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Sample records for brazilian southeastern coastal

  1. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    OpenAIRE

    D.C. Tavares; S. Siciliano

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoo...

  2. An inventory of wetland non-passerine birds along a southeastern Brazilian coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.C. Tavares

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the list of non-passerine birds of coastal environments of the Quissama municipality, northern Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil. The surveys were conducted monthly between June 2011 and May 2012. Additional ad libitum observations were made between February 2008 and July 2012. We recorded 76 waterbird species of 15 families, of which Scolopacidae was the most representative, with 15 species. The high Nearctic shorebird species richness observed in coastal lagoons in Quissama (17 species is an evidence of the important role of the region as staging site for migratory birds at national level. Also, nine of the species recorded are threatened at regional and one is threatened at national level. It should be emphasized that three species considered locally extinct in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, the most extensively surveyed area in the State, were recorded in the present study. Additionally, we present a high number of previously unrecorded species in northern Rio de Janeiro, and report the first documented record of Stercorarius pomarinus in Rio de Janeiro State. The region has a notorious Waterbird richness including endangered and migratory species, when compared to other coastal areas of the state.

  3. Vegetation stability in the Southeastern Brazilian coastal area from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP deduced from charcoal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel-Ybert

    2000-06-01

    Charcoal analysis of six shell mounds showed that no major changes of the mainland vegetation ecosystem have taken place along the southeastern Brazilian coast (22 degrees 53'-22 degrees 57'S, 42 degrees 03'-42 degrees 33'W) from 5500 to 1400 14C yr BP. These shell mounds have been occupied by sedentary fisher-gatherer-hunters. Charcoal fragments retrieved from vertical profiles in the archaeological sites were examined; taxonomic determinations were based on a reference collection of charred woods and a program for computer-aided identification. Charcoal assemblages of all the studied sites present taxa from various restinga vegetation types, mangroves, xeromorphic coastal forest, and inland Atlantic Forest. The restinga ecosystem, characteristic of the Brazilian coast, is associated with sandy beach ridges; the restinga forest was much more abundant during the studied period than nowadays. The charcoal assemblages represent mainly the local vegetation; a regional reconstruction depends on the study of numerous sites. In the Cabo Frio region, open restinga taxa are more abundant in the Sambaqui do Forte, while forest elements are more important in the Sambaquis Salinas Peroano and Boca da Barra. The sites studied in the Arraial do Cabo (Sambaqui da Ponta da Cabeça) and in the Saquarema regions (Sambaquis da Pontinha and da Beirada) show that open restinga formations were locally predominant. A comparison of multivariate analysis applied to both charcoal assemblages and to phytosociological data of the extant vegetation showed a good correspondence between the charcoal spectra and the present vegetation. The high taxonomic diversity of archaeological charcoal samples and numerous fragments showing traces of decay before charring suggests that aleatory gathering of dead wood constituted the main source of firewood for fisher-gatherer-hunters populations. Condalia sp. was probably selected for cultural reasons.The only significant fluctuations on the charcoal

  4. Seaweed cultivation on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coast

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    Franciane Pellizzari

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds are used directly as food or applied indirectly as texturing agents with gelling and thickening properties (carrageenan, agar and alginates in many industries. They can also be used as fertilizers, animal feed, biomass for fuel, cosmetics and a source of pharmaceuticals, among other applications. The aquaculture of macroalgae is an alternative for producing raw material. Brazil has a coastline with numerous locations suitable for this endeavor. However, despite the known economical and social relevance of seaweed cultivation, Brazilians do not have tradition of using edible seaweeds. In general, the raw material for indirect use (e.g., as a texturing agent is imported. Consequently, seaweed aquaculture is still incipient in Brazil. This contribution presents data and information about macroalgae cultivation on commercial and experimental scales performed on the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian Coastline, as well as a brief overview of research related to some species cultivated in the last decade.

  5. Food and feeding ecology of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae from the southeastern Brazilian Bight

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    Frederico W. Kurtz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from depth integrated and vertically stratified plankton samples collected in the southeastern Brazilian Bight were used to study the feeding behavior of Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis larvae. Sampling of the ichthyoplankton was carried out with 60 cm Bongo nets in the Bight during the spawning seasons of 1991/92 and 1992/93. The sampling of microzooplankton was carried out in the coastal region off Ubatuba, using the closing-type plankton net, in December 1995. The feeding study was based on a total of 901 captured larvae. Gut content analysis of the sardine larvae showed a diurnal pattern of food intake. Copepod nauplii dominated the diet of the preflexion and flexion larvae, but they were the second in abundance for the postflexion larvae which fed preferentially on copepodites and adults of Oncaea spp. Averaged feeding incidence of the 901 larvae was 37.6%, but it increased to 58.5% for day-caught larvae. Seventy percent of the food particles were found in the mid-gut and food eaten showed a natural increase in digestion from fore-gut to hind-gut. Vertical distribution of microzooplankton revealed that copepod nauplii were present in densities of 10-20 ind. L-1, mainly in the upper mixed layer (0-20 m depth, but higher densities of copepodite and adult of Oncaea, Oithona and Paracalamis were found within and beneath the thermocline. These results show that Brazilian sardine larvae can successfully adapt their diet, feeding on the most abundant food particles in the upper mixed layer of the survey area.Plâncton amostrado na região sudeste do Brasil, em coletas integradas verticalmente e estratificadas, foi utilizado no estudo do comportamento alimentar das larvas de sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis. As coletas de ictioplâncton foram realizadas com rede tipo Bongo de 60 cm de diâmetro durante os períodos de desova de 1991/92 e 1992/93. Microzooplâncton foi amostrado na região costeira ao largo de Ubatuba

  6. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the Pu distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analyzed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse, and Newport), the suspended particulate matter (1 μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities, and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah River estuary, in addition to fallout Pu, has received up to 0.3 Ci of Pu from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence Pu isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Data are included on the content of 238 Pu, 239 Pu, and 240 Pu in sediments and marsh grass of the Savannah River estuary

  7. Macrobenthic community structure response to coastal hypoxia off Southeastern Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Periasamy, R.; De, K.

    occurrence of coastal hypoxia condition (30 to 100 m depth) and normoxic bottom waters over the Southeastern Arabian Sea (SEAS). The macrofaunal communities patterns were analyzed by using various statistical methods (e.g. rank correlation, hierarchical...

