES, a floresta ombrófila mista (FOM e a floresta ombrófila densa (FOD. Estes tipos de floresta ocupam altitudes diferentes: FES ocorre entre 200 m e 800 m, a FOM é encontrada entre 800 m e 1200 m de altitude e a FOD ocorre desde o nível do mar até 2000 m. Nós usamos pontos de escuta em 15 áreas florestais localizadas nos tr

  9. Strategies of environmental knowledge production facing land use changes: Insights from the Silvicultural Zoning Plan conflict in the Brazilian state of Rio G

    OpenAIRE

    Gautreau, Pierre; Vélez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates emerging logics in the production of environmental knowledge in Southern Brazil through the case study of a complex process launched in 2004 that led the state of Rio Grande do Sul to adopt a management tool known as “Environmental Zoning for Silvicultural Activity” (ZAS). In order to regulate the implantation of Eucalyptus, Pine, and Acacia tree-farms on its territory, the State Environmental Administration decided to regulate silvicultural activities by establishing ...

  10. Strategies of environmental knowledge production facing land use changes: Insights from the Silvicultural Zoning Plan conflict in the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul.

    OpenAIRE

    Gautreau, Pierre; Vélez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    International audience This paper investigates emerging logics in the production of environmental knowledge in Southern Brazil through the case study of a complex process launched in 2004 that led the state of Rio Grande do Sul to adopt a management tool known as "Environmental Zoning for Silvicultural Activity" (ZAS). In order to regulate the implantation of Eucalyptus, Pine, and Acacia tree-farms on its territory, the State Environmental Administration decided to regulate silvicultural a...

  11. Transmission line capital costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs

  12. The value of an intercâmbio: brazilian student mobility, bilateralism & international education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Spears

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil’s emergence in the global economy as a member of the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa states has prompted the federal government to establish the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program (Science Without Borders in order to advance the country’s social capital and infrastructure in STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math related disciplines and industries. Public and private investment in the Scientific Mobility Program has transformed the way in which Brazilian government, universities, and citizenry places value the intercâmbio (student exchange experience in the United States. STEM-related disciplines are now disproportionately funded versus social sciences, humanities, and fine arts fields. This development has altered the way in which student mobility in the United States is given worth and changed the trajectory of international education in Brazil. This research provides a conceptual analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Mobility Program by using a critical political economy perspective. The essay conceptualizes the Science Without Borders initiative at global, national, and local levels. This research also explores what implications the bilateral U.S.-Brazil Educational Partnership may have on future policy, practice, and ultimately, funding of Brazilian student mobility. A emergência do Brasil no âmbito da economia mundializada como participante do BRIC (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul mobilizou o governo federal brasileiro a estabelecer um programa estatal de mobilidade acadêmica (Programa Ciência sem Fronteiras de modo a fazer avançar o capital social do país (general intellect e a infraestrutura em STEM (Ciência, Tecnologia, Engenharia e Matemática relacionadas à indústria. Investimentos públicos e privados no programa de mobilidade acadêmica transformaram o modo como o governo brasileiro e as universidades valorizam o intercâmbio estudantil com os Estados Unidos. As

  13. Evaluation of the effect of sector capital assets use efficiency on capital productivity ratio in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohdanskiy K. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The real state of the capital assets’ disposal through the national economy sectors is determined in comparison with the result of capital assets use in the country’s economic complex in general in the time period of 1990-2012. It has been proved that the apparent total results regarding efficiency achieved in capital assets use through the sectors of economy do not demonstrate their real effect on the capital productivity ratio of the national economy in the whole. Analysis of the effect of the labor instruments concentrated in the national economy sectors on the national capital productivity ratio has been made. The sectors with their stuff which really determine the level of capital assets use in the country have been identified. Existence and development of the institute of economic initiatives have been proved. The fact is that the economic initiatives mentioned above concentrate their efforts on the improvement of capital assets use and the need to attract attention of the subjects of economic activities to the social development concept.

