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Sample records for brazilian southern space

  1. Analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and count-rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian southern space observatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Everton [University of Sao Paulo, USP, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, IAG/USP, Department of Geophysics, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Savian, Jairo Francisco [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria, LACESM/CT, Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marlos Rockenbach da; Lago, Alisson dal; Trivedi, Nalin Babulal [National Institute for Space Research, INPE/MCT, Division of Space Geophysics, DGE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: efrigo@iag.usp.br, E-mail: savian@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: njschuch@lacesm.ufsm.br, E-mail: marlos@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: dallago@dge.inpe.br, E-mail: trivedi@dge.inpe.br [Southern Regional Space Research Center, CRS/INPE, MCT, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis of geomagnetic storm variations and the count rate of cosmic ray muons recorded at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory -OES/CRS/INPE-MCT, in Sao Martinho da Serra, RS during the month of November 2004, is presented in this paper. The geomagnetic measurements are done by a three component low noise fluxgate magnetometer and the count rates of cosmic ray muons are recorded by a muon scintillator telescope - MST, both instruments installed at the Observatory. The fluxgate magnetometer measures variations in the three orthogonal components of Earth magnetic field, H (North-South), D (East-West) and Z (Vertical), with data sampling rate of 0.5 Hz. The muon scintillator telescope records hourly count rates. The arrival of a solar disturbance can be identified by observing the decrease in the muon count rate. The goal of this work is to describe the physical morphology and phenomenology observed during the geomagnetic storm of November 2004, using the H component of the geomagnetic field and vertical channel V of the multi-directional muon detector in South of Brazil. (author)

  2. Temperature effect correction for the cosmic ray muon data observed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negative atmospheric temperature effect observed in the muon intensity measured by surface-level detectors is related to the atmospheric expansion during summer periods. According the first explanation given, the path of muons from the higher atmospheric level (where they are generated) to the ground becomes longer, and more muons decay, leading to a muon intensity decrease. A significant negative correlation, therefore, is expected between the altitude of the equi-pressure surface and the muon intensity. We compared measurements of the altitude of 100 hPa equi-pressure surface and data from the multidirectional muon detector installed at the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory in São Martinho da Serra, RS. Significant correlation coefficient were found (up to 0.95) when using data observed in 2008. For comparison, data from the multidirectional muon detector of Nagoya, located in the opposite hemisphere, is studied and an anti-phase in the cosmic ray variation related with the temperature effect is expected between data from detectors of Nagoya and São Martinho da Serra. The temperature influence is higher for the directional channels of Nagoya than for ones of São Martinho da Serra.

  3. EUMYCETOMA BY Madurella grisea: REPORT OF THE FIRST CASE OBSERVED IN THE SOUTHERN BRAZILIAN REGION

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    SEVERO Luiz Carlos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The first case of eumycetoma by Madurella grisea occurred in Southern Brazilian Region is herein related. In addition, Brazilian literature on this subject was reviewed and, the geographic distribution of this eumycetoma is presented.

  4. Moessbauer effect study of the diagenesis on the southern Brazilian Triassic paleoherpetofauna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy is applied to identify the iron contents of bony elements of southern Brazilian Triassic reptile remains, and the question of the paragenetic mineral assemblage is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas C. Morton; DeFries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Liana O. Anderson; ARAI Egidio; del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001–2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to...

  6. Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Defries, Ruth S.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Anderson, Liana O.; Arai, Egidio; Del Bon Espirito-Santo, Fernando; Freitas, Ramon; Morisette, Jeff

    2006-09-01

    Intensive mechanized agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon grew by >3.6 million hectares (ha) during 2001-2004. Whether this cropland expansion resulted from intensified use of land previously cleared for cattle ranching or new deforestation has not been quantified and has major implications for future deforestation dynamics, carbon fluxes, forest fragmentation, and other ecosystem services. We combine deforestation maps, field surveys, and satellite-based information on vegetation phenology to characterize the fate of large (>25-ha) clearings as cropland, cattle pasture, or regrowing forest in the years after initial clearing in Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate and soybean production since 2001. Statewide, direct conversion of forest to cropland totaled >540,000 ha during 2001-2004, peaking at 23% of 2003 annual deforestation. Cropland deforestation averaged twice the size of clearings for pasture (mean sizes, 333 and 143 ha, respectively), and conversion occurred rapidly; >90% of clearings for cropland were planted in the first year after deforestation. Area deforested for cropland and mean annual soybean price in the year of forest clearing were directly correlated (R2 = 0.72), suggesting that deforestation rates could return to higher levels seen in 2003-2004 with a rebound of crop prices in international markets. Pasture remains the dominant land use after forest clearing in Mato Grosso, but the growing importance of larger and faster conversion of forest to cropland defines a new paradigm of forest loss in Amazonia and refutes the claim that agricultural intensification does not lead to new deforestation. agriculture | carbon | land use change | soybean

  7. Estimating Brazilian Monthly GDP: a State-Space Approach

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    João Victor Issler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper has several contributions. The first is to employ a superior interpo lation method that enables to estimate, nowcastandforecast monthly Brazilian GDP for 1980-2012 in an integrated way-see Bernanke, Gertler, & Watson (1997[Systematic monetary policy and the effects of oil price shocks(Brookings Papers in Economic Activity No.1]. Second, along the spirit of Mariano & Murasawa (2003 [A new coincident index of business cycles based on monthly and quarterly series.Journal of Applied Econometrics, 18(4, 427-443], we propose and test a myriad of interpolation models and interpolation auxiliary series-all coincident with GDP from a business-cycle dating point of view. Based on these results, we finally choose the most appropriate monthly indicator for Brazilian GDP. Third, this monthly GDP estimate is compared to an economic ac tivity indicator widely used by practitioners in Brazil-the Brazilian Economic Activity Index (IBC-Br. We found that our monthly GDP tracks economic ac tivity better than IBC-Br. This happens by construction, since our state-space approach imposes the restriction (discipline that our monthly estimate must add up to the quarterly observed series in any given quarter, which may not hold regarding IBC-Br. Moreover, our method has the advantage to be easily im plemented: it only requires conditioning on two observed series for estimation, while estimating IBC-Br requires the availability of hundreds of monthly series. Third, in a nowcasting and forecasting exercise, we illustrate the advantages of our integrated approach. Finally, we compare the chronology of recessions of our monthly estimate with those done elsewhere.

  8. Understanding the Chronology and Occupation Dynamics of Oversized Pit Houses in the Southern Brazilian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio de Souza, Jonas; Robinson, Mark; Corteletti, Rafael; Cárdenas, Macarena Lucia; Wolf, Sidnei; Iriarte, José; Mayle, Francis; DeBlasis, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A long held view about the occupation of southern proto-Jê pit house villages of the southern Brazilian highlands is that these sites represent cycles of long-term abandonment and reoccupation. However, this assumption is based on an insufficient number of radiocarbon dates for individual pit houses. To address this problem, we conducted a programme of comprehensive AMS radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modelling at the deeply stratified oversized pit House 1, Baggio I site (Cal. A.D. 1395-1650), Campo Belo do Sul, Santa Catarina state, Brazil. The stratigraphy of House 1 revealed an unparalleled sequence of twelve well preserved floors evidencing a major change in occupation dynamics including five completely burnt collapsed roofs. The results of the radiocarbon dating allowed us to understand for the first time the occupation dynamics of an oversized pit house in the southern Brazilian highlands. The Bayesian model demonstrates that House 1 was occupied for over two centuries with no evidence of major periods of abandonment, calling into question previous models of long-term abandonment. In addition, the House 1 sequence allowed us to tie transformations in ceramic style and lithic technology to an absolute chronology. Finally, we can provide new evidence that the emergence of oversized domestic structures is a relatively recent phenomenon among the southern proto-Jê. As monumental pit houses start to be built, small pit houses continue to be inhabited, evidencing emerging disparities in domestic architecture after AD 1000. Our research shows the importance of programmes of intensive dating of individual structures to understand occupation dynamics and site permanence, and challenges long held assumptions that the southern Brazilian highlands were home to marginal cultures in the context of lowland South America. PMID:27384341

  9. Spatial and temporal vegetation change in Southern Brazilian Amazon using GIS and NOAA /AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazadi, S.; Yoshikawa, S.

    2007-05-01

    Over the past two decades, environmental alteration in the Amazon Basin due to land development, population increase, and the consequent deforestation, has become a serious ecological problem in this region known to be, both climatologically and biogenetically, one of the most important regions in the world. In Mato Grosso, the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate, vegetation cover change has been reported to occur over large areas due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and slash-and-burn cultivation. Spatial and temporal land cover (vegetation) change is noted to potentially set up temperature increase and rainfall decrease. We stress on the importance of vegetation change information as crucial inputs for eco-climatic analysis of these spatial patterns of change and their temporal trend at local scale, as well as for real-time monitoring or detection of the deforestation events for appropriate action by the Brazilian government. In this study, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed onto NOAA AVHRR remote-sensed and multi- spectral data covering the 1981-2003 period, using GIS. Our investigation focuses on developing a vegetation quantification algorithm for change detection in the vegetation cover over every few years, using the PCA first component, which is shown to characterize the overall vegetation cover types. Land cover features and their spatio-temporal change over the Southern Brazilian Amazon are analyzed and discussed, and their relationships with global and regional eco-climatic phenomena is highlighted.

  10. Association of leprosy with HLA-DR2 in a Southern Brazilian population

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    Visentainer J.E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between HLA specificities and leprosy was investigated in a Southern Brazilian population. One hundred and twenty-one patients and 147 controls were typed for HLA-A, B, Cw, DR and DQ. Patients were subdivided into the following subgroups, according to clinical, histological and immunological criteria: lepromatous (N = 55, tuberculoid (N = 32, dimorphous (N = 20, and indeterminate (N = 14. The frequencies of HLA specificities were compared between the total group of patients and controls, and between the same controls and each subgroup of patients. After correction of the probabilities, deviations were not significant, except for the DR2 specificity, which presented a frequency of 44.2% in the total group of patients and 56.3% in the subgroup of individuals with the tuberculoid form of the disease, compared to 23.3% in the controls. Stratified analysis showed that the increased DR2 frequency in the total group of patients was due to the subgroups with the tuberculoid and dimorphous forms. The relative risk of tuberculoid leprosy for DR2-positive individuals was 4.2, and the etiologic fraction of DR2 was 0.429. In conclusion, a positive association of the DR2 specificity with the tuberculoid form of leprosy, but not with the lepromatous, dimorphous, or indeterminate forms, was demonstrated in this Southern Brazilian population

  11. Rescuing Tradition at the Pierre Verger Cultural Space: Teaching and Learning Afro-Brazilian Culture through Music in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Joao Carlos

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how the Pierre Verger Cultural Space (PVCS), an educational organization dedicated to teaching Afro-Brazilian culture in Bahia, uses music to construct a sense of Afro-Brazilian self. Located in a poverty-stricken neighborhood of Salvador, Bahia, the PVCS sees its mission as "rescuing" ("resgatar") an Afro-Brazilian sense…

  12. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil

  13. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  14. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  15. The oceanic segment of the southern Brazilian margin: Morpho-structural domains and their tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassetto, Marcelo; Alkmim, Fernando F.; Szatmari, Peter; Mohriak, Webster U.

    A descriptive and evolutionary analysis of the main morpho-structural features of the oceanic domain of the southern portion of the Brazilian Continental Margin is supported by regional seismic profiles and potential field data from the Brazilian governmental LEPLAC (Plano de Levantamento da Plataforma Continental Brasileira) Project. The several morpho-structural elements can be differentiated, as for example: the dominant structural pattern of the acoustic basement, including extensional faulting and long-wavelength folding, crustal thickness changes, fracture zones location, distribution of volcanic centers, and development of wedges of seaward-dipping reflectors. Four broad distinct morpho-structural domains, separated by fracture zones and oceanic lineaments. Domain I is located south of the Porto Alegre Lineament; Domain II corresponds to the area between the Porto Alegre Lineament and the Rio Grande Fracture Zone; Domain III spans the area of the São Paulo Plateau; and Domain IV is located to the east of this plateau, towards the abyssal portions of the oceanic crust. These domains are defined by their distinct regional morphologic and structural characteristics. Sometimes these elements are well imaged in the seismic profiles, corroborated by gravity and magnetic anomalies, and eventually identified as prominent features at the sea bottom physiography. Using a multidisciplinary approach based on bathymetric maps, regional seismic interpretation, magnetic data analysis, and gravity models, this work attempts to characterize these elements in a descriptive and evolutionary view, identifying their role in the tectonic development of this portion of the South Atlantic.

  16. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production.

  17. Can rice field channels contribute to biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazilian wetlands?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltchik, Leonardo; Rolon, Ana Silvia; Stenert, Cristina; Machado, Iberê Farina; Rocha, Odete

    2011-12-01

    Conservation of species in agroecosystems has attracted attention. Irrigation channels can improve habitats and offer conditions for freshwater species conservation. Two questions from biodiversity conservation point of view are: 1) Can the irrigated channels maintain a rich diversity of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians over the cultivation cycle? 2) Do richness, abundance and composition of aquatic species change over the rice cultivation cycle? For this, a set of four rice field channels was randomly selected in Southern Brazilian wetlands. In each channel, six sample collection events were carried out over the rice cultivation cycle (June 2005 to June 2006). A total of 160 taxa were identified in irrigated channels, including 59 macrophyte species, 91 taxa of macroinvertebrate and 10 amphibian species. The richness and abundance of macrophytes, macroinvertebrates and amphibians did not change significantly over the rice cultivation cycle. However, the species composition of these groups in the irrigation channels varied between uncultivated and cultivated periods. Our results showed that the species diversity found in the irrigation channels, together with the permanence of water enables these man-made aquatic networks to function as important systems that can contribute to the conservation of biodiversity in regions where the wetlands were converted into rice fields. The conservation of the species in agriculture, such as rice field channels, may be an important alternative for biodiversity conservation in Southern Brazil, where more than 90% of wetland systems have already been lost and the remaining ones are still at high risk due to the expansion of rice production. PMID:22208101

  18. Antibodies against vesicular stomatitis virus in horses from southern, midwestern and northeastern Brazilian States

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    Vinícius Leobet Lunkes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV is the agent of a vesicular disease that affects many animal species and may be clinically confounded with foot-and-mouth disease in ruminant and swine. Horses are especially susceptible to VSV and may serve as sentinels for virus circulation. The present study investigated the presence of neutralizing antibodies against VSV Indiana III (VSIV-3 in serum samples of 3,626 horses from six states in three Brazilian regions: Southern (RS, n = 1,011, Midwest (GO/DF, n = 1,767 and Northeast (PB, PE, RN and CE, n = 848 collected between 2013 and 2014. Neutralizing antibodies against VSIV-3 (titers ≥40 were detected in 641 samples (positivity of 17.7%; CI95%:16.5-19.0%, being 317 samples from CE (87.3%; CI95%: 83.4-90.5 %; 109 from RN (65.7%; CI95%: 57.8 -72.7%; 124 from PB (45.4%; CI95%: 39.4-51.5%; 78 from GO/DF (4.4%; CI95%: 3.5-5.5% and nine samples of RS (0.9%; CI95%: 0.4-1.7%. Several samples from the Northeast and Midwest harbored high neutralizing titers, indicating a recent exposure to the virus. In contrast, samples from RS had low titers, possibly due to a past remote exposure. Several positive samples presented neutralizing activity against other VSV serotypes (Indiana I and New Jersey, yet in lower titers, indicating the specificity of the response to VSIV-3. These results demonstrated a relatively recent circulation of VSIV-3 in northeastern Brazilian States, confirming clinical findings and demonstrating the sanitary importance of this infection.

  19. Evolving regional spaces in the southern Randstad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.; Zonneveld, W.

    2014-01-01

    The Randstad in the Netherlands is known for its polycentric configuration resulting in daily urban systems and planning realities that do not match the formal government tiers. During the years many soft governance spaces have been put forward to address this issue. The situation is particularly co

  20. Proposal of a Methodology of Stakeholder Analysis for the Brazilian Satellite Space Program

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    Mônica Elizabeth Rocha de Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the continuity and growth of space activities in Brazil, it is fundamental to persuade the Brazilian society and its representatives in Government about the importance of investments in space activities. Also, it is important to convince talented professionals to place space activities as an object of their interest; the best schools should also be convinced to offer courses related to the space sector; finally, innovative companies should be convinced to take part in space sector activities, looking to returns, mainly in terms of market differentiation and qualification, as a path to take part in high-technology and high-complexity projects. On the one hand, this process of convincing or, more importantly, committing these actors to space activities, implies a thorough understanding of their expectations and needs, in order to plan how the system/organization can meet them. On the other hand, if stakeholders understand how much they can benefit from this relationship, their consequent commitment will very much strengthen the action of the system/organization. With this framework in perspective, this paper proposes a methodology of stakeholder analysis for the Brazilian satellite space program. In the exercise developed in the article, stakeholders have been identified from a study of the legal framework of the Brazilian space program. Subsequently, the proposed methodology has been applied to the planning of actions by a public organization.

  1. Vulnerability and the psychosocial aspects of tooth loss in old age: a Southern Brazilian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Renato J; Leal, Andréa F; Padilha, Dalva M; Brondani, Mario A

    2012-09-01

    Extensive tooth loss and edentulism can have a negative impact on the general health and quality of life of older adults. The extent to which psychological and social factors affect an individual's decision to undergo tooth extraction and mouth clearance (extraction of all teeth), and the theoretical relationships between social structure, social life and oral health can be unraveled through qualitative research. This study aimed to explore the social and psychological factors involved in tooth extraction and mouth clearance within a historical perspective among rural Southern Brazilian older adults. It is based on qualitative data gathered via a series of eight focus groups among 41 older adults. Underlying the focus group discussions of different levels of health risks and resources for prevention of disease was the concept of vulnerability. Participants' responses illustrated that tooth loss and mouth clearance were related to a lack of public dental health policies and programs, were influenced by social norms (including values pertaining to gender), and were associated with a low level of oral health knowledge. The social and program-dependent contexts of vulnerability were shown to have played a major role in the development of norms and values towards tooth extraction and mouth clearance. Vulnerability must be reduced in order to prevent disease particularly among rural populations. The influence of fatalistic beliefs about the inevitable loss of teeth with age may negatively influence the acceptance of dental treatment and predilection for oral health self-care. PMID:22870826

  2. The Southern Brazilian shelf: general characteristics, quaternary evolution and sediment distribution

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    Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending from latitude 34ºS to 22ºS the Southern Brazilian shelf constitutes the only part of the Brazilian shelf with a subtropical to temperate environment. The studies on the different geological aspects of the area began in the 1960's and have recently been reassessed after studies related to the determination of the Economic Exclusive Zone. In terms of morphology, the Southern Brazilian shelf may be divided into three sectors, the São Paulo Bight, the Florianópolis-Mostardas Sector and the Rio Grande Cone, characterized by conspicuous differences in terms of geological determining factors, bathymetry, declivities and the presence of canyons and channels. Despite the existence of hundreds of radiocarbon datings the sea level changes curve of southern Brazil during the Last Glacial Cycle is still a matter of debate. A recent controversy on the Middle and late Holocene sea level changes curve raised the question of the amplitude of the oscillations which occurred in the period. Also, a few but relatively consistent radiocarbon datings suggest the occurrence of a high sea level during Isotope Stage 3. In terms of sedimentary cover the Southern Brazilian shelf exhibits a very strong hydrodynamic control, both latitudinal and bathymetrical. The sector southward from 25ºS is characterized by the influence of the plume of water carrying sediments originating from the Río de La Plata. Actually its presence is conspicuous up to 28ºS, with the area between this latitude and 25ºS constituting a transitional zone. In terms of bathymetry the outer shelf is marked by the "floor-polisher" effect of the Brazil Current, which is responsible for the maintenance of a relict facies in areas deeper than 100 meters.Estendendo-se entre as latitudes 34ºS e 22ºS, a plataforma continental sul-brasileira constitui o único setor que corresponde a um ambiente subtropical a temperado. Os estudos dos diferentes aspectos geológicos da área iniciaram-se na d

  3. Prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in temporal lobe epilepsy in a Southern Brazilian population

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    José Augusto Bragatti

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A great prevalence of psychiatric disorders in epilepsy is well demonstrated, although most studies have used unstructured psychiatric interviews for diagnosis. Here we present a study evaluating the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in a cohort of Southern Brazilian patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE using a structured clinical interview. We analyzed 166 patients with TLE regarding neuropsychiatric symptoms through the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. One hundred-six patients (63.9% presented psychiatric comorbidities. Mood disorders were observed in 80 patients (48.2%, anxiety disorders in 51 patients (30.7%, psychotic disorders in 14 (8.4%, and substance abuse in 8 patients (4.8% respectively. Our results agree with literature data where most authors detected mental disorders in 10 to 60% of epileptic patients. This wide variation is probably attributable to different patient groups investigated and to the great variety of diagnostic methods. Structured psychiatric interviews might contribute to a better evaluation of prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in TLE.

  4. [Dental spacing problems and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes Neto, Theodorico de Almeida; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; Ferreira, Meire Coelho; Santos, Alcione Miranda dos; Queiroz, Rejane Christine de Sousa

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this study was to estimate the prevalence of dental spacing problems and associated factors among adolescents using data from the SB Brazil 2010 survey. The outcomes evaluated were dental spacing problems: space deficit (crowding and misalignment) and excess space (diastema and spacing) obtained using the DAI index. The association of independent variables with outcomes was assessed using a hierarchical model with four levels: contextual, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, access to services and dental morbidity. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and univariate and multivariate Poisson distribution to estimate prevalence ratios (PR). The overall prevalence of space problems was 71.43%, with misalignment being the most common type (56.4%). The following aspects were significantly associated with excess space: age of 16, 18 and 19 years; being non-Caucasian (PR = 1.75), perception of speech problems (PR = 1.72) and periodontal pockets 4-5mm (RP = 1.56). For space deficit: family income up to 3 minimum wages, dental visit 1 year or more previously (PR = 1.19) and having one or more decayed teeth on average (PR = 1.32). There was a prevalence of spacing problems, especially with socioeconomic and demographic variables and morbidity as potential risk factors.

  5. A 12 years brazilian space education activity experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancato, Fernando; Gustavo Catalani Racca, João; Ballarotti, MaurícioG.

    2001-03-01

    A multidisciplinary group of students from the university and latter also from the high school was formed in 1988 with the objective to make them put in practice their knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics and engineering fields in experimental rocketry. The group was called "Grupo de Foguetes Experimentais", GFE. Since that time more than 150 students passed throw the group and now many of them are in the space arena. The benefits for students in a space hands-on project are many: More interest in their school subjects is gotten as they see an application for them; Interrelation attitudes are learned as space projects is a team activity; Responsibility is gained as each is responsible for a part of a critical mission project; Multidisciplinary and international experience is gotten as these are space project characteristics; Learn how to work in a high stress environment as use to be a project launch. This paper will cover the educational experiences gotten during these years and how some structured groups work. It is explained the objectives and how the group was formed. The group structure and the different phases that at each year the new team passes are described. It is shown the different activities that the group uses to do from scientific seminars, scientific club and international meetings to technical tours and assistance to rocket activities in regional schools. It is also explained the group outreach activities as some launches were covered by the media in more then 6 articles in newspaper and 7 television news. In 1999 as formed an official group called NATA, Núcleo de Atividades Aerospaciais within the Universidade Estadual de Londrina, UEL, by some GFE members and teachers from university. It is explained the first group project results.

  6. Services available at the Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Cecatto, J. R.; Costa, J. E. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Rockenbach, M.; Braga, C. R.; Mendonca, R. R. S.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Koga, D.; Alves, L. R.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Banik de Padua, M.; De Nardin, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2008, Brazilian government has been supporting a Space Weather Program at the National Institute for Space Research (INPE). The main objective of the "Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather (Embrace) Program" is to proceed with data collection and maintenance of Space Weather observation, modeling processes of the Sun-Earth on a global and regional scale, provide information in real time and make Space Weather forecast, and provide diagnostics of their effects on different technology systems through the collection of satellite data, surface and computational modeling. Advantage was taken on the long lasting expertise of the local scientific community, specially regarding local phenomena, such as the equatorial ionosphere and effects of the South American Magnetic Anomaly. Since April 2012, weekly briefings are held where scientists discuss and evaluate in a comprehensive manner all the chains of events from the sun, interplanetary space, earth magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and reaching the effects on ground. One unique aspect of Embrace program is the strong emphasis on ionospheric and upper atmospheric disturbances. Recently, strong focus on radiation belt variability is progressively been included. Another important particularity of this program is the use of cosmic ray observations to develop nowcasting and forecasting of solar wind structures. In this work, we present an overview of activities and contributions related to the EMBRACE Program.

  7. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jalnsgf@outlook.com, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: ecorborges@hotmail.com, E-mail: ivayolini@gmail.com, E-mail: guilherme_placco@ig.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia, E-mail: arygarcia89@yahoo.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  8. Controls on water column chemistry of the southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niencheski, L. F.; Windom, H. L.; Moore, W. S.

    2014-10-01

    Chemistry of Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf (SBS) waters, between 28.5°S and 34°S, is evaluated in relation to the mixing of thermohaline defined water masses and concomitant water column processes. Data on inorganic nutrient and trace metal (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, V and Zn) concentrations and radium isotopic activities from previous reports and recent analyses are presented and discussed with the aim of providing a state of knowledge on processes governing their sources, distribution, transport and fate on the SBS. Nutrients concentrations/distributions on the shelf are controlled mainly by Tropical Water/Subtropical Shelf Water, seasonally modified as a result of summer upwelling in the northern shelf region, and by Plata Plume Water, which is seasonally modified by discharges of submarine groundwater (SGD), the Patos Lagoon and by the greater northern penetration of the Rio de la Plata plume during winter. Radium-226 activity varies little across the shelf. Radium-228 activity, associated dominantly with SGD, decreases conservatively, with respect to salinity, across shelf transects, converging on a typical ocean endmember activity. The low salinity endmember activity, however, depends on the location of the shelf transect controlled by the variability of coastal SGD. Because SGD is so important to the coastal shelf region, 228Ra activity appears to provide a better tracer of water mass interactions than thermohaline characteristics. Using metal-228Ra relationships, sources, transport and fate of trace metals are better constrained enabling the following conclusion: The major source of dissolved Co, Mn and Fe to the shelf is SGD, along the coastal Holocene barrier system, followed by removal as coastal water mixes across the shelf. Cu and Si concentrations are explained as conservative mixtures of three endmembers: SGD, surface freshwater discharge and oceanic. Cd and Zn are largely explained similarly. Vanadium is enriched in coastal waters during

  9. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  10. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  11. Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Central Obesity in a Southern Brazilian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína P. Jaeger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in energy balance control, stimulating appetite and increasing body weight in wasting syndromes. Different studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene and obesity with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the 1359G/A (rs1049353, 3813A/G (rs12720071 and 4895A/G (rs806368 polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene in a Brazilian population of European descent. To verify the association between these variants and obesity-related traits in this population, 756 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods. The 4895G allele was associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR (P = 0.014; P = 0.042 after Bonferroni correction. An additive effect with the GAA haplotype was associated with WHR (P = 0.028, although this statistical significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.084. No significant association was observed between the genotypes of the 1359G/A and 3813A/G polymorphisms and any of the quantitative variables investigated. Our findings suggest that CNR1 gene polymorphism is associated with central obesity in this Brazilian population of European ancestry.

  12. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  13. Southern-Tyrrhenian seismicity in space-time-magnitude domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Luzio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis is conducted on a catalogue containing more than 2000 seismic events occurred in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea between 1988 and October 2002, as an attempt to characterise the main seismogenetic processes active in the area in space, time and magnitude domain by means of the parameters of phenomenological laws. We chose to adopt simple phenomenological models, since the low number of data did not allow to use more complex laws. The two main seismogenetic volumes present in the area were considered for the purpose of this work. The first includes a nearly homogeneous distribution of hypocentres in a NW steeply dipping layer as far as about 400 km depth. This is probably the seismological expression of the Ionian lithospheric slab subducting beneath the Calabrian Arc. The second contains hypocentres concentrated about a sub-horizontal plane lying at an average depth of about 10 km. It is characterised by a background seismicity spread all over the area and by clusters of events that generally show a direction of maximum elongation. The parameters of the models describing seismogenetically homogeneous subsets of the earthquake catalogue in the three analysis domains, along with their confidence intervals, are estimated and analysed to establish whether they can be regarded as representative of a particular subset.

  14. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  15. Basic Research and Development Effort to Design a Micro Nuclear Power Plant for Brazilian Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimares, L. N. F.; Camillo, G. P.; Placco, G. M.; Barrios, G., A., Jr.; Do Nascimento, J. A.; Borges, E. M.; De Castro Lobo, P. D.

    For some years the Nuclear Energy Division of the Institute for Advanced Studies is conducting the TERRA (Portuguese abbreviation for advanced fast reactor technology) project. This project aims at research and development of the key issues related with nuclear energy applied to space technology. The purpose of this development is to allow future Brazilian space explorers the access of a good and reliable heat, power and/or propulsion system based on nuclear energy. Efforts are being made in fuel and nuclear core design, designing and building a closed Brayton cycle loop for energy conversion, heat pipe systems research for passive space heat rejection, developing computational programs for thermal loop safety analysis and other technology that may be used to improve efficiency and operation. Currently there is no specific mission that requires these technology development efforts; therefore, there is a certain degree of freedom in the organization and development efforts. This paper will present what has been achieved so far, what is the current development status, where efforts are heading and a proposed time table to meet development objectives.

  16. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  17. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  18. Domestic violence against children and adolescents: prevalence of physical injuries in a southern Brazilian metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Leidielly Aline; Dalledone, Mariana; Pizzatto, Eduardo; Zaiter, Wellington; de Souza, Juliana Feltrin; Losso, Estela Maris

    2015-01-01

    Violence against children and adolescents is a public health issue worldwide that threatens physical and mental wellbeing and causes irreparable harm. Reports on this violence are an essential way to prevent it and to protect the children and adolescents. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of physical injuries that occur in domestic environments and reported to the Child and Adolescent Protection Network. This retrospective study was conducted at the Epidemiology Center of the Municipality of Curitiba. A total of 10,483 reports for the years 2010 (5,112) and 2011 (5,371) were analyzed and from them were selected reports of physical injuries that occurred in the family environment. The children and adolescents were 0-17 years old, comprising 322 cases of physical abuse within the family in 2010. Out of these, 57.1% were male and 42.9% were female, and 58% (187) presented head and neck injuries. There were 342 reports in 2011, 49% were male and 51% were female; head and neck injuries corresponded to 65% (222) of the reported cases. The prevalence of injuries increased by 6% and head and neck injury increased by 19% between 2010 and 2011. It may be concluded that physical abuse is associated with a high prevalence of head and neck injury, which is easily observed by the health and education professionals. Notification organs should be created in Brazilian hospitals and health centers, which is essential to conduct epidemiological surveillance and appropriate policies. PMID:25672385

  19. Surviving probability indicators of landing juvenile magellanic penguins arriving along the southern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Carvalho Rodrigues; Andréa Corrado Adornes; Euclydes Antônio dos Santos Filho; Rodolfo Pinho Silva Filho; Elton Pinto Colares

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to monitor and study the hematocrit and weight of juvenile penguins, with and without oil cover, found alive along the southern coast of Brazil, after capture, as well as before eventual death or release. Released juvenile penguins showed higher weight and hematocrit (3.65 ± 0.06 kg and 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectively) than those that died (2.88 ± 0.08 kg and 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectively). Penguins with higher hematocrit and weight after capture had higher mean weight gain...

  20. On a new genus and species of Hemicytheridae (Ostracoda, Crustacea from the southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson L. M. de Morais

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on 62 samples of phytal and bottom sediments collected along rocky beaches (< 3 m water depth of the central and northern coasts of the state of Santa Catarina (26º10'/27º50'S – 48º26'/48º40'W, southern Brazil. Living and dead ostracodes distributed among 16 families were recovered. In this paper is emphasized one new hemicytherid genus and species that is described and richly illustrated: Auricythere sublitoralis gen. nov. and sp. nov. Some ecological and zoogeographical aspects of this new ostracode are briefly discussed.

  1. Advanced micro-reactor for space and deep sea exploration: a scientific Brazilian vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humankind is at the point to initiate a new adventure in its evolutionary journey, the colonization of other planets of our solar system and space travels. Also, there is still another frontier where the human presence is scarce, the oceans and the Earth seabed. To have success in the exploration of these new frontiers a fundamental requirement must be satisfied: secure availability of energy for life support and others processes. This work deals with the establishment of a basis for a Brazilian nuclear research and development (R and D) program to develop micro-reactor (MR) technologies that may be used in the seabed, the space or another hostile environment on Earth. The work presents a set of basic requirements that is used to define the best reactor type to be used in these environments. Also, the limits and dimensions that define the class of micro-reactors are discussed. The fast neutron spectrum was chosen as the best for the MR and the limits for the active core volume and thermal power are 30 liters and 5 MW. (author)

  2. Prokaryotic communities of acidic peatlands from the southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Etto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The acidic peatlands of southern Brazil are ecosystems essential for the maintenance of the Atlantic Forest, one of the 25 hot-spots of biodiversity in the world. In this work, we investigated the composition of prokaryotic communities in four histosols of three acidic peatland regions by constructing small-subunit (SSU rRNA gene libraries and sequencing. SSU rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the prevalence of Acidobacteria (38.8% and Proteobacteria (27.4% of the Bacteria domain and Miscellaneous (58% and Terrestrial (24% groups of Crenarchaeota of the Archaea domain. As observed in other ecosystems, archaeal communities showed lower richness than bacterial communities. We also found a limited number of Euryarchaeota and of known methanotrophic bacteria in the clone libraries.

  3. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Extracts of Seven Fruits Found in the Southern Brazilian Flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagattoli, P C D; Cipriani, D C; Mariano, L N B; Correa, M; Wagner, T M; Noldin, V F; Filho, V Cechinel; Niero, R

    2016-01-01

    Methanol extracts of seven edible fruits found in southern Brazil: Garcinia achachairu, Rubus imperialis, Rubus rosaefolius, Solanum quitoense, Solanum sessiliflorun, Diospyros inconstans and Plinia glomerata, were evaluated for their total phenol content and antioxidant activity in different in vitro free radical scavenging models. In addition, studies were performed on cell viability of extracts of the seeds of G. achachairu against murine melanoma cells. The fruits peel and seeds of G. achachairu were very promising in terms of total phenol content (data in gallic acid equivalent per gram), as assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, with values of 9.70±3.2 and 8.40±1.1, respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant activity using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay showed that the fruit pulp and peel of P. glomerata presented the best profile, with values of the 16.3±1.8 and 15.9±2.4 μg/ml, respectively. Regarding the cytotoxic effect of methanol extract and guttiferone A from G. achachairu, we have observed that both inhibit the growth of B16F10 tumor cells, with calculated IC50 values of 49.6±2.1 mg/ml and 48.6±5.4 mM, respectively. PMID:27168679

  4. Surviving probability indicators of landing juvenile magellanic penguins arriving along the southern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Carvalho Rodrigues

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to monitor and study the hematocrit and weight of juvenile penguins, with and without oil cover, found alive along the southern coast of Brazil, after capture, as well as before eventual death or release. Released juvenile penguins showed higher weight and hematocrit (3.65 ± 0.06 kg and 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectively than those that died (2.88 ± 0.08 kg and 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectively. Penguins with higher hematocrit and weight after capture had higher mean weight gain than their counterparts with smaller hematocrit and weight after the capture. Besides, juveniles with higher hematocrit and weight after the capture had higher survival rates, independent of the presence or absence of oil. The results suggested that juveniles covered with oil might have been healthier than the juveniles without oil. The animals without oil probably died as a consequence of health disturbances, while the animals with oil possibly were healthy before contact with oil in the sea.O hematócrito e o peso de pingüins juvenis, com e sem óleo, encontrados vivos na costa do sul do Brasil, foram monitorados após sua captura, bem como antes de sua morte ou liberação do centro de reabilitação. Os pingüins juvenis liberados apresentaram o último peso e hematócrito (3.65 ± 0.06 kg e 44.63 ± 0.29%, respectivamente maiores do que os pingüins que morreram (2.88 ± 0.08 kg e 34.42 ± 1.70%, respectivamente. Pingüins juvenis com maior hematócrito e peso após a captura tiveram maior ganho médio de peso do que os pingüins com menor hematócrito e peso após a captura. Além disso, os juvenis com maior hematócrito e peso após a captura tiveram maiores taxas de sobrevivência, independente da presença ou ausência de óleo. Os resultados sugerem que os pingüins juvenis com óleo poderiam estar mais saudáveis do que os juvenis sem óleo. Os animais sem óleo provavelmente morreram em decorrência de doenças, endoparasitas ou outros dist

  5. Natural regeneration in a quaternary coastal plain in southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleber Ibraim Salimon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Composition, structure and dynamics of an eight year old secondary forest was studied at Reserva Volta Velha (26°04'S; 48°38'W, southern Brazil. A 0.72ha plot was divided into 36 subplots of 20X10m, where all trees/shrubs greater than 1m tall were identified, measured (height/diameter and evaluated (successional status. The results were: (1 95 species collected within 68 genera and 44 families; the most species rich families were Myrtaceae and Asteraceae with 8 species each; (2 the most important species (considering biomass and density were Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella and Ternstroemia brasiliensis; (3 the most similar area was a fallow abandoned 35 years ago; (4 the higher species diversity were found in border subplots, indicating that most of the species do not tolerate extreme conditions in the center of the opening, and are colonizing the area through the borders.A maior parte das áreas florestais no domínio da Floresta Atlântica se encontra degradada devido a diferentes pressões antrópicas. No intuito de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre relictos de florestas nativas intactas, e também de áreas abandonadas para se obter dados sobre os processos naturais de regeneração, foi realizado um estudo da composição florística, estrutura e dinâmica de uma comunidade vegetal em estágio seral inicial de 8 anos. em Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas, na Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoa-SC, Brasil. Foram utilizados os métodos usuais de coleta, herborização e identificação das espécies encontradas, e a análise estrutural foi feita utilizando-se 36 parcelas retangulares de 20 X 10m, sendo incluídas todas as plantas arbustivo/arbóreas com no mínimo 1 metro de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: 1- Foram encontradas 96 espécies, dentro de 68 gêneros e 44 famílias; as famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Asteraceae com 8 espécies cada, e o gênero mais

  6. A two stories office building designed for the southern Brazilian climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costella, M. [Elemento 5 Bioclimatic and Environmental Design, Chapeco (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which a 2-storey office building was constructed using traditional and contemporary techniques and technologies to provide acceptable summer and winter thermal comfort. The design included the use of passive and hybrid cooling and heating techniques to decrease cooling and heating energy consumption and to improve thermal comfort. The design guidelines were based on the climate in Chapeco, Brazil in terms of annual mean temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloudiness. Passive strategies that respond to climate were used in the design, including natural daylighting; natural ventilation; solar heating and thermal mass; shading devices; and green roofs. The relationships between buildings and outdoor spaces were also controlled in order to ensure a response to the different seasons. This study showed that an environmental design approach goes far beyond the quantification of energy consumption through the use of different materials or strategies. The occupant's thermal and psychological comforts were placed as the main issues to be addressed and not energy savings. Once completed, the building will be monitored to determine if the passive strategies are working. 4 refs., 14 figs.