  8. Age and growth of the southeastern Brazilian sardine, Sardinella brasiliensis

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    Suzana Anita Saccardo

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian sardine datawere collected between September 1981 and August 1982 from the southeastern Brazilian waters. Otoliths were read using reflected ligth on the surface of the whole structure. Three methods were used to determine the time of ring formation, being the mean length per ring the best one. There are two annual rings clearly visible, one laid down in November/December, and the other one laid down in March/April. A method of age determination is described, being the maximum age 3 years.A idade da sardinha Sardinella brasiliensis foi determinada pelo exame de otólitos de exemplares provenientes de desembarques da pesca comercial e artesanal, na área compreendida entre 22ºS (Cabo Frio, RJ e 28ºS (Cabo de Santa Marta, Grande, SC, durante o período 1981-83. Este estudo e parte de um programa mais amplo de nominado "Programa Integrado de Estu dos Biológicos sobre Sardinha", desenvolvido na região sudeste do Brasil desde 1981, objetivando conhecer as variações dos parâmetros biológicos da espécie, e fornecer subsídios a avaliação pesqueira do recurso. Foram contados os anéis translúcidos dos otolitos, colocados inteiros em recipientes de fundo preto, imersos em álcool 70% e iluminados com luz incidente sob estereomicroscópio binocular. Além das contagens, foram efetuadas medidas das distancias do núcleo do otolito ao bordo, e do núcleo a cada anél translúcido, bem como observações da natureza do bordo. Foram utilizados três métodos para determinar a época e periodicidade de formação dos anéis. Os parâmetros de crescimento L, K e t0 foram estimados, e as curvas ajustadas usando-se a equação de von Bertalanffy. Os resultados mostraram que os otolitos possuem de 0 a 7 anéis, sendo formados dois anéis por ano: um entre novembro-dezembro, e outro entre março-abril. Estas épocas estão intimamente ligadas ao período de reprodução. Descreveu-se um método para a determinação da idade de sardinha, tendo

  9. Atrazine fate and transport within the coastal zone in southeastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbicide transport from crop-land to coastal waters may adversely impact water quality. This work examined potential atrazine impact from use on a farm field adjacent to the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve on Puerto Rico’s southeastern coast. Atrazine application was linked to residu...

  10. Hydrology, geomorphology, and vegetation of Coastal Plain rivers in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff R. Hupp

    2000-01-01

    Rivers of the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States are characteristically low-gradient meandering systems that develop broad floodplains subjected to frequent and prolonged flooding. These floodplains support a relatively unique forested wetland (Bottomland Hardwoods), which have received considerable ecological study, but distinctly less hydrogeomorphic...

  11. Simulated soil organic carbon response to tillage, yield, and climate change in the southeastern Coastal Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensive tillage, low-residue crops, and a warm, humid climate have contributed to soil organic carbon (SOC) loss in the southeastern Coastal Plains region. Conservation (CnT) tillage and winter cover cropping are current management practices to rebuild SOC; however, there is sparse long-term field...

  12. Genotoxicity Biomonitoring Along a Coastal Zone Under Influence of Offshore Petroleum Exploration (Southeastern Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Juan Manuel; da Conceição, Moisés Basilio; Molisani, Mauricio Mussi; Weber, Laura Isabel

    2018-03-01

    Offshore oil exploration creates threats to coastal ecosystems, including increasing urbanization and associated effluent releases. Genotoxicity biomarkers in mussels were determined across a gradient of coastal zone influences of offshore petroleum exploration in southeastern Brazil. Coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, beaches and islands were seasonally monitored for genotoxicity evaluation using the brown mussel Perna perna. The greatest DNA damage (5.2% ± 1.9% tail DNA and 1.5‰  ± 0.8‰ MN) were observed in urban estuaries, while Santana Archipelago showed levels of genotoxicity near zero and is considered a reference site. Mussels from urban and pristine beaches showed intermediate damage levels, but were also influenced by urbanization. Thus, mussel genotoxicity biomarkers greatly indicated the proposed oil exploration and urbanization scenarios that consequently are genetically affecting coastal organisms.

  13. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier) (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae) in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Marcus Rodrigues da; Albieri,Rafael Jardim; Neves,Leonardo Mitrano; Santos,Alex Braz Lacone; Araujo,Francisco Gerson

    2012-01-01

    Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal) dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner), defined according ...

  14. Analyzing potential effects of migration on coastal resource conservation in Southeastern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, Carina; Schlüter, Achim; Fujitani, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Coastal areas are under increasing pressure from rapid human population growth, yet empirical research on the effect of migration on coastal and marine resources is scarce. We contribute to this understudied literature by conducting an original household survey in a coastal region of Southeastern Ghana. This study employs two proxies for pro-environmental behavior that have not, to our knowledge, been used in the context of coastal migration, to explicitly compare migrant and non-migrant populations. Environmental attitudes toward coastal resources and individual extraction behavior in common-pool resource (CPR) experiments have shown broad relevance in the literature to understand natural resource decision making. We found that migrants in general did not differ significantly from non-migrants in relation to their environmental attitudes or their extraction behavior in the CPR game. However, when focusing on migrant fishers only, results suggested that this subgroup was less concerned about the utilization of coastal resources than non-migrant fishers and behaved less cooperatively in the CPR experiment. These findings, though, held true only for the subgroup of fishers, and could not be found for other occupational groups. Therefore, we conclude that migrants do not per se value coastal resources less or cooperate less in CPR situations, but that socioeconomic characteristics, and particularly their occupational status and their relation to the resource, matter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Topographic registers of paleo-valleys on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf

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    Luis Américo Conti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of paleo-incised-valleys in the São Paulo State region of the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf is presented in this study in relation to the post Last Glacial Maximum (LGM sea-level rises based on the submarine topography modeled by a detailed Digital Elevation Model and evidences noted in high resolution seismic profiles. The hypothesis that has guided this study is that the set of paleo-valley characteristics (i.e. the fluvial parameters of modern coastal drainage systems, the topographical shape and dimensions of the valleys and of the subsurface channels may indicate aspects of the relation between the influence of the fluvial and the eustatic variation regime in geomorphological-stratigraphic registers. Models described in the literature sustain the view that faster marine transgressions tend to increase erosion in estuaries, which may explain the lack of registers of paleo-drainage both in topography and the sub-surface in areas with wider shelves. On the other hand, on narrower shelves, with a higher slope angle, the transgression process can preserve, or even enhance, the incised valley registers during shoreface retreat. In the area studied, we observed that the dimensions and form of the continental shelf varies from the northern to the southern part of the area, affecting aspects of the geomorphological registers of the submerged incised valleys.Este trabalho apresenta aspectos da relação entre a evolução da paleo-drenagem e evolução do nível do mar pós Último Máximo Glacial (UMG para a região da plataforma continental do Estado de São Paulo. Para tal, foram analisados modelos topográficos de detalhe da região de Plataforma Continental a partir de Modelos Digitais de Terreno além de dados de subsuperfície obtidos a partir de linhas sísmicas de alta resolução. A hipótese que guiou este trabalho é de que o conjunto de características relativas aos paleo-vales (i.e. sua relação com a rede de

