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Sample records for brazilian southern space

  1. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

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    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  2. Brazilian Space Weather Program

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    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    A space weather program is being initiated at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) to study events from their initiation on the sun to their impacts on the earth, including their effects on space-based and ground-based technological systems. The program is built on existing capabilities at INPE, which include scientists with a long tradition and excellence in the observation, analysis and modeling of solar and solar-terrestrial phenomena and an array of geophysical instruments that spans all over the Brazilian territory from the north to south of the magnetic dip equator. Available sensors include solar radio frequency receivers and telescopes, optical instruments and solar imagers, GNSS receivers, ionosondes, radars, allsky imagers, magnetometers and cosmic ray detectors. In the equatorial region, ionosphere and thermosphere constitute a coupled system with electrodynamical and plasma physical processes being responsible for a variety of peculiar phenomena. The most important of them are the equatorial electrojet current system and its instabilities, the equatorial ionization anomaly, and the plasma instabilities/irregularities of the night-time ionosphere (associated with the plasma bubble events). In addition, space weather events modify the equatorial ionosphere in a complex and up to now unpredictable manner. Consequently, a main focus of the program will be on monitoring the low, middle and upper atmosphere phenomena and developing a predictive model of the equatorial ionosphere through data assimilation, that could help to mitigate against the deleterious effects on radio communications and navigation systems. The technological, economic and social importance of such activities was recognized by the Brazilian government and a proposal for funding was approved for the period 2008-2011. New ground instruments will be installed during this period allowing us to extend our current capability to provide space weather observations, accurate

  3. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

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    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  4. Wave observations from an array of directional buoys over the southern Brazilian coast

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    Pereira, Henrique Patricio Prado; Violante-Carvalho, Nelson; Nogueira, Izabel Christina Martins; Babanin, Alexander; Liu, Qingxiang; de Pinho, Uggo Ferreira; Nascimento, Fabio; Parente, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    It is well known that the majority of buoy measurements are located around the US coast and along some Europeans countries. The lack of long-term and densely spaced in situ measurements in the Southern Hemisphere in general, and the South Atlantic in particular, hinders several investigations due to the lack of detailed metocean information. Here, we present an effort to overcome this limitation, with a dense network of buoys along the Brazilian coast, equipped with several meteorological and oceanographic sensors. Out of ten currently operational buoys, three are employed to present the main characteristics of waves in the Southern part of the network. For the first time, sensor characteristics and settings are described, as well as the methods applied to the raw wave data. Statistics and distributions of wave parameters, swell propagating events, comparison with a numerical model and altimeters and a discussion about the occurrence of freak waves are presented.

  5. Wave observations from an array of directional buoys over the southern Brazilian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Henrique Patricio Prado; Violante-Carvalho, Nelson; Nogueira, Izabel Christina Martins; Babanin, Alexander; Liu, Qingxiang; de Pinho, Uggo Ferreira; Nascimento, Fabio; Parente, Carlos Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that the majority of buoy measurements are located around the US coast and along some Europeans countries. The lack of long-term and densely spaced in situ measurements in the Southern Hemisphere in general, and the South Atlantic in particular, hinders several investigations due to the lack of detailed metocean information. Here, we present an effort to overcome this limitation, with a dense network of buoys along the Brazilian coast, equipped with several meteorological and oceanographic sensors. Out of ten currently operational buoys, three are employed to present the main characteristics of waves in the Southern part of the network. For the first time, sensor characteristics and settings are described, as well as the methods applied to the raw wave data. Statistics and distributions of wave parameters, swell propagating events, comparison with a numerical model and altimeters and a discussion about the occurrence of freak waves are presented.

  6. Imposex reduction and residual butyltin contamination in southern Brazilian harbors.

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    Castro, Ítalo Braga; Rossato, Martina; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-05-01

    The imposex incidence was appraised in South American gastropods, considering the scenario before and after the global ban of tributyltin (TBT). A statistically significant reduction in imposex indexes was observed in Stramonita haemastoma collected in 2006 and 2010 from areas under the influence of four coastal harbors from southern Brazil. This reduction may be because of the effectiveness of the global ban issued by the International Maritime Organization, although the restrictions on TBT-based antifouling paints in Brazil might also have helped. Even so, a residual organotin contamination was still detected in female tissues (levels ranged from 7.6 to 164.9 ng Sn/g for TBT; from imposex and environmental levels of organotins is expected in every ocean worldwide soon after the implementation of national and international restriction regulations, this will depend on the effectiveness of the global TBT ban; the effectiveness of local restrictions on producing, selling, and using TBT-based antifouling paints; and specific characteristics of local sediments, because metabolization rates and sorption/desorption of TBT previously deposited might affect its environmental bioavailability. Therefore, the reduction trend detected in the present study cannot be extrapolated to other Brazilian or South American coastal areas. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Estimating Brazilian Monthly GDP: a State-Space Approach

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    João Victor Issler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several contributions. The first is to employ a superior interpo lation method that enables to estimate, nowcastandforecast monthly Brazilian GDP for 1980-2012 in an integrated way-see Bernanke, Gertler, & Watson (1997[Systematic monetary policy and the effects of oil price shocks(Brookings Papers in Economic Activity No.1]. Second, along the spirit of Mariano & Murasawa (2003 [A new coincident index of business cycles based on monthly and quarterly series.Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(4, 427-443], we propose and test a myriad of interpolation models and interpolation auxiliary series-all coincident with GDP from a business-cycle dating point of view. Based on these results, we finally choose the most appropriate monthly indicator for Brazilian GDP. Third, this monthly GDP estimate is compared to an economic ac tivity indicator widely used by practitioners in Brazil-the Brazilian Economic Activity Index (IBC-Br. We found that our monthly GDP tracks economic ac tivity better than IBC-Br. This happens by construction, since our state-space approach imposes the restriction (discipline that our monthly estimate must add up to the quarterly observed series in any given quarter, which may not hold regarding IBC-Br. Moreover, our method has the advantage to be easily im plemented: it only requires conditioning on two observed series for estimation, while estimating IBC-Br requires the availability of hundreds of monthly series. Third, in a nowcasting and forecasting exercise, we illustrate the advantages of our integrated approach. Finally, we compare the chronology of recessions of our monthly estimate with those done elsewhere.

  8. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands

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    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395–1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  9. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America.

  10. Protodrilus (Protodrilidae, Annelida) from the southern and southeastern Brazilian coasts

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    Di Domenico, Maikon; Martínez, Alejandro; Lana, Paulo da Cunha; Worsaae, Katrine

    2013-12-01

    Protodrilus corderoi, Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. and Protodrilus pythonius n. sp. are reported from beaches in southern and southeastern Brazil and described combining live observations with light and electron scanning microscopy studies. Protodrilus corderoi is redescribed from new collections at the type locality, and a neotype for the species is assigned since the original type material no longer exists. New information on reproductive organs, segmental adhesive glands and unpigmented ciliary receptors as well as morphometrics is provided. Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. and P. pythonius n. sp. are formally described. Protodrilus ovarium n. sp. is diagnosed by the presence of separated lateral organs on segments 7-12, three spermioducts of segments 10-12 and salivary glands in segments 1-9. Protodrilus pythonius n. sp. is defined by the presence of separated lateral organs on segments 7-16, long pygidial lobes and body tapering toward the pygidium. The distribution of the different species in more or less spacious habitats seems to be correlated with their gross morphology. Protodrilus pythonius n. sp., with relatively long and wide body and long palps with ciliary bands, was collected in very coarse sandy sediments at a reflective sheltered beach. Conversely, P. corderoi and P. ovarium n. sp., both possessing more slender bodies with shorter, less ciliated palps, occurred in medium-coarse, well-sorted sediments in the more energetic swash zone of exposed intermediate-reflective beaches. The finding of P. pythonius and P. corderoi in nearby beaches corroborates other studies showing a higher morphological variability among species in different habitats within the same geographical area than among species in the same habitat in different geographical areas.

  11. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

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    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  12. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

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    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  13. The oceanic segment of the southern Brazilian margin: Morpho-structural domains and their tectonic significance

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    Bassetto, Marcelo; Alkmim, Fernando F.; Szatmari, Peter; Mohriak, Webster U.

    A descriptive and evolutionary analysis of the main morpho-structural features of the oceanic domain of the southern portion of the Brazilian Continental Margin is supported by regional seismic profiles and potential field data from the Brazilian governmental LEPLAC (Plano de Levantamento da Plataforma Continental Brasileira) Project. The several morpho-structural elements can be differentiated, as for example: the dominant structural pattern of the acoustic basement, including extensional faulting and long-wavelength folding, crustal thickness changes, fracture zones location, distribution of volcanic centers, and development of wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors. Four broad distinct morpho-structural domains, separated by fracture zones and oceanic lineaments. Domain I is located south of the Porto Alegre Lineament; Domain II corresponds to the area between the Porto Alegre Lineament and the Rio Grande Fracture Zone; Domain III spans the area of the São Paulo Plateau; and Domain IV is located to the east of this plateau, towards the abyssal portions of the oceanic crust. These domains are defined by their distinct regional morphologic and structural characteristics. Sometimes these elements are well imaged in the seismic profiles, corroborated by gravity and magnetic anomalies, and eventually identified as prominent features at the sea bottom physiography. Using a multidisciplinary approach based on bathymetric maps, regional seismic interpretation, magnetic data analysis, and gravity models, this work attempts to characterize these elements in a descriptive and evolutionary view, identifying their role in the tectonic development of this portion of the South Atlantic.

  14. Radiocarbon geochronology of the sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (Southern Brazilian upper margin)

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    Mahiques, Michel M.; Sousa, Silvia H.M.; Burone, Leticia; Nagai, Renata H.; Silveira, Ilson C.A.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Soutelino, Rafael G.; Ponsoni, Leandro; Klein, Daniel A., E-mail: mahiques@usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. Oceanografico

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this work was to generate an inventory of the data on radiocarbon dating obtained from sediments of the Sao Paulo bight (southern Brazilian upper margin) and to analyze the data in terms of Late Quaternary sedimentary processes and sedimentation rates. A total of 238 radiocarbon dating from materials collected using different sampling procedures was considered for this work. The sedimentation rates varied from less than 2 to 68 cm.kyr{sup -1}. The highest sedimentation rate values were found in a low-energy (ria type) coastal system as well as in the upwelling zones of Santa Catarina and Cabo Frio. The lowest rates were found on the outer shelf and upper slopes. Our results confirm the strong dependency of the shelf currents, with an emphasis to the terrigenous input from the Rio de La Plata outflow which is transported via the Brazilian coastal current, as well as of the coupled Brazil Current - Intermediate Western Boundary Current (BC-IWBC) dynamics on the sedimentary processes. At least three indicators of the paleo sea level were found at 12200 yr BP (conventional radiocarbon age) (103 meters below sea level - mbsl), 8300-8800 cal yr BP (13 mbsl) and 7700-8100 cal yr BP (6 mbsl). (author)

  15. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

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    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production.

  16. Association of human leukocyte antigen DQ1 and dengue fever in a white Southern Brazilian population

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    José Roberto Polizel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infectious disease of viral etiology transmitted by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, and A. scutellaris. It can develop either as a benign form or as a severe hemorrhagic form. Previous work showed an association of the hemorrhagic form with human leukocyte antigens (HLA, suggesting a role of genetic factors in disease susceptibility. Nevertheless, data on HLA association with the classical form of the disease is scarce in literature. Sixty-four patients and 667 normal individuals, living in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, were used as test and control group, respectively. The patients developed the disease during a virus 1 dengue outbreak either in Maringá city in 1995 (47 or in Paranavaí city in 1999 (17. The diagnostic was confirmed through serology and/or viral culture. HLA class I and II typing was performed by the classical microlynfocitotoxicity test using monoclonal antisera and fluorobeads. Qui-square statistical analysis confirmed a positive association with HLA-DQ1 (76.6% vs 57.7%; p = 0.005243; pc = 0.026215. HLA-DR1 also presented an increased frequency in the test group, not statistically significant after p correction though (32.8% vs 15.9%; p = 0.005729; pc = 0.080206. In conclusion, genetic factors may play a role on the susceptibility to the classical dengue, virus 1, in the Brazilian population. Further independent studies should be performed in the Brazilian population to confirm these preliminary data.

  17. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

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    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  18. Flood Frequency Analysis Under Non-stationarity Conditions: the Case of Southern Brazilian Hydroelectric Power Plants

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    Bartiko, Daniel; Chaffe, Pedro; Bonumá, Nadia

    2017-04-01

    Floods may be strongly affected by climate, land-use, land-cover and water infrastructure changes. However, it is common to model this process as stationary. This approach has been questioned, especially when it involves estimate of the frequency and magnitude of extreme events for designing and maintaining hydraulic structures, as those responsible for flood control and dams safety. Brazil is the third largest producer of hydroelectricity in the world and many of the country's dams are located in the Southern Region. So, it seems appropriate to investigate the presence of non-stationarity in the affluence in these plants. In our study, we used historical flood data from the Brazilian National Grid Operator (ONS) to explore trends in annual maxima in river flow of the 38 main rivers flowing to Southern Brazilian reservoirs (records range from 43 to 84 years). In the analysis, we assumed a two-parameter log-normal distribution a linear regression model was applied in order to allow for the mean to vary with time. We computed recurrence reduction factors to characterize changes in the return period of an initially estimated 100 year-flood by a log-normal stationary model. To evaluate whether or not a particular site exhibits positive trend, we only considered data series with linear regression slope coefficients that exhibit significance levels (pStudent's test. The trend model residuals were analyzed using the Anderson-Darling normality test, the Durbin-Watson test for the independence and the Breusch-Pagan test for heteroscedasticity. Our results showed that 22 of the 38 data series analyzed have a significant positive trend. The trends were mainly in three large basins: Iguazu, Uruguay and Paranapanema, which suffered changes in land use and flow regularization in the last years. The calculated return period for the series that presented positive trend varied from 50 to 77 years for a 100 year-flood estimated by stationary model when considering a planning horizon

  19. The Southern Brazilian shelf: general characteristics, quaternary evolution and sediment distribution

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    Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending from latitude 34ºS to 22ºS the Southern Brazilian shelf constitutes the only part of the Brazilian shelf with a subtropical to temperate environment. The studies on the different geological aspects of the area began in the 1960's and have recently been reassessed after studies related to the determination of the Economic Exclusive Zone. In terms of morphology, the Southern Brazilian shelf may be divided into three sectors, the São Paulo Bight, the Florianópolis-Mostardas Sector and the Rio Grande Cone, characterized by conspicuous differences in terms of geological determining factors, bathymetry, declivities and the presence of canyons and channels. Despite the existence of hundreds of radiocarbon datings the sea level changes curve of southern Brazil during the Last Glacial Cycle is still a matter of debate. A recent controversy on the Middle and late Holocene sea level changes curve raised the question of the amplitude of the oscillations which occurred in the period. Also, a few but relatively consistent radiocarbon datings suggest the occurrence of a high sea level during Isotope Stage 3. In terms of sedimentary cover the Southern Brazilian shelf exhibits a very strong hydrodynamic control, both latitudinal and bathymetrical. The sector southward from 25ºS is characterized by the influence of the plume of water carrying sediments originating from the Río de La Plata. Actually its presence is conspicuous up to 28ºS, with the area between this latitude and 25ºS constituting a transitional zone. In terms of bathymetry the outer shelf is marked by the "floor-polisher" effect of the Brazil Current, which is responsible for the maintenance of a relict facies in areas deeper than 100 meters.Estendendo-se entre as latitudes 34ºS e 22ºS, a plataforma continental sul-brasileira constitui o único setor que corresponde a um ambiente subtropical a temperado. Os estudos dos diferentes aspectos geológicos da área iniciaram-se na d

  20. Permanent magnet Hall Thrusters development and applications on future brazilian space missions

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    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre A.; Miranda, Rodrigo; Schelling, Adriane; de Souza Alves, Lais; Gonçalves Costa, Ernesto; de Oliveira Coelho Junior, Helbert; Castelo Branco, Artur; de Oliveira Lopes, Felipe Nathan

    2015-10-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPLUnB) has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the Space Research Program for Universities (UNIESPAÇO), part of the Brazilian Space Activities Program (PNAE) since 2004. The PHALL project consists on a plasma source design, construction and characterization of the Hall type that will function as a plasma propulsion engine and characterized by several plasma diagnostics sensors. PHALL is based on a plasma source in which a Hall current is generated inside a cylindrical annular channel with an axial electric field produced by a ring anode and a radial magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. In this work it is shown a brief description of the plasma propulsion engine, its diagnostics instrumentation and possible applications of PHALL on orbit transfer maneuvering for future Brazilian geostationary satellite space missions.

  1. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an…

  2. Antenatal depressive symptoms among pregnant women: Evidence from a Southern Brazilian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Bassani, Diego Garcia; Netsi, Elena; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Barros, Fernando César; Stein, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Antenatal depression (AD) is a major public health issue but evidence regarding its prevalence and associated factors in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for AD among Brazilian pregnant women. All women living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with confirmed pregnancy and estimated delivery date in the year 2015, were invited to take part. Eligible pregnant women were recruited from health services. Symptoms of antenatal depression were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) by face-to-face interviews. A cutoff-point of 13 or more was used to define probable AD. EPDS scores were available for 4130 women. The prevalence of AD was 16% (95%CI 14·9-17·1). After adjustment for potential confounders, the factors most strongly associated with higher EPDS scores were a previous history of depression (PR 2·81; 95%CI 2·44-3·25), high parity (PR 1·72; 95%CI 1·38-2·15 - ≥2 children vs. 1 child) and maternal education (PR 5·47; 95%CI 4·22-7·09 - 0-4 vs. ≥12 years of formal education). EPDS was administered through face-to-face interviews rather than questionnaires and some women may have felt uncomfortable reporting their symptoms leading to underreporting and consequently underestimation of the prevalence found. AD prevalence is substantially higher in Brazil than in high-income countries (HICs) but similar to other LMICs. Our study identified relevant risk factors that may be potential targets to plan interventions, particularly a history of depression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary Design of the Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research Broadband Radiometer for Solar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni, L. A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Savonov, G. S.; Dal Lago, A.; Mendes, O.; Silva, M. R.; Guarnieri, F.; Sampaio, M.; Barbosa, M. J.; Vilas Boas, J. V.; Branco, R. H. F.; Nishimori, M.; Silva, L. A.; Carlesso, F.; Rodríguez Gómez, J. M.; Alves, L. R.; Vaz Castilho, B.; Santos, J.; Silva Paula, A.; Cardoso, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI), which is the total radiation arriving at Earth's atmosphere from the Sun, is one of the most important forcing of the Earths climate. Measurements of the TSI have been made employing instruments on board several space-based platforms during the last four solar cycles. However, combining these measurements is still challenging due to the degradation of the sensor elements and the long-term stability of the electronics. Here we describe the preliminary efforts to design an absolute radiometer based on the principle of electrical substitution that is under development at Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  4. VISIBILITY AND INTERNATIONALIZATOIN OF SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN NURSING MAGAZINE: PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Crossetti, Maria da Graça; UFRGS; Cammarano RIBEIRO, Aline; Oliveira de GOES, Marta Georgina

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, there has been noteworthy movement on the part of Brazilian scientific periodicals in pursuit of visibility and internationalization. It is a subject that has been central to discussions by scientific editor forums gathering together different disciplines.(1) Among other aspects, they have been focused on how to promote the international impact of Brazilian scientific production, considering the national and international scope and relevance of the research and subsequent con...

  5. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  6. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2011-12-01

    species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1 Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2 Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006. A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1895-1914. Epub 2011 December 01.

  7. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Species delimitation, phylogeny and evolutionary demography of co-distributed, montane frogs in the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Pie, Marcio R

    2016-07-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF) is recognized as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, with even more species per unit of area than the Amazon, however the mechanisms that led to such astonishing diversity are yet to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the diversification of two co-distributed frog genera associated with montane areas of southern BAF: Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) and Brachycephalus (Brachycephalidae). Species delimitation methods using mitochondrial and nuclear loci supported the existence of a remarkable number of highly endemic species in each genus, most of which occupy only one or a few adjacent mountaintops. Their timing of diversification was highly congruent, supporting recent speciation events within the past 600 thousand years. Extended Bayesian skyline plots indicate that most populations have remained relatively stable in size across the evolutionary past, with recent growth after 0.15My, suggesting that the drastic changes found in previous studies on lowland frog species were not shared by these montane taxa. These results are consistent with the existence of a montane refugium in southern BAF, allowing species persistence through the climatic shifts experienced along the BAF during the Quaternary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  10. Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Central Obesity in a Southern Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína P. Jaeger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in energy balance control, stimulating appetite and increasing body weight in wasting syndromes. Different studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene and obesity with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the 1359G/A (rs1049353, 3813A/G (rs12720071 and 4895A/G (rs806368 polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene in a Brazilian population of European descent. To verify the association between these variants and obesity-related traits in this population, 756 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods. The 4895G allele was associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR (P = 0.014; P = 0.042 after Bonferroni correction. An additive effect with the GAA haplotype was associated with WHR (P = 0.028, although this statistical significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.084. No significant association was observed between the genotypes of the 1359G/A and 3813A/G polymorphisms and any of the quantitative variables investigated. Our findings suggest that CNR1 gene polymorphism is associated with central obesity in this Brazilian population of European ancestry.

  11. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  12. Whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Fretwell, Peter T.; Staniland, Iain J.; Jaume Forcada

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th) century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right w...

  13. Metabolic syndrome and physical activity in southern Brazilian community-dwelling elders: a population-based, cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert César L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The association between a sedentary lifestyle and obesity is well documented, and is linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS. There is some evidence that information regarding the health benefits of physical activity is beginning to impact on the elderly people and is beginning to change their behavior. We aimed to investigate the level of physical activity undertaken by elderly people with MS and those without this condition. Methods - We evaluated 362 community-dwelling elders of Novo Hamburgo, southern Brazil. Diagnosis of MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the physical activity (PA level was estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was carried out to verify associations between MS risk factors and the level of PA. Logistic regression was used to estimate the MS odds ratio for each level of PA. Results - No significant association was found between MS and the level of physical activity, irrespective of sex. The odds ratio for the presence of MS adjusted for sex and age and using insufficiently active elderly people as reference was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7 in sufficiently active elderly people and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0 in very active elderly people. Conclusion - The elderly citizens of a southern Brazilian community who were diagnosed with MS presented the same levels of PA as the individuals who did not have this diagnosis. This may imply that information on the importance of physical activity has already reached this higher risk population.

  14. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  15. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Charles R; Santos, Ronaldo P; Desmouliere, Sylvain J M; Ferreira, Evandro J L; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols) in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants) on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  16. Space, Architecture, Culture and Globalization in West and Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper arises from a search for an answer to the question, “How can I find African Architecture?” in the context of the need to give African communities a voice in urban renewal projects in the UK. The author travelled from September to December 2001 in West and Southern Africa, recording a range of buildings, which ...

  17. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834), from the southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, J E; Mastrochirico, V; Petrere Junior, M

    2011-08-01

    Age and growth studies for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834) caught along the southern Brazilian coast, were based on ring measurements of vertebrae sections of 115 males, 116 females and 14 unknown sexed sharks between 48 and 344 cm total length (TL). The von Bertalanffy growth models were best fit using back-calculated data. The growth parameters obtained for males, were L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 47 cm. For females, L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 51 cm. An adult female reached 217 cm TL and was 31.5 years old. On the other hand, an adult male was 29.5 years old and measured 234 cm TL. Longevity estimate for males and females was 55 years. Therefore, S. lewini is a long-lived fish. Ageing precision, based on the IAPE index, was 5.6%. Marginal Increment analysis based on MIR index from hammerheads smaller than 105 cm, compared with the percentual of opaque and hyaline bands found per month ageing whole vertebrae, showed an annual ring formation, i.e., in winter.

  18. Human Rhinovirus Association with Influenza-Like Illness and Symptomatic Treatment for Acute Respiratory Infection in a Brazilian Southern City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Seiji Morais

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are the world’s leading cause of morbidity and mortality. ARI impairs children’s education and have a huge impact on the economy. Human rhinovirus (HRV is the most prevalent agent of ARI. In this study, a clinical and epidemiological surveillance in outpatients was carried to investiga-te the involvement of HRV in ARI cases in the city of Guarapuava, a Brazilian southern city. Attention was also given to the most common medications used for treating ARI symptoms. Samples from 135 patients were col-lected from Apr to Dec from 2014, HRV was identified in nearly 20% of samples, with symptoms ranging from common cold to Influenza-like Illness (ILI and was more frequent in individuals with 10 or less years-old. Ne-arly two thirds of patients reported use of at least one class of drug during the ARI episodes, such as analgesi-cs, cough and cold preparations, and NSAIDs. In some cases and with no justifiable reason, patients also repor-ted the use of antibiotics, possibly contributing to the development of bacterial resistance. These results show a significant detection rate of HRV in ARI cases, and highlight the impact of this virus in the local population.

  19. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

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    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  20. Modeling the Transport Success and Retention of Anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) Early Stages in the Southern Brazilian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, A.; Parada, C.; Palma, E. D.; Muelbert, J. H.; Campos, E. D.

    2005-05-01

    The Southern Brazilian Shelf (SBS) is one of the most productive fishing areas in the Southwestern Atlantic. Eggs and larvae of about 88 fish species distributed among 48 families occur in the plankton community in this area. The processes involving the circulation in this area and its influence on eggs/larvae transport are poorly understood. Recent studies described the spawning activity of anchovy relating it to oceanographic processes. These studies suggest that the predominant onshore Ekman transport, which occurs mainly in the winter and spring periods, keeps the eggs and larvae in coastal areas. It is also known that the continental runoff is a primary factor to the formation of a retention zone for planktonic organisms over the SBS. The formation of a stagnant zone, where the residual currents are weak, favors the patchiness character of plankton communities and nutrients. In our ongoing study we investigate with data and model the dispersion pattern of eggs/larvae of Engraulis anchoita in this region, considering both biological and physical processes. In the modelling approach, surface velocity fields from runs with the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) are used as input data for an Individual Based Model (IBM). This IBM treats every single particle as an individual with its own features, tracking particles (eggs/larvae) trajectories using a Runge-Kutta scheme for spatial interpolation. The analyses of our preliminary results seems to confirm the expected pattern in which the majority of eggs and larvae are transported to their nursery grounds, remaining in these areas.

  1. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

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    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  2. Surviving probability indicators of landing juvenile magellanic penguins arriving along the southern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Carvalho Rodrigues; Andréa Corrado Adornes; Euclydes Antônio dos Santos Filho; Rodolfo Pinho Silva Filho; Elton Pinto Colares

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor and study the hematocrit and weight of juvenile penguins, with and without oil cover, found alive along the southern coast of Brazil, after capture, as well as before eventual death or release. Released juvenile penguins showed higher weight and hematocrit (3.65 ± 0.06 kg and 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectively) than those that died (2.88 ± 0.08 kg and 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectively). Penguins with higher hematocrit and weight after capture had higher mean weight gain...

  3. On a new genus and species of Hemicytheridae (Ostracoda, Crustacea from the southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson L. M. de Morais

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on 62 samples of phytal and bottom sediments collected along rocky beaches (< 3 m water depth of the central and northern coasts of the state of Santa Catarina (26º10'/27º50'S – 48º26'/48º40'W, southern Brazil. Living and dead ostracodes distributed among 16 families were recovered. In this paper is emphasized one new hemicytherid genus and species that is described and richly illustrated: Auricythere sublitoralis gen. nov. and sp. nov. Some ecological and zoogeographical aspects of this new ostracode are briefly discussed.

  4. Influence of soil characteristics on the diversity of bacteria in the Southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, H; Alves, A C; Souza, E M; Rigo, L U; Cruz, L M; Al-Janabi, S M; Monteiro, R A; Baura, V A; Pedrosa, F O

    2010-07-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the 25 biodiversity hot spots in the world. Although the diversity of its fauna and flora has been studied fairly well, little is known of its microbial communities. In this work, we analyzed the Atlantic Forest ecosystem to determine its bacterial biodiversity, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and correlated changes in deduced taxonomic profiles with the physicochemical characteristics of the soil. DNAs were purified from soil samples, and the 16S rRNA gene was amplified to construct libraries. Comparison of 754 independent 16S rRNA gene sequences from 10 soil samples collected along a transect in an altitude gradient showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (63%), followed by Proteobacteria (25.2%), Gemmatimonadetes (1.6%), Actinobacteria (1.2%), Bacteroidetes (1%), Chloroflexi (0.66%), Nitrospira (0.4%), Planctomycetes (0.4%), Firmicutes (0.26%), and OP10 (0.13%). Forty-eight sequences (6.5%) represented unidentified bacteria. The Shannon diversity indices of the samples varied from 4.12 to 3.57, indicating that the soils have a high level of diversity. Statistical analysis showed that the bacterial diversity is influenced by factors such as altitude, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ratio, and Al(3+) and phosphorus content, which also affected the diversity within the same lineage. In the samples analyzed, pH had no significant impact on diversity.

  5. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies.

  6. Oral status and its association with obesity in Southern Brazilian older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot; Hugo, Fernando Neves; de Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário; Bozzetti, Mary Clarisse

    2009-03-01

    The loss of a functional dentition imposes eating difficulties and food avoidance, which may be detrimental in terms of nutritional status and health. The objective of this study was to investigate whether tooth loss and edentulism that were not rehabilitated with dental prostheses were associated with obesity among elderly in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 872 independently living elderly was evaluated by means of a cross-sectional study. Socio-demographic, medical history and behaviour data were assessed using a standardised questionnaire. Two trained dentists assessed the number of teeth and use of prostheses in accordance with the WHO criteria. Height and weight were assessed and used to generate body mass index (BMI = weight (kilos)/height (cm)(2)) data. Participants were categorised into non-obese (BMI 30). Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the relationship between number of teeth and use of dental prostheses with obesity adjusting for confounders. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that edentulous persons wearing only upper dentures (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.18-4.27) and dentate participants with one to eight teeth wearing 0-to-1 prosthesis (OR = 2.96, 95% CI 1.68-5.19) were more likely to be obese. The results show that a poorer oral status, represented by having fewer teeth that were not replaced by dental prostheses, was associated with obesity in Southern Brazil older people, suggesting a close relationship between poor oral status and systemic conditions that may have important clinical implications.

  7. Chemical characterization and infrared spectroscopy of soil organic matter from two southern brazilian soils

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    D. P. Dick

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter from the surface horizon of two Brazilian soils (a Latosol and a Chernosol, in bulk samples (in situ SOM and in HF-treated samples (SOM, was characterized by elemental analyses, diffuse reflectance (DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (T-FTIR. Humic acids (HA, fulvic acids (FA and humin (HU isolated from the SOM were characterized additionally by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS. After sample oxidation and alkaline treatment, the DRIFT technique proved to be more informative for the detection of "in situ SOM" and of residual organic matter than T-FTIR. The higher hydrophobicity index (HI and H/C ratio obtained in the Chernosol samples indicate a stronger aliphatic character of the organic matter in this soil than the Latosol. In the latter, a pronounced HI decrease was observed after the removal of humic substances (HS. The weaker aliphatic character, the higher O/C ratio, and the T-FTIR spectrum obtained for the HU fraction in the Latosol suggest the occurrence of surface coordination of carboxylate ions. The Chernosol HU fraction was also oxygenated to a relatively high extent, but presented a stronger hydrophobic character in comparison with the Latosol HU. These differences in the chemical and functional group composition suggest a higher organic matter protection in the Latosol. After the HF treatment, decreases in the FA proportion and the A350/A550 ratio were observed. A possible loss of FA and condensation of organic molecules due to the highly acid medium should not be neglected.

  8. [Hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions in a Southern Brazilian municipality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Bastos, Rita Maria; Campos, Estela Márcia Saraiva; Ribeiro, Luiz Cláudio; Firmino, Róberti Uili Rodrigues; Bustamante-Teixeira, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    To study the most frequent causes of hospitalizations for primary care-sensitive conditions (HPCSC) in the city of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, by age group and gender, over the periods of 2002 to 2005 and of 2006 to 2009. This was a descriptive study, with data collected from the Hospital Information System of the Unified Health System (Sistema de Informação Hospitalar do Sistema Único de Saúde - SIH-SUS) and from population projections by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - IBGE). HPCSC rates were calculated for 1,000 inhabitants, and the most frequent causes were studied by gender and age group, comparing both periods. HPCSP showed rates of 7.74/1,000 between 2002 and 2005 and 8.81/1,000 between 2006 and 2009. The main causes were heart failure, cerebrovascular diseases, angina pectoris, pulmonary diseases, and kidney and urinary tract infections, which together represented 4.9/1,000 in the first period and 5.6/1,000 in the second period. The evolution of the rates between both periods occurred differently by age group and gender. The study did not exhibit any remarkable differences in HPCSC rates between the periods. Regarding the most frequent causes, reduced hospitalization rates for gastroenteritis, asthma, high blood pressure, and cerebrovascular diseases were observed, as well as increased hospitalizations for heart failure, pulmonary diseases, epilepsies, and kidney and urinary tract infections; these hospitalizations occurred differently by gender and age group. The results showed that a deep reflection regarding the determinants of hospitalizations for avoidable causes is needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Prokaryotic communities of acidic peatlands from the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    R. M. Etto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8% and Proteobacteria (27.4% of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58% and Terrestrial (24% groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries.

  10. Psoriasis and comorbidities in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Dóris B; Pereira, Ana G; Camerin, Anna C; Cestari, Tania

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease with worldwide prevalences of 0.6-4.8%. Its inherent chronic inflammatory component predisposes patients to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of psoriasis with comorbidities and health risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake, and to examine demographic differences in its occurrence in a southern Brazil population. A case-control study was conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April 2009 and March 2011. The sample comprised 350 patients with psoriasis and 346 healthy control subjects. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Tobacco load and alcohol consumption per person were investigated. Physical examination included blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) calculation. Clinical evaluation investigated whether psoriasis was localized or widespread and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected. Psoriasis patients exhibited an increased WC (P 20% of BSA revealed significant differences in prevalences of hypertension (P = 0.03) and diabetes (P 20% of BSA affected were 1.69 times more likely to have hypertension and 2.9 times more likely to have diabetes. Healthcare providers should be alert to the increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic specificities of patients with psoriasis. Appropriate information on healthy lifestyle habits, including maintenance of a healthy weight and participation in physical exercise, and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are fundamental. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively.

  12. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  13. Whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Staniland, Iain J; Forcada, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th) century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right whale calf mortality events at Península Valdés, which constitutes the largest single population, have raised fresh concern for the future of the species. The WorldView2 satellite has a maximum 50 cm resolution and a water penetrating coastal band in the far-blue part of the spectrum that allows it to see deeper into the water column. Using an image covering 113 km², we identified 55 probable whales and 23 other features that are possibly whales, with a further 13 objects that are only detected by the coastal band. Comparison of a number of classification techniques, to automatically detect whale-like objects, showed that a simple thresholding technique of the panchromatic and coastal band delivered the best results. This is the first successful study using satellite imagery to count whales; a pragmatic, transferable method using this rapidly advancing technology that has major implications for future surveys of cetacean populations.