  7. Submarine groundwater discharge revealed by radium isotopes (Ra-223 and Ra-224 near a paleochannel on the Southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kammer Attisano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Submarine Groundwater Discharge (SGD has been recognized as an important component of the ocean-continent interface. The few previous studies in Brazil have focused on nearshore areas. This paper explores SGD on the Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf using multiple lines of evidence that include radium isotopes, dissolved nutrients, and water mass observations. The results indicated that SGD may be occurring on the Continental Shelf in the Albardão region, near a paleochannel located 50 km offshore. This paleochannel may thus be a preferential pathway for the delivery of nutrient- and metal-enriched groundwater and porewater into continental shelf waters.

  8. Whales from space: counting southern right whales by satellite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fretwell, Peter T; Staniland, Iain J; Forcada, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method of identifying and counting whales using very high resolution satellite imagery through the example of southern right whales breeding in part of the Golfo Nuevo, Península Valdés in Argentina. Southern right whales have been extensively hunted over the last 300 years and although numbers have recovered from near extinction in the early 20(th) century, current populations are fragmented and are estimated at only a small fraction of pre-hunting total. Recent extreme right whale calf mortality events at Península Valdés, which constitutes the largest single population, have raised fresh concern for the future of the species. The WorldView2 satellite has a maximum 50 cm resolution and a water penetrating coastal band in the far-blue part of the spectrum that allows it to see deeper into the water column. Using an image covering 113 km², we identified 55 probable whales and 23 other features that are possibly whales, with a further 13 objects that are only detected by the coastal band. Comparison of a number of classification techniques, to automatically detect whale-like objects, showed that a simple thresholding technique of the panchromatic and coastal band delivered the best results. This is the first successful study using satellite imagery to count whales; a pragmatic, transferable method using this rapidly advancing technology that has major implications for future surveys of cetacean populations.

  9. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  10. Advances of orbital gas tungsten arc welding for Brazilian space applications – experimental setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Orlowski de Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes details of the several steps of the technology involved for the orbital Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW process of pure commercially titanium tubes. These pieces will be used to connect the several components of the propulsion system of the China-Brazilian Satellite CBERS, and is part of the Brazilian aerospace industry development. The implantation involved the steps of environment control; cut and facing of the base metal; cleaning procedures; piece alignment; choice of the type, geometry and installation of the tungsten electrode; system for the pressure of the purge gas; manual tack welding; choice of the welding parameters; and, finally, the qualification of welding procedures. Three distinct welding programs were studied, using pulsed current with increasing speed, continuous current and pulsed current with decreasing amperage levels. The results showed that the high quality criteria required to the aerospace segment is such that usual welding operations must be carefully designed and executed. The three welding developed programs generated welds free of defects and with adequate morphology, allowing to select the condition that better fits the Brazilian aerospace segment, and to be implanted in the welding of the CBERS Satellite Propulsion System.

  11. Spatial variation of dung beetle assemblages associated with forest structure in remnants of southern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Giovâni da Silva; Malva Isabel Medina Hernández

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and is currently highly fragmented and disturbed due to human activities. Variation in environmental conditions in the Atlantic Forest can influence the distribution of species, which may show associations with some environmental features. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) are insects that act in nutrient cycling via organic matter decomposition and have been used for monitoring environmental changes. Th...

  12. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory en...

  13. Radio quite site qualification for the Brasilian Southern Space Observatory by monitoring the low frequency 10-240 MHz Eletromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Guilherme Simon; Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Espindola Antunes, Cassio; Gomes, Natanael

    The monitoring of the level of the radio interference in the Site of the Brazilian Southern Space Observatory - SSO/CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, (29S, 53W), São Martinho da Serra, RS, in south a of Brazil, aims to gather spectral data for the Observatory's Site qualification as a radio quite site for installation of Radio Astronomy instrumentation, free of radio noise. The determination of the radio interference level is being conducted by using a spectrum analyzer and Omni directional antennas remotely controlled through a GPIB interface, via IEEE 488 bus, and programs written in C language. That procedure allows the scanning of the Electromagnetic Spectrum power over the examined frequency range from 10 - 240MHz. The methodology for these tests was to amplify the radio signal from the antenna by a block amplifier. Subsequently, the received signals are evaluated by the spectrum analyzer. A dedicated PC computer is used for the control and data acquisition, with the developed software. The data are instantly stored in digital format and remotely transferred via VNC software from the SSO-Observatory Site to the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory at the Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRS/CIE/INPE - MCT, in Santa Maria, RS, for analysis and storage on the radio interference data base for long period. It is compared the SSO's Electromagnetic Spectrum data obtained since the beginning of the 1990's decade, before the Site constructions, with the current observed data. Some radio transmissions were found in the observed frequency range due to some local FMs, mostly between 93.5 MHz to 105.7 MHz, which were observed in previous monitoring. A good evidence of the site quality is the fact that the power of the Electromagnetic Spectrum is much lower than that measured at the Radio Frequency and Telecommunication Laboratory, in Santa Maria, RS, where the signals do not exceed -60 dB. On the Site of the SSO, due to the low power observed, weak radio signals

  14. Topographic profile of a target with use of laser pulses. A survey directed to the Brazilian deep space mission ASTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is directly related to the development of the laser altimeter for the ASTER mission, named ALR. The Brazilian deep space mission ASTER plans to send a small spacecraft to encounter and investigate the triple asteroid 2001-SN263. The launch is scheduled to occur in 2017 and the ALR is now under development in partnership with UNICAMP, UFABC and aerospace companies. In this work, the environment and the operation of the instrument were modeled and simulations were carried out in order to better understand and define the instrument parameters. The creation of the simulation software to control the operation of the instrument was the main purpose of this work, and the software so far created is the main result of it. The software was successfully tested with respect to some common expected situations

  15. Palaeovegetation dynamics of an ecotone forest-savanna in southern Brazilian Amazon during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in the Brazilian southern Amazon region (Rondonia state and Humaita, southern Amazon state). Carbon isotope data on soil organic matter have been collected along an ecosystem transect of about 750 km that includes a savanna, a wooded savanna (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The main objective is to evaluate the expansion-regression dynamics of these vegetation units in relation to climate changes during the Late Pleistocene (Late Glacial) and Holocene. Large ranges in δ13 values were observed in soil organic matter collected from profiles in the savanna (-27 to -14 per mille and forest regions (-26 to -19 per mille) reflecting changing distribution of 13C-depleted C3 forest and 13C enriched C4 savanna vegetation in response to climate change. 14C data of humin fraction and buried charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is at least 17,000 years BP at 300-cm depth. In this period, the entire ecosystem transect are characterized by δ13C soil depth profiles, generated typically by C3 plants (forest), inferring a humid climate in the southern Amazon region after the end of last glaciation. 13C data also indicate that C4 plants (grasses) have influenced significantly the vegetation at the transitional forest and the cerrado sites of southern Rondonia state and two distinct points in the forest ecosystem in the southern Amazon state. These typical C4 type isotopic signatures probably reflect a drier climate during about 9000-8000 yr BP to 3000 yr BP and the savanna and wooded savanna expansion in distinct points of the transect. The 13C records representing the 3000 yr show an expansion of the forest, due to a climatic improvement, in areas previously occupied by savanna vegetation. This study adds to the mounting evidence that extensive forested areas existed in the Amazon during the last glacial and that savanna vegetation expanded in response to warm and

  16. Ecological Adaptation of Wild Peach Palm, Its In Situ Conservation and Deforestation-Mediated Extinction in Southern Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Charles R. Clement; Ronaldo P. Santos; Desmouliere, Sylvain J. M.; Ferreira, Evandro J. L.; Neto, João Tomé Farias

    2009-01-01

    Background The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. Methodology/Principal Findings Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent dig...

  17. Epidemiology of Ornithodoros brasiliensis (mouro tick) in the southern Brazilian highlands and the description of human and animal retrospective cases of tick parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, José; Marks, Fernanda S; Guimarães, Jorge A; Termignoni, Carlos; Martins, João Ricardo

    2013-02-01

    Ornithodoros brasiliensis, also known as the "mouro" tick, is an argasid tick found exclusively in the southern Brazilian highlands. O. brasiliensis parasitism is frequently associated with severe symptoms directly induced by the tick bite, a condition compatible with the definition of tick toxicosis. The objectives of this work include (i) the determination of the distribution of O. brasiliensis in farms located in the tick-endemic region, (ii) the description of the characteristics of O. brasiliensis habitats, (iii) the analysis of risk factors associated with O. brasiliensis, and (iv) the retrospective description of cases of human and animal parasitism by O. brasiliensis. Of the 30 farms included in this study, O. brasiliensis was identified on 5 farms (frequency 16.7%), in which several ticks found in high density buried in soil were collected. Information regarding the tick habitats and the local population was recorded. The data indicated that O. brasiliensis feeds on humans, dogs, armadillos (Dasypus hybridus), and possibly skunks (Conepatus chinga). The analysis of risk factors indicated that the presence of house basements with an unpaved (natural soil) floor on farms and insufficient sanitary conditions significantly enhanced the probability of identifying O. brasiliensis. Additionally, we describe retrospectively cases of tick parasitism in 28 humans and 11 dogs including the most common symptoms associated with tick toxicosis. This is the first study concerning O. brasiliensis epidemiology, distribution, and habitat, and the report represents the most comprehensive characterization of Ornithodoros bite-associated toxicosis syndrome. PMID:23238249

  18. The spread of Neo-Pentecostalism in Brazilian football: socio-anthropological analysis of the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claude Petrognani

    2015-01-01

    This text deals with the relationship between religion, football and public space in Brazil. Specifically, it is about a certain aspect of the Brazilian religious field, i.e. the evangelical field, and particularly the Neo-Pentecostal one and its appearance and spread in sports, mainly football. By using data taken from doctoral research, it will be possible to demonstrate, without claiming to be exhaustive, that there is a spread of evangelicalism in football which is making this religious m...

  19. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tércia G; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-07-15

    Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hg(inorg)), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hg(inorg)) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury. PMID:25960272

  20. Remarks on the morphology and distribution of some rare centric diatoms in southern Brazilian continental shelf and slope waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinês Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides information on the morphology and occurrence of extant diatoms of the family Asterolampraceae and Azpeitia species of the southernmost Brazilian continental shelf and slope waters in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean (28 -34ºS, under the influence of Tropical, Subtropical, Subantarctic Waters, terrestrial discharges from La Plata River and Lagoa dos Patos lagoon. Plankton was sampled (20 µm net; vertical hauls at the same 27 stations in winter 2005 and summer 2007. Among Asterolampraceae, Asteromphalus flabellatus was the most frequent species (57% of samples observed mainly in winter samples (92% in Subtropical Shelf Water but also under the influence of La Plata River plume (salinity O trabalho apresenta informações morfológicas e sobre a ocorrência de diatomáceas atuais da família Asterolampraceae e de espécies de Azpeitia encontradas na plataforma continental e talude do extremo sul do Brasil no Oceano Atlântico Sul (28 -34ºS, sob influência de Águas Tropical, Subtropical e Subantártica, bem como do aporte terrestre do Rio La Plata e da Lagoa dos Patos. O plâncton foi amostrado (rede de 20 µm; arrastos verticais em 27 estações de coleta no inverno de 2005 e verão de 2007. Entre as Asterolampraceae, Asteromphalus flabellatus foi a espécie mais freqüente (57% das amostras, principalmente nas amostras de inverno (92% em água Subtropical de Plataforma, mas também sob influência da pluma do Rio La Plata (salinidade <35. Asterolampra marylandica, Asteromphalus elegans, Asteromphalus heptactis and Spatangidium arachne ocorreram em menor frequência. Quatro espécies de Azpeitia foram observadas: A. barronii e A. neocrenulata, são citadas pela primeira vez para o Oceano Atlântico Sul, enquanto A. africana e A. nodulifer, já foram reportadas em áreas equatoriais e meridionais brasileiras. Todas as espécies de Azpeitia foram raras (19% nas amostras de alto-mar (entre as isobatas de 100-200 m. Considera

  1. Some effects of Space Weather in a 4GHz communication satellite link over the Brazilian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, A.

    This work concerns a study of some effects of Space Weather in a C-band Satellite Link between Rio de Janeiro (22o57'S, 43o11'W) and Vitoria (20o10SS, 40o10SW), in the SouthEast of Brazil, from October 2000 to nowadays. An automatic acquisition system was developed to register the spectrum of the used frequencies and, since January 2002, this system has also registered the data corruption over a known information embedded in the link. As a result of this monitoring now we can know some useful things about the interference caused by geophisical phenomena like Plasma Bubbles.

  2. Trace-elements, methylmercury and metallothionein levels in Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) found stranded on the Southern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Feather Cd and Se were lower in comparison with concentrations in soft tissues. • Se mediates the detoxification of Cd, Pb, Hginorg and MeHg in penguin liver. • Hepatic metallothionein mediated the detoxification of Cd, Pb and Hginorg. • Hepatic MeHg corresponds to the smallest fraction of total Hg in the seabird’s liver. • The highest total Hg fraction in liver was present as Hginorg. - Abstract: Magellanic penguins have been reported as good biomonitors for several types of pollutants, including trace-elements. In this context, selenium (Se), total mercury, methylmercury, inorganic mercury (Hginorg), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), as well as metallothionein (MT) levels, were evaluated in the feathers, liver and kidney of juvenile Magellanic penguins found stranded along the coast of Southern Brazil. The highest concentrations of all trace-elements and methylmercury were found in internal organs. Concentrations of Cd and Se in feathers were extremely low in comparison with their concentrations in soft tissues. The results showed that both Se and MT are involved in the detoxification of trace-elements (Cd, Pb and Hginorg) since statistically significant relationships were found in liver. Conversely, hepatic Se was shown to be the only detoxifying agent for methylmercury

  3. Space and Brazilian thought: The american Russia in the writings of Euclides da Cunha and Vicente Licínio Cardoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Ehlert Maia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to discuss the issue of space in the Brazilian social imagination. My working hypothesis is that the spatial images contained in some of the reflections by "interpreters of Brazil", like the Amazonian writings of Euclides da Cunha and the incipient comparative sociology of Vicente Licínio Cardoso, are not related to an essentialist search for a fixed cultural identity, but to a vision of a national civilizing process that highlights the pragmatism and openness of this experience. I contend that the "land", as outlined by these figures, approaches Brazilian society to other national formations - Russia and America -, thereby shaping a political sociology from the periphery.

  4. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.

  5. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.……

  6. Using stochastic space-time models to map extreme precipitation in southern Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Costa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic characteristics and spatial climatic diversity are significant in the South of continental Portugal where the rainfall regime is typically Mediterranean. Direct sequential cosimulation is proposed for mapping an extreme precipitation index in southern Portugal using elevation as auxiliary information. The analysed index (R5D can be considered a flood indicator because it provides a measure of medium-term precipitation total. The methodology accounts for local data variability and incorporates space-time models that allow capturing long-term trends of extreme precipitation, and local changes in the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation through time. Annual gridded datasets of the flood indicator are produced from 1940 to 1999 on 800 m×800 m grids by using the space-time relationship between elevation and the index. Uncertainty evaluations of the proposed scenarios are also produced for each year. The results indicate that the relationship between elevation and extreme precipitation varies locally and has decreased through time over the study region. In wetter years the flood indicator exhibits the highest values in mountainous regions of the South, while in drier years the spatial pattern of extreme precipitation has much less variability over the study region. The uncertainty of extreme precipitation estimates also varies in time and space, and in earlier decades is strongly dependent on the density of the monitoring stations network. The produced maps will be useful in regional and local studies related to climate change, desertification, land and water resources management, hydrological modelling, and flood mitigation planning.

  7. The influence of natural and anthropic environmental variables on the structure and spatial distribution along longitudinal gradient of macroinvertebrate communities in southern Brazilian streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvarrey, Andrea Vanessa Batalla; Kotzian, Carla Bender; Spies, Márcia Regina; Braun, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Southern Brazilian rivers and streams have been intensively affected by human activities, especially agriculture and the release of untreated domestic sewage. However, data about the aquatic macroinvertebrates in these streams are scarce and limited to only certain groups. In addition, studies focusing on the structure and spatial distribution of these communities are lacking. This study analyzed the effects of natural and anthropic variables on the community structure of macroinvertebrates along a longitudinal gradient in three microbasins located in a region of landscape transition in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Sampling was conducted in the Vacacaí-Mirim River (August 2008) and in the Ibicuí-Mirim and Tororaipí rivers (August 2009) following an environmental gradient including 1(st), 2(nd), 3(rd), and 4(th) order segments. Local natural factors that were analyzed include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, substrate granulometry, and the presence of aquatic vegetation. Anthropic variables that were analyzed include including bank erosion, land use, urbanization, riparian deforestation, and fine sediments input. A total of 42 families and 129 taxa were found, with predominance of environmentally tolerant taxa. Geological context (landscape transition and large hydrographic basins) tended to influence natural environmental factors along the rivers' longitudinal gradients. However, changes in anthropic variables were not affected by these geological differences and therefore did not correlate with patterns of spatial distribution in macroinvertebrate communities. Only 1(st) order stream segments showed a community composition with high richness of taxa intolerant to anthropic disturbance. Richness as a whole tended to be higher in 3(rd) to 4(th) order set of segments, but this trend was a result of local anthropic environmental disturbances. Future inventories conducted in similar landscape transition regions of Brazil

  8. Variations in the abundance of three Parulidae species in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássius R. Santana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the distribution of abundance of three species of warblers in the southern portion of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF: Tropical Parula (Parula pitiayumi, the Golden-Crowned Warbler (Basileuterus culicivorus and the White-Rimmed Warbler (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Three types of forests comprise this region of the Atlantic Forest: seasonal semi-deciduous forest (SF, mixed rain forest (MF and dense rain forest (DF. These forest types occur at different elevations: SF ranging from 200 to 800 m, MF ranging from 800 to 1,200 m and DF ranging from sea level up to 2,000 m. We used point counts in fifteen study areas distributed in the three forest types. The White-Rimmed Warbler and the Tropical Parula had higher abundances in MF, and their abundance was positively correlated with the elevation. The Golden-Crowned Warbler did not present a significant difference in abundance among the forest types, and no correlation between abundance and elevation was found. We suggest that the difference in the occupancy of the forest strata by the Golden-Crowned Warbler is because this species is more generalist and thus less sensitive to variations in the vegetation structure among the forests types when compared to the other two warbler species.Nós avaliamos as distribuições de abundância em três espécies de parulídeos na porção sul da Mata Atlântica do Brasil: a Mariquita (Parula pitiayumi, o Pula-pula (Basileuterus culicivorus e o Pula-pula-assobiador (Basileuterus leucoblepharus. Três diferentes tipos de formações florestais compõem esta região da Mata Atlântica: a floresta estacional semidecidual (FES, a floresta ombrófila mista (FOM e a floresta ombrófila densa (FOD. Estes tipos de floresta ocupam altitudes diferentes: FES ocorre entre 200 m e 800 m, a FOM é encontrada entre 800 m e 1200 m de altitude e a FOD ocorre desde o nível do mar até 2000 m. Nós usamos pontos de escuta em 15 áreas florestais localizadas nos tr

  9. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Farnsworth

    Full Text Available Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii, we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use.

  10. Space-time distribution of ignimbrite volcanism in the southern SMO: From Eocene to Pliocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.; Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    A distinct variation in the age of the ignimbrites of the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO) is observed in the southern portion, which includes the area between Tepic, Nayarit (-105° W) and Aguascalientes, Ags (-102° W). Older, high-grade ignimbrites are Eocene and occur as scattered outcrops. These are in turn covered by a widespread and voluminous sequence of high-grade ignimbrites and silicic to intermediate lavas that ranges in age from Middle Oligocene to Middle Miocene. The peak of this ignimbrite volcanism was at about 21 Ma to 22 Ma, but there is evidence showing that it initiated since about 30 Ma and ended at about 17.5 Ma. This ignimbrite and lava sequence is in turn covered by another series of lavas, predominantly mafic to intermediate, in the southern part of the area. This latest volcanism represents the initiation of the Mexican Volcanic Belt. Ignimbrite volcanism apparently initiated at the NE part of the study area, and migrated to the SW with time, that is from the area Presa Calles to the valley of Bolaños. Isotopic ages reported on these rocks, cluster in various groups reflecting the time evolution of volcanism. Rocks older than 30 Ma tend to occur on the raised blocks of Sierra de El Laurel and Northern Sierra de Morones, in the eastern part of the area. The interval from 30 to 20 Ma comprises a discontinuous set of ages that are concentrated in the blocks of Southern Sierra de Morones, Tlaltenango, Bolaños and the area around Cinco Minas-San Pedro Analco-Hostotipaquillo. An apparent gap of ages occurs between 12 to 18 Ma, followed by a predominantly mafic volcanism scattered mainly to the south of the area, that represents the transition of SMO to MVB. Finally mafic volcanism of the MVB of 3 to 4 Ma is present in the south, in the area excavated on the vicinity of Rio Grande de Santiago. A similar migration pattern has been reported in general for the whole SMO by Aguirre-Diaz and Labarthe-Hernandez (2003), from NE Chihuahua to SW Nayarit

  11. Development of two multiplex PCR systems for the analysis of 14 X-chromosomal STR loci in a southern Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Larissa Siqueira; Silva, Fernanda Gamio; Salim, Patricia Hartstein; Ewald, Gisele; Jobim, Mariana; Magalhães, José Antônio de Azevedo; Jobim, Luiz Fernando

    2012-03-01

    We developed two multiplex systems for the coamplification of X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). X-Multiplex 1 consisted of DXS6807, DXS6800, DXS7424, DXS101, GATA172D05 and HPRTB and X-Multiplex 2 consisted of DXS8378, DXS9898, DXS6801, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, DXS8377 and DXS7423. In addition, we present allele frequencies for these loci in a south Brazilian population comprising 124 females and 141 males and haplotype frequencies of linked markers for males. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) was tested in the female sample and no significant deviations were found after applying Bonferroni's correction. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) tests were performed for all pairs of loci and three significant results, out of 91 pairwise comparisons, were obtained. We did not find any evidence of linkage disequilibrium between close or linked markers. The power of discrimination in females (PD(F)) varied between 0.832 for DXS6801 and 0.987 for DXS8377. DXS6801 was the least informative marker (PIC = 0.605), while DXS8377 was the most polymorphic (PIC = 0.911), followed by DXS101 (PIC = 0.872). Genetic distances were estimated for each STR marker applying the calculation of F (ST) between our total sample and other studies from Brazil, Europe, Asia and Africa. The most distant populations were Japan, Korea, China, Ghana and Uganda.

  12. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew L Farnsworth; Dickson, Brett G.; Zachmann, Luke J.; Hegeman, Ericka E.; Cangelosi, Amanda R.; Jackson, Thomas G.; Amanda F Scheib

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and co...

  13. New and significant bird records from Rio Grande do Sul, with comments on biogeography and conservation of the southern Brazilian avifauna

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    Glayson A. Bencke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available I report on the occurrence of 16 species of birds in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, of which seven are new for the state - Accipiter superciliosus (Linnaeus, 1766, Brotogeris tirica (Gmelin, 1788, Hemitriccus margaritaceiventer (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1837, Phyllomyias griseocapilla Sclater, 1862, Saltator coerulescens Vieillot, 1817, Orthogonys chloricterus (Vieillot, 1819, and Sporophila lineola (Linnaeus, 1758 - and seven were previously known from unsubstantiated or poorly documented records - Ixobrychus exilis (Gmelin, 1789, Brotogeris chiriri (Vieillot, 1818, Coccyzus euleri Cabanis, 1873, Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901, Psilorhamphus guttatus (Ménétriès, 1835, Serpophaga griseicapilla Straneck, 2007, and Hemithraupis ruficapilla (Vieillot, 1818. Descriptive and natural history notes are presented for some of these species. The records of B. tirica, P. guttatus, P. griseocapilla, Myiozetetes similis (Spix, 1825, O. chloricterus, H. ruficapilla, and S. lineola represent significant southward range extensions of up to 300 km. Also, a new confirmed record of Myiarchus ferox (Statius Muller, 1776 is divulged. Finally, I argue that the Atlantic forests of north-eastern Rio Grande do Sul should be included in the Serra do Mar area of endemism (sensu SILVA et al., 2004 because of the presence of Orthogonys chloricterus, and comment on the possible range expansion of Myiozetetes similis, Sporophila lineola and other primarily tropical species in southern Brazil.

  14. The Afro-Brazilian Fetish Cults: Religious Syncretism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedrick, B. C.

    1967-01-01

    This paper treats the Afro-Brazilian fetish cults found throughout Brazil and examines the syncretism of these cults with Catholicism. The religious practices of the "macumbas" (deities of the Afro-Brazilian cults), ritual music, and the ethnicity of the Negroes from both southern and northern Brazil are discussed. Frequently, excerpts of songs…

  15. Populations analysis of the Brazilian Sharpnose Shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae on the São Paulo coast, Southern Brazil: inferences from mt DNA sequences

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    Fernando Fernandes Mendonça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharks of the genus Rhizoprionodon can be considered some of the most important predators along the trophic coastal marine ecosystems and represent an important economic resource for the small-scale fisheries, especially on the Brazilian coastline. In order to analyze the population structure of the shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii of São Paulo, Southeastern coast of Brazil, levels of genetic diversity were identified by nucleotide sequence analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results obtained from this study present moderate values of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. Although the AMOVA tests (ΦST = 0.08394, P Tubarões do gênero Rhizoprionodon são considerados predadores de grande importância ao longo da cadeia trófica nos ecossistemas costeiros e marinhos, também representando um importante recurso econômico para a pesca, especialmente no litoral brasileiro. A fim de analisar a estrutura populacional do tubarão Rhizoprionodon lalandii no litoral de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foram identificados os níveis de diversidade genética a partir da análise de sequências nucleotídicas da região controladora do DNA mitocondrial. Os dados obtidos neste estudo apresentam valores moderados de diversidade haplotípica e baixos índices de diversidade nucleotídica. Embora os testes de AMOVA (ΦST = 0,08394, P < 0,01 tenham revelado uma pequena diferença entre as amostras estudadas, evidências sobre a ocorrência de estruturação populacional não foram encontradas o que pode representar uma característica geral para tubarões vivendo em áreas costeiras.

  16. Hábitos de higiene bucal de adultos porto-alegrenses Oral hygiene habits among Brazilian adults in an urban area of Southern Brazil

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    Claídes Abegg

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar alguns hábitos de higiene bucal (escovação dentária, uso do palito e uso do fio dental em um grupo de adultos, em relação a fatores sociodemográficos, e investigar o nível de placa bacteriana e sangramento gengival. METODOLOGIA: A amostra foi constituída por 234 mulheres e 237 homens de duas categorias socioeconômicas, com idade entre 24 e 44 anos. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevistas estruturadas e exames clínicos. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de escovação encontrada foi alta: (mediana e moda de três vezes ao dia e apresentou associação com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. A maioria dos entrevistados (67,5% declarou usar fio dental, estando seu uso associado com sexo e categoria socioeconômica. Usar palito foi descrito como um hábito comum para a maioria das pessoas entrevistadas:(54,6% o usam. O uso do palito apresentou associação com sexo, idade e categoria socioeconômica . O nível de placa bacteriana foi moderado para a maioria das pessoas (62,6%, e estava associado com a categoria socioeconômica. Um quarto dos participantes do estudo não apresentou sangramento gengival, e este estava associado com a idade e a categoria socioeconômica. CONCLUSÃO: Os hábitos de higiene bucal foram considerados bons para a maioria dos indivíduos que participaram do estudo, havendo necessidade de melhoria para os homens e pessoas de categoria socioeconômica inferior.AIMS: This study sought to analyse the oral hygiene habits (toothbrushing frequency, use of toothpick and dental floss, of a group of Brazilian adults, in relation to socio-demographic variables. The level of dental plaque and number of teeth with gums bleeding after probing were also investigated. METHODOLOGY: The sample was composed of 234 women and 237 men, from two socioeconomic status. The age range was from 24 to 44 years. Data was collected through structured interviews and clinical examinations. RESULTS: Daily toothbrushing was

  17. SPACE VELOCITIES OF SOUTHERN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M28), AND NGC 6656 (M22)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casetti-Dinescu, Dana I.; Girard, Terrence M.; Van Altena, William F. [Astronomy Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Jilkova, Lucie [Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, CZ-61137 Brno (Czech Republic); Podesta, Federico; Lopez, Carlos E., E-mail: dana.casetti@yale.edu, E-mail: terry.girard@yale.edu, E-mail: william.vanaltena@yale.edu, E-mail: jilkoval@physics.muni.cz [Universidad National de San Juan, Observatorio Astronomico ' ' Felix Aguilar' ' and Yale Southern Observatory, Chimbas, 5413 San Juan (Argentina)

    2013-08-01

    We have measured the absolute proper motions of globular clusters NGC 6397, NGC 6626 (M22), and NGC 6656 (M28) as part of our ongoing Southern Proper-Motion Program. The reference system is the ICRS via Hipparcos stars for these three low-Galactic-latitude clusters. Formal errors range between {approx}0.3 and 0.7 mas yr{sup -1}. Notable is the result for NGC 6397, which differs by 2.5 mas yr{sup -1} from two Hubble Space Telescope determinations while agreeing with previous ground-based ones. We determine orbits for all three clusters in an axisymmetric and barred model of the Galaxy and discuss these in the context of globular-cluster formation. M22 is a well-known cluster with an iron abundance spread; such clusters are now believed to have formed in massive parent systems that can retain ejecta of core-collapsed supernovae. We find that the five currently accepted globular clusters with iron/calcium abundance spread show orbits unrelated to each other, thus suggesting at least five independent, massive progenitors that have contributed to the build-up of the Milky-Way halo.

  18. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. De Bona

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper analyzes the structure of the public transportation system of Curitiba through the theory of complex networks in a static approach of network topology and presents a comparative analysis of the results from Curitiba, three cities from China (Shanghai, Beijing, and Guangzhou, and three cities from Poland (GOP, Warszawa, and Łódź. The transportation network was modeled as a complex network with exact geographical coordinates of its bus stops. In all bus lines, the method used was the P-Space. The results show that this bus network has characteristics of both small-world and scale-free networks.

  19. The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Nelson Jorge; Cupertino Durao, Otavio S.

    The Brazilian INPE-UFSM NANOSATC-BR CubeSat Development Capacity Building Program (CBP) and the results of the NANOSATC-BR1, the first Brazilian CubeSat launching, expected for 2014's first semester, are presented. The CBP consists of two CubeSats, NANOSATC-BR 1 (1U) & 2 (2U) and is expected operate in orbit for at least 12 months each, with capacity building in space science, engineering and computer sciences for the development of space technologies using CubeSats satellites. The INPE-UFSM’s CBP Cooperation is basically among: (i) the Southern Regional Space Research Center (CRS), from the Brazilian INPE/MCTI, where acts the Program's General Coordinator and Projects NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Manager, having technical collaboration and management of the Mission’s General Coordinator for Engineering and Space Technology at INPE’s Headquarter (HQ), in São José dos Campos, São Paulo; (ii) the Santa Maria Space Science Laboratory (LACESM/CT) from the Federal University of Santa Maria - (UFSM); (iii) the Santa Maria Design House (SMDH); (iv) the Graduate Program in Microelectronics from the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (MG/II/UFRGS); and (v) the Aeronautic Institute of Technology (ITA/DCTA/CA-MD). The INPE-UFSM’s CBP has the involvement of UFSM' undergraduate students and graduate students from: INPE/MCTI, MG/II/UFRGS and ITA/DCTA/CA-MD. The NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 Projects Ground Stations (GS) capacity building operation with VHF/UHF band and S-band antennas, are described in two specific papers at this COSPAR-2014. This paper focuses on the development of NANOSATC-BR 1 & 2 and on the launching of NANOSATC-BR1. The Projects' concepts were developed to: i) monitor, in real time, the Geospace, the Ionosphere, the energetic particle precipitation and the disturbances at the Earth's Magnetosphere over the Brazilian Territory, and ii) the determination of their effects on regions such as the South American Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA) and the Brazilian sector of the

  20. Padrões espaço-temporais da mortalidade por câncer de pulmão no Sul do Brasil Space-time analysis of lung cancer mortality in Southern Brazil

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    Mônica Silva Monteiro de Castro

    2004-06-01

    an etiologic agent of this type of cancer is considerably high, making it potentially susceptible to preventive public health measures. The objective of this work was to analyze spatial and temporal patterns of lung cancer in four Brazilian States (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo, from 1996 to 2000. The observed values were obtained from the Brazilian Ministry of Health Mortality Information System (SIM-MS. The expected values were calculated using indirect standardization according to sex and age groups (SMR. The geographic units analyzed were micro-regions defined by the Brazilian Census Bureau (IBGE. A Bayesian model that allowed for space-time interaction was used, using WinBUGS software. Adjusted SMR showed that in Southern Brazil there was a "U" pattern in lung cancer mortality for men, and indicated specific areas that had higher SMR and/or greater SMR growth. The main hypothesis for this result would be different tobacco use incidences, but the absence of this information at a regional level in Brazil did not permit including this variable in our analysis. The results of this paper can be used to guide public policies directed towards reducing the use of tobacco and of mortality from lung cancer.

  1. Analisys, processing and validation data from eolic stations of SONDA project (National Organization System of Environmental Data) at Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (CPTEC/INPE) .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junior, A. B.; Nogueira, J. M.; Garcia, S. G.; Andrade, E. S.

    2007-05-01

    Asiel Bomfin Jr. LIM/CPTEC/INPE, Cachoeira Paulista, S.P., Brazil; Eliana Soares de Andrade; Jorge Luiz Martins Nogueira and Silvia Garcia de Castro. The Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Analysis (CPTEC), a division of INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research. Several of the INPE´s departments and centers, like the CPTEC, have a variety of valuable datasets, many of them freely available and eolic data from SONDA project are also part of them at Meteorological Instrumental Laboratory (LIM). This paper presents the Analiys, processing and validation method applied to the eolic data in a temporal time of ten minutes, to be used in a PC IBM computer. This method is divided in tree separated programs. The first software called "separa.c" has the capability of divide the ingest data set in mensal files, identified by each station group. The second software called "minuto.c" does a syntactical analysis, verifying and correcting eventual lost data with NAN values. The third one called "validacode.c" generates two principal files, one containing the original data and the other with the codes of each variable for each minute analyzed. These codes is based on BSRN (Baseline Surface Radiation Network), but with some differences in their analyzed method. This method followed the Webmet.com, The Meteorological Resource Center. Table 1:Validation Codes Code Meaning 0 Quality check procedure is not avaiable for this level 2 The data is suspect 5 Quality check procedure is avaiable for this level, but not can be done 9 The data is correct Table 2: Validation levels for WIND SPEED: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 25 m/s and 0 m/s 1 Can not vary more than 0,1 m/s for 03 consecutive hours 2 Can not vary more than 0,5 m/s for 12 consecutive hours 3 - Table 3: Validation levels for WIND DRECTION: Validation Levels Quality check procedure for suspect data 0 Maximum and Minimum values of 360 and 0

  2. Forensic Dentistry in a Southern Brazilian City

    OpenAIRE

    L.D. Conceição; N.R. Prietto; R.H.A. Silva; Rafael Guerra Lund

    2015-01-01

    Desde 1932, a inclusão obrigatória da Odontologia Legal no currículo das faculdades de odontologia no Brasil contribuiu para a disseminação desta ciência entre os estudantes de odontologia. Infelizmente, esses profissionais, por vezes, não acham este assunto relevante e apenas se preocupam com o assunto quando enfrentam um problema na área judicial. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar as rotinas, procedimentos e funções de um Posto Médico Legal, em Pelotas, cidade do sul do Brasil, porque...