  16. Urbanization of Brazilian spotted fever in a municipality of the southeastern region: epidemiology and spatial distribution

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    Jeanette Trigo Nasser

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Brazilian spotted fever is an emerging zoonosis notified mainly in the Southeast of Brazil, especially due to its high level of lethality.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiological and spatial pattern of the disease in the municipality of Valinhos (106,793 inhabitants, São Paulo, Southeastern region of Brazil, in the period between 2001 and 2012.METHODS: All laboratory-confirmed cases with likely site of infection in the city (n = 49 notified in the Brazilian Case Registry Database were studied. Sites were geocoded using the cartographic base of the city and Google Earth (geographic coordinates with correction according to the Brazilian Geodetic System. We used the Kernel estimator to analyze the density of the cases on the map. Land cover and distance to basins of all cases were analyzed. Information about tick species and primary hosts were obtained from reports of the Superintendence of Control of Endemic Diseases.RESULTS: Seasonality of the disease was observed with the highest incidence from June to November, and in 2005 and 2011. The most affected groups were men (79.6% aged 20-49 years old (49%. Lethality was found to be 42.9%. Maps showed the progressive registration of cases in the urban area. Capybaras were reported as the main primary host, and Amblyomma cajennense was identified in probable sites of infection during field investigation. The likely sites of infection were mostly located near basins, dirty pastures, and bordering woods.CONCLUSIONS: The transmission pattern of Brazilian spotted fever in Valinhos is similar to that in other cities in the region, where capybara is the main primary host and an amplifier of R. rickettsii. Over the years, a higher occurrence of cases has been identified in the urban area of the city.

  17. Occurrence and distribution of microplastics at selected coastal sites along the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xubiao; Ladewig, Samantha; Bao, Shaowu; Toline, Catherine A; Whitmire, Stefanie; Chow, Alex T

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the occurrence and distribution of microplastics in the southeastern coastal region of the United States, we quantified the amount of microplastics in sand samples from multiple coastal sites and developed a predictive model to understand the drift of plastics via ocean currents. Sand samples from eighteen National Park Service (NPS) beaches in the Southeastern Region were collected and microplastics were isolated from each sample. Microplastic counts were compared among sites and local geography was used to make inferences about sources and modes of distribution. Samples were analyzed to identify the composition of particles using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). To predict the spatiotemporal distribution and movements of particles via coastal currents, a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) was applied. Microplastics were detected in each of the sampled sites although abundance among sites was highly variable. Approximately half of the samples were dominated by thread-like and fibrous materials as opposed to beads and particles. Results of FTIR suggested that 24% consisted of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), while about 68% of the fibers tested were composed of man-made cellulosic materials such as rayon. Based on published studies examining sources of microplastics, the shape of the particles found here (mostly fibers) and the presence of PET, we infer the source of microplastics in coastal areas is mainly from urban areas, such as wastewater discharge, rather than breakdown of larger marine debris drifting in the ocean. Local geographic features, e.g., the nearness of sites to large rivers and urbanized areas, explain variance in amount of microplastics among sites. Additionally, the distribution of simulated particles is explained by ocean current patterns; computer simulations were correlated with field observations, reinforcing the idea that ocean currents can be a good predictor of the fate and distribution of microplastics

  18. Influence of coarse woody debris on the soricid community in southeastern Coastal Plain pine stands.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, C.; Castleberry, Steven, B.; Kilgo, John, C.

    2010-07-01

    Shrew abundance has been linked to the presence of coarse woody debris (CWD), especially downed logs, in many regions in the United States. We investigated the importance of CWD to shrew communities in managed upland pine stands in the southeastern United States Coastal Plain. Using a randomized complete block design, 1 of the following treatments was assigned to twelve 9.3-ha plots: removal (n 5 3; all downed CWD _10 cm in diameter and _60 cm long removed), downed (n 5 3; 5-fold increase in volume of downed CWD), snag (n 5 3; 10-fold increase in volume of standing dead CWD), and control (n 5 3; unmanipulated). Shrews (Blarina carolinensis, Sorex longirostris, and Cryptotis parva) were captured over 7 seasons from January 2007 to August 2008 using drift-fence pitfall trapping arrays within treatment plots. Topographic variables were measured and included as treatment covariates. More captures of B. carolinensis were made in the downed treatment compared to removal, and captures of S. longirostris were greater in downed and snag compared to removal. Captures of C. parva did not differ among treatments. Captures of S. longirostris were positively correlated with slope. Our results suggest that abundance of 2 of the 3 common shrew species of the southeastern Coastal Plain examined in our study is influenced by the presence of CWD.

  19. Estimated hydrologic budgets of kettle-hole ponds in coastal aquifers of southeastern Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Donald A.; Masterson, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Kettle-hole ponds in southeastern Massachusetts are in good hydraulic connection to an extensive coastal aquifer system that includes the Plymouth-Carver aquifer system on the mainland and aquifers underlying Cape Cod. The ponds receive water from, and contribute water to, the underlying glacial aquifer; ponds also receive water from precipitation and lose water to evaporation from the pond surface. Some ponds are connected to surface-water drainage systems and receive water from or contribute water to streams or adjacent wetlands. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection currently (2011) is developing Total Maximum Daily Loads of phosphorus for the freshwater ponds in the region to maintain the health of pond ecosystems; the amounts and sources of water fluxes into and out of the ponds are important factors in determining the amount of phosphorus that can be assimilated into a pond. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey used groundwater-flow models of the coastal aquifer system to estimate hydrologic budgets-including inflows and outflows from the aquifer system and adjacent streams and wetlands, and recharge from precipitation-for 425 ponds in southeastern Massachusetts.