  14. Whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Fretwell

    Full Text Available We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right whale calf mortality events at Península Valdés, which constitutes the largest single population, have raised fresh concern for the future of the species. The WorldView2 satellite has a maximum 50 cm resolution and a water penetrating coastal band in the far-blue part of the spectrum that allows it to see deeper into the water column. Using an image covering 113 km², we identified 55 probable whales and 23 other features that are possibly whales, with a further 13 objects that are only detected by the coastal band. Comparison of a number of classification techniques, to automatically detect whale-like objects, showed that a simple thresholding technique of the panchromatic and coastal band delivered the best results. This is the first successful study using satellite imagery to count whales; a pragmatic, transferable method using this rapidly advancing technology that has major implications for future surveys of cetacean populations.

  15. Factors influencing the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a Southern Brazilian city

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    Marília Cruz Guttier

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. METHODS We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. RESULTS The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4–64.9. The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03–1.14, age of 20–39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02–1.20, low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03–1.28, and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89–7.52. Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93–2.41. CONCLUSIONS Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

  16. Polymorphisms associated with renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in a Southern Brazilian HIV cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Ivete M; Gasparotto, Aline S; Lazzaretti, Rosmeri K; Notti, Regina K; Sprinz, Eduardo; Mattevi, Vanessa S

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the impact of seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in five candidate genes (ABCB1, ABCC2, ABCC4, SLC22A6, and SLC22A11) in relation to nephrotoxicity associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected individuals. The following single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped by real-time PCR: ABCB1 rs1045642, ABCC2 rs717620 and rs2273697, ABCC4 rs1751034 and rs3742106, SLC22A6 rs11568626, and SLC22A11 rs11231809 in 507 HIV-infected patients from the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, receiving HAART for, at least, 1 year. From the 507 HIV-infected patients recruited, 19.1% presented a reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). A total of 16 (3.2%) patients fulfilled the criteria for chronic kidney disease (defined as eGFRT (rs717620) presented lower eGFR than C/C homozygotes (104 ± 22 vs. 108 ± 22 ml/min/1.73 m, independent-samples t-test, P=0.040). In multivariate analysis, the predictors associated with decreased eGFR were time of treatment, tenofovir use, atazanavir/ritonavir use, and carrying one T allele of ABCC2 -24 C>T. Our data support the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of nephrotoxicity in patients treated with HAART. Studies to verify treatment implications of genotyping before HAART initiation may be advisable to guide the selection of an appropriate antiretroviral therapy regimen.

  17. Factors influencing the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a Southern Brazilian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttier, Marília Cruz; Silveira, Marysabel Pinto Telis; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso

    2017-06-26

    The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with the preference for purchasing generic drugs in a medium-sized municipality in Southern Brazil. We have analyzed data from a population-based cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with a sample of 2,856 adults (≥ 20 years old). The preference for purchasing generic drugs was the main outcome. The explanatory variables were the demographic and socioeconomic variables. Statistical analyses included Poisson regressions. The preference for purchasing generic drugs was 63.2% (95%CI 61.4-64.9). The variables correlated with this preference in the fully adjusted models were: male (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.08; 95%CI 1.03-1.14), age of 20-39 years (PR = 1.10; 95%CI 1.02-1.20), low socioeconomic status (PR = 1.15; 95%CI 1.03-1.28), and good knowledge about generic drugs (PR= 4.66; 95%CI 2.89-7.52). Among those who preferred to purchase generic drugs, 55.1% have reported accepting to replace the prescribed drug (if not a generic) with the equivalent generic drug. Another correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs was because individuals consider their quality equivalent to reference medicines (PR = 2.15; 95%CI 1.93-2.41). Knowledge about generic drugs was the main correlate of the preference for purchasing generic drugs. The greater the knowledge or positive perception about generic drugs, the greater is the preference to purchase them. Therefore, educational campaigns for healthcare professionals and consumers appear to be the best strategy for expanding the use of generic drugs in Brazil.

  18. From space and from the ground: determining forest dynamics in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Kok, K.; Hott, H.C.; Hoogstra-Klein, M.A.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has been partially attributed to the establishment of settlement projects. Acknowledging the difficulties in quantifying the rate and patterns of deforestation, the objective of this paper is to determine forest dynamics (deforestation and reforestation) in

  19. Surviving probability indicators of landing juvenile magellanic penguins arriving along the southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to monitor and study the hematocrit and weight of juvenile penguins, with and without oil cover, found alive along the southern coast of Brazil, after capture, as well as before eventual death or release. Released juvenile penguins showed higher weight and hematocrit (3.65 ± 0.06 kg and 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectively than those that died (2.88 ± 0.08 kg and 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectively. Penguins with higher hematocrit and weight after capture had higher mean weight gain than their counterparts with smaller hematocrit and weight after the capture. Besides, juveniles with higher hematocrit and weight after the capture had higher survival rates, independent of the presence or absence of oil. The results suggested that juveniles covered with oil might have been healthier than the juveniles without oil. The animals without oil probably died as a consequence of health disturbances, while the animals with oil possibly were healthy before contact with oil in the sea.O hematócrito e o peso de pingüins juvenis, com e sem óleo, encontrados vivos na costa do sul do Brasil, foram monitorados após sua captura, bem como antes de sua morte ou liberação do centro de reabilitação. Os pingüins juvenis liberados apresentaram o último peso e hematócrito (3.65 ± 0.06 kg e 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectivamente maiores do que os pingüins que morreram (2.88 ± 0.08 kg e 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectivamente. Pingüins juvenis com maior hematócrito e peso após a captura tiveram maior ganho médio de peso do que os pingüins com menor hematócrito e peso após a captura. Além disso, os juvenis com maior hematócrito e peso após a captura tiveram maiores taxas de sobrevivência, independente da presença ou ausência de óleo. Os resultados sugerem que os pingüins juvenis com óleo poderiam estar mais saudáveis do que os juvenis sem óleo. Os animais sem óleo provavelmente morreram em decorrência de doenças, endoparasitas ou outros dist

  20. The Space Shuttle Columbias vertical stabilizer appears to point to the four stars of the Southern

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbias vertical stabilizer appears to point to the four stars of the Southern Cross. The scene was captured with a 35mm camera just prior to a sunrise. The seven member crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on February 22, 1996, and landed on March 9, 1996. Crew members were Andrew M. Allen, mission commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and Maurizio Cheli, European Space Agency (ESA); Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, ESA, all mission specialists; along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni of the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  1. Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by radium isotopes (Ra-223 and Ra-224 near a paleochannel on the Southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kammer Attisano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD has been recognized as an important component of the ocean-continent interface. The few previous studies in Brazil have focused on nearshore areas. This paper explores SGD on the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf using multiple lines of evidence that include radium isotopes, dissolved nutrients, and water mass observations. The results indicated that SGD may be occurring on the Continental Shelf in the Albardão region, near a paleochannel located 50 km offshore. This paleochannel may thus be a preferential pathway for the delivery of nutrient- and metal-enriched groundwater and porewater into continental shelf waters.

  2. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil

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    Rodrigo R. Freitas

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth, airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000, terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE, and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes. As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.No estado do Rio Grande do Sul existem quatro fazendas produtoras de camarões (Litopenaeus vannamei marinhos nos municípios de São José do Norte e Rio Grande, e outras quatro fazendas já possuem licença prévia. Assim, o presente estudo propôs identificar e caracterizar as áreas destinadas a cultivos de camarões marinhos localizadas na porção sul do estuário da lagoa dos Patos (32º00'S 52º00'W, empregando análises de sensoriamento remoto orbital (ETM+/Landsat, Google Earth, aéreo (35mm/sistema ADAR 1000, terrestre (RICOH 500SE e de saídas de campo, integrando os dados num Sistema de Informação Geográfica (IDRISI Andes. Resultados apontaram que os empreendimentos foram construídos sobre

  3. First results of operational ionospheric dynamics prediction for the Brazilian Space Weather program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Adriano; de Souza, Jonas Rodrigues; de Campos Velho, Haroldo Fraga; Pereira, André Grahl; Bailey, Graham John

    2014-07-01

    It is shown the development and preliminary results of operational ionosphere dynamics prediction system for the Brazilian Space Weather program. The system is based on the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SUPIM), a physics-based model computer code describing the distribution of ionization within the Earth mid to equatorial latitude ionosphere and plasmasphere, during geomagnetically quiet periods. The model outputs are given in a 2-dimensional plane aligned with Earth magnetic field lines, with fixed magnetic longitude coordinate. The code was adapted to provide the output in geographical coordinates. It was made referring to the Earth’s magnetic field as an eccentric dipole, using the approximation based on International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF-11). During the system operation, several simulation runs are performed at different longitudes. The original code would not be able to run all simulations serially in reasonable time. So, a parallel version for the code was developed for enhancing the performance. After preliminary tests, it was frequently observed code instability, when negative ion temperatures or concentrations prevented the code from continuing its processing. After a detailed analysis, it was verified that most of these problems occurred due to concentration estimation of simulation points located at high altitudes, typically over 4000 km of altitude. In order to force convergence, an artificial exponential decay for ion-neutral collisional frequency was used above mentioned altitudes. This approach shown no significant difference from original code output, but improved substantially the code stability. In order to make operational system even more stable, the initial altitude and initial ion concentration values used on exponential decay equation are changed when convergence is not achieved, within pre-defined values. When all code runs end, the longitude of every point is then compared with its original reference

  4. Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications – experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Orlowski de Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes details of the several steps of the technology involved for the orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process of pure commercially titanium tubes. These pieces will be used to connect the several components of the propulsion system of the China-Brazilian Satellite CBERS, and is part of the Brazilian aerospace industry development. The implantation involved the steps of environment control; cut and facing of the base metal; cleaning procedures; piece alignment; choice of the type, geometry and installation of the tungsten electrode; system for the pressure of the purge gas; manual tack welding; choice of the welding parameters; and, finally, the qualification of welding procedures. Three distinct welding programs were studied, using pulsed current with increasing speed, continuous current and pulsed current with decreasing amperage levels. The results showed that the high quality criteria required to the aerospace segment is such that usual welding operations must be carefully designed and executed. The three welding developed programs generated welds free of defects and with adequate morphology, allowing to select the condition that better fits the Brazilian aerospace segment, and to be implanted in the welding of the CBERS Satellite Propulsion System.

  5. Chronic kidney disease: information on southern brazilian patients with kidney disease - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.16048 Chronic kidney disease: information on southern brazilian patients with kidney disease - 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v34ispec.16048

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva de Barros Carvalho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The profile of patients undergoing haemodialysis in the dialysis unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil, is provided. A questionnaire on social and economic data and underlying diseases prior to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD identified the patients’ profile. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Eighty-three patients, with 54.21% males, were interviewed. Age bracket ranged between 20 and 59 years in 65.06% of patients. Only 27.71% maintained jobs after the diagnosis and the start of treatment; 63.86% had an average personal income between 1 and 3 minimum wages; 63.85% did not practice any physical activity. Moreover, 53.01% belonged to the European-Brazilian white group; 20.48% to the Afro-Brazilian brown group; 19.28% to the Afro-Brazilian Negro group; 6.02% to other ethnic groups. Further, 85.54% patients reported having an underlying disease prior to the CKD, namely, 61.45% were hypertensive; 31.33% were diabetics and 20.48% had other diseases. Results show the need of a greater attention to these patients’ health care to reduce the negative impacts related to the chronic disease focused.The profile of patients undergoing haemodialysis in the dialysis unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil, is provided. A questionnaire on social and economic data and underlying diseases prior to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD identified the patients’ profile. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Eighty-three patients, with 54.21% males, were interviewed. Age bracket ranged between 20 and 59 years in 65.06% of patients. Only 27.71% maintained jobs after the diagnosis and the start of treatment; 63.86% had an average personal income between 1 and 3 minimum wages; 63.85% did not practice any physical activity. Moreover, 53.01% belonged to the European-Brazilian white group; 20.48% to the Afro-Brazilian brown group; 19.28% to the Afro-Brazilian Negro

  6. The television white space opportunity in Southern Africa: from field measurements to quantifying white spaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available using low-cost and high-grade radio instruments. The low-cost spectrum analyser was built in-house using the Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP-2) and GNU Radio software. A metric to quantify available TV white space, based on the minimum...

  7. Space geodetic measurement of crustal deformation in central and southern California, 1984-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigl, Kurt L.; Agnew, Duncan C.; Bock, Yehuda; Dong, Danan; Donnellan, Andrea; Hager, Bradford H.; Herring, Thomas A.; Jackson, David D.; Jordan, Thomas H.; King, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    We estimate the velocity field in central and southern California using Global Positioning System (GPS) observations from 1986 to 1992 and very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations from 1984 to 1991. Our core network includes 12 GPS sites spaced approximately 50 km apart, mostly in the western Transverse Ranges and the coastal Borderlands. The precision and accuracy of the relative horizontal velocities estimated for these core stations are adequately described by a 95% confidence ellipse with a semiminor axis of approximately 2 mm/yr oriented roughly north-south, and a semimajor axis of approximately 3 mm/yr oriented east-west.

  8. The Influence of Rotation, Tillage and Row Spacing on Near-Surface Soil Temperature for Winter Wheat in Southern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larney, F. J.; Ren, Tennis L.; McGinn, Sean M.; Lindwall, C W.; Izaurralde, R Cesar C.

    2003-02-01

    The influence of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface soil temperature for winter wheat in southern Alberta. Rotation, tillage and row spacing and their effects on surface residue levels can modify soil temperature. Our study investigated the effect of rotation, tillage and row spacing on near-surface (0.025 m) soil temperature under winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in 1993-94 and 1994-95.

  9. Childhood Maltreatment Linked with a Deterioration of Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Life for Southern Brazilian Transgender Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanari, Anna Martha Vaitses; Rovaris, Diego Luiz; Costa, Angelo Brandelli; Pasley, Andrew; Cupertino, Renata Basso; Soll, Bianca Machado Borba; Schwarz, Karine; da Silva, Dhiordan Cardoso; Borba, André Oliveira; Mueller, Andressa; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Lobato, Maria Inês Rodrigues

    2016-11-12

    A history of childhood maltreatment (HCM) has been associated with detrimental psychiatric outcomes. This is particularly true for transgender, for whom there is initial evidence that HCM may be associated with psychiatric morbidity. Our study aimed to further characterize the relationship between HCM and the development of mental disorder in adult life, based on a sample of Brazilian transgender women. Cross-sectional data were collected from a consecutive sample of 289 transgender women who attended the Hospital Clínicas clinic for gender dysphoria, in Porto Alegre, between 1998 and 2014. Our results demonstrated a greater risk of deteriorating mental health amongst participants who had experienced HCM. Given the disproportionally high rate of HCM in transgender persons, we advocate for greater assistance for transgender persons.

  10. ITS and trnH-psbA as Efficient DNA Barcodes to Identify Threatened Commercial Woody Angiosperms from Southern Brazilian Atlantic Rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Bolson

    Full Text Available The Araucaria Forests in southern Brazil are part of the Atlantic Rainforest, a key hotspot for global biodiversity. This habitat has experienced extensive losses of vegetation cover due to commercial logging and the intense use of wood resources for construction and furniture manufacturing. The absence of precise taxonomic tools for identifying Araucaria Forest tree species motivated us to test the ability of DNA barcoding to distinguish species exploited for wood resources and its suitability for use as an alternative testing technique for the inspection of illegal timber shipments. We tested three cpDNA regions (matK, trnH-psbA, and rbcL and nrITS according to criteria determined by The Consortium for the Barcode of Life (CBOL. The efficiency of each marker and selected marker combinations were evaluated for 30 commercially valuable woody species in multiple populations, with a special focus on Lauraceae species. Inter- and intraspecific distances, species discrimination rates, and ability to recover species-specific clusters were evaluated. Among the regions and different combinations, ITS was the most efficient for identifying species based on the 'best close match' test; similarly, the trnH-psbA + ITS combination also demonstrated satisfactory results. When combining trnH-psbA + ITS, Maximum Likelihood analysis demonstrated a more resolved topology for internal branches, with 91% of species-specific clusters. DNA barcoding was found to be a practical and rapid method for identifying major threatened woody angiosperms from Araucaria Forests such as Lauraceae species, presenting a high confidence for recognizing members of Ocotea. These molecular tools can assist in screening those botanical families that are most targeted by the timber industry in southern Brazil and detecting certain species protected by Brazilian legislation and could be a useful tool for monitoring wood exploitation.

  11. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL17A and IL6 Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian Population.

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    Mariana Milano

    Full Text Available In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, the complex interaction of host immune system and the mycobacteria is associated with levels of cytokines production that play a major role in determining the outcome of the disease. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with tuberculosis (TB outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between previously reported SNPs IL2-330 T>G (rs2069762; IL4-590 C>T (rs2243250; IL6-174 G>C (rs1800795; IL10-592 A>C (rs1800872; IL10-1082 G>A (rs1800896; IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036; IL17A -197 G>A (rs2275913; TNF -238 G>A (rs361525; TNF -308 G>A (rs1800629 and IFNG +874 T>A (rs2430561 and pulmonary TB (PTB susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study in individuals from Southern Brazil who were recruited between February 2012 and October 2013 in a high incidence TB city. We performed a multiplex genotyping assay in 191 patients with PTB and 175 healthy subjects. Our results suggest a decreased risk for PTB development associated with the IL17A -197A allele (OR = 0.29; p = 0.04, AA genotype (OR = 0.12; p = 0.04 and A carrier (AG/AA (OR = 0.29; p = 0.004 and IL6 -174C carrier (CC/CG (OR = 0.46; p = 0.04. We could not properly analyze IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036 and IFNG +874T>A due to genotypic inconsistencies and found no evidence of association for the IL2, IL4, IL10 and TNF polymorphisms and PTB. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of IL17 and IL6 polymorphisms on PTB outcome in Southern Brazilian population.

  12. Operational training for the mission operations at the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenfeld, Pawel

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the selection and training process of satellite controllers and data network operators performed at INPE's Satellite Tracking and Control Center in order to prepare them for the mission operations of the INPE's first (SCD1) satellite. An overview of the ground control system and SCD1 architecture and mission is given. Different training phases are described, taking into account that the applicants had no previous knowledge of space operations requiring, therefore, a training which started from the basics.

  13. Equatorial and Low-Latitude Ionospheric Response to the Extreme Space Weather Event of March 2015, in the Brazilian Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, P. R.; Cardoso, F. A.; Fejer, B. G.; Kavutarapu, V.; Ribeiro, B. A.; Pillat, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Fagundes PR, Cardoso FA and Venkatesh KPhysics and Astronomy Laboratory, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil In the present investigation we discuss the results on the response of the ionosphere (F-region) in the Brazilian sector, during extreme space weather event of March 2015. This geomagnetic storm has been considered as one of strongest storms in the solar cycle 24 where, the Dst index reached a minimum of -227 nT at 23:00 UT (17/03/2015) with KP reaching to 8-, and the monthly mean F10.7 solar flux was 125 sfu. This space weather event was studied using a large network of 110 GPS stations. It has been noticed that the Total Electron Content (TEC) was severely disturbed during the geomagnetic storm main and recovery phases. A wavelike oscillation with three peaks is observed from equator to low latitudes during the storm main phase on 17th and 18th March, 2015. Using a latitudinal chain of 8 GPS stations from equatorial region to low latitudes the storm time behavior of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) is investigated. It was noticed that the wavelike oscillation peak latitudinal extent decreases from the beginning of main phase to the recovery phase. The first maximum extends beyond from 2oS to 20oS, the second one from 8oS to 18oS and the third one from 13oS to 17oS. In addition, a strong negative phase in TEC variations is observed during the recovery phase on March 18, 2015. This negative phase is found to be stronger at low-latitude compared to the equatorial region. An anomalous behavior of EIA caused by the wavelike oscillations is observed during the main phase on March 17, 2015. Also, due to the strong negative phase in TEC resulted in strong EIA suppression on March 18, 2015.

  14. Some effects of Space Weather in a 4GHz communication satellite link over the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A.

    This work concerns a study of some effects of Space Weather in a C-band Satellite Link between Rio de Janeiro (22o57'S, 43o11'W) and Vitoria (20o10SS, 40o10SW), in the SouthEast of Brazil, from October 2000 to nowadays. An automatic acquisition system was developed to register the spectrum of the used frequencies and, since January 2002, this system has also registered the data corruption over a known information embedded in the link. As a result of this monitoring now we can know some useful things about the interference caused by geophisical phenomena like Plasma Bubbles.

  15. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using stochastic space-time models to map extreme precipitation in southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic characteristics and spatial climatic diversity are significant in the South of continental Portugal where the rainfall regime is typically Mediterranean. Direct sequential cosimulation is proposed for mapping an extreme precipitation index in southern Portugal using elevation as auxiliary information. The analysed index (R5D can be considered a flood indicator because it provides a measure of medium-term precipitation total. The methodology accounts for local data variability and incorporates space-time models that allow capturing long-term trends of extreme precipitation, and local changes in the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation through time. Annual gridded datasets of the flood indicator are produced from 1940 to 1999 on 800 m×800 m grids by using the space-time relationship between elevation and the index. Uncertainty evaluations of the proposed scenarios are also produced for each year. The results indicate that the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation varies locally and has decreased through time over the study region. In wetter years the flood indicator exhibits the highest values in mountainous regions of the South, while in drier years the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation has much less variability over the study region. The uncertainty of extreme precipitation estimates also varies in time and space, and in earlier decades is strongly dependent on the density of the monitoring stations network. The produced maps will be useful in regional and local studies related to climate change, desertification, land and water resources management, hydrological modelling, and flood mitigation planning.

  17. Space and Brazilian thought: The american Russia in the writings of Euclides da Cunha and Vicente Licínio Cardoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Ehlert Maia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the issue of space in the Brazilian social imagination. My working hypothesis is that the spatial images contained in some of the reflections by "interpreters of Brazil", like the Amazonian writings of Euclides da Cunha and the incipient comparative sociology of Vicente Licínio Cardoso, are not related to an essentialist search for a fixed cultural identity, but to a vision of a national civilizing process that highlights the pragmatism and openness of this experience. I contend that the "land", as outlined by these figures, approaches Brazilian society to other national formations - Russia and America -, thereby shaping a political sociology from the periphery.

  18. Positive and negative GPS-TEC ionospheric storm effects during the extreme space weather event of March 2015 over the Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Fejer, B. G.; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Cardoso, Felipe Antonio; Ribeiro, Brunno Augusto

    2016-07-01

    We studied the response of the ionosphere (F-region) in the Brazilian sector during extreme space weather event of 17 March 2015 using a large network of 102 GPS-TEC stations. It is observed that the Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) was severely disturbed during the storm main and recovery phases. A wavelike oscillation with three peaks was observed in the TEC diurnal variation from equator to low latitudes during the storm main phase on 17th and 18th March, 2015. The latitudinal extent of the wavelike oscillation peaks decreased from the beginning of main phase towards the recovery phase. The first peak extended from beyond 0S to 30S, the second occurred from 6S to 25S, whereas the third diurnal peaks was confined from 13S to 25S. In addition, a strong negative phase in VTEC variations was observed during the recovery phase on March 18-19, 2015. This ionospheric negative phase was stronger at low-latitudes than in the equatorial region. Also, two latitudinal chains of GPS-TEC stations from equatorial region to low latitudes in the East and West Brazilian sectors are used to investigate the storm time behavior of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) in the East and West Brazilian sectors. We observed an anomalous behavior in EIA caused by the wavelike oscillations during the storm main phase on 17 March, and suppression of the EIA, resulting from the negative phase in VTEC, in the storm recovery phase.

  19. The spread of Neo-Pentecostalism in Brazilian football: socio-anthropological analysis of the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Petrognani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This text deals with the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil. Specifically, it is about a certain aspect of the Brazilian religious field, i.e. the evangelical field, and particularly the Neo-Pentecostal one and its appearance and spread in sports, mainly football. By using data taken from doctoral research, it will be possible to demonstrate, without claiming to be exhaustive, that there is a spread of evangelicalism in football which is making this religious movement grow out of the status of a «peripheral or marginal religion for Brazilians» (Carvalho, 1999, p. 3, and turning it into a «dominant» religion almost as important as Catholicism, with regard to the world of football. Moreover, this text will try to show that, with reference to the group called Athletes of Christ, the interest in evangelicalism in the field of sports is not a recent phenomenon but it traces its origins to the heritage of Muscular Christianity, which dates back to the Victorian Age (1837-1901. Finally, this text aims to stimulate reflection on a fundamental contemporary theme, i.e. the phenomenon of religion in public space.

  20. (Re)creating Spaces for "uMunthu": Postcolonial Theory and Environmental Education in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayira, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Colonialism goes beyond territorial conquest: it affects one's epistemological stance, worldviews and perceptions. Although most African countries gained independence in the 1960s, the impacts of colonialism continue to be present through modern-day globalization as a form of neocolonialism. Education systems in many countries in southern Africa…

  1. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility—Evidence from a Southern European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall’s tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results: Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions: Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health. PMID:28809798

  2. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Green Space Quality and Accessibility-Evidence from a Southern European City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffimann, Elaine; Barros, Henrique; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel

    2017-08-15

    Background: The provision of green spaces is an important health promotion strategy to encourage physical activity and to improve population health. Green space provision has to be based on the principle of equity. This study investigated the presence of socioeconomic inequalities in geographic accessibility and quality of green spaces across Porto neighbourhoods (Portugal). Methods: Accessibility was evaluated using a Geographic Information System and all the green spaces were audited using the Public Open Space Tool. Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficients and ordinal regression were used to test whether socioeconomic differences in green space quality and accessibility were statistically significant. Results: Although the majority of the neighbourhoods had an accessible green space, mean distance to green space increased with neighbourhood deprivation. Additionally, green spaces in the more deprived neighbourhoods presented significantly more safety concerns, signs of damage, lack of equipment to engage in active leisure activities, and had significantly less amenities such as seating, toilets, cafés, etc. Conclusions: Residents from low socioeconomic positions seem to suffer from a double jeopardy; they lack both individual and community resources. Our results have important planning implications and might contribute to understanding why deprived communities have lower physical activity levels and poorer health.

  3. Ticks and Borrelia in urban and peri-urban green space habitats in a city in southern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, Kayleigh M; Fonville, Manoj; Gillingham, Emma L; Coipan, Elena Claudia; Pietzsch, Maaike E; Krawczyk, Aleksandra I; Vaux, Alexander G C; Cull, Benjamin; Sprong, Hein; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-03-01

    Ticks are becoming increasingly recognised as important vectors of pathogens in urban and peri-urban areas, including green space used for recreational activities. In the UK, the risk posed by ticks in such areas is largely unknown. In order to begin to assess the risk of ticks in urban/peri-urban areas in southern England, questing ticks were collected from five different habitat types (grassland, hedge, park, woodland and woodland edge) in a city during the spring, summer and autumn of 2013/2014 and screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. In addition, seasonal differences in B. burgdorferi s.l. prevalence were also investigated at a single site during 2015. Ixodes ricinus presence and activity were significantly higher in woodland edge habitat and during spring surveys. DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was detected in 18.1% of nymphs collected across the 25 sites during 2013 and 2014 and two nymphs also tested positive for the newly emerging tick-borne pathogen B. miyamotoi. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. prevalence at a single site surveyed in 2015 were found to be significantly higher during spring and summer than in autumn, with B. garinii and B. valaisiana most commonly detected. These data indicate that a range of habitats within an urban area in southern England support ticks and that urban Borrelia transmission cycles may exist in some of the urban green spaces included in this study. Sites surveyed were frequently used by humans for recreational activities, providing opportunity for exposure to Borrelia infected ticks in an urban/peri-urban space that might not be typically associated with tick-borne disease transmission. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

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    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  5. Space-time distribution of ignimbrite volcanism in the southern SMO: From Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    A distinct variation in the age of the ignimbrites of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is observed in the southern portion, which includes the area between Tepic, Nayarit (-105° W) and Aguascalientes, Ags (-102° W). Older, high-grade ignimbrites are Eocene and occur as scattered outcrops. These are in turn covered by a widespread and voluminous sequence of high-grade ignimbrites and silicic to intermediate lavas that ranges in age from Middle Oligocene to Middle Miocene. The peak of this ignimbrite volcanism was at about 21 Ma to 22 Ma, but there is evidence showing that it initiated since about 30 Ma and ended at about 17.5 Ma. This ignimbrite and lava sequence is in turn covered by another series of lavas, predominantly mafic to intermediate, in the southern part of the area. This latest volcanism represents the initiation of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Ignimbrite volcanism apparently initiated at the NE part of the study area, and migrated to the SW with time, that is from the area Presa Calles to the valley of Bolaños. Isotopic ages reported on these rocks, cluster in various groups reflecting the time evolution of volcanism. Rocks older than 30 Ma tend to occur on the raised blocks of Sierra de El Laurel and Northern Sierra de Morones, in the eastern part of the area. The interval from 30 to 20 Ma comprises a discontinuous set of ages that are concentrated in the blocks of Southern Sierra de Morones, Tlaltenango, Bolaños and the area around Cinco Minas-San Pedro Analco-Hostotipaquillo. An apparent gap of ages occurs between 12 to 18 Ma, followed by a predominantly mafic volcanism scattered mainly to the south of the area, that represents the transition of SMO to MVB. Finally mafic volcanism of the MVB of 3 to 4 Ma is present in the south, in the area excavated on the vicinity of Rio Grande de Santiago. A similar migration pattern has been reported in general for the whole SMO by Aguirre-Diaz and Labarthe-Hernandez (2003), from NE Chihuahua to SW Nayarit

  6. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST) is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST) method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan). A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls). The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection, sensitivity and positive

  7. Voronoi distance based prospective space-time scans for point data sets: a dengue fever cluster analysis in a southeast Brazilian town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Ricardo HC

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Prospective Space-Time scan statistic (PST is widely used for the evaluation of space-time clusters of point event data. Usually a window of cylindrical shape is employed, with a circular or elliptical base in the space domain. Recently, the concept of Minimum Spanning Tree (MST was applied to specify the set of potential clusters, through the Density-Equalizing Euclidean MST (DEEMST method, for the detection of arbitrarily shaped clusters. The original map is cartogram transformed, such that the control points are spread uniformly. That method is quite effective, but the cartogram construction is computationally expensive and complicated. Results A fast method for the detection and inference of point data set space-time disease clusters is presented, the Voronoi Based Scan (VBScan. A Voronoi diagram is built for points representing population individuals (cases and controls. The number of Voronoi cells boundaries intercepted by the line segment joining two cases points defines the Voronoi distance between those points. That distance is used to approximate the density of the heterogeneous population and build the Voronoi distance MST linking the cases. The successive removal of edges from the Voronoi distance MST generates sub-trees which are the potential space-time clusters. Finally, those clusters are evaluated through the scan statistic. Monte Carlo replications of the original data are used to evaluate the significance of the clusters. An application for dengue fever in a small Brazilian city is presented. Conclusions The ability to promptly detect space-time clusters of disease outbreaks, when the number of individuals is large, was shown to be feasible, due to the reduced computational load of VBScan. Instead of changing the map, VBScan modifies the metric used to define the distance between cases, without requiring the cartogram construction. Numerical simulations showed that VBScan has higher power of detection

  8. Framework for TV white space spectrum access in Southern African Development Community (SADC)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The global migration of television (TV) from analogue to digital broadcast will see a large amount of TV spectrum available (called TV white space - TVWS) for other services such as mobile and broadband wireless access (BWA). Leading spectrum...

  9. The white space opportunity in Southern Africa: measurements with Meraka cognitive radio platform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The global migration of television (TV) from analogue to digital broadcasting will result in more spectrum bands (known as TV white space), previously used in analogue broadcasting, becoming available and unoccupied. A question is on how much white...

  10. Environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, new funeral technologies, and preferences of the Northeastern and Southern Brazilian population as for the funeral process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nicholas Joseph Tavares; Lezana, Álvaro Guillermo Rojas; Freire Dos Santos, Paulo da Cruz; Santana Pinto, Ibsen Mateus Bittencourt; Zancan, Claudio; Silva de Souza, Gustavo Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Cemeteries and crematoria are the main funeral ways used in the world nowadays. It is a little-studied segment in the present days, mainly as for the possible environmental impacts in the environment, such as those derived from dental amalgam, prostheses, and dioxins, among other. This article aimed to identify the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria and to point out new trends in funeral processes such as freeze-drying and alkaline hydrolysis. The study is justified due to the large part of the Brazilian population that do not know the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, as well as to bring information about the new processes. For that, a research was carried out with 400 people. The main results show that among all the funeral processes, the new freeze-drying process was opted by 33% of the sample. We also identified that the main reasons for choosing the funeral process were less environmental impact (28%), no after-death expenses (grave payment) (16.1%), and the possibility of putting away or throwing away the remains wherever you want (14.9%). Finally, new funeral processes were well accepted by the Brazilian population-those who were interviewed-due to their benefits.

  11. Migration and Inter-Cultural Relations in the Southern Levant and the Israeli-Palestinian Space

    OpenAIRE

    Bauvais, Sylvain; Rozenholc, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Since 2005, the CRFJ’s scholarship students have organized international scientific seminars on topics of their choice. Organized by and for doctoral and post-doctoral students, these seminars give young researchers from the French, Israeli, and Palestinian academic communities the opportunity to meet. They also allow them to regularly take stock of the research undertaken in different universities on topics that all center on the same geographic space. But more than evaluating where research...

