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Sample records for brazilian southeastern coastal

  1. Fishermen's local ecological knowledge on Southeastern Brazilian coastal fishes: contributions to research, conservation, and management

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    Renato A. M. Silvano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed fishermen's local ecological knowledge (LEK about the feeding habits, trophic interactions, habitats, fishing grounds, migration, and reproduction of nine coastal fishes in Búzios Island, southeastern Brazilian coast. We interviewed 39 fishermen using standardized questionnaires. Fishermen's LEK on habitat use and trophic interactions for the studied fishes agreed with the scientific literature, allowing the organization of reef and pelagic food webs. The interviewed fishermen mentioned that submerged rock formations would be important habitats for some large commercial fishes, such as Seriola spp., Caranx latus and Epinephelus marginatus. In some instances there was no scientific data to be compared with fishermen's LEK, and thus this kind of knowledge would be the only available source of information, such as for reproduction and migration of most of the studied fishes. We suggest herein ways to apply fishermen's LEK to develop and improve fisheries management measures, such as zoning of marine space, marine protected areas, and closed fishing seasons. Fishermen's LEK may be an important and feasible support to fisheries management and co-management.Analisamos o conhecimento ecológico local (CEL dos pescadores sobre os hábitos alimentares, interações tróficas, habitats, locais de pesca, migração e reprodução de nove peixes costeiros na Ilha de Búzios, litoral sudeste do Brasil. Entrevistamos 39 pescadores, utilizando questionários padronizados. As informações sobre uso do habitat e interações tróficas entre os peixes estudados com base no CEL dos pescadores foram condizentes com a literatura científica, permitindo a organização de teias tróficas para os habitats recifal e pelágico. Os pescadores entrevistados mencionaram que formações de rochas submersas seriam habitats importantes para alguns peixes comerciais de grande porte, como Seriola spp., Caranx latus e Epinephelus marginatus. Em algumas circunst

  2. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

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    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  3. Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the extent of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina.

  4. Chinese tallow: Invading the southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Chinese tallow is an ornamental tree with colorful autumn foliage that can survive full sunlight and shade, flooding, drought, and in some cases fire. To horticulturists this kind of tree sounds like a dream, but to ecologists, land managers, and land owners this kind of tree can be a nightmare, especially when it invades an area and takes over native vegetation. Chinese tallow (Triadica sebifera), a nonnative tree from China, is currently transforming the southeastern Coastal Plain.Over the last 30 years, Chinese tallow has become a common tree in old fields and bottomland swamps of coastal Louisiana. Several studies at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC), Lafayette, Louisiana, are aimed at understanding the factors that contribute to Chinese tallow growth, spread, and management.When tallow invades, it eventually monopolizes an area, creating a forest without native animal or plant species. This tree exhibits classic traits of most nonnative invaders: it is attractive so people want to distribute it, it has incredible resiliency, it grows quickly and in a variety of soils, and it is resistant to pests.In the coastal prairie of Louisiana and Texas, Chinese tallow can grow up to 30 feet and shade out native sun-loving prairie species. The disappearing of prairie species is troublesome because less than 1% of original coastal prairie remains, and in Louisiana, less than 500 of the original 2.2 million acres still exist.Tallow reproduces and grows quickly and can cause large-scale ecosystem modification (fig. 1). For example, when it completely replaces native vegetation, it has a negative effect on birds by degrading the habitat. Besides shading out grasses that cattle like to eat, it can also be potentially harmful to humans and animals because of its berries (fig. 2) and plant sap that contain toxins. There is some concern its leaves may shed toxins that change the soil chemistry and make it difficult for other plants to grow.

  5. Geological provenance of Quaternary deposits from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)]. E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.br; Veiga, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Carvalho, C. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil); Gomes, P.R.S. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n, Gragoata, Campus da Praia Vermelha, 24210-346, Niteroi, R.J. (Brazil)

    2007-05-01

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of beach sand deposits were performed with the aim of understanding the provenance and transport processes of sediments along the coastal zone of three Brazilian States. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the mineralogical properties of beach sand minerals, which reflect the geological history of transport and sorting processes. A considerable positive correlation with the geological evolution of these Quaternary coastal deposits was observed.

  6. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Antropologia; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coimbra, M.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Elmore, D. [Purdue Univ., IN (United States). Purdue Rare Isotopes Measurement Lab.

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by {sup 14} C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  7. Persistent organic pollutants in liver of Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii) from southeastern coast of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascaes, M J; Oliveira, R T; Ubarana, M M; Sato, R M; Baldassin, P; Colabuono, F I; Leonel, J; Taniguchi, S; Weber, R R

    2014-09-15

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 14 livers from specimens of the Brazilian sharpnose shark (Rhizoprionodon lalandii), which is an important economic resource for small-scale fisheries on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The following concentrations (lipid weight) of POPs were found: ∑PCBs: 1019±267 ng g(-1); ∑DDTs: 111±40 ng g(-1) and ∑PBDEs: 10.4±4.78. PCB 153 made the greatest contribution to ∑PCB (21.4%), followed by PCB 138 (14.6%) and PCB 180 (9.94%). Among chlorinated pesticides, only the p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDD isomers had concentrations above the detection limit. Moreover, levels above the detection limit were found only for PBDE congeners 47 and 100 (BDEs 47>99). On average, BDE 47 accounted for 88% of the total PBDE load. The feeding habits of the Brazilian sharpnose shark close to the Brazilian coastline are likely the most important difference regarding the accumulation of POPs in comparison to oceanic species that feed in deeper waters. Thus, this species may be used to evaluate the pollution of coastal areas as well as human exposure to contaminants, as the Brazilian sharpnose shark is a frequently used for human consumption. Further studies in other areas of Brazil and involving other species are needed to clarify the mechanisms and potential impact of POPs, which can affect the biology of different organisms and cause population declines. PMID:25127497

  8. Immature condensate from southeastern Mediterranean coastal plain, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Aizenshtat, Z.; Goldberg, M.

    1985-06-01

    A highly unsaturated, sulfur-rich, naphthenic condensate was discovered in association with dry biogenic gas in the upper Tertiary of the southeastern Mediterranean coastal plain of Israel. Geologic and geochemical evidence suggests that this condensate was generated in thermally immature rocks. Similar material has been reported from the upper Tertiary of the western Mediterranean. We suggest that the immature condensates were formed from resin-rich, terrestrially derived organic matter. Under an equivalent thermal regime, marine material derived primarily from algae and bacteria will produce heavy crude, rich in asphaltenes.

  9. Forest transpiration from sap flux density measurements in a Southeastern Coastal Plain riparian buffer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  10. Topographic registers of paleo-valleys on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf

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    Luis Américo Conti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of paleo-incised-valleys in the São Paulo State region of the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf is presented in this study in relation to the post Last Glacial Maximum (LGM sea-level rises based on the submarine topography modeled by a detailed Digital Elevation Model and evidences noted in high resolution seismic profiles. The hypothesis that has guided this study is that the set of paleo-valley characteristics (i.e. the fluvial parameters of modern coastal drainage systems, the topographical shape and dimensions of the valleys and of the subsurface channels may indicate aspects of the relation between the influence of the fluvial and the eustatic variation regime in geomorphological-stratigraphic registers. Models described in the literature sustain the view that faster marine transgressions tend to increase erosion in estuaries, which may explain the lack of registers of paleo-drainage both in topography and the sub-surface in areas with wider shelves. On the other hand, on narrower shelves, with a higher slope angle, the transgression process can preserve, or even enhance, the incised valley registers during shoreface retreat. In the area studied, we observed that the dimensions and form of the continental shelf varies from the northern to the southern part of the area, affecting aspects of the geomorphological registers of the submerged incised valleys.Este trabalho apresenta aspectos da relação entre a evolução da paleo-drenagem e evolução do nível do mar pós Último Máximo Glacial (UMG para a região da plataforma continental do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, foram analisados modelos topográficos de detalhe da região de Plataforma Continental a partir de Modelos Digitais de Terreno além de dados de subsuperfície obtidos a partir de linhas sísmicas de alta resolução. A hipótese que guiou este trabalho é de que o conjunto de características relativas aos paleo-vales (i.e. sua relação com a rede de

  11. Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea Phytoplankton community characteristics in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINU P; SHAJU S S; MUHAMED ASHRAF P; MEENAKUMARI B

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing applications are important in the fisheries sector and efforts were on to improve the predic-tions of potential fishing zones using ocean color. The present study was aimed to investigate the phyto-plankton dynamics and their absorption properties in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea in different seasons during the year 2010 to 2011. The region exhibited 73 genera of phytoplankton from 19 orders and 41 families. The numerical abundance of phytoplankton varied from 14.235×103 to 55.075×106 cells/L. Centric diatoms dominated in the region and the largest family identified was Thalassiosiraceae with main genera asSkeletonemaspp.,Planktionellaspp.andThalassiosiraspp. Annual variations in abun-dance of phytoplankton showed a typical one-peak cycle, with the highest recorded during premonsoon season and the lowest during monsoon season. The species diversity index of phytoplankton exhibited low diversity during monsoon season. Phytoplankton with pigments Chlorophylla, Chlorophyllb, Chlorophyll c, peridinin, diadinoxanthin, fucoxanthin,β-carotene and phycoerythrobilin dominated in these waters. The knowledge on phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea forms a key parameter in bio-optical models of pigments and productivity and for the interpretation of remotely sensed ocean color data.

  12. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors

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    Goncalves C.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an evaluation of metals and As deposition in the Bertioga Channel (Santos Region, Southeastern Brazilian coast along the last 150 years, which corresponds to the main anthropogenic activity in the area. The studied area is located in the so-called Baixada Santista, where the main Brazilian harbor and one of the most important industrial centers of the country are located. This work consisted of sampling five sediment cores along this channel. The cores were sliced every 2 cm, and the samples were analyzed by ICP-OES to determine the levels of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and As. The enrichment factors (EF were calculated to identify the relative heavy-metal toxicity of the sediments and the anthropogenic contribution of the investigated elements. EFs indicated the absence of contamination for the heavy metals but a higher input of As in two cores (B2 and B5. According to the age models of the cores, this enrichment corresponds to the end of the 19th century, when Santos harbor was inaugurated, and to the 1970s, when Santos harbor activities expanded.

  13. Critical stress scenarios for a coastal aquifer in southeastern Italy

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    C. Cherubini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years the sustainable management of coastal water resources has become strategic, especially in southern Salento Peninsula (Apulia, where mal-performing management strategies adopted, together with the vulnerability of the hydrogeological system, have given rise to the deterioration of groundwater quality due to saltwater intrusion.

    In the study area there is the presence of multilevel shallow aquifer and a deep aquifer that interact by means of faults. The geological system is highly vulnerable to seawater intrusion so there is the need to adopt management strategies to avoid seawater intrusion phenomena. Nevertheless there is a lack of studies that analyze the methodology for the correct exploitation if the water resource in order to avoid further intrusion phenomena.

    This paper combines a density-driven, flow numerical model (Seawat v.4 with a fault conceptual and hydrologic model to simulate saltwater intrusion phenomenon in the deep as well as in the shallow aquifer of the Salento area. By means of the individuation of an indicator parameter of groundwater quality, it has been possible to simulate different scenarios of exploitation and therefore to define critical stress scenarios for both aquifers.

    The results show that the deep aquifer is more vulnerable than the shallow one, which means that in the former, in order not to reach conditions of contamination, a lower density of wells is necessary than in the latter.

    The reduction of well density coupled with the artificial recharge of freshwater into the aquifer may be proposed as a solution strategy to protect the aquifer.

    Therefore, future developments of the present study will be represented by the simulation of different scenarios of recharging to inhibit the saltwater intrusion front further inland. The proposed methodology and its future developments can represent an empirical tool to provide preliminary guidelines for long

  14. Sustainability of subtropical coastal zones in southeastern Florida: Challenges for urbanized coastal environments threatened by development, pollution, water supply, and storm hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Finkl, C.W.; Charlier, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    The subtropical Atlantic coastal zone of southeastern Florida supports nearly 7 million inhabitants on a coastal plain conurbation that stretches from West Palm Beach to Miami. About a quarter of the present population originally settled on higher topography along the shore-parallel Atlantic Coastal Ridge. From about the middle 1900s, however, urbanization intensified along the shore and spread westward into freshwater marshlands. Population densities approaching 2500 persons per km-2 along s...

  15. Comparative feeding ecology of four syntopic Hypostomus species in a Brazilian southeastern river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares-Junior, G A; Cardone, I B; Goitein, R

    2016-05-17

    Though their broad distribution in most Brazilian rivers, scarce studies concerning ecological interactions on Hypostomus species are available. This study observes the diet, the trophic interactions and some morphological aspects of four syntopic species of Hypostomus. These fishes were studied at the superior part of the Corumbataí river, at São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Analyses focused feeding patterns, their amplitude and whether there happens some food items overlap among the species. Fish were caught using cast nets at some points of the river. Species were chosen according to their local abundance and, so there were four main species: H. albopunctatus, H. ancistroides, H. regani and H. strigaticeps. Nine food items were found: sediments, fungi, diatoms, green algae, Tecamoeba, vegetal debris and invertebrates. There were not significant differences for the feeding pattern among the four Hypostomus species. The feeding niche amplitude has been larger for H. albopunctatus influenced by a larger amount of vegetal debris and invertebrates. Elevated niche overlap was found to happen among the species and also for their trophic morphology. Results may suggest that there is a similar pattern in food taken between four species of Hypostomus analyzed since all consume similar environmental resources and have similar anatomical features. However, a different intake insect larvae and plant material in H. albopunctatus diet indicate differences in local and how this species may be exploring their food compared to the others. PMID:27191464

  16. Livestock Predation by Puma ( Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma ( Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33 % of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26 % suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19 % stated that there was no appropriate action, 17 % favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51 %), followed by cattle (28 %), sheep (17 %), and goats (4 %); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4 % of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  17. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions. PMID:26092051

  18. Bryde's whale (Cetartiodactyla: Balaenopteridae occurrence and movements in coastal areas of southeastern Brazil

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    Liliane Lodi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bryde's whales, Balaenoptera edeni Anderson, 1879, were observed on 17 occasions (N = 21 surveys in the coastal waters off Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil during austral summer through autumn 2014. Five whales were individually identified using photo-identification techniques. The mean interval between resightings for all individuals was 12.8 days, with a minimum of one day and a maximum of 48 days. The comparison between the catalogs of Bryde's whales off Rio de Janeiro and the Cabo Frio region revealed matches for three individuals. The resightings show movements of up to 149.6 km along the coastal waters off the state of Rio de Janeiro. Most of the observations consisted of solitary individuals (82.3% of sightings. Feeding was the predominant behavior observed (47%, followed by milling (35.3% and travelling (17.6% in waters up to 48 m deep. Direct observations resulted in the addition of new prey, such as snubnose anchovy, Anchoviella brevirostris (Günther, 1868 and white snake mackerel, Thyrsitops lepidopoides (Cuvier, 1832, to the known diet of the Bryde's whale. A long time series of photo-identification efforts in the Rio de Janeiro, the Cabo Frio region and other areas can elucidate fundamental aspects of spatial and temporal site fidelity knowledge of Bryde's whales in southeastern Brazil.

  19. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  20. Potential effects of sea-level rise on coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Patty; Clough, Jonathan; Polaczyk, Amy; Couvillion, Brady R.; Nunley, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Coastal Louisiana wetlands contain about 37% of the estuarine herbaceous marshes in the conterminous United States. The long-term stability of coastal wetlands is often a function of a wetland's ability to maintain elevation equilibrium with mean sea level through processes such as primary production and sediment accretion. However, Louisiana has sustained more coastal wetland loss than all other states in the continental United States combined due to a combination of natural and anthropogenic factors, including sea-level rise. This study investigates the potential impact of current and accelerating sea-level rise rates on key coastal wetland habitats in southeastern Louisiana using the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM). Model calibration was conducted using a 1956–2007 observation period and hindcasting results predicted 35% versus observed 39% total marsh loss. Multiple sea-level-rise scenarios were then simulated for the period of 2007–2100. Results indicate a range of potential wetland losses by 2100, from an additional 2,188.97 km2 (218,897 ha, 9% of the 2007 wetland area) under the lowest sea-level-rise scenario (0.34 m), to a potential loss of 5,875.27 km2 (587,527 ha, 24% of the 2007 wetland area) in the highest sea-level-rise scenario (1.9 m). Model results suggest that one area of particular concern is the potential vulnerability of the region's baldcypress-water tupelo (Taxodium distichum-Nyssa aquatica) swamp habitat, much of which is projected to become permanently flooded (affecting regeneration) under all modeled scenarios for sea-level rise. These findings will aid in the development of ecosystem management plans that support the processes and conditions that result in sustainable coastal ecosystems.

  1. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Humic Acids in Coastal Spodosols from Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Martin-Neto, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study on humic acids (HAs) of podzol horizons from the southeastern region of Brazil investigated the accumulation and degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) in warm-climate podzols. Humic acids from sandy coastal Spodosols (Histic Alaquod and Arenic Alorthod) from Cardoso Island in Sao Paulo

  2. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  3. Genetic structure of the sea-bob shrimp (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri Heller, 1862; Decapoda, Penaeidae along the Brazilian southeastern coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreira Voloch

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea-bob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri, is one of the most important economic marine resources along the entire Brazilian coast. Nevertheless, despite its economic importance, no studies have examined the population genetics of this species. In this paper, we used ten allozyme loci to study the pattern of genetic structuring in X. kroyeri along the southeastern Brazilian coast. Seven of the ten analyzed loci were polymorphic, yielding observed heterozygosity values higher than those reported for other penaeid shrimps. The population from São Paulo was significantly different from the other two populations (Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, which, in turn, seem to form a single panmitic unit. Therefore, our results clearly indicate that conservation policies for this species should consider the São Paulo population as an independent stock from those of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo.

  4. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  5. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the four subunits of the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system, Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Tennessee

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi, South...

  6. Fluxes of greenhouse gases at two different aquaculture ponds in the coastal zone of southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; He, Qinghua; Huang, Jiafang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-08-01

    Shallow water ponds are important contributors to greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes into the atmosphere. Aquaculture ponds cover an extremely large area in China's entire coastal zone. Knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes from aquaculture ponds is very limited, but measuring GHG fluxes from aquaculture ponds is fundamental for estimating their impact on global warming. This study investigated the magnitude of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from two coastal aquaculture ponds during 2011 and 2012 in the Shanyutan wetland of the Min River estuary, southeastern China, and determined the factors that may regulate GHG fluxes from the two ponds. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were 20.78 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 19.95 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 10.74 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the shrimp pond. The average fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O were -60.46 mgCO2 m-2h-1, 1.65 mgCH4 m-2h-1 and 11.8 μgN2O m-2h-1, respectively, in the mixed shrimp and fish aquaculture pond during the study period. The fluxes of all three gases showed distinct temporal variations. The variations in the GHG fluxes were influenced by interactions with the thermal regime, pH, trophic status and chlorophyll-a content. Significant differences in the CO2 and N2O fluxes between the shrimp pond and the mixed aquaculture pond were observed from September to November, whereas the CH4 fluxes from the two ponds were not significantly different. The difference in the CO2 flux likely was related to the effects of photosynthesis, biological respiration and the mineralization of organic matter, whereas the N2O fluxes were controlled by the interactions between nitrogen substrate availability and pH. Water salinity, trophic status and dissolved oxygen concentration likely affected CH4 emission. Our results suggest that subtropical coastal aquaculture ponds are important contributors to regional CH4 and N2O emissions into the atmosphere, and their contribution to global warming must be considered

  7. Structure and dynamics of the macrobenthic communities of Ubatuba Bay, southeastern Brazilian Coast

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    Maria Fernanda Lopes dos Santos

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Species composition, distribution, density, biomass, diversity and trophic relationships of the macrobenthic communities in Ubatuba Bay, southeastern Brazilian coast, were investigated seasonally from August 1995 to June 1996. Sampling was carried out at 9 stations of between 4 and 13 m depth and taken in duplicate with a 0.1m² van Veen grab. Two hundred and five macrofaunal species were identified, presenting low dominance and frequency. Polychaetes and nematodes dominated, representing 89% of the whole fauna. Spatial variations in the structure of the communities were correlated to sediment type whereas seasonal variations were correlated to the increase in wave size and current disturbance over the substrate during the rainy period. Carnivore and surface deposit-feeder polychaetes were dominant, totalling 81% of the species. Mean grain size, fine sand, very fine sand, silt and clay contents were among the main factors related to the patterns of macrofaunal distribution, density and diversity and to the dominance of trophic groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the area may be divided into two groups of stations each of them characterized, respectively, by the presence of Magelona papillicornis and Mediomastus capensis.A composição, distribuição, densidade, biomassa, diversidade e relações tróficas das comunidades macrobênticas da Enseada de Ubatuba, costa sudeste brasileira, foram estudadas sazonalmente, de agosto de 1995 a junho de 1996. As amostragens foram realizadas em 9 estações de coleta, situadas entre 4 e 13 m de profundidade, e obtidas em duplicata com pegador de fundo van Veen de 0,1 m² de área amostral. Duzentas e cinco espécies macrobênticas foram obtidas, a maioria apresentando baixa dominância e freqüência. Poliquetas e nemátodes dominaram, representando 89% da fauna total. As variações espaciais na estrutura das comunidades foram correlacionadas ao tipo de sedimento, ao passo que as varia

  8. Towards an operational coastal oceanography system in the Basque Country (southeastern Bay of Biscay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, A.; Mader, J.; Ferrer, L.; Fontán, A.; Esnaola, G.; Sagarminaga, Y.; Caballero, A.; Aranda, J. A.; Morais, A.; Uriarte, Ad.

    2009-04-01

    Recent efforts have allowed laying the foundations of an operational coastal oceanography system in the Basque Country region (southeastern Bay of Biscay). This strategy brings together climatological, oceanographic and meteorological institutions, in order to improve the way in which these services are working presently and merge the products to a unique operational system looking towards 2010. At the present time, along the 170 km coastline of the Basque Country, the marine observation system keeps 6 coastal stations measuring oceanographic (temperatures, currents, tides and waves) and meteorological parameters, 2 deep sea buoys (located over the slope between 450 and 550 m depth) measuring oceanographic (temperature, salinity and currents from surface to 200m and waves) and meteorological parameters, a HF Radar array (200 km range, 6 km horizontal resolution) and a near-real time satellite data service (SST, SSH, ocean colour). The modelling system consists of two configurations of ROMS, covering a regional and a sub-regional domain (6 and 2 km horizontal resolution, respectively) and using real-time high resolution atmospheric forcing. Model outputs are being validated with real data. The future system will provide hindcast, nowcast, and forecast of oceanographic and meteorological conditions at several time-scales, together with systematic and long-term routine measurements of the sea and atmosphere. Preliminary results of the operational system show the suitability of numerical models to explore the physics of ocean and atmosphere in this region. Model-data comparisons show a reasonable agreement in terms of surface dynamics. The vertical profiles obtained from the deep sea buoys provide worthy information on the local water column dynamics and the variability of the intermediate layers. Such variability is related to slope dynamics, seasonal variations of ENACW properties and tidal forcing. The profiles provide some interesting guidelines for the incoming

  9. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  10. Influence of Seeding Rate on Weed Density in Soybean Planting System for Southeastern Coastal Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wiatrak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Increasing seeding rates may help decrease weed pressure in soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] wide row spacing. Approach: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of five glyphosate-resistant soybean Maturity Groups (MG (IV, V, VI, VII and VIII and six seeding rates (68,000,136,000, 204,000, 272,000, 340,000 and 408,000 seeds ha-1 on weed density under dryland conditions on the Southeastern coastal plain in 2007-2009. Results: Weed decrease with increasing seeding rate varied over years. Weed density was generally lower at higher seeding rates for most MG soybeans at 30 and 60 DAP, except MG IV and VIII at 30 DAP in 2007 and MG VI at 30 DAP in 2008. At 60 DAP, soybean leaf area index (LAI and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were greater with lower weed density. Conclusion: Additionally, negative correlations were observed between weed density and plant LAI/NDVI for all MG in 2008 and MG IV through VI in 2009. These results suggest that increased seeding rates may help decrease weed pressure and improve soybean growth at early growth stages. However the response of weed pressure to seeding rate may vary over years and depend on MG soybean.

  11. Effects of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal plain drainages in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark S.; Meador, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This review focuses on the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal rivers and estuaries of the southeastern U.S. Influences of salinity on freshwater fish species can be explained partly through responses evidenced by behavior, physiology, growth, reproduction, and food habits during all aspects of life history. Factors influencing the rate of salinity change affect the community structure and dynamics of freshwater fishes in brackish environments. Our understanding of the relation between salinity and the life history of freshwater fishes is limited because little ecological research has been conducted in low-salinity habitats that we consider an “interface” between freshwater streams and the estuary proper. Much of the available data are descriptive in nature and describe best general patterns, but more specific studies are required to better determine the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes. Improved understanding of the influence of human-induced changes on the productivity and viability of these important systems will require a new research focus.

  12. Breeding period of the spider crab Mithraculus forceps (A. Milne Edwards (Crustacea, Majidae, Mithracinaein the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter José Cobo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigations concerning to the breeding period of brachyuran crabs provide fundamental information to determine their reproductive cycle, and also to establish management plans for species mainly in protected areas. This study provides data on the breeding period of M.forceps (A. Milne Edwards, 1875 in the southeastern Brazilian coast. Monthly samplings were carried out during a one year-round. A catch effort of approximately four hours was allocated to each monthly survey. The breeding intensity was determined based on the percentage of ovigerous crabs within the whole adult female population. A total of 137 adult females was obtained, from which 80.3% presented eggs attached on their pleopods. Ovigerous females were observed yearround, usually comprising more than 60% of sampled adult females. The ovigerous frequency was not statistically correlated to the environmental analyzed factors.

  13. Long-term resilience of late holocene coastal subsistence system in Southeastern South america.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carlo Colonese

    Full Text Available Isotopic and molecular analysis on human, fauna and pottery remains can provide valuable new insights into the diets and subsistence practices of prehistoric populations. These are crucial to elucidate the resilience of social-ecological systems to cultural and environmental change. Bulk collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of 82 human individuals from mid to late Holocene Brazilian archaeological sites (∼6,700 to ∼1,000 cal BP reveal an adequate protein incorporation and, on the coast, the continuation in subsistence strategies based on the exploitation of aquatic resources despite the introduction of pottery and domesticated plant foods. These results are supported by carbon isotope analysis of single amino acid extracted from bone collagen. Chemical and isotopic analysis also shows that pottery technology was used to process marine foods and therefore assimilated into the existing subsistence strategy. Our multidisciplinary results demonstrate the resilient character of the coastal economy to cultural change during the late Holocene in southern Brazil.

  14. Prioritizing Watersheds for Conservation Actions in the Southeastern Coastal Plain Ecoregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Taeil; Vellidis, George; Kurkalova, Lyubov A.; Boll, Jan; Hyman, Jeffrey B.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to apply and evaluate a recently developed prioritization model which uses the synoptic approach to geographically prioritize watersheds in which Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be implemented to reduce water quality problems resulting from erosion and sedimentation. The model uses a benefit-cost framework to rank candidate watersheds within an ecoregion or river basin so that BMP implementation within the highest ranked watersheds will result in the most water quality improvement per conservation dollar invested. The model was developed to prioritize BMP implementation efforts in ecoregions containing watersheds associated with the USDA-NRCS Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP). We applied the model to HUC-8 watersheds within the southeastern Coastal Plain ecoregion (USA) because not only is it an important agricultural area but also because it contains a well-studied medium-sized CEAP watershed which is thought to be representative of the ecoregion. The results showed that the three HUC-8 watersheds with the highest rankings (most water quality improvement expected per conservation dollar invested) were located in the southern Alabama, northern Florida, and eastern Virginia. Within these watersheds, measures of community attitudes toward conservation practices were highly ranked, and these indicators seemed to push the watersheds to the top of the rankings above other similar watersheds. The results, visualized as maps, can be used to screen and reduce the number of watersheds that need further assessment by managers and decision-makers within the study area. We anticipate that this model will allow agencies like USDA-NRCS to geographically prioritize BMP implementation efforts.

  15. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  16. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  17. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, Tatiana Lemos; Dorneles, Paulo Renato; Lailson-Brito, José; Lepoint, Gilles; Azevedo, Alexandre de Freitas; Flach, Leonardo; Malm, Olaf; Das, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13)C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13)C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13)C values. The highest δ(15)N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15)N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13)C values, but similar δ(15)N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13)C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area. PMID:24358155

  18. Habitat selection by anurofauna community at rocky seashore in coastal Atlantic Forest, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, R C; Santori, R T; Gonçalves e Cunha, F C; Pontes, J A L

    2013-08-01

    Rocky seashores are low granitic hills distributed along the southeastern Brazilian coast with xeric-like vegetation due to the shallow soil. Knowledge on amphibian communities and their reproductive patterns is especially reduced on this kind of environment. Herein, we present a framework of two years monitoring an amphibian community at a rocky seashore environment located at the protected area of Parque Estadual da Serra da Tiririca, municipality of Niterói, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We conducted diurnal and nocturnal searches for frogs in tank bromeliads, rocky surface and shrubby vegetation. Annual pattern of breeding activity of anurans was also estimated. Individuals of the most abundant tank-bromeliad, Alcantarea glaziouana were collected and measured according to several variables to understanding the selection of bromeliads by frogs. We checked the influence of the environmental conditions on amphibian abundance, association between the bromeliads measures, and the water storage in the tank. We recorded the species: Scinax aff. x-signatus; S. cuspidatus; S. littoreus; Thoropa miliaris and Gastrotheca sp. Bromeliads were the preferential habitat used by anurans. The nocturnal habit was predominant for all species and during diurnal searches, the specimens were found sheltered in bromeliads axils. The number of calling males as well as amphibian abundance was associated with the rainiest and warmest period of the year. The species S. littoreus was observed in breeding activity in the majority of sample period. Adult calling males of T. miliaris were observed especially in the rainy season. Rainfall and temperature combined are positively correlated to the total number of captured amphibians. However, individually, rainfall was not significantly correlated, while temperature was positively correlated with the amphibian abundance. Water storage capacity by bromeliads was correlated to characteristics and size of the plant. In the rainy season, the

  19. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

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    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  20. Using MODIS True-Color 250 m Remote Sensing Data to Assess Interannual Variability of Suspended Matter over Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belem, A. L.; Silva, T. M. L.; Albuquerque, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Continental shelf is the final destination of terrigenous sediments drained by rivers and estuaries, forming a mass of water drifting over the shelf due to its differential density from underlaying salty oceanic waters, forming a coastal plume. On the Southeastern Brazilian Continental Shelf, Cabo Frio region represents the limit between Santos and Campos basin oil reserves. The continental drainage in this area is not expressive, nevertheless presents a complex interaction between the western boundary Brazil Current (BC) and shelf border mechanisms providing amid-shelf intrusion and a coastal upwelling of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) over the shelf. Satellite images of the region shows expressive shelf plumes with sedimentary contributions from Paraiba do Sul river located approximately 180 km northward of Cabo Frio, as well as from Guanabara bay, located 150 km westward of Cabo Frio. In order to understand the role of plumes in sedimentary processes over the continental shelf, this study analyzed 10 years of MODIS true-color 250 m remote sensing data in order to understand the temporal variability of the shelf front and the area of plumes. The remote data were obtained from the Aerosol Robotic Network and USDA Foreign Agricultural Service subsets. Selected 17% of daily images were cloud-free to allow shelf plumes to be delimited and processed to enhancement of features as well as land masking, geo-referencing, and daily area calculation on pixel basis. During austral winter (dry season) the plumes get its maximum extension in area over the shelf, suggesting that the mechanism of sediment transport is connected with high energetic wave-wind interactions on the coast followed by wind-driven dispersion less than continental drainage. The interannual pattern shows a general decreasing trend, mainly in the last 4 years, associated with sediment availability on the inner shelf, which is driven by river discharge during the austral summer (rain season). We also

  1. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  2. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, M A; Dias, M M

    2011-02-01

    Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type. PMID:21437393

  3. Metal concentration in muscle of two species of flatfish from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, M.L.F., E-mail: isaflaquer@usp.br [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Santos, C.E.I. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metals in muscles of two species of flatfish, using Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Specimens were caught monthly throughout the year 2005. Sampling was done at six points in the Santos Bay under different anthropogenic influences. Analysis of 56 samples of muscle showed detectable amounts of Al, As, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Sr, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se and Zn. Except Cu, there were no correlations with the levels of sediment contamination by metals and those found in muscles. Moreover, there were significant differences between juveniles and adults concerning the concentration of Al, Mn and As. According to Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency, some elements detected in the samples of muscle were above of permitted by law for consumption: Hg and Pb (in samples from the internal area), As (from the west side) and Se and Cr (from east side of the bay)

  4. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species.