  20. Livestock Predation by Puma (Puma concolor) in the Highlands of a Southeastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeira, Francesca Belem Lopes; Trinca, Cristiano Trapé; Haddad, Claudio Maluf

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated local opinion about reducing livestock losses to puma (Puma concolor) and the potential for conflict among livestock breeders inside a protected area in the highlands of a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. We also quantified the number and type of livestock losses, and determined if predation by puma was correlated with property profile and landscape characteristics. We conducted semistructured interviews with 42 livestock breeders sampled in 36 rural properties. When asked how to reduce predation, 33% of livestock breeders refused to answer, 26% suggested improving livestock husbandry practices, 19% stated that there was no appropriate action, 17% favored removing the "problem" individual, and 5 % suggested killing the puma. Opinion on how to solve predation was independent of herd size and history of losses, and was correlated with respondent age class. Older respondents tended to suggest removing or killing pumas. Attitudes toward predation represented high potential for conflict among livestock breeders who demonstrated high discordance among responses. Horses were the most common prey (51%), followed by cattle (28%), sheep (17%), and goats (4%); totaling 47 animals attacked between 2004 and 2007. Annual predation was approximately 12 ± 5 animals, equivalent to 0.4% of the total livestock. Property elevation and distance from the urban center were the main predictors of predation probability. This survey used a novel approach that has not been addressed directly in other studies on livestock predation and demonstrated that the high potential for conflict among livestock breeders should be considered before implementing management actions.

  1. Comparative feeding ecology of four syntopic Hypostomus species in a Brazilian southeastern river

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    G. A. Villares-Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Though their broad distribution in most Brazilian rivers, scarce studies concerning ecological interactions on Hypostomus species are available. This study observes the diet, the trophic interactions and some morphological aspects of four syntopic species of Hypostomus. These fishes were studied at the superior part of the Corumbataí river, at São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. Analyses focused feeding patterns, their amplitude and whether there happens some food items overlap among the species. Fish were caught using cast nets at some points of the river. Species were chosen according to their local abundance and, so there were four main species: H. albopunctatus, H. ancistroides, H. regani and H. strigaticeps. Nine food items were found: sediments, fungi, diatoms, green algae, Tecamoeba, vegetal debris and invertebrates. There were not significant differences for the feeding pattern among the four Hypostomus species. The feeding niche amplitude has been larger for H. albopunctatus influenced by a larger amount of vegetal debris and invertebrates. Elevated niche overlap was found to happen among the species and also for their trophic morphology. Results may suggest that there is a similar pattern in food taken between four species of Hypostomus analyzed since all consume similar environmental resources and have similar anatomical features. However, a different intake insect larvae and plant material in H. albopunctatus diet indicate differences in local and how this species may be exploring their food compared to the others.

  2. Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Humic Acids in Coastal Spodosols from Southeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurman, P.; Vidal-Torrado, P.; Martin-Neto, L.

    2012-01-01

    This study on humic acids (HAs) of podzol horizons from the southeastern region of Brazil investigated the accumulation and degradation of soil organic matter (SOM) in warm-climate podzols. Humic acids from sandy coastal Spodosols (Histic Alaquod and Arenic Alorthod) from Cardoso Island in Sao Paulo

  3. Effect of coarse woody debris manipulation on soricid and herpetofaunal communities in upland pine stands of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Justin, Charles

    2009-04-01

    Abstract -The majority of studies investigating the importance of coarse woody debris (CWD) to forest- floor vertebrates have taken place in the Pacific Northwest and southern Appalachian Mountains, while comparative studies in the southeastern Coastal Plain are lacking. My study was a continuation of a long-term project investigating the importance of CWD as a habitat component for shrew and herpetofaunal communities within managed pine stands in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Results suggest that addition of CWD can increase abundance of southeastern and southern short-tailed shrews. However, downed wood does not appear to be a critical habitat component for amphibians and reptiles. Rising petroleum costs and advances in wood utilization technology have resulted in an emerging biofuels market with potential to decrease CWD volumes left in forests following timber harvests. Therefore, forest managers must understand the value of CWD as an ecosystem component to maintain economically productive forests while conserving biological diversity.

  4. PCB and PBDE levels in a highly threatened dolphin species from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavandier, Ricardo; Arêas, Jennifer; Quinete, Natalia; Moura, Jailson F. de; Taniguchi, Satie; Montone, Rosalinda; Siciliano, Salvatore; Moreira, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    In the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro State is located the major urban centers of the oil and gas industry of Brazil. The intense urbanization in recent decades caused an increase in human use of the coastal areas, which is constantly impacted by agricultural, industrial and wastewater discharges. Franciscana dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei) is a small cetacean that inhabits coastal regions down to a 30 m depth. This species is considered the most threatened cetacean in the Western South Atlantic Ocean. This study investigated the levels of 52 PCB congeners and 9 PBDE congeners in liver of nine individuals found stranded or accidentally caught between 2011 and 2012 in the Northern coast of Rio de Janeiro. PCB mean levels ranged from 208 to 5543 ng g"−"1 lw and PBDEs mean concentrations varied between 13.84 and 36.94 ng g"−"1 lw. Contamination patterns suggest the previous use of Aroclor 1254, 1260 and penta-BDE mixtures in Brazil. While still few studies have assessed the organic contamination in cetaceans from the Southern Hemisphere, including Brazil, the levels found in this study could represent a health risk to these endangered species. - Highlights: • PCBs and PBDEs were measured in liver samples from Franciscana dolphins. • BDE 47, 99 and 100 were found in all individuals samples. • PCB-153, 138 and 180 were the major PCB congeners detected. • Results suggest the existence of PCBs and PBDEs contamination sources in Brazil. • PCBs and PDBEs levels could represent a risk to these endangered dolphin species. - PCB and PBDE concentrations found in Franciscana dolphins suggest the presence of contamination sources in Southeastern Brazil and could represent a high health risk to these endangered species.

  5. New species of Parotocinclus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from coastal drainages of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxo, Fábio F; Melo, Bruno F; Silva, Gabriel S C; Oliveira, Claudio

    2017-02-15

    A new species of Parotocinclus is described from tributaries of rio São João, an Atlantic coastal river of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the possession of a triangular patch of dark pigmentation on the anterior portion of the dorsal-fin base, a fully developed adipose fin, complete exposure of the ventral surface of the pectoral girdle, and a distinctive pigmentation pattern of the caudal fin. The caudal fin has a hyaline background with a large black blotch covering its anterior portion, tapering irregularly through distal portions of the ventral lobe with a hyaline rounded area, and a small patch of dark pigmentation on distal portions of the dorsal lobe.