  3. Forensic Dentistry in a Southern Brazilian City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Conceição

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde 1932, a inclusão obrigatória da Odontologia Legal no currículo das faculdades de odontologia no Brasil contribuiu para a disseminação desta ciência entre os estudantes de odontologia. Infelizmente, esses profissionais, por vezes, não acham este assunto relevante e apenas se preocupam com o assunto quando enfrentam um problema na área judicial. Este trabalho tem como objetivo relatar as rotinas, procedimentos e funções de um Posto Médico Legal, em Pelotas, cidade do sul do Brasil, porque estas situações são geralmente desconhecidas pelos cirurgiões-dentistas e este contato e conhecimento são importantes para que eles tenham uma compreensão mais precisa do trabalho do perito odonto-legista. Diferentes métodos de identificação humana (exames de arcada dentária, rugae palatal e extrações de dentes para o exame de DNA da polpa dentária são de responsabilidade do dentista forense. Além disso, o juiz pode nomear o dentista que faz o trabalho na área cível, criminal, trabalhista e administrativo em processos legais. Concluiu-se que a estrutura do Posto Médico Legal de uma cidade do sul do Brasil, como Pelotas, apresenta plenas condições para a prática Odontologia Legal, permitindo um trabalho interdisciplinar na busca de soluções de crimes. Por isso, é essencial para estimular e chamar a atenção para o estudo desta área nos países em desenvolvimento como o Brasil, onde o número de especialistas está a aumentar.

  4. Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cáceres Nilton Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the space by the opossum Didelphis aurita Wied-Newied, 1826 (Mammalia, Marsupialia in a mixed forest fragment of southern Brazil. The space use of the marsupial Didelphis aurita was studied in a forest fragment of southern Brazil from February 1995 to January 1996. The method used was the 'distribution utilization' in which each trap was set in 38 x 38 m quadrats. Captures of each marked individual in each point give information on its habitat use. Food availability was searched and compared to the habitat utilization and to the food consumption of opossums. Distribution patterns of captures (aggregated to random and spatial overlap between individuals were searched. Results showed aggregated distributions of individuals, particularly females, in the fragment. Females used exclusively the fragment during the drier season. Opossums tend to not choose the sites with highest food availability to establish home ranges. Spatial overlap was usually low between forest resident and neighbouring resident females, but much lower during the breeding season (only forest resident females in an apparently pattern of territoriality. Hence, core areas of females decreased in size during the breeding season. Males probably searched primarily for mates during the breeding season being less opportunistic than females in feeding habits, yet their space use did not correlate to food consumption.

  5. Dentição decídua: estudo da prevalência dos espaços interproximais em crianças brasileiras Deciduous dentition: prevalence study of interdental spaces in brazilian children

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    Vera Mendes SOVIERO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de conhecer mais sobre as características da dentição decídua, apresentadas pelas crianças brasileiras, realizou-se um estudo de prevalência do qual participaram 400 crianças, com dentição decídua completa e idade variando de 2 a 6 anos, na cidade de Petrópolis - RJ. O arco tipo I foi o mais prevalente tanto no arco superior (93,2% como no inferior (90,5%, sendo que o superior tipo II foi mais comum no sexo feminino (p For the purpose of ascertaining more information about the characteristics of deciduous dentition presented by the Brazilian children, a prevalence study was performed. Four hundred children with complete deciduous dentitions and age ranging from 2 to 6 years, were examined in Petrópolis - RJ - Brazil. The type I arch was the most prevalent in the upper arch (93.2% and in the lower arch (90.5%. The type II upper arch was more common in the females (p < 0.01. The primate spaces were the most frequent spaces found in both arches. The association between the presence of interdental spaces and age was statistically significant (p < 0.05, suggesting that there is a tendency for the spaces to close with age.

  6. Prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional em uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of overweight in adolescents: a population-based study in a southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem L. Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes e sua distribuição segundo varíaveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas. Foram entrevistados 810 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O sobrepeso foi definido de acordo com a OMS (IMC > ou = Percentil 85, segundo idade e sexo conforme a população de referência do I National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. O processo amostral foi por conglomerados e as análises bruta e ajustada (Regressão de Poisson levaram em conta o efeito de delineamento. A prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes foi de 19,3% (IC95%: 16,6-22,0 e não houve diferença entre os sexos. Adolescentes pertencentes aos níveis econômicos mais elevados, que realizaram dieta para emagrecer nos três meses anteriores à entrevista, que assistiam quatro horas ou mais de televisão por dia e que realizavam apenas uma ou duas refeições diárias apresentaram maior proporção de sobrepeso. Na análise ajustada, o sobrepeso nos meninos esteve diretamente associado com nível econômico e, nas meninas, com as variáveis dieta para emagrecer, número de horas diárias assistindo à televisão e inversamente associado com o número de refeições.The prevalence of overweight and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological variables were evaluated. The sample included 810 adolescents (10-19 years of age living in the urban area of Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. Overweight was defined as a body mass index > or = the 85th percentile, according to sex and age, and compared to the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, following the WHO recommendation for adolescents. A clustering sampling strategy was used, and both the crude and adjusted analyses (Poisson Regression took this strategy into account. The prevalence of overweight was 19.3% (95%CI: 16.6-22.0 and there was no

  7. Modelled rainfall skill assessment against a 1000-year time/space isotope dendro-climatology for southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodborne, Stephan; Hall, Grant; Zhang, Qiong

    2016-04-01

    Palaeoclimate reconstruction using isotopic analysis of tree growth increments has yielded a 1000-year record of rainfall variability in southern Africa. Isotope dendro-climatology reconstructions from baobab trees (Adansonia digitata) provide evidence for rainfall variability from the arid Namib Desert and the Limpopo River Valley. Isotopic analysis of a museum specimen of a yellowwood tree (Podocarps falcatus) yields another record from the southwestern part of the subcontinent. Combined with the limited classic denro-climatologies available in the region these records yield palaeo-rainfall variability in the summer and winter rainfall zones as well as the hyper-arid zone over the last 1000 years. Coherent shifts in all of the records indicate synoptic changes in the westerlies, the inter-tropical convergence zone, and the Congo air boundary. The most substantial rainfall shift takes place at about 1600 CE at the onset of the Little Ice Age. Another distinctive feature of the record is a widespread phenomenon that occurs shortly after 1810 CE that in southern Africa corresponds with a widespread social upheaval known as the Difequane or Mfekane. Large scale forcing of the system includes sea-surface temperatures in the Agulhas Current, the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Southern Annular Mode. The Little Ice Age and Mfekane climate shifts result from different forcing mechanisms, and the rainfall response in the different regions at these times do not have a fixed phase relationship. This complexity provides a good scenario to test climate models. A first order (wetter versus drier) comparison between each of the tree records and a 1000-year palaeoclimate model simulation for the Little Ice Age and Mfekane transitions demonstrates a generally good correspondence.

  8. Analysis of Public Bus Transportation of a Brazilian City Based on the Theory of Complex Networks Using the P-Space

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. De Bona; K. V. O. Fonseca; M. O. Rosa; Lüders, R.; M. R. B. S. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The city of Curitiba, located at Southern Brazil, is recognized by its urban planning structured on three pillars: land use, collective transportation, and traffic. With 3.8 million people in its metropolitan area, the public transport system deals with approximately 2.5 million passengers daily. The structure and properties of such a transportation system have substantial implications for the urban planning and public politics for sustainable development of Curitiba. Therefore, this paper an...

  9. A federated information management system for the Deep Space Network. M.S. Thesis - Univ. of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobinson, E.

    1982-01-01

    General requirements for an information management system for the deep space network (DSN) are examined. A concise review of available database management system technology is presented. It is recommended that a federation of logically decentralized databases be implemented for the Network Information Management System of the DSN. Overall characteristics of the federation are specified, as well as reasons for adopting this approach.

  10. Brazilian Adolescents' Conceptions of Autonomy and Parental Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milnitsky-Sapiro, Clary; Turiel, Elliot; Nucci, Larry

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two middle class and 32 lower class southern Brazilian pre-adolescent (M=12.8 years) and adolescent (M=15.7 years) participants were individually interviewed regarding their perceptions of who (adolescent or parent) should determine the adolescent's actions in cases where the parents and adolescent disagree over the action choice.…

  11. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilizer and Spacing on Growth, Nodulation Count and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L Walp in Southern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ndor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiments were conducted during 2009 and 2010 rainy season at the research and teaching farm of the college of agriculture, Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria. To determine the effect of phosphorus fertilizer and spacing on growth, nodulation count and yield of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata in southern guinea savanna agroecological zone, Nigeria. The treatments consisted of three levels of phosphorus 0, 20 and 40 kg/ha and three levels of spacing: 15x40, 30x60 and 45x80 cm factorially combined to form nine treatments which were laid in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD and replicated three times to form twenty seven plots. The result showed that Phosphorus fertilizer had a significant (p<0.05 effect on the entire growth and yield parameter assessed in both years. 40 kg/ha of phosphorus gave a significantly higher number of nodulation count/plant (34.95 and 32.24, number of pod/plant (20.64 and 20.24, seed weight/plant (39.56 and 37.64, pods weight/plant (51.45 and 45.31 and seed weight/ha (1.56 and 1.52 t/ha in both years. The spacing also had a significant (p<0.05 response on almost the entire growth and yield parameter assessed except on the weight of 100 seeds. Spacing of 30×60 cm did not differ significantly with 45x80 cm which gave similar result in the no. of pod/plant, seed weight/plant, pods weight/plant and seed weight (t/ha in both years.

  12. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  13. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  14. Pteropoda, Cladocera, and Chaetognatha associations as hydrological indicators in the southern Brazilian Shelf Asociaciones de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha como indicadores hidrológicos de la plataforma del extremo sur de Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Charrid Resgalla Jr

    2008-01-01

    Associations of pteropod, cladoceran, and chaetognath species were analyzed for the southern coast of Brazil in order to present a biological diagnosis of the oceanographic conditions in winter and summer. The density data from the different species were analyzed using nodal and ordination cluster techniques, linking the species associations with salinity and temperature and, consequently, with the water masses occurring in each period. Sagitta tennis and Pleopsis polyphemoides were found to ...

  15. Gestão Ambiental em Espaços de Lazer e Turismo: As Praias Urbanas da Amazônia Brasileira / Environmental Management in Leisure and Tourism Spaces: The Urban Beaches of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Rosa Cabral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa as ações públicas e privadas em resposta aos problemas ambientais nas praias da Ilha de Mosqueiro, área urbana litorânea, do estado do Pará. Objetivou-se identificar os problemas ambientais na percepção de moradores e turistas, bem como analisar as ações e os instrumentos de gestão ambiental. Os dados da pesquisa foram analisados segundo o modelo Pressão-Estado-Impacto-Resposta (PEIR, que mostra as pressões ambientais das ações humanas, como estas alteram a qualidade dos recursos naturais, os impactos ambientais e as ações em resposta às alterações. Tais questões foram analisadas à luz de teorias neo-institucionalistas que levam em conta o contexto institucional e os atores políticos relevantes. Identificou-se que a principal pressão ambiental refere-se ao adensamento populacional desordenado, que gerou a intensificação da exploração de áreas vulneráveis à ocupação humana e causou impacto nos recursos naturais disponíveis. Quanto às respostas do poder público, identificou-se baixo nível de correspondência entre PEIR, reflexo da capacidade institucional relativamente débil na efetivação da sustentabilidade ambiental. Palavras-Chave: Espaços de Lazer e Turismo. Gestão Ambiental. Ilha de Mosqueiro, PA. Amazônia Brasileira Environmental Management in Leisure and Tourism Spaces: The Urban Beaches of the Brazilian Amazon - This paper analyzes the public and private actions in response to environmental problems on the beaches of Mosqueiro Island, Pará, coastal urban area. The objective was to identify environmental problems in the perception of residents and tourists as well as analyze the actions and instruments environmental management. The survey data were analyzed according to the model Pressure-State-Impact-Response (PEIR, which shows the environmental pressures of human actions, as these affect the quality of natural resources, environmental impacts and actions in response to

  16. Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maziar Nekovee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio is being intensively researched as the enabling technology for license-exempt access to the so-called TV White Spaces (TVWS, large portions of spectrum in the UHF/VHF bands which become available on a geographical basis after digital switchover. Both in the US, and more recently, in the UK the regulators have given conditional endorsement to this new mode of access. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in technology, regulation, and standardisation of cognitive access to TVWS. It examines the spectrum opportunity and commercial use cases associated with this form of secondary access.

  17. Avaliação comparativa do espaçamento anterior em nipo-brasileiros e leucodermas, na dentição decídua Comparative assessment of anterior spacing in Japanese-Brazilian and white children in the primary dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Eloy Marcone Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar comparativamente a prevalência das características de espaçamento anterior em nipo-brasileiros e leucodermas, na dentição decídua. MÉTODOS: duas amostras de crianças com 2 a 6 anos de idade foram selecionadas: 405 nipo-brasileiros de 36 escolas do estado de São Paulo e 510 leucodermas de 11 instituições públicas da cidade de São Paulo. As variantes oclusais foram classificadas em quatro categorias, nas arcadas superior e inferior: espaçamento generalizado; somente espaços primatas; ausência de espaços; e apinhamento. Foi aplicada regressão logística para análise do efeito dos fatores idade, sexo e grupo étnico sobre a prevalência das características oclusais (α = 0,05. RESULTADOS: em nipo-brasileiros, o espaçamento generalizado foi a característica mais prevalente nas arcadas superior (46,2% e inferior (53,3%. A frequência dos espaços primatas foi maior na arcada superior (28,2% versus 15,3%. Para a ausência de espaços (21,7-26,4% e o apinhamento (4,0-4,9%, a variação entre as arcadas foi relativamente pequena. Em leucodermas, a ausência de espaços e a presença exclusiva dos primatas evidenciaram distribuição similar à observada nos nipo-brasileiros. O espaçamento generalizado foi diagnosticado em aproximadamente 50% das arcadas. A prevalência de apinhamento foi maior na arcada inferior (12,8% versus 3,9%. O único modelo de regressão logística que apresentou algum fator significativo foi o ajustado para a prevalência de apinhamento. Apenas o fator racial foi significativo (p OBJECTIVE: To carry out a comparative evaluation of the prevalence of anterior spacing characteristics in Japanese-Brazilian and white children in primary dentition. METHODS: Two selected samples of children aged 2-6 years were: 405 Japanese-Brazilians from 36 schools in the State of São Paulo and 510 white children from 11 public institutions in São Paulo city. The spacing features in the maxillary and

  18. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  19. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  20. Incidência e aspectos clínico-laboratoriais do Lúpus eritematoso sistêmico em cidade do Sul do Brasil Incidence and clinical-laboratory aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus in a Southern brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Kenji Nakashima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros sobre o lúpus eritematoso sistêmico (LES são bastante escassos e os dados existentes hoje são praticamente todos de literatura internacional. OBJETIVOS: Determinar a incidência e algumas características clínicas e laboratoriais de pacientes com LES em Cascavel, Paraná - Brasil. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Os dados foram coletados entre agosto de 2007 e julho de 2008 em todos os serviços de saúde do município que possuíam atendimentos na especialidade de Reumatologia: um hospital universitário, um ambulatório público e três clínicas privadas da cidade. RESULTADOS: Foram identificados 14 pacientes com diagnóstico de LES, resultando em uma incidência estimada de 4,8 casos/100.000 habitantes/ano. Todos os pacientes eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 41,5 anos. A faixa etária com maior incidência foi a de 30 - 39 anos e 92,8% apresentaram quatro ou mais dos 11 critérios do American College of Rheumatology (ACR para o diagnóstico de LES. O tratamento farmacológico dos pacientes também foi avaliado e mostrou estar de acordo com o Consenso Brasileiro para o tratamento de LES. CONCLUSÃO: A incidência obtida em Cascavel/PR está próxima das incidências observadas em estudos internacionais.INTRODUCTION: Brazilian epidemiological studies on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE are scarce, and currently available data originate almost entirely from international literature. OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and some clinical and laboratory characteristics of patients with SLE in the municipality of Cascavel, state of Paraná, Brazil. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected from August 2007 to July 2008 in all health services of Cascavel providing health care in rheumatology: a university-affiliated hospital, a public outpatient clinic, and three private clinics. RESULTS: The study identified 14 patients diagnosed with SLE, which resulted in an estimated incidence of 4

  1. Brazilian spotted fever in cart horses in a non-endemic area in Southern Brazil Febre maculosa brasileira em cavalo de carroceiro em área não-endêmica no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Cristina Diniz de Oliveira Freitas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Spotted Fever (BSF is an often fatal zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii. The disease is generally transmitted to humans by Amblyomma spp. ticks. Serological evidence of past infection by R. rickettsii has been reported in horses, but the pathogenicity of R. rickettsii in horses remains unknown. Cart horses are still widely used in urban and urban fringe areas in Brazil, and these animals may constitute suitable sentinels for BSF human in these areas, for example, in Sao Jose dos Pinhais, where the first BSF human case in the state of Parana was diagnosed. Serum samples were randomly obtained from 75 cart horses between April 2005 and June 2006 and were tested by means of the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA for antibodies against rickettsia of the spotted fever group. A total of 9.33% of the animals were considered positive, with titers ranging from 64 to 1,024. These results indicate the presence of the agent in such areas, although at low rates.A febre maculosa brasileira (FMB é uma zoonose, muitas vezes fatal, causada pela bactéria intracelular obrigatória Rickettsia rickettsii. A doença é transmitida para humanos pelo carrapato Amblyomma spp. Sorologia positiva por R. rickettsii foi relatada em cavalos, entretanto a patogenia de R. rickettsii em cavalos é desconhecida. Cavalos de carroceiros ainda são largamente utilizados em áreas urbanas e peri-urbanas no Brasil e estes animais podem representar sentinelas ideais para FMB nestas áreas, como exemplo, São José dos Pinhais, onde o primeiro caso humano de FMB foi descrita no Paraná. Amostras de soro foram obtidas aleatoriamente de 75 cavalos de carroceiros entre abril de 2005 e junho de 2006 e testados pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta (RIFI com anticorpos contra riquétsias do grupo da febre maculosa. Um total de 9,33% dos animais foi considerado positivo, com títulos entre 64 e 1.024. Estes resultados indicam

  2. Sobrepeso em adolescentes de 14 a 19 anos em um município da região Sul do Brasil Overweight in adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old in a Southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Cristina Dalla Costa

    2007-09-01

    survey personal, anthropometric, biologic and life style related data such as: the use of TV, video and computer, practicing of sports and number of meals. To establish social and economic status the criterion used was that of the Economic Classification of Brazil from the National Survey Companies Association. RESULTS: 3.8% of the adolescents were underweight and 10.2% were overweight. A statistically significant association was determined for the incidence of overweight among adolescents who had four or more meals per day (5.5% and among the ones who had up to three meals a day (16.3%. When stratifying overweight by classes of income, the overweight incidence rate had a tendency of decreasing as the economic class decreased. CONCLUSIONS: overweight prevalence is higher than underweight; the last is below the rates determined in other Brazilian municipalities. Less frequency of meals and higher income classes were associated to overweight.

  3. Pteropoda, Cladocera, and Chaetognatha associations as hydrological indicators in the southern Brazilian Shelf Asociaciones de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha como indicadores hidrológicos de la plataforma del extremo sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charrid Resgalla Jr

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Associations of pteropod, cladoceran, and chaetognath species were analyzed for the southern coast of Brazil in order to present a biological diagnosis of the oceanographic conditions in winter and summer. The density data from the different species were analyzed using nodal and ordination cluster techniques, linking the species associations with salinity and temperature and, consequently, with the water masses occurring in each period. Sagitta tennis and Pleopsis polyphemoides were found to characterize the coastal water and, when associated with Evadne nordmanni and Pleopsis schmackeri, differentiated between the thermal characteristics of winter and summer, respectively. The Sub-Antarctic Shelf Water was characterized by the association of Sagitta tasmanica and Limacina retroversa in winter. The Tropical Water of the Brazil current presented several different associations, with Penilia avirostris, Sagitta enflata, and Creseis virgula dominating the shelf Tropical Water and Sagitta serratodentata, Limacina trochiformis, and Evadne spinifera characterizing the oceanic Tropical Water. The Sub-tropical Water, typical of upwelling processes, was characterized by the association of the chaetognaths Sagitta decipiens and Krohnitta subtilis, both in winter and summer. The species associations defined in this study agree with others carried out in neighboring areas and in previous sampling periods, characterizing the región as the southern transition zone.Se analizó las asociaciones de especies de Pteropoda, Cladocera y Chaetognatha en la costa sur de Brasil, para presentar un diagnóstico biológico de las condiciones oceanógraficas de invierno y verano. Los datos de densidad de las diferentes especies fueron analizados por técnicas de agrupamiento nodal y de ordenación, relacionando las asociaciones con la salinidad, temperatura y, consecuentemente, con las masas de agua presentes en cada período. Se observó que Sagitta tennis, Pleopsis

  4. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  5. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  6. Fatores associados ao consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras em adultos de uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Factors associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adults in a southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilda Borges Neutzling

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a freqüência de consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras por adultos de 20 a 69 anos de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, e analisar fatores associados. Foi realizado em 2006 um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 972 adultos. A freqüência do consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras foi medida por meio de três perguntas referentes ao consumo habitual destes no ano anterior. O desfecho foi o consumo regular de frutas, legumes e verduras. Cerca de 1/5 da população adulta (20,9% consumia regularmente frutas, legumes e verduras. Indivíduos do sexo feminino, com 60 anos ou mais, das classes A e B, ex-fumantes e não sedentários apresentaram maior prevalência de consumo de frutas e legumes e verduras. A freqüência do consumo de frutas, legumes e verduras na população adulta residente no Município de Pelotas está aquém das recomendações atuais do Ministério da Saúde, em especial entre os homens mais jovens, de menor nível sócio-econômico e que não praticam atividade física no lazer. Políticas públicas que estimulem uma alimentação saudável são urgentemente necessárias.The study aimed to describe the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among adults (20-69 years of age and to identify associated factors. This population-based study in 2006 included 972 adults in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. Consumption of fruits and vegetables was evaluated with three questions on habitual food intake during the year prior to the interview. The outcome variable was regular consumption of fruits and vegetables. Only one in five adults (20.9% reported consuming fruits and vegetables regularly. Female gender, age 60 years or older, higher socioeconomic status, former smoking, and physical activity were associated with the outcome variable. According to the results, fruit and vegetable intake among adults fails to meet current Ministry of Health recommendations, particularly among male, young

  7. Horas de sono e índice de massa corporal em pré-escolares do sul do Brasil Sleep duration and body mass index among southern Brazilian preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura da Costa Louzada

    2012-12-01

    sleep than those with normal weight (9.77 ± 1.44 versus 10.17 ± 1.34; 95% CI 0.03 to 0, 76. We observed an inverse association between night sleep duration and z score values of body mass index for age (B = -0.12 95% CI -0.22--0.02. Waist circumference and skinfold thickness showed an inverse relationship with sleep duration, but without any statistic differences. Among preschool children in southern Brazil, smaller night sleep duration was associated with higher body mass index

  8. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PRACTICES AT BRAZILIAN FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Galego-Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility practices have been on the rise in recent years in firms all over the world. Brazil, as one of the most important countries emerging on the international scene, is no exception to this, with more and more firms taking up these practices. The present study focuses on analyzing the corporate social responsibility practices that Brazilian companies engage into. The sample used is comprised of 500 firms grouped by geographical area; the theoretical framework is based on stakeholder and institutional theories; and the technique used for the analysis is the biplot, more specifically the HJ Biplot and cluster analysis. From the results obtained it is possible to infer that the CSR variables corresponding to environmental practices are more closely linked to companies located in the northern areas of Brazil. Social and community practices are related to companies primarily in the southern and northeastern regions of the country.

  9. TRANSFORMATION OF RURAL SPACE AND PLANNING DRIVEN BY THE REFORM IN SOUTHERN JIANGSU%改革驱动下苏南乡村空间与规划转型初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴平; 涂志华; 戎一翎

    2011-01-01

    在分析苏南乡村改革进程及其对乡村发展影响的基础上,基于实证调查和研究,对以城乡统筹和土地流转为核心的新乡村改革驱动下苏南乡村地区空间转型的特点和内涵进行了全面总结,对转型出现的新的乡村空间现象进行了系统梳理归纳,对苏南乡村地区规划变革的方向提出了初步建议.%Based on the analysis of the rural reform process and its impact on the rural area of Southern Jiangsu, this paper makes an empirical investigation and research, and comprehensively summarizes the characteristics and content of spatial transformation in the rural area of Southern Jiangsu. Also, it examines the appearance of new rural space because of the transformation. Finally, it puts forward preliminary proposals on the planning direction in the rural area of Southern Jiangsu.

  10. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  11. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  12. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  13. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  14. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  15. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  16. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  17. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel. PMID:27121223

  18. Brazilian Twin Registry: A Bright Future for Twin Studies/Twin Research: Twin Study of Alcohol Consumption and Mortality; Oxygen Uptake in Adolescent Twins/In the News: Superfecundated Twins In Vietnam; Adolescent Twin Relations; Twin and Triplet Co-Workers; A Special Twin Ultrasound; Monozygotic Twins With Different Skin Color; Identical Twin Returns from Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Nancy L

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of the Brazilian Twin Registry for the study of genetic, social, and cultural influences on behavior is one of eleven newly funded projects in the Department of Psychology at the University of São Paulo. These 11 interrelated projects form the core of the university's Center for Applied Research on Well-Being and Human Behavior. An overview of the planned twin research and activities to date is presented. Next, two recent twin studies are reviewed, one on the relationship between alcohol consumption and mortality, and the other on factors affecting maximal oxygen uptake. Twins cited in the media include the first identified superfecundated twins in Vietnam, adolescent twin relations, twins and triplets who work together, monozygotic twins with different skin tones and a co-twin control study that addresses the effects of space travel.

  19. Rural Spatial Transformation and Its Risk Based upon "Separation of Time and Space" Theory in Southern Jiangsu Province%基于“时空分离”的苏南乡村空间转型及其风险

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 李广斌

    2012-01-01

    基于吉登斯的“时空分离”理论,通过对影响苏南乡村空间形态变迁的历史事件追踪,对苏南乡村空间转型的动力机制进行分析,并揭示乡村空间转型可能带来的社会风险.分析结果表明:改革开发以来,乡村社会关系大体经历了由村域内时空延伸到城乡间时空延伸,再到跨区域时空延伸三个阶段,与之对应的是乡村空间生产、分化和重构的空间转型过程.市场经济和政府干预两个脱域机制的耦合是推动苏南乡村空间转型的根本力量.乡村空间转型可能带来的风险包括:市场力量的无限扩张将可能对乡村社会造成过度的侵蚀;政府主导下的新农村建设将可能导致农民自主性危机;资本与权力的联姻将可能导致空间正义的丧失;自上而下的乡村集中社区建设将可能导致村庄的终结.%Based on "separation of time and space" theory, through tracing historical events that impact on the rural settlement function evolution in Southern Jiangsu Province, the paper analyzes the driving mechanism of rural spatial transformation and transformational risks in Southern Jiangsu Province since 1978. This analysis shows that the rural spatial transformation in Southern Jiangsu Province have been undergone the change from spatial production, spatial differentiation to spatial reconstruction with the extension of rural social relations in time and space. The disembedding mechanisms of market and government are fundamental forces of rural spatial transformation in Southern Jiangsu Province. Finally, rural spatial reconstruction may bring about multiple crisis. For example, new countryside construction led by government may cause rural autonomy crisis, the combination of capital and power will lead to lack of spatial justice, etc.

  20. The Inhibitory Role Of Natural Conditions In The Use Of Space And Regulation Of Rural Territories In The Region Of Gjirokastra In The Southern Of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Sinani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In rural area the impact of natural conditions on the use of space, production activities and ways of life is permanent and more sensitive than in urban space. The degree of impact depends on the particulars of building land, relief, climate, hydrographs, land, flora, fauna and level of development of society, which says the size and way of human intervention in the environment. As part of the Mediterranean space, Gjirokastra, with mountainous relief and climate caprices, is very exposed to the influence of natural factors.

  1. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  2. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  3. Control of power swings between brazilian southern and southeastern systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, G.P.; Botelho, M.J.; Carvalho, J.F.M.; Gomes, J.R. [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This report contains an explanation of the stability problems and the operational procedures used to control the power swings observed between the electric power systems of the South and Southeast of Brazil. The time period from August 1985 to May 1987 covered in this paper corresponds to the initial operation and expansion of Itaipu power plant and its associated transmission system. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  5. Indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denize Mirian da Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to estimate the indirect tax burden on food for ten income classes, based on income and household total expenditure in southern Brazil. Thus it can be seen as indirect taxes on foods affect the monetary income and consumption pattern of households. To reach the objectives proposed, will be used the Pintos-Payeras (2008 model. The database iscomposed by microdata from the Household Budgeting Survey (POF 2008-2009 and the tax regulations of the country and the southern states of Brazil. The results show that indirect taxes on food in Southern Brazil is regressive when based on income and expenditure of household , ie , the poorest people pay proportionately more taxes and have their consumption pattern highest taxed ICMS (Brazilian value added tax is the tax that contributes most to the regressivity.

  6. Micropolitics of the work in the Brazilian Family Health Program: do caretakers also need care?

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Senna de Oliveira Neto

    2011-01-01

    The space of work micropolitics in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy is a scenario where the protagonism of workers and users of health services takes place. The objective of this article was to recognize and study the diverse, creative, and dynamic potential of how the activities in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy are organized and, mainly, to see the other face of the health care technology: the health of the health workers. This is a qualiquantitative exploratory study, developed b...

  7. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  8. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. T

  9. Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast Plesiomonasshigelloides e patógenos da família Aeromonadaceae isolados de mamíferos marinhos da costa sul e sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ and southern (RS coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl, APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P.shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A.veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%, A. caviae (12.3%, A. hydrophila (9.6% and P.shigelloides (7%. The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.O ambiente aquático é o habitat de vários microrganismos, incluindo Plesiomonasshigelloides e espécies de Aeromonas, os quais são patogênicos para o homem e os animais. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a ocorrência destes patógenos a partir de swabs coletados de mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados acidentalmente em redes de pesca nas regiões costeiras do sudeste (RJ e sul (RS do Brasil. O total de 198 swabs de 27 espécimes de mamíferos marinhos, incluindo 11 espécies distintas, foi coletado por profissionais dos institutos DEENSP, GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS e enviado ao LRNCEB

  10. Effectiveness of Space Spraying on the Transmission of Dengue/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DF/DHF in an Urban Area of Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwich Thammapalo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Timely and extensive space spraying has been widely used to prevent the spread of dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF. Field evaluations on its effectiveness have been rarely reported. This study aimed to evaluate the timeliness, coverage, and effectiveness of space spraying for DF/DHF control using a geographic information system (GIS. Longitudinal monitoring of DF/DHF cases and spray activities in Songkhla municipality was done between May 2006 and April 2007. After a case was detected, subsequent cases occurring within a 100 meter radius of the index case’s house and between 16–35 days of onset were considered as potential secondary cases. During the study period, 140 cases of DF/DHF were detected. Of these, 25 were identified as secondary infections from 20 index cases. Where a secondary infection occurred, the mean attack rate was 2.7 per 1,000 population. Two significant predictors for being a secondary case were both related to the house of the index case, namely, absence of window screens and being constructed with corrugated iron sheets. Our findings suggest that space spraying in the study area was inadequate and often failed to prevent secondary cases of DF/DHF. Control programs should target houses constructed with corrugated iron sheets.

  11. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  12. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  13. Design review of the Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Lago, A.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Albuquerque, B.; Castilho, B.; Guarnieri, F. L.; Cardoso, F. R.; Guerrero, G.; Rodríguez, J. M.; Santos, J.; Costa, J. E. R.; Palacios, J.; da Silva, L.; Alves, L. R.; Costa, L. L.; Sampaio, M.; Dias Silveira, M. V.; Domingues, M. O.; Rockenbach, M.; Aquino, M. C. O.; Soares, M. C. R.; Barbosa, M. J.; Mendes, O., Jr.; Jauer, P. R.; Branco, R.; Dallaqua, R.; Stekel, T. R. C.; Pinto, T. S. N.; Menconi, V. E.; Souza, V. M. C. E. S.; Gonzalez, W.; Rigozo, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian's National Institute for Space Research (INPE), in collaboration with the Engineering School of Lorena/University of São Paulo (EEL/USP), the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), and the Brazilian's National Laboratory for Astrophysics (LNA), is developing a solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imager to study solar processes through observations of the solar surface magnetic field. The Brazilian Experimental Solar Telescope is designed to obtain full disk magnetic field and line-of-sight velocity observations in the photosphere. Here we discuss the system requirements and the first design review of the instrument. The instrument is composed by a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 500 mm aperture and 4000 mm focal length. LCD polarization modulators will be employed for the polarization analysis and a tuning Fabry-Perot filter for the wavelength scanning near the Fe II 630.25 nm line. Two large field-of-view, high-resolution 5.5 megapixel sCMOS cameras will be employed as sensors. Additionally, we describe the project management and system engineering approaches employed in this project. As the magnetic field anchored at the solar surface produces most of the structures and energetic events in the upper solar atmosphere and significantly influences the heliosphere, the development of this instrument plays an important role in advancing scientific knowledge in this field. In particular, the Brazilian's Space Weather program will benefit most from the development of this technology. We expect that this project will be the starting point to establish a strong research program on Solar Physics in Brazil. Our main aim is to progressively acquire the know-how to build state-of-art solar vector magnetograph and visible-light imagers for space-based platforms.

  14. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  15. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  16. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  17. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  18. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  19. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Pires de Mendonça Dantas; Diogo Meyer; Raquel Godinho; Nuno Ferrand; João Stenghel Morgante

    2012-01-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull po...

  20. Elimination of micronuclei from microspores in a Brazilian oat (Avena sativa L.) variety

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Roseli Baptista-Giacomelli; Maria Suely Pagliarini; Juliano Luiz de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Chromosome elimination in interspecific hybrids is a powerful tool in breeding programs. Of 12 Brazilian oat varieties recommended for cultivation in southern Brazil, one variety, UFRGS 15, presented a new type of chromosome elimination never described in any other species. Chromosomes that produced micronuclei during meiosis were eliminated from microspores as microcytes. The micronucleus reached the microspore wall and formed a kind of bud, separated from the microspore. The eliminated micr...

  1. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  2. Space education and outreach symposium (E1.). Structures for space education (2.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ivette; Carvalho, Himilcon

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian Space Agency (AEB) sponsors an outreach program aimed at promoting Brazilian space activities among students and teachers of primary and secondary schools. The program, called AEB Escola (Brazilian Space Agency School), was created in 2003 and, since then, has taken the space theme to thousands of students and teachers. The main goal of the AEB Escola Program is to make the Brazilian Space Program known among students and teachers. Additionally, it intends to use the space theme as a way to increase youth interest in studies in general, and in sciences in particular. The program focuses on teachers who, ultimately, are the ones responsible for introducing the subject to their students. And who also guarantee the continuity of the Program. An Astronautics and Space Science course is given to teachers by researchers involved with the Brazilian Space Program activities. The course has over 100 h of activities covering the following themes: Astronomy, Satellite Launcher Vehicles, Satellites and Space Platforms, Remote Sensing, Meteorology and Environmental Sciences, and Projects's Learning. The AEB Escola Program also promotes many other activities among students including lectures, contests, interactive exhibitions and hands-on activities. One of the consequences of such initiatives was the creation of two experiments taken to the International Space Station in April 2006 by the Brazilian astronaut, Marcos Pontes. Moreover, a nationwide contest called Brazilian Astronomy and Astronautical Olympics (OBA) is held every year involving nearly half a million students, with ages ranging from 7 to 17. The top five students are taken to the International Astronomy Olympics, where Brazil has obtained many medals. The top 50 students of OBA are taken, along with their teachers, to the city of São José dos Campos, in the state of São Paulo, to participate in the Space Journey event. The journey lasts a week during which the participants get a chance to learn

  3. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  4. Strategic knowledge management in brazilian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivadávia Correa Drummond de Alvarenga

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Investigates the theme known as “Knowledge Management” (KM in three large Brazilian organizations trying to discuss its concepts, constituent elements, managerial approaches and tools, while aiming at leaving behind the purely terminological discussion, which is innocuous and naive. The basic presuppositions were two: (i most of what it´s referred to or named KM is actually “Information Management” (IM and IM is just one of the components of KM. KM is more than simply IM due to the fact that it includes and incorporates other concerns, such as the creation, use and sharing of information and knowledge in the organizational context; (ii a conceptual model or map can be formulated based on three basic conceptions: (a a strategic conception of information and knowledge, (b the introduction of such strategy in the tactical and operational levels through the several managerial approaches and informaion technology tools and (c the creation of an organizational space for knowledge. The main objective is to investigate and analyze the conceptions, motivations, practices and results of KM effectively implemented in three large Brazilian organizations. The qualitative research strategy used was the study of multiple cases with incorporated units of analysis and three criteria ere observed for the judgment of the quality of the research project: validity of the construct, external validity and reliability. Multiple sources of evidence were used and data analysis consisted of three flows of activities: data reduction, data displays and conclusion drawing/verification. The results confirmed the presuppositions and the fact that KM means a rethinking of management practices in the information ea. It was also identified that the main challenges facing organizations committed to KM have its focus on change management, cultural and behavioral issues and the creation of an enabling context that favors the creation, use and sharing of information and

  5. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  6. Cross-cultural perspectives on framing social reality: A comparative study of Brazilian and Spanish TV news contents

    OpenAIRE

    de Paz, A.