  5. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; de Moura, Jailson F; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g(-1) lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g(-1) lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. PMID:26552541

  6. Dental caries and tooth loss in adults in a Brazilian southeastern state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Berta Rihs

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to analyze dental caries experience of adults living in the southeastern state of São Paulo, Brazil, according to some socio-demographic conditions of this population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,159 school teachers and workers (35 to 44 years old from 29 cities of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. RESULTS: 92.3% were dentate and the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth was 21.0 and the mean number of decayed teeth was 1.1, with no significant difference among adults from regions with and without fluoridation. Male subjects presented the highest mean values of "D" (decayed teeth and "M" (missing teeth components. The percentage of caries-free subjects was higher among white subjects, as well as the mean number of teeth present in the mouth. The mean values of the "F" component (filled teeth [9.81] and present teeth [19.3] were higher for adults from fluoridated water regions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the worse condition observed was the early tooth loss in all groups. In addition, people with worse socio-demographic conditions had worse oral health conditions. It is expected that oral health programs targeted to this population could be established with the goal of improving the oral health conditions of this population and hence the maintenance of the teeth for a longer period in function.

  7. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  8. Patterns of landscape dynamics and land use systems in the Southeastern Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of topics focused on research accomplished in the southeastern US were presented at this talk given on January 28, 2016, at the Brown Bag colloquium hosted by the University of Georgia Department of Geography. Topics covered included: a study analyzing road network and landscape change in ...

  9. Coastal sediments of the southeastern shores of the Ría de Arosa (Galicia, NW Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de J.D.; Poortman, H.H.

    1966-01-01

    The beaches of the southeastern shore of the Ría de Arosa are in general small and enclosed between rocky capes; especially those along the inner ria are not subjected to strong wave action. Nonetheless, the beach sands are often coarse-grained, being partially derived from the coarse-grained intrus

  10. Sedimentary changes on the Southeastern Brazilian upper slope during the last 35,000 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M. Mahiques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A first evaluation of the sedimentary changes, including accumulation of inorganic and organic carbon on the upper slope off Southeastern Brazil under different climatic conditions, based on the analysis of a sedimentary core, is here presented. Results indicate that sedimentation rate as well sedimentary characteristics, including the nature of the organic carbon deposited during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum, were different from the present deposition, indicating higher primary productivity during the LGM, to be accounted for by the higher values of marine organic carbon. Nevertheless, the higher values of Accumulation Rate of calcium carbonate and organic carbon can be credited to the higher values of the sedimentation rates. Conditions prevailing during Isotope Stage 3 may be considered intermediate as between the LGM and the present day. The conditions for a higher primary productivity associated with the deposition of finer terrigenous sediments may be explained as a response to the off shoreward displacement of the main flow of the Brazil Current.Este trabalho apresenta uma primeira avaliação das mudanças sedimentares, incluindo a acumulação de carbono orgânico e inorgânico, no talude continental superior do Brasil, sob diferentes condições climáticas, baseadas em análises de um testemunho. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de sedimentação, assim como as características sedimentares, incluindo a natureza do carbono orgânico depositado durante o UMG (Último Máximo Glacial, foram diferentes dos processos deposicionais atuais, indicando maior produtividade primária durante o UMG, como determinado pelos maiores valores de carbono orgânico marinho. Entretanto, os maiores valores de Taxa de Acumulação de carbonato de cálcio e carbono orgânico podem ser creditados aos valores mais altos de taxas de sedimentação. As condições prevalentes durante o Estágio Isotópico 3 podem ser consideradas intermediárias entre o UMG e

  11. Modern sedimentation in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, Southeastern Brazilian shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel M. de Mahiques

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The analyses of Uk'37 paleotemperatures and sedimentological parameters in box cores from the Cabo Frio upwelling zone, southeastern Brazil, were used to understand the modern sedimentation as well as to evaluate the role played by the upwelling process in the sedimentary patterns. Three box-cores located closer to the upwelling area show a general trend of cooling waters taking place in the last 700 years. Since the present upwelling is dependent on local and remote wind regime, a phase of dominating NE winds favors a more effective upward transport of the cold thermocline level South Atlantic CentralWater towards the coast. The intensification in the upwelling regime for the last ca. 700 years can be associated with the strengthening of the NE winds off the area and a possible increase of the Brazil Current mesoscale activity. Nevertheless, the lack of significant correlation of the paleotemperatures and most of sedimentological parameters indicate that upwelling is not the only sedimentation mechanism in the area. Also, the comparison of sedimentological parameters reveals that eventual temporal changes are superimposed by the geographical variability. Sedimentation rates vary from 0.26 mm.yr-1 to 0.66 mm.yr-1.As análises de Uk'37 paleotemperaturas e de parâmetros sedimentológicos em amostras de box-core da zona de ressurgência de Cabo Frio, sudeste do Brasil, foram usadas para compreender os processos de sedimentação moderna na área, bem como avaliar o papel desempenhado pela ressurgência no estabelecimento dos padrões sedimentológicos principais. Como observado em três box-cores localizados nas proximidades da área de ressurgência, é possível verificar uma tendência geral de resfriamento das águas nos últimos 700 anos (idade calibrada. Uma vez que o processo de ressurgência é dependente do regime de ventos local e remoto, uma fase de ventos predominantes de NE favorece um deslocamento mais efetivo das águas frias da

  12. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  13. Food sources of wintering piscivorous waterbirds in coastal waters: A triple stable isotope approach for the southeastern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morkūnė, Rasa; Lesutienė, Jūratė; Barisevičiūtė, Rūta; Morkūnas, Julius; Gasiūnaitė, Zita R.

    2016-03-01

    This study uses a triple isotope approach (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S) to quantify the main food sources for wintering piscivorous waterbirds in the coastal zone of the southeastern Baltic Sea. Significant differences of δ15N and δ34S values among pelagic fishes, benthic fishes, and benthopelagic European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) were detected, while δ13C was similar among these sources. Using different combinations of δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S values in mixing models, we found that common guillemot (Uria aalge) and red-throated diver (Gavia stellata) mostly foraged on pelagic prey (50-70% and 51-56%, respectively), whereas great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus) consumed benthic prey (48-53%). European smelt comprised a substantial proportion of the diet of studied birds (19-36%). A stable isotope approach can be recommended as a non-lethal method to study avian diets in the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea.

  14. The influence of nitrogen and phosphorus on phytoplankton growth and assemblage composition in four coastal, southeastern USA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Michelle L.; Pinckney, James L.; Keppler, Charles J.; Brock, Larissa M.; Hogan, Sarah B.; Greenfield, Dianne I.

    2016-08-01

    Human population density, and related urbanization, is predicted to increase along coastlines worldwide. Varied land uses will likely influence nutrient delivery, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), to the coast and thereby phytoplankton assemblages. This study examined spatial and seasonal variability in phytoplankton community composition and growth responses to N (ammonium, nitrate, or urea) and/or P (orthophosphate) using in situ bioassays during 2011-2013. Study sites were in four southeastern US (South Carolina) coastal systems with distinct land uses: a forested tidal creek, a forested/agricultural tidal creek, an urbanized tidal creek, and a stormwater detention pond. Results showed that sites were primarily N-limited and diatoms typically contributed most to phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a). Phytoplankton communities at the more developed sites (urbanized creek and stormwater detention pond) not only exhibited higher biomass and growth rates with N, particularly urea, additions compared to the less-developed sites (forested and forested/agricultural tidal creeks), they often included harmful algal bloom species, particularly cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes. These findings suggest that phytoplankton community responses to N-form are site specific, influenced by surrounding land cover, and N inputs (e.g. fertilizers) may cause algal blooms. Results both underscore the role of development as a driver of coastal production and can be informative for water quality management.

  15. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  16. Long-Term Resilience of Late Holocene Coastal Subsistence System in Southeastern South America

    OpenAIRE

    Colonese, André Carlo; Collins, Matthew; Lucquin, Alexandre; Eustace, Michael; Hancock, Y; De Almeida Rocha Ponzoni, Raquel; Mora, Alice; Smith, Colin; DeBlasis, Paulo; Figuti, Levy; Wesolowski, Veronica; Plens, Claudia Regina; Eggers, Sabine; de Farias, Deisi Scunderlick Eloy; Gledhill, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Isotopic and molecular analysis on human, fauna and pottery remains can provide valuable new insights into the diets and subsistence practices of prehistoric populations. These are crucial to elucidate the resilience of social-ecological systems to cultural and environmental change. Bulk collagen carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of 82 human individuals from mid to late Holocene Brazilian archaeological sites (∼6,700 to ∼1,000 cal BP) reveal an adequate protein incorporation and, on the c...

  17. Using radon-222 to study coastal groundwater/surface-water interaction in the Crau coastal aquifer (southeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adriano; Nguyen, Bach Thao; Banton, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Radon has been used to determine groundwater velocity and groundwater discharge into wetlands at the southern downstream boundary of the Crau aquifer, southeastern France. This aquifer constitutes an important high-quality freshwater resource exploited for agriculture, industry and human consumption. An increase in salinity occurs close to the sea, highlighting the need to investigate the water balance and groundwater behavior. Darcy velocity was estimated using radon activities in well waters according to the Hamada "single-well method" (involving comparison with radon in groundwater in the aquifer itself). Measurements done at three depths (7, 15 and 21 m) provided velocity ranging from a few mm/day to more than 20 cm/day, with highest velocities observed at the 15-m depth. Resulting hydraulic conductivities agree with the known geology. Waters showing high radon activity and high salinity were found near the presumed shoreline at 3,000 yearsuc( BP), highlighting the presence of ancient saltwater. Radon activity has also been measured in canals, rivers and ponds, to trace groundwater discharges and evaluate water balance. A model of the radon spatial evolution explains the observed radon activities. Groundwater discharge to surface water is low in pond waters (4 % of total inputs) but significant in canals (55 l/m2/day).

  18. Growth parameters estimates of Maurolicus stehmanni Parin & Kobyliansky 1996 (Teleostei, Sternoptichydae from south and southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bellucco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the otolith microstructure analysis of Maurolicus stehmanni presents estimates of the species growth parameters and longevity. The species inhabits the outer shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Growth parameters are important for the knowledge of the species' life history and rational management. M. stehmanni constitutes an important link between the initial and final components of the alimentary chain of the open sea ecosystem, being one of the main food items for squids and large pelagic fish. Among the various applied methods those which presented the most coherent values for growth parameters and were best adapted to the von Bertallanfy's equation were: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/day and to= 5.5 days Maurolicus stehmanni's longevity is of less than one year (around 220 days and the sagita daily otolith rings are useful for the determination of its age.Este estudo, baseado na análise da microestrutura dos otólitos de Maurolicus stehmanni, apresenta estimativas dos parâmetros de crescimento e longevidade para esta espécie que habita a plataforma externa e o talude da ZEE sul-sudeste do Brasil. Estes parâmetros são importantes para o conhecimento da estratégia de vida da espécie e para o manejo deste recurso, que constitui um importante elo entre os componentes iniciais e finais da teia alimentar no ecossistema de mar aberto, sendo um dos principais itens na dieta das lulas e grandes peixes pelágicos. Dentre os vários métodos aplicados, os valores dos parâmetros de crescimento mais coerentes com a estratégia da espécie e que melhor se ajustaram à equação de von Bertallanfy foram: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/dia e to= 5.5 dias. A espécie vive cerca de 220 dias e as marcas diárias nos otólitos sagita são apropriadas para a determinação da idade.

  19. Nitrogen Mineralization of Broiler Litter Applied to Southeastern Coastal Plain Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (clayey, kaoliniti...

  20. MINERALIZATION OF NITROGEN FROM BROILER LITTER AS AFFECTED BY SOIL TEXTURE IN THE SOUTHEASTERN COASTAL PLAIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field study was conducted during 2004-2005 to determine nitrogen (N) mineralization of broiler litter (BL) in two Coastal Plain soils of differing texture, sandy or clayey. The soils were a Tifton loamy sand (fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic, Plinthic Kandiudults) and a Greenville sandy clay loam (...

  1. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  2. Natural radionuclide analysis in chattarpur area of southeastern coastal area of Odisha, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautela, Bhagwat; Gusain, Gurupad; Yadav, Manjulata; Sahoo, Sarat; Tokonami, Shinji; Ramola, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    The energy released in a spontaneous decay process of natural radionuclides is the main source of the total radiation dose to human beings. Natural radionuclides are widely distributed in soil, rocks, air, and groundwater. In present investigation, the analysis of terrestrial radionuclides such as 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in soil and sand of Chattarpur area of southeastern coast of Odisha has been carried out using NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector. The higher activity concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides have been reported from the study area. The gamma radiationdose originating from the terrestrial radionuclides was found to vary from 95 to 1813 nGy/h with an average of 700 nGy/h. This study is important to generate a baseline data of radiation exposure in the area. Health hazard effects due to natural radiation exposure are discussed in details.

  3. Hydrogeology and Groundwater Resources of the Coastal Aquifers of Southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Walter, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    The glacially derived aquifer systems of southeastern Massachusetts compose the largest groundwater reservoir in the State. Population increases, land-use changes, and climate change in this area could lead to three primary environmental effects that relate directly to groundwater resources - (1) increases in pumping that could adversely affect environmentally sensitive groundwater-fed surface waters, such as ponds, streams, and wetlands; (2) changes in land use that could affect the quality of water in the aquifer; and (3) changes in precipitation and mean sea level that can affect water levels, streamflow, and the position of the freshwater/saltwater boundary. Therefore, understanding groundwater flow and the factors that can affect it is critical to managing and protecting this vital resource.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of seagrass fishes in intermittently closed and open coastal lakes in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. V.; West, R. J.

    2005-08-01

    A large-scale survey of seagrass fish communities was carried out quarterly over a three-year period in six coastal lakes with entrances that were intermittently closed and open to the ocean. These coastal lakes, located along ˜400 km of the southeastern Australian coastline, ranged from 4.2 km 2 to 38.9 km 2 in water area, but experienced a similar range of salinities, temperatures, pH and turbidities over the study period. A total of 203 936 individual fish, belonging to 46 families and 93 species, were caught and released, with the most diverse families being the Gobiidae (12 species), Monacanthidae (9 species) and Syngnathidae (7 species). There were major changes in numbers of fish caught between years, accompanied by changes in the compositions of the species assemblages. These changes were associated with heavy rainfall and flooding in the region during the second year of the study, which caused the opening of all lakes to the sea, and allowed recruitment of marine spawning species. This inter-annual variability was much larger than any of the seasonal or spatial differences observed, which were inconsistent within and between the studied lakes. The salinity regime of individual lakes played a role in structuring the fish assemblages on a regional scale, rather than any obvious biogeographic factors. Artificially opening the entrance of one lake, to alleviate flooding, resulted in the loss of a large seagrass bed and a subsequent decline in recruitment of economically important fish species to that area. The research suggests that, for these small estuaries, conservation of fish diversity might best be achieved on a "whole-of-estuary" basis, rather than by zoning of areas within individual lakes. It also indicated that artificially opening the lakes, or carrying out other entrance works, should be done with great caution as the impact that these activities may have on their fish communities remains largely unpredictable.

  5. Variation in fatty acid composition among nine forage species from a southeastern US estuarine and nearshore coastal ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recks, Melissa A; Seaborn, Gloria T

    2008-09-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of nine potentially important forage species was determined (n = 330): red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), spot (Leiostomus xanthurus), spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), pinfish (Lagodon rhomboides), Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus), star drum (Stellifer lanceolatus), striped anchovy (Anchoa hepsetus), and brief squid (Lolliguncula brevis). Samples were collected from estuarine and nearshore coastal waters around Charleston, South Carolina, USA, from March 2002-February 2003. Twenty-nine of 125 identified FAs were included in multivariate analyses of FA profiles. Despite existing intraspecific variation, the PRIMER routine analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) indicated each species was distinct, and discriminant function analysis correctly classified 99.5% of the training data set samples (n = 221) and 98.2% of the validation samples (n = 109). Most species could be characterized by distinctive levels of a suite of FAs. Our results indicated FA profiles can be used to reliably distinguish even closely related forage species in this southeastern US estuarine ecosystem. The information gained from this study not only provides insight into the biochemical composition of these important species but also provides fundamental information to support studies on the feeding ecology of local higher-level predators.

  6. Production and turnover of suspended organic matter in the coastal water of the southeastern continental shelf. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, L.R.

    1992-02-15

    Sixteen years of work on the microbial food web of the southeastern shelf and its relation to the production, movement, and fate of organic materials, have helped us understand the roles of microorganisms in that ecosystem. We found that microbial metabolism dominates the flow of energy and materials on the continental shelf, utilizing nearly all available organic matter, except in mid-winter. Bacteria strongly influence the cycle of carbon in continental shelf waters, both by rapidly utilizing organic materials and by promoting aggregation of particulate material. We demonstrated a strong interaction between microorganisms in the water and those in the nearshore bottom sediments. We showed that chelation of copper by dissolved organic ligands in the coastal water protects phytoplankton not only from existing amounts but from much larger amounts. Simulation modeling predicted that there is usually little transfer of energy from the microbial food web to macroorganisms (fishes), an observation that has since been validated by investigators. A complete list of publications, theses and dissertations resulting from this project is provided.

  7. Resource and Environmental Quality Changes and Adjustment Principles for Sustainable evelopment in Rapidly Developing Coastal Region of Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Problems in water-land resources and environmental quality increase with the fast economic development in the coastal region of southeastern China. This region has the highest density in population, industry and towns in China, and the large export-oriented economy makes itself a strategic importance while China enters into international markets. The problems facing to this region include arable land reduction, land degradation aggravation, high percentage of built-up land with high rate of expansion, expanded non-point pollution, deteriorated water quality, decreasing biodiversity, destroyed ecosystems, severe air pollution, frequently occurred acid rain, and multi-pollutants. The important research fields in the near future should include a) influence of high-intensity exploitation of resources on changes of environment quality and its feedback; b) interface processes, key mechanisms and adjustment principles for degradation of water-, land-, and air-resources and environmental quality; c) evolvement processes and nurturing theory of biodiversity and ecological resources; and d) spatio-temporal variation and human-induced effects on regional resources and environment quality. Strategies for sustainable development in the region are as follows: a) controlling to ensure basic cultivated land area; b) enforcing remediation of polluted water environment, and controlling non-point pollution; c) strengthening ecological construction and ecological security; and d) controlling multipollution and preventing trace toxic pollutants.

  8. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  9. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  10. Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

  11. Historical record of metal accumulation and lead source in the southeastern coastal region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Pb isotopes (206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb) were measured in 1 M-HCl leaching fraction of core sediments. • Anthropogenic Pb increased from the 1910s with onset of industrialization of Korean and China. • We separated the natural and anthropogenic Pb source using end-member mixing model. • Anthropogenic Pb was derived from atmospheric dust, probably correlated with the burning of coal in China. -- Abstract: Concentrations of heavy metals and Pb isotopes were measured in the 1-M HCl leaching fraction of core sediments spanning the last 400 years. This sedimentary record of pollution history in metal concentrations shows a good correlation with the increases in industrialization, urbanization, and energy consumption since 1901s. Notably, the Pb concentration and the 207Pb/206Pb and 208Pb/206Pb ratios were constant before the 1910s (16.7 μg/g, 0.844, and 2.098, respectively), whereas they increased steadily up to 21.9 μg/g, 0.848, and 2.101 after the 1910s. The correlations between Pb isotope ratios (206Pb, 207Pb, and 208Pb) showed different linear regression trends for core sediments before and after the 1910s, indicating differences in Pb sources. Our interpretation suggests that the source of anthropogenic Pb in Korean coastal region and the Yellow Sea shelf was presumed to be Chinese coals or ores, which have also played a major role as sources of atmospheric particulate Pb

  12. Influence of biotic variables on invertebrate size structure and diversity in coastal wetlands of Southeastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón-Pardo, María; Armengol, Xavier

    2016-10-01

    Biomass and size-based estimations provide relevant information regarding ecosystem functioning and biotic interactions. Our aims were to study the effect of fish and macrophytes on the size structure of invertebrate assemblages (from rotifers to insects) in a set of coastal water bodies, estimating the biomass (total and main invertebrate groups), the biomass-size spectra (model of Pareto) and size diversity. In fishless ponds, cladoceran and ostracod biomass were higher, and they presented greater size diversity. In fish ponds, rotifer biomass presented greater proportion; while in fishless ponds, cladocerans were usually the most abundant taxa and the largest organisms. The biomass size spectra showed more irregularities in fishless ponds, due to the low densities of small taxa (rotifers and copepod juveniles) and big taxa (malacostraceans or insects). Differences is size structure and diversity were also observed between spring and summer, suggesting a higher recruitment of juveniles in spring, and thus, a higher predation pressure upon zooplankton at that moment. Macrophyte cover did not apparently influence those parameters, except for the biomass of ostracods, copepods, and insects. Therefore, predation by fish strongly affected invertebrate biomass, reflecting their selective feeding, and allowing high densities of small taxa. Predation pressure decreased size diversity, by limiting the abundance of vulnerable taxa of specific size. Seasonal changes were likely related to the spring recruitment of fish juveniles. The presence of small fish and invertebrate predator taxa among the macrophytes, restrict their role as refuges for prey invertebrates.

  13. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  14. Species characteristics of lead in sea foods collected from coastal water of Fujian, Southeastern of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Chen, Zhiqiang; Mo, Fan; Huang, Limei; Xu, Liangjun; Wu, Yongning; Xue, Zhimin; Fu, Fengfu

    2016-09-01

    Various sea foods including fish, shellfish and shrimp were collected from different coastal areas of Fujian in China, and their Pb species characteristics were investigated in detail. The results indicated that there are two different species characteristics of Pb existing in sea food samples. About half of samples were detected to have only Pb2+, and another half of samples were detected to have both Pb2+ and trimethyl lead (TML). The results also revealed that Pb species characteristics in the sea foods rather depend on the species of sea food than the sampling area. In comparison with shellfish/shrimp samples, fish samples have higher concentrations of TML and Pb2+. Especially, the average concentration of TML in the TML-detected fish samples is about 3 times of that in the TML-detected shellfish/shrimp samples, indicating that fish has stronger ability to uptake and accumulate TML. The concentrations of total lead in all samples are lower than the maximum allowable limit of national standard, suggesting that the sea foods collected from Fujian are safe for consumption. By considering that TAL has more toxicity than Pb2+, the effect of TML in sea foods on the human health should be paid more attention in the future.

  15. Evaluation of groundwater contamination in a coastal area of south-eastern Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Feliciana; Antoci, Maria Lucia; Brugaletta, Luana; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi

    2011-01-01

    This investigation was under taken to evaluate the groundwater resources contamination due to intensive agricultural practices (particularly greenhouses). The study-area is located in the coastal area of the Ragusa province (South-East Sicily), where numerous existing greenhouses may cause the contamination of groundwater systems (unconfined and confined aquifers) beneath the cropped land. The pollution risk is mainly related with the seepage process of macro-elements nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), held in the irrigation water and the massive use of fertilizers and pesticides, that may pass through the unsaturated zone of the soil profile. Moreover, the area is characterized by the presence of several wells (about 15 wells/km²) for agricultural use that cause the aquifer overexploitation and the consequent risk of seawater intrusion. The agriculture practices adopted in the study area (irrigation volumes, fertilizer concentrations, use of pesticides…) were monitored since February 2009; moreover, the pollution risk of the aquifers was evaluated through the analysis of groundwater water samples collected (monthly) in the monitoring wells; in particular, nitrogen compounds, soluble phosphorous (PO₄²⁻), potassium, as well as the main pesticides commonly used in the study area, were measured.The results show that electrical conductivity and chloride concentration values can cause reduction of production and leaf damage problems, respectively, for most of the monitored farm systems. The high nitrogen compounds concentrations observed in the monitored wells can cause health and environmental problems. Moreover high pesticide contamination of groundwater was found in two of the five monitored wells. PMID:21726148

  16. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  17. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  18. Assemblages of Southeast-South Brazilian Coastal Systems Based on the Distribution of Fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, F. G.; Costa de Azevedo, M. C.

    2001-06-01

    Multivariate principal components analysis and cluster analysis were performed on data representing presence or absence of 498 species of juvenile and adult fish species in twenty-four coastal marine systems (bays, coastal lagoons, estuaries and coastal zones) distributed from southeast to southern Brazil. Five groups of coastal systems were identified based on fish assemblage similarity: estuaries and bays of the southeast area; an estuary of the southern area; coastal lagoons; rocky coastal zones; and the continental platform. Species assemblages for each zone were identified and used as surrogate habitat indicators to compare and contrast the groups. Stepwise multiple regression of environmental and physical variables as predictors of the number of species indicated that only ' area ' was included in the model as the most important variable explaining the variation of the number of species in these data sets. The total number of fish species increased as surface area increased.

  19. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  20. Trophic Relationships and Habitat Preferences of Delphinids from the Southeastern Brazilian Coast Determined by Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Lemos Bisi; Paulo Renato Dorneles; José Lailson-Brito; Gilles Lepoint; Alexandre de Freitas Azevedo; Leonardo Flach,; Olaf Malm; Krishna Das

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (d13C) and nitrogen (d15N) isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the d13C and d15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon ...

  1. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  2. Guiana Dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) and DR-CALUX for Screening Coastal Brazilian Environments for Dioxins and Related Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles, Paulo R; Lailson-Brito, José; Bisi, Tatiana L; Domit, Camila; Barbosa, Lupércio A; Meirelles, Ana C O; Carvalho, Vitor L; Malm, Olaf; Azevedo, Alexandre F; Brose, François; Das, Krishna; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2016-10-01

    Guiana dolphin is the top predator of highest toxicological concern in Brazil and many studies on levels of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxicant (PBT) pollutants have been performed on the species. However, due to high costs of the analyses, only one investigation comprised the determination of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in Guiana dolphin tissues. The dioxin responsive-chemically activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX(®)) cell bioassay was used in the present study for the analyses of hepatic samples from 28 male Guiana dolphins in order to screen estuarine environments for DRCs, comprising three regions (Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern) and four states [Paraná (PR), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espírito Santo (ES), and Ceará (CE)] of Brazil. High bioanalytical equivalent (BEQ) concentrations [dioxins (pg BEQ/g lipid)] were found, varying from 1.94 to 15.6 pg BEQ/g. A significant negative correlation between BEQ concentrations and total length was found in Guiana dolphins from Brazil (all analysed dolphins). This pattern also was verified for RJ state, pointing to (1) chemically induced developmental disruption or to (2) increasing efficiency of the detoxifying activity with the growth of the animal. Comparison was performed with literature data and significantly higher BEQ levels were found in Brazilian Guiana dolphins than in those reported for North Sea harbour porpoises. Higher levels were found in Southeastern (the most PBT-contaminated area of the country) than in Southern region. However, it is not possible to affirm that Guiana dolphins are more contaminated by DRCs in SE than in S region, because individuals were lengthier in S than in SE region. Our results seem to have mirrored dolphin exposure to PCBs in Brazil according to the literature. Further studies are required for investigating the hypotheses 1 and 2 mentioned above.

  3. Geophysical log database for the Floridan aquifer system and southeastern Coastal Plain aquifer system in Florida and parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Raines, Jessica E.; Lanning, Amanda E.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program began two regional studies in the southeastern United States in the fall of 2009 to investigate ground-water availability of fresh and brackish water resources: (1) groundwater availability of the Floridan aquifer system, (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html), and (2) saline water aquifer mapping in the southeastern United States. A common goal for both studies was to gather available geophysical logs and related data from the State geological surveys and the USGS that would be used as a basis for developing a hydrogeologic framework for the study area. Similar efforts were undertaken by the USGS Floridan and Southeastern Coastal Plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) Program from the 1970s to mid-1990s (Miller, 1986; Renken, 1996). The logs compiled for these older efforts were difficult to access from the paper files; however, and partly because of this, older and newer logs were compiled into a single digital database for the current study. The purpose of this report is to summarize the different types of logs and related data contained in the database and to provide these logs in a digital format that can be accessed online through the database and files accompanying this report (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/760/).

  4. The structure of rocky reef fish assemblages across a nearshore to coastal islands' gradient in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zaniolo Gibran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Local assemblages of fishes associated with reefs are influenced by interactions among the availability of larvae and survival of recruits with subsequent biotic and abiotic forcing, as well as by periodic and episodic disturbances of varying natures and magnitudes. Therefore, besides being structurally heterogeneous and patchily distributed, reef systems are strongly context-dependent due to the influence of a broad array of ecological processes. In order to assess interactions of local factors that influence the distribution and abundance of reef fishes within a coastal mosaic of rocky reefs, we tested the null hypothesis of no significant variation in fish assemblage structure, by comparing 33 sites along the northern coast of the São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. Replicated stationary visual census samples (n = 396 were obtained at different distances from the coast, depths and wave exposures, including the mainland, three relatively small coastal islands, and the two margins of a wide channel between the mainland and the large São Sebastião Island (~350 km², totaling 225 h of SCUBA diving. The regional rocky shore fish fauna comprised 106 species (41 families, with preponderance of diurnal mobile-invertebrate feeders. Samples from the outer margin of the São Sebastião Island, together with those from Alcatrazes, Búzios, and Vitória islands were significantly dissimilar from samples from the coastal sites at the São Sebastião Channel. Species richness tended to increase in a gradient from the coast to the more offshore islands. Local conditions such as depth and other habitat characteristics also influenced fish assemblages' structure. Distance from coast and depth were the main predictors for fish assemblages, followed by water transparency, temperature and benthic cover. This study represents the first regional-scale assessment of fish assemblages associated with rocky reefs in the São Paulo State coast, filling a major

  5. Lack of association between alopecia areata and HLA class I and II in a southeastern Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ângela Marques; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Sobral, Aldri Roberta Sodoschi; Sakiyama, Marcelo Jun; Lemos, Bruna Cerávolo; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Martos, Luciana Leite Crivelin; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disorder of unknown etiology that affects approximately 0.7% to 3.8% of patients among the general population. Currently, genetic and autoimmune factors are emphasized as etiopathogenic. Studies linking Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) to AA have suggested that immunogenetic factors may play a role in the disease's onset/development. Objectives To investigate an association between AA and HLA class I/II in white Brazilians. Methods: Patients and control groups comprised 33 and 112 individuals, respectively. DNA extraction was performed by column method with BioPur kit. Allele's classification was undertaken using the PCR-SSO technique. HLA frequencies were obtained through direct counting and subjected to comparison by means of the chi-square test. Results Most patients were aged over 16, with no familial history, and developed partial AA, with no recurrent episodes. Patients showed a higher frequency of HLA-B*40, HLA-B*45, HLA-B*53 and HLA-C*04 compared with controls, although P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Regarding HLA class II, only HLA-DRB1*07 revealed statistical significance; nevertheless, it featured more prominently in controls than patients (P=0.04; Pc=0.52; OR=0.29; 95%; CI=0.07 to 1.25). P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The development of AA does not seem to be associated with HLA in white Brazilians, nor with susceptibility or resistance. The studies were carried out in populations with little or no miscegenation, unlike the Brazilian population in general, which could explain the inconsistency found.