  12. Extension or Communication?--The Perceptions of Southern Brazilian Tobacco Farmers and Rural Agents about Rural Extension and Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troian, Alessandra; Eichler, Marcelo Leandro

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to critique the current process of extension through an investigation that seeks to demonstrate and analyze the perceptions held by farmers and rural agents about some aspects of tobacco cultivation in the municipality of Arvorezinha (Little Tree) in southern Brazil. The research has been taking place during the last four…

  13. Chronic kidney disease: information on southern brazilian patients with kidney disease = Insuficiência renal crônica: conhecendo o paciente nefropata sulbrasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Haruki Yamakawa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The profile of patients undergoing haemodialysis in the dialysis unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá, Maringá PR Brazil, is provided. A questionnaire on social and economic data and underlying diseases prior to the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD identified the patients’ profile. The project was approved by the Ethics Committee of the institution. Eighty-three patients, with 54.21% males, were interviewed. Age bracket ranged between 20 and 59 years in 65.06% of patients. Only 27.71% maintained jobs after the diagnosis and the start of treatment; 63.86% had an average personal income between 1 and 3 minimum wages; 63.85% did not practice any physical activity. Moreover, 53.01% belonged to the European-Brazilian white group; 20.48% to the Afro-Brazilian brown group; 19.28% to the Afro-Brazilian Negro group; 6.02% to other ethnic groups. Further, 85.54% patients reported having an underlying disease prior to the CKD, namely, 61.45% were hypertensive; 31.33% were diabetics and 20.48% had other diseases. Results show the need of a greater attention to these patients’ health care to reduce the negative impacts related to the chronic disease focused.Este estudo teve como objetivo identificar o perfil dos pacientes em tratamento hemodialítico do setor de diálise do Hospital Santa Casa de Maringá - Paraná, Brasil. Para a identificação do perfil destes pacientes foi utilizado um questionário contendo questões que abrangem dados socioeconômicos e doenças de base anteriores à Insuficiência Renal Crônica (IRC. O projeto foi aprovado pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da instituição. Entre os 83 pacientes entrevistados, 54,21% eram do sexo masculino. A faixa etária variou de 20 a 59 anos para 65,06% dos pacientes. Somente 27,71% continuaram trabalhando após o diagnóstico e início do tratamento. A renda pessoal média ficou entre um e três salários mínimos para 63,86% dos indivíduos. A atividade física está ausente em 63

  14. Enclosure design and space utilization by Indian leopards (Panthera pardus) in four zoos in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallapur, Avanti; Qureshi, Qamar; Chellam, Ravi

    2002-01-01

    Enclosure design and the use of enclosure space influence the activity budget of cap-tive leopards. The study laid out in grids all enclosures on the base map and segregated these grids into 4 zones. Every 5 min, the study recorded the proportion of time spent in these zones with the leopards' behavior. Captive leopards most frequently used the "edge" zone. Almost all leopards used the edge zone for stereotypic pacing, the "back" zone for resting, and the "other" zone for activity. The study positively corre-lated the proportion of time spent in the "enriched" zone with activity levels exhibited by leopards housed in some enclosures and with resting in others. Thus, the study seg-regated structural objects in the enriched zone into activity-related features (e.g., logs) and rest-related features (e.g., trees and sleeping platforms). Compared with individu-als housed in barren enclosures, leopards housed in structurally enriched on-exhibit enclosures exhibited higher levels of activity. Enclosure design was found to be an important factor influencing the welfare of leopards in captivity.

  15. Comparison of spawning patterns of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita in Ubatuba region, southern Brazil during 1985 through 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis and anchoita (Engrautis anchoita inhabit the southeastern Brazilian Bight. The former spawns at night (21:00-03:00 in coastal region during late-spring and summer, meanwhile, the latter spawns all year-around, mainly in coastal region during summer and in neritic region during winter. The spawning time of E. anchoita was observed all day long, but more intensively at night. During summer there occurs a strong vertical stratification of water masses. The spawning of S. brasiliensis occurs in surface mixed layer, while that of E. anchoita occurs beneath the thermocline inside the cool South Atlantic Central Water which occupies the bottom layer during late spring and summer. However, the sardine and anchovy egss and larvae were found inside both the upper tropical and lower cold water masses, but predominantly above thermocline in this regionNeste trabalho são analisados os padrões sazonais de desova da sardinha-verdadeira, Sardinella brasiliensis, e da anchoita, Engraulis anchoita, baseado em dados coletados em águas costeiras de Ubatuba (SP, entre 1985 e 1988. Ambas as espécies habitam a costa sudeste do Brasil A primeira efetua desova durante a noite (21:00 - 23:00 h na região costeira durante o fim da primavera e o verão, enquanto que a segunda desova durante todo o ano, principalmente na região costeira durante o verão e na região nerítica durante o inverno. A desova da anchoita foi observada ao longo de todo o dia, porém com mais intensidade à noite. No verão, ocorre uma forte estratificação vertical das massas d'água. A desova da sardinha-verdadeira ocorre na camada superficial de mistura, enquanto que a da anchoita ocorre abaixo da termoclina, nas águas frias da "Água Central do Atlântico Sul" (ACAS, que ocupam as camadas do fundo durante o verão. Entretanto, ovos e larvas de ambas as espécies foram encontrados tanto na camada superior, de água tropical, como na camada

  16. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts…

  17. Cintia Moscovich's Brazilian View on Jewish Literary Themes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article focuses on the work of Cintia Moscovich, author of four books, and one of the very few Brazilian writers dealing with Jewish subjects. Her writings concentrate on the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, where Jewish immigration began 100 years ago. Unlike Jewish immigrants' literature in Yiddish or in ...

  18. Zoneamento bioclimático da região sudeste do Brasil para o conforto térmico animal e humano Bioclimatic mapping of Southern Brazilian region for animal and human thermal comfort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutércia M. F. de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    negatively both animal production and human comfort. THI greater than 84 was not verified on the Southern Brazilian region.

  19. Space-use, diet, demographics, and topographic associations of lynx in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains: A study [Chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton D. Apps

    2000-01-01

    Snowshoe hares are considered the primary prey of Canada lynx throughout their range. Relative to northern populations, hares occurring in mountainous regions at southern latitudes are thought to remain at low and stable densities through time. Hence, the ecology of associated southern lynx populations is expected to resemble that of northern populations during the low...

  20. Geographic information systems and logistic regression for high-resolution malaria risk mapping in a rural settlement of the southern Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Elaine Cristina; dos Santos, Emerson Soares; Zeilhofer, Peter; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2013-11-15

    In Brazil, 99% of the cases of malaria are concentrated in the Amazon region, with high level of transmission. The objectives of the study were to use geographic information systems (GIS) analysis and logistic regression as a tool to identify and analyse the relative likelihood and its socio-environmental determinants of malaria infection in the Vale do Amanhecer rural settlement, Brazil. A GIS database of georeferenced malaria cases, recorded in 2005, and multiple explanatory data layers was built, based on a multispectral Landsat 5 TM image, digital map of the settlement blocks and a SRTM digital elevation model. Satellite imagery was used to map the spatial patterns of land use and cover (LUC) and to derive spectral indices of vegetation density (NDVI) and soil/vegetation humidity (VSHI). An Euclidian distance operator was applied to measure proximity of domiciles to potential mosquito breeding habitats and gold mining areas. The malaria risk model was generated by multiple logistic regression, in which environmental factors were considered as independent variables and the number of cases, binarized by a threshold value was the dependent variable. Out of a total of 336 cases of malaria, 133 positive slides were from inhabitants at Road 08, which corresponds to 37.60% of the notifications. The southern region of the settlement presented 276 cases and a greater number of domiciles in which more than ten cases/home were notified. From these, 102 (30.36%) cases were caused by Plasmodium falciparum and 174 (51.79%) cases by Plasmodium vivax. Malaria risk is the highest in the south of the settlement, associated with proximity to gold mining sites, intense land use, high levels of soil/vegetation humidity and low vegetation density. Mid-resolution, remote sensing data and GIS-derived distance measures can be successfully combined with digital maps of the housing location of (non-) infected inhabitants to predict relative likelihood of disease infection through the

  1. Brazilian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  2. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  3. Hábitos de higiene bucal de adultos porto-alegrenses Oral hygiene habits among Brazilian adults in an urban area of Southern Brazil

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    Claídes Abegg

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar alguns hábitos de higiene bucal (escovação dentária, uso do palito e uso do fio dental em um grupo de adultos, em relação a fatores sociodemográficos, e investigar o nível de placa bacteriana e sangramento gengival. METODOLOGIA: A amostra foi constituída por 234 mulheres e 237 homens de duas categorias socioeconômicas, com idade entre 24 e 44 anos. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas estruturadas e exames clínicos. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de escovação encontrada foi alta: (mediana e moda de três vezes ao dia e apresentou associação com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. A maioria dos entrevistados (67,5% declarou usar fio dental, estando seu uso associado com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. Usar palito foi descrito como um hábito comum para a maioria das pessoas entrevistadas:(54,6% o usam. O uso do palito apresentou associação com sexo, idade e categoria socioeconômica . O nível de placa bacteriana foi moderado para a maioria das pessoas (62,6%, e estava associado com a categoria socioeconômica. Um quarto dos participantes do estudo não apresentou sangramento gengival, e este estava associado com a idade e a categoria socioeconômica. CONCLUSÃO: Os hábitos de higiene bucal foram considerados bons para a maioria dos indivíduos que participaram do estudo, havendo necessidade de melhoria para os homens e pessoas de categoria socioeconômica inferior.AIMS: This study sought to analyse the oral hygiene habits (toothbrushing frequency, use of toothpick and dental floss, of a group of Brazilian adults, in relation to socio-demographic variables. The level of dental plaque and number of teeth with gums bleeding after probing were also investigated. METHODOLOGY: The sample was composed of 234 women and 237 men, from two socioeconomic status. The age range was from 24 to 44 years. Data was collected through structured interviews and clinical examinations. RESULTS: Daily toothbrushing was

  4. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  5. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

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    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  6. Coronelismo: um referente anacrônico no espaço organizacional brasileiro contemporâneo? [Is ‘coronelismo’ an anacronism in the Brazilian contemporary organizational space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza Moura

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de Coronelismo, Enxada e Voto, de Victor Nunes Leal (1949 – obra clássica interpretativa do Brasil -, o referente coronelismo vem sendo estudado como uma manifestação singular de poder/autoridade do espaço organizacional brasileiro. Para alguns, entretanto, esse referente se apresenta como uma forma histórica datada de mandonismo, característica do cenário político brasileiro da República Velha. Neste ensaio analisamos a pertinência ou não-pertinência da sobrevivência desse referente no espaço organizacional do Brasil atual. A reflexão aqui formulada postula que o coronelismo tem sobrevivido historicamente no ambiente brasileiro, quer no seu significante transformado coronelismo eletrônico como, ainda, sob outras formas de manifestação. A análise ora proposta revela que as semioses desses referentes linguísticos apresentam os traços semiológicos semelhantes. Como conclusão, postula-se que o referente genérico coronelismo, ao sofrer re-significações ao longo da História, tem-se mantido como forma viva e singular de mandonismo da cultura política organizacional no Brasil. --- Is "coronelismo" an anacronism in the Brazilian contemporary organizational space? --- Abstract --- Since the publication of the “Coronelismo, Enxada e Voto” by Victor Nunes Leal (1949 – a classical interpretative work about Brazil –, the ‘coronelismo’ referred to has been studied as a particular manifestation of authoritarianism in Brazil. Some scholars, however, argue that this should be regarded only as a historically-bound form of 'mandonismo', a characteristic of the Brazilian Old Republic period. In this article we analyze the pertinence of ‘coronelismo’ in the organizational space of contemporary Brazil. The thesis of this paper postulates that ‘coronelismo’ has survived in modern Brazilian context, either with its transformed meaning of ‘coronelismo eletrônico’ or in other manifestations. The analysis

  7. The Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, P F

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has been operating the only light source in the southern hemisphere since July 1997. Over this 7 year period, approximately 22000 hours of beam time were delivered to users from all over Brazil as well as from 10 other countries. In this article, we report on the present configuration of the 1.37 GeV electron storage ring and associated instrumentation, describe recent improvements to the light source and analyze future prespectives including the installation of insertion devices and additional beamlines.

  8. Forensic Dentistry in a Southern Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Conceição

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1932, a inclusão obrigatória da Odontologia Legal no currículo das faculdades de odontologia no Brasil contribuiu para a disseminação desta ciência entre os estudantes de odontologia. Infelizmente, esses profissionais, por vezes, não acham este assunto relevante e apenas se preocupam com o assunto quando enfrentam um problema na área judicial. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar as rotinas, procedimentos e funções de um Posto Médico Legal, em Pelotas, cidade do sul do Brasil, porque estas situações são geralmente desconhecidas pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e este contato e conhecimento são importantes para que eles tenham uma compreensão mais precisa do trabalho do perito odonto-legista. Diferentes métodos de identificação humana (exames de arcada dentária, rugae palatal e extrações de dentes para o exame de DNA da polpa dentária são de responsabilidade do dentista forense. Além disso, o juiz pode nomear o dentista que faz o trabalho na área cível, criminal, trabalhista e administrativo em processos legais. Concluiu-se que a estrutura do Posto Médico Legal de uma cidade do sul do Brasil, como Pelotas, apresenta plenas condições para a prática Odontologia Legal, permitindo um trabalho interdisciplinar na busca de soluções de crimes. Por isso, é essencial para estimular e chamar a atenção para o estudo desta área nos países em desenvolvimento como o Brasil, onde o número de especialistas está a aumentar.

  9. Dentição decídua: estudo da prevalência dos espaços interproximais em crianças brasileiras Deciduous dentition: prevalence study of interdental spaces in brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mendes SOVIERO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de conhecer mais sobre as características da dentição decídua, apresentadas pelas crianças brasileiras, realizou-se um estudo de prevalência do qual participaram 400 crianças, com dentição decídua completa e idade variando de 2 a 6 anos, na cidade de Petrópolis - RJ. O arco tipo I foi o mais prevalente tanto no arco superior (93,2% como no inferior (90,5%, sendo que o superior tipo II foi mais comum no sexo feminino (p For the purpose of ascertaining more information about the characteristics of deciduous dentition presented by the Brazilian children, a prevalence study was performed. Four hundred children with complete deciduous dentitions and age ranging from 2 to 6 years, were examined in Petrópolis - RJ - Brazil. The type I arch was the most prevalent in the upper arch (93.2% and in the lower arch (90.5%. The type II upper arch was more common in the females (p < 0.01. The primate spaces were the most frequent spaces found in both arches. The association between the presence of interdental spaces and age was statistically significant (p < 0.05, suggesting that there is a tendency for the spaces to close with age.

  10. Bibliometria da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo: instituições, temas, espaço e cronologia Bibliometrics in Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion: institutions, topics, space and chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira Barretto

    2009-12-01

    of this study was to analyze the spatial, temporal, institutional and topical distribution of Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion based on the organization of articles according to thematic lines and to discuss the depth of the approach to the fundamental issues of erosion in order to establish a bibliometric perspective. For this purpose, 225 articles of Brazilian institutions focused on soil erosion were scanned, registered in a database and classified into five thematic lines. Besides, multi-temporal maps were drawn using GIS tools. Brazilian research on erosion is recent and is characterized by: (a concentration in few institutions in the southern and southeastern Brazil, (b focused on two issues, related to the Universal Soil Loss Equation and comparisons of agricultural managements as related to soil loss, with a considerable influence of the consolidation level of the research centers, which have developed research on accelerated soil erosion along these two lines.

  11. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, from the southern Brazilian coast Idade e crescimento do tubarão-martelo-entalhado, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, da costa sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE. Kotas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth studies for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834 caught along the southern Brazilian coast, were based on ring measurements of vertebrae sections of 115 males, 116 females and 14 unknown sexed sharks between 48 and 344 cm total length (TL. The von Bertalanffy growth models were best fit using back-calculated data. The growth parameters obtained for males, were L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 47 cm. For females, L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 51 cm. An adult female reached 217 cm TL and was 31.5 years old. On the other hand, an adult male was 29.5 years old and measured 234 cm TL. Longevity estimate for males and females was 55 years. Therefore, S. lewini is a long-lived fish. Ageing precision, based on the IAPE index, was 5.6%. Marginal Increment analysis based on MIR index from hammerheads smaller than 105 cm, compared with the percentual of opaque and hyaline bands found per month ageing whole vertebrae, showed an annual ring formation, i.e., in winter.O estudo da idade e do crescimento do tubarão-martelo-entalhado, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, na costa sul do Brasil, baseou-se na leitura de anéis em seções de vértebras de 115 machos, 116 fêmeas e de 14 exemplares com sexo indeterminado, com comprimentos totais (CT entre 48 e 344 cm. Modelos de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foram mais bem ajustados aos dados de idade e comprimento retrocalculados, considerando sexos em separado. Os parâmetros de crescimento obtidos para os machos foram L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0,05/ano; L0 = 47 cm. Para as fêmeas L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0,05/ano; L0 = 51 cm. Uma fêmea adulta atingiu um CT de 217 cm e uma idade de 31,5 anos. Por sua vez, um macho adulto tinha 29,5 anos e CT de 234 cm. A estimativa de longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 55 anos. O índice de erro percentual médio (IAPE, que avalia a precisão na leitura de idades, foi de 5,6%. A análise do incremento marginal baseada no

  12. A federated information management system for the Deep Space Network. M.S. Thesis - Univ. of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobinson, E.

    1982-01-01

    General requirements for an information management system for the deep space network (DSN) are examined. A concise review of available database management system technology is presented. It is recommended that a federation of logically decentralized databases be implemented for the Network Information Management System of the DSN. Overall characteristics of the federation are specified, as well as reasons for adopting this approach.

  13. A Brazilian Portuguese Survey of School Climate: Evidence of Validity and Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, George G.; Holst, Bruna; Lisboa, Carolina; Chen, Dandan; Yang, Chunyan; Chen, Fang Fang

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence of the validity and reliability of scores for the newly developed Brazilian Portuguese version of the Delaware School Climate Survey-Student (Brazilian DSCS-S). The sample consisted of 378 students, grades 5 through 9, attending four private and three public schools in southern Brazil. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  14. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  15. Launching Latin America: International and Domestic Factors in National Space Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    HISTORY OF THE BRAZILIAN SPACE PROGRAM ..................22 1. From a Small Satellite Tracking Station to the MECB ..................22 2. From the...literature. 14 Darly Henriques da Silva, “ Brazilian Participation in the International Space Station ...ISS) Program: Commitment or Bargain Struck?,” Space Policy, Brazilian Participation in the International Space Station Program, 21, no. 1 (February

  16. The Brazilian Military: Its Role in Counter-Drug Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    scenarios that the armed forces must be prepared to defend against. These scenarios were published by the Escola Superior de Guerra (Brazilian War...Brazil and the Southern Cone, Princeton University Press, 1988. Tokatlian, J.G., "Seguranca e Drogas ," ntxt Internacional, Jan/Jun 1988. Varas, A

  17. Brazilian antidoping public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Claudio Bispo de; Rodrigues, Deyvis Nascimento

    2014-07-01

    Doping, used to improve sports performance, is legally prohibited. This paper describes Brazilian regulations, resolutions, and Federal laws addressing the issue of doping and antidoping which were collected in 2012 from official websites. We conclude that Brazilian laws have constrained doping, and have been updated over the years to conform to worldwide legal guidelines. Study limitations are noted.

  18. The source and fate of sediment and mercury in the Tapajós River, Pará, Brazilian Amazon: Ground- and space-based evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telmer, Kevin; Costa, Maycira; Simões Angélica, Rômulo; Araujo, Eric S; Maurice, Yvon

    2006-10-01

    We present results of mercury (Hg) in surface waters and soils and an analysis of satellite imagery from the Tapajós River basin, Brazilian Amazon, and the Reserva Garimpeira do Tapajós, the legal gold mining district of the basin. Hg bound to suspended sediment was roughly 600 and 200 times the concentration of dissolved Hg per litre of water, in impacted and pristine areas, respectively. Suspended sediments thus represent the major pathway of river-borne Hg. Median concentrations of Hg in suspended load from both impacted and pristine waters were 134 ppb, and 80% of samples were below 300ppb-in the range of naturally occurring surficial materials in the tropics. Regionally, riverine Hg fluxes were proportional to the concentration of total suspended solids. This shows that the dominant source of Hg is the sediment itself rather than anthropogenic mercury discharge from the small-scale mines. To independently test this conclusion, a mass balance was performed. A conservative calculation of the annual export of mercury (Hg) from the Creporí River (a minimum) was 1.6 tonnes for the year 1998-it could be significantly larger. This amount of Hg is difficult to account for by anthropogenic discharge alone, confirming that enhanced physical erosion caused by sluicing and dredging operations is the dominant source of Hg. We therefore conclude that gold mining operations are primarily responsible for elevated Hg concentrations. The dominant source of contamination is not, however, the loss of Hg in the gold amalgamation process. Rather, the disturbance and mobilization of large quantities of Hg-rich sediment and floodplain soil into the water column during mining operations is the source of contamination. These findings shift the focus of remediation and prevention efforts away from Hg control toward soil and sediment erosion control. The minimization or elimination of Hg losses in the mining process remains important for the health of local peoples and environments

  19. Psychiatric legal investigation for sickness benefits due to disability at the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis, capital city of the State of Santa Catarina, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo, Roberto; Damas, Fernando Balvedi

    2015-01-01

    To describe the profile of insured individuals that filed claims for sickness benefits and compare the results of the administrative and legal investigations. This case series included 114 insured persons that filed lawsuits against the Brazilian National Institute of Social Security (Instituto Nacional de Seguridade Social, INSS). They underwent psychiatric examinations required by the Brazilian Federal Social Security Special Court in Florianópolis from August to December 2010. Mean age was 47 years, and participant age ranged from 24 to 64 years. Most insured individuals were women (79%), and most were employed (67.5%) and self-employed (26.5%) workers. Mean contribution time was 99.9 months, ranging from 8 to 352 months. Mean benefit duration was 20.4 months, ranging from 2 to 97 months. The most prevalent category of workers was service workers, store and supermarket salespeople (54.4%), followed by administrative workers (19.3%). Only 17 participants were found to be unable to work after benefit cessation, a 14.9% mismatch between administrative and legal investigations. The most frequent diagnoses were mood disorders (59.6%) and anxiety disorders (17.5%).

  20. Uncertainty and indeterminacy in Brazilian social and media formation: references to think of the problem of recognition in the public space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo FERREIRA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose the concept of mediatization as central to understanding the processes of disruption, uncertainty, and indeterminacy in the social formation of Brazil. This proposition does not replace the socio-anthropological approaches that propose indeterminacy as a characteristic of societies where there are no social practices symbolically referenced (Lahire, 2002. We suggest, however, that this movement that we call ascending is reproduced in an exponential way, adding time and space deferred, due to the mediatization of society, in which the use of the media by social actors breaks with discursive hegemonies of media and mediated institutions. The mediatization is conceptualized in three spheres: a the information flows between Ecclesia, Agora, and Oikos (Bratosin, 2014; Ferreira, 2016; b the uses, practices, and appropriations of the means, especially in digital networks; c circulation, central in the constitution flows. Circulation is not going from hand to hand. Circulation is the operation of picking up, manipulating, in the struggle for recognition, within the framework of flows. Therefore, circulation refers to the conflicts and possibilities of social recognition, triggered by actors and institutions, media and mediatized. We suggest, therefore, a new design for the understanding of the current symbolic tensions in Latin America, based on meta-reflections from its epistemologies.

  1. Spatial distribution of mortality by homicide and social inequalities according to race/skin color in an intra-urban Brazilian space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Edna Maria; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; de Oliveira, Nelson Fernandes; Santana, Francisco dos Santos; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Hogan, Vijaya; de Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil, deaths by external causes rank first in the mortality statistics. Nevertheless, studies which investigate the relationship between mortality by external causes and race/skin color are scarce. To evaluate the relative contribution of race/skin color to the spatial distribution of mortality by homicide in Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil, in the period 1998 - 2003. This is a spatial aggregate study including secondary data on 5,250 subjects, using a unit of analysis called the "weighting area" (WA). Annual average death rates by homicide were estimated. The Global and Local Moran Index were used to evaluate the presence of spatial autocorrelation and the Conditional Auto Regressive (CAR) model was employed to evaluate the referred effect, using the R statistical package. Global and Local Moran's I tests were significant. CAR regression showed that the predicted mortality rate increases when there is a growth in the proportion of black males aged between 15 and 49 years. Geometrically weighted regression (GWR) showed a very small variation of the local coefficients for all predictors. We demonstrated that the interrelation between race, violence and space is a phenomenon which results from a long process of social inequality. Understanding these interactions requires interdisciplinary efforts that contribute to advancement of knowledge that leads to more specific Public Health interventions.

  2. Gestão Ambiental em Espaços de Lazer e Turismo: As Praias Urbanas da Amazônia Brasileira / Environmental Management in Leisure and Tourism Spaces: The Urban Beaches of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as ações públicas e privadas em resposta aos problemas ambientais nas praias da Ilha de Mosqueiro, área urbana litorânea, do estado do Pará. Objetivou-se identificar os problemas ambientais na percepção de moradores e turistas, bem como analisar as ações e os instrumentos de gestão ambiental. Os dados da pesquisa foram analisados segundo o modelo Pressão-Estado-Impacto-Resposta (PEIR, que mostra as pressões ambientais das ações humanas, como estas alteram a qualidade dos recursos naturais, os impactos ambientais e as ações em resposta às alterações. Tais questões foram analisadas à luz de teorias neo-institucionalistas que levam em conta o contexto institucional e os atores políticos relevantes. Identificou-se que a principal pressão ambiental refere-se ao adensamento populacional desordenado, que gerou a intensificação da exploração de áreas vulneráveis à ocupação humana e causou impacto nos recursos naturais disponíveis. Quanto às respostas do poder público, identificou-se baixo nível de correspondência entre PEIR, reflexo da capacidade institucional relativamente débil na efetivação da sustentabilidade ambiental. Palavras-Chave: Espaços de Lazer e Turismo. Gestão Ambiental. Ilha de Mosqueiro, PA. Amazônia Brasileira Environmental Management in Leisure and Tourism Spaces: The Urban Beaches of the Brazilian Amazon - This paper analyzes the public and private actions in response to environmental problems on the beaches of Mosqueiro Island, Pará, coastal urban area. The objective was to identify environmental problems in the perception of residents and tourists as well as analyze the actions and instruments environmental management. The survey data were analyzed according to the model Pressure-State-Impact-Response (PEIR, which shows the environmental pressures of human actions, as these affect the quality of natural resources, environmental impacts and actions in response to

  3. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  4. The marine leech Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, parasitic on the angel shark Squatina spp. and sandtiger shark Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes: Squatinidae, Carchariidae in Southern Brazilian waters

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    Soto J. M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of the marine leech, Stibarobdella loricata (Harding, 1924 (Hirudinea, Piscicolidae, is reported on the southern coast of Brazil, based on seven lots with 47 specimens, between 71 and 182 mm in total length, collected on the dorsal region of angel sharks, Squatina argentina (Marini, 1930; S. guggenheim Marini, 1936; S. punctata Marini, 1936 (Chondrichthyes, Squatinidae; and on the head of a sandtiger shark, Carcharias taurus Rafinesque, 1810 (Chondrichthyes, Carchariidae. This is the first record of S. loricata in the western Atlantic and of its parasitic association with S. argentina, S. guggenheim, S. punctata, and C. taurus.

  5. First record of the Lesser Snouted Treefrog Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) in Brazilian coast and new species records for the state of Rio Grande do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmolin, D A; Rosa, F O; Freire, M D; Fonte, L F M; Machado, I F; Paula, C N; Loebmann, D; Périco, E

    2017-01-01

    Herein, we provide new occurrence records of Scinax nasicus (Cope, 1862) for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. All new records here provide are located on Southern half of the state. Besides this, we provide the first record for species in Brazilian coastal zone. Those records improve considerably our knowledge regarding species distribution in Southern Brazil.

  6. Indigenous Brazilian Management Practices

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    Zandra Balbinot

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research seeks to understand to what extent companies in emerging countries, specifically, Brazilian, adopt dominant management practices, the so-called Euro-American practices, possess their one, or show a syncretism between the two. Methods: Mixed research. One phase was to collect data using a survey about cultural dimensions adopted from GLOBE (House 1998 management practices and also from Brazilian academy. Another was to collect data through interviews, which were analyzed in parallel. Results: Of the seven dominant cultural dimensions, indigenous practices influenced two. Another three were influenced by dominant management practices. Two of the local dimensions, even with internationalization, merged practices with Brazilian cultural traits. Even so, the practices derived from Jeitinho diminished relative to the international relations and experience of managers. Conclusions: The paper shows the existence of powerful Brazilian Indigenous Managerial Practices such as personalism and formalism. These practices have great influence on international business negotiations. On the other hand, it also shows that there are still dominant managerial practices specially in the case of more internationalized Brazilian managers

  7. Distribuição das espécies de corais azooxantelados na plataforma e talude continental superior do sul do Brasil Distribution of deep-sea azooxanthellate scleractinians from southern Brazilian waters

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    Marcelo V. Kitahara

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos registrados para águas profundas (> 100 m no sul do Brasil, podemos destacar os corais azooxantelados pertencentes a ordem Scleractinia. Através de análises estatísticas, identificação de espécimes depositados em coleções científicas, e compilação de todos os registros pretéritos destes cnidarios ocorrentes no sul e parte do sudeste do Brasil, foi possível constatar que as coordenadas abrangidas no presente estudo representam uma área de transição entre os corais azooxantelados ocorrentes ao norte e as espécies mais características das zonas polares, principalmente em relação às espécies solitárias. Com a análise da distribuição batimétrica, foi observado um significativo aumento no número de espécies entre o setor de plataforma externa e 500 m de profundidade. Finalizando, foi realizada a análise de agrupamento, o que permitiu discriminar a formação de 6 biótopos das associações de corais azooxantelados para a área de estudo. Desta forma, apresentamos a primeira tentativa de se compreender a distribuição desta pouco conhecida fauna da plataforma e talude continental superior, entre 24ºS e 34ºS.Amongst organisms reported in deep waters (> 100 m from southern Brazil, the azooxanthellate scleractinians are of particular importance due to their capacity to form habitats which attract many species of invertebrates and vertebrates. Through statistical analysis of distribution, identification of specimens deposited in scientific collections, and revision of all preterite records of azooxanthellate scleractinians from southern and part of southeastern coast of Brazil, was noted that the coordinates covered by the present study represent an transitional distributional area between the Caribbean and marginal Antarctic fauna, especially for the solitary species. From a vertical distribution analysis, an increase in the number of species in the sector between the external continental shelve and

  8. Incidência e aspectos clínico-laboratoriais do Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em cidade do Sul do Brasil Incidence and clinical-laboratory aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Southern brazilian city

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    Carlos Alberto Kenji Nakashima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES são bastante escassos e os dados existentes hoje são praticamente todos de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com LES em Cascavel, Paraná - Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimentos na especialidade de Reumatologia: um hospital universitário, um ambulatório público e três clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 4,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,5 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi a de 30 - 39 anos e 92,8% apresentaram quatro ou mais dos 11 critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR para o diagnóstico de LES. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o Consenso Brasileiro para o tratamento de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência obtida em Cascavel/PR está próxima das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are scarce, and currently available data originate almost entirely from international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with SLE in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from August 2007 to July 2008 in all health services of Cascavel providing health care in rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic, and three private clinics. RESULTS: The study identified 14 patients diagnosed with SLE, which resulted in an estimated incidence of 4

  9. Anthropometry of Brazilian Air Force pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gilvan V; Halpern, Manny; Gordon, Claire C

    2017-10-01

    Anthropometric data are essential for the design of military equipment including sizing of aircraft cockpits and personal gear. Currently, there are no anthropometric databases specific to Brazilian military personnel. The aim of this study was to create a Brazilian anthropometric database of Air Force pilots. The methods, protocols, descriptions, definitions, landmarks, tools and measurements procedures followed the instructions outlined in Measurer's Handbook: US Army and Marine Corps Anthropometric Surveys, 2010-2011 - NATICK/TR-11/017. The participants were measured countrywide, in all five Brazilian Geographical Regions. Thirty-nine anthropometric measurements related to cockpit design were selected. The results of 2133 males and 206 females aged 16-52 years constitute a set of basic data for cockpit design, space arrangement issues and adjustments, protective gear and equipment design, as well as for digital human modelling. Another important implication is that this study can be considered a starting point for reducing gender bias in women's career as pilots. Practitioner Summary: This paper describes the first large-scale anthropometric survey of the Brazilian Air Force pilots and the development of the related database. This study provides critical data for improving aircraft cockpit design for ergonomics and comprehensive pilot accommodation, protective gear and uniform design, as well as digital human modelling.

  10. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  11. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação

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    VD Pillar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.Os campos do sul do Brasil são ecossistemas naturais com alta diversidade e têm sido há séculos importantes para a atividade pastoril e para outros importantes serviços ambientais. Este trabalho aponta os principais fatores que controlam os processos ecossistêmicos, revisa e discute os dados disponíveis sobre os estoques de carbono no solo e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa dos solos, e sugere oportunidades de mitigação das mudanças climáticas. A pesquisa sobre as emissões de carbono e gases de efeito estufa nos campos do

  12. Region of Southern Brazil

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    Marcelo Moreno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma (CM is responsible for 75% of deaths from malignant skin cancer. The incidence of CM in the southern region of Brazil, particularly in the western region of Santa Catarina, is possibly higher than estimated. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with CM treated in the western region of Santa Catarina was examined. A cross-sectional study was performed with patients diagnosed with CM from January 2002 to December 2009, from 78 counties of the western region of the state of Santa Catarina. Data were collected using a protocol adapted from the Brazilian Melanoma Group and 503 patients were evaluated. The incidence and prevalence of CM found in this region are much higher than those found elsewhere in the country. This fact is most likely due to the phenotypic characteristics of the population and the high incidence of UV radiation in this region due to its location in southern Brazil, as is the case in the countries of Oceania.

  13. Sobrepeso em adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos em um município da região Sul do Brasil Overweight in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in a Southern Brazilian city

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    Marcia Cristina Dalla Costa

    2007-09-01

    survey personal, anthropometric, biologic and life style related data such as: the use of TV, video and computer, practicing of sports and number of meals. To establish social and economic status the criterion used was that of the Economic Classification of Brazil from the National Survey Companies Association. RESULTS: 3.8% of the adolescents were underweight and 10.2% were overweight. A statistically significant association was determined for the incidence of overweight among adolescents who had four or more meals per day (5.5% and among the ones who had up to three meals a day (16.3%. When stratifying overweight by classes of income, the overweight incidence rate had a tendency of decreasing as the economic class decreased. CONCLUSIONS: overweight prevalence is higher than underweight; the last is below the rates determined in other Brazilian municipalities. Less frequency of meals and higher income classes were associated to overweight.