    2013-01-01

    The current essay draws upon the problem of visibility of social reality generated by Brazilian and Spanish TV news broadcasts through the selection and production of the same news contents that represent the social space of both countries. Given this scenario, we aim both to develop a methodology that allows establishing how and in what extent social reality is framed in Brazilian and Spanish TV news programs and to identify cross-cultural dynamics of mediatization of social reality in both ...

  7. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  8. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  9. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  10. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  11. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  12. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  13. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  14. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  15. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD) in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1) CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2) IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3) CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0) PMID:27437866

  16. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  17. History of Science, Physics, and Art: A Complex Approach in Brazilian Syllabuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Marco; Guerra, Andreia; Reis, José Claudio

    2013-01-01

    This paper is about new contents that can be introduced into science education. It is a description of an experience aimed at introducing a complex approach into the final grade of a Brazilian elementary school. The aim is to show the transformation of the conception of space and time from the Middle Ages with the physics of Aristotle to the 20th…

  18. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  19. What Is the Southern California Earthquake Center?

    OpenAIRE

    Aki, Keiiti; Henyey, Thomas; Heaton, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    On February 11, Congressman George E. Brown, Jr., Chairman of the House Committee on Science, Space and Technology, together with the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, and state and local officials, helped inaugurate the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) on the campus of the University of Southern California. SCEC is one of 14 new NSF Science and Technology Centers and includes a substantial commitment from the USGS for FY91. The center is a consortium of sev...

  20. Low aerobic fitness in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: aerobic fitness is considered one of the most important components of health-related physical fitness, with low levels related to increased risk of premature death from all causes, especially cardiovascular diseases. OBJECTIVE: to identify the characteristics of adolescents at higher risk of low levels of aerobic fitness. METHODS: the study included 696 adolescents 15-17 years of age enrolled in public high schools of Florianópolis, southern Brazil. This cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Aerobic fitness was measured using the modified Canadian Aerobic Fitness Test mCAFT. Sociodemographic gender, age, school grade, paternal and maternal schooling, socioeconomic status, and anthropometric variables body weight, height, triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, sexual maturation, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and eating habits were collected. RESULTS: it was found that 31.5% of adolescents had low aerobic fitness levels, being higher in boys 49.2% compared to girls 20.6%. Moreover, girls with sedentary behavior, overweight and high body fat percentage were the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness. In males, the groups most likely to have inadequate aerobic fitness were those whose parents studied more than eight years, those with low levels of physical activity, and those with inadequate nutrition and excessive body fat. CONCLUSION: low aerobic fitness levels were present in one third of adolescents and was more prevalent in boys. Lifestyle changes, including replacement of sedentary behaviors by physical and sport activities , may assist in improving the aerobic fitness of Brazilian adolescents.

  1. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  2. Comparative study on the ionospheric response to minor and major sudden stratospheric events in the Brazilian equatorial and low latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Kavutarapu, Venkatesh; Gil Pillat, Valdir; Vieira, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The Total electron Content (TEC), derivate from GPS, becomes one of the most powerful techniques to study the space-time ionospheric (F-region) electrodynamics, during the quiet and disturbed periods. The number of GPS stations in Brazil increased significantly during the last few years; currently more than 100 GPS stations are in operation over the Brazilian region. The GPS-TEC values are derived using the differential delay technique from the dual frequency measurements at L1 and L2 frequencies over the considered locations at equatorial and low latitudes. The present study investigates the ionospheric total electron content (GPS-TEC) response in the Southern Hemisphere equatorial and low latitudes, due to major and minor sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) events, which took place during 2009 and 2012. During both the SSW events, the TEC values are depleted to the order of 20-30% all over the Brazil from equator to beyond Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) regions. In addition, the EIA were suppressed during the SSW events for several days. However, the TEC depletion and EIA suppression lasted for a longer period during SSW-2012 when compared with the SSW-2009; despite the SSW-2012 is considerd as a minor event.

  3. Distribution of CYP2D6 Alleles and Phenotypes in the Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortica, Vinicius A.; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme; de Moraes, Maria Elizabete; Pena, Sergio D. J.; dos Santos, Ândrea K. Ribeiro; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Hutz, Mara H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil) to 10.2% (Northern Brazil). The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%). Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions. PMID:25329392

  4. Distribution of CYP2D6 alleles and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise C Friedrich

    Full Text Available The CYP2D6 enzyme is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. This enzyme metabolizes approximately 25% of currently prescribed medications. The CYP2D6 gene presents a high allele heterogeneity that determines great inter-individual variation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the variability of CYP2D6 alleles, genotypes and predicted phenotypes in Brazilians. Eleven single nucleotide polymorphisms and CYP2D6 duplications/multiplications were genotyped by TaqMan assays in 1020 individuals from North, Northeast, South, and Southeast Brazil. Eighteen CYP2D6 alleles were identified in the Brazilian population. The CYP2D6*1 and CYP2D6*2 alleles were the most frequent and widely distributed in different geographical regions of Brazil. The highest number of CYPD6 alleles observed was six and the frequency of individuals with more than two copies ranged from 6.3% (in Southern Brazil to 10.2% (Northern Brazil. The analysis of molecular variance showed that CYP2D6 is homogeneously distributed across different Brazilian regions and most of the differences can be attributed to inter-individual differences. The most frequent predicted metabolic status was EM (83.5%. Overall 2.5% and 3.7% of Brazilians were PMs and UMs respectively. Genomic ancestry proportions differ only in the prevalence of intermediate metabolizers. The IM predicted phenotype is associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry and a lower proportion of European ancestry in Brazilians. PM and UM classes did not vary among regions and/or ancestry proportions therefore unique CYP2D6 testing guidelines for Brazilians are possible and could potentially avoid ineffective or adverse events outcomes due to drug prescriptions.

  5. Brazilian Culture and Relationship Marketing: An Ethnographic Study in Retail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléria Donizete da Silva Lourenço

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to understand how Brazilian cultural traits are manifested in the relations of trade between employees of micro and small retailers and their customers. How, in marketing, one of the theoretical perspectives that seek to account for the relationship between businesses and consumers is relationship marketing, we sought to understand the exchanges and also to support this view. Assuming that the exchange ratio is also a commercial and social human relationship, we tried to treat the exchange as a social phenomenon. The research, qualitative in nature, was conducted in five retailers in a small city in southern Minas Gerais during the period of one year (Dec/2008 to Dec/2009 using ethnography as a method. As to results, as evidenced personalism, the warmth, the valuation of non-manual work, aversion to conflict, and the cunning knack manifested in trade relations. The main conclusion reached is that the reality of retail trade is complex and multifaceted as much as is the Brazilian culture. 

  6. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior; Abílio Neves Garcia; Ribeiro Fabrício N.; Daniel Ferreira V. Mattos

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis ...

  7. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  8. China-Brazil Joint Laboratory for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengyu

    2016-07-01

    The Joint Laboratory for Space Weather in South America, jointly constructed by National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NSSC, CAS) and Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) plays a key role in the formation of International Space Weather Meridian Circle Programme (ISWMCP). This Lab is responsible for the joint Meridian chains observation and data converging in the west hemisphere, the joint space environment exploration and research in the low latitude area both in the east and west hemisphere, as well as the bridge for Sino-Brazilian culture exchanges.

  9. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  10. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  11. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

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    Michela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  12. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  13. Carbon Emissions from Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, C.; Klooster, S.; Genovese, V.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model based on satellite observations of monthly vegetation greenness from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was used to estimate monthly carbon fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of Brazilian Amazon and Cerrado regions over the period 2000-2002. The NASA-CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model estimates of annual forest production were used for the first time as the basis to generate a prediction for the standing pool of carbon in above-ground biomass (AGB; gC/sq m) for forested areas of the Brazilian Amazon region. Plot-level measurements of the residence time of carbon in wood in Amazon forest from Malhi et al. (2006) were interpolated by inverse distance weighting algorithms and used with CASA to generate a new regional map of AGB. Data from the Brazilian PRODES (Estimativa do Desflorestamento da Amazonia) project were used to map deforested areas. Results show that net primary production (NPP) sinks for carbon varied between 4.25 Pg C/yr (1 Pg=10(exp 15)g) and 4.34 Pg C for the region and were highest across the eastern and northern Amazon areas, whereas deforestation sources of CO2 flux from decomposition of residual woody debris were higher and less seasonal in the central Amazon than in the eastern and southern areas. Increased woody debris from past deforestation events was predicted to alter the net ecosystem carbon balance of the Amazon region to generate annual CO2 source fluxes at least two times higher than previously predicted by CASA modeling studies. Variations in climate, land cover, and forest burning were predicted to release carbon at rates of 0.5 to 1 Pg C/yr from the Brazilian Amazon. When direct deforestation emissions of CO2 from forest burning of between 0.2 and 0.6 Pg C/yr in the Legal Amazon are overlooked in regional budgets, the year-to-year variations in this net biome flux may appear to be large, whereas our model results implies net biome fluxes had actually been relatively consistent from

  14. Micropolitics of the work in the Brazilian Family Health Program: do caretakers also need care?

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    Francisco Senna de Oliveira Neto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The space of work micropolitics in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy is a scenario where the protagonism of workers and users of health services takes place. The objective of this article was to recognize and study the diverse, creative, and dynamic potential of how the activities in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy are organized and, mainly, to see the other face of the health care technology: the health of the health workers. This is a qualiquantitative exploratory study, developed by the application of instruments for the evaluation of life quality and occupational history, supported by the observation and evaluation of the daily work in a Brazilian Family Health Strategy unit in the town of Jerônimo Monteiro, state of Espírito Santo, in Brazil. The results show that, when targeting his/her own health, the health worker is more concerned about health problems and disorders already installed, neglecting the preventive aspects. Signs of organic and psychic suffering were considered as caused by work overload and by precariousness of links and work conditions. The study also showed that reflections on occupational health in the Brazilian Family Health Strategy also need to be carried out and that health prevention and promotion need to be explored by health workers. It is also important to review the path of the Brazilian Family Health Strategy under the perspective of health workers, aiming at the construction of a humanized work environment. 

  15. Space activities in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, H.; Kono, J.; Quintino, M.; Perondi, L.

    Brazilian space activities develop around three main programs, namely, the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (CBERS) , the Applications Satellite program, comprising the Multi-Mission Platform and associated remote sensing payloads (radar and optical), and the Scientific Satellites program. Increasing national industry participation and acquiring new technology are strategic goals established for all programs. CBERS program is the result of successful long term cooperation between China and Brazil for the development of remote sensing satellites. Initially comprising two satellites, launched in 1999 and 2003, and now extended to four, this cooperation fulfills the needs of both countries in earth imagery. CBERS satellites are designed for global coverage and include cameras for high spatial resolution and wide field of view, in the visible, near infrared spectrum, an infrared multi-spectral scanner, and a Transponder for the Brazilian Environmental Data Collection System to gather data on the environment. They are unique systems due to the use of onboard cameras which combine features that are specially designed to resolve the broad range of space and time scales involved in our ecosystem. Applications satellites, mainly devoted to optical and radar remote sensing, are being developed in the frame of international cooperation agreements, and will be based on the use of a recurrent Multi-Mission Platform (MMP), currently under development. The MMP will be 3-axes stabilized and will have a fine pointing capability, in several pointing modes, such as Earth, Inertial or Sun pointing. Missions will be focused on natural resources observation and monitoring.. The Program for Scientific Satellites is based on low-cost micro-satellites and aims at providing frequent flight opportunities for scientific research from space, whilst serving as a technological development platform, involving Research Institutes, Universities and National Industry. Current projects are FBM

  16. Could the STARS detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, M. P.; Trabaquini, K.; Rudorff, B. F.; Oliveira, J. C.

    2013-05-01

    The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE) has been monitoring the Brazilian Legal Amazon deforestation through the PRODES project since 1988, providing yearly deforestation maps based on about 60 m spatial resolution. Additionally, INPE's Real Time Deforestation Detection System (DETER) has monthly indicating, based on high temporal resolution satellite data, where and when the forest is being felled. However, those monitoring processes are mainly based on visual interpretation, which is accurate but a hard and time consuming task. The Spectral-Temporal Analysis by Response Surface (STARS), which synthesizes the full information content of a multitemporal-multispectral remote sensing image dataset to represent the spectral variation over time of features on the Earth's surface, comes as an alternative for applications in land cover change detection, such as deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Thus, since deforestation process presents particular spectral changes over time, spectral-temporal response surfaces could be fitted to describe its change patterns, allowing to detect deforested areas. In this context, this work aims to apply the STARS to detect deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, using Landsat-5 multitemporal-multispectral images. Four georeferenced images covering about 3.400 square kilometres within the Mato Grosso State, Brazil (13°17'S; 55°50'W to 14°20'S; 55°10'W) were used: one Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image from 1980 (bands 4, 5, 6 and 7 - 60 m spatial resolution); and three Thematic Mapper (TM) images from 1990, 2000 and 2010 (bands 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 - 30 m spatial resolution). The MSS image was resampled to 30 m to match the TM spatial resolution. All images were then used as input for STARS resulting in a Multi-Coefficient Image (MCI) with 10 synthetic bands formed by the 10 fitted coefficients of a Polynomial Trend Surface (PTS) model with degree equal to three. The MCI was used as input for a decision tree (DT

  17. Plasmodium falciparum: limited genetic diversity of MSP-2 in isolates circulating in Brazilian endemic areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave-Sales, S; Ferreira-da-Cruz, M F; Faria, C P; Cerruti, C; Daniel-Ribeiro, C T; Zalis, M G

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphism of the surface merozoite protein 2 (MSP-2) was evaluated in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from individuals with uncomplicated malaria living in a Brazilian endemic area of Peixoto de Azevedo. The frequency of MSP-2 alleles and the survival of genetically different populations clones in 104 isolates were verified by Southern blot and SSCP-PCR. Single and mixed infections were observed in similar frequencies and the rate of detection of FC27 and 3D7 allelic families was equivalent. Eight alleles were identified and among them, the sequence polymorphism was mainly attributed to variations in the repetitive region. Interestingly, in three alleles nucleotide polymorphism was identical to that detected in a previous study, conducted in 1992, in a near Brazilian endemic area. This finding demonstrated the genetic similarity between two isolate groups, besides the certain temporal stability in the allelic patterns. The implications of these data for studies on the genetic diversity are also discussed. PMID:12880589

  18. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  19. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  20. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  1. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  2. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  3. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

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    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  4. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  5. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

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    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  6. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  7. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  8. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  9. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  10. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  11. Invasão do território e espaço pessoal do paciente hospitalizado: adaptação de instrumento de medida para a cultura brasileira Invasión del territorio y espacio personal del paciente hospitalizado: adaptación de instrumento de medida para la cultura brasileña Invasion of the personal territory and space of the hospitalized patient: adaptation of an instrument of measure to brazilian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namie Okino Sawada

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available A invasão do espaço pessoal e territorial do paciente hospitalizado e seus efeitos, têm sido objeto de vários estudos à nível internacional. Considerando a sua importância e na busca de um instrumento de medida para realizar pesquisas nessa área, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo adaptar o instrumento "Anxiety due to territory and space intrusion questionaire" para a cultura brasileira. Descrevemos todas as etapas desse processo e utilizamos o software SPSS para a análise psicométrica.La invasión del espacio personal y territorial del paciente hospitalizado y sus efectos han sido objeto de varios estudios a nivel internacional. Considerando su importancia y en la busqueda de un instrumento de medida para desarrollar las investigaciones en ésa área, el presente estudio tuvo como objetivo adaptar el instrumento "Anxiety due to territory and space instrusion questionnaire" para la cultura brasileña. Describimos todas las etapas de ése proceso y utilizamos el software SPSS para análisis psicométrico.The invasion of patient's territorial and personal space and its effects have been object of several international studies. In view of its importance and searching for an instrument of measure to develop research in this area, the present study aimed at adapting the instrument "anxiety due to territory and space intrusion questionnaire" to the brazilian culture. Authors fully described the phases of this process and utilized the software SPSS for the psychometric analysis.

  12. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

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    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  13. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

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    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  14. Brazilian Air Force aircraft structural integrity program: An overview

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    Alberto W. S. Mello Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the activities developed by the Structural Integrity Group at the Institute of Aeronautics and Space - IAE, Brazil, as well as the status of ongoing work related to the life extension program for aircraft operated by the Brazilian Air Force BAF. The first BAF-operated airplane to undergo a DTA-based life extension was the F-5 fighter, in the mid 1990s. From 1998 to 2001, BAF worked on a life extension project for the BAF AT- 26 Xavante trainer. All analysis and tests were performed at IAE. The fatigue critical locations (FCLs were presumed based upon structural design and maintenance data and also from exchange of technical information with other users of the airplane around the world. Following that work, BAF started in 2002 the extension of the operational life of the BAF T-25 “Universal”. The T-25 is the basic training airplane used by AFA - The Brazilian Air Force Academy. This airplane was also designed under the “safe-life” concept. As the T-25 fleet approached its service life limit, the Brazilian Air Force was questioning whether it could be kept in flight safely. The answer came through an extensive Damage Tolerance Analysis (DTA program, briefly described in this paper. The current work on aircraft structural integrity is being performed for the BAF F-5 E/F that underwent an avionics and weapons system upgrade. Along with the increase in weight, new configurations and mission profiles were established. Again, a DTA program was proposed to be carried out in order to establish the reliability of the upgraded F-5 fleet. As a result of all the work described, the BAF has not reported any accident due to structural failure on aircraft submitted to Damage Tolerance Analysis.

  15. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M. [Memphis State Univ., TN (United States). Center for Earthquake Research and Information

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  16. A new species of Troglobius (Collembola, Paronellidae, Cyphoderinae from a Brazilian iron cave

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    Douglas Zeppelini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The genus Troglobius (Collembola: Paronellidae: Cyphoderinae is known only from the Southern Hemisphere, the two species found so far were described from caves in Madagascar and Brazil. In this paper we describe a new Brazilian species and complement the descriptions of the previously known species. The new species is a troglomorph and was collected in a single cave, in iron formations in the state of Minas Gerais. Brazil. The original diagnosis of the genus is supplemented with new characters based on observations of the new species.

  17. Cross-cultural perspectives on framing social reality: A comparative study of Brazilian and Spanish TV news contents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Paz

    2013-01-01

    The current essay draws upon the problem of visibility of social reality generated by Brazilian and Spanish TV news broadcasts through the selection and production of the same news contents that represent the social space of both countries. Given this scenario, we aim both to develop a methodology t

  18. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  19. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  20. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  1. Emerging insights on Brazilian Pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) invasion : the potential role of soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Karim eDawkins; Nwadiuto eEsiobu

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  2. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

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    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  3. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

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    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  4. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  5. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  6. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  7. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  8. Análise qualitativa de variáveis relevantes para a aplicação do programa de terapia psicológica integrada em pacientes com esquizofrenia de três centros do Sul do Brasil Qualitative analysis of relevant variables for the application of the integrated psychological therapy program in patients with schizophrenia in three Southern Brazilian centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene Zimmer

    2006-12-01

    ção do IPT para pacientes brasileiros.OBJECTIVES: This study aims at (1 presenting the main difficulties in the application of the integrated psychological therapy (IPT program for schizophrenia developed in Germany; and (2 documenting the strategies used to adapt this technique to the Brazilian reality. METHOD: Qualitative approach with data analysis through the examination of the contents of patients' verbalizations in discussion groups carried out after IPT therapy sessions with three groups of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder diagnosis, according to DSM-IV. These patients came from three different institutions that work with IPT: Instituto de Capacitação e Reorientação Ocupacional (Capacitation and Occupational Rehabilitation Institute, Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Center for Psychosocial Care at Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Center for Psychosocial Care in Tubarão (SC, Brazil, including a total of 22 outpatients. RESULTS: The following categories were determined: repetition and monotony; difficulty in doing some exercises; lack of practical usefulness in doing some exercises; and need of knowing more about the disease. Positive aspects related to the technique were also reported by the patients. DISCUSSION: The results reveal very relevant aspects for the understanding of the outpatients' compliance to a treatment developed in a European country. Our findings suggest that cultural differences may interfere with the application of IPT in terms of its structure. However, improvement in functioning, as related by the outpatients, motivates us to continue searching for the adaptation of this technique to our patients' characteristics. Nevertheless, further studies, such as controlled clinical trials, are necessary to assess the effectiveness of the IPT adaptation to Brazilian patients.

  9. Brazilian actions to promote physiology learning and teaching in secondary and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Granjeiro, Érica Maria; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Education Committee of the Brazilian Society of Physiology have developed multiple outreach models to improve the appreciation of science and physiology at the precollege level. The members of this committee act in concert with important Brazilian governmental strategies to promote training of undergraduate students in the teaching environment of secondary and high schools. One of these governmental strategies, the Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência, a Brazilian public policy of teaching enhancement implemented by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) since 2007, represents a well-articulated public policy that can promote the partnership between University and Schools (7). Furthermore, the Program "Novos Talentos" (New Talents)/CAPES/Ministry of Education is another government initiative to bring together university and high-level technical training with the reality of Brazilian schools. Linked to the New Talents Program, in partnership with the British Council/Newton Fund, CAPES recently promoted the visit of some university professors that coordinate New Talents projects to formal and informal educational science spaces in the United Kingdom (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Brazil-United Kingdom International Cooperation Program) to qualify the actions developed in this area in Brazil, and one of us had the opportunity to participate with this. PMID:27231260

  10. Brazilian actions to promote physiology learning and teaching in secondary and high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; Granjeiro, Érica Maria; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Rocha, Maria José Alves

    2016-06-01

    Members of the Education Committee of the Brazilian Society of Physiology have developed multiple outreach models to improve the appreciation of science and physiology at the precollege level. The members of this committee act in concert with important Brazilian governmental strategies to promote training of undergraduate students in the teaching environment of secondary and high schools. One of these governmental strategies, the Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação à Docência, a Brazilian public policy of teaching enhancement implemented by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) since 2007, represents a well-articulated public policy that can promote the partnership between University and Schools (7). Furthermore, the Program "Novos Talentos" (New Talents)/CAPES/Ministry of Education is another government initiative to bring together university and high-level technical training with the reality of Brazilian schools. Linked to the New Talents Program, in partnership with the British Council/Newton Fund, CAPES recently promoted the visit of some university professors that coordinate New Talents projects to formal and informal educational science spaces in the United Kingdom (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, Brazil-United Kingdom International Cooperation Program) to qualify the actions developed in this area in Brazil, and one of us had the opportunity to participate with this.

  11. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe. PMID:27323193

  12. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  13. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  14. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  15. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  16. A Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho: locus do processo de constituição da especialidade medicina do trabalho no Brasil na década de 1940 The Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine: a space for the constitution of occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil in the 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beatriz de Sá Almeida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a Associação Brasileira de Medicina do Trabalho (ABMT, criada em fins de 1944 como lócus de consolidação do campo da medicina do trabalho no Brasil. O grupo dos primeiros especialistas no campo da higiene e medicina do trabalho que trabalhavam no Ministério do Trabalho, Indústria e Comércio (MTIC foi o responsável pela fundação da ABMT, nas próprias dependências do Ministério. Contando com um núcleo inicial de 35 médicos e cinco engenheiros, todos oriundos do MTIC, a ABMT destacava como seu objetivo primordial, o estudo, a discussão e a divulgação dos assuntos referentes à medicina do trabalho. Entre as principais atividades promovidas pela ABMT, destacavam-se as reuniões científicas mensais (palestras de médicos convidados e de médicos e engenheiros do próprio MTIC, a organização de eventos científicos e a publicação de um periódico especializado. Logo após a sua criação, já em 1945, a ABMT passou a integrar o Bureau Internacional de Segurança do Trabalho, com sede em Montreal, Canadá e o Bureau Internacional do Trabalho, da Organização Internacional do Trabalho. Em dezembro de 1945, no momento da eleição da nova diretoria, criou-se a Revista Médica do Trabalho, cuja primeira publicação foi em 1946.This article analyzes the Brazilian Association of Workers' Medicine, created in the end of 1944 as a space for consolidating occupational health as a medical specialty in Brazil. The Association was founded by the first group of specialists in the field of occupational hygiene and medicine with seat at the facilities of the proper Ministry of Work, Industry and Commerce, where the founders were working. Counting on an initial core group of 35 physicians and five engineers, all of them coming from the Ministry, the main objective of the Association was to study, discuss and promote the issues related to workers' medicine. Among the most relevant activities promoted by the Association were

  17. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

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    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  18. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  19. Vegetation and pollen rain relationship from the tropical Atlantic rain forest in Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Behling; Raquel R.B. Negrelle

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between the southern Brazilian tropical Atlantic lowland rain forest and modern pollen rain was studied by pollen traps. The study was carried out on a one hectare plot undisturbed rain forest of the reserve Volta Velha and two secondary forests, ± 50 and 7 years old. About 248 identified tree, shrub and herb species (excluding epiphytes) of 50 families were represented by 126 different pollen and spore types (including non-local taxa). The calculated average influx of...

  20. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  1. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  2. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  3. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  4. Simultaneous multielement extraction with the Mehlich-1 solution for Southern Brazilian soils determined by ICP-OES and the effects on the nutrients recommendations to crops Extração multielementar simultânea com a solução de Mehlich-1 para solos do sul do Brasil e determinação por espectrofotometria de emissão ótica por plasma induzido e os efeitos nas recomendações de adubação para as culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bortolon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The amounts of macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Cu and Zn extracted with the Mehlich-1 (M1 solution, by the 1.0 mol L-1 KCl (KCl and with the 0.1 mol L-1 HCl (HCl for representative soil types of the Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil were compared with those extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution determined with the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP. The amounts of nutrients extracted by the different methods showed high correlation coefficients. On average, the Mehlich-1 solution extracted similar amounts of P, determined with colorimetric and ICP methods, and, K determined with emission and ICP. The amounts of Ca and Mg extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution, determined by ICP, were similar to those extracted with the KCl solution determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The amounts of Cu and Zn extracted with the Mehlich-1 solution, determined by the ICP, were higher than those extracted with the 0.1 mol L-1 HCl determined by the atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results indicate that the Mehlich-1 solution and ICP can be used for simultaneous multielement extraction and determination for Southern Brazilian soils. However, a conversion factor for values interpretation is needed. The use of the conversion factor to determine the K availability index in soils is adequate and does not affect the K recommendations for crops in southern Brazilian soils.As quantidades de macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Cu e Zn extraídos com a solução de Mehlich-1 (M1, por KCl 1,0 mol L-1 (KCl e com o HCl 0,1 mol L-1 (HCl, em solos representativos do Rio Grande do Sul, foram comparadas com as quantidades de nutrientes extraídos com a solução de Mehlich-1 determinados por espectrofotometria de emissão ótica por plasma induzido (ICP-OES. Os teores de nutrientes extraídos pelos diferentes métodos tiveram alto grau de correlação. Em média, a solução de Mehlich-1 extraiu quantidades semelhantes

  5. [Ethical and political diversity in the right to health care in Brazilian municipalities along the MERCOSUR border].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Vera Maria Ribeiro; Dal Prá, Keli Regina; Fermiano, Sabrina

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study in Brazilian municipalities along the border with the other Southern Cone Common Market (MERCOSUR) countries, identifying health care patterns and showing ethical and political diversity in the guarantee and use of the right to health care, characterizing demands on (and responses by) local health systems. The main variable was whether non-Brazilians had access to Brazilian health services. Data were collected using forms in municipalities with more than 10 thousand inhabitants, field diaries, meetings, and interviews. The definition of the right to health care varied greatly, indicating lack of common ethical and political principles and weak institutionality, with incapacity to absorb the demand by non-Brazilian patients. Agreements between the respective Federal governments of MERCOSUR countries had failed to reach the local level and were ignored by local health services managers and professionals. The foreign population remains uncertain about receiving care. In Brazil, the lack of uniform standards of care lead to ad hoc personal decisions by health services managers and professionals, thus hindering integrated action.

  6. Proposal of a short-form version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Pozza dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To propose a short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. METHODS Two samples were used to test the results obtained in the analyses in two distinct scenarios. One of the studies was composed of 230 low income families from Pelotas, RS, Southern Brazil, and the other was composed of 15,575 women, whose data were obtained from the 2006 National Survey on Demography and Health. Two models were tested, the first containing seven questions, and the second, the five questions that were considered the most relevant ones in the concordance analysis. The models were compared to the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, and the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy parameters were calculated, as well as the kappa agreement test. RESULTS Comparing the prevalence of food insecurity between the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale and the two models, the differences were around 2 percentage points. In the sensitivity analysis, the short version of seven questions obtained 97.8% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively, while specificity was 100% in both studies. The five-question model showed similar results (sensitivity of 95.7% and 99.5% in the Pelotas sample and in the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, respectively. In the Pelotas sample, the kappa test of the seven-question version totaled 97.0% and that of the five-question version, 95.0%. In the National Survey on Demography and Health sample, the two models presented a 99.0% kappa. CONCLUSIONS We suggest that the model with five questions should be used as the short version of the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale, as its results were similar to the original scale with a lower number of questions. This version needs to be administered to other populations in Brazil in order to allow for the adequate assessment of the validity parameters.

  7. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  8. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  9. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  10. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  11. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  12. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  13. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  14. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2 %) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal. PMID:26912332

  15. Increased of Brazilian productivity in the slaughterhouse sector: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzanello, Márcia Rosângela; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Due to Brazil is a tropical country has activities in occupational exposure to cold restricted to few sectors especially the meatpacking industry. Taking into account that the country in 2010, was again the largest exporter of poultry meat in the world and consequently employing a large number of workers for their slaughter and processing. The search for greater productivity can result in an increase in work rate, as indicated in this sector as monotonous, repetitive and uncomfortable. According the Programa de Frigorífico it was found that within six years, about 20% of the six thousand workers in a slaughterhouse in southern Brazil, received welfare benefits due to musculoskeletal diseases. Adding to this, the lack of parameters for the Brazilian standardization concerning occupational activities carried out in cold. Although several epidemiological studies point to the cold as a risk factor for occurrence or aggravation of musculoskeletal disorders, research in this field is still limited and often contradictory conclusions. This article aims to review developments concerning the poultry industry and the fridge in Brazil, as well as raising the question about the increased productivity of the slaughterhouse, since it has already shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders related to work. PMID:22317580

  16. Valongo, genetic studies on an isolated Afro-Brazilian community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Ilíada Rainha de

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A southern Brazilian isolated community of predominantly sub-Saharan African origin, with a total population of 74 individuals and high degree of inbreeding (F = 0.081 was studied. The small sizes of the breeding (35 and effective (21 populations, as well as the very small effective migration rate (4%, suggest a high probability for the occurrence of genetic drift. A sample was typed for fourteen blood genetic systems and most of these systems seem to reveal the founder effect. This evolutionary factor was probably responsible for the absence of some polymorphic alleles frequent in African populations, i.e.: ABO*B, RHD-RHCE*DCe, GPA-GPB*NS (MNSs*NS, GPA-GPB*NS U (MNSs*NSU, HBB*S, HP*2M and ESD*2. The most unusual allele frequency was that for BCHE*A, 0.27, four times higher than its highest estimated frequency and fifty times higher than that those observed in African populations. Considering the allele frequencies of the Sub-Saharan African (A and European (E ancestral populations, the population studied can be quantified as containing 97.33% ? 10.41 of A alleles and 2.67% ? 10.41 of E alleles.

  17. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  18. Natural gas and Brazilian energetic matrix; Gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes, Ricardo Luchese de [White Martins S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1997-07-01

    Recent projection of the market in global scale shows a tendency in natural gas using replacing mostly the fuel oil. Its market share well increase from 21.1% in 1994 to 24.0% in 2010. The annual energetic use will reach 29.23 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 2010 (8990 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day) versus 18.90 x 10{sup 9} Gcal in 1994 (5810 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day). For Brazil, its consumption will increase from 8.7 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 1994 to 35.9 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day in 2010. Projects like Brazil-Bolivia natural gas pipeline, will supply 18 million Nm{sup 3} natural gas/day, which expected to start-up before the year 2000. This projects will supply the Brazilian southern regions, that do not consume natural gas at the current moment. Although there are many different kind of natural gas consumption in the industry this paper presents the technical and economical estimate of the injection in the blast furnace operating with coke or charcoal. The process simulation is done assisted by math modeling developed by White Martins/Praxair Inc. (author)

  19. Southern hemisphere observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  20. The Transformation of the Rural Space in Southern Jiangsu under the Dominance of Development Zones--A Case Study of Suzhou Industrial Park%开发区主导下的苏南乡村空间转型--以苏州工业园区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琪龙; 郭旭; 李广斌

    2014-01-01

    以苏州工业园区为例,将开发区主导下的苏南乡村空间演化划分为前开发区时代、开发区时代和后开发区时代三个阶段,并对各个阶段的乡村空间分异特征及其驱动机制进行解析。分析发现:(1)改革开放以来,苏州工业园区乡村空间呈现出两种转型趋势,即乡村空间向城市空间转型、生产空间向消费空间转型;(2)前开发区时代,其空间重构由乡村自下而上驱动;开发区时代,由政府主导、市场辅助;后开发区时代,则是由市场主导,政府辅助,政府主导的乡村空间转型虽能快速实现城市化,但也有其缺陷;后开发区时代,空间作为稀缺资源应由市场来配置。%Taking Suzhou Industrial Park(SIP) as an example, the paper pointed out that the evolution of the rural space of southern of Jiangsu can be divided into three periods: 1978-1993, 1994-2006, and after 2007. The paper analyzed the spatial characteristics and inner motivations in each period. It ifnds that (1) the rural space of SIP shows two trends of transformation since 1978: one is rural space to urban space and the other is space of production to space of consumption; (2) The driving force of space reconstruction is from blew before 1994. Then the government dominated the reconstruction of rural space. And now the market is in a dominant position since 2007. The author argues that though the government is able to realize the fast urbanization, it also has its drawbacks. In the future, space as scarce resources should be allocated by the market.

  1. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  2. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  3. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  4. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  5. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  6. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  7. Logistics problems in soybeans Brazilian exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Lopes Jaguaribe Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization process, the world-wide nations are having an increase of the international trade. Brazil has, each time more, used the agribusiness as a strategy of insertion in the world-wide economy. The exportations of Brazilian agricultural productscome playing an important paper in the supplying revenues and increase of the domestic income, but a visible problem of the agribusiness for exportation is related to logistic. In theworld-wide marketplace, Brazil presents comparative advantages in the production of agricultural products in relation to the other world-wide producers, but it loses in logistic costs. The importance of this work is in characterizing the logistic problems of the Brazilian exportation of one of the most important commodities national, the soybeans. The soybeans is the agricultural product that more generates volume of exportation for Brazil, demanding sufficiently of the logistic structure of the country. For accomplishment of this work, it was used an general bibliographical research, where if it carried through a detailed survey of themain problems, causes, costs and solutions for the flowing of the soybeans in Brazilian for exportation. From the development of this work, it was perceived that the challenges of the logistic of the soybeans are many and that the resolution of these problems will increase the Brazilian international competitiveness, increasing the trustworthiness in the delivery times and reducing the costs of the inefficiencies in the exportation process.

  8. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  9. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  10. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  11. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  12. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  13. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  14. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  15. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  16. Southern Impact Testing Alliance (SITA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbs, Whitney; Roebuck, Brian; Zwiener, Mark; Wells, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to form this Alliance began in 2008 to showcase the impact testing capabilities within the southern United States. Impact testing customers can utilize SITA partner capabilities to provide supporting data during all program phases-materials/component/ flight hardware design, development, and qualification. This approach would allow programs to reduce risk by providing low cost testing during early development to flush out possible problems before moving on to larger scale1 higher cost testing. Various SITA partners would participate in impact testing depending on program phase-materials characterization, component/subsystem characterization, full-scale system testing for qualification. SITA partners would collaborate with the customer to develop an integrated test approach during early program phases. Modeling and analysis validation can start with small-scale testing to ensure a level of confidence for the next step large or full-scale conclusive test shots. Impact Testing Facility (ITF) was established and began its research in spacecraft debris shielding in the early 1960's and played a malor role in the International Space Station debris shield development. As a result of return to flight testing after the loss of STS-107 (Columbia) MSFC ITF realized the need to expand their capabilities beyond meteoroid and space debris impact testing. MSFC partnered with the Department of Defense and academic institutions as collaborative efforts to gain and share knowledge that would benefit the Space Agency as well as the DoD. MSFC ITF current capabilities include: Hypervelocity impact testing, ballistic impact testing, and environmental impact testing.