  6. Lack of association between alopecia areata and HLA class I and II in a southeastern Brazilian population*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Ângela Marques; Prestes-Carneiro, Luiz Euribel; Sobral, Aldri Roberta Sodoschi; Sakiyama, Marcelo Jun; Lemos, Bruna Cerávolo; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado; Martos, Luciana Leite Crivelin; Moliterno, Ricardo Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a common disorder of unknown etiology that affects approximately 0.7% to 3.8% of patients among the general population. Currently, genetic and autoimmune factors are emphasized as etiopathogenic. Studies linking Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) to AA have suggested that immunogenetic factors may play a role in the disease's onset/development. Objectives To investigate an association between AA and HLA class I/II in white Brazilians. Methods: Patients and control groups comprised 33 and 112 individuals, respectively. DNA extraction was performed by column method with BioPur kit. Allele's classification was undertaken using the PCR-SSO technique. HLA frequencies were obtained through direct counting and subjected to comparison by means of the chi-square test. Results Most patients were aged over 16, with no familial history, and developed partial AA, with no recurrent episodes. Patients showed a higher frequency of HLA-B*40, HLA-B*45, HLA-B*53 and HLA-C*04 compared with controls, although P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Regarding HLA class II, only HLA-DRB1*07 revealed statistical significance; nevertheless, it featured more prominently in controls than patients (P=0.04; Pc=0.52; OR=0.29; 95%; CI=0.07 to 1.25). P was not significant after Bonferroni correction. Conclusions The development of AA does not seem to be associated with HLA in white Brazilians, nor with susceptibility or resistance. The studies were carried out in populations with little or no miscegenation, unlike the Brazilian population in general, which could explain the inconsistency found. PMID:27438193

  7. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro M. de Souza

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities.

  8. Structural Characterization and Anti-HSV-1 and HSV-2 Activity of Glycolipids from the Marine Algae Osmundaria obtusiloba Isolated from Southeastern Brazilian Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Barreto-Bergter

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipids were extracted from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba from Southeastern Brazilian coast. The acetone insoluble material was extracted with chloroform/methanol and the lipids, enriched in glycolipids, were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and then methanol. Three major orcinol-positive bands were found in the acetone and methanol fractions, being detected by thin layer chromatography. The structures of the corresponding glycolipids were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis, on the basis of their tandem-MS behavior and HSQC, TOCSY fingerprints. For the first time, the structure of sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol from the red alga Osmundaria obtusiloba was characterized. This molecule exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2 with EC50 values of 42 µg/mL to HSV-1 and 12 µg/mL to HSV-2, respectively. Two other glycolipids, mono- and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, were also found in the alga, being characterized by ESI-MS/MS. The structural elucidation of algae glycolipids is a first step for a better understanding of the relation between these structures and their biological activities.

  9. An assessment of PCB and PBDE contamination in two tropical dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Dias, Patrick S; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; de Moura, Jailson Fulgencio; Quinete, Natalia; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2015-12-30

    PCBs and PBDEs were determined in two dolphin species, Sotalia guianensis and Steno bredanensis, from an upwelling system off the Central-northern coast of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PCB levels varied from 0.040 to 0.75 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.022 to 1.32 μg g(-1)lw in liver samples from S. guianensis. In S. bredanensis, values varied from 0.085 to 11.3 μg g(-1) lw in muscles and from 0.024 to 18.6 μg g(-1) lw in livers. PCB-138, -153 and -180 were the major PCB congeners detected in both species, while BDE-47 was the predominant PBDE congener found in both species. Higher concentrations in S. bredanensis were possibly related to the different feeding habits for both delphinid species. These results contribute to extend the database on organic contamination in cetaceans from the southern hemisphere, understanding their distribution and environmental fate in Southeastern Brazil. PMID:26506024

  10. Ecological distribution and population structure of Acantholobulus schmitti (Rathbun, 1930 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Xanthoidea on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fransozo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation analyzed the ecological distribution and population structure of A. schmitti on the southeastern coast of Brazil. Crabs were sampled monthly from January 1998 to December 1999 at the following bays: Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. Water and sediment samples were also collected from all sampling sites for an analysis of environmental factors. Acantholobus schmitti was most abundant at UBM (224, followed by UBA (154 and MV (23 but its abundance showed no association with the environmental factors analyzed. The low abundance of these crabs in MV may be due to the high wave action that moved biodetritic material accumulated on the bottom and frequently removed small crabs from their sheltered positions among the shell fragments. The individuals captured included 269 males and 132 females, of which only 4 specimens were brooding females. Juvenile recruitment occurred throughout the year, but was less intense in the spring. The major abundance of individuals as well as of ovigerous females occurred during 1999, when the entrance of the South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW was stronger than in previous year. This environmental influence could be the main factor modulating this population.

  11. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. PMID:21864861

  12. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Ricardo P Vieira; Alexander M Cardoso; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Rodolpho M Albano; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Meth...

  13. Toxicity of puffer fish: two species (Lagocephalus laevigatus, linaeus 1766 and Sphoeroides spengleri, Bloch 1785 from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, where puffer fish are considered poisonous, there are few documented cases on human consumption and consequent poisoning. In this study, toxicity of two puffer fish species from the Brazilian coast was examined. Specimens of Sphoeroides spengleri and Lagocephalus laevigatus were caught in São Sebastião Channel (North coast of São Paulo State, Brazil between January 1996 and May 1997. Acidic ethanol extracts from muscle and skin plus viscera were tested for mice acute toxicity using the standard method of Kawabata. Polar extracts of S. spengleri showed high toxicity up to 946 MU/g. Extracts from L. laevigatus showed very low levels of toxicity, never exceeding 1.7 MU/g. All extracts from both species blocked amielinic nerve fiber evoked impulses of crustacean legs; this effect reverted on washing similar to the standard tetrodotoxin TTX. The aqueous extract solutions were partially purified using an ionic exchange column (Amberlit GC-50 followed by treatment with activated charcoal (Norit-A. The presence of TTX and their analogs in the semi-purified extracts were confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF.

  14. Volatile halocarbons emissions through interaction of saltwater intrusion and terrestrial organic matter along a salinity gradient in coastal southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y.; Wang, J. J.; Chow, A. T.; Rhew, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater wetlands along the coast of southeastern United States can be subjected to inputs of halogens from seawater intrusion following long-term sea level rise. The interaction of halogens with organic-rich sediments can lead to the formation of organohalogens. In this study, we report field and laboratory emission rates of volatile halocarbons (methyl halides and chloroform) along a salinity gradient in coastal South Carolina, including freshwater forest, degraded oligohaline forest, and salt marsh. For chloroform, the oligohaline (intermediate) forest showed the largest mean emissions, compared to the freshwater forest and mesohaline saltmarsh. Soil cores were measured intact live, spread out live, intact dead, and spread out dead. Interestingly, the dead soil and live soil incubations showed no statistical difference in chloroform emissions, suggesting that their formation is predominately abiotic. For methyl chloride and methyl bromide, saltmarsh soils were sources while freshwater forest and degraded oligohaline forest soils were sinks. Sterilization of soils caused emissions rates to be higher, even converting sinks to sources, suggesting that live microorganisms and enzymes in the soils were sinks for the methyl halides, thereby masking the abiotic production rates. The simultaneous production and consumption of methyl halides in these soils is consistent with prior studies investigating the bidirectional fluxes of these compounds. Our study indicates that long-term sea level rise that turns freshwater forest wetlands to degraded forest wetlands or saltmarsh can significantly change the halocarbon biogeochemistry in southeastern United States.

  15. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  16. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  17. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  18. Hyaline Tintinnina (Protozoa-Ciliophora-Oligotrichida from northeast Brazilian coastal reefs

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    Roberto Sassi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of hyaline Tintinnina were obtained from plankton samples collected near the coastal reefs of Ponta do Seixas (Lat. 7º09'16"S, Long. 34º4735"W, Northeastern Brazil, from April 1981 to May 1982 and from April 1983 to May 1984: Amphorellopsis acuta (Schmidt, 1901, Dadayiella ganymedes (Entz Sr., 1884, Epiplocyloides reticulata (Ostenfeld & Schmidt, 1901, Eutintinnus tubulosus (Ostenfeld, 1899, Favella ehrenbergi (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858, Metacylis mereschkowskyi Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 and M. perspicax (Hada, 1938. The most frequent and abundant species were M. mereschkowskyi and F. ehrenbergi. Except/.ganymedes, E. reticulata and F. ehrenbergi all species are new records from Brazil. Metacylis perspicax is also the seventh world register. For all species we provide description, drawings, measurements, seasonal occurrence, world distribution and some systematic comments.

  19. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  20. An integrated system of summer solarization and fallow tillage for Cyperus esculentus and nematode management in the southeastern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarization is a form of pest control using clear plastic mulch that allows sunlight to heat the soil to temperatures lethal to plant pests. Fallow tillage is a proven practice to reduce baseline weed densities. Field trials were conducted at the Coastal Plain Experiment Station in Tifton, GA fro...

  1. Application of radiometric analysis in the study of provenance and transport processes of Brazilian coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Macario, K. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gamma radiation of beach sand deposits was measured along the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the aim of studying the provenance and transport processes of sediments in this area. Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium were evaluated using {gamma}-ray spectrometry and a behavioral study of eTh/eU and eTh/K cross plots was performed, reflecting the mineralogical properties of beach sands, as well as their history of transport and sorting processes. The results show that such technique can be efficiently used to map heavy mineral distributions and to distinguish the different origins of coastal sediments disclosing the influence of nearby rivers. - Research highlights: {yields} Based on the natural {gamma}-ray analyses of beach sand, high concentrations of heavy minerals have been found around the Mambucaba River deltaic complex, located in the South of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. {yields} Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium concentration can give information on the mineral composition and provenance of beach sands and consequently investigate heavy mineral deposits.

  2. Temporal Stability in Fishing Spots: Conservation and Co-Management in Brazilian Artisanal Coastal Fisheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpina Begossi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The management of small-scale artisanal fisheries in Brazil should be a priority because of their importance as a source of food for internal markets and their location in sites with high biodiversity, such as the Atlantic Forest coast. Fishing spots, territories, and sea tenure have been widely studied within artisanal fisheries, and, in this study, a fishing spot of this type may be a defended area or an area that imposes rules for users, making the exclusion of outsiders feasible, or even a place in which fishing occurs with some exclusivity. This analysis takes into account the importance of fishing areas for the conservation of artisanal fishing in Brazil and the relative temporal stability of these areas. In particular, examples of the use of the marine space on the coast of Brazil in areas such as Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Bahia States are presented. Fishing spots used by artisanal fishers were marked using a Global Positioning System (GPS. An informal division of the marine space and high temporal stability, often in the range of 10–30 yr, in the use of the fishing spots were found. For some fishing areas, information published in the 1960s provided a relevant comparison for the current use of the fishing spots at sea. Such information is very helpful for the management of artisanal fishing in Brazil because tourism has increased in some areas, recreational fishers have been fishing in marine spots used by artisanal fishers, and industrial fishers are spread over a wide range of the marine space in these coastal waters. This stability in the use of marine space among artisanal fishers plus local rules support the case for local co-management of artisanal fisheries. Reserving areas for artisanal fishers and understanding the behavior of other users are essential aspects for the management and conservation of artisanal fishing in Brazil.

  3. Vertical and Horizontal Analysis of Crustal Structure of Southeastern Mediterranean and the Egyptian Coastal Zone, from Bouguer and Satellite Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah

    2016-07-01

    The present Tectonic system of Southeastern Mediterranean is driven by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates, the Arabian Eurasian convergence and the displacement of the Anatolian Aegean microplate, which generally represents the characteristic of lithospheric structure of the region. In the scope of this study, Bouguer and the satellite gravity (satellite altimetry) anomalies of southeastern Mediterranean and North Eastern part of Egypt were used for investigating the lithospheric structures. Second order trend analyses were applied firstly to Bouguer and satellite altimetry data for examining the characteristic of the anomaly. Later, the vertical and horizontal derivatives applications were applied to the same data. Generally, the purpose of the applying derivative methods is determining the vertical and horizontal borders of the structure. According to the results of derivatives maps, the study area could mainly divided into important four tectonic subzones depending on basement and Moho depth maps. These subzones are distributed from south to the north as: Nile delta-northern Sinai zone, north Egyptian coastal zone, Levantine basin zone and northern thrusting (Cyprus and its surroundings) zone. These zones are separated from each other by horizontal tectonic boundaries and/or near-vertical faults that display the block-faulting tectonic style of this belt. Finally, the gravity studies were evaluated together with the seismic activity of the region. Consequently, the geodynamical structure of the region is examined with the previous studies done in the region. Thus, the current study indicates that satellite gravity mission data is a valuable source of data in understanding the tectonic boundary behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important modern source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  4. Evaluation of anthropic influences in an estuarine system of Southeastern Brazilian Coast by applying enrichment factors in cores from Bertioga Channel, Sao Paulo state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, R. C.; Sartoretto, J. R.; Salaroli, A. B.; Gabriela, C.; Andreza, R. P.; Tessler, M. G.; Mahiques, M.; Goncalves, C.

    2011-12-01

    Santos estuary, located in Southeastern Brazilian Coast, is impacted by several anthropic activities. The largest commercial harbor in South America and the main petrochemical and metallurgical industrial centre in the country, with approximately 1100 industries, are also in this estuary. The estuarine system has an important channel, called Bertioga Channel, which connects the upper Santos estuary to the ocean. In this channel are located the main mangroves of the estuarine complex that have a great potential of heavy metals retention. This behavior is related to sedimentary dynamics of system, where contaminated sediments from upper estuary are filtrated by channel before reaching the ocean. In this context, the main goal of this work was to carry out a study on toxic elements in cores from Bertioga Channel. Enrichment Factor (EF) was determined and it was related to geochronological data, allowing the evaluation of anthropic activities impact in this region. Thus, in February 2010, were collected five cores along the channel using a vibrocorer. The cores (150 - 220 cm) were sliced at every 2 cm, the samples were frozen and freeze-drying. Elemental preparation and analysis (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sc and Zn) followed SW-846 methodologies applying ICP-OES technique. Geocronology was determined via gamma spectrometry, by 210Pbxs and 137Cs methods. In order to assess the degree of sediment contamination, enrichment factors (EF) were calculated using Sc as normalization element Background values correspondeded to the element concentration in the bottom sediment core as determined by 210Pb chronology. EFs obtained in all analyzed cores were lower than 2, indicating a minimal pollution for the region. However, in core Bertioga 5 (the closest one to Santos harbor), it can be seen As, Cr, Pb and Zn enrichment from the bottom to the top, mainly from 70's, when harbor activities expanded. Despite of the low levels found for the studied elements, Bertioga channel area has

  5. Bloom forming and toxic phytoplankton in transitional and coastal waters of Cantabria region coast (Southeastern Bay of Biscay, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Sergio; Puente, Araceli; Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, Jose Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Phytoplankton monitoring has extended to practically all the regions of the European coast due to the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. In this way, the study of phytoplankton taxonomic composition and dynamic is being performed in many areas poorly studied or not studied before. During the last years, a monitoring programme has been carried out at the coast of Cantabria region (SE Bay of Biscay); the presence of some potentially toxic and bloom forming species (>7.5 × 10⁵ cells per litre) has been observed. Diatoms and cryptophytes are the main blooming taxa in this region in the majority of the estuaries and in some of the coastal sites. All estuaries and coastal stations showed at least one potentially toxic species, being the dinoflagellates the group with the highest number of taxa observed. The potentially toxic species found in highest concentrations were the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Chrysochromulina. PMID:23017945

  6. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Cesar C., E-mail: ccmart@ufpr.b [Centro de Estudos do Mar da Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 50.002, 83255-000, Pontal do Sul, Pontal do Parana, PR (Brazil); Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil); Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C. [Instituto Oceanografico da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, 05508-900, Sao Paulo - SP (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by {sup 137}Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  7. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  8. Radarsat-1 and ERS InSAR analysis over southeastern coastal Louisiana: Implications for mapping water-level changes beneath swamp forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiming; Kwoun, Oh-Ig

    2008-01-01

    Detailed analysis of C-band European Remote Sensing 1 and 2 (ERS-1/ERS-2) and Radarsat-1 interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) imagery was conducted to study water-level changes of coastal wetlands of southeastern Louisiana. Radar backscattering and InSAR coherence suggest that the dominant radar backscattering mechanism for swamp forest and saline marsh is double-bounce backscattering, implying that InSAR images can be used to estimate water-level changes with unprecedented spatial details. On the one hand, InSAR images suggest that water-level changes over the study site can be dynamic and spatially heterogeneous and cannot be represented by readings from sparsely distributed gauge stations. On the other hand, InSAR phase measurements are disconnected by structures and other barriers and require absolute water-level measurements from gauge stations or other sources to convert InSAR phase values to absolute water-level changes. ?? 2006 IEEE.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  10. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  11. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  12. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Nilton Curi; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva; Sebastião da Fonseca; Elidiane da Silva; João José Marques

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size) and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion). The soil map was made using the geographic informatio...

  13. Organic biomarker records spanning the last 34,800 years from the southeastern Brazilian upper slope: links between sea surface temperature, displacement of the Brazil Current, and marine productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2016-10-01

    Collective assessment of marine and terrigenous organic biomarkers was performed on a sediment core spanning the last 34,800 years on the upper slope southeast of Brazil to verify the signatures of climatic variations in sea surface temperature (SST), marine productivity, and the flux of terrigenous material in this region. This evaluation is based on marine and terrigenous proxies including alkenones, chlorins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alcohols, and fatty acids. This first report of organic biomarker data for this region confirms a correlation between SST, changes in terrigenous organic matter flow into the ocean, and marine productivity over the last 34.8 ka as a response to the displacement of the Brazil Current. Conditions prevailing during marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 may be considered intermediate between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Late Holocene. For MIS 2, a period of low relative sea level, it was verified that the lowest SSTs were associated with the LGM and higher marine productivity. SST increased by up to 4.4 °C between the LGM and the Holocene. This reveals synchronicity between SST on the southeastern Brazilian upper slope and the North Atlantic Ocean SST records reported in earlier studies.

  14. Organic biomarker records spanning the last 34,800 years from the southeastern Brazilian upper slope: links between sea surface temperature, displacement of the Brazil Current, and marine productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; de Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch; Wainer, Ilana Elazari Klein Coaracy; Rosell-Melé, Antoni; Bícego, Márcia Caruso

    2016-06-01

    Collective assessment of marine and terrigenous organic biomarkers was performed on a sediment core spanning the last 34,800 years on the upper slope southeast of Brazil to verify the signatures of climatic variations in sea surface temperature (SST), marine productivity, and the flux of terrigenous material in this region. This evaluation is based on marine and terrigenous proxies including alkenones, chlorins, aliphatic hydrocarbons, n-alcohols, and fatty acids. This first report of organic biomarker data for this region confirms a correlation between SST, changes in terrigenous organic matter flow into the ocean, and marine productivity over the last 34.8 ka as a response to the displacement of the Brazil Current. Conditions prevailing during marine isotopic stage (MIS) 3 may be considered intermediate between the last glacial maximum (LGM) and the Late Holocene. For MIS 2, a period of low relative sea level, it was verified that the lowest SSTs were associated with the LGM and higher marine productivity. SST increased by up to 4.4 °C between the LGM and the Holocene. This reveals synchronicity between SST on the southeastern Brazilian upper slope and the North Atlantic Ocean SST records reported in earlier studies.

  15. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  16. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  17. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  18. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  19. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  20. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp.), followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp.) and Polycentropodidae (97 spp.), are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region. PMID:25349524

  1. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehrig, Helena A; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Seixas, Tercia G; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hginorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hginorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hginorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. PMID:27038210

  2. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  3. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  4. Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast Plesiomonasshigelloides e patógenos da família Aeromonadaceae isolados de mamíferos marinhos da costa sul e sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ and southern (RS coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl, APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P.shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A.veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%, A. caviae (12.3%, A. hydrophila (9.6% and P.shigelloides (7%. The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.O ambiente aquático é o habitat de vários microrganismos, incluindo Plesiomonasshigelloides e espécies de Aeromonas, os quais são patogênicos para o homem e os animais. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a ocorrência destes patógenos a partir de swabs coletados de mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados acidentalmente em redes de pesca nas regiões costeiras do sudeste (RJ e sul (RS do Brasil. O total de 198 swabs de 27 espécimes de mamíferos marinhos, incluindo 11 espécies distintas, foi coletado por profissionais dos institutos DEENSP, GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS e enviado ao LRNCEB

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  6. Distribution and ecology of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios in coastal waters of the southeastern United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J D; Warner, R. A.; Cleland, D R

    1982-01-01

    Water, sediment, plankton, and animal samples from five coastal sites from North Carolina to Georgia were sampled for their lactose-fermenting vibrio populations. Over 20% of all vibrios tested were sucrose negative and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive, suggesting identification as the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. These vibrios were isolated from all sample sites and sources (water, sediment, plankton, and animals). Correlations with several of 19 environmental para...

  7. CO2 cycling in the coastal ocean. I - A numerical analysis of the southeastern Bering Sea with applications to the Chukchi Sea and the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Dieterle, Dwight A.

    A quasi-two dimensional model of the carbon and nitrogen cycling above the 70m isobath of the southeastern Bering Sea at 57°N replicates the observed seasonal cycles of nitrate, ammonium, ΣCO2, pCO2, light penetration, chlorophyll, phytoplankton growth rate, and primary production, as constrained by changes in wind, incident radiation, temperature, ice cover, vertical and lateral mixing, grazing stress, benthic processing of phytodetritus and zooplankton fecal pellets, and the pelagic microbial loop of DOC, bacteria, and their predators. About half of the seasonal resupply of nitrate stocks to their initial winter conditions is derived from in situ nitrification, with the rest obtained from deep-sea influxes. Under the present conditions of atmospheric forcing, shelf-break exchange, and food web structure, this shelf ecosystem serves as a sink for atmospheric CO2, with storage in the forms of exported DOC, DIC, and unutilized POC (phytoplankton, bacteria, and fecal pellets). As a consequence of just the rising levels of atmospheric pCO2 since the the Industrial Revolution, however, the biophysical CO2 status of the Southeastern Bering Sea shelf may have switched over the last 250 years, from a prior source to the present sink, since this relatively pristine ecosystem has unergone little eutrophication. Such fluctuations of CO2 status may thus be reversed by the physical processes of : (1) reduction of atmospheric pCO2, (2) increased on welling of deep-sea ΣCO2, and (3) warming of shelf waters. Based on our application of this model to the Chukchi Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, about 1.0-1.2 gigatons C y-1 of atmospheric CO2 may now be sequestered by temperate and polar shelf ecosystems. When tropical systems are included, however, a positive net sink of only 0.6-0.8. × 1015g C y-1 may prevail over all shelves.

  8. Monitoring Tropical Cyclone Impacts on the Coastal Vegetation of the Southeastern USA in the First Decade of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, J.; Barros, A. P.

    2010-12-01

    Hurricanes and tropical storms are powerful and hazardous meteorological phenomena causing damages to natural and built areas all around the world. However, on the flip side, Tropical cyclones provide a significant influx of freshwater resources to surface and subsurface reservoirs during the warm season. Therefore it is important to understand ecosystem response to such extreme climatic events, especially in a context of potential changes in the track, frequency or strength of these phenomena that could be induced by climatic change. Here we present a method to measure vegetation disturbance persistence in the aftermath of tropical cyclones based on MODIS North American Carbon Program (NACP) vegetation indices (8-day composite at 500m spatial resolution) was developed with the objective of assessing the eco-hydrological impact of hurricanes in the South-East United States. This technique is based on the relationship between vegetation stress and the persistence of standardized Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) anomalies along the terrestrial path of hurricanes. An independent evaluation was conducted against 25 years (1982-2006) of AVHRR data from the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) database. The data show that in the aftermath of hurricane landfall, there is a significant decrease in chlorophyll activity at very low elevations, including coastal marshes, wetlands, and the drainage networks of major river systems aligned with the terrestrial path of the storm. This vegetation activity disturbance persists longer (up two 2 years) in coastal areas than in inland forests and could be consistent with impact of salt intrusion in shallow coastal aquifers. In alluvial plains, the spatial pattern of the vegetation anomalies persistence seems to be mostly associated with flooding.

  9. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2016-08-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  10. Influence of South America orography on summertime precipitation in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquas, C.; Li, L.; Vera, C. S.; Le Treut, H.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of the main South American orographic structures (the Andes, the Brazilian Plateau and the Guiana shield) on the regional climate and associated global teleconnection are investigated through numerical experiments in which some of these features are suppressed. Simulations are performed with a ``two-way nesting'' system coupling interactively the regional and global versions of the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model. At regional scale, the simulations confirm previous studies, showing that both the Andes and the Brazilian Plateau exert a control on the position and strength of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ), mainly through their impact on the low-level jet and the coastal branch of the subtropical anticyclones. The northern topography of South America appears to be crucial to determine the leading mode of rainfall variability in eastern South America, which manifests itself as a dipole-like pattern between Southeastern South America and the SACZ region. The suppression of South America orography also shows global-scale effects, corresponding to an adjustment of the global circulation system. Changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation are found in remote areas on the globe, being the consequences of various teleconnection mechanisms. When the Brazilian Plateau and the Andes are suppressed, there is a decrease of precipitation in the SACZ region, associated with a weakening of the large-scale ascendance. Changes are described in terms of anomalies in the Walker circulation, meridional displacements of the mid-latitude jet stream, Southern annular mode anomalies and modifications of Rossby wave train teleconnection processes.

  11. Ophiomusium acuferum (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Ophiuridae (Ophiuroidea: Echinodermata, redescription based on the Brazilian specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ophiomusium (Ophiolepididae and Ophiomisidium (Ophiuridae are similar, but differ in features such as size of the adult, number of disc dorsal plates, length of the arms, shape of the first ventral arm plates and number of the tentacle. In this contribution, a large number of specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1869 and Ophiomisidium pulchellum (Wyville Thomson, 1878 were sampled from southeastern and southern Brazilian at depths ranging from 46 to 1300 m. A close analysis has shown that specimens identified as Ophiomisidium pulchellum (C.W. Thomson, 1877 in several Brazilian museums are actually Ophiomusium acuferum Lyman, 1875. A total of 2330 individuals were examined: 2046 specimens of Ophiomusium acuferum ('Evaluation of the sustainable potential of living resources from the Brazilian Economic Exclusive Zone/Score South - Benthos' - REVIZEE; 'Rational usage of coastal ecosystems from the Brazilian Tropical Region: São Paulo State - Integrated Project/Subproject Benthos' - INTEGRADO; and the MD55/Brazil and 284 of Ophiomisidium pulchellum (MD55/Brazil. The disc diameter of each individual was measured and the specimens were digitally photographed. The samples studied are deposited in the Museum of Zoology of the University of Campinas and Institute of Biology at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro. The specimens from the MD55 are deposited at the Paris Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle. An identification key to these species is provided here. A detailed morphological analysis and redescription of both species, comparisons, and their geographic distribution in Brazil are discussed.

  12. Trophic organisation and predator-prey interactions among commercially exploited demersal finfishes in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahiman, K. P.; Nayak, T. H.; Zacharia, P. U.; Mohamed, K. S.

    2010-05-01

    Trophic interactions in commercially exploited demersal finfishes in the southeastern Arabian Sea of India were studied to understand trophic organization with emphasis on ontogenic diet shifts within the marine food web. In total, the contents of 4716 stomachs were examined from which 78 prey items were identified. Crustaceans and fishes were the major prey groups to most of the fishes. Based on cluster analysis of predator feeding similarities and ontogenic diet shift within each predator, four major trophic guilds and many sub-guilds were identified. The first guild 'detritus feeders' included all size groups of Cynoglossus macrostomus, Pampus argenteus, Leiognathus bindus and Priacanthus hamrur. Guild two, named 'Shrimp feeders', was the largest guild identified and included all size groups of Rhynchobatus djiddensis and Nemipterus mesoprion, medium and large Nemipterus japonicus, P. hamrur and Grammoplites suppositus, small and medium Otolithes cuvieri and small Lactarius lactarius. Guild three, named 'crab and squilla feeders', consisted of few predators. The fourth trophic guild, 'piscivores', was mainly made up of larger size groups of all predators and all size groups of Pseudorhombus arsius and Carcharhinus limbatus. The mean diet breadth and mean trophic level showed strong correlation with ontogenic diet shift. The mean trophic level varied from 2.2 ± 0.1 in large L. bindus to 4.6 ± 0.2 in large Epinephelus diacanthus and the diet breadth from 1.4 ± 0.3 in medium P. argenteus to 8.3 ± 0.2 in medium N. japonicus. Overall, the present study showed that predators in the ecosystem have a strong feeding preference for the sergestid shrimp Acetes indicus, penaeid shrimps, epibenthic crabs and detritus.

  13. Distribution and ecology of Vibrio vulnificus and other lactose-fermenting marine vibrios in coastal waters of the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, J D; Warner, R A; Cleland, D R

    1982-12-01

    Water, sediment, plankton, and animal samples from five coastal sites from North Carolina to Georgia were sampled for their lactose-fermenting vibrio populations. Over 20% of all vibrios tested were sucrose negative and o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) positive, suggesting identification as the human pathogen Vibrio vulnificus. These vibrios were isolated from all sample sites and sources (water, sediment, plankton, and animals). Correlations with several of 19 environmental parameters monitored at each site were found for total vibrios. The presence of ONPG-positive, sucrose-negative vibrios was correlated with hydrocarbon levels in the water and, in the case of plankton samples, with salinity. A total of 279 sucrose-negative, ONPG-positive isolates were subjected to numerical taxonomic analysis, which resulted in three major clusters. Cluster I corresponded to and included 11 reference strains of V. vulnificus. Cluster II contained the largest number (133) of isolates, of which the great majority were bioluminescent. Although having a resemblance to V. harveyi, the isolates were ONPG positive and many were H2S positive. Cluster III consisted of strains similar to the group F vibrios (V. fluvialis). Of all of the isolates, 55% were luminescent, of which over 20% were lethal when injected into mice. Problems involved in detecting lactose fermentation among marine vibrios and the potential pathogenicity of these organisms are discussed.

  14. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  15. Analysis on characteristics of wind-driven coastal upwelling off the southeastern China coast using coastal upwelling index%用沿岸上升流指数分析中国东南沿岸风生上升流的特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗馨; 胡建宇

    2011-01-01

    对1968年1月到2007年12月中国东南沿海(17°N~30°N,109°E~123°E)上升流指数月平均数据进行分析,结论如下:(1)风生沿岸上升流主要在4-8月间发生于海南岛东部、雷州半岛东部、汕头以北至浙江沿岸.(2)风生沿岸上升流的强度具有时空分布变化特征,其中海南岛东部沿岸上升流最强,浙江沿岸其次;整个中国东南沿岸强度较大的风生上升流发生在6-8月.(3)风生上升流的"成长期"长于"衰减期";与海南岛东部相比,浙江沿岸风生上升流出现早,消失早.(4)海南岛东部、汕头、闽南及浙江沿岸风生上升流有逐年增大的趋势.(5)闽中以南风生上升流的显著周期为1年和半年,闽中以北为1年和4个月,过渡的闽中地区为1年、半年和4个月.%In this paper, the characteristics of wind-driven coastal upwelling off the southeastern China coast are analyzed using CUI (Coastal Upwelling Index). The following results are obtained: (1) There exists wind-driven coastal upwelling in summer off the eastern Hainan Island and the Leizhou Peninsula, and from Shantou to Zhejiang.(2) The wind-driven coastal upwelling of the eastern Hainan Island is stronger than that of the others; and the upwelling is stronger during June to August. (3) Wind-driven coastal upwelling off Zhejiang appears earlier than that off the eastern Hainan Island. (4) Wind-driven coastal upwelling off the eastern Hainan Island, Shantou and Zhejiang has a trend of intensification. (5) The wind-driven coastal upwelling off the central and southern Fujian coast as well as Guangdong and eastern Hainan Island coast has two significant periods (one year and half a year); the upwelling has two periods (one year and four months) off the northern Fujian coast and Zhejiang coast; and the upwelling off central Fujian coast has three periods (one year, half a year and 4 months).

  16. Changes in Carbon Pools 50 Years after Reversion of a Landscape Dominated by Agriculture to Managed Forests in the Upper Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Trettin, C.; Parresol, B. R.; Li, C.