  14. Processo de produção rural e saúde na serra gaúcha: um estudo descritivo The rural labor process and health in the Southern Brazilian mountains: a descriptive study

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    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal entre trabalhadores rurais na região serrana do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estudar o perfil sócio-demográfico da população, conhecer as características do trabalho rural e descrever a prevalência de algumas patologias na população referida. A amostra foi de 1.479 trabalhadores, em 495 estabelecimentos agrícolas. Nesta amostra, a idade média foi de 41 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, com escolaridade média de cinco anos, sendo 87% da família proprietária. Os estabelecimentos tinham área média de 37 ha, 50% tinham pelo menos um tipo de máquina agrícola e a principal produção era a fruticultura. Cerca 75% dos trabalhadores lidavam com agrotóxicos de vários tipos e 12% referiram intoxicação por estes produtos em algum momento da vida. A prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos menores foi de 36%, a freqüência anual de acidentes de trabalho foi 10%. Os dados revelam a diversidade de atividades e de riscos ocupacionais. As altas prevalências dos problemas de saúde avaliados alertam para a necessidade de se priorizar ações de proteção para a saúde do trabalhador rural.This cross-sectional study among rural workers in the mountainous region of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul was designed to identify the characteristics of work performed on family farms. The research focused on the socio-demographic profiles of rural workers, identifying the characteristics of rural labor and describing the prevalence of some disease entities in such populations. Some 1479 rural workers from 495 farms were interviewed. In this sample, 87% of the individuals were members of the farm-owning family, mean age was 41 years, 56% were males, and mean schooling was 5 years. Farms had a mean area of 37 hectares, 50% had at least one type of farm machinery, and fruits constituted the main crop. About 75% of workers handled several types of pesticides, while 12% reported at least one

  15. Emergency medicine in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannebaum, R D; Arnold, J L; De Negri Filho, A; Spadoni, V S

    2001-02-01

    Emergency medicine is developing rapidly in southern Brazil, where elements of both the Franco-German and the Anglo-American models of emergency care are in place, creating a uniquely Brazilian approach to emergency care. Although emergency medical services (EMS) in Brazil have been directly influenced by the French mobile EMS (SAMU) system, with physicians dispatched by ambulances to the scenes of medical emergencies, the first American-style emergency medicine residency training program in Brazil was recently established at the Hospital de Pronto Socorro (HPS) in Porto Alegre. Emergency trauma care appears to be particularly developed in southern Brazil, where advanced trauma life support is widely taught and SAMU delivers sophisticated trauma care en route to trauma centers designated by the state.

  16. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality controlled...

  17. Pre-LBA Anglo-Brazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The data set presents the principal data from the Anglo-BRazilian Amazonian Climate Observation Study (ABRACOS) (Gash et al. 1996) and provides quality...

  18. LBA-ECO LC-21 Selective Logging Activity in the Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides the results of analyses of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for selective logging activity in the Brazilian...

  19. LBA-ECO LC-21 Selective Logging Activity in the Brazilian Amazon: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides the results of analyses of Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images for selective logging activity in the Brazilian states of Para,...

  20. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  1. LBA-ECO LC-21 Brazilian Amazon Fractional Land Cover Images: 1999-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) imagery, derived classified land cover products, and cloud-water masks for selected Brazilian...

  2. LBA-ECO LC-03 SAR Images, Land Cover, and Biomass, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides three related land cover products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para...

  5. Horas de sono e índice de massa corporal em pré-escolares do sul do Brasil Sleep duration and body mass index among southern Brazilian preschoolers

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    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada

    2012-12-01

    sleep than those with normal weight (9.77 ± 1.44 versus 10.17 ± 1.34; 95% CI 0.03 to 0, 76. We observed an inverse association between night sleep duration and z score values of body mass index for age (B = -0.12 95% CI -0.22--0.02. Waist circumference and skinfold thickness showed an inverse relationship with sleep duration, but without any statistic differences. Among preschool children in southern Brazil, smaller night sleep duration was associated with higher body mass index

  6. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  7. The Brazilian School Principals

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    Ângelo Ricardo de Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the policy nature of school principal, considering the thoughts of many authors about school administration and the debate about politics, power and burocracy. The study still presents a profile of Brazilian school principals with the data of Basic Education Evaluation System – SAEB, of 2003, specially comparing elements about gender, experience and formation of school principals, and aspects linked with methodology to provide/indicate the school principal and its possible democratic vocation.

  8. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

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    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  9. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

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    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  10. Resistance Stories of African-Brazilian Women

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    Stela Nazareth Meneghel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists of an intervention using narrative workshops as a device to stimulate the empowerment of women. Ten women, victims of gender violence, took part in a workshop developed by non-governmental organization for African-Brazilian women Maria Mulher, which gives assistance to women living in Vila Cruzeiro do Sul, in the city of Porto Alegre. The main objective of the research was to debate questions related to gender and violence, making use of stories and histories related to the feminine, specifically African-Brazilian stories. Five meetings were held, where the women told and were told stories, took part in group discussions, experiences and rituals. The workshops gave those women a space where they could tell and hear stories, take part in the rituals of the orixás [African-Brazilian deities] of the black culture and tell their personal histories using those experiences. This intervention was an attempt at invoking different subjective experiences, and made it possible to empower the women who took part in the research, contributing for the rescue of the individual and collective memory of this group.

  11. Associação entre material particulado de queimadas e doenças respiratórias na região sul da Amazônia brasileira Association between particulate matter from biomass burning and respiratory diseases in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Cleber Nascimento do Carmo

    2010-01-01

    care clinics in the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, between January 2004 and December 2005. Information on the daily levels of fine particulate matter was made available by the Brazilian National Institute for Spatial Research. To control for confounding factors (situations in which a non-causal association between exposure and disease is observed due to a third variable, variables related to time trends, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, and calendar effects (such as occurrence of holidays and weekends were included in the model. Poisson regression with generalized additive models was used. RESULTS: A 10 μg/m³ increase in the level of exposure to particulate matter was associated with increases of 2.9% and 2.6% in outpatient consultations due to respiratory diseases in children on the 6th and 7th days following exposure. Significant associations were not observed for elderly individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the levels of particulate matter from biomass burning in the Amazon are associated with adverse effects on the respiratory health of children.

  12. Genetic profile of Brazilian patients with dystrophinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, P A D; Machado-Costa, M C; Manzoli, G N; Ferreira, L S; Rodrigues, M C S; Bueno, L S M; Saute, J A M; Pinto Vairo, F; Matte, U S; Siebert, M; Cossio, S L; Macedo, G S; Winckler, P B; Becker, M M; Magalhães, L V B; Gonçalves, M V M; Marrone, C D; Nucci, A; França, M C

    2017-08-01

    Different types of mutations in the DMD gene underlie Duchenne muscular dystrophies (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophies (BMD). Large deletions and duplications are the most frequent causative genetic alterations worldwide, but little is known about DMD/BMD genetic profile in Brazil. Hence, we recruited patients with DMD and BMD from 8 neuromuscular reference centers along the country, and performed a comprehensive molecular investigation that included Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification and Next generation sequencing (NGS) analyses. We evaluated 199 patients from 177 unrelated families: 166 with DMD, 32 with BMD and 1 1.5 years old asymptomatic patient with persistent hiperCKemia. Overall, large deletions (58.2%) followed by nonsense mutations (12.4%) and large duplications (11.3%) were the most frequent variants in Brazilian families. Large deletions were less frequent in BMD than in DMD (44.8% vs 60.8%). We identified 19 new DMD variants. Nonsense mutations were significantly more frequent in patients from northeastern region than from southern/southeastern regions of Brazil (27.7% vs 8.5%, P profile of Brazilian patients with DMD/BMD is similar to previously reported cohorts, but it is not uniform across the country. This information is important to plan rational clinical care for patients in face of the new coming mutation-specific therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Further notes on Brazilian Conidae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, van J.-J.; Tursch, B.; Kempf, M.

    1971-01-01

    Since the publication of a survey of brazilian Conidae (Van Moll et al., 1967) new extensive dredgings effected by one of us (M.K.) along considerable portions of the Brazilian coast have brought a rich material allowing us to add to the previous work and to correct certain opinions therein

  14. Social structure and space use of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) in Southern Russian Far East based on GPS telemetry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Blanco, Jose A; Naidenko, Sergei V; Chistopolova, Maria D; Lukarevskiy, Victor S; Kostyrya, Alexey; Rybin, Alexandr; Sorokin, Pavel A; Litvinov, Mikhail N; Kotlyar, Andrey K; Miquelle, Dale G; Rozhnov, Viatcheslav V

    2015-07-01

    To better understand the spatial structure of Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) at the southern edge of their range we fitted 14 tigers (6♀♀ and 8♂♂) with 15 GPS-Argos collars between 2008 and 2011 in 2 study sites: the Ussuriskii Reserve of southern Sikhote-Alin and the Land of the Leopard National Park in southwest Primorye, Russian Far East. Fixed kernel estimates of male home ranges were larger than those of female home ranges (P < 0.05 [mean 95% fixed kernel(♀) = 401 ± 205 km(2) ; mean 95% fixed kernel(♂) = 778 ± 267 km(2)]). The home range size of females varied greatly, but on average was similar to estimates derived from earlier work further north. Low overlap of adjacent home ranges suggested that females retained exclusive territories. Real core areas of females overlapped only slightly, and remained stable over multiple years. The home ranges of adult males were smaller than those of males to the north, and in contrast to previous studies, high overlap among males indicated the absence of territoriality. Nonetheless, real core areas of males did not overlap, suggesting some spatial separation. In comparison to other tiger populations and other areas of the Russian Far East, the sex ratio in our 2 study areas was highly skewed towards males. We believe this skewed sex ratio resulted in the dissolution of territoriality of males due to an inability to defend individual females, with males resorting to scramble competition for mates. Continued monitoring of these sites to determine whether shifts in the sex ratio might result in a return to male territoriality would provide confirmation of our tentative hypothesis. © 2015 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  15. Historical shifts in Brazilian P. falciparum population structure and drug resistance alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Viana, Giselle M Rachid; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Sridaran, Sankar; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Povoa, Marinete Marins; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Previous work suggests that Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum has limited genetic diversity and a history of bottlenecks, multiple reintroductions due to human migration, and clonal expansions. We hypothesized that Brazilian P. falciparum would exhibit clonal structure. We examined isolates collected across two decades from Amapá, Rondônia, and Pará state (n = 190). By examining more microsatellites markers on more chromosomes than previous studies, we hoped to define the extent of low diversity, linkage disequilibrium, bottlenecks, population structure, and parasite migration within Brazil. We used retrospective genotyping of samples from the 1980s and 1990s to explore the population genetics of SP resistant dhfr and dhps alleles. We tested an existing hypothesis that the triple mutant dhfr mutations 50R/51I/108N and 51I/108N/164L developed in southern Amazon from a single origin of common or similar parasites. We found that Brazilian P. falciparum had limited genetic diversity and isolation by distance was rejected, which suggests it underwent bottlenecks followed by migration between sites. Unlike Peru, there appeared to be gene flow across the Brazilian Amazon basin. We were unable to divide parasite populations by clonal lineages and pairwise FST were common. Most parasite diversity was found within sites in the Brazilian Amazon, according to AMOVA. Our results challenge the hypothesis that triple mutant alleles arose from a single lineage in the Southern Amazon. SP resistance, at both the double and triple mutant stages, developed twice and potentially in different regions of the Brazilian Amazon. We would have required samples from before the 1980s to describe how SP resistance spread across the basin or describe the complex internal migration of Brazilian parasites after the colonization efforts of past decades. The Brazilian Amazon basin may have sufficient internal migration for drug resistance reported in any particular region to rapidly spread to

  16. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  17. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  18. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  19. Health care in a community of followers of traditional African-Brazilian religions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Miriam Cristiane; Seminotti, Nedio

    2009-08-01

    To understand the concept of health and the source of psychological distress among followers of a traditional African-Brazilian religion. Qualitative study performed in a community of followers of a traditional African-Brazilian religion, in the city of Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. The priest/Babalorixá and six followers of this community participated in the study. Open interviews, which were recorded and subsequently transcribed, were conducted to collect data and construct the corpus of analysis. Report categorization, based on the complex systemic approach, enabled the construction of two main themes: 1) religious community and concept of health, and 2) origin of psychological distress and cultural identity. In this religious community, traditional health therapies, such as the use of herbs, baths, diets and/or initiation rites, were associated with conventional therapies proposed by the Sistema Unico de Saúde (SUS - Unified Health System). Bonds with and belonging to a territory, the relationships among individuals, and the relationship among their spiritual, psychological and physical dimensions are considered in their concepts of psychological distress and health. The way to understand and act in the world, as experienced in this community, with its myths, rites, beliefs and values, constitutes a set of legitimate types of knowledge in its context, which oftentimes opposes and goes beyond professionals' technical-scientific knowledge and truths. This community is a space marked by welcoming, counseling and treatment of followers, where the physical, psychological and spiritual dimensions are integrated in these practices. As regards the black population health, psychological distress results from their having been uprooted from African black cultures.

  20. Onshore and offshore apatite fission-track dating from the southern Gulf of California: Insights into the time-space evolution of the rifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Duque-Trujillo, Jose; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; Corti, Giacomo

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of a apatite fission-track (AFT) study on intrusive rocks in the southern Gulf of California, sampled along the eastern margin of Baja California Sur (western rift margin), as well as from islands and submerged rifted blocks within the Gulf of California, and from the conjugate Mexican margin (Nayarit state). For most of the samples U-Pb zircon and 40Ar-39Ar mineral ages were already available (Duque-Trujillo et al., 2015). Coupled with the new AFT data these ages provide a more complete information on cooling after emplacement. Our samples span a wide range of ages between 5.5 ± 1.1 and 73.7 ± 5.8 Ma, and show a general spatial distribution, with late Miocene AFT ages (about 6 Ma) aligned roughly NW-SE along a narrow offshore belt, parallel to Baja California Peninsula, separating older ages on both sides. This pattern suggests that in Late Miocene, deformation due to plate transtension focused at the eastern rheological boundary of the Baja California block. Some Early Miocene AFT ages onshore Baja California could be related to plutons emplaced at shallow depths and thermal resetting associated with the onset of volcanism at 19 Ma in this part of the Peninsula. On the other hand, an early extensional event similar to that documented in the eastern Gulf cannot be ruled out in the westernmost Baja California.

  1. Pleistocene mammals from the southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Renato Pereira; Buchmann, Francisco Sekiguchi

    2011-02-01

    Fossils of terrestrial mammals preserved in submarine environment have been recorded in several places around the world. In Brazil such fossils are rather abundant in the southernmost portion of the coast, associated to fossiliferous concentrations at depths up to 10 m. Here is presented a review of such occurrences and the first record of fossils in deeper areas of the continental shelf. The fossils encompass several groups of both extinct and extant mammals, and exhibit several distinct taphonomic features, related to the marine environment. Those from the inner continental shelf are removed and transported from the submarine deposits to the coast during storm events, thus forming large konzentrat-lagerstätte on the beach, called “Concheiros”. The only fossils from deeper zones of the shelf known so far are a portion of a skull, a left humerus and of a femur of Toxodon sp. and a lower right molar of a Stegomastodon waringi, all collected by fishermen at depths around 20 m. The presence of fossils at great depths and distances from the present coastline, without signs of abrasion and far from areas of fluvial discharges does indicate that these remains have not been transported from the continent to the shelf, but have been preserved directly on the area that today correspond to the continental shelf. These remains indicate the existence of large fossiliferous deposits that have developed during periods of sea-level lowstand (glacial maxima) and have been submerged and reworked by the sea-level rise at the end of the last glaciation.

  2. Pleistocene mammals from the southern Brazilian continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Renato Pereira; Buchmann, Francisco Sekiguchi [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    Fossils of terrestrial mammals preserved in submarine environment have been recorded in several places around the world. In Brazil such fossils are rather abundant in the southernmost portion of the coast, associated to fossiliferous concentrations at depths up to 10 m. Here is presented a review of such occurrences and the first record of fossils in deeper areas of the continental shelf. The fossils encompass several groups of both extinct and extant mammals, and exhibit several distinct tap...

  3. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  4. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  5. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  6. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  7. Estimating absorption coefficients of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM using a semi-analytical algorithm for southern Beaufort Sea waters: application to deriving concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Matsuoka

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of papers have suggested that freshwater discharge, including a large amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, has increased since the middle of the 20th century. In this study, a semi-analytical algorithm for estimating light absorption coefficients of the colored fraction of DOM (CDOM was developed for southern Beaufort Sea waters using remote sensing reflectance at six wavelengths in the visible spectral domain corresponding to MODIS ocean color sensor. This algorithm allows the separation of colored detrital matter (CDM into CDOM and non-algal particles (NAP through the determination of NAP absorption using an empirical relationship between NAP absorption and particle backscattering coefficients. Evaluation using independent datasets, which were not used for developing the algorithm, showed that CDOM absorption can be estimated accurately to within an uncertainty of 35% and 50% for oceanic and coastal waters, respectively. A previous paper (Matsuoka et al., 2012 showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations were tightly correlated with CDOM absorption in our study area (r2 = 0.97. By combining the CDOM absorption algorithm together with the DOC versus CDOM relationship, it is now possible to estimate DOC concentrations in the near-surface layer of the southern Beaufort Sea using satellite ocean color data. DOC concentrations in the surface waters were estimated using MODIS ocean color data, and the estimates showed reasonable values compared to in situ measurements. We propose a routine and near real-time method for deriving DOC concentrations from space, which may open the way to an estimate of DOC budgets for Arctic coastal waters.

  8. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, da J.J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being

  9. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. The study offers two important conclusions. The challenges for innovation can be perceived along three dimensions: design innovation, the implementation of innovation and functional area of innovation. And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations.

  10. Innovation in brazilian small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza Alencar Naas

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interfaces and boundaries of innovation orientation of Brazilian MSEs because despite the importance of innovation for Brazilian MSEs, a thorough analysis of such initiatives in Brazil still has not actually happened. The search was developed from a quantitative approach, of applied nature and descriptive. For that a structured questionnaire was used where were interviewed 700 MSEs using a probabilistic sampling. The study offers two important conclusions. The ...

  11. Northern and Southern Somali on the outskirts of Aarhus – a linguistic ethnographic analysis of language and belonging across time and space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugaard, Line Møller

    In this paper, I present a linguistic ethnographic analysis of how children make meaning of language and belonging across time and space. The empirical starting point is ‘mother tongue teaching’ in Somali in a primary school on the outskirts of Aarhus, Denmark. ‘Mother tongue teaching......’ is the official Danish term for teaching of languages such as Somali or Arabic, taking place within public primary and lower secondary schools and targeted at pupils believed to have these languages as their ’mother tongue’. At the same time a profoundly national construction and an inherently transnational...... phenomenon, mother tongue teaching provides a privileged site for the exploration of multilingual children’s investment in languages, places and national identities.In the linguistic ethnographic analysis presented in the paper, I draw on Laursen and Mogensen’s conceptualization of ‘timespacing competence...

  12. Micropolitics of the work in the Brazilian Family Health Program: do caretakers also need care?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Senna de Oliveira Neto

    2011-01-01

    The space of work micropolitics in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy is a scenario where the protagonism of workers and users of health services takes place. The objective of this article was to recognize and study the diverse, creative, and dynamic potential of how the activities in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy are organized and, mainly, to see the other face of the health care technology: the health of the health workers. This is a qualiquantitative exploratory study, developed b...

  13. Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast Plesiomonasshigelloides e patógenos da família Aeromonadaceae isolados de mamíferos marinhos da costa sul e sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ and southern (RS coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl, APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P.shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A.veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%, A. caviae (12.3%, A. hydrophila (9.6% and P.shigelloides (7%. The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.O ambiente aquático é o habitat de vários microrganismos, incluindo Plesiomonasshigelloides e espécies de Aeromonas, os quais são patogênicos para o homem e os animais. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a ocorrência destes patógenos a partir de swabs coletados de mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados acidentalmente em redes de pesca nas regiões costeiras do sudeste (RJ e sul (RS do Brasil. O total de 198 swabs de 27 espécimes de mamíferos marinhos, incluindo 11 espécies distintas, foi coletado por profissionais dos institutos DEENSP, GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS e enviado ao LRNCEB

  14. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception.

  15. Amazon, priority for Brazilian National Defense Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pereira, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    .... The Brazilian national defense policy, issued in 1996, the first in the history of the country, established directives to orient the Brazilian military strategic planning as well as diplomatic...

  16. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  17. Brazilian medical publications: citation patterns for Brazilian-edited and non-Brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Cunha-Melo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, the quality of a scientific article depends on the periodical in which it is published and on the number of times the article is cited in the literature. In Brazil, the criteria for the evaluation of this scientific production are improving. However, there is still some resistance, with authors arguing that Brazilian publications must be preferentially addressed to the national readers and, therefore, they should ideally be written in Portuguese. In order to determine the kind of scientific journals cited in the reference lists of articles published in medical periodicals edited in Brazil, in the present study we determine the rate of Portuguese/English citations. Three issues of 43 periodicals (19 indexed in SciELO, 10 in PubMed, 10 in LILACS, and 4 in the ISI-Thompson base of different medical specialties were analyzed, and the number of both Portuguese and English citations in the reference list of each article was recorded. The results showed that in Brazilian-edited journals the mean number of citations/article was 20.9 ± 6.9 and the percentage of citations of international non-Brazilian periodicals was 86.0 ± 11.2%. Of the latter, 94.4 ± 7.0 are indexed by ISI-Thompson. Therefore, we conclude that Brazilian medical scientists cite the international non-Brazilian periodicals more than the national journals, and most of the cited papers are indexed by ISI-Thompson.

  18. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-01-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull po...

  19. Isozymic variability in a Brazilian collection of annatto (Bixa orellana L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Jane Fiuza Rodrigues Portela de; Robinson,Ingrid Peters; Alfenas, Acelino Couto

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to optimize the isozyme electrophoresis technique for Bixa orellana, and use isozyme markers for a preliminary survey on the genetic variability in Brazilian annatto germplasm accessions. Collection consisted of seed samples from sixty open pollinated trees, representing two Northern and four Southern geographic provenances. The extraction, electrophoresis, and interpretation of annatto isozymes are described. Three out of the twenty-one identified isozyme loc...

  20. Comparison of frailty among Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Priscila Yukari Sewo; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Yamada, Minoru; Ogita, Mihoko; Arai, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    To investigate frailty in Japanese, Brazilian Japanese descendants and Brazilian older women. The collected data included sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, and the frailty index Kihon Checklist. We analyzed the differences between the mean scores of Kihon Checklist domains (using ancova) and the percentage of frail women (using χ(2)-test). We carried out a binary logistic regression with Kihon Checklist domains. A total of 211 participants (Japanese n = 84, Brazilian Japanese descendants n = 55, Brazilian n = 72) participated in this research. The Brazilian participants had the highest total Kihon Checklist scores (more frail), whereas the Brazilian Japanese descendants had the lowest scores (P Brazilian group had more participants with oral dysfunction (P Brazilian women were likely to be more frail than the participants in other groups. More than the environment itself, the lifestyle and sociodemographic conditions could affect the frailty of older Brazilian women. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  1. INNOVATION IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodrigues, Tonny Kerley de Alencar; Lira, Átila De Melo; Naas, Irenilza De Alencar

    2015-01-01

    .... And the data confirms that small Brazilian companies generally have difficulties to sell their innovations. Keywords: innovation, small enterprises, patents. 1. INTRODUCTION Companies worldwide are looking to technological innovation as feasible for your market expansion (BURNS; STALKER, 1961; NELSON, 1993) alternative. In Brazil, the change an...

  2. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  3. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  4. THE INSTITUTIONAL BASIS OF GERMAN-BRAZILIAN COMMUNITIES (PICADAS: THE COMMONS AND SOCIAL CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Relly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of German immigration to Brazil knows just a little about the structures that animated social life in Germany before the process of immigration. Therefore, the americanização of the German-Brazilian settlers is considered solely from the perspective of the host society, creating a gap that needs to be filled in order to understand another dimension of German immigration, the European side and influence over it. In this sense, it is possible to perceive that generally the social origins of German-Brazilian settlers is linked to a village context experience, especially those who came from Western and Southwestern Germany. Historically these villages were social organizations able to control natural and economic resources under their jurisdictions with a great political and economic autonomy. The so called commons were a feature of the German agrarian history, and its institutions of participatory, mutual, protectionist, communal management had the effect to generate social capital, one social attribute that supported the formation of the German-Brazilian communities in Southern Brazil. Thus, the German-Brazilian communities were forged under a solid institutional tradition and under a substrate of social capital, facilitating the emergence of autonomous and cooperative behaviors that resulted on the communitarian structures and on the associativism phenomenon. The method was the analytical descriptive based on research in primary sources in Brazilian and German Archives.

  5. Multiple sclerosis: report on 200 cases from Curitiba, Southern Brazil and comparison with other Brazilian series Esclerose múltipla: descrição de 200 casos de Curitiba, Paraná e comparação com outras séries brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Oleschko Arruda

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the clinical and laboratorial findings of 200 patients in Curitiba, Southern Brazil (25°25'40" S; 49°16'23" W-GR, with multiple sclerosis (MSaccording to Poser's criteria. The patients were classified as: clinically definite (A1 and A2 - 142 patients (71%; laboratory-supported definite - 42 patients (21%; and clinically probable - 16 patients (8%. Relapsing-remitting (RR form was the most common clinical presentation, with 182 (91%, followed by primary progressive (PP(16 cases, 8%, and only 2 cases with secondarily progressive form (SP. Nine women and 7 men totalized the 16 PP cases. The mean age of onset was 32.0±9.9 (median 32 years. The gender ratio was female 1.8:1 male. All patients, except 3 African-Brazilian, were white. Seven (3.5% patients developed a clinical history of Devic's syndrome. The initial clinical picture included brainstem/cerebellar syndrome in 126 (63% cases, sensorial findings in 106 (53%patients, motor (pyramidal syndrome in 102 (49.5%, and optic neuritis in 79 (39.5% cases. 122 (61% patients had a final EDSS score or = 6.0. There was no significant correlation between the number of relapses or duration of disease with EDSS scores (Spearman's test. Only 14 (7% of the total number presented the benign form (EDSSOs autores analisaram retrospectivamente 200 pacientes portadores de esclerose múltipla de acordo com os critérios de Poser (1983. Cento e quarenta e dois (71% dos casos possuíam a forma clinicamente definida, 42 (21% a forma definida laboratorialmente e 16 (8% a forma clinicamente provável. A forma recorrente-remitente (RR foi a mais comumente observada (182 casos, 91%, seguida pela forma progressiva primária (PP(16 casos, 8%, e somente 2 pacientes com a forma secundariamente progressiva. A idade média de início da doença foi 32,0±9,9 anos (mediana 32 anos.A relação entre os gêneros foi mulheres 1,8:1 homens. Todos os pacientes eram da raça branca, com exceção de 3 pacientes afro

  6. Evaluating fire danger in Brazilian biomes: present and future patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Libonati, Renata

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is expected to have a significant impact on fire occurrence and activity, particularly in Brazil, a region known to be fire-prone [1]. The Brazilian savanna, commonly referred to as cerrado, is a fire-adapted biome covering more than 20% of the country's total area. It presents the highest numbers of fire events, making it particularly susceptible to changes in climate. It is thus essential to understand the present fire regimes in Brazilian biomes, in order to better evaluate future patterns. The CPTEC/INPE, the Brazilian Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Research at the Brazilian National Institute of Space Research developed a fire danger index based on the occurrence of hundreds of thousands of fire events in the main Brazilian biomes [2]: the Meteorological Fire Danger Index (MFDI). This index indicates the predisposition of vegetation to be burned on a given day, for given climate conditions preceding that day. It relies on daily values of air temperature, relative humidity, accumulated precipitation and vegetation cover. In this study we aim to access the capability of the MFDI to accurately replicate present fire conditions for different biomes, with a special focus on cerrado. To this end, we assess the link between the MFDI as calculated by three different reanalysis (ERA-Interim, NCEP/DOE Reanalysis 2 and MERRA-2) and the observed burned area. We further calculate the validated MFDI using a regional climate model, the RCA4 as forced by EC-Earth from CORDEX, to understand the ability of the model to characterize present fire danger. Finally, the need to calibrate the model to better characterize future fire danger was also evaluated. This work was developed within the framework of the Brazilian Fire-Land-Atmosphere System (BrFLAS) Project financed by the Portuguese and Brazilian science foundations, FCT and FAPESP (project references FAPESP/1389/2014 and 2014/20042-2). [1] KRAWCHUK, M.A.; MORITZ, M.A.; PARISIEN, M.A.; VAN DORN, J

  7. [The Indian in Brazilian photography: incursions into image and medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacca, Fernando de

    2011-03-01

    The article explores contradictions and convergences between a medium (photography) and the image of the Brazilian Indian from the perspective of the history of Brazilian photography. During the first of three distinct moments, the image of the Indian was of someone exotic, in contradiction with the modern meaning of photography under the Second Empire. During the second moment, in the first fifty years of the twentieth century, the boundaries between ethnography and Brazil as a nation were blurred, as exemplified by the Rondon Commission/Indian Protection Bureau's Research Section (Serviço de Proteção ao Índio) and Brazil's modern photojournalism, as found in the magazine Cruzeiro. During the third moment, the expressions of an ethno-poetry present in the photographs of Cláudia Andujar can be seen to blend medium and image as an ethnographic space in contemporary art.

  8. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

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    André da Costa Monini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper jaw anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  9. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  10. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

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    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  11. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  12. Perspectives on Global and Regional Security and Implications of Nuclear and Space Technologies: U.S.-Brazil Strategic Dialogue, Phase 2 Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    continue, and there may be opportunities to resume U.S.- Brazilian cooperation on the International Space Station . U.S. experts noted, however, that...Honduras, Libya and elsewhere. Brazilians , for their part, viewed as hypocritical the U.S. support for a voluntary code of conduct for outer space , rather...in Brazil’s calculations. There is improved potential for productive collaboration in space , according to U.S. and Brazilian experts. Brazil-U.S

  13. Atherinella blackburni (Schultz, 1949 at Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, SP: ecological characterization and distribution on the Brazilian coast (Teleostei: Atheriniformes: Atherinopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GMT. Mattox

    Full Text Available Atherinella blackburni is a silverside species whose occurrence on the Brazilian coast was not properly registered until recently. So far, records of its distribution along the Brazilian shore were limited to Itaparica Island, Bahia State, and Porto Inhaúma, Rio de Janeiro State. In a recent survey of the ichthyofauna of Itamambuca Beach, Ubatuba, São Paulo State, 100 specimens of this species were collected, yielding a considerable source of information regarding its ecology and a new southern limit of its distribution. A detailed survey of an ichthyological collection revealed lots of this species from regions of the Brazilian Northeast, resulting in a northward expansion of the occurrence of A. blackburni in Brazilian waters. Besides the populations found on the Brazilian coast, the species also occurs discontinuously in the Atlantic coasts of Costa Rica, Panama and Venezuela. Meristic and morphometric analysis showed overlapped values between Brazilian populations and the ones closer to the Caribbean. An ecological study of A. blackburni at Itamambuca Beach revealed that it is a predominantly diurnal species with preference for warm and salty waters, often occurring in sandy-bottom environments. It was more abundant in Summer and Winter, when individuals with smaller values of length and weight also occurred.

  14. Passages on Brazilian scientific cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Jane; da Silva, Cicero Inacio; Suppia, Alfredo; Stalbaum, Brett

    2017-07-01

    The article examines the conditions of production and recognition of scientific cinema in Brazil by comparing three distinct moments and contexts: the first moment takes place in the nineteenth century, and it is related to the contribution of a Brazilian astronomer otherwise little known to Brazilian film scholars, the second addresses Benedito Junqueira Duarte's voluminous mid-twentieth-century filmography, and the third moment documents recent scientific film experiences within ultra high resolution movies transmitted over photonic networks. Future trajectories for aesthetic concerns and practical issues such as the archiving of ultra high definition cinema are usefully informed by these histories of scientific cinema, even as a current generation of multidisciplinary teams including scientists, filmmakers, computer scientists, and network engineers reinvent, rediscover, and necessarily expand the scientific cinema toward concerns of real time collaboration and teaching.

  15. Brands Repositioning: Brazilian case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Serralvo, Francisco Antonio; Furrier, Márcio Tadeu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases) of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing...

  16. Brazilian Participation in World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-15

    internal rebellions and secessionist movements such as the Canudos rebellion in 1897 and 1898 in Bahia province. As a 2 result, the Brazilian Army...Brazilian Army would play an important role in ending this dictatorship. Brazil had accepted large numbers of Italian and German immigrants for more than...including the Brazilian Armed Forces. They had a significant influence on decision makers. In the 1930s, German immigrants numbered more than 900,000 and

  17. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  18. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

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    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  19. Comparative study on the ionospheric response to minor and major sudden stratospheric events in the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Vieira, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Total electron Content (TEC), derivate from GPS, becomes one of the most powerful techniques to study the space-time ionospheric (F-region) electrodynamics, during the quiet and disturbed periods. The number of GPS stations in Brazil increased significantly during the last few years; currently more than 100 GPS stations are in operation over the Brazilian region. The GPS-TEC values are derived using the differential delay technique from the dual frequency measurements at L1 and L2 frequencies over the considered locations at equatorial and low latitudes. The present study investigates the ionospheric total electron content (GPS-TEC) response in the Southern Hemisphere equatorial and low latitudes, due to major and minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events, which took place during 2009 and 2012. During both the SSW events, the TEC values are depleted to the order of 20-30% all over the Brazil from equator to beyond Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) regions. In addition, the EIA were suppressed during the SSW events for several days. However, the TEC depletion and EIA suppression lasted for a longer period during SSW-2012 when compared with the SSW-2009; despite the SSW-2012 is considerd as a minor event.

  20. Estimativa do balanço de radiação por sensoriamento remoto de diferentes usos de solo no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira / Estimative of radiation balance by remote sensing of different soil uses in the brazilian southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use have motivated research on the dynamics of radiative and energy exchange in the Brazilian Amazon, which in turn cause demand for such data on the surface in spatial and temporal scales. While measuring these changes in micrometeorological towers provides punctual results, remote sensing provides accurate and low cost results to estimate them on a regional scale. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of estimates of net radiation and biophysical parameters from remote sensing in different land uses in southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Four sites were selected with soil covers by natural Amazon forest, Amazon managed forest, pasture and silvopastoral system. The net radiation and biophysical parameters (NDVI, leaf area index, albedo and radiometric temperature were estimated by the SEBAL algorithm, using images from the Landsat TM sensor 5 in July of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The NDVI, LAI, albedo and net radiation were higher in natural forest, followed by managed forest, grassland and silvopastoral system. Radiometric surface temperature were higher in the silvopastoral system followed by pasture, natural forest and managed forest.

  1. History of Science, Physics, and Art: A Complex Approach in Brazilian Syllabuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th…

  2. Narratives of Brazilian Modernism. Tarsila do Amaral and the Anthropophagic Movement as Aesthetic Decolonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Lucero

    2015-01-01

    this image the igures blend into their own environment, imbued in a visual gigantism that can seem threatening. The surrounding jungle recreated a version of tropicalism as a space of power or synergy set in a local atmosphere, which distanced itself from preconcieved ways of symbolizing the Brazilian landscape, and reconstructed a vigorous visuality that confronted the stereotyped invention of the American landscape.

  3. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  4. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repullo Junior, Rodolpho; Gomes, Jorge da Rocha

    2005-01-02

    Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. Qualitative study. Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Publica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights guarantees and amplifies the improvement of health and working conditions.