  17. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  18. Soil invertebrates in southern Brazilian Araucaria forest - grassland mosaic: differences between disturbed and undisturbed areas Invertebrados de solo no mosaico floresta com Araucaria - campos no sul do Brasil: diferenças entre áreas impactadas e não impactadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Frainer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil invertebrate distribution in Araucaria forest, grassland and edge habitats was studied in both disturbed and undisturbed areas in southern Brazil. Mean-density and taxa compositions were verified. Invertebrate densities differed between grassland and the other two habitats in the undisturbed area but not across the disturbed one. At the disturbed area taxa differed between the grassland and the other two habitats. The undisturbed area, on the other hand, presented taxa differences only between the grassland and the forest habitats. Acari, Arachnida and Collembola were the most sensitive taxa for detecting differences across habitats in both areas. At the disturbed area, these taxa presented densities lowering from the forest to the grassland. At the undisturbed area the same taxa increased from the forest to the grassland. Coleoptera and Formicidae (Insecta presented no difference between habitats at the studied taxonomic level.A distribuição dos invertebrados de solo entre os em ambientes de floresta com Araucaria, borda-de-mata e campo, foi analisada em duas áreas no sul do Brasil: uma reserva ecológica e uma propriedade agrícola. A densidade média e a composição dos principais taxa foram verificadas. A densidade total de invertebrados diferiu entre o campo e os outros dois hábitats na área protegida, mas não na fazenda. A composição dos taxa diferiu entre o hábitat de campo e os outros dois habitats na fazenda, e entre o campo e a mata com Araucaria na área protegida. Acari, Arachnida e Collembola foram os grupos que mais apresentaram diferenças entre os diferentes habitats. Na área alterada (fazenda, esses grupos apresentaram diminuição na densidade na direção da floresta com Araucária para o campo, enquanto que na área protegida suas densidades foram maiores no campo do que na floresta com Araucária. Coleoptera e Formicidae (Insecta não apresentaram diferenças significativas no nível taxonômico estudado.

  19. Space Radar Image of Bahia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This is a color composite image of southern Bahia, Brazil, centered at 15.22 degree south latitude and 39.07 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 38th orbit of Earth on October 2, 1994. The image covers an area centered over the Una Biological Reserve, one the largest protected areas in northeastern Brazil. The 7,000-hectare reserve is administered by the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and is part of the larger Atlantic coastal forest, a narrow band of rain forest extending along the eastern coast of Brazil. The Atlantic coastal forest of southern Bahia is one of the world's most threatened and diverse ecosystems. Due to widespread settlement, only 2 to 5 percent of the original forest cover remains. Yet the region still contains an astounding variety of plants and animals, including a large number of endemic species. More than half of the region's tree species and 80 percent of its animal species are indigenous and found nowhere else on Earth. The Una Reserve is also the only federally protected habitat for the golden-headed lion tamarin, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkey and many other endangered species. In the past few years, scientists from Brazilian and international conservation organizations have coordinated efforts to study the biological diversity of this region and to develop practical and economically viable options for preserving the remaining primary forests in southern Bahia. The shuttle imaging radar is used in this study to identify various land uses and vegetation types, including remaining patches of primary forest, cabruca forest (cacao planted in the understory of the native forest), secondary forest, pasture and coastal mangrove. Standard remote-sensing technology that relies on light reflected from the forest canopy cannot accurately distinguish between cabruca and undisturbed forest. Optical remote sensing is also

  20. Space of Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Wheeler emphasized the study of Superspace - the space of 3-geometries on a spatial manifold of fixed topology. This is a configuration space for GR; knowledge of configuration spaces is useful as regards dynamics and QM.In this Article I consider furthmore generalized configuration spaces to all levels within the conventional `equipped sets' paradigm of mathematical structure used in fundamental Theoretical Physics. This covers A) the more familiar issue of topology change in the sense of topological manifolds (tied to cobordisms), including via pinched manifolds. B) The less familiar issue of not regarding as fixed the yet deeper levels of structure: topological spaces themselves (and their metric space subcase), collections of subsets and sets. Isham has previously presented quantization schemes for a number of these. I consider some classical preliminaries for this program, aside from the most obvious (classical dynamics for each). Rather, I provide I) to all levels Relational and Background Independence ...

  1. Characterization of Brazilian Bentonite Organoclays as sorbents of petroleum-derived fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bertagnolli

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work focused on preparing and characterizing Brazilian bentonite clay through the use of quaternary ammonium salt so as to apply it as a sorbent for petroleum-derived fuels. Bentonite clay was organophilizated by the intercalation of quaternary ammonium salts such as cetyl-pyridinium chloride and benzalkonium chloride. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, N2 physisorption and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The clay similarity with petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline and diesel oil were defined by sorption and swelling tests. The increase in basal spacing and the appearance of absorption bands related to the CH2 and CH3 groups confirm the efficiency of Brazilian organoclays. Removal percentages between 50 and 60 for benzene, toluene and xylene indicate the potential of organoclay in the remediation of areas contaminated by petroleum-derived fuels.

  2. Internet, the press and Brazilian elections: agenda-setting on real time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra ALDÉ

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This research paper broaches the relations between the electoral campaigns of the main presidential candidates to the 2002 Brazilian elections and the Internet, by analyzing the coverage of political agenda originated by the campaign official websites on the digital and paper versions of the national daily newspapers Jornal do Brasil and O Globo. This particular campaign was the first Brazilian electoral occasion in which Internet played a significant role as an efficient media; our analysis reveals a good example of the strategic use of the web to provoke real-time news, which ended up amplified by printed media, strengthening attacks which would otherwise not gain such a space or repercussion.

  3. Discussing the Life of the Others: Doing Ethnography in the Brazilian Big Brother Fan Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Campanella

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present some of the initial results of ethnographic research conducted in early 2008 with the online fan community of the Brazilian Big Brother (BBB. After a brief introduction to some of the challenges faced by ethnographic work on television audiences in the last couple of decades, the current piece will explore some of the main characteristics constituting this new social space. Beyond the gossiping, and the more immediate talks about behaviors and game strategies of the Big Brother housemates, these forums sometimes trigger exchanges about Brazilian society at large, and the role of television broadcasting in general. Nonetheless, a closer inspection reveals how the debates found in the community are themselves permeated by the participants' struggle for status.

  4. Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture Literature on the periphery of capitalism: Brazilian theory, Canadian culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Szeman

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil and Canada in their respective attempts to create genuine national cultures. As in many postcolonial situations, the problem of creating an authentic culture is directly related to the sense that postcolonial culture is necessarily imitative and belated. In Misplaced Ideas, Roberto Schwarz exposes the hidden class character of the problem of cultural authenticity in Brazil, and in so doing, shows that the trauma of national-cultural identity merely reflects the contradictory structural position of Brazil’s postcolonial elite. Using Schwarz’s insights to explore the Canadian situation, the author shows that the same forces are at work in Canada. Though the crisis of a lack of an authentic Canadian culture has recently been surmounted as a result of the apparent international success of Canadian culture (especially literary fiction, that author cautions that this “success” story hides the class basis of Canadian culture in both its belated and isochronic phases (the latter being the moment when cultural belatedness is overcome. Making use of Brazilian theory to examine problems in Canadian culture allows us to see that Canadian modernity, long thought to be simply a derivative of the UK and USA, has similarities with Brazilian modernity that are essential to understanding the space and place Canada occupies in globalization. In order to get past the blind spots that have developed in contemporary postcolonial theory, it is essential to seek out complementarities and solidarities in different national situations and in different modernities. This essay undertakes this task by exploring the homologous situations faced in Brazil

  5. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  6. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  7. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  8. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  9. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  10. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  11. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  12. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  13. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  14. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  15. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  16. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  17. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  18. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.

  19. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  20. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  1. Estimating Timber Depreciation in the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Ronaldo Seroa da Motta; Claudio Ferraz

    2015-01-01

    This study applies distinct methodological forest accounting approaches, following Vincent and Hartwick (1997) lines, to estimate economic depreciation of timber exploitation in the Brazilian Amazon region. Although our results may be not definitive ones due to data availability problems, this exercise has proved to bring about issues which, though are theoretical and methodologically fully recognised, are not always revealed in other regional studies. High timber stocks, lack of well defined...

  2. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro; Mary Jane Paris Spink

    2014-01-01

    Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, ...

  3. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  4. Current status of the Brazilian AMS program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Anjos, R.M.; Acquadro, J.C.; Santos, G.M.; Macario, K.D.; Liguori Neto, R.; Added, N.; Coimbra, M.M.; Appoloni, C.R.; Castro Faria, N.V. de; Magalhaes, S.D.; Donangelo, R

    2000-10-01

    The status and the near future plans for the Brazilian AMS program are described. The 8 MV Tandem accelerator at the University of Sao Paulo (USP) is ready to measure standard AMS samples. A recently installed 1.7 MV Tandem at the University of Rio de Janeiro will have a {sup 14}C AMS line. Together with external laboratories, we developed some projects on paleoclimatic and maritime geology. During these studies we have also learned sample preparation procedures.

  5. Zirconium oxide obtainment from brazilian zircon concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the experimental results of studies about alkaline melting, acid leaching and sulfation steps for obtention of zirconium oxide and partially stabilized zirconia by yttrium and rare-earth coprecipitation in chlorine medium, starting from the brazilian zircon concentrate. Using statistical methods of factorial design and the Packett-Burman approach, the results are discussed and the optimal conditions of the production steps were determined. (author)

  6. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  7. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  8. Three Papers on Brazilian Trade and Payments

    OpenAIRE

    Eliana A. Cardoso; Rudiger Dornbusch

    1980-01-01

    This report brings together three separate, short papers on problems of Brazilian trade and payments. The following topics are addressed: the determinants of export behavior in the manufactures sector, measures of the real exchange rate and the monetary approach applied to the external balance. In the paper on export behavior of manufactures, we report estimates of an export supply equation. We show that for the period 1959-1977 exports of manufactures were determined by productive capacity, ...

  9. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  10. The growth of Brazilian metrics literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Urbizagástegui Alvarado

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis is presented on the growth of the literature on bibliometrics, informetrics, and scientometrics published in Brazil by Brazilian and foreign authors in the form of journal articles, book chapters, and papers presented at conferences. From 1973 to December 2012, close to 2300 documents were published. This literature is growing exponentially at a rate of 24% per year and doubling in size every 3.2 years.

  11. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  12. Antifungal properties of Brazilian cerrado plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Lúcia Kioko Hasimoto e

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts from leaves of Hyptis ovalifolia, H. suaveolens, H. saxatilis, Hyptidendrum canum, Eugenia uniflora, E. dysenterica, Caryocar brasiliensis and Lafoensia pacari were investigated for their antifungal activity against dermatophytes. The most effective plants were H. ovalifolia and E. uniflora, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most sensitive among the four dermatophytes species evaluated. This study has demonstrated antifungal properties of Brazilian Cerrado plant extracts in "in vitro" assays.

  13. Actualization of the Brazilian nuclear regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has the objective of making public the methodological approach adopted by the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) to create a nuclear normative structure up-dated and coherent. According to the Law 4118/62, 6189/74 and 7781/89, is the attribution the CNEN to establish specific guidelines for nuclear safety and radiological protection, and also do dictate safety norms through the emission of Resolutions

  14. Genetic structuring among silverside fish (Atherinella brasiliensis) populations from different Brazilian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cortinhas, Maria Cristina; Kersanach, Ralf; Proietti, Maíra; Dumont, Luiz Felipe Cestari; D'Incao, Fernando; Lacerda, Ana Luzia F.; Prata, Pedro Sanmartin; Matoso, Daniele Aparecida; Noleto, Rafael Bueno; Ramsdorf, Wanessa; Boni, Talge Aiex; Prioli, Alberto José; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2016-09-01

    Estuaries are dynamic environments, key for the survival of innumerous ecologically or economically important fish species. Among these species are Neotropical silversides (Atherinella brasiliensis), which are resident and abundant in Brazilian estuaries and used as a complementary source of income and food for local communities. To better understand silverside populations in Brazil, we evaluated the genetic diversity, structure and demography of fish sampled at six estuaries from the northeastern to the southern coast, using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA and mitochondrial DNA (D-loop) markers. High haplotype diversities (h ranging from 0.75 to 0.99) were found in all populations except Carapebus, located in Southeast Brazil (h = 0.54). A total of 69 mtDNA haplotypes were found, with Itaparica (Northeast Brazil) and Carapebus presenting only exclusive haplotypes, while some were shared among populations in the South. Strong regional structure was observed, with very high differentiation between Itaparica and Carapebus, as well as among these two populations and the ones from the Southern region (Paranaguá, Conceição, Camacho and Patos). Among southern areas, low/moderate structure was detected. Most populations showed unimodal mismatch distributions indicating recent demographic expansion, while Carapebus presented a multimodal distribution characteristic of a stable or bottlenecked population. Times since possible population expansion were highest in Itaparica (32,500 ya) and Carapebus (29,540 ya), while in the Southern region longest time was observed at Conceição (25,540 ya) and shortest at Patos (9720 ya). In a general manner, haplotype diversities were directly related to times since population expansions; again, Carapebus was the exception, displaying long time since expansion but low diversity, possibly due to a recent bottleneck caused by the isolation and human impacts this lagoon is subject to. Isolation by Distance was significant for Itaparica

  15. Radioactivity in Brazilian Manioc-root Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a nation-wide survey programme aimed at determining the radioactivity in a widely used, inexpensive Brazilian food. Well-established nuclear techniques were employed to measure the specific activities of 226Ra, 228Ra, 40K, and 137Cs in fifty-six samples of manioc-root flour gathered in 20 Brazilian states. Whereas the activities for 40K were much the same as those found in other vegetables, the activities of radium proved to be in significant amounts: 0.2-7.2 Bq.kg-1 for 226Ra, and 0.3-34 Bq.kg-1 for 228Ra. Annual effective doses caused by the ingestion of manioc flour were also assessed taking into account the diet figures available for ten Brazilian states. For the adult public of those states, the radium (226Ra + 228Ra) present in manioc will be responsible for average doses ranging from 3 to 106 μSv.y-1. However, low-income people living in the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Ceara and Paraiba (northeast Brazil) could receive doses in the range from 28 to 893 μSv.yr-1. (author)

  16. Indoor Air Quality in Brazilian Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia R. Jurado

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the indoor air quality in Brazilian universities by comparing thirty air-conditioned (AC (n = 15 and naturally ventilated (NV (n = 15 classrooms. The parameters of interest were indoor carbon dioxide (CO2, temperature, relative humidity (RH, wind speed, viable mold, and airborne dust levels. The NV rooms had larger concentration of mold than the AC rooms (1001.30 ± 125.16 and 367.00 ± 88.13 cfu/m3, respectively. The average indoor airborne dust concentration exceeded the Brazilian standards (<80 µg/m3 in both NV and AC classrooms. The levels of CO2 in the AC rooms were significantly different from the NV rooms (1433.62 ± 252.80 and 520.12 ± 37.25 ppm, respectively. The indoor air quality in Brazilian university classrooms affects the health of students. Therefore, indoor air pollution needs to be considered as an important public health problem.

  17. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  18. Health practices and expectations of Brazilians in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Teresa Eliot

    2007-01-01

    This ethnographic examination of Brazilian immigrant perspectives regarding healthcare in the U.S. included participant observation and interviews with 42 Brazilian transnationals. Data were analyzed using Agar's approach. Findings show that Brazilians accessed allopathic care only as a last resort after self-treatment strategies failed, that they tended to feel that diagnostic testing, referrals, and symptom-relieving prescriptions were imperative to good care, and that they expected more personal warmth, continuity of care, and more affectionate verbal and nonverbal cues than their U.S. clinicians provided. Recommendations to improve quality of healthcare to Brazilian transnationals in the USA are discussed. PMID:19172985

  19. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  20. Southern (In)hospitality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of "The Status of Race Equity and Diversity in Public Higher Education in the South," an analysis of trends in admissions, enrollment and completion at public colleges and universities in the 19 Southern and border states that maintained segregated systems of higher education in 1954. While work on the project…

  1. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  2. A expansão do "feminino" no espaço público brasileiro: novelas de televisão nas décadas de 1970 e 80 The expansion of the "feminine" in the Brazilian public space: television soap operas of the 1970's and 80's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Império Hamburger

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O texto retoma a literatura crítica e múltipla que, a partir de diversas perspectivas teóricas, com ênfase em diferentes períodos históricos e países, trata das relações entre meios de comunicação de massa e representações das relações de gênero. Essa revisão bibliográfica seleciona trabalhos sugestivos para a discussão que se segue sobre as principais convenções das novelas brasileiras, gênero de programação que articula elementos do documentário e da ficção, tratando da nação em termos melodramáticos. Análise de títulos relevantes exibidos nos anos 70 e 80 sugere que novelas pautaram o espaço público brasileiro em termos que expandem o domínio convencionalmente definido como feminino.This paper revisits the literature on media and gender studies in search of works that help to discuss the case of Brazilian soap operas. A series of references coming from different theoretical perspectives, with emphasis in different countries and historical periods, bring up ideas and concepts that approach the contemporary desire to connect, to participate and to interact in terms conventionally associated to the female domain. Examples from specific soap operas suggest the ways in which these prime time daily soaps blend documentary and fiction conventions and treat the Brazilian nation in melodramatic terms. In doing so, soap operas have expanded what was conventionally treated as the female domain.

  3. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. I. The first notices about Brazilian Diptera (16th century. This paper presents a historical resume of the first notices about Brazilian Diptera during the 16th century, given by Francisco Pires in 1552 (the oldest mention known, José de Anchieta, Leonardo do Valle, Pero de Magalhães de Gandavo, Jean de Léry and Gabriel Soares de Souza, ending with Fernão Cardim, who made the last mentions of Brazilian Diptera in that century.

  4. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Chofakian, Christiane Borges do Nascimento; de Moraes, Ana Júlia Pantoja; Azevedo, George Dantas; dos Santos, Karine Ferreira; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country). Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill) has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI) considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2) of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9), males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2), studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4), and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4), mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4) reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6), females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5) and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5). Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7), with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6), and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0) and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6) from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9) and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8), and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  5. ERICA: sexual initiation and contraception in Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luiza Vilela Borges

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the prevalence of sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse of Brazilian adolescents, according to sociodemographic features. METHODS The data were obtained from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA, a national school-based cross-sectional study. We included 74,589 adolescents from 32 geographic strata (27 capitals and five sets of municipalities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of each of the five macro-regions of the Country. Information on sexual initiation and contraceptive use at the last sexual intercourse (male condom and oral contraceptive pill has been used. We have estimated prevalence and confidence intervals (95%CI considering sample weights according to sex, age, type of school, residence status, macro-region and capitals. RESULTS We observed that 28.1% (95%CI 27.0-29.2 of the adolescents had already initiated sexual life, with higher prevalence among those aged 17 years (56.4%, 95%CI 53.9-58.9, males (33.5%, 95%CI 31.8-35.2, studying at public schools (29.9%, 95%CI 28.5-31.4, and from the Northern region (33.9%, 95%CI 32.3-35.4, mainly from Macapa, Manaus, and Rio Branco. Among those who had started their sexual life, 82.3% (95%CI 81.1-83.4 reported the use of contraceptive methods at the last intercourse, and the prevalence of use was higher among adolescents aged 17 years (85.3%, 95%CI 82.7-87.6, females (85.2%, 95%CI 83.8-86.5 and those living in the Southern region (85.9%, 95%CI 82.9-88.5. Male condom was used by 68.8% (95%CI 66.9-70.7, with no difference by type of school or macro-regions; the contraceptive pill was used by 13.4% (CI95% 12.2-14.6, and more frequently used among women (24.7%, 95%CI 22.5-27,0 and 17-year-old adolescents (20.8%, 95%CI 18.2-23.6 from urban settings(13.7%, 95%CI 12.5-14.9 and from the Southern region (22.6%, 95%CI 19.0-26.8, and less often in the Northern region. CONCLUSIONS ERICA’s data analysis on sexuality and

  6. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    CERN Document Server

    Arridge, C S; Achilleos, N; Bogdanova, Y V; Bunce, E J; Cowley, S W H; Fazakerley, A N; Khurana, K K; Lamy, L; Leisner, J S; Roussos, E; Russell, C T; Zarka, P; Coates, A J; Dougherty, M K; Jones, G H; Krimigis, S M; Krupp, N

    2016-01-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth have enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989 but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly studying the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and iii) double cusp morphologies are...

  7. Bathymetric and regional changes in benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the deep Eastern Brazilian margin, SW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardino, Angelo Fraga; Berenguer, Vanessa; Ribeiro-Ferreira, Venina P.

    2016-05-01

    Deep-sea continental slopes have valuable mineral and biological resources in close proximity to diverse, undersampled and fragile marine benthic ecosystems. The eastern Brazilian Continental Margin (19.01°S to 21.06°S, 37.88°W to 40.22°W) is an important economic region for both fishing and oil industries, but is poorly understood with respect to the structure of the soft-sediment benthic fauna, their regional distribution and their bathymetric patterns. To identify spatial and temporal patterns of benthic macrofaunal assemblages on the slope (400 to 3000 m), the Espirito Santo Basin Assessment Project (AMBES, coordinated by Cenpes-Petrobras) sampled 42 stations across the Brazilian Eastern Slope during both Summer 2012 and Winter 2013. We found a significant decrease in macrofaunal abundance at the 400 m isobath along the slope near the northern region of the Espirito Santo Basin, suggesting benthic responses to upwelling events towards the south in Campos Basin and southern Espirito Santo Basin. The taxonomic diversity and assemblage composition also changed significantly across depth zones with mid-slope peaks of diversity at 1000-1300 m. In general, macrofaunal assemblages were strongly related to slope depth, suggesting a strong influence of productivity gradients and water mass distribution on this oligotrophic margin. Sediment grain size was marginally important to macrofaunal composition on the upper slope. In general, macrofaunal assemblages on the slope of Espirito Santo Basin are similar to other areas of the SE Brazilian margin, but regional changes in response to productivity and depth need to be considered for management strategies in the face of increasing economic activities off-shore.

  8. The Brazilian Research and Teaching Center in Biomedicine and Aerospace Biomedical Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomano, T; Falcao, P F; Dalmarco, G; Martinelli, L; Cardoso, R; Santos, M A; Sparenberg, A

    2008-01-01

    The recent engagement of Brazil in the construction and utilization of the International Space Station has motivated several Brazilian research institutions and universities to establish study centers related to Space Sciences. The Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS) is no exception. Method: The University initiated in 1993 the first degree course training students to operate commercial aircraft in South America (the School of Aeronautical Sciences. A further step was the decision to build the first Brazilian laboratory dedicated to the conduct of experiments in ground-based microgravity simulation. Established in 1998, the Microgravity Laboratory, which was located in the Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas (IPCT), was supported by the Schools of Medicine, Aeronautical Sciences and Electrical Engineering/Biomedical Engineering. At the end of 2006, the Microgravity Laboratory became a Center and was transferred to the School of Engineering. Results: The principal activities of the Microgravity Centre are the development of research projects related to human physiology before, during and after ground-based microgravity simulation and parabolic flights, to aviation medicine in the 21st century and to aerospace biomedical engineering. Conclusion: The history of Brazilian, and why not say worldwide, space science should unquestionably go through PUCRS. As time passes, the pioneering spirit of our University in the aerospace area has become undeniable. This is due to the group of professionals, students, technicians and staff in general that have once worked or are still working in the Center of Microgravity, a group of faculty and students that excel in their undeniable technical-scientific qualifications. PMID:19048090

  9. Variability of streamflow under climate change: A study for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidoro, Jorge; Tiezzi, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Human activity is entirely dependent on water resources, thus highly vulnerable to the effects of rainfall variability. This work aims to analyse the impact of rainfall variability on streamflow for 26 Brazilian large basins and sub-catchments. Records form 83-years of observations (1931-2013) were compared with the results of simulations for the 2011-2100 (90-year) period. Two rainfall-runoff hydrological models were used for the numerical simulations: Soil Moisture Accounting Procedure-SMAP (process-based) and Stochastic Linear Model-MEL (stochastic). Very significant impacts were found, namely the increase in streamflow in the Southern basins that may reach almost 100%, while in the Northern and Northeastern basins, streamflow may decrease about 90%. These major changes can aggravate the history of flooding in the Southern basins and of droughts in several regions of the North and Northeast basins.

  10. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  11. a Brazilian Vulnerability Index to Natural Disasters of Drought - in the Context of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Debortoli, N. S.; Hirota, M.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts are characterized as one of the main types of natural disasters that occur in Brazil. During the 1991-2012, droughts affected more than 14 million Brazilians, so that the concern for the following decades is about the potential impacts triggered by climate change. To analyze the vulnerability of the Brazilian municipalities to drought disasters, we have assessed the effects of climate change to droughts until the end of 21th century. A composite index was created based on three different dimensions: i) Exposure, represented by climate anomalies related to the drought process, such as changes in accumulated rainfall averages, interannual variability of rainfall, and the frequency and magnitude of severe droughts (measured by the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index); ii) Sensitivity, encompassing socioeconomic, demographic, land use and water management data; iii) Adaptive Capacity, consisting of socioeconomic and institutional data from Brazilian municipalities, such as the Human Development Index (HDI), social inequality (Gini index) and illiteracy rate. The climate variables used in this study are results from simulations of the Regional Climate Model Eta (with a downscaling of 20km spatial resolution) nested with two global climate models (HadGEM ES and MIROC 5) and was provided by National Institute for Space Research. The baseline period was 1961-1990 and future periods was 2011-2040; 2041-2070 and 2071-2099. For the simulations of future climate it was used the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. All variables used in this study was handled, exploited and related in a Geographic Information System (GIS). The methodology allowed the identification of vulnerability hotspots, the targeting of adaptation strategies and the development of public policy to minimize the potential impacts of future droughts. The final results (see attached image) indicate that the most vulnerable regions are located in

  12. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A [GIScCE, South Dakota State University (United States); Souza, Carlos M Jr; Sales, Marcio H [Instituto do Homen e Meio Ambiente da Amazonia-IMAZON (Brazil)

    2011-10-15

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  13. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, S N; Otaguiri, K K; Kashima, S; Covas, D T

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil. PMID:27143174

  14. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça Dantas, Gisele Pires; Meyer, Diogo; Godinho, Raquel; Ferrand, Nuno; Morgante, João Stenghel

    2012-12-01

    Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase) and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen). The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded. PMID:23271950

  15. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Slavov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil.

  16. Molecular characterization and physical localization of highly repetitive DNA sequences from Brazilian Alstroemeria species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, A G J; Kamstra, S A; de Jeu, M J; Visser, R G F

    2002-01-01

    Highly repetitive DNA sequences were isolated from genomic DNA libraries of Alstroemeria psittacina and A. inodora. Among the repetitive sequences that were isolated, tandem repeats as well as dispersed repeats could be discerned. The tandem repeats belonged to a family of interlinked Sau3A subfragments with sizes varying from 68-127 bp, and constituted a larger HinfI repeat of approximately 400 bp. Southern hybridization showed a similar molecular organization of the tandem repeats in each of the Brazilian Alstroemeria species tested. None of the repeats hybridized with DNA from Chilean Alstroemeria species, which indicates that they are specific for the Brazilian species. In-situ localization studies revealed the tandem repeats to be localized in clusters on the chromosomes of A. inodora and A. psittacina: distal hybridization sites were found on chromosome arms 2PS, 6PL, 7PS, 7PL and 8PL, interstitial sites on chromosome arms 2PL, 3PL, 4PL and 5PL. The applicability of the tandem repeats for cytogenetic analysis of interspecific hybrids and their role in heterochromatin organization are discussed. PMID:12296521

  17. Overview of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in regards to the Brazilian epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavov, S N; Otaguiri, K K; Kashima, S; Covas, D T

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, belongs to the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. ZIKV was initially isolated in 1947 from a sentinel monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda. Little clinical importance was attributed to ZIKV, once only few symptomatic cases were reported in some African and Southeast Asiatic countries. This situation changed in 2007, when a large outbreak was registered on the Yap Island, Micronesia, caused by the Asian ZIKV lineage. Between 2013 and 2014, ZIKV spread explosively and caused many outbreaks in different islands of the Southern Pacific Ocean and in 2015 autochthonous transmission was reported in Brazil. Currently, Brazil is the country with the highest number of ZIKV-positive cases in Latin America. Moreover, for the first time after the discovery of ZIKV, the Brazilian scientists are studying the possibility for the virus to cause severe congenital infection related to microcephaly and serious birth defects due to the time-spatial coincidence of the alarming increase of newborns with microcephaly and the Brazilian ZIKV epidemic. The present review summarizes recent information for ZIKV epidemiology, clinical picture, transmission, diagnosis and the consequences of this emerging virus in Brazil.

  18. Genetic variability in mitochondrial and nuclear genes of Larus dominicanus (Charadriiformes, Laridae from the Brazilian coast

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    Gisele Pires de Mendonça Dantas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several phylogeographic studies of seabirds have documented low genetic diversity that has been attributed to bottleneck events or individual capacity for dispersal. Few studies have been done in seabirds on the Brazilian coast and all have shown low genetic differentiation on a wide geographic scale. The Kelp Gull is a common species with a wide distribution in the Southern Hemisphere. In this study, we used mitochondrial and nuclear markers to examine the genetic variability of Kelp Gull populations on the Brazilian coast and compared this variability with that of sub-Antarctic island populations of this species. Kelp Gulls showed extremely low genetic variability for mitochondrial markers (cytb and ATPase and high diversity for a nuclear locus (intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen. The intraspecific evolutionary history of Kelp Gulls showed that the variability found in intron 7 of the β-fibrinogen gene was compatible with the variability expected under neutral evolution but suggested an increase in population size during the last 10,000 years. However, none of the markers revealed evidence of a bottleneck population. These findings indicate that the recent origin of Kelp Gulls is the main explanation for their nuclear diversity, although selective pressure on the mtDNA of this species cannot be discarded.

  19. Brazilian distribution of Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae, a common parasite of sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra

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    Sandro Marques

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Amblyomma varium, commonly known in Brazil as the "carrapato-gigante-da-preguiça" (sloth's giant tick is found from southern Central America to Argentina. The present study adds information on the geographical distribution of A. varium, as well as on their hosts, based on material deposited in the main Brazilian collections and on the available literature. Eighty-two vials, containing 191 adult specimens, deposited in five Acari collections between 1930 and 2001, were examined. These vials included data on the host and collection localities. The biology of A. varium is unknown. However it is known that, during the adult stage, the tick presents a high host specificity and is found almost exclusively on the sloths Bradypus tridactylus, B. variegatus, B.torquatus (Bradypodidae, Choloepus hoffmanni and C. didactylus (Megalonychidae. Based on the material examined, the states of Rondônia, Amazonas, Bahia and Alagoas are newly assigned to geographic distribution of A. varium in Brazil.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF TRUST IN THE CONSTITUTION OF A BRAZILIAN COOPERATIVE OF SELECTIVE WASTE PICKERS

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    Dayanne Marciane Gonçalves

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the Brazilian public policy started to encourage solidarity economy in 2003, the number of projects and enterprises in this sector has steadily increased. Embeddedness has contributed to the understanding of organizational phenomena of solidarity economy and cooperatives. The aim of this study was to understand the influence of trust, from the perspective of Mark Granovetter’s social networks, on the constitution of a cooperative of urban recyclable waste pickers in southern Brazil between 1996 until early 2012, considered the foundation period. We used the qualitative method with a historical approach to social relationships and content analysis. Possible influences of trust were analysed based on the economic, social and political history of the cooperative. Among the main results, we highlight the existence of social relations before the constitution, defined by trust due to family identity and reputation built over time.

  1. The modest but growing Brazilian presence in psychiatric, psychobiological and mental health research: assessment of the 1998-2002 period

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    Bressan R.A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present survey was to assess the Brazilian scientific production in psychiatry, psychobiology, and mental health during the 1998-2002 period. The universities' graduate programs concentrate the vast majority of the scientific production in Brazil. We assessed the annual reports from the graduate programs to the Brazilian Ministry of Education concerning master's and doctoral theses and the articles published in journals indexed by the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI. There are nine Master's and Doctoral graduate programs dedicated to research in psychiatry, neuropsychiatry, psychobiology, and mental health in the country, seven being located in southern states. During the 5-year period, from 1998 to 2002, 186 students received their doctorate degree (37/year. The programs published 637 articles in journals indexed by ISI, the majority of them in journals with an impact factor higher than 2. The research advisors' productivity varied among graduate programs, ranging from 0.6 to 2.0 articles per year in ISI-indexed journals. Despite the substantial barriers faced by the Brazilian scientific community (mainly financial and writing difficulties, Brazil's scientific mental health production is on the rise. The number of articles published in ISI-indexed journals has doubled without a significant increase in the number of graduate theses, suggesting that there was an improvement in both the quality of the scientific production and the productivity of the graduate programs. Based on these data, it is reasonable to predict a tendency to an increase in production over the next few years.

  2. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  3. [Interconnection between the history of Brazilian nursing education and the ecosystem thoughts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Danusa Fernandes; de Siqueira, Hedi Crecencia Heckler

    2013-01-01

    This paper aimed to recover, through a theoretical-reflexive, a brief history of graduate nursing in Brazil, and its relationship with ecosystem thoughts. In the discussion one tried to reflect on the history of Brazilian nursing perspective grounded in the Thought Ecosystem. The reflection allowed to cover the meant that the higher education systemic element provides with the space in which it operates and how it processes its construction and modifications through the principles of ecosystem integration, cooperation, interrelation, interdependence and influence among both.

  4. Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are important causes of death in Brazil. Objective: To assess proportional mortality (PM) due to HF and IHD as underlying causes stratified by sex and age groups in the Brazilian geoeconomic regions from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Data from death certificates were obtained in the DATASUS site under the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes, 10th Revision: 1) from chapter IX: I20 to I24 for acute IHD, I25 for chronic IHD, and I50 for HF; and 2) from chapter XVIII, for ill-defined causes (IDC). Results: Proportional mortality due to HF increased with age in both sexes and all regions, the highest percentages being found among elderly women. Among men, the highest percentages were observed in the West-Central region up to the ninth decade, but, among the eldest individuals, the highest percentages were identified in the Southern region. Among women, the regions did not differ up to the age group of 70-79 years, although the West-Central region took the lead from 50 to 79 years; however, from the age of 80 years on, the Southern region showed the highest PM due to HF. Proportional mortality due to acute IHD in all Brazilian regions and in both sexes increased up to the age group of 60-69 years, from which it decreased. Among men, the Southeastern region had the highest percentages in the age group of 50-59 years, while women had lower PM due to acute IHD than men in all regions. In both sexes, PM due to chronic IHD increased with age in the Southern and Southeastern regions, which did not happen in the others, while the Southern region had the highest rate of all regions for all age groups. Conclusions: Regional differences were more prominent at more advanced ages, especially when deaths due to IDC were excluded. PMID:27533259

  5. Study on the blackbird (Agelaius ruficapillus Viellot- Emberizidae, Aves) in the rice production areas of Southern Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil : basis for a population control management program

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno da Silva, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rice is one of the main components of the Brazilian diet. The State of Rio Grande do Sul produces approximately 4,6 millions tons per year - more than 54% of total Brazilian rice production. The average production in Southern Brazil is 5,2 tons per ha, with yields of 10 tons per ha being recorded. The rice production sector of Rio Grande do Sul is responsible for 240.000 jobs [production, industrialization and commercialization] and contributes 1,6 billion US dollar to Brazils' economy per ye...

  6. Brazilian Adaptation of the Woodcock-Johnson III Cognitive Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Nunes, Carlos Sancineto; Schelini, Patricia Waltz; Pasian, Sonia Regina; Homsi, Silvia Vertoni; Moretti, Lucia; Anache, Alexandra Ayach

    2010-01-01

    An adaptation of the standard battery of Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III) for Brazilian children and youth was investigated. The sample was composed of 1094 students (54 percent girls), ages 7-17, living in Sao Paulo state (91 percent). Items from Brazilian school books as well as from the WJ-III Spanish version…

  7. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  8. Effectiveness of business strategies in Brazilian textile industry

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Sousa Batista; João Veríssimo de Oliveira Lisboa; Mário Gomes Augusto; Fátima Evaneide Barbosa de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This research analyses how the interaction between strategy capabilities, strategy types, strategy formulation quality and implementation capability affect organizational performance in Brazilian textiles companies. This article proposes and tests a conceptual framework, using a structural equation modeling of a set of 211 valid questionnaires on Brazilian textiles firms. The results support links between focus strategy and marketing capabilities, and between cost leadership strategy...