    2010-12-01

    The landscape of the upper coastal plain of South Carolina in the late 1940’s was typified by rural agricultural communities and farms comprising cleared fields and mixed-use woodlots. Approximately 80,000 ha of that landscape was appropriated by the US Government in the early 1950’s to form the Savannah River Site which is now managed by the US Dept. of Energy. The US Forest Service was engaged to reforest the agricultural parcels, 40% of the tract, and to develop sustainable management practices for the woodlots and restored areas. As part of the acquisition process in 1951, a complete inventory of the land and forest resources were conducted. In 2001, an intensive forest survey was conducted which encompassed 90% of the tract, detailing the above-ground biomass pools. We’ve used those inventories in conjunction with soil resource data to assemble a carbon balance sheet encompassing the above and belowground carbon pools over the 50 year period. We’ve also employed inventories on forest removals, forest burning and runoff to estimate fluxes from the landscape over the same period. There was a net sequestration of 5,486 Gg of C in forest vegetation over the 50 yr. period (1.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1), with carbon density increasing from 6.3 to 83.3 Mg ha-1. The reforestation of the agricultural land and the increased density of the former woodlots was the cause of the gain. Fifty years after imposition of silvicultural prescriptions, the forest composition has changed from being dominated by hardwoods to pine. The forest floor increased by 311 Gg carbon. Fluxes in form of harvested wood and oxidation from burning were 24% and 10% respectively of the net gain in vegetative biomass. These findings document real changes in carbon storage on a landscape that was changed from mixed agricultural use to managed forests, and they suggest responses that should be similar if reforestation for biofuels production is expanded.

  17. 基于河南省劳动力供给状况的我国东南沿海"民工荒"问题研究%On the Shortage of Migrant Workers in Southeastern Coastal Cities of China Based on the Labor Supply Status of Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶在青

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of labor supply in Henan province the paper probes into the problems and countermeasures of labor shortage in southeastern coastal cities, and puts forward the view that the economic development of China has not yet reached the Lewis turning point.%从河南省劳动力供给状况角度探讨东南沿海部分城市出现的"民工荒"问题的原因及解决对策,并提出我国经济发展尚未到达"刘易斯拐点"的观点.

  18. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  19. Fire ecology in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Fire has played an important role in the structure of natural ecosystems throughout North America. As a natural process, fire helps clear away dead and dying plant matter and increases the production of native species that occur in fire prone habitats. It also reduces the invasion of exotic species and the succession to woody species in pitcher plant bogs, pine savannas, coastal prairies, marshes, and other natural plant communities of the southeastern United States.

  20. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Neto, E.; Carmo, J. B.; Keller, M.; Martins, S. C.; Alves, L. F.; Vieira, S. A.; Piccolo, M. C.; Camargo, P.; Couto, H. T. Z.; Joly, C. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture). Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4), 1.0 (± 0.1), and 0.9 (± 0.2) ng N cm-2 h-1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of -1.0 (± 0.2), -1.8 (± 0.3), and -1.6 (± 0.1) mg m-2 d-1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m-2 s-1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  1. Cubozoa e Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa de águas costeiras do Brasil Cubozoa and Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa from Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André C. Morandini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Cubozoa e Scyphozoa costeiras que ocorrem no Brasil são descritas, com base em espécimes de coleções de museus e exemplares recém-coletados. Chaves de identificação e um glossário também são apresentados. As espécies descritas são: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 e Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.Coastal species of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa occurring in Brazil are described, based on museum specimens and recently collected ones. Identification keys and a glossary are also presented. The listed species are: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859; and Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.

  2. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O and Carbon Dioxide (CO2 as well as methane (CH4 emissions and consumptions along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 2.6 (±0.5, 0.9 (±0.1, and 0.7 (±0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (±0.2, −1.8 (±0.1, and −1.6 (±0.3 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Although not sampled in the hottest and wettest portion of the year because of instrument malfunctions, mean fluxes of CO2 averaged 3.6 (±0.2, 3.5 (±0.3, and 3.1 (±0.3 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climate warming, our results suggest that increasing temperatures will result in increased in microbial activity with a consequent increase in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  3. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O, carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4, 1.0 (± 0.1, and 0.9 (± 0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (± 0.2, −1.8 (± 0.3, and −1.6 (± 0.1 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  4. A microcosm approach on the potential effects of the vertical mixing of water masses over the primary productivity and phytoplankton biomass in the southern Brazilian coastal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Marisa Prado Saldanha-Corrêa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The vertical mixing between South Atlantic Central Water (SACW and Coastal Water (CW was simulated through microcosm experiments using the autochthonous phytoplankton community (fraction 20°C and oligotrophic. The phytoplankton growth potential of SACW, CW and an equivalent mixture of both (SACW+CW was compared, under 100, 30 and 10% of sunlight, at surface seawater temperature, in winter and summer conditions. Results demonstrate the importance of SACW as a natural eutrophication agent for the mixing layer, allowing the occurrence of new production by nutrient input, and also as a biological seeder through the development of its autochthonous phytoplankton community when it reaches the euphotic zone. The time lag for phytoplankton development during winter was around 4-5 days, against 1-2 days in summer. The hypothesis of physiological differences between surface and bottom phytoplankton populations from a deep (80 m and thermally homogeneous water column (common winter feature was also tested through the microcosm experiments. Results obtained clearly demonstrate that bottom water presented higher phytoplankton growth potential than the surface one.A mistura vertical entre a Água Central do Atlântico Sul (ACAS e a Água Costeira (AC foi simulada através de experimentos tipo microcosmos, com o fitoplâncton autóctone (fração 20°C e oligotrófica. O potencial trófico dessas águas e de uma mistura equivalente de ambas (ACAS+AC foi comparado a 100, 30 e 10% da luz solar, sob temperatura da água do mar na superfície, em condições de inverno e verão. Os resultados demonstram a importância da ACAS como agente fertilizador da camada de mistura tanto por introduzir nutrientes, favorecendo a ocorrência de produção nova, como pelo incremento da biomassa fitoplanctônica autóctone ao atingir a zona eufótica. A fase de adaptação observada no inverno foi de 4-5 dias enquanto no verão foi de 1-2 dias. A hipótese da existência de

  5. Morphology, mineralogy and micromorphology of soils associated to summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains Morfologia, mineralogia e micromorfologia de solos de depressões de topo de Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The scarcity of comprehensive characterizations of soils associated to gentle summit depressions of the Northeastern Brazilian Coastal Plains justifies this work, which had as objective to provide basic information for the more diverse agricultural and non-agricultural uses. For that, representative soils (Spodosols or similar soils from these environments were selected in Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia states. This approach included characterization of morphological, mineralogical and micromorphological properties of the soil profiles, employing standard procedures. The morphological characterization corroborated the effect of the podzolization process during the formation of these soils. The mineralogy of the clay fraction of these soils was basically composed of kaolinite and quartz, which, associated to the very sandy texture, helped in the understanding of the obtained data. The soil micromorphological study, besides confirming the field morphology, mainly in regard to the strong cementation, aggregated value to the work in terms of the secure identification of the clay illuviation process (non-identified in the field, in association with the dominant podzolization process.A carência de caracterizações abrangentes de solos associados às depressões suaves de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do nordeste brasileiro justifica este trabalho, o qual objetivou fornecer informações básicas para as mais diversas finalidades agrícolas e não-agrícolas. Para tal, foram selecionados solos representativos (Espodossolos ou solos afins desses ambientes nos estados de Alagoas, Sergipe e Bahia. A abordagem utilizada englobou a caracterização de atributos morfológicos, mineralógicos e micromorfológicos de perfis dos solos, empregando-se metodologia padronizada. A caracterização morfológica corroborou o efeito do processo de podzolização na formação desses solos. A mineralogia da fração argila desses solos foi composta basicamente por

  6. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    OpenAIRE

    de Graaff, J

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  7. Features of Minerogenic Series Related to Continental Volcanic Rocks in the Southeastern Coastal Area of China-A Case Study of the Daiyunshan-Shiniushan Volcanic Depression in Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The Daiyunshan-Shiniushan volcanic depression in Fujian Province is situated in a volcanic belt of the southeast coastal area in China along the west Pacific Ocean. A new breakthrough has been made in the exploration of gold and silver ore deposits in recent years. The minerogenic series of the Daiyunshan-Shiniushan volcanic depression is discussed in this paper based on the analysis of major metallogenic types and factors. According to the study of enormous ore deposits and occurrences in the study area, two minerogenic series have been recognized: 1. Late Jurassic Au-Ag-Pb-Zn minerogenic series related to intermediate-acid, acid volcanic formations; 2. nonmetallic minerogenic series (pyrophyllite, alunite pearlite, andalusite, zeolite, corundum and so on) related to intermediate and acid volcanic formations. The division and study of the minerogenic series have revealed metallogenic and time-space distribution characteristics of the ore deposits in the volcanic belt of the southeast coastal area in China , which are of economic importance for metallogenic prognosis .

  8. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  9. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-08-11

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  10. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  11. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.)

  12. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  13. Produção primária e características fotossintéticas do fitoplâncton na região sueste do Brasil Primary production and phytoplakton photosynthetic in the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pereira Brandini

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Taxas de produção primária do fitoplâncton (C-14 foram obtidas em 14 estações da plataforma intermediária e áreas oceânicas da região sueste do Brasil, no inverno de 1982 e outono de 1983.0 cálculo da produção na zona eufórica foi feito utilizando-se o método in situ simulado. Em duas ocasiões, a taxa de produção foi estimada com base nos dados de clorofila-a e radiação solar diária, e os resultados obtidos foram comparados com os obtidos pelo método in situ simulado. A taxa de produção variou de 0,04-0,49 gC/m²/d. Os resultados obtidos com o método da clorofila foram cerca de 35% menores. Além dos experimentos de produção, foram estudadas as características fotossintéticas do fitoplâncton através da relação fotossíntese x luz. O número de assimilação cresceu com a profundidade indicando uma fotoadaptação das populações fitoplanctônicas dos estratos intermediários da zona eufórica (30-60% de luz, em relação às populações de superfície.Primary production of phytoplankton (C-14 was obtained at coastal, mid-shelf and oceanic stations off the Southeastern Brazil, with the in situ simulated method. Productivity rates in the euphotic zone were calculated at two stations using chlorophyll and light data and the results were 35% lower than those obtained by the simulated in situ method. Primary production rates varied from 0.04-0.49 gC/m²/d in winter 1982, and from 0.1-032 gC/m²/d in autumn 1983. In addition, photosynthetic characteristics of the phytoplankton were studied. The P x I curves and the vertical distribution of assimilation number indicated a better photoadaptation of the sub-surface phytoplankton in relation to the surface populations.

  14. Control of power swings between brazilian southern and southeastern systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, G.P.; Botelho, M.J.; Carvalho, J.F.M.; Gomes, J.R. [ELETROSUL, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This report contains an explanation of the stability problems and the operational procedures used to control the power swings observed between the electric power systems of the South and Southeast of Brazil. The time period from August 1985 to May 1987 covered in this paper corresponds to the initial operation and expansion of Itaipu power plant and its associated transmission system. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  15. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, isl...

  16. Transporte de arena en médanos litorales activos y colgados del sudeste de Buenos Aires Sand transport in active and hunged coastal dunes of southeastern Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Bértola

    2005-03-01

    allows to see differences in the dynamics and texture of the sand that conform the profile of speed, differences due to its genesis and characteristic. The objective of the work was to analyze if there were quantifiable appreciable differences in the characteristics of coastal dunes hung in cliffs of Mar del Plata and in front dunes, of open costs to the south of the same area, in the La Ballenera Creek. It was observed that the sands of frontal dunes are coarser than those of the hunging dunes, due to the contribution areas and topographical location. The biggest transported volumes of sand are for the windward face and crest. The profile of the La Ballenera Creek is more influenced by the marine effect that the hunging dune, where the eolic action prevails. It was observed that when the speed of the wind is duplicated, the ported volume was 5 larger more, the same thing that the t o. The Drag Coefficient went practically worthless to 2,6 m. The methodology used to trap the silt turned out to be acceptable as an initial phase for the monitoring of the dynamics of coastal sectors dominated by the wind.

  17. SHRIMP Geochronology of Volcanics of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, Northern Hebei Province, with a Discussion on the Age of the Xing'anling Group of the Great Hinggan Mountains and Volcanic Strata of the Southeastern Coastal Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Baogui; HE Zhengjun; SONG Biao; REN Jishun; XIAO Liwei

    2004-01-01

    A zircon U-Pb geochronological study on the volcanic rocks reveals that both of the Zhangjiakou and Yixian Formations, northern Hebei Province, are of the Early Cretaceous, with ages of 135-130 Ma and 129-120 Ma,respectively. It is pointed out that the ages of sedimentary basins and volcanism in the northern Hebei -western Liaoning area become younger from west to east, i. e. the volcanism of the Luanping Basin commenced at c. 135 Ma, the Luotuo Mount area of the Chengde Basin c. 130 Ma, and western Liaoning c. 128 Ma. With a correlation of geochronological stratigraphy and biostratigraphy, we deduce that the Xing'anling Group, which comprises the Great Hinggan Mountains volcanic rock belt in eastern China, is predominantly of the early-middle Early Cretaceous, while the Jiande and Shimaoshan Groups and their equivalents, which form the volcanic rock belt in the southeastern coast area of China, are of the mid-late Early Cretaceous, and both the Jehol and Jiande Biotas are of the Early Cretaceous, not Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous. Combining the characteristics of the volcanic rocks and, in a large area, hiatus in the strata of the Late Jurassic or Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous between the formations mentioned above and the underlying sequences, we can make the conclusion that, in the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous, the eastern China region was of high relief or plateau, where widespread post-orogenic volcanic series of the Early Cretaceous obviously became younger from inland in the west to continental margin in the east. This is not the result of an oceanward accretion of the subduction belt between the Paleo-Pacific ocean plate and the Asian continent, but rather reflects the extension feature, i.e. after the closure of the Paleo-Pacific ocean, the Paleo-Pacific ancient continent collided with the Asian continent and reached the peak of orogenesis, and then the compression waned and resulted in the retreating of the post

  18. Microalgae of the continental shelf off Paraná State, southeastern Brazil: a review of studies

    OpenAIRE

    Brandini, Frederico P.; Luciano F. Fernandes

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the taxonomic and ecological works on marine microalgae (phytoplankton and microphytobenthos) off Paraná State, Southeastern Brazil. Various studies refer to the taxonomy of benthic diatoms. Few descriptive field works in coastal and adjacent shelf waters contribute to the understanding of phytoplankton dynamics in coastal and shelf areas. Patterns of geographic distribution and changes in the phytoplankton community are described in relation to water masses and seasonal var...

  19. Levels of cadmium, mercury, and lead in Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) stranded on the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Claudia M; Siciliano, Salvatore; Barrocas, Paulo R G; Hacon, Sandra S; Campos, Reinaldo C; do Couto Jacob, Silvana; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2010-02-01

    Cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), and lead (Pb) were determined in samples of liver and breast muscles of first-year Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), from two different areas on the Brazilian coast, 35 on the Rio de Janeiro coast and 12 on the Rio Grande do Sul coast. In both areas, Cd concentrations in muscle samples were <0.025 microg/g. However, the Cd and Hg concentrations found in liver and Hg concentrations found in muscle showed a significant difference between the two regions. The geometric mean of the concentrations was higher in the specimens from Rio de Janeiro (Cd--6.8 microg/g; Hg--liver, 1.6 microg/g, and muscle, 0.4 microg/g wet weight) than in those from Rio Grande do Sul (Cd--2.3 microg/g; Hg--liver, 0.9 microg/g, and muscle, 0.1 microg/g wet weight). The site differences could be related to differences in diet influenced by geographic factors. Brazil's southeastern coast is highly urbanized, and its coastal waters are contaminated by the waste of agricultural and industrial activities. There is a lack of information on the levels of heavy metals in S. magellanicus, however, their wide distribution and top position in the trophic chain make the use of stranded specimens an attractive source of information for monitoring heavy metals in the South Atlantic coast. PMID:19582498

  20. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Simone M; Appel, Eleonora; Macedo, Carla F; Huszar, Vera L M

    2014-09-01

    Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  1. Population biology and diet of Pomadasys corvinaeformis (Perciformes: Pomadasyidae) in Caraguatatuba Bay, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Márcia Regina; Santos, Flávia Borges; Bessa, Eduardo; Fernandez, Wellington Silva; Lorca, Luana; Turra, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Pomadasys corvinaeformis inhabits sandy and rocky bottoms in coastal waters, and is common in trawl samples taken from beaches. The species is very abundant on the Brazilian coast, and is of high economic and ecological importance. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution, population biology and diet of P. corvinaeformis in Southeastern Brazil. Samples were taken by trawling monthly from August 2003 to October 2004, in two previously selected areas. The Northern area is more exposed to wave activity and is influenced by a river, functioning as a small estuary. In contrast, the Southern area is relatively sheltered from wave energy and influenced to a lesser degree by smaller rivers. The length of the specimens was measured, and the sex and gonadal stage were macroscopically identified. The abundance of this species was compared between areas and among months. The diet was analyzed seasonally by the frequency of occurrence, the percent volume, and the index of alimentary importance. P. corvinaeformis occurred in unequal proportions in the two study areas (86% in the Northern area and 14% in the Southern area) and was found most abundant in May 2004, followed by June 2004. The proportion of mature and in-maturation individuals increased gradually from autumn to summer. Nine major groups of food items were recorded in the diet of P. corvinaeformis, and crustaceans comprised five of the categories: unidentified crustacean fragments, zoea larvae, amphipods, copepods and shrimps. In both, fish stomach and intestine, crustacean fragments were the most frequent item. The second most frequent items were shrimp in the stomach, and amphipods in the intestine (mainly represented by their tubes). These results demonstrate that P. corvinaeformis can be considered a carnivore, with a preference on benthic organisms.

  2. A new species of Sycorax Curtis, 1839 from Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Claudiney Biral dos Santos; Adelson Luiz Ferreira; Aloísio Falqueto

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Sycorax Curtis, 1839 (Diptera, Psychodidae) from the Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Sycorax bravoi Santos, Ferreira & Falqueto sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on samples collected with a Möricke trap installed on the ground at the Biological Station of Santa Lúcia, municipality of Santa Teresa, in the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. Males have a paramere with a spiniform prolongation on the distal surface and an aedeagus with a long posterior membranou...

  3. Flood Insurance Coverage in the Coastal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Landry, Craig E.; Jahan-Parvar, Mohammad R.

    2008-01-01

    We explore behavior and test theory regarding the determinants of flood insurance coverage in the coastal zone using household-level data for nine southeastern counties. We use Tobit regression models to assess the importance and magnitude of insurance cost, risk factors, community characteristics, and household attributes on flood insurance purchase for residential building structures. Overall estimates indicate price inelastic demand, though subsidized policyholders are more sensitive to ...

  4. Haplotype diversity in mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region in a population of southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, C; Gonzalez, R S; Pereira, A C; Cardena, M M S G

    2014-07-01

    Brazilian population derives from Native Amerindians, Europeans, and Africans. Southeastern Brazil is the most populous region of the country. The present study intended to characterize the maternal genetic ancestry of 290 individuals from southeastern (Brazil) population. Thus, we made the sequencing of the three hypervariable regions (HV1, HV2, and HV3) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The statistical analyses were made using Arlequin software, and the median-joining haplotype networks were generated using Network software. The analysis of three hypervariable regios showed 230 (79.3 %) unique haplotypes and the most common haplotype was "263G" carried by 12 (4.1 %) individuals. The strikingly high variability generated by intense gene flow is mirrored in a high sequence diversity (0.9966 ± 0.0010), and the probability of two random individuals showing identical mtDNA haplotypes were 0.0068. The analysis of haplogroup distribution revealed that 36.9 % (n = 107) presented Amerindian haplogroups, 35.2 % (n = 102) presented African haplogroups, 27.6 % (n = 80) presented European haplogroups, and one (0.3 %) individual presented East Asian haplogroup, evidencing that the southeastern population is extremely heterogeneous and the coexistence of matrilineal lineages with three different phylogeographic origins. The genetic diversity found in the mtDNA control region in the southeastern Brazilian population reinforces the importance of increased national database in order to be important and informative in forensic cases.

  5. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  6. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  7. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De;

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  8. Coastal Upwelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Features a three-part activity designed to teach students about coastal upwelling, the upward movement of cooler, more nutrient-rich water along a coast. Activity includes a mapping exercise, a graphing exercise, and questions for analyzing the map and graph. (Author/WRM)

  9. Clause Types in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    The clause in Southeastern Tepehuan consists of a predicate, its associated arguments, and other modifying elements. This paper seeks to show the various types of semantic and surface clauses and the relation between them. The semantic clause consists of various semantic components, both nuclear and peripheral, semantic prosodies, and certain…

  10. Sentence Components in Southeastern Tepehuan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Thomas L.

    This paper explores the intra-clausal relations of minimal locutionary and illocutionary force in Southeastern Tepehuan. It surveys the semantic and syntactic sentence types with primary reference to grammatical relations. The semantic propositional structures, along with their modal parameters and other semantic prosodies are discussed in Section…

  11. Land changes and their driving forces in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, D.E.; Auch, R.F.; Headley, R.; Taylor, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    The ecoregions of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge provide a continuum of land cover from the Atlantic Ocean to the highest mountains in the East. From 1973 to 2000, each ecoregion had a unique mosaic of land covers and land cover changes. The forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains provided amenity lands. The Piedmont forested area declined, while the developed area increased. The Southeastern Plains became a commercial forest region, and most agricultural lands that changed became forested. Forests in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain declined, and development related to recreation and retirement increased. The most important drivers of land conversion were associated with commercial forestry, competition between forest and agriculture, and economic and population growth. These and other drivers were modified by each ecoregion's unique suitability and land use legacies with the result that the same drivers often produced different land changes in different ecoregions. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  12. Podzolização em solos de áreas de depressão de topo dos tabuleiros costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro Podzolization in soils of depressed summit areas on the coastal plains of the brazilian Northeastern region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Alvarenga Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Os solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros são diferenciados sob vários aspectos ainda pouco estudados no Brasil. Geralmente, à medida que se aproxima dessas depressões, nota-se que a textura dos solos é mais arenosa e o hidromorfismo, mais acentuado, sendo comum a ocorrência de Espodossolos. Neste contexto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar diferentes extrações de Fe, Al, Si e C orgânico com o intuito de compreender o processo de podzolização em solos associados às depressões de topo dos Tabuleiros Costeiros do Nordeste brasileiro. Foram descritos perfis e coletadas amostras de solo em quatro áreas: Coruripe, AL; Neópolis, SE; Acajutiba, BA; e Nova Viçosa, BA. Nas amostras, determinou-se o teor de Fe, Al e Si pelos extratores ditionito-citrato-bicarbonato de sódio, oxalato de amônio e pirofosfato de sódio e realizou-se o fracionamento químico da matéria orgânica do solo. Os aumentos nos teores de C orgânico e de Fe e Al pelos diferentes extratores nos horizontes iluviais (de acúmulo de cada solo, relativamente aos horizontes eluviais (de perda, refletiram a morfologia de campo e reforçaram a importância do processo de podzolização nos solos estudados. Complexos Al-húmus dominam inteiramente a matriz dos horizontes iluviais associados ao hidromorfismo, enquanto naqueles sem hidromorfismo a influência das diferentes formas de Fe é variável. O perfil de Espodossolo Ferrihumilúvico é o único, dos quatro estudados, que possui horizontes espódicos com subscrito "s" e, portanto, onde os teores de Fe extraídos refletiram-se diferencialmente na morfologia.The soils associated to depressed summits on the Coastal Plains are still little studied in Brazil and are differentiated in several aspects. Generally, the closer a soil is to these depressions, the sandier is the texture and the more accentuated the hydromorphism, where the occurrence of Spodosols is common. The objective of this

  13. Mercury oxidation from bromine chemistry in the free troposphere over the southeastern US

    OpenAIRE

    S. Coburn; Dix, B.; Edgerton, E.; Holmes, C. D; Kinnison, D.; Liang, Q; A. ter Schure; Wang, S.; R. Volkamer

    2015-01-01

    The elevated deposition of atmospheric mercury over the Southeastern United States is currently not well understood. Here we measure partial columns and vertical profiles of bromine monoxide (BrO) radicals, a key component of mercury oxidation chemistry, to better understand the processes and altitudes at which mercury is being oxidized in the atmosphere. We use the data from a ground-based MAX-DOAS instrument located at a coastal site ~ 1 km from the Gulf o...

  14. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  15. Data on HLA class I/II profile in Brazilian pemphigus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco Brochado, Maria José; Nascimento, Daniela Francisca; Saloum Deghaide, Neifi Hassan; Donadi, Eduardo Antonio; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus are blistering autoimmune diseases related with genetic and environmental factors. Here we describe HLA genotyping in pemphigus patients. First, we review the HLA class I/II data on pemphigus reported in Brazilian samples and then present the HLA class I (-A, -B, -C) and class II (-DRB1, -DQA1, -DQB1) alleles related to susceptibility/resistance to pemphigus by comparing 86 patients with pemphigus foliaceus, 83 patients with pemphigus vulgaris, and 1592 controls from the northeastern region of the state of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The data presented here are related to the manuscript "Differential HLA class I and class II associations in Pemphigus Foliaceus and Pemphigus Vulgaris patients from a prevalent Southeastern Brazilian region" Brochado et al. (2016) [1]. PMID:27331116

  16. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  17. Restoration of freshwater Cypress-Tupelo Wetlands in the southeastern U.S. following severe hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater forested wetlands commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern US with baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) often being the dominant trees. Extensive anthropogenic activities combined with eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence have caused widespread hydrological changes in many of these forests. In addition, hurricanes (a common, although aperiodic occurrence) cause wide-spread damage from wind and storm surge events, with impacts exacerbated by human-mediated coastal modifications (e.g., dredging, navigation channels, etc.). Restoration of forested wetlands in coastal areas is important because emergent canopies can greatly diminish wind penetration, thereby reducing the wind stress available to generate surface waves and storm surge that are the major cause of damage to coastal ecosystems and their surrounding communities. While there is an overall paucity of large-scale restoration efforts within coastal forested wetlands of the southeastern US, we have determined important characteristics that should drive future efforts. Restoration efforts may be enhanced considerably if coupled with hydrological enhancement, such as freshwater, sediment, or sewage wastewater diversions. Large-scale restoration of coastal forests should be attempted to create a landscape capable of minimizing storm impacts and maximizing wetland sustainability in the face of climate change. Planting is the preferred regeneration method in many forested wetland sites because hydrological alterations have increased flooding, and planted seedlings must be protected from herbivory to enhance establishment. Programs identifying salt tolerance in coastal forest tree species need to be continued to help increase resilience to repetitive storm surge events.

  18. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  19. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  20. COASTAL, Homer, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  1. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  2. Coastal Analysis, Northampton, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  3. Coastal Analysis, Accomack, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  4. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  5. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  6. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Favarato, Desidério

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD) in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1) CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2) IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3) CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0) PMID:27437866

  7. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  8. Condition of South-Eastern Baltic Sea Shores and Methods of Protecting Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski, Rafał; Pruszak, Zbigniew; Babakov, Alexander

    2014-06-01

    The paper describes lithodynamic and morphodynamic processes occurring in the main part of the south-eastern Baltic coastal area, namely on the sea shores from the Vistula mouth in the Gulf of Gdansk to the Lithuanian-Latvian border. The study area is subject to intensive natural coastal changes, as well as shore evolution caused by anthropogenic impacts at several locations. Methods of coastal protection against erosion and shore stabilization systems applied in the past and currently are described. The paper deals with the causes of the dynamics of beach/dune shores and cliffs. It presents the authors' field observations of 2010-2013, as well as previously gained knowledge and the results of Polish, Russian and joint Polish-Russian field surveys.

  9. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  10. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  11. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  12. Long-term landscape evolution of the southeast Brazilian highlands: comparison of two alkaline intrusions areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doranti Tiritan, Carolina; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton

    2016-04-01

    . In the SSI area the crystalline basement registered ages 121.1±11.5 Ma and 49.4±4.8 while the alkaline stocks ages ranges 112.5±13; 91.1±11.2Ma; 89.4±13.4 88.2±8.5; 71.3±7.9. The results shows that the main difference between the areas is that PCAM region register older history then the coastal area of SSI, where thermal history starts register cooling event after the South Atlantic rifting process, while in the PCAM area register a previous history, since Carboniferous. The age-elevation relationship shows that the ages decrease systematically with increasing elevation with a break-in-slope near the 150Ma, 80Ma and around 50Ma, which means that the landscape evolution can be associated with several distinct exhumation events at the South American passive continental margin, which include the Gondwana break-up, the Late Cretaceous alkaline magmatism, and the Cenozoic evolution of a N-S trending continental graben system. We are thankful to CAPES/PROBRAL/ processo 12809/13-6, Marli Carina Siqueira Ribeiro, IGCE-UNESP; Earth Sciences Institut, Heidelberg University; References DORANTI-TIRITAN, C. , et al (2014) The Use of the Stream Length-Gradient Index in Morphotectonic Analysis of Drainage Basins in Poços de Caldas Plateau, SE Brazil. International Journal of Geosciences, 5, 1383-1394. doi: 10.4236/ijg.2014.511112 HACKSPACHER, P.C; et al. (2004) Consolidation and Break-Up of The South American Platform in Southeastern Brazil: Tectonothermal and Denudation Histories. Gondwana Research -N°1, P. 91 -101.

  13. Characterization of microsatellite markers for Thoropa taophora (Anura, Cycloramphidae), a frog endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duryea, M C; Zamudio, K R; Brasileiro, C A

    2008-05-01

    Here we characterize nine microsatellite loci for Thoropa taophora collected from a coastal and an island population in southeastern Brazil. The number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 11 for the coastal population and from two to eight for the island population. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.308 to 0.778 for the coastal population and from zero to 0.737 for the island population. One locus did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg expectations on the coast, while two were in disequilibrium on the island. These markers are currently being used to examine genetic differentiation and patterns of dispersal in T. taophora. PMID:21585864

  14. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  15. Public coastal access in Nova Scotia's coastal strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Kelly Mackintosh

    2011-01-01

    Public coastal access is an issue that affects coastal communities and coastal populations worldwide. One such place where public coastal access is of particular relevance is the Province of Nova Scotia, Canada where the government is developing a provincial Coastal Strategy to address priority coastal management issues, one of which is public coastal access. This study examines best practices in public coastal access in selected US States and their potential application in study areas in Nov...

  16. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  17. Butterfly Surveys in Southeastern North Dakota : 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The goal of this study was to inventory butterflies and skippers on a number of wetland prairie sites in southeastern North Dakota, and pinpoint the location and...

  18. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  19. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  20. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  1. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  2. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  3. Pharmacogenetics in the brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190;million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans, and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians: most individuals, irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black - the major categories of the Brazilian Census "race/color" system - have significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx) implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g., CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc) varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV protease inhibitors and non-steroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first-generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen, a nation-wide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact. PMID:21833165

  4. Hydrography, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in shelf and oceanic waters off southeastern Brazil during autumn (may/june, 1983)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Pereira Brandini

    1988-01-01

    Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton photosynthesis and nutrients were studied in relation to the hydrographic environment of the southeastern Brazil from May 3 to June 31 of 1983 during an oceanographia cruise conducted by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian Navy. Temperature and salinity at 5 meters depth ranged from 21 to 25º C and from 33.00 to 37.11, respectively. The concentration of nutrients varied, nitrate + nitrite-N from 1.0-3.0 µg-at/l, phosphate-P 0.1-0....

  5. A new species of Lonchophylla (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, with comments on L. bokermanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo L; Moratelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We examined Brazilian species of the nectar-feeding bats genus Lonchophylla (Phyllostomidae, Lonchophyllinae) to clarify the identity of Lonchophylla bokermanni and to determine the distribution of this and other species of Lonchophylla in eastern Brazil. As a result, we have found sufficient differences between Cerrado populations (including the type locality of L. bokermanni) and populations inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil,which warrant the treatment of the Atlantic Forest populations as a separate and new species. We describe this new species here as Lonchophylla peracchii, sp. nov. The new species appears to be restricted to the Atlantic Forest, whereas L. bokermanni is found only in Cerrado habitats. PMID:26171531

  6. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  7. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  8. brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mendes Borini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The theme of corporate social responsibility (CSR has not been widely examined in the context of multinationals. This dearth is even greater with respect to subsidiaries, particularly the subject of reverse transfer of practices, that is, the transfer of practices developed in subsidiaries back to the parent company. Because of this theoretical gap, the present article investigates the factors involved on reverse transfer of CSR practices. The research hypotheses test the importance of developing nonlocation-bound capabilities, of integration between subsidiaries and parent and of institutional distance. The data were obtained by a survey of the main foreign subsidiaries in Brazil. All told, we analyzed 150 Brazilian subsidiaries of multinationals, by applying multiple linear regression. The results indicate that the reverse transfer of CSR depends on the development of nonlocation-bound capabilities of the subsidiaries and integration between the parent company and its foreign subsidiaries.