  14. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  15. Capital-Skill Complementarity and Rigid Relative Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative......The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...

  16. 38 CFR 61.11 - Applications for capital grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... recommendations by appropriate State (and area wide) clearinghouses pursuant to E.O. 12372 (3 CFR, 1982 Comp., p... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applications for capital... (CONTINUED) VA HOMELESS PROVIDERS GRANT AND PER DIEM PROGRAM § 61.11 Applications for capital grants. (a)...

  17. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Capital Recovery Section. Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Two papers consider the capital recovery difficulties of telephone companies in the current deregulatory environment. The first, "Capital Recovery in the Transition Period" (Gail Garfield Schwartz, New York State Public Service Commission) describes the process determining depreciation in both regulated and deregulated environments, and argues…

  18. Social capital and community development: practitioner emptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, R

    1999-08-01

    Social capital has become the latest 'flavour of the month'. There is considerable disagreement over what the term means, and calls for theorising and measurement of the construct. Health promoters, among others, are being challenged to re-construct their efforts around this still contested idea. Social capital doesn't exist, but is being created by those aspects of social relations particular theorists or researchers choose to study in its name. The choice of these relations is directed by ideology. To those aligned more with neoliberal, market-driven ideology, social capital is a means to the end of economic growth, something that can pick up the slack of privatised or reduced public services. To those aligned more with social justice and communitarian ideology, social capital is an end in itself, requiring the defence of strong, egalitarian state intervention into market practices that create inequalities. Community development is one of many state interventions used to buffer market-generated inequalities. Social capital may be a useful concept for practitioners, researchers and policy makers in bring the missing 'social' into economic and fiscal policy debates. But its use should be approached cautiously as a construct of potential strategic value. It should not confuse all of the previous 'good' work undertaken in the name of empowerment and community capacity. PMID:10462871

  19. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  20. BRAZILIAN FEMALE LABOR MARKET: RACIAL-SKIN COLOR DISCRIMINATION AND INEFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSTAVO ANDREY DE ALMEIDA LOPES FERNANDES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe myth of racial democracy is still widespread in the Brazilian society, although economic literature has continuously documented pervasive racial discrimination. This study analyzes racial discrimination in the Brazilian female labor market using a Mincer stochastic wage frontier, corrected for sample selection. The results, using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, showed that an efficient wage differential, not explained by diferences in human capital does exist and is large among the most eficiente workers. Wage inefficiencies are also explained and it is a claim of the study that traditional policies might be a tool in reducing underpayment dispersion, but cannot cope with pure discrimination.

  1. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, B; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cyclemodel of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge-nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not onlylabor income but also capital income is optimal. The positive tax on capital incomeserves to alleviate the distortions of the labor tax on human capital accumulation.The optimal marginal tax rate on capital income is lower than that on labor inco...

  2. On the capitalization and cultivation of social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Bourdieu's (1986) seminal definition of social capital as "the aggregate of the actual or potential resources" is reflected in older definitions, as well as in many current within sociology (e.g. Portes, 2000) and organization (Adler & Kwon, 2002). The definition is interesting, because it directs...... a dual focus on social capital as both immediately and potentially productive resources, i.e. assets that can be immediately capitalized by individuals as well as ‘cultivated' for future use. We argue that to further operationalize this concept we must distinguish between actual/potential social capital......, within a neo-capital framework that unifies the existing ‘plethora' of capitals....

  3. Capital Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Laurie; Gary, Jack; Illingworth, Bill; Sargent, Tom

    1987-05-01

    Gathering information, necessary forms, and financial calculations needed to generate a "capital investment proposal" is an extremely complex and difficult process. The intent of the capital investment proposal is to ensure management that the proposed investment has been thoroughly investigated and will have a positive impact on corporate goals. Meeting this requirement typically takes four or five experts a total of 12 hours to generate a "Capital Package." A Capital Expert System was therefore developed using "Personal Consultant." The completed system is hybrid and as such does not depend solely on rules but incorporates several different software packages that communicate through variables and functions passed from one to another. This paper describes the use of expert system techniques, methodology in building the knowledge base, contexts, LISP functions, data base, and special challenges that had to be overcome to create this system. The Capital Expert System is the successful result of a unique integration of artificial intelligence with business accounting, financial forms generation, and investment proposal expertise.