  5. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  6. Stability predicts genetic diversity in the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Hickerson, Michael J; Haddad, Célio F B; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Moritz, Craig

    2009-02-06

    Biodiversity hotspots, representing regions with high species endemism and conservation threat, have been mapped globally. Yet, biodiversity distribution data from within hotspots are too sparse for effective conservation in the face of rapid environmental change. Using frogs as indicators, ecological niche models under paleoclimates, and simultaneous Bayesian analyses of multispecies molecular data, we compare alternative hypotheses of assemblage-scale response to late Quaternary climate change. This reveals a hotspot within the Brazilian Atlantic forest hotspot. We show that the southern Atlantic forest was climatically unstable relative to the central region, which served as a large climatic refugium for neotropical species in the late Pleistocene. This sets new priorities for conservation in Brazil and establishes a validated approach to biodiversity prediction in other understudied, species-rich regions.

  7. HLA Haplotypes and Genotypes Frequencies in Brazilian Chronic Periodontitis Patients

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    Emília Ângela Sippert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigens (HLA have a pivotal role in immune response and may be involved in antigen recognition of periodontal pathogens. However, the associations of HLA with chronic periodontitis (CP have not been previously studied in the Brazilian population. In an attempt to clarify the issue of genetic predisposition to CP, we examined the distribution of HLA alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in patients from Southern Brazil. One hundred and eight CP patients and 151 healthy and unrelated controls with age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched were HLA investigated by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific oligonucleotides. To exclude smoking as a predisposing factor, statistical analyses were performed in the total sample and in nonsmoking individuals. The significant results showed a positive association of the A∗02/HLA-B∗40 haplotype with CP (total samples: 4.2% versus 0%, Pc = 0.03; nonsmokers: 4.3% versus 0%, Pc = 0.23 and a lower frequency of HLA-B∗15/HLA-DRB1∗11 haplotype in CP compared to controls (total samples: 0.0% versus 4.3%, Pc = 0.04; nonsmokers: 0 versus 5.1%, Pc = 1.0. In conclusion, the HLA-A∗02/B∗40 haplotype may contribute to the development of CP, while HLA-B∗15/DRB1∗11 haplotype might indicate resistance to disease among Brazilians.

  8. HLA Haplotypes and Genotypes Frequencies in Brazilian Chronic Periodontitis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippert, Emília Ângela; Silva, Cléverson de Oliveira e; Ayo, Christiane Maria; Marques, Silvia Barbosa Dutra; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete Laguila; Sell, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have a pivotal role in immune response and may be involved in antigen recognition of periodontal pathogens. However, the associations of HLA with chronic periodontitis (CP) have not been previously studied in the Brazilian population. In an attempt to clarify the issue of genetic predisposition to CP, we examined the distribution of HLA alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in patients from Southern Brazil. One hundred and eight CP patients and 151 healthy and unrelated controls with age-, gender-, and ethnicity-matched were HLA investigated by polymerase chain reaction with sequence specific oligonucleotides. To exclude smoking as a predisposing factor, statistical analyses were performed in the total sample and in nonsmoking individuals. The significant results showed a positive association of the A∗02/HLA-B∗40 haplotype with CP (total samples: 4.2% versus 0%, P c = 0.03; nonsmokers: 4.3% versus 0%, P c = 0.23) and a lower frequency of HLA-B∗15/HLA-DRB1∗11 haplotype in CP compared to controls (total samples: 0.0% versus 4.3%, P c = 0.04; nonsmokers: 0 versus 5.1%, P c = 1.0). In conclusion, the HLA-A∗02/B∗40 haplotype may contribute to the development of CP, while HLA-B∗15/DRB1∗11 haplotype might indicate resistance to disease among Brazilians. PMID:26339134

  9. SAFARI 2000 Estimated BVOC Emissions for Southern African Land Cover Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative...

  10. Vocal patterns of adult females and juveniles Caiman yacare (Crocodilia: Alligatoridae) in Brazilian Pantanal wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicuro, Fernando L; Iack-Ximenes, Gilson E; Wogel, Henrique; Bilate, Marcos

    2013-09-01

    The Paraguayan caiman (Caiman yacare) is the main Caimaninae species occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal Wetland. Despite the relative availability of works focused on biology and conservation of the Paraguayan caiman, almost nothing is known about its vocal structure and behavior. We recorded aggressive calls of adult caiman females guarding nests and, afterwards, the distress calls of the new born juvenile caimans in seasonally flooded areas of the Nhecolândia (Southern Pantanal). The results of both observations and sonographic analyses diverged from studies with other crocodilian species. Aggressive vocalization of adult females of the Paraguayan caiman was longer and more complex than the same vocalization of larger Alligatoridae species. Vocalizations of the young caimans presented interspecific differences with other crocodilian offsprings. Moreover, we found statistically significant intraspecific variation in the distress call structure among different pods, even separated by few kilometers. Differences in distress call structure were tested by Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA). We obtained the squared Mahalanobis distances between the acoustic multivariate spaces of each pod provided by the CDA and compared with the geographic distance between the bays of origin of each pod through Mantel Test. The geographic distance by itself did not explain the differences found in the structure of the vocalization of young caimans from different pods. The adult females of Paraguayan caiman positively responded to playbacks of calls from juvenile caimans from pods of other regions, as well as to rough imitations of distress call. Since the adult caimans showed protective responses to quite heterogeneous vocalizations of distress by juveniles, we hypothesized that the variation in the distress call pattern may be associated to a low specificity in sound recognition by adult caimans.

  11. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  12. Towards a spatial development perspective for Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chakwizira, J

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure equitable development in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region, unravelling and understanding the role that physical space and spatial structures play in economic growth is of cardinal importance. In this regard...

  13. INDIGENOUS SPACES IN COLONIAL DOCUMENTS

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    Bartira Ferraz Barbosa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The indigenous spaces constituted at the beginning of the colonial period represented a threat to the plans of implantation and development of the Portuguese-Brazilian colonial economy. Although little studied, they were distributed along the coast and inland of the captaincy of Pernambuco as the documents selected for this study point out. It is a question of the analysis of sources about cultures, spaces and indigenous frontiers, subjects that did not receive in-depth interpretations when studying the growth of Portuguese or Dutch colonial space.

  14. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  15. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  16. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

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    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  17. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

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    Octavio Ianni

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Brazilian Children's Drawings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokrocki, Mary

    2000-01-01

    Reports on insights about sociocultural influences on Brazilian children's drawings, using visual anthropology to examine children's drawings that depicted what they like to do. Discusses visual anthropology, provides information on Brazilian educational influences, and presents the context and findings of the study. (CMK)

  19. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. IV. Alopoglossidae, Gymnophthalmidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2017-05-22

    We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions. As a whole, seven taxa (including one species complex) are widespread in Amazonia, six are restricted to eastern Amazonia, seven to western Amazonia, two to southwestern Amazonia, 11 to southern Amazonia, 11 to northern Amazonia (either in part of it or widespread in the Guiana region), and six to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, four species present unique distributions. Considering this study and the other three catalogues of distribution of lizards already published, the total number of lizard species from Brazilian Amazonia increased from 97 to 142 species-level tava. It represents an increase of 45 species from the region since the last revision.

  20. Brazilian coral reefs in a period of global change: A synthesis

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    Zelinda M. A. N. Leão

    Full Text Available Abstract Brazilian coral reefs form structures significantly different from the well-known reef models, as follows: (i they have a growth form of mushroom-shaped coral pinnacles called "chapeirões", (ii they are built by a low diversity coral fauna rich in endemic species, most of them relic forms dating back to the Tertiary, and (iii the nearshore bank reefs are surrounded by siliciclastic sediments. The reefs are distributed in the following four major sectors along the Brazilian coast: the northern, the northeastern and the eastern regions, and the oceanic islands, but certain isolated coral species can be found in warmer waters in embayments of the southern region. There are different types of bank reefs, fringing reefs, isolated "chapeirões" and an atoll present along the Brazilian coast. Corals, milleporids and coralline algae build the rigid frame of the reefs. The areas in which the major coral reefs occur correspond to regions in which nearby urban centers are experiencing accelerated growth, and tourism development is rapidly increasing. The major human effects on the reef ecosystem are mostly associated with the increased sedimentation due to the removal of the Atlantic rainforest and the discharge of industrial and urban effluents. The effects of the warming of oceanic waters that had previously affected several reef areas with high intensity coral bleaching had not shown, by the time of the 2010 event, any episodes of mass coral mortality on Brazilian reefs.

  1. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

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    Michela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  2. Profile of Brazilian scientific production on A/H1N1 pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana

    2012-06-01

    In the last few years, bibliometric studies have proliferated, seeking to provide data on world research. This study analyzes the profile of the Brazilian scientific production in the A (H1N1) influenza field between 2009 and 2011. The research was conducted in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "H1N1" and "Brazil" were defined as the main topics. The data were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian state and institution in which the articles were produced, the impact factor of the journal and the language. The research revealed 40 documents (27 from MEDLINE, 16 from SciELO and 24 from LILACS). The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0977 to 8.1230. A similar amount of articles were written in English and Portuguese and São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, with 95% of the Brazilian production originating from the Southern and Southeastern regions. Linguistic data indicate that previous efforts made in order to improve the scientific production of Brazilian researchers making their observations attain a broader scientific audience produced results. It is necessary to assess the scientific studies, especially those conducted with public funds, in order to ensure that the results will benefit society.

  3. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  4. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    , which occupies the far southwest of the island, is largely under cloud.Prominent along the east coast are the Canterbury Plains, approximately 180 kilometers long and extending inland from the coast to the foothills of the Southern Alps. This is the largest area of flatland in New Zealand, and a rich agricultural region renowned for its wheat, wool, and livestock. Here the distance between the east and west coasts is little more than 150 kilometers.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Elementary education in brazilian legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Josiane Rose Petry; Vieira, Cleverton Elias

    2003-01-01

    The education was a present subject, directly or indirectly, in every Brazilian Constitutions. In the Federal Constitution of 1988, two aspects about education can be detached: the participation of the civil society in the elaboration of devices that regulate the national education and the treatment given to basic education, raised to the category of subjective public right. Child and Adolescent Statute practically repeats the devices of the&n...

  6. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  7. Visual sonority in Brazilian Sign Language literature

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    Marilyn Mafra Klamt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The idea of sonority in sign languages was treated by Perlmutter (1992 as perceptibility, a property of a segment that uses movement rather than one in which the hands stay in the same position. Sandler (1993 states that the visual salience of movement in sign languages plays a role similar to sonority in spoken languages. For Brentari (1998, perceptually, a sign is visible from considerable distances, and measurement of its visual sonority is based on the joints involved in its production. This work focuses on visual sonority in literature in Brazilian Sign Language and considers the relevance of manual and non-manual elements, rhythm, symmetry, the scale of signs, and the effect of video on this concept. Two signed stories “The King’s Parrot” and “Little Ping Pong Ball” were analysed, highlighting specific signs in which the use of joints, non-manual features, and other resources are influenced by the size of the performance space and the distance of the audience from the signing. Three types of ‘sonority’ were observed: in the movement of the whole body on the stage, in the size of arms and trunk movement, and in the hands. In addition to the joints, non-manual features, rhythm and symmetry play an important role in visual sonority and influence the viewer’s experience.

  8. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  9. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  10. [Toxicity and apple production in southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanovicz, Jó

    2010-03-01

    The article explores the links between the controversial apprehension of contaminated apples in southern Brazil in 1989 and the reactions of the apple industry to press reports on the use of pesticides in Brazilian orchards. The issue is framed within a broader analysis of the notions of toxicity and 'danger' surrounding the consumption of healthier food and the idea of 'food security,' notions that have begun taking hold in public and private life. It is argued that apple growers' responses to the problem can be better understood through a historical reading of the interactions between the biology of the apple tree, the agroecology of this monoculture, and the structures, actors, and discourses of the human and non-human groups in Brazil's apple-producing region.

  11. Describing the Corporeality: educational implications from the swing of brazilian football and dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Normando Gomes-da-Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the corporeality from its sign, the swing. Swing as the perceptive and expressive way of the cultural subject to relate to the Brazilian context. It´s about a descriptive research, with qualitative methodology and documentary type, which tecnic of data collect happened from photographics dippings (frame to frame extracted from two different videographic situations: the dribble of football and the movement of dance. The leading question of the study is characterized by: which are the educative implications that come from the Brazilian swing at football and on the dance? The two gestures described were: at football the Robinho´s dribble (Brazil x Ecuador, Maracanã/RJ, 2007 and on the dance, a performance analysis of the movement were given by Laban Movement Analysis (LMA, with its movement factors (time, space, weight and flow. The results show that the Brazilian swing can be deployed in pedagogical implications for sensory and multicultural education.

  12. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  13. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  14. The Brazilian Science Data Center (BSDC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ulisses Barres; Bodmann, Benno; Giommi, Paolo; Brandt, Carlos H.

    Astrophysics and Space Science are becoming increasingly characterised by what is now known as “big data”, the bottlenecks for progress partly shifting from data acquisition to “data mining”. Truth is that the amount and rate of data accumulation in many fields already surpasses the local capabilities for its processing and exploitation, and the efficient conversion of scientific data into knowledge is everywhere a challenge. The result is that, to a large extent, isolated data archives risk being progressively likened to “data graveyards”, where the information stored is not reused for scientific work. Responsible and efficient use of these large data-sets means democratising access and extracting the most science possible from it, which in turn signifies improving data accessibility and integration. Improving data processing capabilities is another important issue specific to researchers and computer scientists of each field. The project presented here wishes to exploit the enormous potential opened up by information technology at our age to advance a model for a science data center in astronomy which aims to expand data accessibility and integration to the largest possible extent and with the greatest efficiency for scientific and educational use. Greater access to data means more people producing and benefiting from information, whereas larger integration of related data from different origins means a greater research potential and increased scientific impact. The project of the BSDC is preoccupied, primarily, with providing tools and solutions for the Brazilian astronomical community. It nevertheless capitalizes on extensive international experience, and is developed in full cooperation with the ASI Science Data Center (ASDC), from the Italian Space Agency, granting it an essential ingredient of internationalisation. The BSDC is Virtual Observatory-complient and part of the “Open Universe”, a global initiative built under the auspices of the

  15. The phylogeography of African Brazilians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Vanessa F; Carvalho, Cláudia M B; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Bydlowski, Sérgio P; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2008-01-01

    Approximately four million Africans were taken as slaves to Brazil, where they interbred extensively with Amerindians and Europeans. We have previously shown that while most White Brazilians carry Y chromosomes of European origin, they display high proportions of African and Amerindian mtDNA lineages, because of sex-biased genetic admixture. We studied the Y chromosome and mtDNA haplogroup structure of 120 Black males from Sao Paulo, Brazil. Only 48% of the Y chromosomes, but 85% of the mtDNA haplogroups were characteristic of sub-Saharan Africa, confirming our previous observation of sexually biased mating. We mined literature data for mtDNA and Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies for African native populations from regions involved in Atlantic Slave Trade. Principal Components Analysis and Bayesian analysis of population structure revealed no genetic differentiation of Y chromosome marker frequencies between the African regions. However, mtDNA examination unraveled considerable genetic structure, with three clusters at Central-West Africa, West Africa and Southeast Africa. A hypothesis is proposed to explain this structure. Using these mtDNA data we could obtain for the first time an estimate of the relative ancestral contribution of Central-West (0.445), West (0.431) and Southeast Africa (0.123) to African Brazilians from Sao Paulo. These estimates are consistent with historical information. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Entangled local biologies: genetic risk, bodies and inequities in Brazilian cancer genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2017-08-01

    Engaging recent social science work examining the truth making claims of science and biomedicine, this paper explores how biology is being localised in Brazilian cancer genetics. It draws from ethnographic fieldwork in urban regions of southern Brazil working with and alongside patients, families and practitioners in cancer genetic clinics. It examines how different sorts of 'local biologies' are articulated in the context of research, clinical practice and among implicated patient communities and the way these can 'recursively' move across different spheres and scales of social action to extend and transform the meaning of the biological. It shows how the mattering of the biological in Brazilian cancer genetics is fundamentally informed by questions of inequity and care, even while multiple local biologies may obscure rather than reveal the biopolitics of cancer. In an era of epigenetics this raises new opportunities and challenges for anthropological analysis as intervention.

  17. [Translation and adaptation of the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener to Brazilian Portuguese].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrué, Andrea Moreira; Neves, Eliane Tatsch; Magnago, Tânia Solange Bosi de Souza; Cabral, Ivone Evangelista; Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira da; Hökerberg, Yara Hahr Marques

    2016-06-20

    This study aimed to elaborate the Brazilian version of the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener to assess internal consistency and inter-observer agreement. The stages included translation, back-translation, expert committee review, and pretest. Participation included 140 family members of children 0-12 years of age at health services in southern Brazil. Reliability was assessed with kappa statistic and Cronbach's alpha. In the assessment of clarity with health professionals, 80% rated the questions very clear. Prevalence of children with special health needs was 36%. Mean time for applying the instrument was 3.5 minutes. The process identified difficulties in understanding question number two. The instrument showed satisfactory internal consistency and perfect agreement. Future research should add to the psychometric analyses of the instrument's adequacy for the Brazilian context, thereby contributing to a standardized definition of this young age group's epidemiological profile within the public health scenario in Brazil.

  18. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  19. The Southern Supercluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Shyamal (Texas Univ., Austin (USA))

    1989-10-01

    The Southern Supercluster is described using data compiled from five catalogs, reduced to a homogeneous system following RC2. In terms of mass, luminosity, and mass-to-light ratio, the Southern Supercluster compares well with the Coma and Hercules superclusters, but is less massive than the Local Supercluster. It is shown that, even though the Southern Supercluster is the nearest supercluster to the Local Supercluster, it is well separated from the Local Supercluster. However, there is evidence of a tenuous stream of galaxies connecting the Southern Supercluster with the Perseus Supercluster. 30 refs.

  20. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  1. Self-efficacy scale for Brazilians with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alves Gastal

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Diabetes is a public health problem and good glycemic control is able to prevent or contain its complications. Self-efficacy is a key factor in successfully achieving behavior goals. The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the insulin management diabetes self-efficacy scale (IMDSES on type 1 diabetes patients from southern Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Validation study in two cities in southern Brazil. METHODS: The psychometric properties of IMDSES were evaluated in a population of type 1 diabetes patients (n = 213, from September to December 2004, who were attended within the Brazilian public healthcare system. Principal component analysis was conducted to develop the subscales. Cronbach’s alpha was used as the reliability coefficient. RESULTS: The analysis of psychometric properties resulted in an IMDSES consisting of 20 items and three subscales: diet (alpha: 0.83, insulin (alpha: 0.92 and general management (alpha: 0.78 and accounted for 53% of the variance. Criteria validity was investigated through two parameters: glycohemoglobin, which showed significant association with self-efficacy on the insulin subscale (p = 0.04, and the variable "adherence", which was significantly associated with self-efficacy on two subscales (p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the IMDSES is valid and reliable, and can be used to measure results from diabetes educational programs and to measure self-efficacy relating to diabetes management, for possible interventions.

  2. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    R.D. Castro; J.A. Oliveira; Vasconcelos,L.C.; Maciel,P.P.; Brasil,V.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian ...

  3. Demographic history of wood stork (Mycteria americana Brazilian Pantanal colonies revealed by mitochondrial DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Freitas Lopes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences to investigate the demographic history of the wood stork (Mycteria americana populations in the Brazilian Pantanal. Sequences of 390/460 bp fragment of the mtDNA control region were analyzed in 62 wood stork specimens from 8 colonies using neutrality tests, phylogeographic, and coalescent analyses. Population expansion was supported by the significantly negative values of Tajima’s (D = -2.071 and Fu’s (Fs = -14.544 statistics and the unimodal pattern of mismatch distribution. Nested clade analyses indicated a historic range expansion event and recurrent gene flow that was restricted by isolation by distance as explanations for the haplotype distribution among the sampled colonies. High genetic diversity and the strictly unidirectional gene flow pattern emphasized the conservation importance of preserving the southern Pantanal colonies. Coalescence analyses suggested that northern and southern colonies diverged approximately 6,250 years before the present (YBP, and that their most recent common ancestor was approximately 18,900 YBP. Our results suggest that the contemporary wood stork Pantanal population originated from a more geographically limited founder population. Potential source populations may have occurred in the southern Pantanal or ancestry may reside in populations inhabiting the Brazilian central plateau or areas closer to the equatorial region.

  4. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  5. Shakespeare in Southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa is interested in both literary and theatrical approaches to Shakespeare. Its geographical scope is not confined to Southern Africa. Contributions discussing the legacy of Shakespeare elsewhere in Africa, with a specific focus on the Shakespearean experience in particular African countries, ...

  6. Southern Gothic Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2017-01-01

    Provides an outline of Southern Gothic Literature, offers an argument about its history and shape, and discusses the scholarly literature surrounding Southern Gothic. Oxford Research Encyclopedia is an online peer-reviewed encyclopedia for researchers, teachers, and students interested in all...... facets of the study of literature...

  7. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  8. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  9. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  10. Developmental risks and psychosocial adjustment among low-income Brazilian youth

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Koller, Silvia Helena; Cerqueira-Santos, Elder; Morais, Normanda Araujo de

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to developmental risks in three domains (community, economic, and family), and relations between risks and psychosocial well-being, were examined among 918 impoverished Brazilian youth aged 14–19 (M =15.8 years, 51.9% female) recruited in low-income neighborhoods in one city in Southern Brazil. High levels of developmental risks were reported, with levels and types of risks varying by gender, age, and (to a lesser extent) race. Associations between levels of risks in the various doma...

  11. A new species of Troglobius (Collembola, Paronellidae, Cyphoderinae from a Brazilian iron cave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Zeppelini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Troglobius (Collembola: Paronellidae: Cyphoderinae is known only from the Southern Hemisphere, the two species found so far were described from caves in Madagascar and Brazil. In this paper we describe a new Brazilian species and complement the descriptions of the previously known species. The new species is a troglomorph and was collected in a single cave, in iron formations in the state of Minas Gerais. Brazil. The original diagnosis of the genus is supplemented with new characters based on observations of the new species.

  12. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  13. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  14. Phylodynamics of the Brazilian feline immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ortiz, Lucía; Junqueira, Dennis Maletich; Comerlato, Juliana; Costa, Cristina Santos; Zani, André; Duda, Naila Blatt; Tochetto, Caroline; Dos Santos, Raissa Nunes; da Costa, Fernanda Vieira Amorim; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2017-11-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), like other retroviruses, displays large genomic divergence when different isolates are compared. In this study, 31 FIV positive samples of domestic cats from Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil were used aiming at a detailed genomic characterization and a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of the virus in Brazil. The proviral env genes were partially amplified, sequenced and compared with another 237 sequences from different continents. We identified several Brazilian highly supported clades (A, B1, B2, C and D) that suggest independent events of introduction of FIV in Brazil. Forty six reference-sequences from the GenBank were used with our 31 sequences to infer the virus subtypes. Our sequences belong to the subtype B and three of them result from a recombination with the previously described subtype F. The other 28 Brazilian samples belonging to subtype B and another 46 Brazilian sequences from the GenBank were used to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor of each Brazilian clade, using a Bayesian approach and a relaxed molecular clock model. The analyses of Brazilian sequences suggest several different entries of the virus in the Brazilian cat population between 1981 and 1991. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  16. Space-time modeling of timber prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo Zhou; Joseph Buongriorno

    2006-01-01

    A space-time econometric model was developed for pine sawtimber timber prices of 21 geographically contiguous regions in the southern United States. The correlations between prices in neighboring regions helped predict future prices. The impulse response analysis showed that although southern pine sawtimber markets were not globally integrated, local supply and demand...

  17. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  18. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of southern Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho, Paula S; Ivar do Sul, Juliana A; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2010-03-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n=34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle's size or weight. Most items were found in the intestine. Plastic was the main ingested material. Twelve Procellariiformes (66%), two Sphenisciformes (22%), but none of the eight Charadriiformes were found to be contaminated. Procellariiformes ingested the majority of items. Plastic was also the main ingested material. The ingestion of debris by turtles is probably an increasing problem on southern Brazilian coast. Seabirds feeding by diverse methods are contaminated, highlighting plastic hazard to these biota. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The profile of Brazilian agriculture as source of raw material to obtain organic cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila de Paula Pereira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available With one of the most notable floras in the world for sustainable research, the Brazilian Amazon region currently counts on financial incentives from the Brazilian Government for private national and foreign businesses. The ongoing implantation of a Biocosmetics Research and Development Network (REDEBIO aims to stimulate research involving natural resources from the Brazilian states that make up the zone defined as “Amazônia Legal”. The objective of this region, still under development in Brazil, is principally to aggregate value to products manufactured in small local industries through the use of sustainable technology currently being established. Certain certified raw materials already included in the country’s sustainability program, have also begun to be cultivated according to the requirements of organic cultivation (Neves, 2009. The majority are species of Amazonian vegetation: Euterpe oleracea (Açai, Orbignya martiana (Babaçu, Theobroma grandi-florum (Cupuaçu, Carapas guianensis (Andiroba, Pentaclethra macroloba (Pracaxi, Copaifera landesdorffi (Copaiba, Platonia insignis (Bacuri, Theobroma cacao (Cacao, Virola surinamensis (Ucuuba and Bertholletia excelsa (Brazil nut. These generate phytopreparations, such as oils, extracts, and dyes that are widely used in the manufacture of Brazilian organic cosmetics with scientifically proven topical and capillary benefits. In the final balance, Brazilian organic cosmetics should continue to gain force over the next few years, especially with the regulation of the organic cosmetics market that is being drafted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, lines of ecologically aware products that provide quality of life for both for rural and metropolitan communities show a tendency to occupy greater space in the market.

  20. THE COURSE OF TRANSLATION AND INTERPRETATION PUBLICATIONS OF BRAZILIAN SIGN LANGUAGE IN SOME BRAZILIAN TRANSLATION JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aguiar dos Santos

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the course of publications about Translation and Interpretation of Brazilian sign language in some Brazilian Translation journals. Results show a sum of 36 works published, distributed over Translation journals of different regions of Brazil. The established subjects and the ones that emerged from 1990 to 2014 were also examined in these publications.

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives on framing social reality: A comparative study of Brazilian and Spanish TV news contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current essay draws upon the problem of visibility of social reality generated by Brazilian and Spanish TV news broadcasts through the selection and production of the same news contents that represent the social space of both countries. Given this scenario, we aim both to develop a methodology

  2. Evaluation of Sikora instead of SMP buffer to estimate the potential acidity of brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Santanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efficiency of the Shoemaker, McLean, Pratt (SMP buffer method in estimating soil acidity, the presence of p-nitrophenol and potassium chromate in the solution, both hazardous substances, has caused increasing environmental concerns. The purpose of this study was to test Sikora method (Sikora, 2006 as an alternative to the adapted SMP buffer method, generally used to estimate potential acidity of Southern Brazilian soils. For the test, 21 soils in the South and Cerrado regions of Brazil were sampled. (1 The potential acidity values of these soils range from 35.95 to 4.02 cmol c kg-1 of soil, reflecting a wide acidity variation. The Sikora buffer does not mimic the adapted SMP buffer used in Southern Brazil, since the former has a low ability to distinguish soils with different acidity from each other, probably due to the higher buffer capacity than of the adapted SMP solution.

  3. Is marine debris ingestion still a problem for the coastal marine biota of Southern Brazil?

    OpenAIRE

    Tourinho, Paula da Silva; Sul, Juliana Assunção Ivar do; Fillmann,Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The accumulation of synthetic debris in marine and coastal environments is a consequence of the intensive and continuous release of these highly persistent materials. This study investigates the current status of marine debris ingestion by sea turtles and seabirds found along the southern Brazilian coast. All green turtles (n = 34) and 40% of the seabirds (14 of 35) were found to have ingested debris. No correlation was found between the number of ingested items and turtle’s size or weight. M...

  4. A Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho: locus do processo de constituição da especialidade medicina do trabalho no Brasil na década de 1940 The Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine: a space for the constitution of occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz de Sá Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho (ABMT, criada em fins de 1944 como lócus de consolidação do campo da medicina do trabalho no Brasil. O grupo dos primeiros especialistas no campo da higiene e medicina do trabalho que trabalhavam no Ministério do Trabalho, Indústria e Comércio (MTIC foi o responsável pela fundação da ABMT, nas próprias dependências do Ministério. Contando com um núcleo inicial de 35 médicos e cinco engenheiros, todos oriundos do MTIC, a ABMT destacava como seu objetivo primordial, o estudo, a discussão e a divulgação dos assuntos referentes à medicina do trabalho. Entre as principais atividades promovidas pela ABMT, destacavam-se as reuniões científicas mensais (palestras de médicos convidados e de médicos e engenheiros do próprio MTIC, a organização de eventos científicos e a publicação de um periódico especializado. Logo após a sua criação, já em 1945, a ABMT passou a integrar o Bureau Internacional de Segurança do Trabalho, com sede em Montreal, Canadá e o Bureau Internacional do Trabalho, da Organização Internacional do Trabalho. Em dezembro de 1945, no momento da eleição da nova diretoria, criou-se a Revista Médica do Trabalho, cuja primeira publicação foi em 1946.This article analyzes the Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine, created in the end of 1944 as a space for consolidating occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil. The Association was founded by the first group of specialists in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine with seat at the facilities of the proper Ministry of Work, Industry and Commerce, where the founders were working. Counting on an initial core group of 35 physicians and five engineers, all of them coming from the Ministry, the main objective of the Association was to study, discuss and promote the issues related to workers' medicine. Among the most relevant activities promoted by the Association were

  5. Information literacy: perceptions of Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Maria do Carmo Avamilano; França, Ivan; Cuenca, Angela Maria Belloni; Bastos, Francisco I; Ueno, Helene Mariko; Barros, Cláudia Renata; Guimarães, Maria Cristina Soares

    2014-03-01

    Information literacy has evolved with changes in lifelong learning. Can Brazilian health researchers search for and use updated scientific information? To describe researchers' information literacy based on their perceptions of their abilities to search for and use scientific information and on their interactions with libraries. Semi-structured interviews and focus group conducted with six Brazilian HIV/AIDS researchers. Analyses comprised the assessment of researchers as disseminators, their interactions with librarians, their use of information and communication technology and language. Interviewees believed they were partially qualified to use databases. They used words and phrases that indicated their knowledge of technology and terminology. They acted as disseminators for students during information searches. Researchers' abilities to interact with librarians are key skills, especially in a renewed context where libraries have, to a large extent, changed from physical spaces to digital environments. Great amounts of information have been made available, and researchers' participation in courses does not automatically translate into adequate information literacy. Librarians must help research groups, and as such, librarians' information literacy-related responsibilities in Brazil should be redefined and expanded. Students must develop the ability to learn quickly, and librarians should help them in their efforts. Librarians and researchers can act as gatekeepers for research groups and as information coaches to improve others' search abilities. © 2013 Health Libraries Group of CILIP and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AF. Colombo

    Full Text Available After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica, considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  7. Brazilian Atlantic Forest lato sensu: the most ancient Brazilian forest, and a biodiversity hotspot, is highly threatened by climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, A F; Joly, C A

    2010-10-01

    After 500 years of exploitation and destruction, the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has been reduced to less the 8% of its original cover, and climate change may pose a new threat to the remnants of this biodiversity hotspot. In this study we used modelling techniques to determine present and future geographical distribution of 38 species of trees that are typical of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica), considering two global warming scenarios. The optimistic scenario, based in a 0.5% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, predicts an increase of up to 2 °C in the Earth's average temperature; in the pessimistic scenario, based on a 1% increase in the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, temperature increase may reach 4 °C. Using these parameters, the occurrence points of the studied species registered in literature, the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-set Predictions/GARP and Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions/MaxEnt we developed models of present and future possible occurrence of each species, considering Earth's mean temperature by 2050 with the optimistic and the pessimistic scenarios of CO2 emission. The results obtained show an alarming reduction in the area of possible occurrence of the species studied, as well as a shift towards southern areas of Brazil. Using GARP, on average, in the optimistic scenario this reduction is of 25% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 50%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction in their possible area of occurrence are: Euterpe edulis, Mollinedia schottiana, Virola bicuhyba, Inga sessilis and Vochysia magnifica. Using MaxEnt, on average, in the optimistic scenario the reduction will be of 20% while in the pessimistic scenario it reaches 30%, and the species that will suffer the worst reduction are: Hyeronima alchorneoides, Schefflera angustissima, Andira fraxinifolia and the species of Myrtaceae studied.

  8. Southern deepwater swamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Conner; Marilyn A. Buford

    1998-01-01

    The authors define, classify, and analyze the economic significance of southern deepwater swamps. They discuss the physical environment, vegetational communities, animal communities, management issues, and research needs for this complex resource.

  9. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  10. Southern pulpwood production, 1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon L. Robinson; Agnes C. Nichols

    1962-01-01

    Southern pulpwood production reached 24,230,728 cords in 1961--60 percent of the Nations total. Significant increases were noted in the consumption of hardwood and residues. But pine roundwood remained virtually unchanged for the third consecutive year.

  11. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  12. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  13. Análise qualitativa de variáveis relevantes para a aplicação do programa de terapia psicológica integrada em pacientes com esquizofrenia de três centros do Sul do Brasil Qualitative analysis of relevant variables for the application of the integrated psychological therapy program in patients with schizophrenia in three Southern Brazilian centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Zimmer

    2006-12-01

    ção do IPT para pacientes brasileiros.OBJECTIVES: This study aims at (1 presenting the main difficulties in the application of the integrated psychological therapy (IPT program for schizophrenia developed in Germany; and (2 documenting the strategies used to adapt this technique to the Brazilian reality. METHOD: Qualitative approach with data analysis through the examination of the contents of patients' verbalizations in discussion groups carried out after IPT therapy sessions with three groups of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, according to DSM-IV. These patients came from three different institutions that work with IPT: Instituto de Capacitação e Reorientação Ocupacional (Capacitation and Occupational Rehabilitation Institute, Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Center for Psychosocial Care at Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Center for Psychosocial Care in Tubarão (SC, Brazil, including a total of 22 outpatients. RESULTS: The following categories were determined: repetition and monotony; difficulty in doing some exercises; lack of practical usefulness in doing some exercises; and need of knowing more about the disease. Positive aspects related to the technique were also reported by the patients. DISCUSSION: The results reveal very relevant aspects for the understanding of the outpatients' compliance to a treatment developed in a European country. Our findings suggest that cultural differences may interfere with the application of IPT in terms of its structure. However, improvement in functioning, as related by the outpatients, motivates us to continue searching for the adaptation of this technique to our patients' characteristics. Nevertheless, further studies, such as controlled clinical trials, are necessary to assess the effectiveness of the IPT adaptation to Brazilian patients.