  9. Comparison of soil amendments to decrease high strength in SE USA Coastal Plain soils using fuzzy decision-making analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemented subsurface layers restrict root growth in many southeastern USA Coastal Plain soils. Though cementation is usually reduced by tillage, soil amendments can offer a more permanent solution if they develop aggregation. To increase aggregation, we amended 450 g of a Norfolk soil blend of 90% E ...

  10. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  11. Populations analysis of the Brazilian Sharpnose Shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Chondrichthyes: Carcharhinidae on the São Paulo coast, Southern Brazil: inferences from mt DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernandes Mendonça

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sharks of the genus Rhizoprionodon can be considered some of the most important predators along the trophic coastal marine ecosystems and represent an important economic resource for the small-scale fisheries, especially on the Brazilian coastline. In order to analyze the population structure of the shark Rhizoprionodon lalandii of São Paulo, Southeastern coast of Brazil, levels of genetic diversity were identified by nucleotide sequence analyses of the mitochondrial DNA control region. The results obtained from this study present moderate values of haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. Although the AMOVA tests (ΦST = 0.08394, P Tubarões do gênero Rhizoprionodon são considerados predadores de grande importância ao longo da cadeia trófica nos ecossistemas costeiros e marinhos, também representando um importante recurso econômico para a pesca, especialmente no litoral brasileiro. A fim de analisar a estrutura populacional do tubarão Rhizoprionodon lalandii no litoral de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil, foram identificados os níveis de diversidade genética a partir da análise de sequências nucleotídicas da região controladora do DNA mitocondrial. Os dados obtidos neste estudo apresentam valores moderados de diversidade haplotípica e baixos índices de diversidade nucleotídica. Embora os testes de AMOVA (ΦST = 0,08394, P < 0,01 tenham revelado uma pequena diferença entre as amostras estudadas, evidências sobre a ocorrência de estruturação populacional não foram encontradas o que pode representar uma característica geral para tubarões vivendo em áreas costeiras.

  12. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  13. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed. A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03. Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  14. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, C R; Moreira, M A; Lana-Peixoto, M A

    2006-09-01

    This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only) published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed). A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03). Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  15. Species composition, community and population dynamics of two gallery forests from the Brazilian Cerrado domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almado, Roosevelt P; Miazaki, Angela S; Diniz, Écio S; Moreira, Luis C B; Meira-Neto, João A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the impacts of global changes on future community compositions, knowledge of community dynamics is of crucial importance. To improve our knowledge of community composition, biomass stock and maintenance of gallery forests in the Brazilian Cerrado, we provide two datasets from the 0.5 ha Corrego Fazendinha Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot and the Corrego Fundo Gallery Forest Dynamics Plot situated in the Bom Despacho region, Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. New information We report diameter at breast height, basal area and height measurements of 3417 trees and treelets identified during three censuses in both areas.

  16. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  17. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  18. Coastal & Marine Issues Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sidman, Charles; Fik, Tim; Havens, Karl

    2008-01-01

    Florida Sea Grant management and extension specialists developed a questionnaire to solicit information regarding the recipient’s county of residence, occupation, and primary coastal activities. Survey recipients were also asked to select from a list the top five marine-related topics that defined prior strategic plan themes (i.e., marine bio-technology, fisheries, aquaculture, seafood safety, coastal communities, ecosystem health, coastal hazards, and marine education). In add...

  19. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  20. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  1. 75 FR 65624 - Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Southeastern Power Administration; Notice of Filing October 19, 2010. Take... Southeastern Power Administration (Southeastern) Rate Order No. SEPA- 53, for the sale of power...

  2. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  3. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  4. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Jailson F; Acevedo-Trejos, Esteban; Tavares, Davi C; Meirelles, Ana C O; Silva, Cristine P N; Oliveira, Larissa R; Santos, Roberta A; Wickert, Janaína C; Machado, Rodrigo; Siciliano, Salvatore; Merico, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution) have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST), water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast. PMID:26730951

  5. Coastal Analysis, Dorchester County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  6. Coastal Analysis, Charles County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  7. Coastal Analysis, Essex County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  8. Coastal Analysis, Virginia Beach, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  9. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  10. Coastal Analysis, Caroline County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  11. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  12. Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) General Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Library Network, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

    The computer and telecommunications services of the Southeastern Library Network (SOLINET) are specified in this introduction to the Network. Since members of SOLINET may participate in the services of the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC), a description of these services is included. Membership requirements, fees and dues, and charges to SOLINET…

  13. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  14. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  15. Coping with coastal change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.; Tol, R.S.J.

    2014-01-01

    The coastal zone is one of the most dynamic environments on our planet and is much affected by global change, especially sea-level rise. Coastal environments harbour valuable ecosystems, but they are also hugely important from a societal point of view. This book, which draws on the expertise of 21 l

  16. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  17. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  18. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  19. Basement topography and fresh-water resources of the coastal aquifer at Acapetahua, Chiapas, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Birgit Steinich; Gerardo Bocanegra; Eva Sánchez

    1999-01-01

    The coastal aquifer of Acapetahua, Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, consists of one hydrostratigraphic unit composed of continental sediments overlying a crystalline basement. Twenty-four resistivity soundings were conducted and fifty-one water samples were taken in order to determine basic aquifer characteristics such as aquifer geometry and fresh water reserves. The basement topography in the study area is characterized by hills and deep valleys with highly variable basement depths ranging fro...

  20. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  1. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    comparadas con base en estimaciones de la diversidad para medir la riqueza, dominancia y análisis de varianza (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 31.134 formas inmaduras de mosquitos en las bromelias, distribuidas en siete géneros y 37 especies. El ambiente urbano registró mayor abundancia, 14.575 individuos, seguido del periurbano con 10.987, y la selva virgen, con el menor número de ejemplares, 5.572. Fueron colectadas 30 especies en el habitat urbano, 32 en el periurbano y 33 en la selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus en los ambientes urbano y perirurbano, y Culex ocellatus en la selva. De acuerdo con el test de ANOVA la frecuencia de mosquitos en bromelias no fue diferente entre los ambientes investigados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. La diversidad de especies en la selva fue mayor, y semejante entre el periurbano y el urbano. CONCLUSIONES: La composición específica de culícidos en bromelias de suelo se mostró diversificada, siendo mayor en aquellas de ambientes de selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJECTIVE: To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens, followed by the periurban (10,987 and then the forest environment (5,572. There were collected 30 species

  2. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  3. What is coastal climate?

    OpenAIRE

    Kruk, Michael; Gibney, Ethan; Hennon, Paula; Levinson, David

    2010-01-01

    Historical definitions of what determines whether one lives in a coastal area or not have varied over time. According to Culliton (1998), a “coastal county” is defined as a county with at least 15% of its total land area located within a nation’s coastal watershed. This emphasizes the land areas within which water flows into the ocean or Great Lakes, but may be better suited for ecosystems or water quality research (Crowell et al. 2007). Some Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) documen...

  4. Characterization of submarine groundwater discharge long the southeastern coast of Sicily (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In research and management of groundwaters, an important role is played by coastal aquifers. Pollution due to salinization and human activities poses serious concerns to the economy of the related territories. Under the project, established through collaboration between the Italian Universities of Palermo, Bari, Venice and the IAEA and the UNESCO, study of coastal aquifers from Syracuse to Donnalucata on the southeastern coast of Sicily was carried out. The study area, known as Hyblean Plateau, is characterized by carbonate and vulcanite outcrops, connected to the tectonic activity during the Cretaceous and the Pliocene period. The aquifers are subjected to overexploitation due to the high water demand for intensive agricultural practices. Thus, the equilibrium between fresh groundwaters and seawater is getting disturbed with consequent salinization. The research project involved the geochemical and isotopic study of well waters, springs and submarine discharges in order to understand the relationships existing among these waters, to identify the best tracers of the natural and human-related phenomena occurring in the area as well as to estimate the presence of possible environmental effects of them on the coastal ecosystem. Hydrogeochemical surveys were carried out, every three months, from 2002 to 2004 on a net of wells, sub-aerial and submarine springs. The present report synthesizes the main results of the research. (author)

  5. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Selandian to Aquitanian sediments, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Kingsley K.; Umeji, Obianuju P.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of outcrop sections along the Onitsha-Awka transect in the Niger Delta Basin southeastern Nigeria was undertaken to assess the palynological composition, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition. Stratigraphic ranges of palynomorphs suggest an age of Selandian to Aquitanian. The palynological composition is marked by abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in the Imo Formation (Selandian to Thanetian), dominance of spores and pollen over dinoflagellate cysts in the Nanka Formation (Ypresian to Bartonian), and overwhelming amounts of spore and pollen in the Ogwashi Formation (Pariabonian to Aquitanian). Palynofacies content shows dominance of structureless organic matter in the Imo Formation, few phytoclasts in the Nanka Formation and maximum phytoclast amounts in the Ogwashi Formation. Thanetian to Ypresian boundary was marked by the mixing of older Palaeocene and younger Eocene microfossils, decrease of microflora towards the end of Palaeocene and the evolution of abundant and more diverse Eocene taxa. The Imo Formation was deposited in middle to outer neritic zone based on abundance of gonyaulacacean cysts. However, peridiniacean and terrestrial microflora extend the deposition range to shallow waters of inner neritic and coastal zone. Increase in diversity and abundance of terrestrial palynomorphs over marine palynomorphs assemblages in the overlying Nanka Formation suggest deposition under alternating coastal and inner neritic conditions while the Ogwashi Formation records oscillating coastal plain and brackish water depositional conditions. The palaeoenvironments illustrate that general retrogradation was followed by progradation of the delta during the Cenozoic.

  6. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  7. Assessment of Genitourinary Trauma in Southeastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sabzi Sarvestani, Amene; Zamiri, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Background To survey genitourinary (GU) organ injury following general trauma, we performed an epidemiologic study of urogenital injuries in trauma patients referred to our hospital (a teaching hospital affiliated with the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences). Objectives We aimed to assess the epidemiology of urogenital system injuries in southeastern Iran. Patients and Methods From April 2009 to November 2011, all patients with GU injuries referred to our hospital were studied. The data i...

  8. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  9. Jorge de Lima: Brazilian Poet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses Jorge de Lima--born in Uniao dos Palmares, Brazil on April 23, 1893, died in Rio de Janeiro on November 15, 1953--who during the Twenties became an important member of the literary movement known as Modernism and wrote both religious and regional poetry constituting the beginnings of a Afro-Brazilian poetry. (Author/JM)

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  12. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  13. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  14. Topics in coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Harbors, development of longshore current formulas, radiation stress, determination of currents along a coast, longshore sand transportation, local coastal accretion, beaches with groins, wave forces on piles, offshore constructions, offshore moorings, submarine pipelines.

  15. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the...

  16. Coastal Temperate Rainforest Symposium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the April 2012 science symposium - Coastal Temperate Rainforests: Integrating Communities, Climate Science, and Resource...

  17. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  18. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  19. Brazilian continental cretaceous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Setembrino; Campanha, Vilma A.

    1981-04-01

    Cretaceous deposits in Brazil are very well developed, chiefly in continental facies and in thick sequences. Sedimentation occurred essentially in rift-valleys inland and along the coast. Three different sequences can be distinguished: (1) a lower clastic non-marine section, (2) a middle evaporitic section, (3) an upper marine section with non-marine regressive lithosomes. Continental deposits have been laid down chiefly between the latest Jurassic and Albian. The lower lithostratigraphic unit is represented by red shales with occasional evaporites and fresh-water limestones, dated by ostracods. A series of thick sandstone lithosomes accumulated in the inland rift-valleys. In the coastal basins these sequences are often incompletely preserved. Uplift in the beginning of the Aptian produced a widespread unconformity. In many of the inland rift-valleys sedimentation ceased at that time. A later transgression penetrated far into northeastern Brazil, but shortly after continental sedimentation continued, with the deposition of fluvial sandstones which once covered large areas of the country and which have been preserved in many places. The continental Cretaceous sediments have been laid down in fluvial and lacustrine environments, under warm climatic conditions which were dry from time to time. The fossil record is fairly rich, including besides plants and invertebrates, also reptiles and fishes. As faulting tectonism was rather strong, chiefly during the beginning of the Cretaceous, intercalations of igneous rocks are frequent in some places. Irregular uplift and erosion caused sediments belonging to the remainder of this period to be preserved only in tectonic basins scattered across the country.

  20. Stratigraphy of Atlantic coastal margin of United States north of Cape Hatteras; brief survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, W.J.; Minard, J.P.; Weed, E.G.A.; Robbins, E.I.; Rhodehamel, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    A synthesis of studies of sea-floor outcrops of the sedimentary wedge beneath the northeastern United States continental shelf and slope and a reassessment of coastal plain Mesozoic stratigraphy, particularly of the coastal margin, provide insight for estimating the oil and gas potential and provide geologic control for marine seismic investigations of the Atlantic continental margin. The oldest strata known to crop out on the continental slope are late Campanian in age. The Cretaceous-Tertiary contact along the slope ranges from a water depth of 0.6 to 1.5 km south of Georges Bank to 1.8 km in Hudson Canyon. Few samples are available from Tertiary and Late Cretaceous outcrops along the slope. Sediments of the Potomac Group, chiefly of Early Cretaceous age, constitute a major deltaic sequence in the emerged coastal plain. This thick sequence lies under coastal Virginia, Maryland, Delaware, southeastern New Jersey, and the adjacent continental shelf. Marine sands associated with this deltaic sequence may be present seaward under the outer continental shelf. South of the Norfolk arch, under coastal North Carolina, carbonate rocks interfinger with Lower Cretaceous clastic strata. From all available data, Mesozoic correlations in coastal wells between coastal Virginia and Long Island have been revised. The Upper-Lower Cretaceous boundary is placed at the transition between Albian and Cenomanian floras. Potential hydrocarbon source beds are present along the coast in the subsurface sediments of Cretaceous age. Potential reservoir sandstones are abundant in this sequence.

  1. Characterisation of submarine groundwater discharge offshore south-eastern Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complex approach in characterisation of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) off south-eastern Sicily comprising applications of radioactive and non-radioactive tracers, direct seepage measurements, geophysical surveys and a numerical modelling is presented. SGD fluxes in the Donnalucata boat basin were estimated by direct seepage measurements to be from 4 to 12 L s-1, which are comparable with the total SGD flux in the basin of 17 L s-1 obtained from radon measurements. The integrated SGD flux over the Donnalucata coast estimated on the basis of Ra isotopes was around 60 m3 s-1 per km of the coast. Spatial variations of SGD were observed in the Donnalucata boat basin, the average 222Rn activity concentration in seawater varied from ∼0.1 kBq m-3 to 3.7 kBq m-3 showing an inverse relationship with salinity. The continuous monitoring carried out at the site closest to the coast has revealed an inverse relationship of 222Rn activity concentration on the tide. The 222Rn concentrations in seawater varied from 2.3 kBq m-3 during high tides to 4.8 kBq m-3 during low tides, thus confirming an influence of the tide on submarine groundwater discharge. Stable isotopes (δ2H and δ18O) showed that SGD samples consist up to 50% of groundwater. Geo-electrical measurements showed a spatial variability of the salt/fresh water interface and its complex transformation in the coastal zone. The presented results imply that in the studied Donnalucata site there are at least two different sources of SGD, one superficial, represented by mixed fresh water and seawater, and the second one which originates in a deeper limestone aquifer

  2. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  3. Evaluation of Absolute Dynamic Ocean Topography Profiles along the Brazilian Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, R. T.; Bosch, W.; Freitas, S. R. C.; Heck, B.

    2009-04-01

    Based on a new approach, which consistently filters GRACE-based geoid undulations and altimetry-derived sea surface heights along the tracks of altimeter satellites, absolute dynamic ocean topography (DOT) profiles are estimated along the Brazilian coast. Such DOT profiles can be used to perform levelling over the sea. Connecting these profiles with Brazilian Geodetic Tide Gauge Network (RMPG) stations it would be possible to validate the current studies on the modernization of the Brazilian height system, extended over many thousand kilometers on land. The link with coastal reference sites would also allow to connect isolated height systems, e.g. north of the Amazonas River mouth. We perform long-term mean DOT-profiles of cross-calibrated altimeter satellites which operated for many years over repeated ground tracks (TOPEX, Jason-1, ERS-2). Moreover, we analyze the consistency among crossing profiles (single- and dual-satellite) in particular in areas with strong mesoscale currents. The extrapolation of DOT profiles towards selected RMPG stations is investigated. For this connection strategies are considered to overcome the degradation of coastal altimetry due to errors in ocean tide models and the land contamination of the radiometer observations.

  4. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  5. The earliest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T.A.; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents a new date for one of the oldest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast. This date seems to confirm three previous results obtained from two other shellmounds in the same region and formerly seen as unreliable by the archaeological community. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Sambaqui do Algodao, was dated by {sup 14}C-AMS to 7860 {+-} 80 years BP. Besides confirming the previous ones, this new date is pulling back by some two thousand years the consensually accepted antiquity for the initial settlement of the central-south Brazilian coast - around 6000 years BP. The geographical and chronological proximity of those archaeological sites suggest that the initial settlement of the coast would have begun in this region rather than in the nuclear area with denser concentrations of shellmounds further to the South. It also strengthens the evidence of the possible route used by inland hunter-gatherers to reach this part of the coast.

  6. Between the sea and the land: the livelihood of estuarine people in southeastern Brazil Entre o mar e a terra: modos de vida de comunidades estuarinas no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia anazaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of this study is to characterize and compare the livelihood strategies of two coastal communities from the estuarine region of Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing the interplay among four economic activities: small-scale agriculture, fishing, tourism-related jobs, and extraction of non-timber vegetal resources. The local people of these communities are mostly Caiçara, the native inhabitants of southeastern Brazilian coast, in an Atlantic forest area. The miscegenation of Amerindians, European colonizers, and African Brazilians gave rise to the Caiçara people, whose subsistence was originally based on small-scale itinerant agriculture, small-scale fishery, and some extraction of forest products. Their livelihoods activities changed through time: agricultural practices were gradually abandoned, while fishing grew in importance. Recently, tourism-related jobs and the extraction of non-timber vegetal resources acquired a key role in the estuarine Caiçara livelihood. After an historical overview, we focus our analysis on the local factors and external pressures affecting the combination of these activities.O objetivo central deste artigo é caracterizar e comparar as estratégias dos meios de vida de duas comunidades da região estuarina do vale de Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, analisando a inter-relação entre quatro atividades econômicas: agricultura de pequena escala, pesca, trabalhos relacionados ao turismo e extração de recursos vegetais não madeireiros. Os habitantes destas comunidades são na maior parte Caiçaras, nativos da costa sudeste do Brasil, vivendo em área do domínio Mata Atlântica. Caiçaras são descendentes de ameríndios e colonizadores europeus, com influências mais recentes de escravos africanos. Sua subsistência era baseada originalmente na agricultura itinerante de pequena escala, na pesca artesanal e, em menor grau, na extração de produtos florestais. Suas

  7. Coastal Vertebrate Exposure to Predicted Habitat Changes Due to Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel K.; Moore, Clinton T.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-12-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species' fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species ( n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species' foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  8. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  9. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  10. IPO Determinants of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Cals de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The literature on Initial Public Offerings (IPO is still little explored in Brazil, since the significant growth in the stock market occurred only recently. The purpose of this study is to identify the determining factors for the IPO of Brazilian companies, based on logistic regression methods and using a sample with private and public Brazilian companies. The results indicate that firms that undertook their IPO in the period were those that had been making significant investments, those that had the highest level of profitability and/or those that increased their level of indebtedness. The IPO was an alternative to improve the capital structure and/or raise funds to continue investing in their growth. The companies that went public were those that seized the opportunity offered in the period and the size of the companies was not significant for the IPO.

  11. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37830-6038 (United States); Coleman, Mark D. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, 241 Gateway Dr., Aiken, SC 29803 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast. (author)

  12. Woody energy crops in the southeastern United States: Two centuries of practitioner experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Coleman, Mark [USDA Forest Service

    2010-01-01

    Forest industry experts were consulted on the potential for hardwood tree species to serve as feedstock for bioenergy in the southeastern United States. Hardwoods are of interest for bioenergy because of desirable physical qualities, genetic research advances, and growth potential. Yet little data is available regarding potential productivity and costs. This paper describes required operations and provides a realistic estimate of the costs of producing bioenergy feedstock based on commercial experiences. Forestry practitioners reported that high productivity rates in southeastern hardwood plantations are confined to narrow site conditions or require costly inputs. Eastern cottonwood and American sycamore grow quickly on rich bottomlands, but are also prone to pests and disease. Sweetgum is frost hardy, has few pest or disease problems, and grows across a broad range of sites, yet growth rates are relatively low. Eucalypts require fewer inputs than do other species and offer high potential productivity but are limited by frost to the lower Coastal Plain and Florida. Further research is required to study naturally regenerated hardwood biomass resources. Loblolly pine has robust site requirements, growth rates rivaling hardwoods, and lower costs of production. More time and investment in silviculture, selection, and breeding will be needed to develop hardwoods as competitive biofuel feedstock species. Because of existing stands and fully developed operations, the forestry community considers loblolly pine to be a prime candidate for plantation bioenergy in the Southeast.

  13. Influence Of Crop Management And Soil On Plantain [Musa spp. z AAB Group Response To Black Sigatoka Infection In Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobambo, KN.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-farm survey was carried out to assess the severity of black sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet on plantain in southeastern Nigeria. Two different geomor-phological zones (Meander belts and Coastal plain sands were surveyed. Four locations were selected for each zone and two traditional farming systems (backyard and field were studied in each location. Based on geomorphological zones, less black sigatoka infection was observed in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands. On farming systems basis, plantain grown in the backyard gardens had lower disease severity than that planted in the field plots. This difference in black sigatoka severity is attributable to the higher soil fertility in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands and in the backyards than in the fields.

  14. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  15. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  16. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Roslan Talib; Mohd Z. Sulieman

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition...

  17. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  18. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  1. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. COASTAL STUDY, ASSUMPTION PARISH, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  3. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  4. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...... pressures and effective stresses around a bottom seated cylinder; non-linear soil modelling with respect to wave-induced pore pressures and gradients; wave-induced pressures on the bottom for non-linear coastal waves, including also wave kinematics; development of a numerical model (linear soil modelling...... obtained in supporting engineering design. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  6. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  7. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C., E-mail: santos@ocean.fsu.edu [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography. Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Facility; Godoy, Jose M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of {sup 14}C-, {sup 137}Cs-, and {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and agricultural activities has intensified erosion processes on land, which is reflected in depositional environments, such as coastal lagoons, estuaries and mangroves. Of the processes discussed in this paper, SGD is the one that requires the most scientific effort in the short-term. There have been only two case studies using {sup 222}Rn and radium isotopes as groundwater tracers in Brazil. These investigations showed that SGD can be a major source of nutrients and other dissolved species to the coastal ocean. Baseline {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 238}Pu concentrations in seawater from the whole Brazilian coastal zone are very low. Therefore, in spite of contamination problems in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, artificial radionuclide pollution appears to be negligible along the Brazilian coast. Phosphate fertilizer industries and petroleum processing facilities are the main economic activities producing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). Even though a few attempts have been made to assess the radiological effects of these activities, their potential threats indicate a need for the radiological control of their wastes. This review showed that the number of studies within the field of environmental radioactivity is still small in Brazil and much more research is needed to understand processes of high interest for environmental managers. In the near future, it is likely that such studies

  8. Response of ground-water levels of flood control operations in three basins, south-eastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, William A.J.

    1974-01-01

    Three basins in southeastern Florida were investigated to determine the changes in ground-water levels and canal flows that occurred in response to operation of coastal water-control structures in each canal. All three basins are underlain by the Biscayne aquifer. They are, Snapper Creek Canal basin, where the Biscayne aquifer is of high permeability; the Snake Creek Canal basin, where the aquifer is of moderate permeability; and the Pompano-Cypress Canal basin, where the aquifer is of low permeability. In each basin, drainage is a function of permeability; thus, where the permeability of the aquifer is high, drainage is excellent. The coastal water-conrol structures are intended to afford flood protection in the three basins. In general the control operation criteria for flood control in newly developing areas in southeastern Florida do not provide adequate protection from flooding because of the time required for the aquifer to respond to changes in the controls. Adequate protection would require increasing the density of secondary drainage canals, but this could achieved only by reducing the quantity of water available for recharging those segments of the Biscayne aquifer adjacent to the canals. (Woodrad-USGS)

  9. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W J; Lockhart, J Mitchell; Inman, W Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S; Pena, Maria T; Marcos, Luis A; Scollard, David M; Cole, Stewart T; Truman, Richard W

    2015-12-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae-infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  10. Hydrologic Controls On Methylmercury Availability In Coastal Plain Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P. M.; Brigham, M. E.; Burns, D. A.; Button, D. T.; Lutz, M. A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, M. C.; Riva-Murray, K.; Journey, C.

    2011-12-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) in streams is often attributed to methylation in up-gradient wetland areas, with episodic flood events maximizing wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity and dominating MeHg supply to the stream habitat. A number of studies have demonstrated that Coastal Plain streams in the southeastern United States are particularly vulnerable to high MeHg bioaccumulation and have attributed this vulnerability to wetland abundance and strong hydrologic connectivity between wetland areas and adjacent stream aquatic habitat. Because characteristically coarse-grained Coastal Plain sediments favor vertical infiltration with little surface runoff, flood events attributable to Coastal Plain precipitation are driven by rising groundwater, promoting efficient transport of MeHg from wetland/floodplain source areas to the stream habitat and increasing in-stream availability. Several observations at McTier Creek, South Carolina, however, suggest that good hydrologic connectivity and efficient MeHg transport in Coastal Plain systems are not limited to flood conditions. Close correspondence between stream and shallow-groundwater water levels at McTier indicate good hydrologic connectivity exists prior to flood conditions. Dissolved MeHg concentrations do not increase under flood conditions. Thus, we assessed the flux of water and dissolved mercury (Hg) species (FMeHg and total Hg (FTHg)) from surface water and groundwater sources in a short reach at McTier Creek during separate events in April and July 2009, to determine the importance of shallow groundwater Hg transport from floodplain areas to the stream under non-flood conditions. Mass balance assessments indicated that, under non-flood conditions, the primary supply of water, FMeHg, and FTHg within the reach (excluding upstream surface-water influx) was groundwater discharge, rather than tributary transport from wetlands, in-stream MeHg production, or atmospheric deposition. The results indicate efficient transport of

  11. Seasonal hydroclimatic impacts of Brazilian sugar cane expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, M.; Lobell, D. B.; Field, C. B.; Mahalov, A.

    2012-12-01

    Brazil is the leading producer of sugar cane in the world with roughly half used for ethanol production. Because of suitable climatic growing conditions, the majority of biofuel production is derived from sugar plantations in southeastern states. Anticipated increases in global demand for biofuels are expected to lead to future sugar cane expansion extending into Brazilian pasturelands and native cerrado. Prior to undergoing large-scale expansion an evaluation of impacts on the region's hydroclimate is warranted. Using a suite of multi-year ensemble-based simulations with the WRF modeling system, we quantify hydroclimatic consequences of sugar cane expansion across portions of south-central Brazil. Conversion from current land use to sugar cane causes opposing seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature. Proggresively greater cooling is simulated during the course of the growing season, followed by an abrupt warming shift post-harvest. Although seasonal impacts on near-surface temperature are significant, with cooling of 1C occurring during the peak of the growing season followed by warming of similar magnitude, impacts are small when annually averaged. Ensemble mean differences between the imposed sugar cane expansion and non-expansion scenario are suggestive of a drying precipitation trend, yet large uncertainty among individual members precludes definitive statements about impacts on the region's rainfall.

  12. Sesquiterpenes from the Brazilian Red Alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Lacerda da Silva Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new chamigrane sesquiterpenes 1–2 and three known compounds 3–5 were isolated from a lipophilic extract of the red alga Laurencia dendroidea collected from the Southeastern Brazilian coast. Dendroidone (1 and dendroidiol (2 were isolated from samples collected at Biscaia Inlet, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro and at Manguinhos Beach, Serra, Espírito Santo, respectively. Debromoelatol (3, obtusane (4 and (1S*,2S*,3S*,5S*,8S*,9S*-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo[6.3.0.01.5]undecan-2-ol (5 were obtained from specimens collected at Vermelha Beach, Parati, Rio de Janeiro. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR (1H-, 13C-, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, the absolute configuration of compound 2 was assigned by X-ray analysis. Full spectroscopic data is described for the first time for compound 3. Anti-inflammatory and antimycobacterial activities of compounds 2–5 were evaluated. Compounds 3–5 inhibited the release of inflammatory mediator NO while TNF-α levels were only affected by 3. All compounds tested displayed moderate antimycobacterial action.

  13. Sesquiterpenes from the Brazilian red alga Laurencia dendroidea J. Agardh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Machado, Fernanda Lacerda; Ventura, Thatiana Lopes Biá; Gestinari, Lísia Mônica de Souza; Cassano, Valéria; Resende, Jackson Antônio Lamounier Camargos; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Lasunskaia, Elena B; Muzitano, Michelle Frazão; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro

    2014-03-17

    Two new chamigrane sesquiterpenes 1-2 and three known compounds 3-5 were isolated from a lipophilic extract of the red alga Laurencia dendroidea collected from the Southeastern Brazilian coast. Dendroidone (1) and dendroidiol (2) were isolated from samples collected at Biscaia Inlet, Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro and at Manguinhos Beach, Serra, Espírito Santo, respectively. Debromoelatol (3), obtusane (4) and (1S*,2S*,3S*,5S*,8S*,9S*)-2,3,5,9-tetramethyltricyclo[6.3.0.0¹·⁵]undecan-2-ol (5) were obtained from specimens collected at Vermelha Beach, Parati, Rio de Janeiro. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR (¹H-, ¹³C-, COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) and high resolution mass spectrometry analysis. Additionally, the absolute configuration of compound 2 was assigned by X-ray analysis. Full spectroscopic data is described for the first time for compound 3. Anti-inflammatory and antimycobacterial activities of compounds 2-5 were evaluated. Compounds 3-5 inhibited the release of inflammatory mediator NO while TNF-α levels were only affected by 3. All compounds tested displayed moderate antimycobacterial action.

  14. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  15. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Gao

    Full Text Available In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE. Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  16. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  17. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  18. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  19. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  20. Variability in cotton fiber yield, fiber quality, and soil properties in a southeastern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    To maximize profitability, cotton (GossypiumhirsutumL.) producers must attempt to control the quality of the crop while maximizing yield. The objective of this research was to measure the intrinsic variability present in cotton fiber yield and quality. The 0.5-ha experimental site was located in a...

  1. Levels of Organochlorines Contaminants on Fish Species from Coastal Area in the Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs, Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs, Dibenzofurans (PCDFs are highly lipophilic persistent organochlorines contaminants competent to resist degradation and with the ability to bioaccumulate through the food chain. Concentrations were determined in four species of edible fish from Sepetiba Bay, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: marine catfish (Genidens genidens, false herring (Harengula clupeola, chere-chere grunt (Haemulum steidachneri, and barracuda (Sphyraena sphyraena which were collected in July-August 2012. PCBs and PCDD/Fs and were determined by high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS according to the US EPA 1613B, 8290A, and US EPA 1668B methods. The focal objective of the assessment was to obtain information about existing levels of pollutants, having as a consequence the possibility of providing preventive actions for public health, as well as encourage the development of mitigation measures. The concentration of total PCDDs/PCDFs ranged from 0.10105~0.2141 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww and PCBs ranged from 0.08834~0.62304 pg-WHO-TEQ/g ww. Judging from the European Union regulation limit levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCDD/PCDFs/PCBs were lower than the criteria in all samples, however it is important to systematize environmental monitoring.