  4. Interdependence between government levels in Brazilian health policy: the implementation of Emergency Care Units in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Dias; Machado, Cristiani Veira; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Baptista, Tatiana Wargas de Faria; de Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares; Konder, Mariana Teixeira

    2015-02-01

    This article addresses policymaking related to Emergency Care Units (ECU) in the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2013, duly identifying the relationships between the various levels of government in this process. It prioritized the context of policy formulation, the factors that motivated the inclusion and maintenance of ECUs on the state agenda and the process of how the policy was implemented in the state. The study was based on the literature that defines the agenda and implementation of public policies and on contributions from historic institutionalism. The research involved analysis of documents, secondary data, and 51 interviews with people in positions of authority in state and municipal governments. The priority given to ECUs in the government agenda was the result of a confluence of historical, structural, political and institutional factors, as well as the current context. The results of this study indicate the existence of interdependence between levels of government, however federal coordination problems have prejudiced the integration of the various components of emergency health care in the state.

  5. Organizational networks and social capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Waldstrøm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a framework for understanding organizational networks and social capital through the lens of “social capital ownership” as well as the private and collective goods provided through this ownership. More specifically, it argues that ownership of social capital in organizations...... is closely connected to four types of social capital – two belonging to the bridging social capital type, and two belonging to the bonding social capital type. The chapter first reviews literature on organizational social capital and then directly focuses on ownership of social capital in organizations......, as well as the derived benefits, or losses. Next, the chapter presents an empirical case apt to illustrate the theoretical findings in part one, namely the nineteenth-century Danish Cooperative Dairy Movement (Svendsen and Svendsen 2004). It is demonstrated how social capital among Danish peasants...

  6. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  7. China to Gradually Make Capital Account Convertible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ China is pushing forward its currency Renminbi (RMB)'s capital account convertibility gradually and in a stable manner, said an official with the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), ruling out both an adventurous leap and conservative cautiousness, according to a report of Xinhua on April 12.

  8. China to Gradually Make Capital Account Convertible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China is pushing forward its currency Renminbi (RMB)'s capital account convertibility gradually and in a stable manner, said an official with the State Administration of Foreign Exchange (SAFE), ruling out both an adventurous leap and conservative cautiousness, according to a report of Xinhua on April 12.……

  9. Corporate relocation in venture capital finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Cumming; G. Flemming; A. Schwienbacher

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces an analysis of international relocation decisions of venture capital (VC)-backed companies. Relocations to the United States are motivated by economic conditions as well as an improvement in the laws of the country in which the entrepreneurial firm is based. Relocations to the

  10. Bank Capital Management

    OpenAIRE

    Jokipii, T.K.

    2009-01-01

    The work undertaken in this study empirically explores the determinants of regulatory bank capital bu®ers, and how they in°uence bank decisions. Focusing on bank capital management under the Basel I framework, this thesis serves to address some of the con- cerns that have been voiced regarding the implementation of the new regulation (Basel II) and the broader economic e®ects that could result. In particular, the research chapters of this thesis examine the cyclical behavior of European bank ...

  11. Updating cultural capital theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prieur, Annick; Savage, Mike

    2011-01-01

    of ‘‘highbrow’’ culture, cultural oppositions can nonetheless readily be detected. We point to nine oppositions, mostly shared between the nations. Three tensions between (a) participation and non-participation in cultural activities; (b) knowledge and ignorance in cultural issues (such as for music, literature...... than absolute terms, and that a field analytic perspective provides the means of understanding cultural capital as such a relative entity. Second, the move from the empirical observation of oppositions to the conceptualisation of cultural capital also demands that the functioning of features...