  9. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  10. [The Brazilian Nursing Congress: sixty years of history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Joel Rolim; Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Ramos, Flávia Regina Souza; Cordova, Fernanda Peixoto; Amaral, Nilton Vieira do

    2009-01-01

    This study objective is to describe the issues associated to the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and its course between 1947 and 2007; and to discuss the implementation of this strategy by the Brazilian Nursing Association (ABEn). It is a historical survey with documentary research. The documentary analysis allowed reaching the following categories: the origin of the Brazilian Nursing Congress and the congresses as the political nursing arena. We have concluded that the Brazilian Nursing Congresses have reflected the construction of the Brazilian Nursing history, aiming at stimulating the critical consideration on the professional problems and investing in the production of knowledge, addressing the growing complexity and quality of the professional practice. PMID:19597675

  11. The Brazilian external individual monitoring scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Silva, Claudio R. da; Cunha, Paulo G. da, E-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, E-mail: cribeiro@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pcunha@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In order to improve radiation protection it is necessary to have knowledge of the occupational radiation dose levels in all radiation facilities. This information comes from individual monitoring services, which are responsible for measuring and providing information about workers' radiation exposure. In 1981, the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) of Brazil starts to develop a comprehensive system for regulation and storage of occupational radiation dose. This paper starts with an overview of the evolution of the Brazilian authorization and data storage system for external individual monitoring. It starts with a rule for authorization of all Brazilian photon individual monitoring services and the obligation for them to send the measured dose to CNEN. Up to now there is no regulation for neutron individual monitoring. The aim of this paper is to present the current scenario of the Brazilian external monitoring system, reinforcing its importance and remaining problems. The number of monitored workers greatly increases every year, having surpassed 150,000 people monitored. The stored data show that the mean annual occupational external dose is decreasing from 2.4 mSv in 1987 to about 0.6 mSv, in 2012, but there is still some not realistic very high dose measured (higher than 100 mSv), without investigation. About 80% of the annual dose values are lower than the monthly register level. As expected, the higher real photon doses are found in Nuclear Medicine, Industrial Radiology and Interventional Radiology. All recorded annual neutron dose values are lower than 20 mSv. (author)

  12. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plascak, Joao Antonio; Rosas, Alexandres

    2014-03-01

    This special issue includes invited and selected articles of the VIIth Brazilian Meeting on Simulational Physics (BMSP), held in João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, from the 5th to 10th August, 2013. This is the seventh such meeting, and the first one to have contributed papers published in the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The previous meetings in the BMSP series took place in the mountains of Minas Gerais and in the region of the Brazilian Pantanal. Now, for the first time, the Meeting was held in the pleasant shores of João Pessoa, the capital of the Paraíba state. The VIIth BMSP brought together more than 50 researchers from all over the world for a vibrant and productive period. As in the previous meetings, the talks and posters highlighted recent advances in applications, algorithms, and implementations of computer simulation methods for the study of condensed matter, materials, out of equilibrium, quantum and biologically motivated systems. We are sure that this meeting series will continue to provide a valuable venue for people working in simulational physics to exchange ideas and discuss the state of art of this always expanding field. We are very glad to realize this special issue, and are most appreciative to the editors of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series for making this publication possible. We are grateful for the outstanding work of the João Pessoa team, for the financial support of the Brazilian agencies CNPq, CAPES, FAPESQ, and of the Federal Universities UFPB and UFMG. At last, but not least, we would like to acknowledge all of the authors of this special issue for their contributions. João Antonio Plascak Alexandre Rosas Guest Editors Conference photograph

  13. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

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    Andrea Nastri de Luca Batista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of São Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees & Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia.

  14. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

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    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor exploitation. Make clear our project of society and education, as resistance movements to the survival of capitalism is a necessity in building movements of counter-hegemony.

  15. Net Carbon Balance for the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    The general purpose of this research was to use recent satellite-based estimates of deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia to calculate the net flux of carbon associated with deforestation and subsequent regrowth of secondary forests. We have made such a calculation, in the process comparing two estimates of deforestation and two estimates of biomass for the region. Both estimates were based on the RADAMBRASIL survey. They differed in the equations used to convert wood-volumes to total biomass. The net flux of carbon from changes in land use seems to vary from year to year, perhaps by as much as a factor of 4.

  16. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

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    Rommel Noce

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1 was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic inrelation to income.

  17. Historical origins of Brazilian relative backwardness

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    ALEXANDRE RANDS BARROS

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper relies on some data to identify the 19th century as the major period in which Brazil economy lagged behind some chosen benchmarking countries, as the USA, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and some European periphery countries. To identify the reasons for this an exercise using immigration data was used to make a decomposition of the sources of growth of the proportion of the USA per capita GDP to the Brazilian one. The results indicate that the imported human capital was responsible for 59% to 88% of this total growth between 1820 and 1900.

  18. The Argentine-Brazilian fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the Argentine-Brazilian Fast Reactor Programme and gives reasons for the decision of a binational venture. The work carried out by both countries is described, showing how they complement each other, with the corresponding saving of resources. The main objectives of the Programme and tentative schedules in three progressing integrating stages are given and the present nuclear know-how in each country is identified as a good starting point. The paper also gives some details regarding the economical and human resources involved. (author). 1 graph

  19. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Pilar; Duarte, Maria Eugênia L.; Kato, Mary Aizawa

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: a) to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65) for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs), and b) to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP), the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. T...

  20. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle

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    Marleide da Mota Gomes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling".

  1. Women neurologist: a worldwide and Brazilian struggle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2011-10-01

    The main aim of this paper was to present some pioneer women neurologist, their struggle to pursue their career and the barriers mainly encountered at the beginning of their professional lives. It was also presented the progressive increasing of the feminine participation in medicine and in the neurology with study based on data of the School of Medicine of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and Brazilian Academy of Neurology. Their composition were analyzed according to gender, class and academic rank. In spite of this feminization, there is lack of a women's parallel advancement into leadership positions despite no visible barriers ("glass ceiling").

  2. Biological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants

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    Alves Tânia Maria de Almeida

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we screened sixty medicinal plant species from the Brazilian savanna ("cerrado" that could contain useful compounds for the control of tropical diseases. The plant selection was based on existing ethnobotanic information and interviews with local healers. Plant extracts were screened for: (a molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, (b toxicity to brine shrimp (Artemia salina L., (c antifungal activity in the bioautographic assay with Cladosporium sphaerospermum and (d antibacterial activity in the agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Forty-two species afforded extracts that showed some degree of activity in one or more of these bioassays.

  3. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic. PMID:318307

  4. Brazilian keratin hair treatment: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weathersby, Courtney; McMichael, Amy

    2013-06-01

    Brazilian keratin treatments are widely available products that are used by women all over the world to straighten hair. Marketers of these products claim that the keratin treatments render naturally curly hair more manageable and frizz-free while enhancing color and shine, giving the hair a healthier appearance. Although widely used, there have been virtually no reports of adverse side effects. Unfortunately, many of the products that are applied by salon professionals contain formaldehyde or its derivatives and are being marketed as safe. PMID:23725308

  5. In-time and in-space tandem mass spectrometry to determine the metabolic profiling of flavonoids in a typical sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar from Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crupi, Pasquale; Genghi, Rosalinda; Antonacci, Donato

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analytical methodology, based on 'in-time' and 'in-space' tandem mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, to identify and quantify flavonoid compounds in a typical Italian sweet cherry cultivar (cv. Ferrovia). Five anthocyanins, four flavan-3-ols and nine flavonols were determined by means of hyphenated high-performance liquid chromatography - multi-stage MS (HPLC-MS(n)) analyses (MS(n) up to MS(4)), among which quercetin-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-coumaroylglucoside were tentatively identified in sweet cherries for the first time. Ultrafast HPLC and tandem MS (UHPLC-MS/MS) analyses through multiple reaction monitoring experiments showed that cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside were the main anthocyanins of cv. Ferrovia at maturity. Moreover, consistent levels of catechin and epicatechin as well as quercetin-3-O-rutinoside and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside were also found. Because flavonoids have been ascribed as potential health-promoting compounds, gathered findings provide new insight into the knowledge of the quali-quantitative profile of these phytochemicals into a widespread fruit such as sweet cherry. PMID:25303392

  6. Natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii (Squamata, Leiosauridae in southern Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Rautenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the natural history of the lizard Enyalius iheringii Boulenger, 1885, as well as other tropical lizards, are rare. In this study, some aspects of the natural history of this endemic species from the Atlantic forest are reported in areas of Vale do Itajaí, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Twenty individuals were found, of which 18 were collected. Most of them were found over the vegetation (n=17 and on the ground (n=3. The main defensive strategy displayed was camouflage (n=16. Jumping (n=1, jumping and running (n=1 and running (n=2 were also observed in some individuals. When handled, lizards exhibited mouth wide open, hissing, and occasionally biting, as well as color change in males. Regarding its diet, the numerically most important prey was beetles (Coleoptera, followed by Lepidoptera larvae. Beetles, lepidopteran larvae and spiders were the most frequent food items. Males and females did not differ in size. Three sexually mature females (100-113 mm SVL were found in December and January.

  7. Epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma gondii infection in riverside communities in the Southern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Neto Vitaliano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and other animals worldwide. Information on the prevalence of T. gondii infection is scarce in some regions of Brazil, including riverside communities along the Amazon River basin. M METHODS: The prevalence of T. gondii in 231 people, aged 1-85 years, who were living in four riverside communities along the Purus River, Lábrea, State of Amazonas, Brazil, was determined. Antibodies against T. gondii were assayed using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA kit. The hearts and brains of 50 chickens, which were raised free-range in the communities, were pooled according to the community of origin and bioassayed in mice. The isolates were genotyped using polymorphisms at 12 nuclear markers (SAG1, 5' and 3'-SAG2, alt.SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, Apico and CS3. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence of T. gondii was 56.7% (131/231. IgG antibodies were presented by 117 (89.3% and IgM by 14 (10.7% of the 131 positive individuals. No association between age group and gender with prevalence was observed (chi-square test, p > 0.05; however, the comparison between localities showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii was significantly lower among the individuals living in the Boca do Ituxi (p < 0.05 community. Five isolates of T. gondii were obtained in the mouse bioassay, and genotyping revealed two complete genotypes that had not been described previously and three mixed isolates. CONCLUSIONS: These results support previous findings that T. gondii population genetics are highly diverse in Brazil and that T. gondii infection is active in these riverside communities.

  8. Birds of two protected areas in the southern range of the Brazilian Araucaria forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Franz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 70% of threatened birds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, south Brazil, inhabit forest environments. The creation and maintenance of protected areas is one of the most important measures aiming to mitigate these problems. However, the knowledge of the local biodiversity is essential so that these areas can effectively preserve the natural resources. Between 2004 and 2009 we sampled the avifauna in two conservation units in Rio Grande do Sul: Floresta Nacional de Canela (FNC and Parque Natural Municipal da Ronda (PMR, both representative of the Mixed Humid Forest (Araucaria Forest. A total of 224 species was recorded, 116 at FNC and 201 at PMR, ten of which threatened regionally: Pseudastur polionotus, Odontophorus capueira, Patagioenas cayennensis, Amazona pretrei, A. vinacea, Triclaria malachitacea, Campephilus robustus, Grallaria varia, Procnias nudicollis and Sporophila melanogaster. Richness and species composition seem to be related to different stages of forest conservation, to size and connectivity, as well as to the diversity of environments. The better conservation of PMR compared to FNC, allied to its geographic position, results in a richer avifauna, with a larger amount of rare and endangered species, as well as species sensitive to disturbance and endemic to the Atlantic Rainforest. We suggest management actions aiming the conservation and the long-term recovery of natural environments at these sites.

  9. The Eye of the Hurricane: Autoethnography in the Southern Brazilian School Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossle, Fabiano; Molina Neto, Vicente; Molina, Rosane Kreusburg

    2014-01-01

    The article systematizes the results of an autoethnography that aimed at understanding the difficulties of the collective work of teachers, their culture and their experience in the context of a municipal public school in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The autoreflexive exercise showed that urban violence leaves profound marks on the culture of the local…

  10. Genome of Rhizobium sp. UR51a, Isolated from Rice Cropped in Southern Brazilian Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rocheli; Sant'Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Ambrosini, Adriana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. UR51a is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from roots of rice plants, and it presents plant growth-promoting abilities. The nutrient uptake in rice plants inoculated with UR51a was satisfactory. The genome of strain UR51a is composed of 5,233,443-bp and harbors 5,079 coding sequences. PMID:25838497

  11. Genome of Rhizobium sp. UR51a, Isolated from Rice Cropped in Southern Brazilian Fields

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Rocheli; Sant’Anna, Fernando Hayashi; Ambrosini, Adriana; Tadra-Sfeir, Michele; Faoro, Helisson; Pedrosa, Fabio Oliveira; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Passaglia, Luciane M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Rhizobium sp. UR51a is a Gram-negative bacterium isolated from roots of rice plants, and it presents plant growth-promoting abilities. The nutrient uptake in rice plants inoculated with UR51a was satisfactory. The genome of strain UR51a is composed of 5,233,443-bp and harbors 5,079 coding sequences.

  12. Interpreting lineaments in the southern slope of the greater Caucasus (within the Azerbaijan SSR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budagov, B.A.; Aliyev, A.S.; Mikailov, A.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    Faults and block morphostructures of the southern slope of the greater Caucasus are revealed by interpreting space photographs. A plan of lineaments is compiled. Interpretation signs of the most important faults are described.

  13. Forest Understory Fire in the Brazilian Amazon in ENSO and Non-ENSO Years: Area Burned and Committed Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alencar, A.; Nepstad, D.; Ver-Diaz, M. Del. C.

    2004-01-01

    "Understory fires" that burn the floor of standing forests are one of the most important types of forest impoverishment in the Amazon, especially during the severe droughts of El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) episodes. However, we are aware of no estimates of the areal extent of these fires for the Brazilian Amazon and, hence, of their contribution to Amazon carbon fluxes to the atmosphere. We calculated the area of forest understory fires for the Brazilian Amazon region during an El Nino (1998) and a non El Nino (1995) year based on forest fire scars mapped with satellite images for three locations in eastern and southern Amazon, where deforestation is concentrated. The three study sites represented a gradient of both forest types and dry season severity. The burning scar maps were used to determine how the percentage of forest that burned varied with distance from agricultural clearings. These spatial functions were then applied to similar forest/climate combinations outside of the study sites to derive an initial estimate for the Brazilian Amazon. Ninety-one percent of the forest area that burned in the study sites was within the first kilometer of a clearing for the non ENSO year and within the first four kilometers for the ENSO year. The area of forest burned by understory forest fire during the severe drought (ENSO) year (3.9 millions of hectares) was 13 times greater than the area burned during the average rainfall year (0.2 million hectares), and twice the area of annual deforestation rate. Dense forest was, proportionally, the forest area most affected by understory fires during the El Nino year, while understory fires were concentrated in transitional forests during the year of average rainfall. Our estimate of aboveground tree biomass killed by fire ranged from 0.06 Pg to 0.38 Pg during the ENSO and from 0,004 Pg to 0,024 Pg during the non ENSO.

  14. Demand for Life Annuities: a Brazilian Perspective

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    Thalita Amorim Vaz

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Because pension plans have been marketed using outdated technical premises, Brazilian insurance companies find themselves required to identify additional resources to ensure their ability to meet future benefit payments obligations. When calculating the additional amount of this provision, the parameters used are: mortality and disability decrements, the structure of interest rates, financial performance, cancellation fees and conversion rates. The aim of this study is to present the estimation of conversion rates based on a Probit Model. The data for this study was obtained through the transfer of restricted data from the portfolio of a company with relevant activity in the Brazilian insurance market, including a group of 14,511 individuals eligible for retirement in the period between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. The resulting analysis of the data allows us to conclude that two factors — the volume of accumulated reserves and the classification of prices as actuarially fair —increase the propensity of an individual to convert resources upon retirement. In turn, retirement age and the need for liquidity reduce the propensity to convert resources upon retirement.

  15. Brand Personality Dimensions in the Brazilian Context

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    Karlan Muller Muniz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Brands may be perceived as possessing a set of distinct traits or characteristics, i.e., a personality, similar to aperson. Thus, the personality of a brand is relevant as a source of differentiation in an increasingly competitivemarket environment. In this study, the authors explore the dimensions of brand personality proposed by J. Aaker(1997, seeking to discover the particular evaluation dimensions of the Brazilian context. The study wasconducted in exploratory stages, beginning with a preparatory stage that was carried out by professionals andacademics from the fields of communication and marketing. This was followed by stages of conclusive researchusing an online survey with a sample of 1,302 Brazilian consumers. Two sub-samples were extracted: onecalibration sample for exploratory factor analysis and a validation sample to perform confirmatory factoranalysis in order to verify the convergent and discriminant validities of the final scale. Five dimensions of brandpersonality in Brazil were detected: credibility, joy, audacity, sophistication and sensitivity. These dimensionsshowed some differences in comparison with similar studies that had been carried out in other countries. Thestudy led to a scale of 28 items for measuring brand personality and made it possible to compare competingbrands in terms of brand personality.

  16. Ochratoxin A in Brazilian green coffee

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    LEONI Luís A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A is a nephrotoxic, teratogenic and imunotoxic compound produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium spp. It is a suspected carcinogen to humans and it is carcinogenic to rats. Recently it has drawn attention because it has been found in coffee and it has been the object of regulation by coffee importing countries. Brazil is the largest coffee producing country and its largest consumer. In order to conduct an initial assessment of the situation of the coffee produced in the country and offered to its population, one hundred and thirty two samples of Brazilian green coffee from 5 producing states (Minas Gerais, Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Bahia and destined for the home market, were collected at sales points at the cities of Londrina and Santos, Brazil, and analyzed for ochratoxin A. The toxin was isolated in immunoaffinity columns and quantified by HPLC with florescence detection. The limit of detection was 0.7ng/g and the average RSD for duplicates of the samples was 11%. Twenty seven samples were found contaminated with the toxin and the average concentration for the contaminated samples was 7.1ng/g ochratoxin A. Neither the total number of defects nor the number of specific defects according to the Brazilian coffee classification system (black, partly -- black, sour, stinkers-black, stinkers-green, pod beans showed any relation to the contamination of the samples with ochratoxin A.

  17. The Brazilian education system. Students with disabilities

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    Roberto Dainese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian education system provides a specific form of organization for the inclusive education of students with disabilities. Law No. 9394 dated December 20, 1996, “Lei de diretrizes e bases da educação nacional”, presents in Chapter V the “educação especial" as a form of organization offered to students "portadores de Necessidades especiais”. Admission of students with disabilities in the Brazilian schools was characterized by several phases: the welfarist phase, the integration phase and the inclusion phase, which is the most recent one and now being debated. The presence of a special device fosters the differences, even when everybody enters the classbecause a separation perspective damps down all the procedural and design efforts towards a true integration, holding back collaboration and action sharing among teachers. We consider however effective an action that accompanies the gradual learning evolution mediating between the student with disabilities and peers, between him and the teachers, between him and the learning tools designed.

  18. Effects of Brazilian propolis on Leishmania amazonensis

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    Diana Copi Ayres

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, an endemic parasitosis that leads to chronic cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral lesions, is part of those diseases, which still requires improved control tools. Propolis has shown activities against different bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In this study we investigated the effect of four ethanolic extracts of typified propolis collected in different Brazilian states, on Leishmania amazonensis performing assays with promastigote forms, extracellular amastigotes, and on infected peritoneal macrophages. Ethanolic extracts of all propolis samples (BRG, BRPG, BRP-1, and BRV were capable to reduce parasite load as monitored by the percentage of infected macrophages and the number of intracellular parasites. BRV sample called red propolis, collected in the state of Alagoas, and containing high concentration of prenylated and benzophenones compounds, was the most active extract against L. amazonensis. The anti-Leishmania effect of BRV sample was increased in a concentration and time dependent manner. BRV treatment proved to be non-toxic to macrophage cultures. Since BRV extract at the concentration of 25 µg/ml reduced the parasite load of macrophages while presented no direct toxic to promastigotes and extracellular amastigotes, it was suggested that constituents of propolis intensify the mechanism of macrophage activation leading to killing of L. amazonensis. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that ethanolic extracts of Brazilian propolis reduce L. amazonensis infection in macrophages, and encourage further studies of this natural compound in animal models of leishmaniasis.

  19. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delincee, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C.H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macacar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein ({approx}10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfestation process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  20. Protein Quality of Irradiated Brazilian Beans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delincée, Henry; Villavicencio, Anna-Lucia C. H.; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    1998-06-01

    Beans are a major source of dietary protein in Brazil. However, high losses due to insect infestation occur after each harvest. To combat these losses, radiation processing of beans offers promise as an alternative to chemical treatment, provided the nutritional quality of beans is not impaired by the radiation treatment. Conflicting results have been published about the effect of radiation on the biological value of legume proteins. Therefore, two varieties of Brazilian beans were studied: 1) Phaseolus vulgaris L., var. carioca and 2) Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp, var. macaçar. The beans were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy. Since irradiated beans will be consumed after appropriate storage, the beans under study were stored for 6 months at ambient temperature. Protein quality was measured by a biological assay employing the nitrogen balance approach in weanling rats. The animals were fed with optimally cooked beans, which were the only source of protein (˜10%). Nitrogen contents of legumes, diets, animal urine and faeces were determined by Kjeldahl analysis. The indices for apparent protein quality: net protein utilisation, digestibility and biological value were not influenced by irradiation. Thus, radiation treatment of Brazilian beans offers considerable promise as an effective insect disinfection process, without impairing the biological quality of the valuable bean protein.

  1. Panorama of the Brazilian correctional structure

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    Renata de Oliveira Cartaxo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe, based on the Penitentiary Information Integrated System (Sistema Integrado de Informações Penitenciárias - Infopen, aspects of the national correctional structure, the convicts’ characteristics and the profiles of the existing professionals to guarantee the constitutional precept of healthcare. Methods: Descriptive study, on a documental basis, carried out from secondary data available in the Penitentiary Information Integrated System, where the Brazilian correctional structure was assessed, along with the prison inmate’s profile regarding personal characteristics and the committed crime, and the professionals involved in healthcare. Results: There are 298,275 vacancies, occupied by 496,251 convicts in 1,857 prisons. Concerning the inmates’ profile, it was observed that 92.3% (461,444 are male between 18 and 24 years old (25.6% - 126,929, dark-skinned (36.7% - 82,354, with incomplete elementary school (40.7% - 201,938, who mainly committed the drug smuggling crime (23.5% - 100,648. As to the composition of the health assistance team, it was evidenced a total amount of 5,132 professionals registered in the system. Conclusion: Based on the penitentiary information integrated system, the Brazilian correctional structure is characterized by presenting a vacancy deficit, caused by overcrowding and/or saturation of the existent prisons, what makes it especially difficult to guarantee the fulfillment of the inmates’ necessities. doi:10.5020/18061230.2013.p266

  2. The Determinants of Credit Rating: Brazilian Evidence

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    Flávia Cruz de Souza Murcia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to identify the determinant factors of credit rating in Brazil. The relevance of this proposal is based on the importance of the subject as well as the uniqueness of the Brazilian market. As for originality, the great majority of previous studies regarding credit rating have been developed in the US, UK and Australia; therefore the effect on other markets is still unclear, especially in emerging markets, like Brazil. We’ve used a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE model considering a panel structure with a categorical dependent variable (credit rating and ten independent variables: leverage, profitability, size, financial coverage, growth, liquidity, corporate governance, control, financial market performance and internationalization. The sample consisted of 153 rating observations during the period of 1997-2011 for a total of 49 public firms operating in the Brazilian Market. Results showed that leverage and internationalization are significant at the 1% level in explaining credit rating. Performance in the financial market was significant at a 5% level; profitability and growth were also statistically significant, but at a 10% significance level.

  3. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  4. Revision of giftedness on brazilian periodic publication

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    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The definition of giftedness is related to the existence of high abilities in several and different fields and involves the study of process as intelligence, motivation, creativity and leadership. Due to the lack of research in this area, the present study aimed to review researches about giftedness on Brazilian periodic publications, in two databases: Scielo and Pepsic. The results pointed to the existence of 19 theorical and empiric articles, published between 2002 and 2009, that approached distinct dimensions of giftedness: conceptual definitions, models and forms of identification, models of attendance, Brazilian laws to guide the performance, researches with teachers, family and school environment, studies of cognitive, social and emotional dimension, finally behaviors and emotional disorders related to the giftedness. The articles analysis allowed concluding the recent interest for the theme, it was observed divergences in the definition of the concept, the lack of specific tests, with validity and standards, beyond the recognition of the importance of the school environment and the psychologis

  5. NASALIZATION IN BRAZILIAN PORTUGUESE: AN AUTOSEGMENTAL (REVIEW

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    Consuelo de Paiva Godinho COSTA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose to make a brief review on nasalization phenomena studies in Portuguese, aiming the phonological process of nasal harmonization that occurs in the variety of Brazilian Portuguese spoken in Vitória da Conquista-BA and region, a phenomenon hitherto not described for any Portuguese dialect. To do so, we consider as fundamental, D’Angelis (2002 analysis, which incorporates relevant concepts presented by Trubetzkoy, from the Prague School, and some points of Camara Jr. propose. We also propose to update the discussion with the approaches along the lines of auto segmental phonology, incorporating some insights of Piggott (1992, discussing with other analyzes for nasalization phenomena in other languages, especially Guarani (language of Tupi-Guarani Linguistic Family, as proposed by Costa (2010, which deals with the phonological processes involving nasality and nasal harmony in Brazilian indigenous languages , in order to verify if the researches on nasality phenomena in other languages can shed some light on the processes that occur in Portuguese.

  6. Brazilian Flavivirus phylogeny based on NS5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleotti, Flúvia Graciela; Moreli, Marcos Lázaro; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2003-04-01

    In this work, a comprehensive phylogenetic study based on 600 base pair nucleotide and on putative 200 amino acid sequences of NS5 was carried out in order to establish genetic relationships among 15 strains of 10 Brazilian flaviviruses: Bussuquara, Cacipacore, dengue type 1, 2 and 4, Iguape, Ilheus, Rocio, Saint Louis encephalitis (SLE), and yellow fever. Phylogenetic trees were created by neighbor-joining and maximum parsimony methods. These trees showed Brazilian flaviviruses grouped into three main branches: yellow fever branch, dengue branch subdivided in types 1, 2 and 4 branches, and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara. Viruses transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, such as dengue and urban yellow fever, that are also the only Flavivirus causing hemorrhagic fevers in Brazil, were grouped in the same cluster. Encephalitis associated viruses, transmitted by Culex mosquitoes such as JEV complex branch including SLE virus strains, Cacipacore, Iguape, Rocio, Ilheus and Bussuquara were also grouped in the same clade.

  7. Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  8. The Southern Ocean Observing System

    OpenAIRE

    Rintoul, Stephen R.; Meredith, Michael P.; Schofield, Oscar; Newman, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The Southern Ocean includes the only latitude band where the ocean circles the earth unobstructed by continental boundaries. This accident of geography has profound consequences for global ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. The Southern Ocean connects the ocean basins and links the shallow and deep limbs of the overturning circulation (Rintoul et al., 2001). The ocean's capacity to moderate the pace of climate change is therefore influenced strongly by the Southern Ocean's...

  9. Diasporic and Transnational Internationalization: The Case of Brazilian Martial Arts

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    Angela da Rocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian diasporas overseas hasreceived little academic interest. Nevertheless, estimates suggest that around three million Brazilians currently live in other countries. The present study looks at a specific type of diaspora: small entrepreneurs from the Brazilian martial arts sector. The study adopts the case study method of research. The unit of analysis is comprised by the martial arts (capoeira and Brazilian jiu-jitsu. Data analysis used secondary and primary data from interviews. Cross-case analysis searched for similarities and differences in the internationalization processes of the two martial arts, using several analytical devices, such as chronologies, timelines, matrices, and pattern matching analysis. Evidences suggest that the concept of diasporic internationalization fits better capoeira than Brazilian jiu-jitsu. However, Brazilian jiu-jitsu shows an initial combination of diasporic and transnational characteristics, but more recently became fully transnational. Brazilian jiu-jitsu became a truly global business, formally organized and professionally managed. Capoeira, however, is still seen as non-commercial and as the preservation and practice of an ancient art. Such ethos, combined with the origin of its members in lower economic classes and their restricted access to capital turns internationalization into an often less profitable activity.

  10. Jorge Amado and the internationalization of brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Lowe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7968.2013v1n31p119Jorge Amado (1912-2001 is the most translated Brazilian writer and the literary figure that has shaped the reception of Brazilian literature in the world.  He is credited with opening the international literary market to the post-dictatorship generation of Brazilian writers.  Yet Amado is also a controversial figure.  The debate around him is sparked by what some believe is sexual and ethnic stereotyping in his post-1958 works and the reinforcement of "paternalistic "racial views. His reception therefore is mixed. For his English-language readers, he is a fascinating source of exotic and titillating narratives about the vast, unknown country of Brazil, and for Brazilians he is either a "great ambassador of Brazilian culture around the world" or a faux populist who disguises sexist and racist attitudes behind charming prose. This paper will address Amado's literary career, his unique contributions to Brazilian letters, the challenges of translating his work, and his influence on the production of a new Brazilian literature for export

  11. Brazilian Amazonia Deforestation Detection Using Spatio-Temporal Scan Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, C. A. O.; Santos, N. T.; Carneiro, A. P. S.; Balieiro, A. A. S.

    2012-07-01

    The spatio-temporal models, developed for analyses of diseases, can also be used for others fields of study, including concerns about forest and deforestation. The aim of this paper is to quantitatively check priority areas in order to combat deforestation on the Amazon forest, using the space-time scan statistic. The study area location is at the south of the Amazonas State and cover around 297.183 kilometre squares, including the municipality of Boca do Acre, Labrea, Canutama, Humaita, Manicore, Novo Aripuana e Apui County on the north region of Brazil. This area has showed a significant change for land cover, which has increased the number of deforestation's alerts. Therefore this situation becomes a concern and gets more investigation, trying to stop factors that increase the number of cases in the area. The methodology includes the location and year that deforestation's alert occurred. These deforestation's alerts are mapped by the DETER (Detection System of Deforestation in Real Time in Amazonia), which is carry out by the Brazilian Space Agency (INPE). The software SatScanTM v7.0 was used in order to define space-time permutation scan statistic for detection of deforestation cases. The outcome of this experiment shows an efficient model to detect space-time clusters of deforestation's alerts. The model was efficient to detect the location, the size, the order and characteristics about activities at the end of the experiments. Two clusters were considered actives and kept actives up to the end of the study. These clusters are located in Canutama and Lábrea County. This quantitative spatial modelling of deforestation warnings allowed: firstly, identifying actives clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to concentrate their actions; secondly, identifying historic clustering of deforestation, in which the environment government official are able to monitoring in order to avoid them to became actives again; and finally

  12. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  13. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  14. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  15. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainey, James L; Silva, Túllio R R da; Encinas, Fernando; Marín, Michel A; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Luz, Sérgio L B

    2016-01-01

    We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource. PMID:26814648

  16. The mitogenome of Onchocerca volvulus from the Brazilian Amazonia focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L Crainey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the first complete mitochondria genome of Onchocerca volvulus from a focus outside of Africa. An O. volvulus mitogenome from the Brazilian Amazonia focus was obtained using a combination of high-throughput and Sanger sequencing technologies. Comparisons made between this mitochondrial genome and publicly available mitochondrial sequences identified 46 variant nucleotide positions and suggested that our Brazilian mitogenome is more closely related to Cameroon-origin mitochondria than West African-origin mitochondria. As well as providing insights into the origins of Latin American onchocerciasis, the Brazilian Amazonia focus mitogenome may also have value as an epidemiological resource.

  17. The role of interest rates in the Brazilian business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers additional insights on the relationship between interest rates and business cycles in Brazil. First, I document that Brazilian interest rates are very volatile, counter-cyclical and positively correlated with net exports, as observed in other emerging market economies. Next, I present a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model in which firms face working capital constraints and labor supply is independent of consumption. This parsimonious model, appropriately calibrated to the Brazilian economy, predicts that interest rate shocks can explain about one third of output fluctuations and delivers business cycle regularities consistent with the Brazilian data.

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  19. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in south Brazilian gleysol as affected by nitrogen fertilizers Fluxos de óxido nitroso e de metano em gleissolo influenciados pela aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados no sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Josiléia Acordi Zanatta; Cimélio Bayer; Frederico C.B. Vieira; Juliana Gomes; Michely Tomazi

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen fertilizers increase the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission and can reduce the methane (CH4) oxidation from agricultural soils. However, the magnitude of this effect is unknown in Southern Brazilian edaphoclimatic conditions, as well as the potential of different sources of mineral N fertilizers in such an effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different mineral N sources (urea, ammonium sulphate, calcium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, Uran, controlled- release N ferti...

  20. The community structure of macroscopic basidiomycetes (Fungi) in Brazilian mangroves influenced by temporal and spatial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Melo, Georgea Santos; Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Gibertoni, Tatiana Baptista

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments, and are dis- tinguished by a high abundance of animals, plants, and fungi. Although macrofungi occur in different types of habitat, including mangroves, little is known about their community structure and dynamic. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of macrofungi in a number of Brazilian mangroves, and the relation- ship between such diversity, precipitation and area of collection. A total of 32 field trips were undertaken from 2009 to 2010, and macrofungi were studied in four 250 x 40 m transects: Timbó and Santa Cruz Channel on the Northern coast, and Maracaipe and Ariquindá on the Southern coast. All basidiomata found along the transects were placed in paper bags, air-dried and identified using existing literature. It was found that Northern areas predominantly featured Avicennia schaueriana mangroves, while Rhizophora mangle dominated in Southern transects. A total of 275 specimens were collected, and 33 species, 28 genera, 14 families and six orders were represented. Overall abundance and species richness did not vary significantly among areas, but varied according to time, being higher during the rainy season. Subtle differences in composition were observed over time and between areas, probably due to variations in plant species occurrence. Further studies with collections during months of greater precipitation in transects dominated by different mangrove species of the same ecosystem are suggested to assess the overall diversity of mycobiota in these ecosystems.

  1. The community structure of macroscopic basidiomycetes (Fungi) in Brazilian mangroves influenced by temporal and spatial variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Melo, Georgea Santos; Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Gibertoni, Tatiana Baptista

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments, and are dis- tinguished by a high abundance of animals, plants, and fungi. Although macrofungi occur in different types of habitat, including mangroves, little is known about their community structure and dynamic. Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the diversity of macrofungi in a number of Brazilian mangroves, and the relation- ship between such diversity, precipitation and area of collection. A total of 32 field trips were undertaken from 2009 to 2010, and macrofungi were studied in four 250 x 40 m transects: Timbó and Santa Cruz Channel on the Northern coast, and Maracaipe and Ariquindá on the Southern coast. All basidiomata found along the transects were placed in paper bags, air-dried and identified using existing literature. It was found that Northern areas predominantly featured Avicennia schaueriana mangroves, while Rhizophora mangle dominated in Southern transects. A total of 275 specimens were collected, and 33 species, 28 genera, 14 families and six orders were represented. Overall abundance and species richness did not vary significantly among areas, but varied according to time, being higher during the rainy season. Subtle differences in composition were observed over time and between areas, probably due to variations in plant species occurrence. Further studies with collections during months of greater precipitation in transects dominated by different mangrove species of the same ecosystem are suggested to assess the overall diversity of mycobiota in these ecosystems. PMID:25720189

  2. URBAN WATERSHED STUDIES IN SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Poleto

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest problems observed in Brazilian urban watersheds are concerned to the amount of solid residues, domestic sewerage and sediments that are disposed in the rivers and streams that drain those areas. This project aims to present these problems through a study of case taken in an urban watershed in Porto Alegre city, Southern Brazil. For this study, different procedures were used, such as field surveys, interviews with the inhabitants, satellite images, sediment samples, flow measures and morphology assessment of part of the local fluvial system to check the degree of instability of the channel. In 2005, it was verified that 42.57% of the watershed was impermeable, considering the paved streets, the residential and commercial buildings and stone pavements. As there was no sewer treatment, most of this sewerage was directly disposed into the stream and the TOC has reached 20% (m/m. Moreover, the occupation of riparian areas, a great amount of soil exposed in the watershed, the nonpaved streets and a great volume of solid residues were causing the instability in the channel, silting the stream bed. The metals (Zn, Pb and Cr selected for this study are most frequently found in high concentrations in urban areas. The results suggest the occurrence of a high enrichment of the fluvial sediment by these metals. The concentrations of these elements vary temporally during storms due to the input of impervious area runoff containing high concentration of elements associated to vehicular traffic and other anthropogenic activities. Then, it is possible to conclude that the contamination of the urban watershed is reflected in the results obtained in the fluvial suspended sediments.

  3. No absorption in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Myung, Y S

    2003-01-01

    We study the wave equation for a minimally coupled massive scalar in D-dimensional de Sitter space. We compute the absorption cross section to investigate its cosmological horizon in the southern diamond. By analogy of the quantum mechanics, it is found that there is no absorption in de Sitter space. This means that de Sitter space is usually in thermal equilibrium, like the black hole in anti de Sitter space. It confirms that the cosmological horizon not only emits radiation but also absorbs that previously emitted by itself at the same rate, keeping the curvature radius of de Sitter space fixed.