  2. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  3. Estimating the size of juvenile fish populations in southeastern coastal-plain estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding the ecological significance of man's activities upon fishery resources requires information on the size of affected fish stocks. The objective of this paper is to provide information to evaluate and plan sampling programs designed to obtain accurate and precise estimates of fish abundance. Nursery habitats, as marsh--tidal creeks and submerged grass beds, offer the optimal conditions for estimating natural mortality rates for young-of-the-year fish in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coast estuaries. The area-density method of abundance estimation using quantitative gears is more feasible than either mark-recapture or direct-count techniques. The blockage method provides the most accurate estimates, while encircling devices enable highly mobile species found in open water to be captured. Drop nets and lift nets allow samples to be taken in obstructed sites, but trawls and seines are the most economical gears. Replicate samples are necessary to improve the precision of density estimates, while evaluation and use of gear-catch efficiencies is feasible and required to improve the accuracy of density estimates. Coefficients of variation for replicate trawl samples range from 50 to 150 percent, while catch efficiencies for both trawls and seines for many juvenile fishes range from approximately 30 to 70 percent

  4. Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda da costa brasileira Corophiidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda from Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Valério-Berardo

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve genera and seventeen species of corophiid amphipods are reported from Brazilian coastal waters: Ampelisciphotis podophthalma J.L. Barnard, 1958, Aora spinicornis Afonso, 1976, Audulla chelifera Chevreux, 1901, Bemlos foresti (Mateus & Mateus, 1966, B. unicornis (Bynum & Fox, 1977, Cheiriphotis megacheles (Giles, 1885, Chevalia mexicana Pearse, 1913, Corophium acherusicum Costa, 1851, Gammaropsis (Gammaropsis atlantica Stebbing, 1888, G. (G.. thompsoni (Walker, 1898, G. (G. togoensis (Schellenberg, 1925, G. (Podoceropsis sophiae (Boeck, 1861, Globoso-lembos smithi (Holmes, 1905, Lembos hypacanthus (K.H. Barnard, 1916, Photis brevipes Shoemaker, 1942, P. longicaudata Bate & Westwood, 1862 e Pseudomegamphopus barnardi Myers, 1968. An identification key, diagnosis and latitutinal distribution of each species are provided.

  5. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  6. Use and occupation of Olinda littoral (NE, Brazil): guidelines for an integrated coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez, José A; Medeiros, Carmen; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2007-08-01

    Located on the northeast Brazilian coast, Olinda is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, which is economically dependent on tourism, commerce, industry, and the informal economy. Despite its environmental and socioeconomic importance, the city of Olinda (understanding the coast as part of it) has suffered several environmental and human disturbances over the last decades. This work describes the environmental and social status of Olinda's beaches and makes recommendations concerning the development of an Integrated Coastal Management Plan for this coastal zone of the Brazilian littoral. The methodology adopted in this study is based on field campaigns (social, physical, chemical, and biological data collection), local observations, and the collection of sea contention building project data from city hall. The results showed that along the seven studied beaches, the main problems were related to the: (i) building of coastal protections, (ii) inefficient sewage disposal systems, (iii) inefficient urban management, and (iv) natural events (equinoctial spring tides and precipitation/evaporation rates). Casa Caiada beach showed the best hydrologic conditions as a consequence of its morphology and it presents facilities that attract housing and recreation investments (by private and public sectors) valuing and improving local use conditions. The obtained data showed that the studied beaches need an urgent action plan to minimize the environmental degradation of Olinda's littoral and to promote sustainable development of the local coastal environments.

  7. Use and occupation of Olinda littoral (NE, Brazil): guidelines for an integrated coastal management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luci Cajueiro Carneiro; Jiménez, José A; Medeiros, Carmen; da Costa, Rauquírio Marinho

    2007-08-01

    Located on the northeast Brazilian coast, Olinda is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, which is economically dependent on tourism, commerce, industry, and the informal economy. Despite its environmental and socioeconomic importance, the city of Olinda (understanding the coast as part of it) has suffered several environmental and human disturbances over the last decades. This work describes the environmental and social status of Olinda's beaches and makes recommendations concerning the development of an Integrated Coastal Management Plan for this coastal zone of the Brazilian littoral. The methodology adopted in this study is based on field campaigns (social, physical, chemical, and biological data collection), local observations, and the collection of sea contention building project data from city hall. The results showed that along the seven studied beaches, the main problems were related to the: (i) building of coastal protections, (ii) inefficient sewage disposal systems, (iii) inefficient urban management, and (iv) natural events (equinoctial spring tides and precipitation/evaporation rates). Casa Caiada beach showed the best hydrologic conditions as a consequence of its morphology and it presents facilities that attract housing and recreation investments (by private and public sectors) valuing and improving local use conditions. The obtained data showed that the studied beaches need an urgent action plan to minimize the environmental degradation of Olinda's littoral and to promote sustainable development of the local coastal environments. PMID:17602259

  8. Hydrography, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in shelf and oceanic waters off southeastern Brazil during autumn (may/june, 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pereira Brandini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton photosynthesis and nutrients were studied in relation to the hydrographic environment of the southeastern Brazil from May 3 to June 31 of 1983 during an oceanographia cruise conducted by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian Navy. Temperature and salinity at 5 meters depth ranged from 21 to 25º C and from 33.00 to 37.11, respectively. The concentration of nutrients varied, nitrate + nitrite-N from 1.0-3.0 µg-at/l, phosphate-P 0.1-0.9 µg-at/l and silicate-Si 5-25 µg-at/l. The chlorophyll-a concentrations along the coast varied from 0.35 to 1.48 mg/m³ with maxima in front of Paranaguá Bay (PR and over the southern shelf of Santa Catarina State. Low concentrations around 0.20 mg/m³ of uniform distribution were observed in shelf and off-shelf areas. Comparatively high concentrations were measured over the shelf break zone in front of Paranaguá Bay indicationg the occurrence of shelf break upwelling of deep nutrient rich waters. The pattern of vertical distribution was stratified and irregular in coastal stations and uniform in shelf and oceanic waters although some subsurface peaks were sometimes detected. The integrated chlorophyll values within the euphotic layer varied between 2.70 and 28.06 mg/m². The surface photo synthetic capacity varied from 0.4 to 7.7 mgC/mgChl.a/hr with higher values obtained in coastal areas.. The vertical distributions were variable in coastal areas and more uniform in mid-shelf stations. Sub-surface maxima of photosynthesis were detected in both nearshore and off-shore stations, and surface inhibition was not observed.Os padrões de distribuição espacial de parâmetros hidrográficos, clorofila-a e fotossíntese do fitoplancton são estudados em relação ao regime oceanográfico da região sueste do Brasil nos meses de maio e junho de 1983. A região oceânica foi totalmente dominada pela Agua Tropical da Corrente do Brasil (AT com caracter

  9. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  10. Phytoplankton Dynamics During the Spring Bloom in the South-eastern English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, C.; Brylinski, J. M.; Bodineau, L.; Thoumelin, G.; Bentley, D.; Hilde, D.

    1996-10-01

    The two main phases of a phytoplankton spring bloom in the South-eastern English Channel were studied during two 3-day cruises in March and May 1992. Physico-chemical parameters were measured, such as temperature, salinity, density, turbidity and nutrients, as well as biological parameters ( in situchlorophyll afluorescence, photosynthetic pigments and fatty acids). Photo-synthetic pigments and fatty acids were used as taxonomic and physiological markers of phytoplankton populations. Data suggest the existence of two ' biological provinces ' north and south of the Bay of Somme. In the Northern province, the bloom starts earlier, probably due to the shallower coastal water, and is characterized by high proportions of diatoms and, successively, of Prymnesiophytes ( Phaeocystissp.). The bloom maintains high biomass levels sustained by inputs from the Somme River and probable nutrient regeneration. The Southern province, directly influenced by the Seine River, is characterized by a deeper coastal water column and the presence of phytoflagellates. Despite the higher supply of nutrients from the Seine River, the bloom starts later and supports a lower phytoplankton biomass. The differences between both areas are analysed on the basis of the hydrodynamism of the area, and are interpreted as two different stages of the same process. To understand the spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton dynamics, interactions between biology and hydrodynamical characteristics of this area are discussed.

  11. The first Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Anjos Candeiro, Carlos Roberto; da Silva Marinho, Thiago

    2015-08-01

    The 1st Brazilian Dinosaur Symposium gathered paleontologists, geologists, and paleoartists in the city of Ituiutaba, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from April 21st to 24th, 2013. The Dinosaur Symposium in the Pontal Campus of the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil provided an opportunity to share many new results of dinosaur research being conducted around the world. The symposium coincided with a new dawn of scientific advances in dinosaur paleontology further expanding its importance, interest and credibility worldwide.

  12. Towards more Manageable Coastal Building; Initial Coastal Building Construction Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslan Talib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As we may not be aware that the coastal construction is different from inland construction. Building in a coastal environment is different from building in an inland area. In general, buildings in coastal areas must be designed and built to withstand higher loads due to its more extreme conditions. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Formulate initial guidelines with certain degree of details how coastal construction requirements are different from those for inland construction. Approach: Due to the exposure to higher loads and extreme conditions, these structures in coastal areas will cost more to design, construct, maintain, repair and insure. Proper and right usage of building materials including electrical and mechanical equipments, are crucial in order to minimize damage. Nowadays, the issue of global warming, uncertainty of global weather and the climate change effect indirectly creating the coastal area with much more expose to extreme condition. Feedback has been gathered from the government local engineers who are doing the management of the Government’s local buildings located along the coastal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Data findings through research method, discussion with the suppliers and discussion with coastal buildings maintenance crews also has been done. Results: The research finding discus the specific characteristics that makes for successful coastal buildings focusing in tropical region. Conclusion: We must accept on the idea of building in coastal areas will require more maintenance and upkeep. By having proper coastal building guideline may create more positive awareness in constructing better management coastal buildings and can save time and money to maintain the said structures.

  13. Coastal processes of the Russian Baltic - modern trends, driving forces and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabchuk, Daria; Sivkov, Vadim; Kovaleva, Olga; Sergeev, Alexander; Zhamoida, Vladimir; Dorokhov, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    In frame of EMODNET-geology project and Russian Science Foundation (project 14-37-00047), the Coastal Behavior maps for the Russian parts of Baltic were compiled. Several areas of the Baltic Sea coastal zone were chosen as case studies for more detailed mapping and analyses. According to annual observations rates of coastal erosion within some areas of the easternmost part of the Gulf of Finland are recently accelerated due to both natural (increasing of the extreme storm events frequency, accompanied by high water level) and anthropogenic (impact of St. Petersburg Flood Protection Facility, submarine sand mining, ineffective coast protection etc.) factors. The geological and geomorphic factors determine the long-term coastal zone development. The coasts mostly consist of easily erodible Quaternary deposits (clays and sands). They evolve under overall sediment deficiency. Moreover, some specific, small-scale features of the near-shore bottom, found by investigations using multibeam and side-scan sonar study, play a very important role in the entire erosion process. Average rates of coastal erosion is 0.5-1.0 m/year, but during the extreme storms, coastal escarpment can retreat for the distance up to 5 m at once. During late autumn and winter seasons of 2006-2007, 2011-2012 and 2013 years severe storms caused extreme erosion events damaged the coastal dunes with forming of active escarpment, destruction of coast protection and recreation infrastructure, complete transformation of sand accretion spits. In the southern coastal zone of the Gulf processes of long-shore sand waves occurred. Prognoses of coastal processes development based on annual observations (since 2004), remote sensing data analyses and modeling has shown that depending on different climate change scenarios coastal line of the study area can retreat for the distance from 50 to 100 m. The most intense coastal processes of the Russian part of the South-Eastern Baltic are observe within attached part of

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  15. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Loiola

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5% with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5% with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%, Migonemyia migonei (21.4%, Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%, and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%. Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0 and Mg. migonei (0.82. In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83% of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.

  16. Contributions to the Dart versus Arrow Debate: New Data from Holocene Projectile Points from Southeastern and Southern Brazil

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    Mercedes Okumura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithic bifacial points are very common in the southern and southeastern regions of the Brazilian territory. Dated from Early to Late Holocene, these artifacts have not been studied in terms of their propulsion system. Given the characteristics of the bow and arrow compared to the atlatl and dart, there are important differences in the size and weight of arrowheads and dart points. Applying the techniques proposed by Shott (1997, Bradbury (1997, Fenenga (1953, Hughes (1998, and Hildebrandt and King (2012 to specimens recovered from eight sites dating from the early to the late Holocene, this work aims to present preliminary results to better understand the potential presence of darts and arrows in southeastern and southern Brazil. There was a variation in the results according to the application of different techniques. At least one set of points, dated from the Early Holocene, presented quite a high proportion of specimens classified as arrows, indicating the presence of points that could be used as arrowheads.

  17. Louisiana Coastal Wetlands and Louisiana Coastal Grey Literature: Vanishing Treasures

    OpenAIRE

    Costello, Gina R. (LSU); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    2006-01-01

    Over the last century Louisiana has lost an alarming amount of coastal wetlands to coastal erosion. Natural disasters and manmade solutions to problems alike have contributed to this national tragedy. A vast amount of grey literature documenting the history of land loss in Louisiana has been produced, but never collocated for researchers' use. The Louisiana Coastal Grey Literature Project endeavored to locate, organize and provide access to these valuable hidden treasures. Includes: Confer...

  18. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU54 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... provisions of the Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act). The...

  19. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XX28 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act (Atlantic Coastal Act), based on the...

  20. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic...

  1. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

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    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  2. Genetic profile characterization of 10 X-STRs in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Joyce A; Costa, Jeane C; Paneto, Greiciane G; Figueiredo, Raquel F; Gusmão, Leonor; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Carracedo, Angel; Cicarelli, Regina M B

    2010-09-01

    Ten X-chromosomal short tandem repeats (DXS8378, DXS9902, DXS7132, DXS9898, DXS6809, DXS6789, DXS7133, GATA172D05, GATA31E08 and DXS7423) were analyzed in four populations of the southeastern region of Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Vitória and Belo Horizonte). No deviations from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were observed for any of the analyzed loci in the four populations. The average diversity per locus varied between 68% for DXS8378, DXS7133, and DXS7423 and 83%, for DXS6809, with Rio de Janeiro being the most diverse population. Overall power of discrimination values in females varied between 0.99999999990 and 0.99999999997 and between 0.9999991 and 0.9999995 in males. These high values show the potential of this system for forensic application and relationships' testing in the studied groups. Genetic comparisons (exact tests of population differentiation and pairwise genetic distances) revealed significant differences between Brazilian and other populations from Europe, Latin America and Africa, as well as among different Brazilian populations.

  3. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, Santee National Wildlife Refuge, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an unpublished report by the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study of the Parasitology College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia....

  4. Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study, 1998 and 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study for white-tailed deer, performed in 1998 and 2004 by the College of Veterinary Medicine of The University of Georgia.

  5. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  6. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  7. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment. PMID:27627071

  8. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  9. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  10. Surge-tectonic evolution of southeastern Asia: a geohydrodynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerhoff, Arthur A.

    the surge channels—form an anastomosing E-W pattern southern Asiatic Russia, Mongolia, western China, the Qinghai-Tibetan region, and northern India and Pakistan. Such an anastomosing pattern indicates that flow is an active process in the surge channels. Surface studies of phenomena that might be associated with the surge channels soon revealed that all active channels are characterized by higher-than-normal heat flow (> 55 mW m -2, thermal springs and elevated ground-water temperatures, volvanic phenomena, bands of microearthquakes, and linear belts of faults, fractures, and fissures. The latter are especially visible on satellite images. The bands of high heat flow, thermal springs, microearthquakes, and faults-fractures-fissures almost exactly coincide. The fault-fracture-fissure systems are interpreted to be streamlines caused by flow in the surge channels—a consequence of Stokes's Law (an expression of Newton's Second Law of Motion)-and show that Poiseuille flow must dominate in the channels. Hence, the mechanism producing the belts of linear faults-fractures-fissures is viscous drag, produced by fluid motions. The eastward flow of the magma in the channels is demonstrated clearly in the tectonic patterns of southeastern Asia. In the northern part of the region studied, the E-W striking anastomosing surge channels (tectonic belts) splay northeastward into the coastal regions of Russia. In the south, they splay southward and southeastward through the Malay Peninsula and Indonesia. The open horsetail structures thus created prove that flow is W-E. The presence of the two splay directions, NE and S-SE, indicates in addition that a barrier to eastward flow must lie directly east of Asia. In this author's opinion, this barrier is the existing Benioff zone, because the same NE and S-SE splay patterns are present on each of the paleotectonic maps that have been prepared for nine time intervals from the beginning of Sinian (latest Proterozoic) time to the present. The

  11. Digenean metacercaria (Trematoda, Digenea, Lepocreadiidae parasitizing "coelenterates" (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa and Ctenophora from Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Carrara Morandini

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacercaria specimens of the genus Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae are described parasitizing "coelenterates" (scyphomedusae and ctenophores from Southeastern Brazil (São Paulo state. The worms are compared to other Opechona species occurring on the Brazilian coast, but no association has been made because only adult forms of these species have been described. Suppositions as to the possible transference of the parasites are made.Exemplares de metacercárias do gênero Opechona (Trematoda: Digenea: Lepocreadiidae são descritos parasitando "celenterados" (cifomedusas e ctenóforos no sudeste do Brasil (estado de São Paulo. Os vermes foram comparados a outras espécies de Opechona ocorrentes no litoral brasileiro, porém nenhuma associação foi realizada devido às demais espécies terem sido descritas a partir de exemplares adultos. São apresentadas suposições sobre as possíveis formas de transferência dos parasitas.

  12. Estimate of exploitation rates and population size of skipjack tuna off the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Jablonski

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Size compositions and total landings of skipjack tuna caught in the southeastern Brazilian waters by bait-boats are used as the basis of the assessment of the population for 1980-1983 period, employing the length cohort analysis and virtual population analysis. From monthly size frequency data it is suggested that there is constant immigration and emigration of different modal groups in the fishing area with an interval of two to three months. The exploitation rate was very low for length class between 35-45 cm FL, then increased gradually. The weighted mean exploitation rates were 0.060 and 0.448, respectively for length classes smaller and larger than 55 cmFL. The estimate of the average number of fish attaining a size of 43 cm FL (recruit was 11.0 x 10(6 fish for assumed values of M - 0.7 and K = 0.307. Increasing the fishing mortality rate by 30% and 50%, an estimated increment in yield is 8% and 12%, respectively. From virtual population analysis, we obtained the biomass estimate of skipjack population older than two years-old to be 70.3 thousand tonnes for assumed value of M = 0.7 and the estimated MSY was 24.6 thousand tonnes.

  13. Brachyuran and anomuran crabs associated with Schizoporella unicornis (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOUGLAS F.R. ALVES

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goals of this investigation were to describe the community structure of anomuran and brachyuran crabs inhabiting reefs constituted by colonies of Schizoporella unicornis, and to provide a species importance ranking for this community. Collections were carried out on S. unicornis reefs at two-month intervals from May 2003 to May 2004, in the rocky sublittoral of the southeastern Brazilian coast. Relative abundance and occurrence were used to rank these species in the hierarchy importance. A total of 2,018 individuals were obtained, in 11 families, 22 genera and 31 species. Porcellanidae and Pilumnidae were the most abundant families, comprising respectively almost 60% and 15% of individuals sampled. The species ranking indicated four main groups A, B, C and D, with group A subdivided. Subgroup A1 contained 9 species, including the species of greatest ecological importance for community regarding abundance and occurrence. The great abundance of crabs associated with S. unicornis seems to be the result of its recognized importance during the crab developmental cycle, and as shelter and food for some Decapod species. These observations reveal the importance of conserving the areas occupied by these reef colonies, which appear to be an important environment for maintaining local biodiversity.

  14. Effect of environmental factors on the abundance of decapod crustaceans from soft bottoms off southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE FURLAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the importance of variations in environmental factors affecting the abundance patterns of decapods on the southeastern Brazilian coast. Sampling was carried out monthly from January 1998 through December 1999 in Ubatumirim and Mar Virado, Ubatuba region, using a commercial shrimp fishing boat equipped with double-rig nets. Six areas adjacent to rocky shores were chosen. Bottom-water samples were collected using a Nansen bottle, to measure the temperature and salinity. Sediment samples were also obtained by means of a Van Veen grab, for determination of texture and organic-matter content. The association of environmental factors with species abundance was evaluated by Canonical Correspondence Analysis (α = 0.05. Forty-one species of Decapoda were used in the multivariate analysis. The analysis indicated that sediment texture (phi and bottom temperature were the main factors correlated (p < 0.05 with the spatial and temporal abundance of the species. Considering the study region as faunal transition zone, including a mixture of species of both tropical and subantarctic origin, the species responded differently to environmental factors, mainly temperature. It is conceivable that the decapods adjust their distribution according to their intrinsic physiological limitations, possibly as a result of the available resources.

  15. Richness and diversity of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae) in an Atlantic rainforest reserve in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Israel Souza; Dos Santos, Claudiney Biral; Ferreira, Adelson Luiz; Falqueto, Aloísio

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to study and evaluate the richness and diversity of Phlebotominae fauna in the Duas Bocas Biological Reserve (DBBR) in the state of Espírito Santo, in southeastern Brazil. Sand fly collections were carried out during four consecutive nights each month between August 2007 and July 2008 at DBBR by using CDC automatic light traps and an illuminated Shannon trap. Specific richness (S) and Shannon diversity index (H) was calculated for each trap. We collected 18,868 sand flies belonging to 29 species and 13 genera. Nyssomyia yuilli yuilli was the most abundant species followed by Psychodopygus ayrozai, Ps. hirsutus, Psathyromyia pascalei, and Ps. matosi. We recorded Brumptomyia cardosoi, Br. troglodytes, and Ps. geniculatus for the first time in the state of Espírito Santo. We discuss the differences in diversity and richness of the sand flies in both traps and in relation to other Brazilian localities and biomes. We also discuss the possibility of wild transmission of Leishmania in the DBBR and the influence of the sand fly species in leishmaniasis transmission to the adjacent areas of the reserve.

  16. Brachyuran and anomuran crabs associated with Schizoporella unicornis (Ectoprocta, Cheilostomata) from southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Douglas F R; Barros-Alves, Samara P; Lima, Daniel J M; Cobo, Valter J; Negreiros-Fransozo, Maria Lucia

    2013-03-01

    The main goals of this investigation were to describe the community structure of anomuran and brachyuran crabs inhabiting reefs constituted by colonies of Schizoporella unicornis, and to provide a species importance ranking for this community. Collections were carried out on S. unicornis reefs at two-month intervals from May 2003 to May 2004, in the rocky sublittoral of the southeastern Brazilian coast. Relative abundance and occurrence were used to rank these species in the hierarchy importance. A total of 2,018 individuals were obtained, in 11 families, 22 genera and 31 species. Porcellanidae and Pilumnidae were the most abundant families, comprising respectively almost 60% and 15% of individuals sampled. The species ranking indicated four main groups A, B, C and D, with group A subdivided. Subgroup A1 contained 9 species, including the species of greatest ecological importance for community regarding abundance and occurrence. The great abundance of crabs associated with S. unicornis seems to be the result of its recognized importance during the crab developmental cycle, and as shelter and food for some Decapod species. These observations reveal the importance of conserving the areas occupied by these reef colonies, which appear to be an important environment for maintaining local biodiversity. PMID:23538959

  17. Distribution and growth in adults of Macrobrachium acanthurus Wiegmann, (Decapoda, Palaemonidae) in a tropical coastal lagoon, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Edélti Faria Albertoni; Cleber Palma-Silva; Francisco de Assis Esteves

    2002-01-01

    Macrobrachium acanthurus Wiegmann, 1836 is a Palaemonidae commonly found in Brazilian coastal environments. At Imboassica lagoon, located in the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro, it is found in two stages of its life cycle: as larvae and as reproductive adults. This work had as its goal the evaluation of adults distribution, estimating the weight/length relationship and the condition factor of these adults. After sampling in two regions of the lagoon, one interior and another closer to th...

  18. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  19. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  20. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

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    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  1. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  2. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea. On

  3. Coastal Analysis, King George County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  4. COASTAL ANALYSIS FOR Lancaster COUNTY, VIRGINIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  5. Portable coastal observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  6. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  7. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    fluctuations in phytoplankton biomass, phy toplankton blooms associated with incipient seasonal stratification, and frontal- and eddy-trapped inertial waves. Measurements of nitrate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pC0 2 ), and dissolved oxygen (DO) have... their relative velocity measurements. A variant of moored profilers is the "pop-up" system, which could be deployed as an expendable system with a telemetry module. The package would be dropped from a ship or airplane and rest on the coastal bottom until it rose...

  8. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  9. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  10. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  11. [Theater in Brazilian science museums and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Leonardo Maciel; Marandino, Martha

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research, based on a descriptive and exploratory study, examines how theater is used as a science communication strategy by Brazilian science museums and centers. Data was collected through a survey emailed to 24 Brazilian institutions identified as science museums and centers. Content analysis was performed, using cross-sectional thematic analysis. It was found that respondents' activities could be classified as approaching theater as an educational support.

  12. Poleward coastal jets induced by westerlies in the Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Batifoulier, Francois; Lazure, Pascal; Bonneton, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Two hydrodynamic surveys based on acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and drift buoys measurements taken in summer 2008 and 2009 revealed poleward coastal jets of up to 32 cm s(-1) that lasted up to 22 d along the Aquitaine shelf in the southeastern area of the Bay of Biscay. A strong increase in bottom temperature was associated with these currents, up to 4 degrees C in 5 d at 54 m depth. These observations occurred after a few days of westerlies, cross-shore winds which were thought to...

  13. Ecosystem analysis in the southeastern Bering sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Peter McRoy, C.

    During a 7-year study of the food-chain dynamics of the outer and middle shelves of the southeastern Bering Sea, numerical models were developed to test ecological hypotheses posed at the event, seasonal, and annual scales of habitat variability. Interannual variations in year class strength of Alaska pollock between warm and cold years are attributed to an order of magnitude decline in prey availability during larval drift in cold years. In cold years delayed increases in seasonal abundance of copepod nauplii, the prey of these larval fish, are attributed to low temperature effects on crustacean metabolism rather than to changes in food availability (phytoplankton). Sinking diatoms, uneaten by the zooplankton in the water column during warm or cold years, are resuspended by wind events and advected seaward every 3 to 5 days during the spring. The ungrazed phytoplankton from the outer shelf are moved offshore and deposited on the adjacent slope. Because of the unusual width of the Bering shelf (˜500km) and a seasonal decline in the number of upwelling, favorable wind events, diatoms of the middle shelf are not exported. They are consumed instead by the benthos, with 10-fold larger infaunal biomass found here than on the outer shelf. An annual carbon budget for the middle shelf suggests consumption of all the primary production in this regime, compared to an apparent export of 48% of the outer shelf primary production to the continental slope.

  14. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p activities.

  15. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  16. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian culture of a questionnaire to measure perceptions of dental aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Eugênio de Sousa Furtado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct the translation to Portuguese and the cross-cultural adaptation to Brazilian culture of a questionnaire to evaluate the aesthetic concerns of 12-yr-old children and their parents. Methods: The original questionnaire, which investigates the level of the child´s distress, worry, and smile avoidance in the last two months, was not validated to any other languages but the ones it was originally developed for (English and Spanish. This report had the following design: translation, back-translation, validation by a panel of experts and testing of the final version with 50 pairs of parents/children, using self-report or interview. Results: No relevant discrepancy amongst versions was found; only minor adjustments were made to adapt the questionnaire to the target population´s diverse educational background, and no item from the original questionnaire has been removed. Simple vocabulary and short phrases were used in order to facilitate the application to children and adults in a location in the Northeast and another in Southeastern Brazil. In the pre-testing, Brazilians easily understood the questions. When the questionnaire was self-applied, there was difficult in reading by children, non-response from parents and unanswered items by both groups. Conclusion: The Child’s and Parent’s Questionnaire about Teeth Appearance was adequately translated into Brazilian Portuguese and adapted to the cultural context of both locations, and it is suggested using it as an interview.

  17. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  18. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  19. The detection of Vaccinia virus confirms the high circulation of Orthopoxvirus in buffaloes living in geographical isolation, Marajó Island, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luiz, Ana Paula Moreira; Fagundes Pereira, Alexandre; de Oliveira, Cairo Henrique Sousa; Barbosa, José Diomedes; Oliveira, Danilo Bretas; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; de Souza Trindade, Giliane; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien

    2016-06-01

    In Brazil, serologic evidence of Orthopoxvirus (OPV) circulation showed positivity around 20% in cattle, humans, monkeys and rodents. Although OPV seropositivity has been described in buffalo herds in southeastern Brazil, no Vaccinia virus (VACV) (member of genus OPV) outbreaks in buffalo herds have been described in this country. This study aimed to investigate the detection of anti-OPV antibodies and to study the OPV genome in Brazilian buffalo herds. Our results demonstrated a high OPV seropositivity in buffalo herds on Marajó Island and molecular data confirmed the circulation of VACV. The geographical isolation conditionmight be a sine qua non condition to explain our results. PMID:27260805

  20. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  1. Sinking coastal cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  2. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  3. Insights from Brazilian medical journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Caramelli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This brand-new series of articles aims at delivering to national and international readers some of the cutting-edge contributions from the Brazilian medical literature. Recently papers published in the main Brazilian medical journals are carefully selected and analyzed by skilled medical editors. In addition we asked editors to choose keywords to be highlighted in order to claim for reader's attention. Articles are organized by area of interest to facilitate reading. To get the most of the limited available editorial space we did not include the names of the authors of the related articles in the text itself but a complete reference guide is provided at the end of the article. The result carries the most important messages from the original paper accompanied by a personal interpretation. Directed to the busy medical doctor we hope that this initiative may help in the successful translation of knowledge from scientific evidence to clinical practice.Esta nova série de artigos tem por objetivo levar aos leitores nacionais e internacionais algumas das mais importantes contribuições provenientes da literatura médica brasileira recente. Os artigos originais mais relevantes são selecionados por experientes editores a quem solicitamos que escolham palavras- chaves para que sejam destacadas para chamar a atenção do leitor. Para facilitar a leitura, os artigos são organizados por área de interesse. Para aproveitar ao máximo o limitado espaço editorial não são incluídos os nomes dos autores dos artigos. Entretanto, a referência completa é oferecida ao final do artigo. O resultado final traz o que há de melhor do artigo, seguido de uma sintética interpretação pessoal. Endereçado ao médico ocupado, esperamos que esta inciativa possa contribuir para o sucesso da translação do conhecimento da evidência científica para a prática clínica.

  4. a new record of acanthodactylus cantoris (sauria: lacertidae) and its comparison with closely related a.blanfordi in southeastern iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    a new record ofacanthodactylus cantoris from sistan and baluchistan in southeastern iran is presented in this paper,and this lizard is found occurring in the coastal area of the persian gulf from govater to chabahar.this species is mainly sympatric with a.blanfordi,and their habits and habitats support their close relationship within the cantoris group.in total,29 specimens ofa.cantoris (n =12) and a.blanfordi (n =17) were compared morphologically using statistical methods.the occurrence of a.cantoris in iran has been questioned for a long time by different herpetologists,and the distribution,ecology and taxonomy of this newly recorded species were investigated and provided in this paper.an updated identification key for the species of acanthodactylus in iran is given.

  5. Educating Brazilian workers about AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    This article contains a the script for a slide-tape presentation entitled Working Against AIDS, a presentation developed by the Brazil Family Planning Association (BEMFAM) which is designed to debunk common misconceptions about the disease. This audio-visual, which targets Brazilian workers, can be used during talks, seminars, and meetings. A discussion of the issues involved usually follows the presentation of Working Against AIDS. The presentation contains 30 illustrated slides (these are included in the article). The presentation begins by explaining that much of the information concerning AIDS is prejudicial and misleading. The next few slides point out some of the common misconceptions about AIDS, such as claims denying the existence of the disease, or suggestions that only homosexuals and prostitutes are at risk. The presentation then goes on to explain the ways in which the virus can and cannot be transmitted. Then it discusses how the virus destroys the body's natural defenses and explains the ensuing symptoms. Slides 14 and 15 point out that no cure yet exists for AIDS, making prevention essential. Slides 16-23 explain what actions are considered to be high risk and which ones do not entail risk. Noting that AIDS can be prevented, slide 24 says that the disease should not present an obstacle to spontaneous manifestations of human relations. The next slide explains that condoms should always be used when having sex with someone who could be infected with AIDS. Finally slides 26-30 demonstrate the proper way to use and dispose of a condom.