  12. Five models of capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Bresser-Pereira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides analyzing capitalist societies historically and thinking of them in terms of phases or stages, we may compare different models or varieties of capitalism. In this paper I survey the literature on this subject, and distinguish the classification that has a production or business approach from those that use a mainly political criterion. I identify five forms of capitalism: among the rich countries, the liberal democratic or Anglo-Saxon model, the social or European model, and the endogenous social integration or Japanese model; among developing countries, I distinguish the Asian developmental model from the liberal-dependent model that characterizes most other developing countries, including Brazil.

  13. History and Chronicle: Raul Pompeia and the series "Da Capital"

    OpenAIRE

    RUBENS ARANTES CORREA

    2012-01-01

    This paper integrates the charts of a larger study in which we investigate the trajectory, the militancy and Raul Pompeia’s political ideals (1863-1895) placing him in the Brazilian context in late nineteenth century. We highlight, particularly, Raul Pompeia’s chronicals for the newspaper “O Estado de São Paulo in a series which the author titled "Da Capital" and was published by an afternoon newspaper from São Paulo between 1891 and 1893. We have tried to understand, through this work, how t...

  14. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  15. Knowledge and use of wildlife by hunters in the Brazilian semiarid region: a case study in Paraíba State

    OpenAIRE

    José Aécio Alves Barbosa; José Otávio Aguiar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken in a traditional community in the semiarid region of Paraíba State, Northeastern Brazil, with the purpose of registering the main animal species hunted and evaluating the implications of these practices in terms of the conservation of local fauna. A total of 78 species of wild tetrapod vertebrates were cited by 24 interviewees as being hunted in the region. These animals were separated into four different animals groups (mammals, birds, reptiles and amphibians...

  16. The Low Prevalence of Y Chromosomal Microdeletions is Observed in the Oligozoospermic Men in the Area of Mato Grosso State and Amazonian Region of Brazilian Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Gleice Cristina dos Santos Godoy; Bianca Borsatto Galera; Claudinéia Araujo; Jacklyne Silva Barbosa; Max Fernando de Pinho; Marcial Francis Galera; Sebastião Freitas de Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions on Y chromosome in infertile patients with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. METHODS This cross-sectional study enrolled 94 men from infertile couples. Karyotype analysis was performed by lymphocyte culture technique. DNA from each sample was extracted using non-enzymatic method. Microdeletions were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS With the use of cytogeneti...

  17. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  18. A Study on Ethnic Capital and the Transformation of Chinese Migrant Communities in the United States%族裔资本与美国华人移民社区的转型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周敏; 林闽钢

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to develop the concept of the “ethnic capital”. Based on the theory of social capital and the enclave economy, the anthers argue that ethnic capital is not a thing but involves interactive processes of financial capital, human capital, and social capital within an identifiable ethnic community, the anthers use case studies of centenary Chinatowns and emerging middle-class immigrant Chinese communities in New York and Los Angeles to illustrate how ethnic capital affects community building and transformation, which in turn influence the social mobility of immigrants. The paper speculates on how developments in contemporary ethnic enclaves challenge the conventional notion of assimilation and contribute to understanding of community dynamics.

  19. Contingent Capital with a Capital-Ratio Trigger

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Glasserman; Behzad Nouri

    2012-01-01

    Contingent capital in the form of debt that converts to equity when a bank faces financial distress has been proposed as a mechanism to enhance financial stability and avoid costly government rescues. Specific proposals vary in their choice of conversion trigger and conversion mechanism. We analyze the case of contingent capital with a capital-ratio trigger and partial and ongoing conversion. The capital ratio we use is based on accounting or book values to approximate the regulatory ratios t...