  6. Challenges to Rainfall-Runoff and Transit Time Distribution Modeling Within the Southeastern Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, P.; Cohen, M. J.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Previous hydrologic studies primarily focus on processes related to montane catchments with significant runoff ratios, low evapotranspiration rates, and reasonably short travel times. There is a significant lack of research for hydrologic processes occurring within the United States Southeastern Coastal Plain landscape where low-relief and high rates of evapotranspiration impact water fluxes. Hydrologic modeling efforts within this region may elucidate possible interactions and timescales of solute travel where much of the landscape is managed for agricultural crops, namely plantation forestry. A long-term paired watershed study carried out in northern Florida monitored two second-order blackwater streams for five years. Rainfall-runoff models for both catchments were created using daily discharge, precipitation, and modeled evapotranspiration as input parameters. Best fit occurred (NSE = 0.8) when the catchments were modeled as two-storage (shallow and deep) reservoirs in parallel and overland flow was allowed to contribute to streamflow in periods were shallow groundwater storage was at capacity. In addition, streamflow and rainfall chloride concentrations were used to model in-variable transit time distributions using spectral methods. In both catchments this transit time was unresolvable because output spectral power exceeded input spectral power, a result assumed to be driven by the evaporative demand of the region. A modeled chloride time series from random input concentration and modeled output through the rainfall-runoff model was used to alter the evaporation ratio. Once evaporation rates equaled known rates found in cool, high-relief catchments, spectral analysis illustrated higher input spectral power and therefore resolvable transit times. Findings from this study illustrate significant effects from evaporation within the catchment - often exceeding the signal from the background catchment process itself. Calculations illustrate a proposed mean transit

  7. Microbial plankton communities in the coastal southeastern Black Sea: biomass, composition and trophic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulgen Aytan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We investigated biomass and composition of the pico-, nano- and microplankton communities in a coastal station of the southeastern Black Sea during 2011. We also examined trophic interactions within these communities from size-fractionated dilution experiments in February, June and December. Autotrophic and heterotrophic biomasses showed similar seasonal trends, with a peak in June, but heterotrophs dominated throughout the year. Autotrophic biomass was mainly comprised by nanoflagellates and diatoms in the first half of the year, and by dinoflagellates and Synechococcus spp. in the second half. Heterotrophic biomass was mostly dominated by heterotrophic bacteria, followed by nanoflagellates and microzooplankton. Dilution experiments suggest that nano- and microzooplankton were significant consumers of autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. More than 100% of bacterial production was consumed by grazers in all experiments, while 46%, 21% and 30% of daily primary production were consumed in February, June and December, respectively. In February, autotrophs were the main carbon source, but in December, it was heterotrophic bacteria. An intermediate situation was observed in June, with similar carbon flows from autotrophs and heterotrophic bacteria. Size-fraction dilution experiments suggested that heterotrophic nanoflagellates are an important link between the high heterotrophic bacterial biomass and microzooplankton. In summary, these results indicate that nano- and microzooplankton were responsible for comprising a significant fraction of total microbial plankton biomass, standing stocks, growth and grazing processes. This suggests that in 2011, the microbial food web was an important compartment of the planktonic food web in the coastal southeastern Black Sea. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Microzooplankton, Carbon biomass, Microbial food web, Grazing, Black Sea

  8. Impact of anthropogenic development on coastal ground-water hydrology in southeastern Florida, 1900-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renken, Robert A.; Dixon, Joann; Koehmstedt, John A.; Ishman, Scott; Lietz, A.C.; Marella, Richard L.; Telis, Pamela A.; Rodgers, Jeff; Memberg, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Southeastern Florida is an area that has been subject to widely conflicting anthropogenic stress to the Everglades and coastal ecosystems. This stress is a direct consequence of the 20th century economic competition for limited land and water resources needed to satisfy agricultural development and its expansion, its displacement by burgeoning urban development, and the accompanying growth of the limestone mining industry. The development of a highly controlled water-management system designed to reclaim land for urban and agricultural development has severely impacted the extent, character, and vitality of the historic Everglades and coastal ecosystems. An extensive conveyance system of canals, levees, impoundments, surface- water control structures, and numerous municipal well fields are used to sustain the present-day Everglades hydrologic system, prevent overland flow from moving eastward and flooding urban and agricultural areas, maintain water levels to prevent saltwater intrusion, and provide an adequate water supply. Extractive mining activities expanded considerably in the latter part of the 20th century, largely in response to urban construction needs. Much of the present-day urban-agricultural corridor of southeastern Florida lies within an area that is no more than 15 feet above NGVD 1929 and formerly characterized by freshwater marsh, upland, and saline coastal wetland ecosystems. Miami- Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties have experienced explosive population growth, increasing from less than 4,000 inhabitants in 1900 to more than 5 million in 2000. Ground-water use, the principal source of municipal supply, has increased from about 65 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) obtained from 3 well fields in 1930 to more than 770 Mgal/d obtained from 65 well fields in 1995. Water use for agricultural supply increased from 505 Mgal/d in 1953 to nearly 1,150 Mgal/d in 1988, but has since declined to 764 Mgal/d in 1995, partly as a result of displacement of the

  9. Reconstructing Environmental Changes of a Coastal Lagoon with Coral Reefs in Southeastern Hainan Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Liang; GAO Shu; GAO Jianhua; ZHAO Yangyang; HAN Zhuochen; YANG Yang; JIA Peihong

    2017-01-01

    Coastal lagoons with small catchment basins are highly sensitive to natural processes and anthropogenic activities.To figure out the environmental changes of a coastal lagoon and its contribution to carbon burial,two sediment cores were collected in Xincun Lagoon,southeastern Hainan Island and 210pb activities,grain size parameters,total organic carbon (TOC),total nitrogen (TN),total inorganic carbon (TIC) and stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) were measured.The results show that in 1770-1815,the decreasing water exchange capacity with outer open water,probably caused by the shifting and narrowing of the tidal inlet,not only diminished the currents and fined the sediments in the lagoon,but also reduced the organic matter of marine sources.From 1815 to 1950,the sedimentary environment of Xincun Lagoon was frequently influenced by storm events.These extreme events resulted in the high fluctuation of sediment grain size and sorting,as well as the great variation in contributions of terrestrial (higher plants,soils) and marine sources (phytoplankton,algae,seagrass).The extremely high content of TIC,compared to TOC before 1950 could be attributed to the large-scale coverage of coral reefs.However,with the boost of seawater aquaculture activities after 1970,the health growth of coral species was severely threatened,and corresponding production and inorganic carbon burial flux reduced.The apparent enhanced inorganic carbon burial rate after 1990 might result from the concomitant carbonate debris produced by seawater aquaculture.This result is important for local government long-term coastal management and environmental planning.