  6. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  7. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  8. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  9. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  10. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  11. Radiometric dating of Precambrian rock in Smaaland southeastern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating of zircons with the U-Pb method in southeastern Sweden gives ages of 1837 Ma on volcanics, considered as postorogenic to the Svecokarelian, and 1825 Ma on an arkose (possibly a sheared synorogenic granite). These figures coincide with previous U-Pb ages in southeastern Sweden. Zircons from an older preorogenic gneis and a metasediment do not fit a U-Pb discordia line but imply a previous history back to 2500 Ma ago. Zircons from a dike porphyry intruding the younger volcanics do not yield a meaningful age, probably due to contamination. When compiling the presented U-Pb data with previous Rb-Sr and K-Ar ages the orogenic activity from synorogenic through postorogenic times seems to be continuous in southeastern Sweden. (authors)

  12. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  13. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  14. The foreign investments phenomena in south-eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora ALECU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The south-eastern Europe countries have all the common history of the communism policy and economy, which from the foreign investments perspective meant a radical approach, which promoted a nationalism view against foreign capital interference. Similar to China, perhaps India and other countries, the governments of the south-eastern Europe’s countries expressed a rejection to foreign investments, emphasizing the negative effects of such operations, arguing that any foreign capital inflow is followed by a foreign capital outflow which at the end will destabilize the balance of external payments and will overall result in no favorable effect upon the economy of their countries.

  15. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  16. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  17. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  18. Impact of petroleum pollution on aquatic coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although oil activities generate numerous forms of environmental impact on biological communities, studies of these impacts on Brazilian coastal ecosystems are rate. Results of tests for the content of oil in sediments and organisms indicate a substantially high rate of degradation. Results for uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bivalves suggested the recent occurrence of oil spills and that these organisms differed in their capabilities to bioconcentrate oil. The mangrove community has suffered constant inputs of oil and has responded with increased numbers of aerial roots, generation of malformed leaves and fruits by plants, and a decrease in litter production. Studies of the impact of oil on rocky shore communities and the toxicity of oil and its by-products to marine organisms have confirmed the results reported in the literature. Presently most of the available studies deal with the macroscopic effects of oil on organisms and have indicated that the nature of oil, climate characteristics, the physical environment, and the structure of the community influence the symptoms of oil contamination in organisms of coastal waters. Long-term studies should be carried out to assess changes in community structure, sublethal effects in populations, and the resilience of contaminated ecosystems

  19. Piping Plover response to coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine R. Bourque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in coastal storm frequency and intensity expected under most climate change scenarios is likely to substantially modify beach configuration and associated habitats. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coastal storms on a nesting population of the endangered Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in southeastern New Brunswick, Canada. Previous studies have shown that numbers of nesting Piping Plovers may increase following storms that create new nesting habitat at individual beaches. However, to our knowledge, no test of this pattern has been conducted over a regional scale. We hypothesized that Piping Plover abundance would increase after large coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season. However, we expected a delay in the colonization of newly created habitat owing to low-density populations, combined with high site fidelity of adults and high variability in survival rate of subadults. We tested this hypothesis using a 27-year (1986-2012 data set of Piping Plover abundance and productivity (nesting pairs and fledged young collected at five sites in eastern New Brunswick. We identified 11 major storms that could potentially have modified Piping Plover habitat over the study period. The number of fledged young increased three years after a major storm, but the relationship was much weaker for the number of nesting pairs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized increase in suitable habitat after coastal storms. Including storm occurrence with other factors influencing habitat quality will enhance Piping Plover conservation strategies.

  20. Intraseasonal coastal upwelling signal along the southern coast of Java observed using Indonesian tidal station data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Takanori; Ueki, Iwao; Syamsudin, Fadli; Sofian, Ibnu; Ando, Kentaro

    2016-04-01

    Sea level variations along the coasts of Sumatra and Java were investigated to determine the coastal upwelling signal that is linked to local sea surface temperature (SST) variability. We used Indonesian tidal station data together with satellite SST data and atmospheric reanalysis data. The sea level variations along the southern coast of Java have a significant coherence with remote wind, local wind, and local SST variations, with an intraseasonal time scale of 20-50 days. Assuming that a coastal upwelling signal would appear as a sea level drop (SLD), we focused on intraseasonal-scale SLD events in the data. Significant upwelling signals are frequently observed during both the boreal summer and winter. To evaluate the impact of the coastal upwelling on local SST, we examined statistical relationships between sea level and SST variations. The results demonstrated that events that occurred during April-August were associated with local SST cooling. The horizontal distribution of the SST cooling was analogous with annual mean SST, suggesting the importance of intraseasonal-scale coastal upwelling in forming the climatic conditions of the southeastern tropical Indian Ocean.

  1. The importance of understorey on wildlife in a brazilian eucalypt plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jody R. Stallings

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Wildlife surveys were conducted in two stands of Eucalyptus, one homogeneous and the other with a native species understorey in the Atlantic forest region of southeastern Brazil Deforestation has reduced the original forested habitat to a patchwork of cultivated fields and mono-specific forestry plantations. Wildlife communities were depauperate in the homogeneous stand, but richer in eucalypt forest with native species understorey. Small mammals, particularly didelphid marsupials, used the understorey rather than the eucalypt emergent trees Primates were absent from both areas. The increasing demand for charcoal for the growing steel industry in the region means that eucalypt plantations will persist until an alternative energy source is found. It is essential that management efforts be directed towards multi-use strategies in these plantations Eucalypt plantations with a native species understorey might provide sufficient habitat to support some wildlife species of the rapidly disappearing Atlantic coastal forest ecosystem.

  2. Brazilian Congress, 2014 elections and governability challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Santos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This research note examines the results of the 2014 elections focusing on the National Congress. Its main objective is to ponder over common claims and predictions regarding the future of Brazilian politics. Beyond agreements and alliances involved in the electoral dispute, President Dilma Rousseff once again shall face the political challenges and dilemmas of Brazilian presidentialism, namely, how to create and manage government coalitions capable of implementing a coherent political program with a fragmented and heterogeneous Congress. The critical examination of the current hypotheses on the latest elections, especially concerning parliamentary fragmentation and a shift towards the right-wing, will serve as a compass attempting to formulate possible answers to such a fundamental problem in Brazilian politics.

  3. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  4. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  5. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  6. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  7. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  8. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  9. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  10. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  11. Effect of Seismicity in the Taiwan Straits on the Southeast Coastal Area of the Chinese Mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhizhong; Pan Hua; Yan Jiaquan; You Huichuan

    2010-01-01

    Based on the available and supplementary survey data.it analyzes the effect of seismicity in Taiwan and the Taiwan Straits on the southeastern coastal area of the Chinese mainland and discusses its roles in seismic hazard prevention and textual research of historical earthquakes.The results show that the frequency of strong earthquake in Taiwan area is high,with a time intervaI ranging from several to dozens of years,but the maximum influence intensity of seismicity from there to the coastal areas of the Chinese mainland is only Ⅵ degree:while the maximum influence intensity of the seismicity along the littoral fault zone located on the west of the straits reaches Ⅷ~Ⅸ degree because of the shorter distance to the Chinese mainland,though the frequency of strong earthquakes is lower than that of the Taiwan area.Strategies for protecting against seismic hazards in the southeastern constal area of China are proposed.Besides focusing on the effect of strong earthquakes of the littoral fault zone,attention also has to be paid to the low-cycle fatigue failure of engineering structures induced by the earthquakes in Taiwan and the stir effect on society induced by earthquake phobia.It is concluded that it would be more accurate and proper to take the May 19,1517 earthquake recorded in the Chinese mainland area as the influence of a strong earthquake in the Taiwan area.

  12. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  13. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  14. Relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the Southeastern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, Darragh

    2009-05-01

    The importance of dead wood to maintaining forest diversity is now widely recognized. However, the habitat associations and sensitivities of many species associated with dead wood remain unknown, making it difficult to develop conservation plans for managed forests. The purpose of this research, conducted on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina, was to better understand the relationships between dead wood and arthropods in the southeastern United States. In a comparison of forest types, more beetle species emerged from logs collected in upland pine-dominated stands than in bottomland hardwood forests. This difference was most pronounced for Quercus nigra L., a species of tree uncommon in upland forests. In a comparison of wood postures, more beetle species emerged from logs than from snags, but a number of species appear to be dependent on snags including several canopy specialists. In a study of saproxylic beetle succession, species richness peaked within the first year of death and declined steadily thereafter. However, a number of species appear to be dependent on highly decayed logs, underscoring the importance of protecting wood at all stages of decay. In a study comparing litter-dwelling arthropod abundance at different distances from dead wood, arthropods were more abundant near dead wood than away from it. In another study, grounddwelling arthropods and saproxylic beetles were little affected by large-scale manipulations of dead wood in upland pine-dominated forests, possibly due to the suitability of the forests surrounding the plots.

  15. Landscape Trends in Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States Ecoregions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, J.A.; Stehman, S.V.; Loveland, T.R.

    2003-01-01

    Landscape pattern and composition metrics are potential indicators for broad-scale monitoring of change and for relating change to human and ecological processes. We used a probability sample of 20-km ?? 20-km sampling blocks to characterize landscape composition and pattern in five US ecoregions: the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Northern Piedmont, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge Mountains. Land use/land cover (LULC) data for five dates between 1972 and 2000 were obtained for each sample block. Analyses focused on quantifying trends in selected landscape pattern metrics by ecoregion and comparing trends in land cover proportions and pattern metrics among ecoregions. Repeated measures analysis of the landscape pattern documented a statistically significant trend in all five ecoregions towards a more fine-grained landscape from the early 1970s through 2000. The ecologically important forest cover class also became more fine-grained with time (i.e., more numerous and smaller forest patches). Trends in LULC, forest edge, and forest percent like adjacencies differed among ecoregions. These results suggest that ecoregions provide a geographically coherent way to regionalize the story of national land use and land cover change in the United States. This study provides new information on LULC change in the southeast United States. Previous studies of the region from the 1930s to the 1980s showed a decrease in landscape fragmentation and an increase in percent forest, while this study showed an increase in forest fragmentation and a loss of forest cover.

  16. Extreme Storm Data and Analyses in the Southeastern U.S. - Implications for Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, J. F.; Sankovich, V.; Caldwell, J.; Nicholson, T. J.; Randall, J. D.; Kanney, J.

    2010-12-01

    Extreme storm rainfall data in the Southeastern United States are being collected and analyzed to assess their potential impacts on design precipitation amounts. Probable Maximum Precipitation (PMP) from National Weather Service Hydromet Report 51 is currently used for design rainfall estimates in the eastern U.S. The design precipitation estimates are based on an Army Corps of Engineers storm depth-area duration (D-A-D) catalog that is nearly 40 years old. We develop an electronic D-A-D database of SE U.S. storms for the period 1889-1972 from existing sources, describe the spatial and temporal limitations of those data, and how design estimates based on these data have changed over time. An electronic database of individual extreme storms that have occurred since 1972 near the Carolinas is under development. NWS WSR-88D archive radar data, NOAA Multisensor Precipitation Reanalysis data, NCDC COOP station precipitation data, and NOAA HURDAT information are used in storm analysis. We focus on warm-season tropical cyclones, as these systems are the critical storm rainfall-producing mechanisms in the SE U.S. that result in extreme floods. We examine orographic enhancement of rainfall in the Appalachians, in addition to Piedmont and coastal areas. Exceedance probabilities and uncertainties of design precipitation amounts are being estimated, so that risk-based hazard assessments can potentially be explored. Potential effects of climate variability on the extreme storm estimates, at time-scales of interest in design precipitation applications, are also under investigation.

  17. Brazilian methodology adopted about lightning rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, Felipe [Comissao Nacional de Enegia Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Rejeitos Radioativos]. E-mail: felipe@cnen.gov.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian experience concerning the suspension of the authorization for the production and installation of lightning rods containing radioactive material in the country and the main measures put into practice in order to safely remove and transport to temporary storage facilities all the existing devices Brazil that would be put out of use after the suspension. It is also presented the procedure established by the National Regulatory Body namely the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy- CNEN to be accomplished by the owners of this kind of devices. (author)

  18. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  19. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  20. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  1. Biophysical interactions in the Cabo Frio upwelling system, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Augusto Coelho-Souza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising of cold water from deeper levels characterizes coastal upwelling systems. This flow makes nutrients available in the euphotic layer, which enhances phytoplankton production and growth. On the Brazilian coast, upwelling is most intense in the Cabo Frio region (RJ. The basic knowledge of this system was reviewed in accordance with concepts of biophysical interactions. The high frequency and amplitude of the prevailing winds are the main factor promoting the rise of South Atlantic Central Water, but meanders and eddies in the Brazil Current as well as local topography and coast line are also important. Upwelling events are common during spring/summer seasons. Primary biomass is exported by virtue of the water circulation and is also controlled by rapid zooplankton predation. Small pelagic fish regulate plankton growth and in their turn are preyed on by predatory fish. Sardine furnishes an important regional fish stock. Shoreline irregularities define the embayment formation of the Marine Extractive Reserve of Arraial do Cabo making it an area with evident different intensities of upwelled water that harbors high species diversity. Consequently, on a small spatial scale there are environments with tropical and subtropical features, a point to be explored as a particularity of this ecosystem.Os sistemas costeiros de ressurgência são caracterizados pela ascensão de águas frias que tornam os nutrientes disponíveis na camada eufótica para o crescimento e aumento da produção fitoplanctônica. No Brasil, a região do Cabo Frio (RJ é o principal sistema de ressurgência costeira. O objetivo desse artigo foi revisar o atual conhecimento desse sistema através dos conceitos sobre interações biofísicas. A ascensão da Água Central do Atlântico Sul ocorre devido à alta frequência e amplitude dos ventos, à presença de meandros e vórtices na Corrente do Brasil, além da topografia local e da linha de costa. Os eventos de ressurg

  2. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XV13 Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS...-compliance; Declaration of a moratorium. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Atlantic Coastal...

  3. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  4. Comparison of thermal performance between test cells with different coverage systems for experimental typical day of heat in Brazilian Southeastern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Tiberio Cardoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article shows experimentally the thermal performance of two test cells with different coverage systems, Light Green Roof (LGR and ceramic roof by analyzing internal surface temperatures (IST in the ceiling and dry bulb temperatures (DBT. The objective was to evaluate the spatial distribution of temperatures in buildings according to spatial and temporal Dynamic Climatology approaches. An experimental, typical day for heat conditions was determined. The data of the main climatic variables provided by an automatic weather station and temperatures inside the test cells were collected using thermocouples installed such that the entire space is included. The results led to the conclusion that the LGR has a balanced IST and DBT spatial distribution compared with ceramic roofs. Nevertheless, the analysis of the thermal performance is only one of the variables that must be considered when developing a construction proposal that is adapted to the context. The manner in which the thermocouples were placed inside the test cells also showed the importance of specifying the location of the sensors in experimental studies on the behavior and thermal performance of buildings.

  5. Comparison of thermal performance between test cells with different coverage systems for experimental typical day of heat in Brazilian Southeastern

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Tiberio Cardoso; Francisco Vecchia

    2014-01-01

    This article shows experimentally the thermal performance of two test cells with different coverage systems, Light Green Roof (LGR) and ceramic roof by analyzing internal surface temperatures (IST) in the ceiling and dry bulb temperatures (DBT). The objective was to evaluate the spatial distribution of temperatures in buildings according to spatial and temporal Dynamic Climatology approaches. An experimental, typical day for heat conditions was determined. The data of the main climatic variab...

  6. The paraty artisanal fishery (southeastern Brazilian coast: ethnoecology and management of a social-ecological system (SES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begossi Alpina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study intends to give recommendations to the management of Paraty fishery in Brazil through an interplay of local and scientific knowledge. In particular, the objectives are the following: 1 to describe the Paraty fishery; 2 to compare the fishermen’s local ecological knowledge with recorded fish landings and previous studies in Paraty; 3 to combine the data on local fishing and on local/Caiçara livelihoods with the SES (social-ecological systems Model. The methods include a systematic survey of fishing in Tarituba and Praia Grande, which are located in the northern end and the central part of the Paraty municipality, respectively. For four days each month, systematic data on catches at landing points were collected, as well as macroscopic gonad analysis data for the fishes Centropomus parallelus and C. undecimalis (snook, robalo, Epinephelus marginatus (grouper, garoupa, Scomberomorus cavalla (King mackerel, cavala, and Lutjanus synagris (Lane snapper, vermelho. Spring and summer are important seasons during which some species reproduce, and the integration of fishing periods for some target species could assist in fishing management through the use of closed seasons. Fishermen could obtain complementary earnings from tourism and from the “defeso system” (closed season including a salary payment to conserve fishing stocks. The SES model facilitates an understanding of the historical context of fishing, its economic importance for local livelihoods, the constraints from conservation measures that affect fishermen, and the management processes that already exist, such as the defeso. If used to integrate fishing with complementary activities (tourism, such a system could improve the responsibility of fishermen regarding the conservation of fish stocks.

  7. Coastal Virginia to Coastal North Carolina RGB Aerial Photography: Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Integrated Ocean and Coastal Mapping Product (IOCM). The images were acquired from a nominal altitude of 7,500 feet above ground level (AGL), using an Applanix...

  8. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  9. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  10. Rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uieda Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first recorded case of rabies in the insectivorous bat Tadarida brasiliensis in the State of S. Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. The infected bat was found in the afternoon while hanging on the internal wall of an urban building. This observation reinforces the notion as to the caution one must exercise regarding bats found in unusual situations.

  11. Social Compact in Electricity Privatization in Southeastern Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Darendeliler, Zeynep; Aydin, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    About 70 percent of electricity users in Southeastern Turkey are not used to paying for electricity, partially due to the protracted situation of conflict and lack of trust between citizens and the government in the region. Historic tension throughout the 1990s caused an inability for the government to invest in electricity infrastructure and has resulted in low service quality. A large po...

  12. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  13. Parmotrema hydrium, a new species of Parmeliaceae in southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Michel Navarro Benatti; Maria Gernert; Imke Schmitt

    2013-01-01

    Parmotrema hydrium is a new lichen species discovered during a survey of Parmeliaceae in the Cantareira mountain range of southeastern Brazil. In its medullary chemistry, the species contains several fatty acids and other substances, including small amounts of atranorin, typically restricted to the soralia and young lobes.

  14. Parmotrema hydrium, a new species of Parmeliaceae in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Navarro Benatti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Parmotrema hydrium is a new lichen species discovered during a survey of Parmeliaceae in the Cantareira mountain range of southeastern Brazil. In its medullary chemistry, the species contains several fatty acids and other substances, including small amounts of atranorin, typically restricted to the soralia and young lobes.

  15. Effects of organophosphorus insecticides on sage grouse in southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blus, L.J.; Staley, C.S.; Henny, C.J.; Pendleton, G.W.; Craig, T.H.; Craig, E.H.; Halford, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Unverified reports indicated die-offs of sage grouse have occurred since the 1970s in southeastern Idaho. Some verification that organophosphorus insecticides were involved was obtained in 1981 and 1983. A radio telemetry study indicated that dimethoate was responsible for most mortality. Methamidophos also acounted for mortality. Sage grouse populations may be adversely affected by organophosphorus insecticides.

  16. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  17. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  18. Oral health conditions among the elderly in Southeastern São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael da Silveira Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to asses oral health conditions in a population aged 60 years and over living in Botucatu, Southeastern Brazil. A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out using a random sample (N=372 of the urban population aged 60 years and over from the city of Botucatu, in 2005. World Health Organization criteria and codes for oral health epidemiological surveys were used. Re-examination was carried out in 10% of individuals aiming to evaluate intra-examiner agreement. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA, as applicable. Also, the t-test was used in the absence of homoscedasticity. Fisher's exact test was used for situations where the categories with less than five units were observed. Adjusted residuals and multiple-comparison analysis were conducted to identify associations between variable categories and subgroups. The intra-examiner agreement was 98% and Kappa statistics result was 0.95. Loss component represented 90.68% of DMF-T index, which was 29.85. The prevalence of edentulism was 63.17%. Upper and lower dentures were found in 80% and 58% respectively, with complete denture as the most commonly used. In those studied, 15% required upper and 38% lower dentures. There was more need for complete denture in both jaws. Approximately 20% had soft tissue alterations. For periodontal conditions, most sextants were excluded (81.81%. Periodontal pockets (4 - 5 mm were seen in 11.29% of the examined individuals. The oral health status of the elderly population in Botucatu is poor, as well as in other Brazilian cities. The results of this study may help planning collective health actions, giving an accurate description of the oral problems among the elderly.

  19. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I. [U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    2001-11-01

    approach, potential repository sites are evaluated using a three-dimensional, variable-density flow and solute transport model of southeastern Sweden under present interglacial conditions. The analysis considers four structural models of the bedrock that represent the possible range of regional anisotropy in permeability. Results indicate that potential repository sites at Hultsfred and another comparison site have travel times ten times or longer than sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn, and at worst, have travel times equivalent to the latter sites. Potential repository sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn have flow paths of less than 3 kilometers (lower values cannot be resolved by the current model), while the Hultsfred and comparison sites have path lengths ranging from 25 kilometers to 130 kilometers, and much greater flow path volumes. Given the uncertainties in bedrock structure, thus, it is more likely that the Hultsfred site will provide greater flow path, travel time, and flow path volume than the coastal Simpevarp and Oskarshamn sites, and may therefore be preferable in terms of the hydrogeologic safety margin. Additionally, there are other repository locations in southeastern Sweden, such as the comparison site, that improve substantially on the Hultsfred site. Three techniques are introduced for illuminating important aspects of the three-dimensional flow field in a numerical model. (1) A technique for tracing the flow paths and flow path volume from potential repository sites in a three-dimensional variable-density ground-water model involves a solute transport simulation that fills the flow tube passing through the repository with a non-zero concentration. (2) Recharge areas may be mapped in the model by means of a transport simulation that delineates where inflow occurs to the top surface of the model. (3) Travel times may be determined in a 'return-flow time' transport simulation, in which the flow field is reversed and the solute undergoes a zero

  20. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    sites are evaluated using a three-dimensional, variable-density flow and solute transport model of southeastern Sweden under present interglacial conditions. The analysis considers four structural models of the bedrock that represent the possible range of regional anisotropy in permeability. Results indicate that potential repository sites at Hultsfred and another comparison site have travel times ten times or longer than sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn, and at worst, have travel times equivalent to the latter sites. Potential repository sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn have flow paths of less than 3 kilometers (lower values cannot be resolved by the current model), while the Hultsfred and comparison sites have path lengths ranging from 25 kilometers to 130 kilometers, and much greater flow path volumes. Given the uncertainties in bedrock structure, thus, it is more likely that the Hultsfred site will provide greater flow path, travel time, and flow path volume than the coastal Simpevarp and Oskarshamn sites, and may therefore be preferable in terms of the hydrogeologic safety margin. Additionally, there are other repository locations in southeastern Sweden, such as the comparison site, that improve substantially on the Hultsfred site. Three techniques are introduced for illuminating important aspects of the three-dimensional flow field in a numerical model. (1) A technique for tracing the flow paths and flow path volume from potential repository sites in a three-dimensional variable-density ground-water model involves a solute transport simulation that fills the flow tube passing through the repository with a non-zero concentration. (2) Recharge areas may be mapped in the model by means of a transport simulation that delineates where inflow occurs to the top surface of the model. (3) Travel times may be determined in a 'return-flow time' transport simulation, in which the flow field is reversed and the solute undergoes a zero-order production rate of one per year

  1. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  2. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  3. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  4. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  5. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  6. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fabio; Salles, João; Hamdy, Osama; Coutinho, Walmir; Baptista, Deise Regina; Benchimol, Alexander; Marchetti, Albert; Hegazi, Refaat A; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy) and regular physical activity (structured exercise) represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA) is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  7. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  8. Logistics problems in soybeans Brazilian exportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heráclito Lopes Jaguaribe Pontes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available With the globalization process, the world-wide nations are having an increase of the international trade. Brazil has, each time more, used the agribusiness as a strategy of insertion in the world-wide economy. The exportations of Brazilian agricultural productscome playing an important paper in the supplying revenues and increase of the domestic income, but a visible problem of the agribusiness for exportation is related to logistic. In theworld-wide marketplace, Brazil presents comparative advantages in the production of agricultural products in relation to the other world-wide producers, but it loses in logistic costs. The importance of this work is in characterizing the logistic problems of the Brazilian exportation of one of the most important commodities national, the soybeans. The soybeans is the agricultural product that more generates volume of exportation for Brazil, demanding sufficiently of the logistic structure of the country. For accomplishment of this work, it was used an general bibliographical research, where if it carried through a detailed survey of themain problems, causes, costs and solutions for the flowing of the soybeans in Brazilian for exportation. From the development of this work, it was perceived that the challenges of the logistic of the soybeans are many and that the resolution of these problems will increase the Brazilian international competitiveness, increasing the trustworthiness in the delivery times and reducing the costs of the inefficiencies in the exportation process.

  9. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  10. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  11. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  12. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  13. Miocene freshwater Mollusca from western Brazilian Amazonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, F.P.; Ranzi, A.; Räsänen, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Thirteen species of fossil molluscs are reported from the Solimões Formation of western Brazilian Amazonia. Based on mammalian chronology of the Solimões Formation and radiometric ages reported from coeval deposits in adjacent Peru, the age of the fauna is established as Late Miocene. The fauna incl

  14. Lizards of Brazilian Amazonia (Reptilia: Squamata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avila-Pires, T.C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Eighty-nine species of lizards, six of which polytypic (forming a total of 97 taxa), are presently known from Brazilian Amazonia. This number includes six species and one subspecies described as new to science in this paper: Stenocercus fimbriatus, Lepidoblepharis hoogmoedi, Leposoma osvaldoi, L. sn

  15. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  16. The Brazilian business and growth cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chauvet Marcelle

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses several produceres to date and analyse the Brazilian business and growth cycles. In particular, a Markov switching model is fitted to quarterly and annual real production data. The smoothed probabilities of the Markov states are used as predictive rules to define different phases of cyclical fluctuations of real Brazilian production. The results are compared with different non-parametric rules. All methods implemented yield similar dating and reveal asymmetries across the different states of the Brazilian business and growth cycles, in which slowdowns and recessions are short and abrupt, while high growth phases and expansions are longer and less steep. The resulting dating of the Brazilian economic cycles can be used as a reference point for construction and evaluation of the predictive performance of coincident, leading, or lagging indicators of economic activity. In addition, the filtered probabilities obtained from the Markov switching model allow early recognition of the transition to a new business cycle phase, wich can be used, for example, for evaluation of the adequate strength and timing of countercyclical policies, for reassessment of projected sales or profits by businesses and investors, or for monitoring of inflation pressures.

  17. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  18. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  19. Proportional Mortality due to Heart Failure and Ischemic Heart Diseases in the Brazilian Regions from 2004 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaui, Eduardo Nagib; Klein, Carlos Henrique; de Oliveira, Glaucia Maria Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Background: Heart failure (HF) and ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are important causes of death in Brazil. Objective: To assess proportional mortality (PM) due to HF and IHD as underlying causes stratified by sex and age groups in the Brazilian geoeconomic regions from 2004 to 2011. Methods: Data from death certificates were obtained in the DATASUS site under the following International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems codes, 10th Revision: 1) from chapter IX: I20 to I24 for acute IHD, I25 for chronic IHD, and I50 for HF; and 2) from chapter XVIII, for ill-defined causes (IDC). Results: Proportional mortality due to HF increased with age in both sexes and all regions, the highest percentages being found among elderly women. Among men, the highest percentages were observed in the West-Central region up to the ninth decade, but, among the eldest individuals, the highest percentages were identified in the Southern region. Among women, the regions did not differ up to the age group of 70-79 years, although the West-Central region took the lead from 50 to 79 years; however, from the age of 80 years on, the Southern region showed the highest PM due to HF. Proportional mortality due to acute IHD in all Brazilian regions and in both sexes increased up to the age group of 60-69 years, from which it decreased. Among men, the Southeastern region had the highest percentages in the age group of 50-59 years, while women had lower PM due to acute IHD than men in all regions. In both sexes, PM due to chronic IHD increased with age in the Southern and Southeastern regions, which did not happen in the others, while the Southern region had the highest rate of all regions for all age groups. Conclusions: Regional differences were more prominent at more advanced ages, especially when deaths due to IDC were excluded. PMID:27533259

  20. Metals in coastal zooplanktons - A coastal living resource hazard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paimpillil, J.S.; Joseph, T.; Rejomon, G.; Gerson, V.J.

    Hazards", Spl. Vol. of IGC O.P. Varma, G.V. Rajamanickam & Eugene Wilson (eds.), Ind. Geol. Cong., 2010, pp. 199-207. 16 Metals in Coastal Zooplanktons - A Coastal Living Resource Hazard J.S. Paimpillil 1 , J. Thresiamma 2 , Rejomon George 2 & Vijay... too simplistic. The role of trace metals, such as iron or zinc in the growth of algae and zooplankton need to be looked into; after all, most land-based life forms, including humans, cannot survive without such metals in their diet. The most common...

  1. A new species of Tyrannoseira (Collembola: Entomobryidae: Seirini from the Brazilian coastal region

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    Bruno Cavalcante Bellini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Tyrannoseira Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011 (Entomobryidae is described and illustrated. Specimens of T. diabolica sp. nov. were collected in Barreira do Inferno, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. This is the fourth described species in the genus. All males of Tyrannoseira have the femora of the first pair of legs enlarged and slender tibiotarsi, both bearing several spine-like setae. Probably the closest species to T. diabolica sp. nov. is T. sex Bellini & Zeppelini, 2011. They share many similarities in their color pattern and dorsal chaetotaxy.

  2. Bacterioplankton abundance, biomass and production in a Brazilian coastal lagoon and in two German lakes

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    FURTADO ANDRÉ L. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The bacterioplanktonic abundance, biomass, and production within a tropical lagoon (Cabiúnas, Brazil and two temperate lakes (Stechlin and Dagow, Germany were compared. Bacterial abundance and production were significantly different among the three water bodies. The lowest bacterial production ( 0.8mug C l-1 d-1 was observed in the tropical Cabiúnas Lagoon despite its higher mean temperature and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Highest bacterioplankton abundance ( 2.6 x 10(9 cells l-1 and production ( 68.5mug C l-1 d-1 were measured in eutrophic Lake Dagow. In oligotrophic Lake Stechlin, the lowest bacterial biomass ( 48.05mug C l-1 was observed because of lower bacterial biovolume ( 0.248mum³ and lower bacterial abundance. Bacterial populations in the temperate lakes show higher activity (production/biomass ratio than in the tropical lagoon. The meaning of isotopic dilution and leucine incorporation by non-bacterial micro-organisms were evaluated in the oligotrophic temperate system. Leucine uptake by non-bacterial micro-organisms did not have significant influence on bacterial production.

  3. Effect of distance from sea on chloride aggressiveness in concrete structures in brazilian coastal site

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    Meira, G. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The distance of concrete structures from the sea is an important aspect when studying the deleterious effect of airborne salinity in marine environment zone. It permits to know how the durability of structures is affected by increasing the distance from the sea. This paper presents results of an experimental work on assessing the effect of the distance from sea on chloride aggressiveness, considering both the airborne salinity and chloride content in concrete specimens located at different distances from sea. This study has been carried out at Joao Pessoa, capital of the State of Paraiba, located in the northeast part of Brazil. The results indicated a drastic reduction of chloride deposition from marine aerosol, especially along the first 200 meters from the sea. Similar behavior was observed in the concrete specimens, even though the reduction has been less pronounced. Although more research is necessary, the differences in the rates of chloride decrease may be explained by different reasons, including the different chloride concentration in air and on concrete surface, the phenomena related to the skin effect and surface washing by rain.

    La influencia de la distancia al mar es un tema clave en el estudio de la agresividad salina en zona de atmósfera marina, ya que permite conocer cómo afecta a la durabilidad de las construcciones cuando aumenta la distancia al mar. Este trabajo presenta resultados de un estudio experimental que valora la situación a través de la medida del depósito de cloruros de la niebla salina y en probetas de hormigón expuestas a distintas distancias desde el mar en la ciudad de Joâo Pessoa, ubicada en la costa noreste de Brasil. Los resultados indican una importante disminución del depósito de cloruros de la niebla salina a medida que se aumenta la distancia al mar, especialmente en los primeros doscientos metros. La concentración de cloruros en el hormigón indica un comportamiento semejante. Sin embargo, la disminución de la concentración de cloruros con la distancia ocurre de forma más suave que en la niebla. A pesar de la necesidad de más investigación, aspectos como la relación entre los cloruros de la niebla y los que se fijan en la superficie del hormigón, los fenómenos que ocurren en el transporte de los cloruros en el hormigón, el efecto del lavado superficial y el efecto piel del hormigón pueden justificar esas diferencias.