  4. The multiplicity of Brazilian Social Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Prioli Cordeiro

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian Social Psychology has many definitions, theories and objects of study. In this essay, based on Actor-Network Theory, we argue that these are not different aspects or attributes of a single object, but elements that help to perform different versions of this object. They are, therefore, elements that make Social Psychologies different, although related to each other. They produce a multiple Social Psychology, which is more than one and, at the same time, less than many. In doing so, we strived to call attention to the possibility of ordinating and coordinating reality in different ways, of recognizing that there are multiple and diverse actants in a discipline and of making a Social Psychology that searches for complex connections that articulate humans and non-humans and perform multiple realities.

  5. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  6. PREFACE: XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The XXXVII Brazilian Meeting on Nuclear Physics (or XXXVII RTFNB 2014) gave continuity to a long sequence of workshops held in Brazil, devoted to the study of the different aspects of nuclear physics. The meeting took place in the Maresias Beach Hotel, in the town of Maresias (state of São Paulo) from 8th to 12th September 2014. Offering gentle weather, a charming piece of green land of splendid natural beauty with beach and all amenities, the place had all the conditions for very pleasant and fruitful discussions. The meeting involved 162 participants and attracted undergraduate and graduate students, Brazilian and South American physicists and invited speakers from overseas (USA, Italy, Spain, France, England, Switzerland, Germany and South Corea). In the program we had plenary morning sessions with review talks on recent developments in theory, computational techniques, experimentation and applications of the many aspects of nuclear physics. In the parallel sessions we had a total of 58 seminars. This volume contains 60 written contributions based on these talks and on the poster sessions. Evening talks and poster sessions gave still more insight and enlarged the scope of the scientific program. The contributed papers, representing mainly the scientific activity of young physicists, were exhibited as posters and are included in the present volume. Additional information about the meeting can be found at our website: http://www.sbfisica.org.br/~rtfnb/xxxvii-en Support and sponsorship came from brazilian national agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnoógico (CNPq); Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); Fundação de Amparo á Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ); Sociedade Brasileira de Física (SBF) and Instituto de Física da Universidade de São Paulo (IFUSP). We honored Professor Alejandro Szanto de Toledo, who completed

  7. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  8. Aerothermodynamic Analysis of a Reentry Brazilian Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Wilson F N

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with a computational investigation on the small ballistic reentry Brazilian vehicle SARA (acronyms for SAt\\'elite de Reentrada Atmosf\\'erica). Hypersonic flows over the vehicle SARA at zero-degree angle of attack in a chemical equilibrium and thermal non-equilibrium are modeled by the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which has become the main technique for studying complex multidimensional rarefied flows, and that properly accounts for the non-equilibrium aspects of the flows. The emphasis of this paper is to examine the behavior of the primary properties during the high altitude portion of SARA reentry. In this way, velocity, density, pressure and temperature field are investigated for altitudes of 100, 95, 90, 85 and 80 km. In addition, comparisons based on geometry are made between axisymmetric and planar two-dimensional configurations. Some significant differences between these configurations were noted on the flowfield structure in the reentry trajectory. The analysis showed t...

  9. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  10. A study about lithium - the Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A geoeconomical analysis of lithium is carried out, from its natural occurrence to its final application as a commercial product. General geological aspects such as the most important lithium mines, their minerals and their world distribution are taken into account. Also discussed is the viewpoint of enterprises regarding the various economical sectors associated with the production, consumption, marketing, installed industrial capacity, preparation of new products, development programs and installation of new plants. The applications of lithium, its several alloys and other chemical compounds are considered. Conclusions from these studies and from the data acquired are drawn, regarding the present Brazilian situation and its perspectives towards a future demand for lithium. (C.L.B.)

  11. Brazilian energy balance 2008 - year 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and eleven annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics; chapter 8 - state energy data; annex I - installed capacity; annex II - self-generation of electricity; annex III - world energy data; annex IV - world energy evolution; annex V - useful energy balance; annex VI - general structure of the BEN; annex VII - treatment of information; annex VIII - units; annex IX - conversion factors; annex X - consolidated energy balances 1970/2007; annex XI - energy balance 2007. (author)

  12. Brazilian Decimetric Array (Phase-I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, H. S.; Ramesh, R.; Cecatto, J. R.; Faria, C.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Rosa, R. R.; Andrade, M. C.; Stephany, S.; Cividanes, L. B. T.; Miranda, C. A. I.; Botti, L. C. L.; Boas, J. W. S. V.; Saito, J. H.; Moron, C. E.; Mascarenhas, N. D.; Subramanian, K. R.; Sundararajan, M. S.; Ebenezer, E.; Sankararaman, M. R.

    2007-05-01

    An East West, one-dimensional radio interferometer array consisting of five parabolic dish antennas has been set up at Cachoeira Paulista (longitude 45°0‧20″ W, latitude 22°41‧19″ S) for observations of the Sun and some of the strong sidereal sources by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Brazil. This is Phase-I of the proposed Brazilian Decimetric Array and can be operated at any frequency in the range 1.2 1.7 GHz. The instrument has been in operation since November 2004 onwards at 1.6 GHz. The angular and temporal resolutions at this frequency are ˜3‧ and 100 ms, respectively. Details of the array, analog/digital receiver system, and a preliminary East West one-dimensional solar image at the 1.6 GHz are presented in this paper.

  13. DNA barcoding of Brazilian sea turtles (Testudines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Five out of the seven recognized species of sea turtles (Testudines occur on the Brazilian coast. The Barcode Initiative is an effort to undertake a molecular inventory of Earth biodiversity. Cytochrome Oxidase c subunit I (COI molecular tags for sea turtle species have not yet been described. In this study, COI sequences for the five species of sea turtles that occur in Brazil were generated. These presented widely divergent haplotypes. All observed values were on the same range as those already described for other animal groups: the overall mean distance was 8.2%, the mean distance between families (Dermochelyidae and Cheloniidae 11.7%, the mean intraspecific divergence 0.34%, and the mean distance within Cheloniidae 6.4%, this being 19-fold higher than the mean divergence observed within species. We obtained species-specific COI barcode tags that can be used for identifying each of the marine turtle species studied.

  14. μ-SRXRF characterization of Brazilian emeralds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curado, J. F.; Radtke, M.; Buzanich, G.; Reinholz, U.; Riesemeier, H.; Guttler, R. A. S.; Rizzutto, M. A.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterize emeralds from different mines of Brazil by using Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Fluorescence Microanalysis (μ-SRXRF). The advantage of this technique is that we can analyze a homogeneous, inclusion free area of the stone with the microbeam to distinguish the elemental fingerprint according to the provenance of the emerald. A total of 47 samples belonging to 5 different Brazilian mines were studied in this work and 28 elements were identified. By means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) it is possible to build different groups according to the provenance of the stones, which allows to assign samples of unknown origin to the according mine.

  15. Sport participation motives of young Brazilian athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Dartagnan P; Netto, Jose Evaristo S

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the motives for sport participation in a sample of young Brazilian athletes according to sex, age, and training history. A total of 1,517 participants (714 girls, 803 boys) ages 12 to 18 years were included in the study. The Portuguese version of the Participation Motivation Questionnaire was used to identify motives for sport participation. The most important motives were Skill Development and Fitness, whereas the least important were Fun and Achievement/Status. Sex, age, type of sport, onset of training, duration of training, training volume, and competitive experience significantly influenced the motives for sport participation reported by the athletes. These results will contribute to establish intervention programs designed to reduce sport dropout rates among young athletes.

  16. Maintenance of Brazilian Biodiversity by germplasm bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana C. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Currently the importance of using alternative strategies for biodiversity conservation is emphasized and since the establishment of germplasm bank is an alternative to the conservation of endangered species. This is a technique of great importance for the maintenance of Brazilian fauna. Since the early70'sthere was a growing concern about the need to preserve essential genetic resources for food and agriculture, mainly for conservation of genetic material from farm animals. Thus was created the Brasilia Zoo, in July 2010, the first Germplasm Bank of Wild Animals in Latin America, as an alternative strategy for the conservation of threatened or endangered species, using both gametes and somatic cells and stem cells. Then we argue to create new banks or research networks among different regions with aimed to tissue preservation.

  17. Hereditary fructose intolerance in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares

    2015-09-01

    Results and discussion: Age at diagnosis was between 10 and 32 months and the severity of the disease correlated with the increasing of age at diagnosis. The predominant symptoms were vomiting, weight loss, and hepatomegaly. Severe renal tubular acidosis manifested in one child. All patients had remission of symptoms after dietary modification. The sequencing of the ALDOB gene identified one homozygous patient for the mutation c.524C>A (p.A175D, while the others were compound heterozygous for c.360_363delCAAA (p.N120KfsX32, c.178C>T (p.R60X mutations, c.448G>C (p.A150P and c.524C>A (p.A175D. Clinical improvement of patients after dietary treatment is suggestive of the diagnosis, confirmed by molecular analysis. The prevalence of mutations found in our Brazilian patients is different from those of international literature.

  18. Globalization and the Brazilian balance accounts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The globalization of the world economy calls for a country specialization with new structures for the product sectors and an increase in the competitiveness in areas of specialization. This process requires the amplification of markets and the adoption of technological innovations which increase the volume of economic trade, but also change trade relations. This process is made possible because of price stabilization and the stability and transparency of the exchange rate policy of various countries. In this work it is shown the opportunity to place nuclear energy as one of the sectors in which Brazil may have competitive advantages and enhance its external balance accounts, by the competitive substitution of imports by producing internally goods and services which technology is known by Brazilian firms and because of the increase in exports. (author)

  19. 12th Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Louzada, Francisco; Rifo, Laura; Stern, Julio; Lauretto, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Through refereed papers, this volume focuses on the foundations of the Bayesian paradigm; their comparison to objectivistic or frequentist Statistics counterparts; and the appropriate application of Bayesian foundations. This research in Bayesian Statistics is applicable to data analysis in biostatistics, clinical trials, law, engineering, and the social sciences. EBEB, the Brazilian Meeting on Bayesian Statistics, is held every two years by the ISBrA, the International Society for Bayesian Analysis, one of the most active chapters of the ISBA. The 12th meeting took place March 10-14, 2014 in Atibaia. Interest in foundations of inductive Statistics has grown recently in accordance with the increasing availability of Bayesian methodological alternatives. Scientists need to deal with the ever more difficult choice of the optimal method to apply to their problem. This volume shows how Bayes can be the answer. The examination and discussion on the foundations work towards the goal of proper application of Bayesia...

  20. Antibacterial activity of eight Brazilian annonaceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Pereira, Cássia R; Pimenta, Lúcia P S; Boaventura, Maria Amélia D; Silva, Luiz G F E

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen extracts, obtained from eight Brazilian plants of Annonaceae family, were screened for their antibacterial activity: Xylopia frutescens, X. aromatica, X. amazonica, X. benthamii, Annona ambotay, A. crassiflora, A. muricata and A. cherimolia. Amongst the investigated extracts, six showed antibacterial activity against at least one of the tested organisms at the concentration of 100 microg/mL. The most active extracts were those prepared from X. frutescens, X. amazonica, and A. ambotay. A phytochemical screening showed the presence of anonaceus acetogenins in some active extracts. Eleven diterpenoids were also tested for comparison purposes. Six were natural products, previously isolated from Xylopia sp. (kaurenoic, frutoic, xylopic, 15beta-hydroxy-kaurenoic and trachylobanic acids plus kaurenol) and five were derivatives of such compounds, obtained by esterification or reduction reactions. Trachylobanic acid showed antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus.

  1. Development of a Brazilian maize core collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo R. Coimbra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate methods for developing a Brazilian maize core collection. For an initial survey of the active collection, passport information, as well as characterization and evaluation of accessions, were taken into consideration, these then being divided according to geographic region and kernel-type. Multiple sampling methods were evaluated. The strategy of constant sampling generated extensive alterations in extract accession frequency. The multivariate strategy with dispersion graphs and principal components associated with the Tocher method was considered efficient for identifying the most divergent genotypes. The multivariate strategy generated greater alterations in the variance of traits. The average number of traits revealed few modifications with the various sampling strategies used. Therefore, the active collection could be considered as possessing a satisfactory amount of information for most of its accessions. Moreover, the multivariate strategy generated modifications in the variance of the traits, independent of sampling intensity.

  2. Complex Network Analysis of Brazilian Power Grid

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, Gabriela C; Ribeiro, Fabiano L; Forgerini, Fabricio L

    2016-01-01

    Power Grids and other delivery networks has been attracted some attention by the network literature last decades. Despite the Power Grids dynamics has been controlled by computer systems and human operators, the static features of this type of network can be studied and analyzed. The topology of the Brazilian Power Grid (BPG) was studied in this work. We obtained the spatial structure of the BPG from the ONS (electric systems national operator), consisting of high-voltage transmission lines, generating stations and substations. The local low-voltage substations and local power delivery as well the dynamic features of the network were neglected. We analyze the complex network of the BPG and identify the main topological information, such as the mean degree, the degree distribution, the network size and the clustering coefficient to caracterize the complex network. We also detected the critical locations on the network and, therefore, the more susceptible points to lead to a cascading failure and even to a blac...

  3. A Brazilian network of carbon flux stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Débora R.; Acevedo, Otávio C.; Moraes, Osvaldo L. L.

    2012-05-01

    First Brasflux Workshop; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 14-15 November 2011 Last November, 33 researchers participated in a workshop to establish Brasflux, the Brazilian network of carbon flux stations, with the objective of integrating previous efforts and planning for the future. Among the participants were those leading ongoing flux observation projects and others planning to establish flux stations in the near future. International scientists also participated to share the experiences gained with other networks. The need to properly characterize terrestrial ecosystems for their roles in the global carbon, water, and energy budgets has motivated the implementation of hundreds of micrometeorological research sites throughout the world in recent years. The eddy covariance (EC) technique for turbulent flux determination is the preferred method to provide integral information on ecosystematmosphere exchanges. Integrating the observations regionally and globally has proven to be an effective approach to maximizing the usefulness of this technique for carbon cycle studies at multiple scales.

  4. Abstracts of the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is presented the short communications of papers presented at the 26. Brazilian Congress on Chemistry, of nuclear interest. The papers are classified in four areas: isotope chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry and physico-chemical. (E.G.)

  5. Merger Control Under the New Brazilian Competition Law

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Mario da Silva Pereira Neto; Paulo Leonardo Casagrande

    2011-01-01

    The approved legal framework will certainly open a new era of the Brazilian competition policy. Caio Mário da Silva Pereira Neto & Paulo Leonardo Casagrande (Brasil, Pereira Neto, Galdino, Macedo Advogados)

  6. Decreased prevalence of celiac disease among Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of celiac disease in a group of Brazilian individuals over 60 years of age and compare it with the previously known prevalence in a pediatric group living in the same geographical area.

  7. Competitive integration. A new strategy for the brazilian industrialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discussed a new strategy for brazilian industrialization: from importation substitution to structural changes. The strategy of competitive integration, technological progress and the new technologies. (A.C.A.S.)

  8. Structural Properties of the Brazilian Air Transportation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme S; da Silva, Ana Paula Couto; Ruiz, Linnyer B; Benevenuto, Fabrício

    2015-09-01

    The air transportation network in a country has a great impact on the local, national and global economy. In this paper, we analyze the air transportation network in Brazil with complex network features to better understand its characteristics. In our analysis, we built networks composed either by national or by international flights. We also consider the network when both types of flights are put together. Interesting conclusions emerge from our analysis. For instance, Viracopos Airport (Campinas City) is the most central and connected airport on the national flights network. Any operational problem in this airport separates the Brazilian national network into six distinct subnetworks. Moreover, the Brazilian air transportation network exhibits small world characteristics and national connections network follows a power law distribution. Therefore, our analysis sheds light on the current Brazilian air transportation infrastructure, bringing a novel understanding that may help face the recent fast growth in the usage of the Brazilian transport network.

  9. On the Brazilian ground-rent appropriated by landowners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAS GRINBERG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper presents a measurement of the portion of the Brazilian ground-rent appropriated by agrarian landowners during 1955-2005 and assesses its importance relative to other forms of surplus value appropriated in the Brazilian economy. In pursuing this task, the paper also puts forward original estimations of several time-series that are crucial for the study of Brazilian long-term growth and development. Finally, the paper combines the measurements obtained here with those advanced in (Grinberg, 2008, 2013b to present an approximation to the evolution of the total Brazilian ground-rent during 1955-2005. The appendix presents the sources and methodology used for the estimations.

  10. Argentine-Brazilian declaration on common nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the texts of the speeches made by the Presidents of Argentina and Brazil at Foz do Iguacu, Brazil, on 28 November 1990, at the signing of the Argentine-Brazilian Declaration on Common Nuclear Policy

  11. New Brazilian Cerambycidae from the Amazonian region (Coleoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Three new species of Cerambycidae are described from the Brazilian Amazonian region: Psapharochrus bezarki (Lamiinae, Acanthoderini); Xenofrea ayri (Lamiinae, Xenofreini); and Mecometopus wappesi (Cerambycinae, Clytini). Mecometopus wappesi is added to a previous key. PMID:27551200

  12. Oral candidiasis treatment with Brazilian ethanol propolis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V R; Pimenta, F J G S; Aguiar, M C F; do Carmo, M A V; Naves, M D; Mesquita, R A

    2005-07-01

    The Brazilian commercial ethanol propolis extract, also formulated to ensure physical and chemical stability, was found to inhibit oral candidiasis in 12 denture-bearing patients with prosthesis stomatitis candidiasis association.

  13. Industrial development - consequences about the implantation of Brazilian Nuclear Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy to promote the growing industry participation in the Brazilian Nuclear Program, the difficulties, the measurements adopted for overcoming and the results obtained in terms of industrial development, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  14. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  15. Brazilian recommendations of mechanical ventilation 2013. Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Barbas, Carmen Sílvia Valente; Ísola, Alexandre Marini; Farias, Augusto Manoel de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Gama, Ana Maria Casati; Duarte, Antonio Carlos Magalhães; Vianna, Arthur; Serpa Neto, Ary; Bravim, Bruno de Arruda; Pinheiro, Bruno do Valle; Mazza, Bruno Franco; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro; Toufen Júnior, Carlos; David, Cid Marcos Nascimento; Taniguchi, Corine

    2014-01-01

    Perspectives on invasive and noninvasive ventilatory support for critically ill patients are evolving, as much evidence indicates that ventilation may have positive effects on patient survival and the quality of the care provided in intensive care units in Brazil. For those reasons, the Brazilian Association of Intensive Care Medicine (Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira - AMIB) and the Brazilian Thoracic Society (Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia - SBPT), represented b...

  16. Analysis of Chromobacterium sp. natural isolates from different Brazilian ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento Andréa MA; Santos Fabrício R; Astolfi-Filho Spartaco; Chartone-Souza Edmar; Lima-Bittencourt Cláudia I

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Chromobacterium violaceum is a free-living bacterium able to survive under diverse environmental conditions. In this study we evaluate the genetic and physiological diversity of Chromobacterium sp. isolates from three Brazilian ecosystems: Brazilian Savannah (Cerrado), Atlantic Rain Forest and Amazon Rain Forest. We have analyzed the diversity with molecular approaches (16S rRNA gene sequences and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis) and phenotypic surveys of anti...

  17. World Cup 2014 – Professional Training Program for Brazilian Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvone Alves Assis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experience of implementing a professional training program for the Brazilian hospitality industry in the 12 cities that will be the headquarters of the World Cup in 2014. This project was developed in the context of the program “Welcoming Cup”, of the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism, whose objective is to enable the tourism industry to attain international standards of quality in tourism services.

  18. Somatotype and anthropometry in brazilian national volleyball teams

    OpenAIRE

    Breno Guilherme de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Suzet de Araújo Tinoco Cabral; Gilmario Ricarte Batista; Jose Fernandes Filho; Maria Irany knackfuss

    2008-01-01

    The elaboration of profile characteristics that can serve as parameters in the different categories and investment in scientific studies of Brazilian volleyball have shown their importance in developing new athletes. In this sense, the objective of the descriptive study in question was to analyze important characteristics such as somatotype and anthropometry in the Brazilian under-17 and under-18 national teams, respectively. The population was composed of 33 (14 females and 19 males) athlet...

  19. Georges Canguilhem and the development of Brazilian Public Heatlh field

    OpenAIRE

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    2016-01-01

    Historical epistemology has played an important role in the development of modern Brazilian Public Health or “Saúde Coletiva” (Collective Health). Born as an academic search for new conceptual foundations of a social committed field of scientific knowledge, as well as a social political movement against civil-military dictatorship implanted in Brazil in 1964, the so called Brazilian Sanitary Reform Movement found in the French historical epistemology, particularly in the works of Georges Cang...

  20. Quantifying price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, B. M.; Takami, M. Y.; Cajueiro, D. O.; Petitinga, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates price fluctuations in the Brazilian stock market. We employ a recently developed methodology to test whether the Brazilian stock price returns present a power law distribution and find that we cannot reject such behavior. Empirical results for sub-partitions of the time series suggests that for most of the time the power law is not rejected, but that in some cases the data set does not conform with a power law distribution.

  1. Study of brazilian franchises internationalization: challenges and barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Loffredo da Rocha Leite; Paulo Sergio Miranda Mendonça; Everton José Buzzo

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze brazilian franchises internationalization through a case study, in order to identify the factors that influence internationalization, the adaptations of marketing strategies and main barriers and challenges of brazilian franchises internationalization. A qualitative exploratory research was developed through the case study method. The information was colected via observation and semi-structured interviews with managers in charge of international expansion...

  2. E-Commerce Sites: Use Intention by Brazilian Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Cayley; Lacerda, Lucas; Antunes, Diego R.

    This article discusses the behavior of Brazilian's intention of use e-commerce sites. To explain its use, or not, the Unified Theory of Acceptance of Technology (UTAUT) was used. A survey was conducted through a questionnaire based on variables from UTAUT available for twenty days over the Web, that prompted 1900 responses. The results indicate that Effort and Social Influence are the variables of the model that better explain Brazilian user's intention to use e-commerce sites.

  3. CURRENT COGNITION OF ROCK TENSILE STRENGTH TESTING BY BRAZILIAN TEST

    OpenAIRE

    Zlatko Briševac; Trpimir Kujundžić; Sandi Čajić

    2015-01-01

    Tensile strength in rock mechanics is a characteristic more frequently determined in the indirect rather than direct way. This paper presents a historical review of the development of the indirect method called the Brazilian test, comprising the period from 1943 to the present day. It stresses some aspects which are essential for interpreting the results of the Brazilian test due to the different degrees of stress during the testing and the direct method of determining tensile strength. The e...

  4. Clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology: where we are

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pessoa Cavalcanti Lira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare clinical trials published in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology and in foreign journals of ophthalmology with respect to the number of citations and the quality of reporting [by applying the Consolidated Standards for Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement writing standards]. METHODS: The sample of this systematic review comprised the two Brazilian journals of ophthalmology indexed at Science Citation Index Expanded and six of the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor® according ISI. All clinical trials (CTs published from January 2009 to December 2010 at the Brazilians journals and a 1:1 randomized sample of the foreign journals were included. The primary outcome was the number of citations through the end of 2011. Subgroup analysis included language. The secondary outcome included likelihood of citation (cited at least once versus no citation, and presence or absence of CONSORT statement indicators. RESULTS: The citation counts were statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (10.50 compared with the Brazilian Group (0.45. The likelihood citation was statistically significantly higher (P<0.001 in the Foreign Group (20/20 - 100% compared with the Brazilian Group (8/20 - 40%. The subgroup analysis of the language influence in Brazilian articles showed that the citation counts were statistically significantly higher in the papers published in English (P<0.04. Of 37 possible CONSORT items, the mean for the Foreign Group was 20.55 and for the Brazilian Group was 13.65 (P<0.003. CONCLUSION: The number of citations and the quality of reporting of clinical trials in Brazilian journals of ophthalmology still are low when compared with the foreign journals of ophthalmology with highest Impact Factor®.

  5. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Moura Souza; Laura Augusta Barufaldi; Gabriela de Azevedo Abreu; Denise Tavares Giannini; Cecília Lacroix de Oliveira; Marize Melo dos Santos; Vanessa Sá Leal; Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calcul...

  6. An overview on the Brazilian orange juice production chain

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Marcio dos Santos; Irenilza de Alencar Nääs; Mario Mollo Neto; Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2013-01-01

    Brazil is the world's largest producer of oranges and uses more than 70% of the harvested fruits in the production of juices. The amount of processed orange is growing about 10% per year, confirming the trend of the Brazilian citrus for juice production. This research aimed to investigate the Brazilian orange juice production chain from 2005 to 2009. Data from the amount of frozen juice produced and exported, international price of orange juice, and intermediate transactions were assessed in ...

  7. Null subjects and agreement marks in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Eugênia Lammoglia; Varejão, Filomena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the relation between the presence of agreement marks and null subjects in contemporary European and Brazilian Portuguese based on very recent samples of speech collected in Lisbon and Rio de Janeiro. In order to bring additional evidence to support the analysis, we will briefly review the issues involving the Null Subject in Romance Languages and some diachronic and synchronic analyses which distinguish Brazilian and European Portuguese as far as null...

  8. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira Paulo; Song Elaine Horibe; Ferreira Lydia Masako

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conduct...

  9. The Brazilian Business World: the difficult adaptation to globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the internationalization of Brazilian businesses in the current decade. In the 1990s, Brazil embraced economic neoliberalism and promoted a huge opening up of its economy. At that time, Brazilian companies had to adapt rapidly. Twenty years later, the country has reinforced its presence in Latin America and has ensured a better position in the global markets, especially by through agricultural exports.

  10. Prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro R. Gil-Monte; Mary Sandra Carlotto; Sheila Gonçalves Câmara

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Burnout is a psychological response to chronic work-related stress of an interpersonal and emotional nature. Brazilian law have already contemplated burnout syndrome as a mental and behavioural disorder related to work. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of burnout in a sample of Brazilian teachers. Methods: The sample was composed of 714 teachers from 8 schools in Porto Alegre and its metropolitan area (Brazil). The levels of burnout were evaluate...

  11. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  12. Proposal for a Brazilian centre on alternative test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskes, Chantra; Sá-Rocha, Vanessa de Moura; Nunes, Jadir; Presgrave, Octavio; de Carvalho, Dermeval; Masson, Philippe; Rivera, Ekaterina; Coecke, Sandra; Kreysa, Joachim; Hartung, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several initiatives have recently taken place in Brazil in order to foster the creation of centers dedicated to alternatives to animal testing. In 2008, Vanessa Sá-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. Octavio Presgrave published a scientific article on "The Need for the Establishment of a Brazilian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods." Also in 2008, Jadir Nunes, together with Dermeval de Carvalho, prepared and presented a proposal to the Brazilian National Agency of Health Surveillance (ANVISA) for the creation of a Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. ECVAM and other European stakeholders have been involved in the initiatives. Furthermore, also in 2008, a new legislation has been adopted in Brazil regarding the use of animals for scientific purposes ("lei Arouca"). The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. However, the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. In order to streamline the different activities, Chantra Eskes acted as a facilitator by establishing a new joint proposal with the current Brazilian stakeholders, aimed at setting up a Brazilian Center on Alternative Test Methods. PMID:20383476

  13. [Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luiz Gonzaga Vaz; Zaterka, Schlioma

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress has been obtained since the First Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection held in 1995, in Belo Horizonte, MG, and justify a second meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on H. pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter and took place on June, 19-20, 2004 in São Paulo, SP. Thirty six delegates coming from 15 different Brazilian states including gastroenterologists, pathologists, microbiologists and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one the five main topics of the meeting: H. pylori and dyspepsia, H. pylori and NSAIDs, H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, H. pylori treatment, and H. pylori retreatment. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. The results were presented during a special session on the VI Brazilian Week of Digestive System, in Recife, PE (October 2004), and this publication represents the summary of the main recommendations and conclusions emerged from the meeting.

  14. Identification of organic and biodynamic grape and wine producers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Narjara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern about health and environmental aspects are increasingly present in our society. In 1976 José Lutzemberger publishes the first Brazilian ecological manifesto. In 2003 the Law 10.831 is approved, which conceptualizes and defines organic agriculture. In 1982, the first Biodynamic Agriculture meeting in Brazil happens, where the construction of the basis for the implementation of biodynamic in Brazilian agriculture started. In 1995 the Brazilian Association of Biodynamic Agriculture is created. The search for organic products – that doesn't use artificial mineral and chemical fertilizers and exploits fertility as a way of fighting diseases and pests – and biodynamic products in the agricultural production unit is understood as a kind of organism also take place in the wine industry. But knowing which producers are involved in this type of activity is still a difficult task for the community, especially due to the informality of some agents. Thus, this paper proposes to identify organic and biodynamic wine producers in southern Brazil; as well as the tools and policies which have encouraged farmers to adopt these practices. Finally, understanding the main obstacles producers find dealing with certifications mechanisms. This region was chosen for being the largest grape and wine producing in the country.

  15. Space Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  16. The regional (state level) importance of the agribusiness GDP in the Brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, J. J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Following Furtuoso and Guilhoto (2003) the GDP of the Brazilian Agribusiness is estimated to be around 27% of the Brazilian GDP in 2000, and the latest numbers show that it could be reaching 30% of the Brazilian GDP in 2003. Despite its importance for the Brazilian economy as a whole, the size of the Brazilian territory and the regional differences draws attention for the fact that the importance of the agribusiness is not uniform over the Brazilian regions, and if the agribusiness is also di...

  17. Brazilian ground pearl damaging blackberry, raspberry and blueberry in Brazil Pérola-da-terra causando danos em amoreira-preta, framboeseira e mirtileiro no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Caio Fábio Stoffel Efrom; Marcos Botton; Geraldine de Andrade Meyer

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian ground pearl, Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Wille, 1922) (Hemiptera: Margarodidae), is a subterranean, polyphagous scale insect native of Southern Brazil that feeds on a variety of different vineyard plant species (Vitis spp.). In this study, it is reported three new plant hosts of the species. In 2007 and 2010, infested plants were documented in the towns of Farroupilha (29°14'34"S, 51°23'20"W) and Vacaria (28°26'30"S, 50°52'59"W) in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Specimens of the gr...

  18. Space Microbiology

    OpenAIRE

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotic...

  19. Time : space.

    OpenAIRE

    M Crang

    2005-01-01

    Spaces of Geographical Thought examines key ideas like space and place - which inform the geographic imagination. The text: discusses the core conceptual vocabulary of human geography: agency: structure; state: society; culture: economy; space: place; black: white; man: woman; nature: culture; local: global; and time: space; explains the significance of these binaries in the constitution of geographic thought; and shows how many of these binaries have been interrogated and re-imagined in more...

  20. Multipurpose Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  1. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  2. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents – 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil’s North and Northeast regions

  3. Gamma radiation measurements in Brazilian commercial granites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Mosquera, B.; Carvalho, C.; Macario, K. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Gamma radiation from radionuclides which are characterized by half lives comparable to the age of the earth, such as 40 K and the radionuclides from the 238 U and 232 Th series, and their decay products, represent the main terrestrial source of irradiation to the human body. Their concentrations vary for different types of rocks, where high radiation levels are associated with igneous rocks such as granite. Thorium, uranium and potassium concentrations of granitic rocks are intimately related to their mineral compositions and general petrologic features. Then, these features associated with effects of weathering and metamorphism produce expressive alterations in the relationship between the natural radionuclides (Th, U, K, Th/U and Th/K). Consequently, the measurements of thorium, uranium, and potassium concentrations of different granite samples result on individual differentiation sequences. From the 232 Th, 238 U and 40 K activity concentrations obtained for each sample, it is possible to evaluate their respective dose rates in air, when these stones are used as tiling rocks. These results are of great interest in the environmental radiological protection study, since granites are widely used as building and ornamental materials, including as indoor covering. In this way, the Laboratory of Radioecology (L.A.R.A.) of the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (I.F. -U.F.F.) has been performing analyzes on more than one hundred differ ent types of the main Brazilian commercial granites in last two years [1]. Using NaI and HP Ge gamma-ray spectrometers to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides in these samples, the annual effective dose rates and the gamma activity concentration index have been evaluated and compared to the limits proposed by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and European Commission (E.C.). In addition, the correlations between thorium

  4. ERICA: prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria Neto, José Rocha; Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; Olandoski, Marcia; Gonçalves, Luis Gonzaga de Oliveira; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano; Bloch, Katia Vergetti

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the distribution of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in Brazilian adolescents, as well as the prevalence of altered levels of such parameters. METHODS Data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA) were used. This is a country-wide, school-based cross-sectional study that evaluated 12 to 17-year old adolescents living in cities with over 100,000 inhabitants. The average and distribution of plasma levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides were evaluated. Dyslipidemia was determined by levels of total cholesterol ≥ 170 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol ≥ 130 mg/dl, HDL cholesterol < 45 mg/dL, or triglycerides ≥ 130 mg/dl. The data were analyzed by gender, age, and regions in Brazil. RESULTS We evaluated 38,069 adolescents - 59.9% of females, and 54.2% between 15 and 17 years. The average values found were: total cholesterol = 148.1 mg/dl (95%CI 147.1-149.1), HDL cholesterol = 47.3 mg/dl (95%CI 46.7-47.9), LDL cholesterol = 85.3 mg/dl (95%CI 84.5-86.1), and triglycerides = 77.8 mg/dl (95%CI 76.5-79.2). The female adolescents had higher average levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol, without differences in the levels of triglycerides. We did not observe any significant differences between the average values among 12 to 14 and 15- to 17-year old adolescents. The most prevalent lipid alterations were low HDL cholesterol (46.8% [95%CI 44.8-48.9]), hypercholesterolemia (20.1% [95%CI 19.0-21.3]), and hypertriglyceridemia (7.8% [95%CI 7.1-8.6]). High LDL cholesterol was found in 3.5% (95%CI 3.2-4.0) of the adolescents. Prevalence of low HDL cholesterol was higher in Brazil's North and Northeast regions. CONCLUSIONS A significant proportion of Brazilian adolescents has alterations in their plasma lipids. The high prevalence of low HDL cholesterol and hypertriglyceridemia, especially in Brazil's North and Northeast regions, must be

  5. ERICA: prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuschnir, Fábio Chigres; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Solé, Dirceu; Costa, Eduardo; Felix, Mara Morelo Rocha; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Kuschnir, Maria Cristina Caetano

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional, national, school-based study with adolescents from 12 to 17 years old, participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). The study stratified the sample by region and grouped according to schools and classes with representativeness to the set of cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants of the Country, macro-regions, capitals, and Federal District. A questionnaire collected data through a self-filled in method. We calculated the prevalences and their confidence intervals of 95% (95%CI) according to sex, age group, type of school and skin color. RESULTS Between 2013 and 2014, 74,589 adolescents were evaluated, 55.3% of the female sex. The total prevalence of active asthma was of 13.1% (95%CI 12.1-13.9), being higher in girls (14.8%; 95%CI 13.7-16.0) when compared to boys (11.2%; 95%CI 10.3-12.2) in all geographical strata examined. It was also higher between students of private schools (15.9%; 95%CI 14.2-17.7) when compared to public ones (12.4%; 95%CI 11.4-13.4). It was higher in the Southeast region (14.5%; 95%CI 12.9-16.1), and in the city of Sao Paulo (16.7%; 95%CI 14.7-18.7). The lowest prevalence was observed in North region (9.7%; 95%CI 9.7-10.5), and in Teresina (6.3%; 95%CI 4.9-7.7). The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma was of 8.7% (95%CI 8.2-9.1); higher in the North region (13.5%; 95%CI 12.7-14.2), and in Porto Alegre (19.8%; 95%CI 17.5-22.3). It was lower in the Midwest (6.9%; 95%CI 6.0-7.8), and in Cuiaba (4.8%; 95%CI 3.8-5.9). We found no significant difference in the expression of this rate between the sexes, as well as in other variables evaluated by the study. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of asthma in Brazilian adolescents is high. Rates of active asthma and physician-diagnosed asthma vary widely in different regions and capitals evaluated by the ERICA. These results may assist in the

  6. Koszul spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglund, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We prove that a nilpotent space is both formal and coformal if and only if it is rationally homotopy equivalent to the derived spatial realization of a graded commutative Koszul algebra. We call such spaces Koszul spaces and show that the rational homotopy groups and the rational homology of...... iterated loop spaces of Koszul spaces can be computed by applying certain Koszul duality constructions to the cohomology algebra. - See more at: http://www.ams.org/journals/tran/2014-366-09/S0002-9947-2014-05935-7/#sthash.hc29cqck.dpuf...