  14. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  15. Group dialogue empowers Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, R; Becker, J

    1995-11-01

    In response to an alarming rise in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among Brazilian women during the early 1990s, the Sociedade Civil Bem-Estar Familiar no Brazil (BEMFAM) developed a project that integrates HIV prevention with clinical services, community-based prevention activities, and sexually transmitted disease diagnosis and treatment. Preliminary interviews with clinic clients revealed that women's fears they would be considered unfaithful were impeding their ability to suggest condom use to their sexual partners. Condom use within a relationship was considered appropriate only for pregnancy prevention. To facilitate dialogue about sexual health, BEMFAM developed a women's group intervention project. All women who attend a BEMFAM clinic are invited to participate in a one-hour group discussion before receiving medical services. Novela-style booklets with stories and characters women can relate to their own lives are used to stimulate discussion. Participants learn to use condoms correctly by putting them on a penis model and anticipate situations in which they would be able to negotiate condom use. The group setting enables women to gain confidence and practice assertiveness in a non-threatening, supportive environment. Their identification with other women's stories empowers women to take control of their health and sexual lives. Between October 1994 and July 1995, 3464 women participated in group discussions organized by BEMFAM and 40,688 condoms were distributed; 18% of these women returned to the clinic for additional condoms.

  16. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  17. Aflatoxins in Brazilian Peanut Confection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-07

    The study's objectives were to evaluate a method for the determination of aflatoxins (AFs) in the Brazilian peanut confection "Paçoca" and to apply the method in investigating AF concentrations in Paçoca marketed in São Paulo State throughout 2013. Results of another survey conducted between 1994 and 2002 with another method were also reported. The current method consists of immunoaffinity column cleanup, LC with postcolumn derivatization for AF fluorescence enhancement, and fluorescence determination for the toxins. The mean recovery and mean RSD r values were 88.6 and 7.9%, respectively. The LODs for aflatoxin B 1 , aflatoxin B 2 , aflatoxin G 1 , and aflatoxin G 2 were 0.04, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.01 ng/g; and the LOQs were 0.15, 0.04, 0.07, and 0.04 ng/g, respectively. Results of the two survey studies indicate that the contamination of AFs in Paçoca remains a public health problem. In the 2013 survey, 71 of 100 samples (71%) had AFs contamination ranging from 0.3 to 41.8 ng/g, with 12 samples (12%) containing >20 ng/g of the toxins, whereas in the 1994-2002 survey, 73 of 150 samples (51%) had AFs contamination ranging from 9 to 1439 ng/g with 65 samples (45%) containing levels >20 ng/g.

  18. Case Study: Brazilian Virtual Herbarium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Virtual Herbarium (BVH is a project of the Brazillian Centro de Referência em Informação Ambiental (CRIA that has been running since 2009. The Virtual Herbarium provides an infrastructure that gathers digital records of plant specimens from primary source, mainly in Brazil, and makes them available through a central web portal. The source herbaria have complete control over what data is made through the portal and the data collected by BVH is made fully available. BVH in common with many data infrastructures, faces challenges in retaining funding. Most funding sources are project based and as has been noted elsewhere this creates problems for the sustaining of infrastructures. BVH therefore has an interest in demonstrating the use of the data resources it hosts. Through the OCSDNet project it has strengthened its capacity in this area to develop tools showing its wide usage. Overall the BVH hosts over eight million records (as of October 2017 and received 70 billion data requests in October 2017. Its users are mainly in Brazil but there is also substantial global usage. The primary uses are for research and education. There are a broad range of educational users, including universities but also schools. Through providing a central aggregation and access point BHV provides a data infrastructure that is greater – and more useful – than the sum of its parts.

  19. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  20. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  1. Airborne Particulates over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This map shows the abundance of airborne particulates, or aerosols, over Southern Africa during the period August 14 - September 29, 2000. Low particle concentrations are shown in shades of blue, and high concentrations in shades of red. The results were generated from MISR imagery acquired over this time period, and processed using MISR's automated software system. The approach for deriving aerosol amount makes use of the variation of scene brightness and contrast as a function of observation angle. Black areas over the land area correspond to places where a result was not obtained, for example, due to the presence of clouds.Extensive burning of grass and shrubland for land management and agriculture comprises a principal source of these aerosols. Vegetation availability increases northward, hence the greater abundance of haze and smoke in Angola and southern Zaire. The lower aerosol abundance around Lesotho and southeastern South Africa is consistent with the higher terrain elevations near the Drakensberg Mountains.MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Distribution and habitat of brazilian-pine according to global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira Wrege

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze., also known as brazilian-pine, is a forest native species from Brazil. A. angustifolia is more vulnerable to global climate change, considering it is living in cold and humid mountain regions from southern and southeastern Brazil. Among the native Brazilian forest species, it presents one of the greatest growth and genetic gain potential. It shows excellent wood quality and can still be used in human and animal food, presenting great economic, social and environmental value. In order to determine current distribution of the species and better know its habitat, we worked in the regions representing the borders of natural occurrence, identifying populations and getting trees altitude and geographycal position. Field information along with secondary data from the Environmental Information Center (CRIA were used to map current distribution of brazilian-pine and to project the distribution in the next decades, with the projection of future climate scenarios. Mapping studies of ecological niches in present and future climate scenarios characterizing the environments in which they are living is essential for a better understanding of the risks of species extinction and which mitigating measures could be adequate to reduce the impacts of global climate change on species, thus contributing to the conservation and knowledge of this important species.

  3. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often.

  4. Simultaneous multielement extraction with the Mehlich-1 solution for Southern Brazilian soils determined by ICP-OES and the effects on the nutrients recommendations to crops Extração multielementar simultânea com a solução de Mehlich-1 para solos do sul do Brasil e determinação por espectrofotometria de emissão ótica por plasma induzido e os efeitos nas recomendações de adubação para as culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bortolon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Cu and Zn extracted with the Mehlich-1 (M1 solution, by the 1.0 mol L-1 KCl (KCl and with the 0.1 mol L-1 HCl (HCl for representative soil types of the Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil were compared with those extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution determined with the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP. The amounts of nutrients extracted by the different methods showed high correlation coefficients. On average, the Mehlich-1 solution extracted similar amounts of P, determined with colorimetric and ICP methods, and, K determined with emission and ICP. The amounts of Ca and Mg extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution, determined by ICP, were similar to those extracted with the KCl solution determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution, determined by the ICP, were higher than those extracted with the 0.1 mol L-1 HCl determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the Mehlich-1 solution and ICP can be used for simultaneous multielement extraction and determination for Southern Brazilian soils. However, a conversion factor for values interpretation is needed. The use of the conversion factor to determine the K availability index in soils is adequate and does not affect the K recommendations for crops in southern Brazilian soils.As quantidades de macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Cu e Zn extraídos com a solução de Mehlich-1 (M1, por KCl 1,0 mol L-1 (KCl e com o HCl 0,1 mol L-1 (HCl, em solos representativos do Rio Grande do Sul, foram comparadas com as quantidades de nutrientes extraídos com a solução de Mehlich-1 determinados por espectrofotometria de emissão ótica por plasma induzido (ICP-OES. Os teores de nutrientes extraídos pelos diferentes métodos tiveram alto grau de correlação. Em média, a solução de Mehlich-1 extraiu quantidades semelhantes

  5. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  6. Global power and Brazilian nuclear decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metri, Paulo, E-mail: pmetri@terra.com.br [Clube de Engenharia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Brazilian society declares no intention to development a nuclear artifact. This is on its Constitution. The submarine of nuclear propulsion may be used as a weapon of defense and, therefore, has a peaceful objective. Nationalism must be applied only to benefit the society. Nationalist attention has always been devoted, at various occasions, to the Brazilian nuclear sector. However, since Brazilian society has many needs and the Brazilian government always had numerous energy options, this sector has not been developed as it could be. Other successful applications of nuclear technology, besides electric generation, are not considered here. At present, the country is experiencing a moment of harassment of liberal forces. It is difficult to know if the population understands what is going on, due to the traditional media control. This media belongs to the capital. The rise and the fall of the nationalist strand in a country follow a global tendency and also depend of actions of the international capital. In nationalist periods, more decisions with positive social impact are taken. Therefore, sovereignty is necessary to increase the benefits to society. Unfortunately, the Brazilians deceived by the companies of mass communication and corrupt political leaderships allow the country to be dominated. Even the armed forces had their projects paralyzed. The nuclear sector, as all other, suffers with the low budget and the future is difficult to predict. (author)

  7. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  8. The Brazilian Aerospace Industry: A Cast Study of the Technological Impact of Offset Agreements in a Recipient Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    research and is particularly involved in the SONDA rocket program. * IEAv - Instituto de Estudos Avangados - It develops research on frontier technologies...political and financial problems, Brazil’s space program, called Brazilian Complete Space Mission, Missdo Espacial Completa Brasileira - MECB, continues to...IAE. The program, denominated SONDA , has been using a stepping-stone approach based on four series of sounding rockets. More than 200 SONDA rockets

  9. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  10. The Performative Force of Bodies: Affective Realism in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Brandão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n3p161 This paper traces the emergence of a younger generation of Brazilian filmmakers whose works bypass traditional themes in Brazilian cinema such as urban violence and historical revisionism to engage in post-identity politics avoiding narratives of nation, class and gender. One of the most prominent features in these recent works is a questioning of the status of the image, which vacillates between fiction and documentary without a point of resolution. This vacillation can be understood in terms of the performative nature of films like The Monsters, The Residents, The Earth Giveth, The Earth Taketh and Avenida Brasilia Formosa. Such films are centered around improvisations that open up the image to the real. Therefore, these films produce a space between fiction and documentary, between reality and artifice that is productive and politically charged. This proposal aims at discussing this “Brand New” Brazilian Cinema (Novísssimo Cinema Brasileiro and the performative force of bodies in its affective realism. No longer a referent for a sociological truth about Brazilian society, realism is taken as something that the image does, i. e., as an affect that challenges the viewer's response-ability.

  11. Vulnerability of Brazilian municipalities to hantavirus infections based on multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Stefan Vilges; Fonseca, Lidsy Ximenes; de Araújo Vilges, Keline Medeiros; Maniglia, Fernanda Voietta Pinna; Pereira, Simone Valéria Costa; de Caldas, Eduardo Pacheco; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Hantavirus infection is an emerging zoonosis transmitted by wild rodents. In Brazil, high case-fatality rates among humans infected with hantavirus are of serious concern to public health authorities. Appropriate preventive measures partly depend on reliable knowledge about the geographical distribution of this disease. Incidence of hantavirus infections in Brazil (1993-2013) was analyzed. Epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic indicators were also used to classify cities' vulnerability to disease by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA). From 1993 to 2013, 1752 cases of hantavirus were registered in 16 Brazilian states. The highest incidence of hantavirus was observed in the states of Mato Grosso (0.57/100,000) and Santa Catarina (0.13/100,000). Based on MCDA analysis, municipalities in the southern, southeastern, and midwestern regions of Brazil can be classified as highly vulnerable. Most municipalities in northern and northeastern Brazil were classified as having low vulnerability to hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Although most human infections by hantavirus registered in Brazil occurred in the southern region of the country, a greater vulnerability to hantavirus was found in the Brazilian Midwest. This result reflects the need to strengthen surveillance where the disease has thus far gone unreported.

  12. Journalism and Society: Third Age coverage in Brazilian Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Celso Campos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to inventory the medias that also cover Third Age in Brazil, in view of that all the demographic pointers reveal the accented process of aging of the worldwide population, and therefore of our country. A time that the journalists cannot ignore the changes that occur in the interior of the society, in which it is the main area of performance of the journalism, we want to understand why the Brazilian media still dedicates so little space to this phenomenon of the elderly, in contrast of what occurs in other countries. We ask ourselves, then, if the change in the way of looking at the elderly one would not have to be born inside of the University, through the young who prepare for the exercise of the profession, with citizenship and social concern. In the Course of Journalism of the UNESP/Bauru a group of future journalists is searching this subject, for this they sign this article.

  13. Mechanical properties of nylon 6/Brazilian clay nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiao Leite, Amanda Melissa, E-mail: amandamelissa.lins@yahoo.com.b [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil); Fernandes Maia, Larissa, E-mail: larissa.ferma@gmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil); Damiao Pereira, Osanildo, E-mail: osanildodpereira@hotmail.co [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil); Araujo, Edcleide Maria, E-mail: edcleide@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil); Lira, Helio de Lucena, E-mail: helio@dema.ufcg.edu.b [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil); Benicio de Castro, Walman, E-mail: walman@dem.ufcg.edu.b [Department of Materials Engineering/Federal University of Campina Grande-UFCG, Av. Aprigio Veloso, 882, Campina Grande 58109-970, Pariba (Brazil)

    2010-04-16

    In this work, nanocomposites of nylon 6 with montmorillonite clay, untreated and treated with two different quaternary ammonium salts (Dodigen and Genamin) were obtained. The originality of this work is that the study includes the Brazilian clay, different clay treatments and the comparison of the results from mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction of nanocomposites. The results indicated that the quaternary ammonium salts were intercalated between the layers of clay, causing an expansion of the interlayer spacing. The obtained nanocomposites showed better mechanical properties when compared to nylon 6. Apparently the treated and untreated clay were compatible with the polymer matrix and presented an exfoliated nanocomposite structure. So, the nanocomposites showed an increase in tensile modulus and yield strength and a decrease in elongation.

  14. The Brazilian national system of forest permanent plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeda Maria Malheiros de Oliveira; Maria Augusta Doetzer Rosot; Patricia Povoa de Mottos; Joberto Veloso de Freitas; Guilherme Luis Augusto Gomide; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The Brazilian National System of Forest Permanent Plots (SisPP) is a governmental initiative designed and being implemented in partnership by the Ministry of Environment (MMA), represented by the National Forest Programme (PNF) and the Brazilian Forest Service (SFB) and the Embrapa Forestry (a research center of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation - Embrapa...

  15. [Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease, 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Gontijo, Eliane Dias; Luquetti, Alejandro; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida; Coura, José Rodrigues; Torres, Rosália Morais; Melo, José Renan da Cunha; Almeida, Eros Antonio de; Oliveira, Wilson de; Silveira, Antônio Carlos; Rezende, Joffre Marcondes de; Pinto, Fabiane Scalabrini; Ferreira, Antonio Walter; Rassi, Anis; Fragata, Abílio Augusto; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre de; Correia, Dalmo; Jansen, Ana Maria; Andrade, Glaucia Manzan Queiroz; Britto, Constança Felícia De Paoli de Carvalho; Pinto, Ana Yecê das Neves; Rassi, Anis; Campos, Dayse Elisabeth; Abad-Franch, Fernando; Santos, Silvana Eloi; Chiari, Egler; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Moreira, Eliane Furtado; Marques, Divina Seila de Oliveira; Silva, Eliane Lages; Marin-Neto, José Antonio; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Valente, Sebastião Aldo da Silva; Carvalho, Noêmia Barbosa; Cardoso, Alessandra Viana; Silva, Rafaella Albuquerque E; Costa, Veruska Maia da; Vivaldini, Simone Monzani; Oliveira, Suelene Mamede; Valente, Vera da Costa; Lima, Mayara Maia; Alves, Renato Vieira

    2016-06-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition that presents high morbidity and mortality burden, with considerable psychological, social, and economic impact. The disease represents a significant public health issue in Brazil, with different regional patterns. This document presents the evidence that resulted in the Brazilian Consensus on Chagas Disease. The objective was to review and standardize strategies for diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of Chagas disease in the country, based on the available scientific evidence. The consensus is based on collaboration and contribution of renowned Brazilian experts with vast knowledge and experience on various aspects of the disease. It is the result of close collaboration between the Brazilian Society of Tropical Medicine and the Ministry of Health. This document shall strengthen the development of integrated control measures against Chagas disease in the country, focusing on epidemiology, management, comprehensive care (including families and communities), communication, information, education, and research.

  16. [Ethical and political diversity in the right to health care in Brazilian municipalities along the MERCOSUR border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Dal Prá, Keli Regina; Fermiano, Sabrina

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in Brazilian municipalities along the border with the other Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) countries, identifying health care patterns and showing ethical and political diversity in the guarantee and use of the right to health care, characterizing demands on (and responses by) local health systems. The main variable was whether non-Brazilians had access to Brazilian health services. Data were collected using forms in municipalities with more than 10 thousand inhabitants, field diaries, meetings, and interviews. The definition of the right to health care varied greatly, indicating lack of common ethical and political principles and weak institutionality, with incapacity to absorb the demand by non-Brazilian patients. Agreements between the respective Federal governments of MERCOSUR countries had failed to reach the local level and were ignored by local health services managers and professionals. The foreign population remains uncertain about receiving care. In Brazil, the lack of uniform standards of care lead to ad hoc personal decisions by health services managers and professionals, thus hindering integrated action.

  17. Investigations of conjugate MSTIDS over the Brazilian sector during daytime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonah, O. F.; Kherani, E. A.; De Paula, E. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study focuses on the daytime medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs) observed at conjugate hemispheres. It is the first time that the geomagnetical conjugate daytime MSTIDs are observed over the South America sector. To observe the MSTID characteristics, we used detrended total electron content (TEC) derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems receivers located at Brazilian sector covering the Northern and Southern Hemispheres along the same magnetic meridian. The geographic grid of 1°N to 14°S in latitude and 60°S to 50°S in longitude was selected for this study. The cross-correlation method between two latitudes and longitudes in time was used to observe the propagation of the MSTID waves. The following features are noted: (a) MSTIDs are well developed at both hemispheres; (b) the peak MSTIDs amplitudes vary from one hemisphere to another; hence, we suppose that MSTIDs generated in Southern Hemisphere or Northern Hemisphere mirrored in the conjugate hemisphere; (c) the gravity wave-induced electric fields from one hemisphere map along the field lines and generate the mirrored MSTIDs in the conjugate region. To investigate the hemispheric mapping mechanism, a rough approximation for the integrated field line conductivity ratio of E and F regions is calculated using digisonde E and F region parameters. We noted that during the period of mapping the decrease in E region conductivity results in an increase in total conductivity. This shows that the E region was partially short circuited; hence, electric field generated at F region could map to the conjugate hemisphere during daytime: daytime MSTIDs at conjugate regions; mechanisms responsible for daytime electrified MSTIDs; gravity wave-induced electric field role in daytime MSTIDs.

  18. Allergen Microarray Indicates Pooideae Sensitization in Brazilian Grass Pollen Allergic Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Ferreira de Sousa Moreira

    Full Text Available Grass pollen, in particular from Lolium multiflorum is a major allergen source in temperate climate zones of Southern Brazil. The IgE sensitization profile of Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients to individual allergen molecules has not been analyzed yet.To analyze the IgE sensitization profile of a Brazilian grass pollen allergic population using individual allergen molecules.We analyzed sera from 78 grass pollen allergic patients for the presence of IgE antibodies specific for 103 purified micro-arrayed natural and recombinant allergens by chip technology. IgE-ELISA inhibition experiments with Lolium multiflorum, Phleum pratense extracts and a recombinant fusion protein consisting of Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5 and Phl p 6 were performed to investigate cross-reactivities.Within the Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients, the most frequently recognized allergens were Phl p 1 (95%, Phl p 5 (82%, Phl p 2 (76% followed by Phl p 4 (64%, Phl p 6 (45%, Phl p 11 (18% and Phl p 12 (18%. Most patients were sensitized only to grass pollen allergens but not to allergens from other sources. A high degree of IgE cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense, Lolium multiflorum and the recombinant timothy grass fusion protein was found.Component-resolved analysis of sera from Brazilian grass pollen allergic patients reveals an IgE recognition profile compatible with a typical Pooideae sensitization. The high degree of cross-reactivity between Phleum pratense and Lolium multiflorum allergens suggests that diagnosis and immunotherapy can be achieved with timothy grass pollen allergens in the studied population.

  19. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  20. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    RASKIN, SALMO; ALLAN, NASSER; TEIVE, HÉLIO A.G.; CARDOSO, FRANCISCO; HADDAD, MÔNICA SANTORO; LEVI, GILBERTO; BOY, RAQUEL; LERENA JR, JUAN; SOTOMAIOR, VANESSA SANTOS; JANZEN-DÜCK, MÔNICA; JARDIM, LAURA BANNACH; FELLANDER, FLÁVIO R.; ANDRADE, LUIZ AUGUSTO FRANCO

    2000-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repe...

  1. Migration and Inter-Cultural Relations in the Southern Levant and the Israeli-Palestinian Space Migrations et relations interculturelles dans le Levant Sud et l'espace israélo-palestinien

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Rozenholc; Sylvain Bauvais

    2011-01-01

    Since 2005, the CRFJ’s scholarship students have organized international scientific seminars on topics of their choice. Organized by and for doctoral and post-doctoral students, these seminars give young researchers from the French, Israeli, and Palestinian academic communities the opportunity to meet. They also allow them to regularly take stock of the research undertaken in different universities on topics that all center on the same geographic space. But more than evaluating where research...

  2. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  3. Valongo, genetic studies on an isolated Afro-Brazilian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilíada Rainha de Souza

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available A southern Brazilian isolated community of predominantly sub-Saharan African origin, with a total population of 74 individuals and high degree of inbreeding (F = 0.081 was studied. The small sizes of the breeding (35 and effective (21 populations, as well as the very small effective migration rate (4%, suggest a high probability for the occurrence of genetic drift. A sample was typed for fourteen blood genetic systems and most of these systems seem to reveal the founder effect. This evolutionary factor was probably responsible for the absence of some polymorphic alleles frequent in African populations, i.e.: ABO*B, RHD-RHCE*DCe, GPA-GPB*NS (MNSs*NS, GPA-GPB*NS U (MNSs*NSU, HBB*S, HP*2M and ESD*2. The most unusual allele frequency was that for BCHE*A, 0.27, four times higher than its highest estimated frequency and fifty times higher than that those observed in African populations. Considering the allele frequencies of the Sub-Saharan African (A and European (E ancestral populations, the population studied can be quantified as containing 97.33% ± 10.41 of A alleles and 2.67% ± 10.41 of E alleles.

  4. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  5. Is obesity associated to dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, María Raquel; Goettems, Marília Leão; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Marcos Britto

    2017-11-06

    This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the association between dental caries and weight status, and between dental caries and physical activity in Brazilian schoolchildren aged 8 to 12 years. A multi-stage sample of children enrolled in 20 private and public schools in 2010 in Pelotas, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. Socioeconomic data were collected from parents, and data regarding children characteristics were collected from children using a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The Body Mass Index was obtained, and children were classified as overweight/obese considering age and sex. Dental examinations were performed to assess the presence of gingival inflammation, dental caries prevalence (DMFT≥1) and dental caries experience (mean DMFT). Multivariate Poisson Regression was used to assess factors associated with dental caries prevalence and experience. A total of 1,210 children were included in the study. Dental caries prevalence was 32.4% (95% CI 29.7-35.2), while the mean DMFT was 0.64 (± SD 1.00). Children who practiced less than 300 minutes per week of physical activity and overweigh/obese children had lower prevalence of dental caries, while children with obesity or overweight presented lower dental caries experience. Obesity/overweight and physical activity level presented an inverse relationship with dental caries. Longitudinal studies investigating the complexity of this relationship are required.

  6. Dental pain in Brazilian schoolchildren: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacerda, Josimari T; de Bem Pereira, Mariana; Traebert, Jefferson

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence, intensity and associated factors of dental pain in 7- and 8-year-old schoolchildren in a Southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving a representative sample (n=401) of schoolchildren of Tubarão, Brazil. The data were obtained through oral examinations, following WHO criteria. Dental pain was analysed using a specific questionnaire developed to measure it. Prevalence and intensity of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids were analysed. Association studies were carried out using chi-square test followed by nonconditional multiple logistic regression analysis to test for independence of association between outcomes and explanatory variables. The prevalence of spontaneous dental pain and dental pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids was 31.7 and 28.1%, respectively. Females and schoolchildren who had visited the dentist at least once showed statistically higher prevalence of spontaneous pain and pain caused by cold and hot food and liquids. Eight-year-old schoolchildren and those presenting cavities in the primary dentition also showed higher prevalence of spontaneous dental pain. The prevalence and intensity of dental pain were considered high. The prevalence showed to be associated with female gender, higher age, the presence of cavities in the primary dentition and dental visit. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2012 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  8. Morphological and morphometric variability of the squid Lolliguncula brevis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in Brazilian waters: evidence for two species in the Western Atlantic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaleski, Tânia; Perez, José A Angel; Gandara-Martins, Ana Luiza

    2012-12-01

    Morphological and morphometric variability of the small-sized coastal squid Lolliguncula brevis was assessed along the largest part of its latitudinal range in the southern hemisphere, off the Brazilian coast (8º S - 27º S). A general homogeneity in form was found throughout the entire latitudinal range. In terms of body proportions, no latitudinal gradients were evident, but a few local "morphotypes" could be distinguished. The distinctive egg mass morphology, and size and form features, including a hectocotylus 20-40% longer than the opposing ventral arm and the presence of suckers on the buccal membrane, indicated that Lolliguncula from northern and southern hemispheres might comprise two different taxa.

  9. Security of the Brazilian Amazon Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Thk document may not be Mased fog openi puiks&adM tr it ha beat domed by the appropriate militarvice or TIC M AY5, 1921 SECURITY OF THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON...34Seguridad y Ecologia. Reforinulacion de tin concepto". Nueva Sociedad . (may/June 1990 - no 107): 21- 26. McIntyre, Loren. "Last Days of Eden

  10. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  11. A Grammar of Spoken Brazilian Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Earl W.

    This is a first-year text of Portuguese grammar based on the Portuguese of moderately educated Brazilians from the area around Rio de Janeiro. Spoken idiomatic usage is emphasized. An important innovation is found in the presentation of verb tenses; they are presented in the order in which the native speaker learns them. The text is intended to…

  12. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  13. Brazilian Review of Finance 2012 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online; a printed version is maintained, in part, thanks to a grant from CNPq/CAPES. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The journal is indexed by EconLit, Google Scholar, DOAJ, Gale and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 18 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 30% for papers submitted in 2010, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for all articles published in 2011 was 266. The worst case was 462 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 432. The worst case was 599 days. The average number of hits per article as of January 2012 was 1,249. Sixty-four individuals served as reviewers in 2011.

  14. Hemoglobin Variant Profiles among Brazilian Quilombola Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rayra P; Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Soares, Leonardo F; Figueiredo, Camylla V B; Silva, Denise Oliveira; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ana F; Fiuza, Luciana M; Guarda, Caroline C; Adorno, Elisângela V; Barbosa, Cynara G; Gonçalves, Marilda S

    2017-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombolas are communities composed of African-derived populations that have their territories guaranteed by the Brazilian Constitution. The present study investigated the hemoglobin (Hb) variants among these population groups. This study was conducted in a total of 2843 individuals of Brazilian Quilombola communities of the Bahia, Pará, and Piauí states. All the participants had their Hb profiles evaluated. The Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) variant was described in all the studied localities. However, the individuals in Bahia State had the highest frequency of the Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) variant; individuals from Piauí State had a higher frequency of the Hb D-Punjab (HBB: c.364G>C) variant compared to the other states, and individuals from Pará State only carried the Hb S variant. The present study revealed a specific distribution of Hb variants that could represent different waves of African influence in these Brazilian populations.

  15. Selective logging in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. P. Asner; D. E. Knapp; E. N. Broadbent; P. J. C. Oliveira; M Keller; J. N. Silva

    2005-01-01

    Amazon deforestation has been measured by remote sensing for three decades. In comparison, selective logging has been mostly invisible to satellites. We developed a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote-sensing analysis of selective logging in the top five timber-producing states of the Brazilian Amazon. Logged areas ranged from 12,075 to 19,823 square...

  16. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  17. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L.

  18. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  19. Translating Ovide Decroly's Ideas to Brazilian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Alessandra Arce; Simon, Frank; Depaepe, Marc

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to analyse, comprehend and apprehend the appropriation processes of Ovide Decroly's ideas in Brazil through the translation of his books and that of Amélie Hamaïde into Portuguese. The article discusses the following questions. Why did Brazilian intellectuals and teachers need to import Decroly's ideas to be applied in Brazilian…

  20. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  1. Recent trends in Brazilian Historical Linguistics

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, Rosa Virgínia Mattos e

    1999-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the new directions taken by Historical Linguistics in Brazil, which gives special attention to Brazilian Portuguese, studying dialectal and sociolinguistic aspects. A special reference is made to projects that bring together researchers from several universities in the country.

  2. Ionospheric Effects of X-Ray Solar Bursts in the Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Takahashi, H.; Costa, J. E.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-12-01

    When the solar X-ray flux in the interplanetary medium reaches values above a certain threshold, some undesired effects affecting radio communications are expected. Basically, the magnitudes of these effects depend on the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth atmosphere. An important aspect defining the severity of damages to HF radio communications and LF navigation signals in a certain area is the local time when each event takes place. In order to create more accurate warnings referred to possible radio signal loss or degradation in the Brazilian sector, we analyze TEC maps obtained by a GPS network, formed by dual-frequency receivers spread all over the country, to observe ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events in the 0.1-0.8 nm range measured by GOES satellite. Considering the duration, peak brightness, and local time of the events, the final purpose of this study is to understand and predict the degree of changes suffered by the ionosphere during these X-ray bursts. We intend using these results to create a radio blackout warning product to be offered by the Brazilian space weather program named EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial): Brazilian Monitoring and Study of Space Weather.

  3. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  4. Southern Tunisia, Central Mediterranean

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2010-09-13

    Sep 13, 2010 ... Length-weight relationships (LWR) were estimated for 13 fish species which are of economic relevance in the commercial fisheries of the Gulf of Gabes (southern Tunisia). A total of 2403 fish specimens were sampled with several fishing gears from October 2008 to September 2009. The sample size ranged ...

  5. Southern pulpwood production, 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe F. Christopher; Martha E. Nelson

    1963-01-01

    Pulpwood production in the south rose to an all-time high of 25,586,300 cords in 1962-58 percent of the Nation's total. At the year's end, 80 southern pulpmills were operating; their combined daily pulping capacity was more than 52,000 tons. Nine mills outside the region were using wood grown in the South.

  6. Southern Appalachian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. van Sickle

    1999-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian study covers a region of 37.4 million acres. Its mountains, foothills, and valleys stretch from northern Virginia and northern West Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama. When Native Americans came to the region, forests dominated the landscape and they still do, covering 70% of the land (Figure 32.1). Terrain characteristics are...

  7. SOUTHERN WELO, ETHIOPIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between soils and geomorphic processes on the piedmont slopes of the Wurgo valley of southern Welo, Ethiopia. The results revealed that slope processes have played major role in the development of Eutric Cambisols with typical A/Bw/Bb horizon sequences on the convergent footslopes, Luvic Phaeozems with A/Bt/Cr.

  8. Literacy in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhola, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    This review covers the status of languages and literacy in the countries of southern Africa, policies of literacy promotion, and the emerging symbioses among spoken languages and among literacies in mother tongues, national or official languages, and metropolitan languages. Five statistical tables are included. (66 references) (LB)

  9. Restoration of southern ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Kenneth Outcalt; William H. Conner; James M. Guldin

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of the myriad communities of bottomland hardwood and wetland forests and of the diverse communities of fire-dominated pine forests is the subject of intense interest in the Southern United States. Restoration practice is relatively advanced for bottomland hardwoods and longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.), and less so for swamps and...

  10. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  11. Characterization of Brazilian Bentonite Organoclays as sorbents of petroleum-derived fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bertagnolli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on preparing and characterizing Brazilian bentonite clay through the use of quaternary ammonium salt so as to apply it as a sorbent for petroleum-derived fuels. Bentonite clay was organophilizated by the intercalation of quaternary ammonium salts such as cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 physisorption and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The clay similarity with petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline and diesel oil were defined by sorption and swelling tests. The increase in basal spacing and the appearance of absorption bands related to the CH2 and CH3 groups confirm the efficiency of Brazilian organoclays. Removal percentages between 50 and 60 for benzene, toluene and xylene indicate the potential of organoclay in the remediation of areas contaminated by petroleum-derived fuels.

  12. Internet, the press and Brazilian elections: agenda-setting on real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ALDÉ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper broaches the relations between the electoral campaigns of the main presidential candidates to the 2002 Brazilian elections and the Internet, by analyzing the coverage of political agenda originated by the campaign official websites on the digital and paper versions of the national daily newspapers Jornal do Brasil and O Globo. This particular campaign was the first Brazilian electoral occasion in which Internet played a significant role as an efficient media; our analysis reveals a good example of the strategic use of the web to provoke real-time news, which ended up amplified by printed media, strengthening attacks which would otherwise not gain such a space or repercussion.

  13. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  14. A expansão do "feminino" no espaço público brasileiro: novelas de televisão nas décadas de 1970 e 80 The expansion of the "feminine" in the Brazilian public space: television soap operas of the 1970's and 80's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Império Hamburger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto retoma a literatura crítica e múltipla que, a partir de diversas perspectivas teóricas, com ênfase em diferentes períodos históricos e países, trata das relações entre meios de comunicação de massa e representações das relações de gênero. Essa revisão bibliográfica seleciona trabalhos sugestivos para a discussão que se segue sobre as principais convenções das novelas brasileiras, gênero de programação que articula elementos do documentário e da ficção, tratando da nação em termos melodramáticos. Análise de títulos relevantes exibidos nos anos 70 e 80 sugere que novelas pautaram o espaço público brasileiro em termos que expandem o domínio convencionalmente definido como feminino.This paper revisits the literature on media and gender studies in search of works that help to discuss the case of Brazilian soap operas. A series of references coming from different theoretical perspectives, with emphasis in different countries and historical periods, bring up ideas and concepts that approach the contemporary desire to connect, to participate and to interact in terms conventionally associated to the female domain. Examples from specific soap operas suggest the ways in which these prime time daily soaps blend documentary and fiction conventions and treat the Brazilian nation in melodramatic terms. In doing so, soap operas have expanded what was conventionally treated as the female domain.

  15. Translation and cultural adaptation of the States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SOCQ and statistical validation of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ30 in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO EKMAN SCHENBERG

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The States of Consciousness Questionnaire (SOCQ was developed to assess the occurrence features of the change in consciousness induced by psilocybin, and includes the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ, developed to assess the ocurrence of mystical experiences in altered states of consciousness. Objective To translate the SOCQ to Brazilian Portuguese and validate the 30-item MEQ. Methods The SOCQ was translated to Brazilian Portuguese and backtranslated into English. The two English versions were compared and differences corrected, resulting in a Brazilian translation. Using an internet-survey, 1504 Portuguese-speaking subjects answered the translated version of the SOCQ. The 4-factor version of MEQ30 was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis. Results A Brazilian Portuguese version of the SOCQ was made available. Goodness-of-fit indexes indicated that data met the factorial structure proposed for the English MEQ30. Factors presented excellent to acceptable reliability according to Cronbach’s alpha: mystical (0.95; positive mood (0.71; transcendence of time/space (0.83; and ineffability (0.81. Discussion The Brazilian Portuguese version of the MEQ30 is validated and it fits in the factorial structure performed on the original English version. The SOCQ is also available to the Brazilian Portuguese speaking population, allowing studies in different languages to be conducted and compared systematically.