  4. Microbial diversity of a Brazilian coastal region influenced by an upwelling system and anthropogenic activity.

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    Juliano C Cury

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Upwelling systems are characterised by an intense primary biomass production in the surface (warmest water after the outcrop of the bottom (coldest water, which is rich in nutrients. Although it is known that the microbial assemblage plays an important role in the food chain of marine systems and that the upwelling systems that occur in southwest Brazil drive the complex dynamics of the food chain, little is known about the microbial composition present in this region. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We carried out a molecular survey based on SSU rRNA gene from the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life present in a tropical upwelling region (Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The aim was to analyse the horizontal and vertical variations of the microbial composition in two geographically close areas influenced by anthropogenic activity (sewage disposal/port activity and upwelling phenomena, respectively. A lower estimated diversity of microorganisms of the three domains of the phylogenetic tree of life was found in the water of the area influenced by anthropogenic activity compared to the area influenced by upwelling phenomena. We observed a heterogenic distribution of the relative abundance of taxonomic groups, especially in the Archaea and Eukarya domains. The bacterial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla, whereas the microeukaryotic community was dominated by Metazoa, Fungi, Alveolata and Stramenopile. The estimated archaeal diversity was the lowest of the three domains and was dominated by uncharacterised marine Crenarchaeota that were most closely related to Marine Group I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variety of conditions and the presence of different microbial assemblages indicated that the area of Arraial do Cabo can be used as a model for detailed studies that contemplate the correlation between pollution-indicating parameters and the depletion of microbial diversity in areas close to anthropogenic activity; functional roles and geochemical processes; phylogeny of the uncharacterised diversity; and seasonal variations of the microbial assemblages.

  5. Association of pteridophyte species in two fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in the Brazilian Northeast

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    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate fern flora similarity and fern species relationships in the study areas, in terms of their substrates, habitat types, and life forms. The study was conducted in the Água Azul forest fragment, municipality of Timbaúba, Pernambuco, and the Maria Maior forest fragment, municipality of São José da Laje, Alagoas. The Jaccard similarity index was used for cluster analysis. The 112 species that occur in the two areas were used for numerical analysis. The floristic similarity was great (J=43.75%, principally due to similarities in the two areas vegetational types, as was expected due to their geographic proximity to one another and their similar climatic conditions. Five groups of associated species were determined for the Água Azul fragment and six groups for the Maria Maior fragment. In general, the ecological factors that determined fern species associations were habitat and type of substrate.

  6. Environmental and subtidal fish assemblage relationships in two different brazilian coastal estuaries

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    Ana Lúcia Vendel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The general structure and organization of the shallow water (Estrutura e organização das assembléias de peixes de águas rasas (<1,5 m foram estudadas em dois ecossistemas sul-brasileiros sob influências marinhas ou continentais, uma laguna e uma baía. Dados abióticos foram obtidos para definir a hidrologia dos locais, e descritores bióticos foram avaliados para caracterizar a estrutura das assembléias. Transparência, salinidade e matéria orgânica melhor distinguem os locais. Foram capturadas 69 espécies distribuídas em três guildas ecológicas. Descritores como densidade, diversidade e equitabilidade foram diferentes em cada local. Hidrodinamismo e geomorfologia determinaram a estrutura e a organização das assembléias de peixes nestas águas rasas. Observou-se que variações nos atributos hidrológicos gerados por aportes marinhos ou continentais podem alterar mais rapidamente, e em freqüências mais regulares, as condições na lagoa do que aquelas na baía.

  7. Natural regeneration in a quaternary coastal plain in southern Brazilian Atlantic Rain forest

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    Cleber Ibraim Salimon

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Composition, structure and dynamics of an eight year old secondary forest was studied at Reserva Volta Velha (26°04'S; 48°38'W, southern Brazil. A 0.72ha plot was divided into 36 subplots of 20X10m, where all trees/shrubs greater than 1m tall were identified, measured (height/diameter and evaluated (successional status. The results were: (1 95 species collected within 68 genera and 44 families; the most species rich families were Myrtaceae and Asteraceae with 8 species each; (2 the most important species (considering biomass and density were Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella and Ternstroemia brasiliensis; (3 the most similar area was a fallow abandoned 35 years ago; (4 the higher species diversity were found in border subplots, indicating that most of the species do not tolerate extreme conditions in the center of the opening, and are colonizing the area through the borders.A maior parte das áreas florestais no domínio da Floresta Atlântica se encontra degradada devido a diferentes pressões antrópicas. No intuito de ampliar os conhecimentos sobre relictos de florestas nativas intactas, e também de áreas abandonadas para se obter dados sobre os processos naturais de regeneração, foi realizado um estudo da composição florística, estrutura e dinâmica de uma comunidade vegetal em estágio seral inicial de 8 anos. em Floresta Ombrófila Densa das Terras Baixas, na Reserva Volta Velha, Itapoa-SC, Brasil. Foram utilizados os métodos usuais de coleta, herborização e identificação das espécies encontradas, e a análise estrutural foi feita utilizando-se 36 parcelas retangulares de 20 X 10m, sendo incluídas todas as plantas arbustivo/arbóreas com no mínimo 1 metro de altura. Os resultados obtidos foram os seguintes: 1- Foram encontradas 96 espécies, dentro de 68 gêneros e 44 famílias; as famílias com maior número de espécies foram Myrtaceae e Asteraceae com 8 espécies cada, e o gênero mais representado foi Ilex, com 4 espécies; 2- As espécies mais importantes (parâmetros fitossociológicos no local foram Psidium cattleianum, Eupatorium casarettoi, Ocotea pulchella e Ternstroemia brasiliensis; 4- A área mais similar à do presente estudo foi uma área vizinha abandonada há 35 anos; áreas de restinga também demostraram ser relativamente semelhantes; 5- O grupo ecológico com maior número de espécies foi o de oportunistas (especialistas de pequenas clareiras, e houve um maior número de espécies nas parcelas de borda, mostrando que a maior parte das espécies não toleram as condições extremas do centro da clareira. e sua colonização se dá via bordas.

  8. Microplastic contamination in natural mussel beds from a Brazilian urbanized coastal region: Rapid evaluation through bioassessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M F M; Ascer, L G; Custódio, M R; Moreira, F T; Turra, A

    2016-05-15

    Microplastic pollution (particles microplastic pollution on Santos estuary, the most urbanized area of the coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. A simple and rapid assessment showed that 75% of sampled mussels had ingested microplastics, an issue of human and environmental concern. All sampling points had contaminated mussels and this contamination had no clear pattern of distribution along the estuary. This was the first time that microplastic bioavailability was assessed in nature for the southern hemisphere and that wild P. perna was found contaminated with this pollutant. This is an important issue that should be better assessed due to an increase in seafood consumption and culture in Brazil and worldwide. PMID:26980138

  9. Nomenclatural issues in ornithology: the incredible controversy on the identity of a long overlooked Brazilian bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemésio, André; Rasmussen, Claus; Aguiar, Alexandre P; Pombal, José P; Dubois, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The identity of Scytalopus speluncae (Ménétriés, 1835) (Aves: Passeriformes: Rhinocryptidae), a tapaculo from southeastern Brazil, has been the matter of debate during the last eight years. A group of ornithologists considers that the nomen Scytalopus speluncae should be attributed to a species endemic to coastal mountains of southeastern Brazil, whereas another group considers it a species from the drier environments of another mountain belt in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. Both research groups disagree on the identity of the still extant but damaged alleged holotype, deposited at the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, on the identity of the holotype specimen illustration from a plate accompanying the species description, and even on the type locality. To further complicate this matter of identity, members of each research group, based on their own interpretations of the identity of Scytalopus speluncae, described and named again the two species with different nomina, erecting at least one unnecessary nomen. After almost ten years of a debate, there is still no consensus on the identity of the species, and there are now at least three available nomina for apparently only two distinct biological species. As taxonomists belonging to fields of zoology other than ornithology, and realizing the above situation is mainly a nomenclatural one, we herein present a summary of the contentious issue, try to distinguish what seems to be facts and speculation and based on these we consider the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (the Code) whenever appropriate, in the hope of bringing some objectivity to the debate. We conclude that no unequivocal evidence was presented to decide to which species the type specimen belongs solely based on its morphological characters, since the holotype presents considerable damage. On the other hand, the original designation of the type locality by Ménétriés (1835) as S

  10. Late Holocene paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic evolution at Elaiussa Sebaste archeological area (South-Eastern Turkey): preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Romana; Bernasconi, Maria Pia; Colizza, Ester; Di Rita, Federico; Equini Schneider, Eugenia; Montenegro, Maria Eugenia; Pugliese, Nevio

    2013-04-01

    Geological disciplines are increasingly applied to archaeological research. Their potentialities are able to cover numerous fields of research, since they can become very interesting tools to define the ancient environments, the origin of the human settlements and the natural and anthropic processes which occurred through the evolution of the territory. Elaiussa Sebaste (Mersin region, South-Eastern coast of the Turkey), which was an important coastal town from the II century BC to VII century AD, may represent a noteworthy field of application of geological disciplines. This site was one of the main trading harbours of the Mediterranean (from the Augustan to the Byzantine era) growing in the Augustan period and maintaining its prestige until the late Empire and the Byzantine era. Actually it was the intersection of the most important shipping and land routes among Syria, Egypt and the Anatolian peninsula. The evolution of the coastal environment around this town has been continuously modified by men along its history. The most evident modification occurred North and South the promontory of Elaiussa-Sebaste bay, i.e. the construction of two harbours, which have been subsequently buried by not well defined events. The definition of the geological processes controlling the evolution of the coastal area during the last 3000 years, should become essential to reconstruct the succession of the palaeoenvironments of Elaiussa Sebaste, including the decline of the harbours. With regard to this topic, the geomorphologic analysis reveals the complex interactions among tectonics, erosion and sedimentation in this coastal area in both, emerged and in ancient times submerged settings facing the archaeological site. During the summer 2012, a geological survey allowed us to drill nine boreholes along the land-to-sea transects in both harbours. Preliminary observations indicate the stratigraphic evolution from restricted to open marine coastal environments. Sedimentology

  11. A popular and potentially sustainable fishery resource under pressure–extinction risk and conservation of Brazilian Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes

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    Ning Labbish Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croakers (Sciaenidae are major fishery resource in Brazil; constituting 22% of marine and 9% of freshwater fishery landings. Croakers are subject to heavy fishing pressure throughout Brazil, but habitat alteration is also an important threat to regional populations. In this regional Sciaenidae assessment, each species was analyzed for relative risk of extinction, including the identification and quantification of the impact of major threats and existing conservation measures, based on application of the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Of the 52 species of Sciaenid fishes (34 marine and 18 freshwater present in Brazilian waters, the majority are at low risk of extinction, with 10 species classified as Data Deficient (DD and 36 as Least Concern (LC. However the Southern black drum (Pogonias cromis, listed as Endangered (EN is the most threatened species in the region, while three other species are classified as Near Threatened (NT. A large portion of Brazilian croakers is landed by small-scale artisanal fisheries, which are scattered along coastal and riverine communities. However, our assessments reveal that available fishery landing statistics may have greatly underestimated the artisanal fishery production and by-catch of Sciaenids. We recommend establishing, with adequate enforcement, coastal and riverine protected areas as well as strategic fishing seasons to improve and maintain the conservation status of Sciaenids and sustainable Sciaenid fisheries.

  12. Space-time variability of oceanic fronts and currents in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, Sergey; Kostianoy, Andrey; Sirota, Alexander

    The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason-1 altimetry data (sea level anomalies (SLA) charts) for 1992- 2006, as well as corresponding charts of sea surface dynamic heights, constructed by the superposition of SLA distributions over the climatic dynamic topography, calculated from mean temperature and salinity data of WOA-1998 Atlas relative to 1000 m depth and combined mean dynamic topography RIO-03, were used to study main oceanic currents and fronts in the region 50-10° S, 160-70° W. Spatial, seasonal and interannual variability of the South Pacific Current has been investigated basing on the charts of dynamic heights gradients. The analysis allowed to distinguish zones with different degree of the South Pacific Current position variability, being minimal at 99° W, where the current was the most intense. Westward of 105° W the South Pacific Current may have bimodal structure and r.m.s. of its position may reach 3° of latitude. Frequency analysis showed that this is accompanied by a pronounced 350 days peak in its temporal variability. Eastward of 105° W there is no predominance in temporal variability of the current. Sea surface temperature (SST) and SST gradient maps were used to study thermal regime and main oceanic fronts (Subtropical Front and coastal upwelling front) in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The analysis of the SST spatial and temporal variability was based on the daily and monthly satellite Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) Highresolution SST Pilot Project (GHRSST-PP) data for 1992-2006. A comparison of the satellite altimetry and radiometry data with field measurements onboard R/V "Atlantida" (AtlantNIRO, Russia) during the expedition in November-December 2002 showed a good correspondence. The combined analysis of the pelagic fish distribution patterns in the Southeastern Pacific Ocean, based on the in-situ acoustic surveys, and of mesoscale structure of the South Pacific Current revealed a clear correlation of the location of the most

  13. Geochronologic evidence for a possible MIS-11 emergent barrier/beach-ridge in southeastern Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markewich, H. W.; Pavich, M. J.; Schultz, A. P.; Mahan, S. A.; Aleman-Gonzalez, W. B.; Bierman, P. R.

    2013-01-01

    ˜450 ka to >1 Ma. The age and geomorphic data for Georgia and South Carolina possibly suggest the presence of MIS-11 (˜420-360 ka) shoreline deposits between 15 m and 28 m above present sea level in the Southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain.

  14. Controls on water column chemistry of the southern Brazilian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niencheski, L. F.; Windom, H. L.; Moore, W. S.

    2014-10-01

    Chemistry of Southern Brazilian Continental Shelf (SBS) waters, between 28.5°S and 34°S, is evaluated in relation to the mixing of thermohaline defined water masses and concomitant water column processes. Data on inorganic nutrient and trace metal (Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, U, V and Zn) concentrations and radium isotopic activities from previous reports and recent analyses are presented and discussed with the aim of providing a state of knowledge on processes governing their sources, distribution, transport and fate on the SBS. Nutrients concentrations/distributions on the shelf are controlled mainly by Tropical Water/Subtropical Shelf Water, seasonally modified as a result of summer upwelling in the northern shelf region, and by Plata Plume Water, which is seasonally modified by discharges of submarine groundwater (SGD), the Patos Lagoon and by the greater northern penetration of the Rio de la Plata plume during winter. Radium-226 activity varies little across the shelf. Radium-228 activity, associated dominantly with SGD, decreases conservatively, with respect to salinity, across shelf transects, converging on a typical ocean endmember activity. The low salinity endmember activity, however, depends on the location of the shelf transect controlled by the variability of coastal SGD. Because SGD is so important to the coastal shelf region, 228Ra activity appears to provide a better tracer of water mass interactions than thermohaline characteristics. Using metal-228Ra relationships, sources, transport and fate of trace metals are better constrained enabling the following conclusion: The major source of dissolved Co, Mn and Fe to the shelf is SGD, along the coastal Holocene barrier system, followed by removal as coastal water mixes across the shelf. Cu and Si concentrations are explained as conservative mixtures of three endmembers: SGD, surface freshwater discharge and oceanic. Cd and Zn are largely explained similarly. Vanadium is enriched in coastal waters during

  15. The petroleum habitat in the post-rift sequences in the Brazilian sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Figueiredo, A.M.F.D.; Fernandes, G.J.F.; Guimaraes, P.T.M. (Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil))

    1991-03-01

    The post-rift sedimentary strata of the Brazilian coastal basins are made of two main sequences: the evaporite and carbonatic Albian-Aptian sequence, and the open-marine Late Albian to Recent sequence, both related to the opening of the South Atlantic Ocean. More than 40 billion barrels of oil-equivalent in place has been found in these sequences, mostly in siliciclastic reservoirs above and below the Aptian salt beds. The productive basins are Campos, Espirito Santo, Sergipe-Alagoas, Potiguar, Ceara, and Santos, but the first one is responsible for more than 60% of the original oil in place discovered in these basins. The hydrocarbon origin, migration, and accumulation models in these sequences are discussed and exemplified by some giant oil fields of Campos and Sergipe-Alagoas basins, where oil is trapped in Aptian conglomerates, Albian carbonates, and Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary turbidite sandstones. The cumulative production in these sequences reaches 958.6 million barrels and the proved exploitable reserve amounts reach 2.7 billion barrels of oil-equivalent. Petrobras' exploratory forecast indicates that the post-rift sequences are the most prolific ones in the Brazilian marginal basins. The oil-equivalent that is expected to be discovered, particularly in deep water areas, where giant oil fields (as the Marlim field) have been found, exceeds the amount that has been discovered until now.

  16. Coastal Analysis Submission for Pierce County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Final Draft Guidelines for Coastal Flood Hazard Analysis and Mapping for the...

  17. 2010 Coastal Georgia Elevation Project Lidar Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between January and March 2010, lidar data was collected in southeast/coastal Georgia under a multi-agency partnership between the Coastal Georgia Regional...

  18. Overland Coastal Analysis for Somerset Co. MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  19. Introduction to Coastal Engineering and Breakwaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Collegedictaat f11a and f11b. Lecture notes, short waves, waves near shoreline, coastal formation, sediment transport by waves, coastal protection, delta coasts, muddy coasts, tidal rivers, density currents, breakwater design.

  20. COASTAL Analysis Submission for Middlesex County, CT

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping (April 2003) and Atlantic Ocean...

  1. COASTAL STUDY, ESSEX COUNTY,MASSACHUSETTS USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  2. COASTAL STUDY, KITSAP COUNTY,WASHINGTON USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal analysis data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  3. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  4. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  5. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient level of safety and to maintain the various functions of beach and dune areas. As a criterion for coastal erosion the movement of the "coastline" is used. In this paper the definition of coastline is ...

  6. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  7. Attributing the effects of climate on phenology change suggests high sensitivity in coastal zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyednasrollah, B.; Clark, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of climate change on spring phenology depends on many variables that cannot be separated using current models. Phenology can influence carbon sequestration, plant nutrition, forest health, and species distributions. Leaf phenology is sensitive to changes of environmental factors, including climate, species composition, latitude, and solar radiation. The many variables and their interactions frustrate efforts to attribute variation to climate change. We developed a Bayesian framework to quantify the influence of environment on the speed of forest green-up. This study presents a state-space hierarchical model to infer and predict change in forest greenness over time using satellite observations and ground measurements. The framework accommodates both observation and process errors and it allows for main effects of variables and their interactions. We used daily spaceborne remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify temporal variability in the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) along a habitat gradient in the Southeastern United States. The ground measurements of meteorological parameters are obtained from study sites located in the Appalachian Mountains, the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain between years 2000 and 2015. Results suggest that warming accelerates spring green-up in the Coastal Plain to a greater degree than in the Piedmont and Appalachian. In other words, regardless of variation in the timing of spring onset, the rate of greenness in non-coastal zones decreases with increasing temperature and hence with time over the spring transitional period. However, in coastal zones, as air temperature increases, leaf expansion becomes faster. This may indicate relative vulnerability to warming in non-coastal regions where moisture could be a limiting factor, whereas high temperatures in regions close to the coast enhance forest physiological activities. Model predictions agree with the remotely

  8. Investigating alpha-globin structural variants: a retrospective review of 135,000 Brazilian individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Miyuki Kimura

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brazil has a multiethnic population with a high diversity of hemoglobinopathies. While screenings for beta-globin mutations are far more common, alterations affecting alpha-globin genes are usually more silent and less well known. The aim of this study was to describe the results of a screening program for alpha-globin gene mutations in a representative sample of the Southeastern Brazilian population. Methods: A total of 135,000 individuals, including patients with clinical suspicion of hemoglobinopathies and their family members, randomly chosen individuals submitted to blood tests and blood donors who were abnormal hemoglobin carriers were analyzed. The variants were screened by alkaline and acid electrophoreses, isoelectric focusing and cation-exchange high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and the abnormal chains were investigated by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC. Mutations were identified by molecular analyses, and the oxygen affinity, heme-heme cooperativity and Bohr effect of the variants were evaluated by functional tests. Results: Four new and 22 rare variants were detected in 98 families. Some of these variants were found in co-inheritance with other hemoglobinopathies. Of the rare hemoglobins, Hasharon, Stanleyville II and J-Rovigo were the most common, the first two being S-like and associated with alpha-thalassemia. Conclusion: The variability of alpha-globin alterations reflects the high degree of racial miscegenation and an intense internal migratory flow between different Brazilian regions. This diversity highlights the importance of programs for diagnosing hemoglobinopathies and preventing combinations that may lead to important clinical manifestations in multiethnic populations.

  9. Introduction to the Special Issue: Coastal GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Nyerges

    2014-01-01

    This special issue of the ISPRS International Journal of Geographic Information about “Coastal GIS” is motivated by many circumstances. More than one-half of the world’s human population lives in coastal areas (within 200 kilometers of coast) as of 2000 [1]. The trend toward coastal habitation is expected to continue in the US with the total being 75 percent by 2025, meaning that coastal human–environment interactions will likely increase and intensify [2]. Geographic information systems (GIS...

  10. Interactive knowledge development in coastal projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seijger, C.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    A sustainable future of the coastal environment is severely at risk since the coasts are deteriorating and human dependence on coastal space and resources continues to increase. Seeking solutions for coastal development is challenging. Problems of flood control, nature restoration and spatial develo

  11. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... request for comments in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12245 on the request of Lockheed Martin Corp. to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division... licenses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of...

  12. Cluster analysis of Southeastern U.S. climate stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stooksbury, D. E.; Michaels, P. J.

    1991-09-01

    A two-step cluster analysis of 449 Southeastern climate stations is used to objectively determine general climate clusters (groups of climate stations) for eight southeastern states. The purpose is objectively to define regions of climatic homogeneity that should perform more robustly in subsequent climatic impact models. This type of analysis has been successfully used in many related climate research problems including the determination of corn/climate districts in Iowa (Ortiz-Valdez, 1985) and the classification of synoptic climate types (Davis, 1988). These general climate clusters may be more appropriate for climate research than the standard climate divisions (CD) groupings of climate stations, which are modifications of the agro-economic United States Department of Agriculture crop reporting districts. Unlike the CD's, these objectively determined climate clusters are not restricted by state borders and thus have reduced multicollinearity which makes them more appropriate for the study of the impact of climate and climatic change.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Variation in Southeastern Pre-Columbian Canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzeski, Kristin E; DeBiasse, Melissa B; Rabon, David R; Chamberlain, Michael J; Taylor, Sabrina S

    2016-05-01

    The taxonomic status of the red wolf (Canis rufus) is heavily debated, but could be clarified by examining historic specimens from the southeastern United States. We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) from 3 ancient (350-1900 year olds) putative wolf samples excavated from middens and sinkholes within the historic red wolf range. We detected 3 unique mtDNA haplotypes, which grouped with the coyote mtDNA clade, suggesting that the canids inhabiting southeastern North America prior to human colonization from Europe were either coyotes, which would vastly expand historic coyote distributions, an ancient coyote-wolf hybrid, or a North American evolved red wolf lineage related to coyotes. Should the red wolf prove to be a distinct species, our results support the idea of either an ancient hybrid origin for red wolves or a shared common ancestor between coyotes and red wolves. PMID:26774058

  14. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis PETASAKIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time.We present the experience from studies concerning Internet addiction in all over the world. A specific research with the use of Young's 20-scale was also conducted in five Balkan and South-Eastern European countries (Republic of Moldova, Romania, Republic of Bulgaria, Hellenic Republic, Republic of Cyprus.The findings are interesting. Although there is a need for Interest using, there are also cases where the addiction, dependence and abuse is apparent.

  15. Financial viability study using a heat pump as an alternative to support solar collector for water heating in Southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Roberts Vinicius de Melo; Oliveira, Raphael Nunes; Machado, Luiz; Koury, Ricardo Nassau N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], E-mails: robertsreis@ufmg.br, luizm@demec.ufmg.br, koury@ufmg.br

    2010-07-01

    Along with related greenhouse effect environmental issues, constant problems changes in oil prices,make the use of solar energy an important renewable energy source. Brazil is a country which is privilege, considering the high rates of solar irradiation present throughout most of the entire national territory. Nevertheless, during certain times of the year, a solar energy deficit, leads solar systems to require electrical resistance support. The use of electrical resistance represents 23.5% of electric energy consumption and it presents a low residential energy efficiency. The purpose of this work is conducting a study of Brazilian States in the Southeastern region regarding the financial viability of replacing a resistive system combined with the use of solar collector and a heat pump. One such heat pump has been designed, constructed and tested experimentally. The average performance coefficient is equal to 2.10, a low value due to the use of a hermetic reciprocating compressor. Despite this low-moderate price coefficient of acquisition and installation of a heat pump, a return on investment in from 2.1 to 2.7 years can be expected. Whereas the equipment has a useful life of about 20 years, this period of return on investment is interesting. (author)

  16. Breeding of the blue-and-white swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia da Paz Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Pygochelidon cyanoleuca is a common species, but little is known about its biology and life history in the urban environment of southeastern Brazil. The objective of this study was to monitor the reproduction of the species in this environment. We determined the total number of nests, nesting peak, construction site, shape, composition and distribution pattern of nests, and the success and possible causes of reproductive failure. The study was conducted between July and December 2007, in the hall of the library of the Federal University of Uberlândia in Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nests were screened in spinning gutters and fixtures in the ceiling of the hall. We found 33 nests, of which 31 were active. Two nesting peaks were observed (August and November. Most nests had a platform shape. The pattern of distribution was aggregate. 19.4% of the nests were successful. The causes of failure were predation and unviable eggs. Pygochelidon cyanoleuca was reasonably successful and was able to make use of the structure of the roof of the library to build its nests. However, the high frequency of unviable eggs underscores the importance of studies on the potential effects of urbanization on birds and other organisms of the Cerrado and other Brazilian regions.

  17. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  18. Range Expansion of Metcalfa pruinosa (Homoptera: Fulgoroidea) in Southeastern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Preda; Marius Skolka

    2011-01-01

    The citrus flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa, a Nearctic species of Fulgoroidea: Flatidae, was accidentally introduced in Europe, first in Italy in the late 1970’s. In a few decades, Metcalfa pruinosa has spread over most of Europe, finally reaching the Black Sea coast in 2009. Hundreds of individuals of different life stages were observed for the first time in the southeastern part of Romania throughout the summer of 2009 on several host plants: Hibiscus sy...

  19. Karyotype of three Lonchophylla species (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Brunna; Novaes, Roberto Leonan Morim; Aguieiras,Marcia; Souza, Renan de França; Esbérard, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa; Geise,Lena

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lonchophylla Thomas, 1903 is a Neotropical bat genus that comprises 12 species, with little cytogenetic information available. Here we present the description of the karyotype of three species collected in Southeastern Brazil. Lonchophylla bokermanni Sazima, Vizotto & Taddei, 1978, Lonchophylla dekeyseri Taddei, Vizotto & Sazima, 1983, and Lonchophylla peracchii Dias, Moratelli & Esberard, 2013 showed the same diploid number 2n = 28 and the same autosomal fundamental number FNa = 50,...

  20. Zika Virus Emergence in Mosquitoes in Southeastern Senegal, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Diallo, Diawo; Sall, Amadou A; Diagne, Cheikh T.; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Ba, Yamar; Hanley, Kathryn A.; Buenemann, Michaela; Weaver, Scott C.; Diallo, Mawlouth

    2014-01-01

    Background Zika virus (ZIKV; genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) is maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arboreal Aedes spp. mosquitoes and nonhuman primates in African and Asian forests. Spillover into humans has been documented in both regions and the virus is currently responsible for a large outbreak in French Polynesia. ZIKV amplifications are frequent in southeastern Senegal but little is known about their seasonal and spatial dynamics. The aim of this paper is to describe the spat...

  1. Stratigraphy and Tectonics of Southeastern Serenitatis. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, T. A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of investigations of returned Apollo 17 samples, and Apollo 15 and 17 photographs have provided a broad data base on which to interpret the southeastern Serenitatis region of the moon. Although many of the pre-Apollo 17 mission interpretations remain valid, detailed mapping of this region and correlation with earth-based and orbital remote-sensing data have resulted in a revision of the local mare stratigraphy.

  2. INTERNET ADDICTION IN BALKAN AND SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis PETASAKIS; Athanasios MANDILAS; Stavros VALSAMIDIS

    2012-01-01

    The use of Internet has increased dramatically in recent years. Although there is no standardized definition of Internet addiction, there is acknowledgement among researchers that this phenomenon does exist. In this study, we identify various similarities and differences among people in the Balkan and South-Eastern European countries about Internet addiction. There are many factors such as cultural differences, gender differences, psychosocial variables, computer attitudes and time. We presen...

  3. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  4. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  5. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  6. TRADING FORWARD IN THE BRAZILIAN ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Coutinho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the interaction between forward and spot electricity markets in a scenario where buyers and sellers are price takers in the forward market and trade through marketers, who play a Cournot game. Our model’s main features come from the Brazilian electricity market, where a free contract market coexists with a regulated contract market, and the spot price is the output of a stochastic dynamic algorithm. We are able to show that the price of energy bought (sold forward decreases (increases with the number of marketers, and that, as a result, full hedging is achieved in the limit. We also investigate the effects on prices of changes in the number of market participants and in aggregate consumption and supply, an exercise that yields important policy recommendations for the Brazilian regulator.

  7. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  9. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website. PMID:27438217

  10. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  11. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  12. Mechanism of the Spring Persistent Rains over southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN RiJin; WU GuoXiong

    2007-01-01

    The Spring Persistent Rains (SPR) in the areas to the south of middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River or over southeastern China (SEC) is a unique synoptic and climatic phenomenon in East Asia. This study reveals a possible mechanism responsible for the climatic cause of SPR formation through climatic mean data analysis and sensitive numerical model experiments. SEC is located at the downstream of the southwesterly velocity center (SWVC) which lies on the southeastern flank of the Tibetan Plateau (TP). As a result, there are strong southwesterly wind velocity convergence and moisture convergence over SEC. This is the immediate climatic cause of SPR formation. In spring, the seasonal evolution of the southwesterly velocity consists with the surface sensible heating over southeastern TP, indicating that the formation of SPR is related to not only the southwesterly wind of mechanical deflected flow of TP, but also the southwesterly wind of thermal-forced cyclonic low circulation. Sensitive numerical experiments demonstrate that, without TP, both SWVC and the SPR rain belt will disappear. The southwesterly wind velocity increases almost linearly with the amount of the total diabatic heating with TP rising. Therefore, SWVC is the result of the mechanical forcing and thermal forcing of TP. All these strongly suggest that the presence of TP plays a primary role in the climatic formation of SPR.

  13. Wave Overtopping at Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geeraearts, Jimmy; De Rouck, Julien; Troch, Peter;

    2006-01-01

    The European research project CLASH (EVK3-CT-2001-00058) investigated wave overtopping at coastal structures. More specific it was to develop a generic prediction method for wave overtopping and to solve the problem of suspected scale effects. The paper summarizes the main results concerning...

  14. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient lev

  15. Aerosol extinction in coastal zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzola, J.; Kaloshin, G.; Leeuw, G. de; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2004-01-01

    The performance of electro-optical systems can be substantially affected by aerosol particles that scatter and absorb electromagnetic radiation. A few years ago, an empirical model was developed describing the aerosol size distributions in the Mediterranean coastal atmosphere near Toulon (France). T

  16. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  17. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  18. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  19. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  20. Kala-azar in a Brazilian child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Hole

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a six-year-old Brazilian girl referred for splenomegaly who first presented with fever, asthenia, and weight loss. Geographical location, clinical exam, and blood laboratories suggested kalaazar. Serology confirmed kala-azar diagnosis, but direct evidence of the parasites was not made. A treatment by meglumine antimoniate is given under hospital surveillance for two weeks. Thereupon, the patient is asymptomatic and all tests are normal.