  10. Long-term background denudation rates of southern and southeastern Brazilian watersheds estimated with cosmogenic 10Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Gonzalez, Veronica; Bierman, Paul R.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Rood, Dylan H.

    2016-09-01

    In comparison to humid temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, less is known about the long-term (millennial scale) background rates of erosion in Southern Hemisphere tropical watersheds. In order to better understand the rate at which watersheds in southern and southeastern Brazil erode, and the relationship of that erosion to climate and landscape characteristics, we made new measurements of in situ produced 10Be in river sediments and we compiled all extant measurements from this part of the country. New data from 14 watersheds in the states of Santa Catarina (n = 7) and Rio de Janeiro (n = 7) show that erosion rates vary there from 13 to 90 m/My (mean = 32 m/My; median = 23 m/My) and that the difference between erosion rates of basins we sampled in the two states is not significant. Sampled basin area ranges between 3 and 14,987 km2, mean basin elevation between 235 and 1606 m, and mean basin slope between 11 and 29°. Basins sampled in Rio de Janeiro, including three that drain the Serra do Mar escarpment, have an average basin slope of 19°, whereas the average slope for the Santa Catarina basins is 14°. Mean basin slope (R2 = 0.73) and annual precipitation (R2 = 0.57) are most strongly correlated with erosion in the basins we studied. At three sites where we sampled river sand and cobbles, the 10Be concentration in river sand was greater than in the cobbles, suggesting that these grain sizes are sourced from different parts of the landscape. Compiling all cosmogenic 10Be-derived erosion rates previously published for southern and southeastern Brazil watersheds to date (n = 76) with our 14 sampled basins, we find that regional erosion rates (though low) are higher than those of watersheds also located on other passive margins including Namibia and the southeastern North America. Brazilian basins erode at a pace similar to escarpments in southeastern North America. Erosion rates in southern and southeastern Brazil are directly and positively related to

  11. Sticholonche zanclea (Protozoa, Actinopoda in fecal pellets of copepods and Euphausia sp. in Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Eskinazi-Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Fecal pellets produced by mesozooplanktonic copepods (Centropages velificatus and Paracalanus parvus and macrozooplanktonic Euphausiacea (Euphausia sp. were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Fragments of the protozoan Sticholonche zanclea were found in both copepod and in Euphausia sp. fecal pellets, even when the abundance of the protozoan in the water was low. The results suggest that S. zanclea is an important food resource for different trophic levels, including meso- and macrozooplankton, in Brazilian coastal waters.

  12. Structure and floristic pattern of a coastal dunes in southeastern Brazil

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    Augusto Giaretta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian shrublands area (restinga is composed of marine coast vegetation on Quaternary sandy plains, where the species composition can vary depending on the surrounding ecosystems. The aims of this study were to describe the structure and floristic composition of a restinga near the community of Itaúnas, in the northern part of the state of Espírito Santo, to identify any relationships between this restinga and surrounding plant formations, and to determine which are the species that occur preferentially in the coastal forests of Espírito Santo. We sampled woody plants with a diameter at breast height > 2.5 cm, excluding lianas, in 50 plots of 100 m². We selected studies of coastal forests in the states of Espírito Santo and Bahia to prepare a database that would reveal patterns of floristic variation among these areas. We used t wo-way indicator species analysis for the identification of the species that occur preferentially in the coastal forests of Espírito Santo. We identified 114 species belonging to 38 families. Species richness was greatest for Myrtaceae (26 species, followed by Fabaceae (10. The Shannon index for the study area was 3.96. The estimated total density was 3,330 individuals/ha and basal area was 32.02 m²/ha. The highest importance value (IV was for Protium heptaphyllum (IV, 23.4, indicating that it is characteristic of the Espírito Santo restinga. The results of our floristic analysis indicate that the species composition of the Itaúnas restinga is influenced by the so-called tabuleiro forests (coastal lowland forests on Tertiary deposits, which are most common in northern Espírito Santo. This seems to be the main factor responsible for the gradual reduction in floristic similarity between the restingas in the north of Espírito Santo and those in the south of the state, each constituting a distinct floristic block. In addition, we generated lists of species that occur preferentially in the restinga and

  13. Cesium-137 in deer: Savannah River Plant vs. southeastern coastal plain herds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, J.R.; Rabon, E.W.; Dicks, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    The 137 Cs content in deer killed during programmed hunts at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has averaged 9.0 pCi/g. This value, based on measurements of 13,907 deer taken over 14 years (1965 to 1978), similar to the value obtained for 552 deer from other southeastern Coastal Plain locations, indicating the 137 Cs content is due to fallout from the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons rather than from SRP operations. The computerized SRP data base for each harvested deer includes age, sex, weight, cesium content, kill location, date, and the hunter's name. Analysis of these data enables the estimation of population dose from ingestion of the edible meat. Consumption of all edible meat from deer killed at SRP from 1965 to 1978 gives a whole body population dose of 196 man-rem from 137 Cs. Assuming an annual consumption rate of 20 kg gives an average individual whole body dose of 13 mrem, about 10% of local annual background level. The radiation dose from 40 K of natural potassium content of deer is comparable to the radiation dose from 137 Cs

  14. Effects of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal plain drainages in the southeastern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark S.; Meador, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    This review focuses on the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes in coastal rivers and estuaries of the southeastern U.S. Influences of salinity on freshwater fish species can be explained partly through responses evidenced by behavior, physiology, growth, reproduction, and food habits during all aspects of life history. Factors influencing the rate of salinity change affect the community structure and dynamics of freshwater fishes in brackish environments. Our understanding of the relation between salinity and the life history of freshwater fishes is limited because little ecological research has been conducted in low-salinity habitats that we consider an “interface” between freshwater streams and the estuary proper. Much of the available data are descriptive in nature and describe best general patterns, but more specific studies are required to better determine the influence of salinity on freshwater fishes. Improved understanding of the influence of human-induced changes on the productivity and viability of these important systems will require a new research focus.

  15. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the southeastern Pacific: Coastal and offshore measurements and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, C. W.; Eble, M. C.; Rabinovich, A.; Titov, V. V.