  7. High frequency of porcine norovirus infection in finisher units of Brazilian pig-production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia F N; Alfieri, Alice F; Barry, Aline F; de Arruda Leme, Raquel; Gardinali, Noemi R; van der Poel, Wim H M; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus (NoV) is a member of the Caliciviridae family and is considered an emerging human enteric pathogen. NoVs are detected in farm animals such as cattle, sheep and pigs. Porcine NoV (PoNoV) is widespread worldwide, but frequency of infection is often low. This study aimed to investigate the natural PoNoV infection from adult animals of an important Brazilian pig-production region. Faecal samples (n = 112) of asymptomatic pigs aged 9 to 24 weeks old were collected from 16 grower-to-finish herds located in Paraná state, Brazilian Southern region, and evaluated for PoNoV presence. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was performed using specific primers that target a conserved region of the virus capsid gene (VP1). PoNoV was detected in 58 (51.8%) of the 112 faecal samples and in 14 (87.5%) of the 16 herds evaluated. Six of the obtained amplicons were submitted to phylogenetic genotyping analysis. The higher nucleotide (86.5-97.4%) and amino acid (100%) similarities of the sequences in this study were with the representative strains of the porcine NoV genogroup II genotype 11 (PoNoV GII-11). These results reveal that PoNoV infection is endemic in one of the most important pork production areas of Brazil and that the PoNoV GII-11 is prevalent in this region.

  8. Phylogeography of the Bothrops jararaca complex (Serpentes: Viperidae): past fragmentation and island colonization in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin, Felipe G; Monzel, Markus; Echeverrigaray, Sergio; Bonatto, Sandro L

    2006-11-01

    The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is one of the world's major biodiversity hotspots and is threatened by a severe habitat loss. Yet little is known about the processes that originated its remarkable richness of endemic species. Here we present results of a large-scale survey of the genetic variation at the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of the pitviper, jararaca lancehead (Bothrops jararaca), and two closely related insular species (Bothrops insularis and Bothrops alcatraz), endemic of this region. Phylogenetic and network analyses revealed the existence of two well-supported clades, exhibiting a southern and a northern distribution. The divergence time of these two phylogroups was estimated at 3.8 million years ago, in the Pliocene, a period of intense climatic changes and frequent fragmentation of the tropical rainforest. Our data also suggest that the two groups underwent a large size expansion between 50,000 and 100,000 years ago. However, the southern group showed a more marked signal of population size fluctuation than the northern group, corroborating evidences that southern forests may have suffered a more pronounced reduction in area in the late Pleistocene. The insular species B. alcatraz and B. insularis presented very low diversity, each one sharing haplotypes with mainland individuals placed in different subclades. Despite their marked morphological and behavioural uniqueness, these two insular species seem to have originated very recently and most likely from distinct costal B. jararaca populations, possibly associated with late Pleistocene or Holocene sea level fluctuations. PMID:17054497

  9. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book......Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...

  10. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  11. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  12. Environmental Discourses in Organizations: the Case of a Brazilian Mobile Telecommunications Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre de Pádua Carrieri

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse configurations on the environmental theme in business organizations and its relevance to the understanding of the inclusion of ecological discourses in the discourses of organizational members. A case study into a Brazilian telecommunications company offers empirical evidence. It begins with the understanding that organizations adopt several strategies in an attempt to disseminate a certain environmental discourse. As these efforts share space with other pressures, a fragmented discourse emerges. In this paper, the pressures of the environmental theme on organizations are discussed in order to understand this process. The second part of the argument focuses on the context of the case study – Brazilian organizations – and, afterwards, the third part deals with ecological discourses in their insertions in organizational interests. The data of the case study were collected through documental research and 40 semi-structured interviews. The analysis was applied based on Discourse Analysis. In conclusion, an ambiguous discourse configuration was shown that offer elements for the understanding that philanthropy, legal obligation and organizational competitiveness need to be used together to offer legitimacy to the theme of environmental responsibility in business organizations.

  13. Validity evidence of the brazilian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víviam Vargas de Barros

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mindfulness is a skill that allows the practitioner to expand an existing space between stimulus and response, so he/she may make more conscious choices which in turn prevents the perpetuation of dysfunctional patterns of behaviors, contributing to the improvement of his/her well-being. The goal of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS in a sample with 395 participants divided into smokers, people from the general population, college students and meditators. They answered the MAAS and the Psychological Well-Being Scale (PWBS. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted to test the factor structure of the MAAS. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and split half were respectively assessed with Cronbach's α and correlation coefficients. Construct validity was examined by correlating the MAAS with psychological well-being. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing the meditators' scores on the MAAS with the scores of other participants. After the exploratory factor analysis, the Brazilian MAAS remained a unidimensional scale. Reliability [α = .83; split half = .67 and test-retest = .80 (p < .001] and validity measures were adequate, except the criterion validity which was not confirmed in the mentioned sample.

  14. Mixing carrots and sticks to conserve forests in the Brazilian Amazon: a spatial probabilistic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Börner, Jan; Marinho, Eduardo; Wunder, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Annual forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon had in 2012 declined to less than 5,000 sqkm, from over 27,000 in 2004. Mounting empirical evidence suggests that changes in Brazilian law enforcement strategy and the related governance system may account for a large share of the overall success in curbing deforestation rates. At the same time, Brazil is experimenting with alternative approaches to compensate farmers for conservation actions through economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services, at various administrative levels. We develop a spatially explicit simulation model for deforestation decisions in response to policy incentives and disincentives. The model builds on elements of optimal enforcement theory and introduces the notion of imperfect payment contract enforcement in the context of avoided deforestation. We implement the simulations using official deforestation statistics and data collected from field-based forest law enforcement operations in the Amazon region. We show that a large-scale integration of payments with the existing regulatory enforcement strategy involves a tradeoff between the cost-effectiveness of forest conservation and landholder incomes. Introducing payments as a complementary policy measure increases policy implementation cost, reduces income losses for those hit hardest by law enforcement, and can provide additional income to some land users. The magnitude of the tradeoff varies in space, depending on deforestation patterns, conservation opportunity and enforcement costs. Enforcement effectiveness becomes a key determinant of efficiency in the overall policy mix. PMID:25650966

  15. Taking the (southern) waters: science, slavery, and nationalism at the Virginia springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Lauren E

    2011-04-01

    'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled--indeed, fostered--white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' pro-slavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged pro-slavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor.

  16. Taking the (southern) waters: science, slavery, and nationalism at the Virginia springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFauci, Lauren E

    2011-04-01

    'Taking the (southern) waters' argues that, in the pre-Civil War period, the space of Virginia's mineral water resorts and the philosophy of southern hydropathic medicine enabled--indeed, fostered--white southerners' constructions of a 'nationalist,' pro-slavery ideology. In the first half of the paper, the author explains how white southern health-seekers came to view the springs region as a medicinal resource peculiarly designed for the healing of southern diseases and for the restoration of white southern constitutions; in the second half, she shows how physical and social aspects of the resorts, such as architectural choices and political events, supported and encouraged pro-slavery ideologies. Taken together, these medical-social analyses reveal how elite white southerners in the antebellum period came to associate the health of their peculiarly 'southern' bodies with the future health of an independent southern nation, one that elided black bodily presence at the same time that its social structures and scientific apparatuses relied upon enslaved black labor. PMID:21563000

  17. Energy Trade in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document deals with possible energy growth in Southern African countries. This region possesses substantial energy resources (including fossil fuels), but because of political instability, government intervention, financial paralysis and lack of adequate transportation infrastructure, this region faces problems in satisfying energy needs. Two key international actions, namely the South African Development Community (SADC) Energy Protocol and the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) are expected to enhance energy trade and promote economic development. (TEC)

  18. Alport syndrome in southern Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, U; Hertz, Jens Michael; Wieslander, J;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency.......The aim of the present investigation is to study the epidemiology of Alport syndrome in southern Sweden, to search for mutations in the COL4A5 gene and to estimate the mutation frequency....

  19. Unemployment Risk in Southern Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Stavros Rodokanakis

    2010-01-01

    The basic aim of this paper is to investigate the impact that educational level of individuals and participation in training programmes have on their job prospects in Southern Greece (namely the regions of Southern Aegean and Crete) during the implementation of the first Community Support Framework (1989-1993). We try to see whether the educational level itself and participation in training programmes increased the chances of finding a job. More specifically, we research what are the social a...

  20. MULES IN SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: REVISITED

    OpenAIRE

    Garrett, Martin A., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    This article provides additional empirical evidence concerning the choice of the mule as the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production in the latter 19th and early 20th century. While the mule was uniquely suited to the crops and climate of the region, two divergent arguments have been presented as to why the mule was the dominant draft animal in southern agricultural production. This research reevaluates these arguments and provides evidence that it was, in fact, the characte...

  1. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  2. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  3. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  4. Astronomy in Brazilian music and poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas Mourão, Ronaldo Rogério

    2011-06-01

    The rôle of astronomy in the Brazilian cultural diversity -though little known world- has been enormous. Thus, the different forms of popular music and erudite, find musical compositions and lyrics inspired by the stars, the eclipses in rare phenomena such as the transit of Venus in front of the sun in 1882, the appearance of Halley's Comet in 1910, in the Big Bang theory. Even in the carnival parades of the blocks at the beginning of the century astronomy was present. More recently, the parade of 1997, the samba school Unidos do Viradouro, under the direction of Joãozinho Trinta, offered a new picture of the first moments of the creation of the universe to join in the white and dark in the components of their school, the idea of matter and anti-matter that reigned in the early moments of the creation of the universe in an explosion of joy. Examples in classical music include Dawn of Carlos Gomes and Carta Celeste by Almeida Prado. Unlike The Planets by Gustav Holst -who between 1914 and 1916 composed a symphonical tribute to the solar system based on astrology- Almeida Prado composed a symphony that is not limited to the world of planets, penetrating the deep cosmos of galaxies. Using various resources of the technique for the piano on the clusters and static movements, violent conflicts between the records of super acute and serious instrument, harpejos cross, etc . . .

  5. Export potential of Brazilian industrial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno César Pino Oliveira de Araújo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the recent astonishing export growth in Brazil came from firms which already exported. The export base was not able to grow at the same pace. Since expanding the export base may have several positive effects on firms' productivity and size, in this paper we provide a four-level classification of Brazilian industrial firms according to their potential to export, and we identify a subset of non-exporting firms which are potential exporters. The effects of export stimulating policies may be improved by focusing more closely on these firms.O recente crescimento das exportações no Brasil se baseou fortemente naquelas firmas já exportadoras, e a base exportadora não conseguiu acompanhar o mesmo ritmo de crescimento. Considerando que expandir a base exportadora pode ter efeitos positivos sobre a produtividade e tamanho das firmas, neste artigo classificamos as firmas industriais brasileiras em quatro níveis de acordo com o potencial exportador, e especialmente identificamos um subconjunto de firmas que não exportam mas que são potenciais exportadoras. Os efeitos das políticas de promoção às exportações podem ser maximizados se elas forem focalizadas nestas firmas.

  6. Dementia in Parkinson's disease: a Brazilian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Baldivia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of dementia associated with Parkinson's disease (PD-D in a Brazilian sample adopting clinical and diagnostic procedures recommended by the Movement Disorders Society (MDS. Sixty-seven patients were consecutively submitted to neurological, neuropsychological and functional examinations. PD-D was established according to MDS clinical criteria (Level II and clinical procedures for PD-D (Level I and prevalence rate was compared between the levels adopted. Ten patients (14.9% were diagnosed as demented by Level I criteria whereas sixteen (23.8% were diagnosed based on Level II criteria. Level I criteria had low sensitivity in detecting PD-D (31.25%, but greater specificity (90.19. The PD-D group had significantly worse performance on all neuropsychological tests, were older (p<0.001, had an older age of onset ofdisease (p<0.01, had lower educational level (p<0.02 and had higher scores on functional scales. Current age (p=0.046 and Hoehn & Yahr score (p=0.048 were predictors for developing PD-D.

  7. BRCA1 mutations in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Javert Lourenço

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BRCA1 mutations are known to be responsible for the majority of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers in women with early onset and a family history of the disease. In this paper we present a mutational survey conducted in 47 Brazilian patients with breast/ovarian cancer, selected based on age at diagnosis, family history, tumor laterality, and presence of breast cancer in male patients. All 22 coding exons and intron-exon junctions were sequenced. Constitutional mutations were found in seven families, consisting of one insertion (insC5382 in exon 20 (four patients, one four base-pair deletion (3450-3453delCAAG in exon 11 resulting in a premature stop codon (one patient, one transition (IVS17+2T> C in intron 17 affecting a mRNA splicing site (one patient, and a C> T transition resulting in a stop-codon (Q1135X in exon 11 (one patient. The identification of these mutations which are associated to hereditary breast and ovarian cancers will contribute to the characterization of the mutational spectrum of BRCA1 and to the improvement of genetic counseling for familial breast/ovarian cancer patients in Brazil.

  8. Sleep habits in native brazilian bororo children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIMÃO RUBENS

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep behavior patterns in childhood are influenced by familial, cultural and environmental factors. In understanding sleep in Native Brazilian Bororo children, one should consider the influence of their culture on the child's sleep. This research analyzes sleep habits of Native Bororo children from the Meruri village, located in an Indian Reservation in the state of Mato Grosso. Fourty four children ( 24 M; 20 F were evaluated; ages ranged from one month to 10 years, with a mean age of 4.9 years. Sleep characteristics were assessed by means of a standard questionnaire applied to the mothers. Cosleeping - sleeping together with family members - was a remarkable finding, in every child 0-2 year old and in 81.5% in the 2-10 years group. The second characteristic was sleeping with many people in the same room. There was an average of 5.1 people per room in the younger group and 3.9 people in the older group

  9. Brazilian biodiversity for ornamental use and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Romão

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The exuberance of Brazilian flora has caused admiration since the arrival of the first navigators. Fifteen to twenty percent of plant species estimated for the planet are found in this country. Plant genetic resources are part of biodiversity with potential for use by human populations, and are linked to the culture of the people, establishing the traditional use or enabling an innovative use. In Brazil, the landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx was a pioneer in collecting, using, valuing and preserving native species that have been admired since the 16th century, although they were neglected in the following centuries due to the valuation of ornamental plants from Europe. Between 1930 and 1960, he carried out landscaping projects that became emblematic for the development of landscaping in the 20th century. The analysis of the trajectory of the landscape architect, the 22 projects he carried out during that period, as well as the genebank structured by him, reveal significant numbers in terms of conservation.

  10. Brazilian energy balance 2009 - year 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: Chapter 1 - Energy Analysis and Aggregated Data - presents energy highlights per source in 2008 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2008; Chapter 2 - Energy Supply and Demand by Source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; Chapter 3 - Energy Consumption by Sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; Chapter 4 - Energy Imports and Exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; Chapter 5 - Balance of Transformation Centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; Chapter 6 - Energy Resources and Reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2008, through graphs and tables; Chapter 7 - Energy and Socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - State Energy Data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  11. Accrual Anomaly in the Brazilian Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the phenomenon known as accrual anomaly in Brazil. In particular, we examine two hypotheses: (a that the earnings expectation included in the stock price fails to reflect the difference in persistence of the earnings components (accruals and cash flows; and (b that the construction of a hedge portfolio by taking a long (short position in assets with low (high accruals generates consistently abnormal returns. The data set includes nonfinancial firms listed on the BM&FBOVESPA between 1990 and 2008. The empirical tests required conducting panel data regressions to identify the persistence of earnings and theircomponents; the Mishkin test to identify whether the market rationally prices earnings; and the composition of a zero-investment (hedge portfolio to analyze whether a trading strategy based on accruals consistently provides abnormal positive returns. The results indicate that the accrual component is not mispriced by the Brazilian market, and that a trading strategy based on accruals does not provide consistently positive returns. Although this evidence does not encourage arbitrage, the results are relevant from various perspectives. The methodology applied permitted identifying the quality of earnings and of their components, as well as association between the components of earnings and returns.

  12. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE AT BRAZILIAN INDUSTRIAL MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Quinello

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The industrial maintenance activities, generally, were considered as more one problem to the organizations. This image needs to change in Brazil , because this sector is part of the companies supply chain, is responsible to maintain equipments reliability and availability and it is a generator of the companies costs. This responsibility increases in a country where the productive capacity is in the limit, demanding extra efforts and where increasing pressures for reductions of the costs and restrictions techniques and human beings are increasing, ask to paradigms changes. The present study had for purpose to identify main canals of captation of the information used by the Brazilian industrial maintenance professionals, demonstrating systematic use of Competitive Intelligence can bring technological advance and profit of competitive advantage. For this, a qualitative research was made, using as research instruments the Delphi method, interviews with professionals and an experimental delineation C.I- Competitive Intelligence in a department-pilot (automotive sector.The results had shown to the use of formal and informal sources in different frequencies of access and the fragility in these departments in the not-systematic use of C.I, harming the above-mentioned challenges.

  13. Brazilian Propolis Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen Santos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antileishmanial and immunomodulatory effects of propolis collected in Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, were evaluated in Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis experimental infection. The antileishmanial effect of propolis on promastigote forms was verified by reducing growth and by promoting morphologic alterations observed by scanning electron microscopy. In in vitro immunomodulatory assays, macrophages were pretreated with propolis and then infected with L. (V. braziliensis. In vivo, supernatants from liver cells and peritoneal exudate of BALB/c mice pretreated with propolis and infected with Leishmania (107/mL promastigotes were collected, and TNF-α and IL-12 were measured by ELISA. Macrophages incubated with propolis showed a significant increase in interiorization and further killing of parasites. An increased TNF-α production was seen in mice pretreated with propolis, whereas IL-12 was downregulated during the infection. In conclusion, Brazilian propolis showed a direct action on the parasite and displayed immunomodulatory effects on murine macrophages, even though the parasite has been reported to affect the activation pathways of the cell. The observed effects could be associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (flavonoids, aromatic acids, and benzopyranes, di- and triterpenes, and essential oils found in our propolis sample.

  14. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions. PMID:27367607

  15. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

  16. The configuration of the Brazilian scientific field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Rita B; Aragão, Erika; de Sousa, Luis E P Fernandes; Santana, Taris M; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2014-03-01

    This article describes the configuration of the scientific field in Brazil, characterizing the scientific communities in every major area of knowledge in terms of installed capacity, ability to train new researchers, and capacity for academic production. Empirical data from several sources of information are used to characterize the different communities. Articulating the theoretical contributions of Pierre Bourdieu, Ludwik Fleck, and Thomas Kuhn, the following types of capital are analyzed for each community: social capital (scientific prestige), symbolic capital (dominant paradigm), political capital (leadership in S & T policy), and economic capital (resources). Scientific prestige is analyzed by taking into account the volume of production, activity index, citations, and other indicators. To characterize symbolic capital, the dominant paradigms that distinguish the natural sciences, the humanities, applied sciences, and technology development are analyzed theoretically. Political capital is measured by presidency in one of the main agencies in the S & T national system, and research resources and fellowships define the economic capital. The article discusses the composition of these different types of capital and their correspondence to structural capacities in various communities with the aim of describing the configuration of the Brazilian scientific field. PMID:24676181

  17. Brazilian energy balance 2010 - year 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy balance - BEB - is divided into eight chapters and ten annexes, whose contents are as follow: chapter 1 - energy analysis and aggregated data - presents energy highlights per source in 2009 and analyses the evolution of the internal offer of energy and its relationship with economic growth in 2009; chapter 2 - energy supply and demand by source - has the accountancy, per primary and secondary energy sources, of the production, import, export, variation of stocks, losses, adjustments, disaggregated total per socioeconomic sector in the country; chapter 3 - energy consumption by sector - presents the final energy consumption classified by primary and secondary source for each sector of the economy; chapter 4 - energy imports and exports - presents the evolution of the data on the import and export of energy and the dependence on external energy; chapter 5 - balance of transformation centers - presents the energy balances for the energy transformation centers including their losses; chapter 6 - energy resources and reserves - has the basic concepts use in the survey of resources and reserves of primary energy sources, with the evolution of the data from 1974 to 2009, through graphs and tables; chapter 7 - energy and socioeconomics - contains a comparison of energy, economic and population parameters, specific consumption, energy intensities, average prices and spending on petroleum imports; Chapter 8 - state energy data - presents energy data for the states by Federal Unit, main energy source production, energy installations, reserves and hydraulic potential. (author)

  18. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  19. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

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    Jorge Zaverucha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

  20. Implementing the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts

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    Isabella Lopes Monlleó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. High-quality clinical and genetic descriptions are crucial to improve knowledge of orofacial clefts and support specific healthcare polices. The objective of this study is to discuss the potential and perspectives of the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. Methods. From 2008 to 2010, clinical and familial information on 370 subjects was collected by geneticists in eight different services. Data was centrally processed using an international system for case classification and coding. Results. Cleft lip with cleft palate amounted to 198 (53.5%, cleft palate to 99 (26.8%, and cleft lip to 73 (19.7% cases. Parental consanguinity was present in 5.7% and familial history of cleft was present in 26.3% subjects. Rate of associated major plus minor defects was 48% and syndromic cases amounted to 25% of the samples. Conclusions. Overall results corroborate the literature. Adopted tools are user friendly and could be incorporated into routine patient care. The BDOC exemplifies a network for clinical and genetic research. The data may be useful to develop and improve personalized treatment, family planning, and healthcare policies. This experience should be of interest for geneticists, laboratory-based researchers, and clinicians entrusted with OC worldwide.

  1. DISPOSITION EFFECT AMONG BRAZILIAN EQUITY FUND MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pozzi Lucchesi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The disposition effect predicts that investors tend to sell winning stocks too soon and ride losing stocks too long. Despite the wide range of research evidence about this issue, the reasons that lead investors to act this way are still subject to much controversy between rational and behavioral explanations. In this article, the main goal was to test two competing behavioral motivations to justify the disposition effect: prospect theory and mean reversion bias. To achieve it, an analysis of monthly transactions for a sample of 51 Brazilian equity funds from 2002 to 2008 was conducted and regression models with qualitative dependent variables were estimated in order to set the probability of a manager to realize a capital gain or loss as a function of the stock return. The results brought evidence that prospect theory seems to guide the decision-making process of the managers, but the hypothesis that the disposition effect is due to mean reversion bias could not be confirmed.

  2. The territorial logic in brazilian health policy

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    Eliane Cristina Lopes Brevilheri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reflect on the territorial dimension has been addressed in the current Brazilian health policy. Provides an initial approximation of the theoretical discussion about the category territory and its implications for social policy. Then we analyze how this category was included in the principles and guidelines of the National Health System, deployed in key programs and normative instruments of health policy from 1990. It is concluded that: the territorial dimension was present from conception through SUS guideline regionalization of activities and services. In the main programs implemented in the 1990s, the territorial dimension had a character cutouts geographical and normative instruments gave centrality to the process of decentralization. However, from the 2000s, the regionalization strategy, pointing to the territorial perspective, gains greater significance. However, we still need to overcome the logic purely political-administrative and act so as to identify the real needs of the people, their potential, diversity and particularities, towards "used territory" referred to Milton Santos.

  3. Copepods and fishes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Vernon E.

    1998-06-01

    The Amazon basin comprises the largest river ecosystem in the world (7 million km 2) with annual high and low water peaks and a constant temperature near 29°C. Some 2000 fish species and 40 species of free-living copepods are known to occur in Amazonia. The free-living forms serve as food for most larval fishes and some adults, but they also transmit several parasites including representatives of the nematode family Camallanidae. About three dozen species of parasitic copepods have been described from the Brazilian Amazon. Females of Amazonian parasitic copepods are found on skin, gill filaments, gill rakers or within the nasal fossae. Parasitic copepods are found on fishes that are from a few millimeters long up to those over 2 m in length and they are usually quite host specific. All have body pigmentation in different patterns and colors (frequently blues, such as cerulean, cobalt, spectrum, smalt or campanula). It is suggested that the coloration serves to attract specific host fish. Copepods have evolved adaptations for attachment and feeding, especially in the second antennae and endopods. Examples of progenesis, phoresis and commensalism are shown. Some species produce pathology such as a tourniquet effect, hyperplasia, blood loss and anemia, and can kill fishes by limiting their respiration.

  4. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

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    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs, who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalization of OHTs, highlighting the triggering, limiting and conflicting aspects that exerted an influence on the historical progress of these professionals in Brazil. We have tested Abbott’s and Larson’s theory on professionalization, against the history of OHTs. A number of different dental corporative interests exerted an influence over professionalization, especially in discussions regarding the permissible activities of these professionals in the oral cavity of patients. With primary health care advances in Brazil, the importance of these professionals has once again come to the forefront. This seems to be a key point in the consolidation of OHTs in the area of human resources for health in Brazil.

  5. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  6. Comparative evaluation of two populations of Pseudophilothrips ichini as candidates for biological control of Brazilian peppertree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian peppertree, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is one of the worst invasive species in Florida. The thrips Pseudophilothrips ichini Hood (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae) is being considered as a potential biological control agent of Brazilian peppertree. Two populati...

  7. Brazilian Association of Technical Norms (ABNT); Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas (ABNT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Newton Reis de [Associacao Brasileira de Normas Tecnicas (ABNT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: newton.moura@petrobras.com.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents an overview on the main responsibilities as the only forum recognized by the brazilian government for coordination of technical normalization committees, and the administration of the process of elaboration of brazilian norms.

  8. Dominance of foreign citations in Brazilian orthopedics journals☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Yamaki, Vitor Nagai; Rosa, Rita de Cássia Rodrigues; de Barros, Rui Sergio Monteiro; Botelho, Nara Macedo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether there is any preference for citing journals from other countries to the detriment of Brazilian journals, in three Brazilian orthopedics journals. Methods All the references of articles published in 2011 by the journals Acta Ortopédica Brasileira, Coluna/Columna and Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia were evaluated to as certain how many of these came from Brazilian journals and how many from foreign journals. Results 3813 references distributed among 187 articles were analyzed. Out of this total, 306 (8.02%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no difference between the three journals analyzed. There were 76 articles (40.64%) without any citations of articles in Brazilian journals and only two articles (1%) cited more Brazilian articles than articles published elsewhere. Conclusion There is a need for Brazilian researchers to cite articles from Brazilian journals more often. PMID:26229879

  9. BETWEEN GOOD AND BAD SAVAGE: FICTION AND ALTERITY IN THE BRAZILIAN CINEMA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Gonçalves Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists in an analysis of the indians image on the brazilian, achieved through the study of how the indian character is built and disseminated through the brazilian fiction films.

  10. A CO Survey of the Southern Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfman, L.; May, J.; Luna, A.

    On December 12th 1982 the 1.2 mSouthern Millimeter Wave Telescope, an instrument specifically designed for CO surveys of molecular clouds in the Southern Galaxy, arrived Cerro Tololo after being constructed and tested atop the roof of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies by Columbia University staff and students, and by Universidad de Chile and NASA personnel. The telescope saw first light on December 22nd 1982, and has been operational ever since. During these years we have completed deep CO surveys of the Carina arm (Grabelsky et al. 1987), the IV galactic quadrant (Bronfman et al. 1988), the III galactic quadrant (May et al. 1993), and the galactic center (Bitran et al. 1997), contributing with a major fraction of the presently available galactic CO data. When combined with CO surveys of the I and II galactic quadrants obtained with its twin instrument, the Northern 1.2m Millimeter Wave Telescope now at the Center for Astrophysics, these data provided for the first time a complete, well sampled, and homogeneous picture of the molecular gas content of the Milky Way.

  11. Cassini observations of Saturn's southern polar cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arridge, C. S.; Jasinski, J. M.; Achilleos, N.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Khurana, K. K.; Lamy, L.; Leisner, J. S.; Roussos, E.; Russell, C. T.; Zarka, P.; Coates, A. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jones, G. H.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetospheric cusps are important sites of the coupling of a magnetosphere with the solar wind. The combination of both ground- and space-based observations at Earth has enabled considerable progress to be made in understanding the terrestrial cusp and its role in the coupling of the magnetosphere to the solar wind via the polar magnetosphere. Voyager 2 fully explored Neptune's cusp in 1989, but highly inclined orbits of the Cassini spacecraft at Saturn present the most recent opportunity to repeatedly study the polar magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet. In this paper we discuss observations made by Cassini during two passes through Saturn's southern polar magnetosphere. Our main findings are that (i) Cassini directly encounters the southern polar cusp with evidence for the entry of magnetosheath plasma into the cusp via magnetopause reconnection, (ii) magnetopause reconnection and entry of plasma into the cusp can occur over a range of solar wind conditions, and (iii) double cusp morphologies are consistent with the position of the cusp oscillating in phase with Saturn's global magnetospheric periodicities.

  12. Spatial Assessment of the Bioclimatic and Environmental Factors Driving Mangrove Tree Species’ Distribution along the Brazilian Coastline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arimatéa C. Ximenes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has one of the largest mangrove surfaces worldwide. Due to a wide latitudinal distribution, Brazilian mangroves can be found within a large range of environmental conditions. However, little attention has been given to the description of environmental variables driving the distribution of mangrove species in Brazil. In this study, we present a novel and unprecedented description of environmental conditions for all mangroves along the Brazilian coast focusing on species limits. We apply a descriptive statistics and data-driven approach using Self-Organizing Maps and we combine data from terrestrial and marine environmental geodatabases in a Geographical Information System. We evaluate 25 environmental variables (21 bioclimatic variables, three sea surface temperature derivates, and salinity. The results reveal three groups of correlated variables: (i air temperature derivates and sea surface temperature derivates; (ii air temperature, potential evapotranspiration and precipitation derivates; and (iii precipitation derivates, aridity and salinity. Our results unveil new locations of extreme values of temperature and precipitation. We conclude that Rhizophora harrisonii and Rhizophora racemosa are more limited by precipitation and aridity and that they do not necessarily follow a latitudinal gradient. Our data also reveal that the lowest air temperatures of the coldest month are not necessarily found at the southernmost limits of mangroves in Brazil; instead they are localized at the Mesoregion of Vale do Itajaí. However, the minimum sea surface temperature drops gradually with higher latitudes in the Brazilian southern hemisphere and is probably a better indicator for the decrease of species at the latitudinal limits of mangroves than the air temperature and precipitation.

  13. Comparative chemistry of propolis from eight brazilian localities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, A A; Negri, G; Salatino, A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo) type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1) black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state) and Pirenópolis (Goiás state); (2) green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state), Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state), Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state), and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state). The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose) in green propolis. PMID:23690840

  14. Assessment of the Economic Structure of Brazilian Agribusiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Moreira, Vilmar; Kureski, Ricardo; Pereira da Veiga, Claudimar

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an economic assessment of Brazilian agribusiness and its relationship with other economic sectors. It was found that, in 2011, agribusiness had a share of 18.45% (basic prices) and 19.77% (market prices) of Brazilian GDP. The tax burden of agribusiness (20.68%) was higher than that of other sectors (13.59%), despite agribusiness being a major contributor to the generation of foreign exchange, employment, and essential products, such as food. Brazilian agribusiness is a major employer, responsible for 29.39% of national employment. However, its average income is lower than in the other sectors of the Brazilian economy. Finally, agribusiness was found to be the biggest generator of foreign exchange, with a positive balance of trade. It was possible to conclude that agribusiness forms a strong link between agriculture and livestock, industry, and services in other economic sectors. For this reason, it can be said that the development of agribusiness is highly relevant to the process of Brazilian economic development and is therefore important to the progress of economic policies.

  15. Comparative Chemistry of Propolis from Eight Brazilian Localities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Righi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis is a complex honeybee product with resinous aspect, containing plant exudates and beeswax. Their color, texture, and chemical composition vary, depending on the location of the hives and local flora. The most studied Brazilian propolis is the green (alecrim-do-campo type, which contains mainly prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids. Other types of propolis are produced in Brazil, some with red color, others brown, grey, or black. The aim of the present work was to determine the chemical profiles of alcohol and chloroform extracts of eight samples of propolis, corresponding to six Brazilian regions. Methanol and chloroform extracts were obtained and analyzed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS and GC/MS. Two chemical profiles were recognized among the samples analyzed: (1 black Brazilian propolis, characterized chiefly by flavanones and glycosyl flavones, stemming from Picos (Piauí state and Pirenópolis (Goiás state; (2 green Brazilian propolis, characterized by prenylated phenylpropanoids and caffeoylquinic acids, stemming from Cabo Verde (Bahia state, Lavras and Mira Bela (Minas Gerais state, Pariquera-Açu and Bauru (São Paulo state, and Ponta Grossa (Paraná state. The present work represents the first report of prenylated flavonoids in Brazilian propolis and schaftoside (apigenin-8-C-glucosyl-6-C-arabinose in green propolis.

  16. Cited Brazilian papers in general surgery between 1970 and 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio L. Heldwein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify the most cited articles in general surgery published by Brazilian authors. INTRODUCTION: There are several ways for the international community to recognize the quality of a scientific article. Although controversial, the most widely used and reliable methodology to identify the importance of an article is citation analysis. METHODS: A search using the Institute for Scientific Information citation database (Science Citation Index Expanded was performed to identify highly cited Brazilian papers published in twenty-six highly cited general surgery journals, selected based on their elevated impact factors, from 1970 to 2009. Further analysis was done on the 65 most-cited papers. RESULTS: We identified 1,713 Brazilian articles, from which nine papers emerged as classics (more than 100 citations received. For the Brazilian contributions, a total increase of about 21-fold was evident between 1970 and 2009. Although several topics were covered, articles covering trauma, oncology and organ transplantation were the most cited. The majority of classic studies were done with international cooperation. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified the most influential Brazilian articles published in internationally renowned general surgery journals.

  17. The dynamics of Brazilian protozoology over the past century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, M Carolina; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Mena-Chalco, Jesus P

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian scientists have been contributing to the protozoology field for more than 100 years with important discoveries of new species such as Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. In this work, we used a Brazilian thesis database (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel) covering the period from 1987-2011 to identify researchers who contributed substantially to protozoology. We selected 248 advisors by filtering to obtain researchers who supervised at least 10 theses. Based on a computational analysis of the thesis databases, we found students who were supervised by these scientists. A computational procedure was developed to determine the advisors' scientific ancestors using the Lattes Platform. These analyses provided a list of 1,997 researchers who were inspected through Lattes CV examination and allowed the identification of the pioneers of Brazilian protozoology. Moreover, we investigated the areas in which researchers who earned PhDs in protozoology are now working. We found that 68.4% of them are still in protozoology, while 16.7% have migrated to other fields. We observed that support for protozoology by national or international agencies is clearly correlated with the increase of scientists in the field. Finally, we described the academic genealogy of Brazilian protozoology by formalising the "forest" of Brazilian scientists involved in the study of protozoa and their vectors over the past century. PMID:26814646

  18. luxury marketing: internationalization strategies for brazilian jewelry companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaline Gasperini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to make an analysis of the luxury market and of Brazilian jewelry companies. The main objective is to analyze the attraction of external marketing to luxury brands internationalization, emphasizing Brazilian jewelry companies. First, the national environment of luxury market an jewelry in Brazil is presented. In sequence, it will address the possible goals, risks and opportunities that internationalized jewelry companies face in the expansion process and its difficulties in foreign markets. Finally, some forms of internationalization will be presented based on the case of the Brazilian jewelry companies H Stern and Talento Jóias. The methodology used in this article is exploratory, with documental analysis and in depth interview. As theoretical foundations for the article, the themes luxury, exportations, company internationalization and global market were addressed. The main author(s researched were: Allérès (2006, Almeida (2007, Czinkota (2001, Grande (2007, Lipovetsky e Roux (2005. Among the main conclusions, Brazilian jewelry companies have great advantages compared to other countries, having the possibility to use Brazilian nature resources, like precious stones and gems, thus, it become more interesting and viable to innovate and conquer external market. Besides, jewelry market attractions make several entrepreneurs interested in opening business in this field, and lately internationalize them, such as H Stern case.

  19. Brazilian scientific production on herbal medicines used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Castro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to critically analyze the scientific production published in specialized Brazilian journals concerning the use of medicinal plants in dentistry. A literature review was carried out using an indirect documentation technique by means of a bibliographical study. Four examiners performed independent searches in Brazilian journals of medicinal plants indexed in the database SciELO (Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy; Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants; Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences; and Acta Botanica Brasilica using the descriptors "herbal medicine/phytotherapy" or "medicinal plants" and "dentistry ". The articles published from 2002 to 2012 addressing the use of medicinal plants in dentistry were included and analyzed. The searches based on the descriptors and reading of abstracts, resulted in 155 articles. Of these, 44 were read in full and a total of 16 publications met the eligibility criteria and were selected. Laboratory studies predominated (10 and were limited to the evaluation of antimicrobial properties by means of tests for determining inhibitory, fungicidal and bactericidal concentrations. Three literature reviews and only one clinical trial with no blinding and randomization were found. It is highlighted the need for better methodological designs in the researches and greater production of clinical or in vivo studies.

  20. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

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    Érica C. R. Gorga

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders or representatives of the controlling family or group. Many firms have zero independent directors. At the same time, minority shareholders have legal rights to representation on the boards of many firms, and this representation is reasonably common. Financial disclosure lags behind world standards. Only a minority of firms provide a statement of cash flows or consolidated financial statements. However, many provide English language financial statements, and an English language version of their website. Audit committees are uncommon, but many Brazilian firms use an alternate approach to ensuring financial statement accuracy – establishing a fiscal board. A minority of firms provide takeout rights to minority shareholders on a sale of control. Controlling shareholders often use shareholders agreements to ensure control.