  16. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  17. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Avila, R. W.; Morais, D. H. [UNESP; Anjos, L. A. [UNESP; Almeida, W. O.; Silva, R. J. [UNESP

    2013-01-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. ox...

  18. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae in the southern amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RW. Ávila

    Full Text Available A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  19. SAFARI 2000 Estimated BVOC Emissions for Southern African Land Cover Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000)...

  20. SAFARI 2000 Daily Rainfall Estimates, 0.1-Deg, Southern Africa, 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Microwave InfraRed Algorithm (MIRA) is used to produce an imagery data set of daily mean rain rates at 0.1 degree spatial resolution over southern...

  1. SAFARI 2000 Daily Rainfall Estimates, 0.1-Deg, Southern Africa, 1993-2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Microwave InfraRed Algorithm (MIRA) is used to produce an imagery data set of daily mean rain rates at 0.1 degree spatial resolution over southern Africa for the...

  2. SAFARI 2000 MODIS L3 Albedo and Land Cover Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Filled Land Surface Albedo Product for Southern Africa, which is generated from MOD43B3 Product (the official Terra/MODIS-derived Land Surface Albedo -...

  3. SAFARI 2000 Modeled Fuel Load in Southern Africa, 1999-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains global, spatially explicit (1 km2 grid cells) and temporally explicit (semi-monthly) modeled output of fuel loads over southern...

  4. Lidar Atmopheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Data Obtained During the Southern Great Plains (SGP97) Field Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LASE Southern Great Plains (SGP97) field experiment was conducted in Oklahoma during June-July 1997. SGP97 was a NASA EOS Interdisciplinary Science Investigation...

  5. SAFARI 2000 MODIS L3 Albedo and Land Cover Data, Southern Africa, Dry Season 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: The Filled Land Surface Albedo Product for Southern Africa, which is generated from MOD43B3 Product (the official Terra/MODIS-derived Land Surface Albedo -...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Modeled Fuel Load in Southern Africa, 1999-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains global, spatially explicit (1 km2 grid cells) and temporally explicit (semi-monthly) modeled output of fuel loads over southern Africa. The...

  7. Sociodemographic differences in walking for leisure and for commuting in Brazilian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Rosso Krug

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Walking is a great health promotion strategy due to its beneficial effects. Objetive: To identify the prevalence of walking for leisure and for commuting to work and its association with sociodemographic factors among 47,477 Brazilian workers. Walking and sociodemographic factors were obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Poisson regression was used. Among men, walking for leisure was more frequent in those who were older, live with a partner, had a higher level of education and income, and worked in the Southeastern region of Brazil. When commuting, it was more prevalent among single men, who had a lower level of education and income and worked in the Southern region of this country. Among women, walking for leisure was more common in those who lived with a partner, had no children, and worked in the Southern region. There was an association between the outcome and age, education and family income. Regarding commuting, it was more prevalent among older individuals, without a partner, with a lower level of education and income, and working in the Southern region. Walking was associated with sociodemographic characteristics, with differences between sexes.

  8. Discovering Jews in Southern Africa: A Critical Approach to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the usefulness of the comparative method. By introducing two case studies specific to southern Africa, the comparison of the Zulu and Lemba to the ancient Israelite practice of Judaism, the author is able to explore the dynamics of power relations, politics, identity and space. These dynamics are further ...

  9. Ensuring Southern input on global action | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    10 juin 2016 ... The voices and experience of developing country researchers are too often missing when international donors and decision-makers gather to address global health issues. Strengthening capacity and creating space for Southern expertise is one of IDRC's most important contributions.

  10. Analysis of the Brazilian Entrepreneurial Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Inácio Júnior

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem in the light of the National System of Entrepreneurship – NSE theory, through the implementation of the Global Entrepreneurship Index methodology – GEI. The study indicates that Brazil has low quality average institutional interaction. However, social context is the main bottleneck in the national entrepreneurial ecosystem. Differences between the performance quality of the institutional framework and social factors promote entrepreneurship low socioeconomic impact. The results of the article show that the Brazilian entrepreneurial ecosystem presents low internationalization of companies, innovation in pro- ducts and processes, formation of human capital and high-growth enterprises. The results of the article provide insights for decision makers on the factors that determine the opening of new businesses.

  11. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  12. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  13. Aspectual Verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Oliveira

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the semantics and the syntax of aspectual verbs in European and Brazilian Portuguese. Some of these verbs select a+Infinitive in the European variety whereas the same verbs select that structure and Gerund in the Brazilian variety. We show that this discrepancy can be explained in semantic and syntactic grounds due to the different nature of the semantic ‘input’ (stative or eventive, the availability of tense constructions and the functional structure of the embedded domain. Another group of aspectual verbs do not differ in their syntactic structure in the two varieties as their structure (de+Infinitive is the same, although syntactically different from a+ Infinitive, but they do differ in their semantics and also in the selection of different verbs.

  14. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  15. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  16. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Gabriela Andrade; Pimenta, Fabrícia Pires; Santos, Fátima Rejane Wink dos; Damasco, Paulo Vieira; Hirata Júnior, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2008-08-01

    The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 microg/ml) and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 microg/ml) were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 microg/ml) to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74%) showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  17. Brazilian agroforestry systems for cattle and sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto G. de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agroforestry systems for animal husbandry in Brazil, including integrated crop-livestock-forest systems (ICLF, are very diverse, and present several technical, environmental and socio-economic benefits. For each of the country’s 5 regions (Southeast, Central-West, North, Northeast and South the prevailing agroforestry systems holding animals are presented, their potential and constraints discussed and research needs identified. In general, such systems are not broadly adopted, mainly because of their level of complexity compared with traditional systems, as well as some lack of understanding by farmers regarding their benefits. To change this situation, in the last 5 years, the Brazilian Government has allocated financial resources in terms of credit for development as well as for research and technology transfer addressing ICLF systems, including good agricultural practices and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The goal is to improve competitiveness of the Brazilian agribusiness sector.

  18. AFRICANIZED SPACES IN BRAZIL: SOME REFERENCES OF RESISTANCE, SURVIVAL AND REINVENTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Amador de Deus, Zélia

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the African diaspora in a context where the Africa brought to the Americas, somehow survived and at the same time, worked as an instrument of survival for Africans and their descendants. In particular, the cultures of African nature, over time, were and are used as political strategies that shape processes of negotiations, highlighting the contemporary Brazilian quilombos as African-like spaces present in the narrative of Brazilian nationality.

  19. The sequences of a Brazilian political sociology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Botelho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available By analytically reconstituting how the ideas of Oliveira Vianna were received in research by Victor Nunes Leal, Maria Isaura Pereira de Queiroz, and Maria Sylvia de Carvalho Franco, the article discusses the formation, from the 1920s to the 1970s, of a watershed in Brazilian political sociology oriented towards the investigation of conflict between the private and public orders in the specific configuration of political domination in Brazil.

  20. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  1. Brazilian public controllership institutions theory versus practice

    OpenAIRE

    Suzart, Janilson Antonio da Silva; Marcelino, Carolina Venturini; Rocha, Joseilton Silveira da

    2012-01-01

    The creation of a General Controllership (CGU) in the executive branch of the Brazilian federal government in 2003 brought in its wake the creation or transformation of a variety of institutions in public controllership at the state level. We have assumed that this development resulted from the needs of public managers for institutions that can not only monitor the actions taken by the public administration but also provide information useful to government managers, but this a...

  2. Segmentation in the brazilian labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Fernando; Ponczek, Vladimir Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  3. Bioactive Constituents of Brazilian Red Propolis

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    Boryana Trusheva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new propolis type, red Brazilian propolis, 14 compounds were identified (six of them new for propolis, among them simple phenolics, triterepenoids, isoflavonoids, prenylated benzophenones and a naphthoquinone epoxide (isolated for the first time from a natural source. Three of the major components demonstrated significant antimicrobial activity, and two (obtained as inseparable mixture possessed radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.

  4. Modal survey of the Brazilian launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, S. H. S.; Teixeira, H. S., Jr.; Pirk, R.; Arruda, J. R. F.

    This paper describes the Brazilian satellite launch vehicle modal analysis program being currently performed. A full scale mock-up of the solid propellant four-stage launcher will be tested in five different configurations. To simulate free-free boundary conditions, a pneumatic suspension system was developed, and its influence in the mock-up dynamic behavior was investigated. The theoretical FEM models and preliminary results of the modal test are shown, along with theoretical/experimental correlation discussions.

  5. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Parente, Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta; Carthery-Goulart, Maria Teresa; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2012-01-01

    The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individ...

  6. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  7. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the analysis of human resource management practices for Brazilian companies. The country-specific context and organizational behavior peculiarities of Brazil define the companies’ approach for HRM practices. The example of “CCR Group” is considered as a case study example. Analysis from company structure, culture specific context, current situation of human resource management not only in this company, but also in Brazil, in order to give the recommendation about how to ...

  8. [Profile of clinical trials enrolling Brazilian children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jean Mendes de Lucena; Lima, Elisangela da Costa; Land, Marcelo Gerardin Poirot; Ventura, Miriam; Coelho, Helena Lutescia Luna

    2017-06-12

    This study aimed to characterize the clinical trials with medicines enrolling Brazilian children and adolescents, registered in the databases of Clinical Trials and the Brazilian Clinical Trials Network (ReBEC) from 1994 to 2014. Only 462 clinical trials enrolled Brazilian children and adolescents. There was an increase in registrations beginning in 2003, with an important drop in 2011. Among these trials, 35.5% were hosted in Brazil. The international clinical trials were mostly conducted by North American companies. In both cases, multinational industry was the principal source of funding. The clinical trials were predominantly phase III with injectable and solid oral pharmaceutical forms of antiviral drugs. Domestic clinical trials showed wider variation in the pharmaceutical forms and higher percentage of liquid formulations, when compared to the international trials. In addition to heavy external dependence for conducting clinical trials, the study emphasized the challenge for pediatric care in Brazil, which presents epidemiological peculiarities in an environment prone to the use of unlicensed medicines for children.

  9. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

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    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  10. Match analysis on no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu

    OpenAIRE

    Simola, Tuomas

    2017-01-01

    Gi and no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu are fast growing sports. The aim of this thesis is to conclude a match analysis on no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Match analysis is used to identify the most used techniques in no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu. There is no sport analysis done for either gi or no-gi Brazilian jiu-jitsu, therefore the match analysis and its results can be utilized later as a base for sport analysis. The goal of this study is to find out the match duration, the type of match ending, the...

  11. Pathogenic Leptospira spp. in bats: Molecular investigation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Fabiana Quoos; Dos Reis, Emily Marques; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Cerva, Cristine; Rosa, Júlio; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Lima, Francisco Esmaile Sales; Pacheco, Susi Missel; Rodrigues, Rogério Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in Brazilian bats and to determine possible risk factors associated to it. Ninety two bats of 12 species were evaluated. Whole genomic DNA from kidneys was extracted and real-time PCR specific to pathogenic Leptospira spp. was applied. Association between the frequency of specimens positive for Leptospira spp. and sex, age, bat species or family, season of collection, geographic localization and feeding habits was evaluated. The results showed that 39.13% of analyzed bats were found positive for Leptospira spp. Nine bat species had at least one positive result. There was no association among the evaluated variables and frequency of pathogenic Leptospira spp. Although the limitations due to lack of Leptospira spp. isolation, leptospiral carriage was demonstrated in bats of different species from southern Brazil, which reinforces the need for surveillance of infectious agents in wild animals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Investigation of the Migration of Africanized Honey Bees into the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Hector

    1997-01-01

    It is estimated that Apis mellifera scutellata, a honey bee subspecies from Africa, now extends over a 20 million square kilometer range that includes much of South America and practically all of Central America, and recently has been introduced to the southern United States. African honeybees were introduced into Brazil in 1956 by a Brazilian geneticist, Mr. Warwick Kerr. At the insistence of the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, in 1957, 26 colonies were accidentally released in a eucalyptus forest outside S5o Paulo. The swelling front of the bees was recorded as traveling between 80 and 500 kilometers a year. David Roubik, one of the original killer bee team members estimated that there were one trillion individual Africanized/African honey bees in Latin America. An estimate that is thought to be conservative.

  13. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  14. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  15. African Literatures and Afro-Brazilian in the Early Childhood Education Nursery. Challenges to Diversity Etnicorracial

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    Claudionor Renato Da Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available African and Afro-brazilian literature are rising in national educational practice mainly after the publication of the Laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08 turning mandatory the teaching of African, Afro-arazilian and indigenous history and culture, offering the opportunity to treat racial ethnic relationships in basic education. The article aims to present a reflection based on the results of a weekly pedagogical practice, approaching the education of the racial ethnic relationships through African and Afro-brazilian infantile literature in a classroom of "maternal I" (2 and 3 year old children of a nursery school. Based on a qualitative approach, this research used the method of participant research with the elaboration of a research report. The observation registers in the report allowed us to confirm the resistence to treat racial questions in scholar space. It was also possible to verify that African and Afro-brazilian literatures are substitutes for some literatures that affirm and fortify the myth of racial democracy and are, therefore, obstacles for the laws 10.639/03 and 11.645/08 in schools of basic education.

  16. Towards Marine Spatial Planning in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsung Lee

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to population growth, rapid economic development and inadequate marine control, the use of ocean and coastal regions in Taiwan has become more frequent and intense in recent years. However, the lack of comprehensive marine and coastal planning in this island nation has led to many conflicts over space and resources and limited its ability to prepare for and respond to environmental hazards, thus threatening national security as well as the safety and property of its citizens. This study proposes a marine zoning scheme for southern Taiwan. The results show that many important habitats in the southern sea areas have not been properly protected due to the extremely small size of the marine protected area. Furthermore, the majority of the conflicts derive from the exclusive fishing right vs. other uses such as marine conservation. Therefore, it is crucial to establish the marine spatial planning (MSP for the Southern Taiwan to deal with the conflicts of use seas and uncertainties associated with complex, heterogeneous, and dynamic marine system.

  17. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  18. Risk factors for gingivitis in a group of Brazilian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapinotto, Fabiana Amaral; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Corrêa, Fernanda Oliveira Bello; Masotti, Alexandre Severo

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gingivitis in children and adolescents are scarce and the results are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and extension of gingivitis and associated factors in Brazilian schoolchildren. Cross-sectional data from 1,211 schoolchildren 8 to 12 years old from Southern Brazil in 20 public and private schools were analyzed. Socioeconomic, demographic, and oral hygiene habits were assessed by questionnaires answered by parents and children. Buccal examination assessed presence of plaque, crowding, and gingivitis. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression [prevalence ratio (PR); 95% confidence interval (CI)]. Prevalence of visible plaque was 89.7% (95% CI 88.0-91.3) and gingival bleeding on probing was 78.4% (95% CI 76.1-81.0). The mean and median numbers of sites with gingival bleeding were 3.10 and 2 (SD ± 3.22), respectively. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the presence of a greater number of sites with plaque was significantly associated with gingivitis (PR 1.26; 95% CI 1.07-1.47) and its extension (PR 1.96; 95% CI 1.53-2.51). Lighter-skinned black children had a lower probability of having severe gingivitis (PR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48-0.98) compared with white children. This association was observed after adjusting for other variables. Gingivitis was associated with higher number of sites with plaque and with skin color, reflecting the influence of biological and demographic factors on this oral condition. © 2012 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  19. The Brazilian research and teaching center in biomedicine and aerospace biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-08-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF TRUST IN THE CONSTITUTION OF A BRAZILIAN COOPERATIVE OF SELECTIVE WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanne Marciane Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Brazilian public policy started to encourage solidarity economy in 2003, the number of projects and enterprises in this sector has steadily increased. Embeddedness has contributed to the understanding of organizational phenomena of solidarity economy and cooperatives. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of trust, from the perspective of Mark Granovetter’s social networks, on the constitution of a cooperative of urban recyclable waste pickers in southern Brazil between 1996 until early 2012, considered the foundation period. We used the qualitative method with a historical approach to social relationships and content analysis. Possible influences of trust were analysed based on the economic, social and political history of the cooperative. Among the main results, we highlight the existence of social relations before the constitution, defined by trust due to family identity and reputation built over time.

  1. A new record of giant squid Architeuthis sp. (Cephalopoda: Oegopsida in Brazilian waters

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    Rodrigo Silvestre Martins

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A carcass of a giant squid Architeuthis sp. was found afloat off Southern Brazil (28°05'S, 45°35'W on 29 August 1999. The specimen was a mature female of 116 cm mantle length and had arms incomplete and tentacles missing. The specimen was morphologically similar to those previously described for the Southwest Atlantic, but a few peculiarities were found on the shape of the fins, head and the cross-section and length of ventral arms. Spermatophores were found embedded within the skin of the left ventral arm, at around 60 cm from the mouth, and could be traced to the core of the arm, radiating nearly four centimeters from the point of entry. This was the third record of Architeuthis in Brazilian waters and the eighth in Southwest Atlantic when the specimen was found.

  2. Brazilian strain of bovine respiratory coronavirus is derived from dual enteric and respiratory tropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuttemmuller, E A; Alfieri, A F; Headley, S A; Alfieri, A A

    2017-04-05

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a pathogen related to enteric and respiratory diseases in cattle worldwide. Enteric (BECoV) strains of BCoV are predominant in South America, and genetic investigations have been conducted to identify its relationship with isolates of respiratory origin (BRCoV). In this study, we used a BRCoV strain (BR-UEL11) derived from an outbreak of respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in southern Brazil, and compared the partial sequence of the polymorphic region of Spike (which was detected and sequenced by two distinct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions) with those of other BCoV strains. The phylogenetic relationship of BR-UEL11 with Brazilian BCoV, which is associated with calf diarrhea and winter dysentery (enteric, BECoV; respiratory, BRCoV), and classical reference prototypes was analyzed. The analysis showed that the BRCoV strains from Brazil clustered with a clade that was distinct from most isolates associated with calf diarrhea (BECoV) and ancestral prototype strains such as Mebus, Nebraska, and LYVB. Furthermore, the BRCoV strains from Brazil clustered with a clade that contained recent strains associated with winter dysentery, showing 98-99% nucleotide identity with those strains. These results suggested that the Brazilian BCoV evolved from being solely enteric to a dual enteric and respiratory tropic virus.

  3. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-01-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase) and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen). The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded. PMID:23271950

  4. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-12-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase) and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen). The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded.

  5. [Suicide mortality in people aged 60 and over in Brazilian municipalities between 1996 and 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Assis, Simone Gonçalves de; Pires, Thiago de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    The scope of this article was to assess the nationwide scale of suicides among the elderly. An overview of suicides in Brazilian municipalities was conducted to identify municipalities with the highest incidence of suicide. Data from the Mortality Information System (SIM/MS) were used for the period from 1996 to 2007, using the events with codes X60 through X84 and Y87.0 of the 10th review of the International Classification of Diseases (CID-10). The rates were standardized according to the criteria of the WHO. It was discovered that 3,039 Brazilian municipalities have records of suicide cases of people aged 60 and more in at least one of the triennia analyzed (54.6% of all the municipalities). A total of 29.3% of those municipalities were in the Southern Region, 29.6% in the Southeast and 27.5% in the Northeast. The State of Rio Grande do Sul has the highest percentage of municipalities with suicide cases in the four triennia (27.3%), followed by the States of São Paulo (17.4%) and Santa Catarina (9.1%). Between the first and the final triennium, it was observed that there was a reduction in 32 of the 51 municipalities with higher rates. The mean ratio of male/female deaths was 2.8 male deaths for every female death. The main method used is hanging, strangulation and suffocation among both men (58.2%) and women (49.8%).

  6. Catalogue of distribution of lizards (Reptilia: Squamata) from the Brazilian Amazonia. III. Anguidae, Scincidae, Teiidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Júnior, Marco A; Amaral, Silvana

    2016-12-09

    We present distribution data of all Anguidae, Scincidae, and Teiidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 29 species-level taxa, belonging to 14 genera. This represents 11 more species-level taxa than previously reported for these families in this area. Data were based on literature and 46,806 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~55%) are endemic to Amazonia. Except for Ameiva ameiva, that is present in several environments and domains, non-endemic species are either associated with open dry (semideciduous) forest or open vegetation (savanna) enclaves in Amazonia, occupying similar environments outside Amazonia, gallery forests within the Cerrado, or present disjunct populations in the Atlantic Forest. As a whole, six taxa are widespread in Amazonia, four are restricted to eastern Amazonia, four to western Amazonia, three to southwestern Amazonia, one to northern Amazonia, and seven to the southern peripheral portion of Amazonia. Besides, two species present apparently more restricted, unique distributions. Only three species have a distribution that is congruent with one of the areas of endemism (AE) recognized for other organisms (birds and primates), of which two occur in AE Guiana and one in AE Inambari.

  7. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, S N; Otaguiri, K K; Kashima, S; Covas, D T

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil.

  8. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Slavov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil.

  9. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Suellen R; Martins, Renata C; Matta-Machado, Antônio T G M; Mattos, Grazielle C M; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Abreu, Mauro H N G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs) adhering to the second cycle of the 'National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care' (PMAQ-AB) in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013-2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental needs deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to expand the supply of prostheses and the early diagnosis of oral cancer in primary health care (PHC) is evident.

  10. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen R. Mendes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.

  11. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae from the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Pires de Mendonça Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen. The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded.

  12. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  13. a Brazilian Vulnerability Index to Natural Disasters of Drought - in the Context of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Debortoli, N. S.; Hirota, M.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts are characterized as one of the main types of natural disasters that occur in Brazil. During the 1991-2012, droughts affected more than 14 million Brazilians, so that the concern for the following decades is about the potential impacts triggered by climate change. To analyze the vulnerability of the Brazilian municipalities to drought disasters, we have assessed the effects of climate change to droughts until the end of 21th century. A composite index was created based on three different dimensions: i) Exposure, represented by climate anomalies related to the drought process, such as changes in accumulated rainfall averages, interannual variability of rainfall, and the frequency and magnitude of severe droughts (measured by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index); ii) Sensitivity, encompassing socioeconomic, demographic, land use and water management data; iii) Adaptive Capacity, consisting of socioeconomic and institutional data from Brazilian municipalities, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), social inequality (Gini index) and illiteracy rate. The climate variables used in this study are results from simulations of the Regional Climate Model Eta (with a downscaling of 20km spatial resolution) nested with two global climate models (HadGEM ES and MIROC 5) and was provided by National Institute for Space Research. The baseline period was 1961-1990 and future periods was 2011-2040; 2041-2070 and 2071-2099. For the simulations of future climate it was used the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. All variables used in this study was handled, exploited and related in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The methodology allowed the identification of vulnerability hotspots, the targeting of adaptation strategies and the development of public policy to minimize the potential impacts of future droughts. The final results (see attached image) indicate that the most vulnerable regions are located in

  14. The relationship between reading comprehension performance and socioeconomic factors in southern Brazilian public schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucilene Bender de Sousa

    2017-06-01

    This paper aims at investigating the relationship between reading comprehension and socio-economic factors: parental education, family income and investment in reading. The participants were 49 good comprehenders and 37 readers with difficulties in reading comprehension, all 8th graders from public schools in Santa Cruz do Sul, a city located in the south of Brazil. Data demonstrated that parental education is more relevant than family income when related to students’ reading comprehension performance. Data also showed correlation between parental schooling and the mean investment in reading material. Thus, education level may be a determinant factor to the way parents stimulate and promote reading in their family. Further research should deepen the investigation about how parental schooling and family literacy actions contribute to the development of students’ reading comprehension.

  15. Heterogeneity and homogeneity of Southern Brazilian beaches: A morphodynamic and statistical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Pereira, Pedro; Júlio Calliari, Lauro; Carmo Barletta, Rodrigo do

    2010-02-01

    The characterization and beach morphodynamic differentiation along 620 km of Rio Grande do Sul state (RS) coastline has been principally done using beach profiles and their resulting morphometric parameters from the early 1990s through the present. The objective of the present work is to make a regional characterization, grouping the beaches with similar morphodynamic behavior along the RS coastline using multivariate statistical tools. For such purpose, a database containing topographic profiles and environment characteristics of 32 sites along the state coastline was built. A clustering analysis followed by a multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) was performed. The clustering and MDS results suggest that the data could be merged into six groups, one with dissipative tendencies, another with intermediate to reflective tendencies and three groups with intermediate characteristics. Each group showed distinct morphodynamic characteristics. Such differences are shown by the ANOSIM to be statistically significant. The three intermediate groups were differentiated in terms of beach mobility and percentage of medium-size sand, with higher mobility related to higher amounts of medium-size sand. The use of multivariate statistical techniques allowed a good differentiation between the RS beaches. Based on the results, it is suggested that the RS coastline can be segmented into seven different morphodynamic sectors. This approach can be used by management agencies to reduce potential oil spill impacts as well as decrease other beach hazards as well as for differentiate morphodynamical stages.

  16. Association of human leukocyte antigen DQ1 and dengue fever in a white Southern Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Polizel, José Roberto; Bueno, Danilo; Visentainer, Jeane Eliete L; Sell, Ana Maria; Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Tsuneto, Luiza Tamie; Dalalio, Marcia Machado O; Coimbra, Maria Teresa M; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Dengue is an infectious disease of viral etiology transmitted by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, and A. scutellaris. It can develop either as a benign form or as a severe hemorrhagic form. Previous work showed an association of the hemorrhagic form with human leukocyte antigens (HLA), suggesting a role of genetic factors in disease susceptibility. Nevertheless, data on HLA association with the classical form of the disease is scarce in literature. Sixty-four patients and 667 norm...

  17. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Maltchik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de especies en los agroecosistemas ha llamado la atención. Los canales de riego pueden mejorar los hábitats y ofrecer condiciones para la conservación de especies de agua dulce. Desde el punto de vista de conservación de la biodiversidad surgen dos preguntas: 1 ¿Pueden los canales de riego mantener una rica diversidad de vegetación acuática, invertebrados y anfibios en el ciclo de cultivo del arroz? 2 ¿Puede la riqueza, abundancia y composición de especies acuáticas cambiar durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz? Para ello, en el Condado Mostardas, Brazil un grupo de cuatro canales de los campos de arroz fue seleccionado al azar. En cada canal, se llevaron a cabo seis muestreos durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz (junio 2005 hasta junio 2006. Un total de 160 táxones fueron identificados en los canales de riego, que incluyen 59 especies de macrófitos, 91 táxones de macroinvertebrados y 10 especies de anfibios. La riqueza y la abundancia de vegetación acuática, invertebrados y anfibios no cambió significativamente durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz. Sin embargo, la composición de las especies de estos grupos en los canales de riego varía entre períodos no cultivados y cultivados. Nuestros resultados muestran que la diversidad de especies en los canales de riego, junto con la permanencia del agua permite que estas redes acuáticas provocadas por el ser humano puedan funcionar como sistemas importantes que contribuyan con la conservación de la biodiversidad en las regiones donde los humedales se han convertido en campos de arroz. La conservación de las especies en la agricultura, tales como los campos de los canales de arroz, que pueden ser una alternativa importante para la conservación de la biodiversidad en el sur de Brasil, donde más del 90% de los sistemas de humedales ya se han perdido y los restantes aún se encuentran en alto riesgo debido a la expansión de la producción de arroz.

  18. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  19. Tidal and seasonal influences in dolphin habitat use in a southern Brazilian estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Lopes Paitach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study we describe how franciscana and Guiana dolphin habitat use is influenced by tidal cycles and seasonality in Babitonga Bay. The franciscanas use a greater area in winter and a smaller area in summer, but the extent of the area used did not vary with the tide. Guiana dolphins did not change the extent of the area used within seasons or tides. Franciscanas remained closer to the mouth of the bay and the islands during ebb tide, moving to the inner bay areas and closer to the mainland coast during flood tide. Guiana dolphin used areas closer to the mainland coast during the flood tide. Guiana dolphin patterns of movement do not seem to be related to the tidal current. Franciscanas used sandier areas while Guiana dolphins preferred muddy areas, with some seasonal variation. We suggest that these dolphins modify their distributions based on habitat accessibility and prey availability. This study enhances our knowledge of critical habitat characteristics for franciscana and Guiana dolphins, and these factors should be considered when planning local human activities targeting species conservation.

  20. The Eye of the Hurricane: Autoethnography in the Southern Brazilian School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossle, Fabiano; Molina Neto, Vicente; Molina, Rosane Kreusburg

    2014-01-01

    The article systematizes the results of an autoethnography that aimed at understanding the difficulties of the collective work of teachers, their culture and their experience in the context of a municipal public school in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The autoreflexive exercise showed that urban violence leaves profound marks on the culture of the local…

  1. Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli Peacher

    2011-01-01

    The southern pine beetle (SPB) is the most destructive forest insect in the South. The SPB attacks all species of southern pine, but loblolly and shortleaf are most susceptible. The Southern Pine Beetle Information System (SPBIS) is the computerized database used by the national forests in the Southern Region for tracking individual southern pine beetle infestations....

  2. Opening the eyes about dictatorship: audio description as a resource of brazilian memory´s maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Brazilian society had the opportunity to debate the harsh period of its dictatorship after 50 years since the 1964 Military Coup. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an Audio Description project with remarkable photos and videos from Brazilian Dictatorship and its reflections on Brazilian society. The project was elaborated by the research group “Accessible Media and Audiovisual Translation”, whose main focus is provide accessibility (audio description and subtitles for different audiovisual products. We produced a photo documentary with an overview of some important images and with a script focusing on important information about Brazilian politics from 1964 up to 1989. Many steps were followed during the whole process: selection of photos, historical contextualization, script, narration, final editing of the video. In order to produce the audio description scripts of photos and images selected, we have followed some assumptions about audio description. According to Matamala (2006:330 various competences are required to audio describers such as: “the ability to undertake intersemiotic translations (turning images into words, the ability to summarise information in order to adapt the text to the limited space available, keeping the original meaning, by means of rewording and by using synonyms; the ability to critically select the most relevant information”.

  3. Opening the eyes about dictatorship: audio description as a resource of brazilian memory´s maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Brazilian society had the opportunity to debate the harsh period of its dictatorship after 50 years since the 1964 Military Coup. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an Audio Description project with remarkable photos and videos from Brazilian Dictatorship and its reflections on Brazilian society. The project was elaborated by the research group “Accessible Media and Audiovisual Translation”, whose main focus is provide accessibility (audio description and subtitles for different audiovisual products. We produced a photo documentary with an overview of some important images and with a script focusing on important information about Brazilian politics from 1964 up to 1989. Many steps were followed during the whole process: selection of photos, historical contextualization, script, narration, final editing of the video. In order to produce the audio description scripts of photos and images selected, we have followed some assumptions about audio description. According to Matamala (2006:330 various competences are required to audio describers such as: “the ability to undertake intersemiotic translations (turning images into words, the ability to summarise information in order to adapt the text to the limited space available, keeping the original meaning, by means of rewording and by using synonyms; the ability to critically select the most relevant information”.

  4. Space Curves

    CERN Document Server

    Peskine, Christian; Sernesi, Edoardo

    1987-01-01

    The main topics of the conference on "Curves in Projective Space" were good and bad families of projective curves, postulation of projective space curves and classical problems in enumerative geometry.

  5. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  6. Space Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotic...

  7. Watching Clone: Brazilian soap operas and Muslimness in Kyrgyzstan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBrien, J.

    2012-01-01

    In 2004 Clone, a Brazilian soap opera that featured Moroccans and Brazilians as main characters, broadcast throughout post-Soviet Central Asia. The program rose to tremendous popularity in the Kyrgyzstani town of BazaarKorgon partly due to the romanticism of its imagery. The town's residents said

  8. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  9. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  10. DEA investment strategy in the Brazilian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Newton Da Costa, Jr; Marcus Lima; Edgar Lanzer; Ana Lopes

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a multi-period investment strategy using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) in the Brazilian stock market. Results show that the returns based on the DEA strategy were superior to the returns of a Brazilian stock index in most of the 22 quarters analyzed, presenting a significant Jensen's alpha.

  11. Factors Influencing Consonant Acquisition in Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceron, Marizete Ilha; Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; de Oliveira, Camila Rosa; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to provide valid and reliable data on the acquisition of consonant sounds in speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Method: The sample comprised 733 typically developing monolingual speakers of Brazilian Portuguese (ages 3;0-8;11 [years;months]). The presence of surface speech error patterns, the revised percentage consonants…

  12. The Use and Perception of English in Brazilian Magazine Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Amanda Lira Gordenstein

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the uses of English in advertising in Brazil and the attitudes of Brazilians towards the use of different difficulty levels of English in advertising. Using a two part, mixed-methods approach, drawing from quantitative and qualitative methods, I utilized a corpus study to examine English uses in Brazilian magazines and a…

  13. Comparison of peak muscle power between Brazilian and French girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanci Maria, França; Eric, Doré; Mario, Bedu; Emmanuel, Van Praagh

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the muscle power of Brazilian circumpubertal girls and extended the analysis to a cross-cultural dimension. A total of 462 children, 123 Brazilian girls and 339 French girls, 9-18 years, participated in this investigation. Anthropometric data included body mass (BM), height, skinfold thicknesses, and estimated lean leg volume (LLV). All subjects completed a physical activity questionnaire. Cycling peak power was measured including the flywheel inertia of the device (CPPi). Brazilian girls self-assessed their maturation using pubic hair development. CPPi and optimal velocity (v(opt) = velocity at CPPi) increased with stages of puberty. A multiple stepwise regression with anthropometric variables as explanatory factors showed only LLV and age explaining the variance of CPPi (R2 = 0.40, P CPPi in Brazilian girls was related to undetermined qualitative individual factors, which may be related to cycling skill. Even when normalized for anthropometric variables, the anaerobic performance (CPPi and v(opt)) of Brazilian girls was significantly lower than a cohort of French girls. The latter demonstrated a high participation in sport and training activities, while 50% of the Brazilian girls had only physical education classes in the form of regular physical activity. Moreover, most of the Brazilian girls demonstrated an ineffective sprint cycling skill. The data suggest that motor learning is an important issue in muscle power assessment and might, therefore, partially explain peak power differences in Brazilian compared with French girls. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  15. Koszul spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a nilpotent space is both formal and coformal if and only if it is rationally homotopy equivalent to the derived spatial realization of a graded commutative Koszul algebra. We call such spaces Koszul spaces and show that the rational homotopy groups and the rational homology of iter...