    2016-12-01

    The Mw = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra generated a catastrophic tsunami that crossed the Indian Ocean and was widespread in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans being recorded by a great number of coastal tide gauges located in 15-25 thousand kilometers from the source area. The data from these instruments throughout the world oceans enabled estimates of various statistical parameters and energy decay of this event. However, only very few open-ocean records of this tsunami had been obtained. A unique high-resolution record of this tsunami from DART 32401 located offshore of northern Chile, combined with the South American mainland tide gauge measurements and the data from three island stations (San Felix, Juan Fernandez and Easter) enabled us to examine far-field characteristics of the event in the southeastern Pacific and to compare the results of global numerical simulations with observations. The maximum wave height measured at DART 32401 was only 1.8 cm but the signal was very clear and reliable. Despite their small heights, the waves demonstrated consistent spatial and temporal structure and good agreement with DART 46405/NeMO records in the NE Pacific. The travel time from the source area to DART 32401 was 25h 55min in good agreement with the computed travel time (25h 45min) and consistent with the times obtained from the nearby coastal tide gauges. This agreement was much better than it followed from the direct travel time estimation based classical kinematic theory that gave the travel time approximately 1.5 hrs shorter than observed. The later actual arrival of the 2004 tsunami waves corresponds to the most energetically economic path along the mid-ocean ridge wave-guides, which is distinctly reproduced by the numerical model. Also, the numerical model described well the frequency content, amplitudes and general structure of the observed waves at this DART and the three island stations. Maximum wave heights in this

  16. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and cocaine in a Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camilo D Seabra; Maranho, Luciane A; Cortez, Fernando S; Pusceddu, Fabio H; Santos, Aldo R; Ribeiro, Daniel A; Cesar, Augusto; Guimarães, Luciana L

    2016-04-01

    The present study determined environmental concentrations of pharmaceuticals, cocaine, and the main human metabolite of cocaine in seawater sampled from a subtropical coastal zone (Santos, Brazil). The Santos Bay is located in a metropolitan region and receives over 7367m(3) of wastewater per day. Five sample points under strong influence of the submarine sewage outfall were chosen. Through quantitative analysis by LC-MS/MS, 33 compounds were investigated. Seven pharmaceuticals (atenolol, acetaminophen, caffeine, losartan, valsartan, diclofenac, and ibuprofen), an illicit drug (cocaine), and its main human metabolite (benzoylecgonine) were detected at least once in seawater sampled from Santos Bay at concentrations that ranged from ng·L(-1) to μg·L(-1). In light of the possibility of bioaccumulation and harmful effects, the high concentrations of pharmaceuticals and cocaine found in this marine subtropical ecosystem are of environmental concern. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  18. Plutonium in Atlantic coastal estuaries in the southeastern United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.W.; LeRoy, J.H.; Cross, F.A.

    1976-01-01

    A survey was made to begin to provide baseline information on the plutonium distribution of representative estuarine and coastal areas of the southeastern United States of America. Sediments and marsh grass (Spartina) were collected and analysed from three locations within a tidal marsh. In the three estuaries (Savannah, Neuse and Newport) the suspended particulate matter (1μm and greater) was filtered from waters with different salinities and the plutonium content of the particulates determined. The Savannah river estuary, in addition to fall-out plutonium, has received up to 0.3Ci of plutonium from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) of the US Energy Research and Development Administration. The SRP plutonium has a variable isotopic composition that can influence plutonium isotopic ratios in the estuarine system. The other estuaries do not have nuclear installations upstream. Plutonium contents in surface marsh sediment from the Savannah River estuary are lower than those found in nearby bay sediments. In fact, total plutonium concentrations of sediments showed increases from the upper to lower portions of the estuary; however, higher contributions of 238 Pu in the upper portions indicate that releases from the Savannah River Plant do contribute plutonium to the Savannah river estuary. Plutonium concentrations in Spartina were less than 10fCi/g dry weight but are higher than plutonium contents of terrestrial plants ( 238 Pu to the total plutonium activities in the sediment and the Spartina. Plutonium concentrations were about three times higher in the Newport river estuary than in the Neuse and Savannah river estuaries. (author)

  19. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeast United States: Southeastern Coastal Plain Subregion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    A literature review was made of the geological characteristics of the Southeastern Coastal Plain physiograhic province in the states of Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate exploration areas for the possible location of a mined repository for the storage of radioactive waste in the argillaceous sedimentary rocks of the Coastal Plain. Candidate areas were selected on the basis of geological characteristics, available subsurface data, and generally accepted requirements for waste isolation developed by previous studies. Factors considered in the evaluation include the stratigraphy and lithology, geologic history, structure, seismicity, hydrogeology, and natural resources of the candidate area. Unlike other potential regions, the Southeastern Coastal Plain is not composed of competent rock, but consists primarily of unconsolidated and water-saturated sediments overlying a basement of crystalline and metavolcanic rocks. Thus, construction of both shafts and tunnels to depths of approx. 1000 meters may encounter difficulties. Socio-economic and construction considerations have not been addressed in the evaluation. Based on the applied criteria, four areas were selected as being most favorable for future field investigation. These include one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and two in Georgia

  20. Distribution and size of the mojarra Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier (Actinopterygii, Gerreidae in a Southeastern Brazilian bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Rodrigues da Costa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diapterus rhombeus is one of the most abundant fish species in the Sepetiba bay, which is a 520 km² semi-closed coastal area in Southeastern Brazil. The size and distribution of this species have been described in order to assess the use of the area as a rearing ground in both spatial and temporal (seasonal dimensions. A fish sampling program was conducted monthly by using an otter trawl between October 1998 and September 1999, in three bay zones (outer, middle and inner, defined according to depth and salinity gradient. Highly significant differences were found for CPUEs (number and biomass among seasons and zones. Size ranged from 50 to 230 mm TL, and three size-groups were defined according to a maturation scale (n = 1435: 1 - immature ( 100 mm TL. Immature and L50 individuals were more abundant (number and biomass during Autumn in the inner zone, while adults (L100 predominated during Summer in the outer zone. Evidences of movements of young-of-the-year (50-90 mm TL individuals from the inner to the outer zone were detected as they reach larger sizes (180 mm TL in the second year of life. Condition (k was higher in larger sized individuals in the outer zone during Spring, when they are apt to start the reproductive process. Two cohorts were detected according to modal progression: the first (smaller size showing faster growth than the second, evidencing a slower growth rate as they reach larger size. Distinct size classes occupying different bay zones suggest that the age-groups optimize their coexistence by partitioning the available resources, avoiding intra-specific competition.Diapterus rhombeus é uma das espécies de peixes mais abundantes na Baia de Sepetiba, ambiente costeiro de 520 km² de área semifechada no sudoeste do Brasil. O tamanho e distribuição dos indivíduos desta espécie foram descritos com o objetivo de determinar o uso das áreas de criação numa dimensão espacial e temporal (sazonal. Um programa de amostragem

  1. Trophic relationships and habitat preferences of delphinids from the southeastern Brazilian coast determined by carbon and nitrogen stable isotope composition.