  20. The Evaluation and Rethinking on the Dividends Proportion of State-owned Enterprises:Based on the State-owned Financial Goals of Capital Cost%国有企业分红比例的评估与再思考--基于资本成本的国企理财目标

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽琴

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the state-owned financial goals of capital cost and considering from both the perspective of equity capital cost and enterprise sustainable growth,this paper built a sustainable revenue sharing model to esti-mate the sustainable dividend proportion of state-owned enterprises in China,and through the cluster analysis to e-valuate the current classification standard.The study found that the reality of state-owned enterprises pay dividends proportion was lower than the sustainable dividend proportion,the classification of the existing standards did not make the cost of capital and the enterprise sustainable growth index into account.On the basis of empirical analysis, this paper put forward the policy suggestions to perfect the system of state-owned enterprises pay dividends.%以资本成本的国有企业理财目标为研究视角,从兼顾股权资本成本及企业可持续增长的角度出发,通过构建可持续分红比例模型对中国国有企业的可持续分红比例进行估算,并通过聚类分析评估现行分类执行的比例标准。研究发现,中国国有企业的现实分红比例低于可持续分红比例,现有的分类标准并没有将资本成本及企业可持续增长纳入考量指标。在实证分析的基础上,提出了完善国有企业分红制度的政策建议。

  1. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  2. Human Capital and Optimal Positive Taxation of Capital Income

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobs (Bas); A.L. Bovenberg (Lans)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes optimal linear taxes on capital and labor incomes in a life-cycle model of human capital investment, financial savings, and labor supply with heteroge- nous individuals. A dual income tax with a positive marginal tax rate on not only labor income but also capital inco

  3. Thin Capitalization Rules and Multinational Firm Capital Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, J.; Huizinga, H.P.; Laeven, L.; Nicodeme, G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of thin capitalization rules that limit the tax deductibility of interest on the capital structure of the foreign affiliates of US multinationals. We construct a new data set on thin capitalization rules in 54 countries for the period 1982-2004. Using confide

  4. Nonprescribed use of tranquilizers and use of other drugs among Brazilian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emérita S. Opaleye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To describe patterns of nonprescribed use of tranquilizers by students aged 10 to 18 years and assess the sociodemographic characteristics of these adolescents and their use of other substances. Methods: A randomized and stratified sample of 47,979 students from state and private schools of the 27 Brazilian state capitals completed a self-report questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the associations between tranquilizer use and sociodemographic factors, as well as the use of other psychotropic substances. Results: The lifetime prevalence of nonprescribed use of tranquilizers was 3.9%. Use was most common among girls, wealthier adolescents, and those from private schools. An association was found between use of tranquilizers and lifetime use of alcohol (prevalence ratio [PR] = 3.15; 95% confidence intervals [95%CI] 2.58-3.85, tobacco (PR = 2.61; 95%CI 2.31-2.95, illicit drugs (PR = 3.70; 95%CI 3.19-4.29, and other prescription drugs (PR = 7.03; 95%CI 6.18-7.99. As the number of substances adolescents reported having used increased, so did the nonprescribed use of tranquilizers. Conclusions: Nonprescribed use of tranquilizers by adolescents might indicate the use of other substances, including high-risk combinations such as tranquilizers and alcohol. The risks of this association should be addressed during the early stages of drug prevention programs.

  5. Social Capital in an Outdoor Recreation Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Marilynne; Leahy, Jessica

    2010-02-01

    This study examined social capital development in three all-terrain vehicles (ATV) clubs in Maine using an adapted version of Lin’s (2001) social capital theory model. The structural components of social capital identified included collective assets and individual assets in the form of normative behavior and trust relationships. Also identified were counter-norms for individual ATV riders identified as having divergent norms from club members. The second component of social capital is access to and mobilization of network contacts and resources. Access networks in the context of the ATV clubs studied were identified as community and landowner relations while mobilization of resources was existent in club membership attempts toward self-governance and efforts of the statewide “umbrella” organization. Instrumental outcomes benefit society and expressive outcomes benefit the individual. Both types of returns are present in the data suggesting that ATV clubs are creating social capital. This is important information to clubs who desire to market themselves, improve their reputations, and enhance their volunteer association. It is of further interest to state governments who fund clubs through trail grants as proof that a return on investment is being realized. Theoretical and applied implications for these and other types of recreation-based volunteer associations (e.g., clubs, friends groups, advocacy groups) are presented.