  16. Space administration

    OpenAIRE

    Worthington, Scott; Worthington, Scott

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation consists of two parts. The larger portion is an hour-long piece for double bass, electronics, and projected text called Space Administration. The second portion, this essay, discusses my musical background leading up to Space Administration, details of the composition itself, and what new directions I see in my work that in part stem from creating the piece Space Administration

  17. Molecular analysis of homocystinuria in Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Marianna P R; Galdieri, Luciano C; Pereira, Vanessa G; Vergani, Naja; da Rocha, José Cláudio C; Micheletti, Cecília; Martins, Ana Maria; Perez, Ana Beatriz A; Almeida, Vânia D

    2005-12-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the most common cause of homocystinuria. However, no data are available concerning the molecular basis of this disease in Brazilian populations. We studied 14 Brazilian patients from 11 unrelated families using a combined screening approach, involving restriction analysis, single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) scanning, and sequencing. All patients presented homocysteine levels higher than 200 mumol/l before the beginning of treatment. The most common CBS gene mutations, p.G307S (c.919G > A) and p.I278T (c.833T > C), were evaluated and the allele c.919A was not found. One allele with the c.844 ins68 (4.5%) in the CBS gene was found. Three families (6 patients) presented the allele c.833 C (13.6%), without the insertion in the heterozygous state. SSCP scanning and sequencing showed 3 alleles p.T191M (13.64%) in 2 families. One allele with a novel mutation was found in exon 4 (c.168T > A) of the CBS gene (4.5%). We also analyzed c.677C > T and c.1298A > C polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the 2756A > G polymorphism in the methionine synthase (MTR) gene. The frequencies of mutated alleles were: 50% c.677T and 18.2% c.1298C for MTHFR, and 27.3% c.2756G for MTR. In spite of the high level of racial mixing in the country, Brazilian homocystinuric patients did not present a high prevalence of the most common mutations described in the literature.

  18. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  19. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  20. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma: Brazilian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helma P. Cotrim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The majority of cases of hepatocellular carcinoma have been reported in individuals with cirrhosis due to chronic viral hepatitis and alcoholism, but recently, the prevalence has become increasingly related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis around the world. The study aimed to evaluate the clinical and histophatological characteristics of hepatocellular carcinoma in Brazilians' patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis at the present time. METHODS: Members of the Brazilian Society of Hepatology were invited to complete a survey regarding patients with hepatocellular carcinoma related to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with a history of alcohol intake (>20 g/day and other liver diseases were excluded. Hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis was performed by liver biopsy or imaging methods according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases’ 2011 guidelines. RESULTS: The survey included 110 patients with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease from nine hepatology units in six Brazilian states (Bahia, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. The mean age was 67±11 years old, and 65.5% were male. Obesity was observed in 52.7% of the cases; diabetes, in 73.6%; dyslipidemia, in 41.0%; arterial hypertension, in 60%; and metabolic syndrome, in 57.2%. Steatohepatitis without fibrosis was observed in 3.8% of cases; steatohepatitis with fibrosis (grades 1-3, in 27%; and cirrhosis, in 61.5%. Histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was performed in 47.2% of the patients, with hepatocellular carcinoma without cirrhosis accounting for 7.7%. In total, 58 patients with cirrhosis had their diagnosis by ultrasound confirmed by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 55% had 1 nodule; 17%, 2 nodules; and 28%, ≥3 nodules. CONCLUSIONS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is a relevant risk factor associated with hepatocellular carcinoma in

  1. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  2. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  3. Brazilian exchange rate complexity: Financial crisis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piqueira, José Roberto C.; Mortoza, Letícia Pelluci D.

    2012-04-01

    With the financial market globalization, foreign investments became vital for the economies, mainly in emerging countries. In the last decades, Brazilian exchange rates appeared as a good indicator to measure either investors' confidence or risk aversion. Here, some events of global or national financial crisis are analyzed, trying to understand how they influenced the "dollar-real" rate evolution. The theoretical tool to be used is the López-Mancini-Calbet (LMC) complexity measure that, applied to real exchange rate data, has shown good fitness between critical events and measured patterns.

  4. Maria Bandeira, an elusive Brazilian botanist

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    Filgueiras Tarciso S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria do Carmo Vaughan Bandeira (1902-1992 is a little-known Brazilian botanist who worked for about ten years at the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. She made approximately 800 botanical collections, including mosses (her special interest but also lichens, fungi and occasionally angiosperms. She studied at La Sorbonne in Paris, corresponded with leading botanists in different fields of botanical research in Europe and the USA, and represented the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden in many instances. At age 29 she abandoned a promising research career and entered a convent in Rio where she lived for 60 years as a cloistered nun.

  5. Characterization of brazilian wollastonite for radiation dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, D.N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao/SE (Brazil); Melo, A.P.; Gazano, V.S.O.; Caldas, L.V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: dnsouza@fisca.ufs.br

    2006-07-01

    In these work preliminary results of the characterization analyses of Brazilian Wollastonite for radiation dosimetry are presented. Wollastonite is a silicate of calcium, Ca(SiO{sub 3}), and it was acquired in the form of rude mineral with Andradite inclusions. The sample was cleaned and prepared for obtained selected grains of Wollastonite. The analyses of chemical and mineralogical compositions were obtained using the neutron activation and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The thermoluminescent (TL) glow curve of the material shows a prominent peak at about 200 C. TL emission spectra, and photoinduced emission spectra were also obtained. (Author)

  6. Reverse logistics in the Brazilian construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, K R A; Mahler, C F; Valle, R A

    2009-09-01

    In Brazil most Construction and Demolition Waste (C&D waste) is not recycled. This situation is expected to change significantly, since new federal regulations oblige municipalities to create and implement sustainable C&D waste management plans which assign an important role to recycling activities. The recycling organizational network and its flows and components are fundamental to C&D waste recycling feasibility. Organizational networks, flows and components involve reverse logistics. The aim of this work is to introduce the concepts of reverse logistics and reverse distribution channel networks and to study the Brazilian C&D waste case.

  7. The Brazilian deindustrialization: financialization is not guilty

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    MYLÈNE GAULARD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The financialization of the Brazilian economy is often criticized as being responsible of the slowdown of capital accumulation in this country. Indeed, very high interest rates are maintained in order to finance the public debt, and this fosters capitalists to get more Treasury bonds rather than to invest in the productive area. Nevertheless, the evolution of the profit rate in this area also explains the particular relation existing between capitalists, finance and productive investment, as Marx showed it more than a century ago.

  8. Implication of Tityus apiacas (Lourenco, 2002 in scorpion envenomations in the Southern Amazon border, Brazil

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    Bruna Andressa Jung da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Herein, four cases of scorpion stings caused by Tityus apiacas recorded from the municipality of Apuí, in the southern region of the Brazilian Amazon, are described. Patients showed systemic clinical manifestations, described as unusual, involuntary, and generalized tingling and numbness, reported by patients as an electric shock sensation, lasting up to 24 hours after the sting. All patients described local pain and sensation, along with other clinical symptoms including local edema and erythema. Systemic manifestations were not life threatening. Antivenom therapy was administered to all patients, who were discharged without complaints.

  9. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  10. Shakespeare in Southern Africa: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Shakespeare in Southern Africa sets out to publish articles, commentary and reviews on all aspects of Shakespearean studies and performance, with a particular emphasis on the response to Shakespeare in southern Africa. Scholarly notes of a factual nature are also welcome. Submissions are reviewed ...

  11. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger. (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, ...

  12. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

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    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  13. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  14. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  15. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  16. INTER-RELAÇÕES ENTRE FATORES FÍSICOS E SOCIOECONÔMICOS NA DINÂMICA DE USO DA TERRA NO EXTREMO SUL DA BAHIA INTERRELATIONS BETWEEN PHYSICAL FACTORS AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC DYNAMICS OF LAND USE IN THE EXTREME SOUTHERN BAHIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiara Messias de Almeida

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of economic activities in a region is affected by a number of interrelated factors, among which are highlighted the economic, social and natural elements. These interrelations can be observed in the land use and occupancy dynamics, in the spaces of the extreme Southern Bahia. In this region, due to the natural attractions availability, forestry has been leading to new forms of capitalist accumulation and exploitation of nature, reconfiguring the regional space. This article aims to show the relationships between natural, economic and social resources in the reconfiguration of the regional space. For this, the work relied on literature surveys about the natural characteristics of the region and socioeconomic data, relating to land ownership, land use and population dynamics of the last thirty years, using data obtained from the IBGE(Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and SEI (Superintendency of Social and Economic Studies of Bahia. It was observed that the natural characteristics of the region have brought prosperity to the forestry sector, which has developed itself, occupying large areas of land, causing land concentration, measured by the Gini Index. The observed transformations were also accompanied by migration of population from rural to urban in search of better opportunities.

  17. Space use by Rhabdosargus holubi in a southern African estuary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-one juvenile Cape stumpnose Rhabdosargus holubi (140–190 mm fork length) were tagged with internal acoustic transmitters in the lower, middle and upper reaches of the Kowie Estuary, South Africa. The movements of each fish were continually monitored from October 2014 to February 2015 using 22 stationary ...

  18. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Southern Brazil sheep flocks

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    Plínio Aguiar de Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastrointestinal parasites represent an important cause of reduced productivity of sheep worldwide. As anthelmintic are still the main control tool for these parasites, this work evaluated the efficacy of commercially available active principles in 22 sheep flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In each farm 10 sheep were randomly distributed in seven groups with the following treatments: abamectin; albendazole; closantel; levamisole; monepantel; trichlorphon and no anthelmintic (control. All flocks showed resistance to at least three anthelmintics and in 20 farms only two products demonstrated efficacy for parasitic control. In two farms, there was no susceptibility to the six active principles tested. The results of this study provide evidence that the common commercially available anthelmintic are not assuring effective chemical control of gastrointestinal parasitic infections in ovine flocks in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul. Monepantel, the newest introduced drug in the Brazilian market was not effective in 18% of the flocks tested, confirming that the parasitic resistance can be established quickly after the introduction of new molecules mainly when alternative program of parasite control is not performed.

  19. Water quality assessment of the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

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    KK. Blume

    Full Text Available The Sinos River basin is located Northeast of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º 20' to 30º 10' S and 50º 15' to 51º20'W, Southern Brazil, covering two geomorphologic provinces: the Southern plateau and central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin and has an area of approximately 800 km², encompassing 32 municipalities. The objective of this study was to monitor water quality in the Sinos River, the largest river in this basin. Water samples were collected at four selected sites in the Sinos River, and the following parameters were analysed: pH, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, turbidity, fecal coliforms, total dissolved solids, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorous, chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, iron, and copper. The results were analysed based on Resolution No. 357/2005 of the Brazilian National Environmental Council (CONAMA regarding regulatory limits for residues in water. A second analysis was performed based on a water quality index (WQI used by the Sinos River Basin Management Committee (COMITESINOS. Poor water quality in the Sinos River presents a worrying scenario for the region, since this river is the main source of water supply for the urban core. Health conditions found in the Sinos River, mainly in its lower reaches, are worrying and a strong indicator of human activities on the basin.

  20. Mapping Brazilian Cropland Expansion, 2000-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, V.; Hansen, M.; Potapov, P.

    2016-12-01

    Brazil is one of the world's leading producers and exporters of agricultural goods. Despite undergoing significant increases in its cropland area in the last decades, it remains one of the countries with the most potential for further agricultural expansion. Most notably, the expansion in production areas of commodity crops such as soybean, corn, and sugarcane has become the leading cause of land cover conversion in Brazil. Natural land covers, such as the Amazon and Cerrado forests, have been negatively affected by this agricultural expansion, causing carbon emissions, biodiversity loss, altered water cycles, and many other disturbances to ecosystem services. Monitoring of change in cropland area extent can provide relevant information to decision makers seeking to understand and manage land cover change drivers and their impacts. In this study, the freely-available Landsat archive was leveraged to produce a large-scale, methodologically consistent map of cropland cover at 30 m. resolution for the entire Brazilian territory in the year 2000. Additionally, we mapped cropland expansion from 2000 to 2013, and used statistical sampling techniques to accurately estimate cropland area per Brazilian state. Using the Global Forest Change product produced by Hansen et al. (2013), we can disaggregate forest cover loss due to cropland expansion by year, revealing spatiotemporal trends that could advance our understanding of the drivers of forest loss.

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Brazilian Corynebacterium diphtheriae strains

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    Gabriela Andrade Pereira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing problems with multidrug resistance in relation to Corynebacterium, including C. diphtheriae, are examples of challenges confronting many countries. For this reason, Brazilian C. diphtheriae strains were evaluated by the E-Test for their susceptibility to nine antibacterial drugs used in therapy. Resistance (MIC < 0.002; 0.38 µg/ml to penicillin G was found in 14.8% of the strains tested. Although erythromycin (MIC90 0.75 µg/ml and azithromycin (MIC90 0.064 µg/ml were active against C. diphtheriae in this study, 4.2% of the strains showed decreased susceptibility (MIC 1.0 µg/ml to erythromycin. Multiple resistance profiles were determined by the disk diffusion method using 31 antibiotics. Most C. diphtheriae strains (95.74% showed resistance to mupirocin, aztreonam, ceftazidime, and/or oxacillin, ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, clindamycin, lincomycin, and erythromycin. This study presents the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Brazilian C. diphtheriae isolates. The data are of value to practitioners, and suggest that some concern exists regarding the use of penicillin.

  2. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  3. Ticket consumption forecast for Brazilian championship games

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    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    Full Text Available Abstract For the efficiency of sales and marketing management of athletic clubs, it is crucial to find a way to appropriately estimate the level of demand for sporting events. More precise estimates allow for an appropriate financial and operational plan and a higher quality of service delivered to the fans. The focus of this study is to analyze and forecast the ticket consumption for soccer games in Brazilian stadiums. We compare the results of the regression model with normally distributed errors (benchmark, the TOBIT model and the Gamma generalized linear model. The models include explanatory variables related to the economic environment, product quality, as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives that people are given to attend sporting events at stadiums. We show that most of these variables are statistically significant to explain the amount of fans that go to stadiums. We used different measures of accuracy to evaluate the performance of demand forecasts and concluded that Gamma generalized linear model presented better results to forecast the ticket consumption for Brazilian championship games, when compared to a benchmark.

  4. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  5. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  6. The citation pattern of Brazilian economists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Faria

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the determinants of international citations by Brazilian economists in papers published in the top domestic journals in 1994 and 2004. Brazilian research in economics has become more open to international influence and widespread geographically; researchers more specialized and technically oriented and the research topics more diversified. However, Brazil is plagued by editorial favoritism, reflected in the negative and significant impact of references to the works authored by domestic journals editors on international citations. We also find that longer technical papers written on topics other than the economic history of Brazil are more likely to cite foreign literature.Este artigo estuda os determinantes das citações internacionais dos economistas brasileiros em artigos publicados nas principais revistas domésticas de economia nos anos 1994 e 2004. A pesquisa de economia no Brasil se tornou mais aberta à influencia internacional e mais espalhada geograficamente; os pesquisadores mais especializados e tecnicamente orientados e os tópicos de pesquisa mais diversificados. Entretanto, a pesquisa continua sendo prejudicada pelo favoritismo editorial, refletido no impacto negativo e significante das referências dos autores aos trabalhos dos editores das revistas domésticas sobre as citacoes internacionais. Constatamos que artigos técnicos mais longos sobre tópicos que não sejam sobre história econômica do Brasil têm maior chance de citar a literatura internacional.

  7. Lumbosacral plexus in Brazilian Common Opossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senos, R; Ribeiro, M S; Benedicto, H G; Kfoury Júnior, J R

    2016-01-01

    The opossum has been suggested as an animal model for biomedical studies due to its adaptability to captivity and number of births per year. Despite many studies on morphology and experimental neurology using this opossum model, the literature does not offer details of the nerves of the lumbosacral plexus in this species. Ten lumbosacral plexus were dissected to describe the peripheral innervations of the Brazilian Common Opossum (Didelphis aurita) and compare the results with Eutheria clade species. The tensor fasciae latae muscle was absent and there was only one sartorius muscle for each limb. The distribution of the nerves were similar to other mammals, except for the caudal gluteal nerve, sartorius muscle innervations and the position of the pudendal nerve which arose from the major ischiatic foramen together with the ischiatic nerve, the cranial gluteal nerve and the caudal gluteal nerve. No anatomical variation was found. The special position of the pudendal nerve suggested that the Brazilian Common Opossum is a better model than rats or rabbits in surgical procedures with that specific nerve. In addition, the study revealed that the pelvic limb nerves are not an invariable structure of reference for muscle homology and homonym as reported previously. New investigation using other species of opossums are necessary to best comprehend the lumbosacral plexus distribution in the Methatheria clade and to confirm that other opossum species is eligible as a good model for pudendal nerve studies.

  8. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  9. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  10. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  11. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  12. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  13. Gout treatment: survey of Brazilian rheumatology residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Rodrigo Balbino Chaves; Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Pereira, Leticia Rocha; Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; da Rocha Castelar-Pinheiro, Geraldo

    2017-05-01

    To assess the current practices in gout management among Brazilian rheumatology residents. We performed a cross-sectional online survey among all the rheumatology residents and those rheumatologists who had just completed their training (post-residency (PR)) regarding their approach to gout management. Results were compared with the 2012 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) gout guidelines and with the responses of a previous survey with a representative sample of practicing Brazilian rheumatologists (RHE). We received 224 responses (83%) from 271 subjects. Among all respondents, the first-choice treatment for gout flares was the combination of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug + colchicine for otherwise healthy patients. A target serum urate 75%. Less than 70% reported starting allopurinol at low doses (≤100 mg/day) for patients with normal renal function and gout guidelines, especially among PR. However, some important aspects of gout management need improvement. These results will guide the development of a physician education program to improve the management of gout patients in Brazil.

  14. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  15. The heterogeneous HLA genetic composition of the Brazilian population and its relevance to the optimization of hematopoietic stem cell donor recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabreti-Oliveira, R A; Nascimento, E; Fonseca, C G; Santos, M A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecular variation across the Brazilian population in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and understanding the population genetic background of this heterogeneous country. HLA data of 551 HSCT donors from five Brazilian regions were characterized by high-resolution DNA alleles at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci and compared with other populations in Brazil and worldwide populations. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated. The analysis was performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among different loci in each recruitment center. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance analyzed by using a new algorithm based on linear algebra, taking into account geographic regions of Brazil. The results indicated a heterogeneous genetic composition of the Brazilian population, such that HLA allele and haplotype frequencies exhibit different distributions among Brazilian regions, which has important implications for donor matching. In addition, a pronounced differentiation was observed by the absence of clustering of the regional populations in the reduced-dimension space. These data may be useful for increasing donor recruitment with more genetic representativeness in the Brazilian Volunteer Bone Marrow Donors Registry (REDOME). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. HAVANA: SPACE THROUGH TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVIDEL RALUCA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Milton Santos, important Brazilian geographer, stated in his writings that space is a social production through time. The present work belongs to a series of studies of Latin-American cities based on Santos´ theories. Our case study is the city of Havana. Strategically situated in the Antilles, the city always played the role of a gate to the Spanish colonies in the Americas. After the Cuban independence (1898, the Caribbean city fell under the influence of the crescent power of the United States. At the turn of the XXth century, the city which during the colonial times based its economy on trade of commodities from the mainland like tobacco or sugar, turned to be funded mainly by North American tourism. The city attracted legal investment and mafia groups equally. Disparity and growing authoritarianism led to the well known Cuban Revolution and with its socialist reforms, the city froze in time. With the Soviet collapse, the government searched for economic alternatives facing a strong U.S. embargo. Tourism appeared once more as an important source of income. Yet, this new transition raises questions like: how is this reorientation going to change spatially Havana? Or, how are deeper changes in the socialist regime going to affect the heritage and identity of the city?

  17. BRAZILIAN AMAZONIA DEFORESTATION DETECTION USING SPATIO-TEMPORAL SCAN STATISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. O. Vieira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation’s alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia, which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE. The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation’s alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became

  18. AGROCLIMATIC ZONING OF EUROPEAN AND ASIAN PEAR CULTIVARS WITH POTENTIAL FOR COMMERCIAL PLANTING IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS SILVEIRA WREGE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pear is among the fruits of major commercial interest in the world and one of the most imported in Brazil. Brazilian production is very small and the fruit quality is low, due to production problems. The success of culture in the country, among other factors, may be linked to the choice of cultivars, pollinating and rootstocks better adapted to local conditions, and thus depend on the particulars of an agricultural zoning. The aim of this study was to identify, in southern Brazil, homogeneous climatic zones with potential for growing of European and Asian pears, through climate risk studies. The regions were defined by the seasonal availability of chilling hours (<7.2 °C accumulated during the period from May to September and the monthly risk of drought. The analysis allowed the recognition of four homogeneous areas for the production of pears in southern Brazil.

  19. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119 Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  20. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  1. The community structure of macroscopic basidiomycetes (Fungi in Brazilian mangroves influenced by temporal and spatial variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgea Santos Nogueira-Melo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mangroves are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments, and are distinguished by a high abundance of animals, plants, and fungi. Although macrofungi occur in different types of habitat, including mangroves, little is known about their community structure and dynamic. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of macrofungi in a number of Brazilian mangroves, and the relationship between such diversity, precipitation and area of collection. A total of 32 field trips were undertaken from 2009 to 2010, and macrofungi were studied in four 250×40m transects: Timbó and Santa Cruz Channel on the Northern coast, and Maracaípe and Ariquindá on the Southern coast. All basidiomata found along the transects were placed in paper bags, air-dried and identified using existing literature. It was found that Northern areas predominantly featured Avicennia schaueriana mangroves, while Rhizophora mangle dominated in Southern transects. A total of 275 specimens were collected, and 33 species, 28 genera, 14 families and six orders were represented. Overall abundance and species richness did not vary significantly among areas, but varied according to time, being higher during the rainy season. Subtle differences in composition were observed over time and between areas, probably due to variations in plant species occurrence. Further studies with collections during months of greater precipitation in transects dominated by different mangrove species of the same ecosystem are suggested to assess the overall diversity of mycobiota in these ecosystems.

  2. Space suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  3. Morrey spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, David R

    2015-01-01

    In this set of lecture notes, the author includes some of the latest research on the theory of Morrey Spaces associated with Harmonic Analysis. There are three main claims concerning these spaces that are covered: determining the integrability classes of the trace of Riesz potentials of an arbitrary Morrey function; determining the dimensions of singular sets of weak solutions of PDE (e.g. The Meyers-Elcart System); and determining whether there are any “full” interpolation results for linear operators between Morrey spaces. This book will serve as a useful reference to graduate students and researchers interested in Potential Theory, Harmonic Analysis, PDE, and/or Morrey Space Theory. .

  4. Space colonization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Gale; Narayanan Ramachandran

    2009-01-01

      Progress toward future space settlement is measured in small ways, mostly as incremental changes in perception and advances in targeted applied engineering that supports infrastructure development...

  5. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  6. [Citation patterns in Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sílvia Costa; Santos, Tiago S; Lopes, Pedro Faria; Fernandez-Llimos, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Bibliographic references of scientific articles are the source for calculating impact indexes frequently used for the assignment of funding to research projects. Different citation patterns may result in measurement bias of these impact indexes. To analyze citation patterns of Brazilian and Portuguese biomedical journals regarding the geographic origin of the sources cited. As part of the v+biomed project, a convenience sample of 11 biomedical journals, 4 Portuguese and 7 Brazilian, was gathered including the following subject categories: General and Internal Medicine, Public Health, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Surgery. All the references from all the articles published in all the issues (except supplements) in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. The type of source cited and its geographic origin were analyzed. A total of 102 issues from the 11 journals, containing 1430 articles, with a total of 32782 references were analyzed. No differences were found regarding the number of authors, pages or references between articles from Brazilian and Portuguese journals. Brazilian journals presented higher prevalence of English language and cited significantly more journals from their own country (30.1%) comparing to Portuguese journals (5.4%). Additionally, a lower citation rate to journals from the other country analyzed was evident in Brazilian (0.1%) when compared to Portuguese (3.2%) journals, as well as a higher self-citation of Brazilian journals (Brazil - 5.6%, Portugal - 2.1%). A different citation pattern between Portuguese and Brazilian biomedical journals was found, consisting of a higher citation rate from Brazilian to other Brazilian journals and to themselves. This differential in citation patterns may have implications on impact indexes determination which warrant further investigation.

  7. Review of the draft law of direct elections to the parliament of southern common market: the attempt of institutional improvement on economic integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinho Martins Botelho

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to study the proposals of two draft laws for direct elections of the Parliament of Southern Common Market in the face of attempted institutional improvement in the economic integration of the regional economic block. For this, we make a digression on direct elec- tions and the issue of the democratic deficit in Southern Common Market, including the pursuit of a balanced electoral system. After then we review two Brazilian legislative proposals for direct elections in Southern Common Market that enable outline the treatment of the issue in Brazil to implement an electoral legislative review of the Southern Common Market’s democracy that get access the region’s population to sub-regional governmental instances governmental.

  8. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  9. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  10. Understanding the Trend in the Brazilian Seafaring Labor Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobrigo, Enrico; Zylberstajn, Hélio; Jensen, Søren Henning

    in the Brazilian seafaring labor market, it is relevant to research the interaction between various factors that can provide insights regarding the nature of this distinct labor sector. This paper explores the economic indicators that can possibly influence the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market...... regression analysis is an attempt to gain insights and understand the trend in the Brazilian seafaring labor market. Moreover, this research sheds light to essential institutional interventions and nature of the free play of the market that are relevant to the behavior of the trend in the seafaring labor...

  11. The Effect of Brazilian convergence to IFRS on earnings managment by listed Brazilian nonfinancial companies

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Cristina Pelucio Grecco

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates whether the changes in Brazilian accounting practices due to the convergence to international standards brought a reduction in earnings management by listed nonfinancial firms, causing an improvement in the quality of accounting information. We used the Jones model, as modified by Kothari, Leone & Wasley (2005), to measure earnings management by means of discretionary accruals using a sample of 361 companies between 2005 and 2011. The results indicate there was a change...

  12. Analysis of factors associated with traffic accidents of cyclists attended in Brazilian state capitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Carlos Augusto Moreira de; Bahia, Camila Alves; Constantino, Patrícia

    2016-12-01

    Brazil has the sixth largest bicycles fleet in the world and bicycle is the most used individual transport vehicle in the country. Few studies address the issue of cyclists' accidents and factors that contribute to or prevent this event. VIVA is a cross-sectional survey and is part of the Violence and Accidents Surveillance System, Brazilian Ministry of Health. We used complex sampling and subsequent data review through multivariate logistic regression and calculation of the respective odds ratios. Odds ratios showed greater likelihood of cyclists' accidents in males, people with less schooling and living in urban and periurban areas. People who were not using the bike to go to work were more likely to suffer an accident. The profile found in this study corroborates findings of other studies. They claim that the coexistence of cyclists and other means of transportation in the same urban space increases the likelihood of accidents. The construction of bicycle-exclusive spaces and educational campaigns are required.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  14. Race and Affirmative Action: The implementation of quotas for “black” students in a Brazilian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cicalo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, some Brazilian public universities began to reserve a percentage of their posts (quotas to "black" students, allowing them to be accepted with lower scores at the admission exam. These type of policies became common during the last decade as a way to fight against social inequalities, but have also become the object of public disagreement due to its potentially "racializing" character. The present article engages with the racial-quota debate, using some ethnographic data collected at the University of the State of Rio de Janeiro between 2007 and 2008. The author defends these measures as a way to diversify what have been traditionally-elite university spaces and as a way to increase chances of social mobility for lower-class students. These facts should be considered within a debate on affirmative action, without necessarily implying that racial quotas should be the best and only solution to address racial inequalities in Brazilian education.

  15. The expansion of "the feminine" within the Brazilian public sphere: telenovelas of the 1970s and 1980s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Império Hamburger

    Full Text Available This paper revisits the wide range of critical literature that, from a variety of theoretical perspectives and with an emphasis on different historical periods and countries, deals with the relationships between mass media and representations of gender relations. This review of the literature focuses on works that are particularly suggestive for our ensuing discussion on the major conventions of Brazilian telenovela, a television genre that blends elements of documentary and fiction and treats the nation in melodramatic terms. Analysis of relevant programs that were exhibited during the 70s and the 80s suggests that these soaps constructed the Brazilian public space in terms that expanded what the industry had conventionally defined as "woman's domain".

  16. Snowfall in Southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The snowstorm which swept across the eastern United States on December 4 and 5 also brought the season's first snow to parts of the south and southern Appalachia. The extent of snow cover over central Kentucky, eastern Tennessee, western North Carolina and Virginia are apparent in this view from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). This natural-color image was captured by MISR's downward-looking (nadir) camera on December 7, 2002.The Appalachians are bounded by the Blue Ridge mountain belt along the east and the Appalachian Plateau along the west. Valleys and ridges between the higher elevation areas retain the green and reddish-brown hues of autumn, and many rivers and lakes appear blue and unfrozen. The highest peak in the eastern United States, Mount Mitchell, is found in North Carolina's western tip, near the Great Smoky Mountains (the dark-colored range at lower right).The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbit 15805. The image covers an area of 347 kilometers x 279 kilometers, and utilizes data from blocks 60 to 62 within World Reference System-2 path 19.

  17. Eastern and Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler-brown, B

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on migration and the spread of HIV/AIDS in Eastern and Southern Africa. It includes Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The literature focuses separately on AIDS or migration. HIV/AIDS is widespread and prevalent in these regions. The major concern is that migrants are at risk due to their migration and HIV infection is spread after a return to their home countries. Populations at risk include rural-to-urban migrants, displaced persons in the Sudan and in the Horn of Africa, refugees crossing borders, and pastoralists moving within rural areas. In 1997, there were an estimated 1.3 million refugees in east African countries and 5 million internally displaced due to conflicts in Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa. Risk factors among migrant groups include high rates of partner change, unprotected sexual intercourse, nonuse of condoms, prior sexually transmitted diseases, IV drug use, and residence in a high HIV-prevalence community. Confounding factors may be age, gender, occupation, and mobility. Health services for migrants vary between countries. There are successful models for prevention of HIV. 13 targeted interventions are identified.

  18. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  19. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  20. Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  1. Space microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M; Mancinelli, Rocco L

    2010-03-01

    The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis.

  2. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat TM and ETM+ Land Cover, Southern Para, Brazil: 1984-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a five-class land cover for Southern Para for the years 1984 (Landsat MSS), 1988 (Landsat TM), 1996, and 2003 (Landsat ETM+). The final...

  3. LBA-ECO LC-24 Landsat TM and ETM+ Land Cover, Southern Para, Brazil: 1984-2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a five-class land cover for Southern Para for the years 1984 (Landsat MSS), 1988 (Landsat TM), 1996, and 2003 (Landsat ETM+). The final...

  4. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  5. Consensus of the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases and Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology on the management and treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Arruda

    2014-05-01

    There are no treatment guidelines for Kaposi's sarcoma established in Brazil, and thus the Brazilian Society of Clinical Oncology and the Brazilian Society of Infectious Diseases developed the treatment consensus presented here.

  6. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  7. Space Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ellery

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available In this second of three short papers, I introduce some of the basic concepts of space robotics with an emphasis on some specific challenging areas of research that are peculiar to the application of robotics to space infrastructure development. The style of these short papers is pedagogical and the concepts in this paper are developed from fundamental manipulator robotics. This second paper considers the application of space manipulators to on-orbit servicing (OOS, an application which has considerable commercial application. I provide some background to the notion of robotic on-orbit servicing and explore how manipulator control algorithms may be modified to accommodate space manipulators which operate in the micro-gravity of space.

  8. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  9. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  10. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  11. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  12. Technological Capabilities of Brazilian Shipbuilding Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Primo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Technological capabilities (TC play a key role in the competitiveness of firms in industrial sectors. Suppliers in emerging economies often acquire technological capabilities by operating and mastering technologies developed by others and then leveraging this learning to develop indigenous technologies. By reviewing research on firm specific technological capabilities, the development of global value chains and industrial clusters in emerging markets we discuss local suppliers’ insertion and upgrading in the supply chains of new large industrial enterprises. Using the Brazilian shipbuilding industry as context, we investigate and develop propositions related to the ability of local suppliers to develop technological capabilities that permit eventual insertion into the local supply chain. This research has applications for managers and policy makers from other emerging market countries seeking to increase local sourcing through development of local suppliers.

  13. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  14. Measuring complexity in Brazilian economic crises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia P D Mortoza

    Full Text Available Capital flows are responsible for a strong influence on the foreign exchange rates and stock prices macroeconomic parameters. In volatile economies, capital flows can change due to several types of social, political and economic events, provoking oscillations on these parameters, which are recognized as economic crises. This work aims to investigate how these two macroeconomic variables are related with crisis events by using the traditional complex measures due to Lopez-Mancini-Calbet (LMC and to Shiner-Davison-Landsberg (SDL, that can be applied to any temporal series. Here, Ibovespa (Bovespa Stock Exchange main Index and the "dollar-real" parity are the background for calculating the LMC and SDL complexity measures. By analyzing the temporal evolution of these measures, it is shown that they might be related to important events that occurred in the Brazilian economy.

  15. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  16. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  17. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  18. Critical journalism: the progressive” Brazilian bloggers case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Soares Guazina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at understanding what comprises the professional identity of a well-known group of experienced Brazilian journalists who, at the same time, express their political opinion in independent blogs and define themselves as “progressive” or “dirty”. Our objective is to understand how these bloggers define and practice journalism in their blogs and how they view their work in a democratic context. Through various interviews, we mapped out their main journalistic values and described their professional identity as blogger journalists who advocate critical journalism, in other words, opinionated journalism. The results showed that these journalists consider their blogs to be a place for a wide range of opinions against traditional media, and that their main job as online journalists is to be vigilant in relation to political powers, including the media which is seen as an important and relevant political actor in Brazil.

  19. Brazilian environmental sociology: a provisional review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira Leila da Costa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims firstly at the reconstitution and analysis of history within the scope of international environmental sociology situated in the context of contemporary sociology. It also discusses - from the standpoint of literature (Buttel, Dunlap, Hanning, among others - its theoretical-methodological and institutional aspects as well in order to understand the obstacles encountered to legitimate and consolidate a set of problems which, until recently, were not dealt with by social sciences. Secondly, it analyses the Brazilian case. Environmental sociology in Brazil is strongly influenced by American empirical sociology, the precursor of the institutionalization process for the themes. On the other hand, further analysis of this case is relevant to understand the relationship between the scientific sphere, and the creation of environmental policies and social movements.

  20. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelle Chauvet

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.Este artigo utiliza vários métodos para datar e analisar ciclos de negócios e de crescimento no Brasil. Em particular, um modelo de mudanças de Markov é aplicado a dados de produção trimestrais e anuais. As probabilidades suavizadas dos estado markovianos são utilizadas como regras de previsão para definir as diferentes fases de flutuações cíclicas na produção real brasileira. Os resultados são comparados com diferentes regras não-paramétricas. Todos os métodos implementados geram uma cronologia similar e revelam assimetrias nas diferentes fases dos ciclos de negócio e crescimento do Brasil, nos quais os estados de baixo crescimento e recessão são de curta duração e mais