  6. Capital Structure and Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flor, Christian Riis

    2008-01-01

    post optimally sell the assets or re-optimize the capital structure. Ex ante, more uncertain asset value decreases leverage, but not firm value, and selling the assets becomes less likely. Firms should tend to invest in assets whose value is less correlated to changes in earnings and, in addition...

  7. NANNING China's Green Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nanning,the capital city of Guangxi province,is not only the political,economic and cultural center of the province,but also plays an important role in the economic development of southwest China.Nanning's advantageous location makes the city a commercial and communication center,opening China to Southeast Asia.

  8. Is capitalism possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaay Fortman, B. de

    1998-01-01

    In the two ages of its existence capitalism has given proof of its reformability. It was, however, anti-capitalist blueprints and ideas that constituted a continuous spiritual driving force towards reform. Today, after the collapse of real existing socialism there is an urgent need for new alternati

  9. Towards Transnational Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2012-01-01

    This paper contributes to current debates on the relationship between globalisation and higher education. The main argument of the paper is that we are currently witnessing transnationalisation of academic capitalism. This argument is illustrated by examining the collaboration between transnational corporations and research universities, and how…

  10. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...

  11. Manage "Human Capital" Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Allan

    2011-01-01

    To strategically manage human capital in education means restructuring the entire human resource system so that schools not only recruit and retain smart and capable individuals, but also manage them in ways that support the strategic directions of the organization. These management practices must be aligned with a district's education improvement…

  12. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  13. Human Capital and Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of sustainability needs to consider the role of all forms of capital—natural, biological, social, technological, financial, cultural—and the complex ways in which they interact. All forms of capital derive their value, utility and application from human mental awareness, creativity and social innovation. This makes human capital, including social capital, the central determinant of resource productivity and sustainability. Humanity has entered the Anthropocene Epoch in which human changes have become the predominant factor in evolution. Humanity is itself evolving from animal physicality to social vitality to mental individuality. This transition has profound bearing on human productive capabilities, adaptability, creativity and values, the organization of economy, public policy, social awareness and life styles that determine sustainability. This article examines the linkages between population, economic development, employment, education, health, social equity, cultural values, energy intensity and sustainability in the context of evolving human consciousness. It concludes that development of human capital is the critical determinant of long-term sustainability and that efforts to accelerate the evolution of human consciousness and emergence of mentally self-conscious individuals will be the most effective approach for ensuring a sustainable future. Education is the primary lever. Human choice matters.

  14. Revitalizing ecological capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swagemakers, P.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2011-01-01

    The modernization of agricultural food production has diminished and is diminishing the sustainable use of the local natural resource base, resulting in the fragmentation of landscapes and the decline of biodiversity. In this paper we analyze the revitalization of ecological capital, which provides

  15. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert; Wengström, Erik Roland

    We show that the standard trust question routinely used in social capital research is importantly related to cooperation behavior and we provide a microfoundation for this relation. We run a large-scale public goods experiment over the internet in Denmark and find that the trust question is a proxy...

  16. Microfoundations of Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöni, Christian; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Wengström, Erik Roland

    2012-01-01

    Research on social capital routinely relies on survey measures of trust which can be collected in large and heterogeneous samples at low cost. We validate such survey measures in an incentivized public good experiment and show that they are importantly related to cooperation behavior in a large...

  17. Planning for Capital Reinvestment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedenweg, Frederick; Weisburg-Swanson, Lynda; Gardner, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes and evaluates four alternatives for planning and budgeting for capital reinvestment for college and university facilities: physical plant auditing; a depreciation-based approach; percentage of current replacement value; and facility subsystem modeling, or life-cycle modeling. Each has advantages and limitations in budgeting for and…

  18. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  19. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  20. Austerity/Immiseration Capitalism and Islamophobia--or Twenty-First-Century Multicultural Socialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article is in three parts. In part one, the author begins by examining the onset of austerity/immiseration capitalism in the United Kingdom. Austerity/immiseration capitalism has witnessed the decline of state multiculturalism and increasing attempts to deflect attention away from the failures of capitalism by playing the "race…