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    Tatiana Lemos Bisi

    Full Text Available To investigate the foraging habitats of delphinids in southeastern Brazil, we analyzed stable carbon (δ(13C and nitrogen (δ(15N isotopes in muscle samples of the following 10 delphinid species: Sotalia guianensis, Stenella frontalis, Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Pseudorca crassidens, Delphinus sp., Lagenodelphis hosei, Stenella attenuata, Stenella longirostris and Grampus griseus. We also compared the δ(13C and δ(15N values among four populations of S. guianensis. Variation in carbon isotope results from coast to ocean indicated that there was a significant decrease in δ(13C values from estuarine dolphins to oceanic species. S. guianensis from Guanabara Bay had the highest mean δ(13C value, while oceanic species showed significantly lower δ(13C values. The highest δ(15N values were observed for P. crassidens and T. truncatus, suggesting that these species occupy the highest trophic position among the delphinids studied here. The oceanic species S. attenuata, G. griseus and L. hosei had the lowest δ(15N values. Stable isotope analysis showed that the three populations of S. guianensis in coastal bays had different δ(13C values, but similar δ(15N results. Guiana dolphins from Sepetiba and Ilha Grande bays had different foraging habitat, with specimens from Ilha Grande showing more negative δ(13C values. This study provides further information on the feeding ecology of delphinids occurring in southeastern Brazil, with evidence of distinctive foraging habitats and the occupation of different ecological niches by these species in the study area.

  2. Monitoring Drought along the Gulf of Mexico and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean Using the Coastal Salinity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, P. A.; Rouen, L.; Lackstrom, K.; McCloskey, B.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal droughts have a different dynamic than upland droughts, which are typically characterized by agricultural, hydrologic, meteorological, and (or) socio-economic impacts. Drought uniquely affects coastal ecosystems due to changes in salinity conditions of estuarine creeks and rivers. The location of the freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. The location of the interface determines the freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities, fisheries spawning habitat, and the freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. The severity of coastal drought may explain changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. To address the data and information gap for characterizing coastal drought, a coastal salinity index (CSI) was developed using salinity data. The CSI uses a computational approach similar to the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The CSI is computed for unique time intervals (for example 1-, 6-, 12-, and 24-month) that can characterize the onset and recovery of short- and long-term drought. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that the index can be used for different estuary types (for example: brackish, oligohaline, or mesohaline), for regional comparison between estuaries, and as an index of wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought (saline) conditions. In 2017, three activities in 2017 will be presented that enhance the use and application of the CSI. One, a software package was developed for the consistent computation of the CSI that includes preprocessing of salinity data, filling missing data, computing the CSI, post-processing, and generating the supporting metadata. Two, the CSI has been computed at sites along the Gulf of Mexico (Texas to Florida) and the Southeastern Atlantic Ocean (Florida to

  3. Titanium mineral resources in heavy-mineral sands in the Atlantic coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2018-04-16

    This study examined titanium distribution in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States; the titanium is found in heavy-mineral sands that include the minerals ilmenite (Fe2+TiO3), rutile (TiO2), or leucoxene (an alteration product of ilmenite). Deposits of heavy-mineral sands in ancient and modern coastal plains are a significant feedstock source for the titanium dioxide pigments industry. Currently, two heavy-mineral sands mining and processing operations are active in the southeast United States producing concentrates of ilmenite-leucoxene, rutile, and zircon. The results of this study indicate the potential for similar deposits in many areas of the Atlantic Coastal Plain.This study used the titanium analyses of 3,457 stream sediment samples that were analyzed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Geochemical Survey program. This data set was analyzed by an integrated spatial modeling technique known as Bayesian hierarchical modeling to map the regional-scale, spatial distribution of titanium concentrations. In particular, clusters of anomalous concentrations of titanium occur: (1) along the Fall Zone, from Virginia to Alabama, where metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Piedmont region contact younger sediments of the Coastal Plain; (2) a paleovalley near the South Carolina and North Carolina border; (3) the upper and middle Atlantic Coastal Plain of North Carolina; (4) the majority of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Virginia; and (5) barrier islands and stretches of the modern shoreline from South Carolina to northeast Florida. The areas mapped by this study could help mining companies delimit areas for exploration.

  4. Hydrological Controls on Dissolved Organic Matter Quality and Export in a Coastal River System in Southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Osburn, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) exported from river catchments can influence the biogeochemical processes in coastal environments with implications for water quality and carbon budget. High flow conditions are responsible for most DOM export ("pulses") from watersheds, and these events reduce DOM transformation and production by "shunting" DOM from river networks into coastal waters: the Pulse-Shunt Concept (PSC). Subsequently, the source and quality of DOM is also expected to change as a function of river flow. Here, we used stream dissolved organic carbon concentrations ([DOC]) along with DOM optical properties, such as absorbance at 350 nm (a350) and fluorescence excitation and emission matrices modeled by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC), to characterize DOM source, quality and fluxes under variable flow conditions for the Neuse River, a coastal river system in the southeastern US. Observations were made at a flow gauged station above head of tide periodically between Aug 2011 and Feb 2013, which captured low flow periods in summer and several high flow events including Hurricane Irene. [DOC] and a350 were correlated and varied positively with river flow, implying that a large portion of the DOM was colored, humic and flow-mobilized. During high flow conditions, PARAFAC results demonstrated the higher influx of terrestrial humic DOM, and lower in-stream phytoplankton production or microbial degradation. However, during low flow, DOM transformation and production increased in response to higher residence times and elevated productivity. Further, 70% of the DOC was exported by above average flows, where 3-4 fold increases in DOC fluxes were observed during episodic events, consistent with PSC. These results imply that storms dramatically affects DOM export to coastal waters, whereby high river flow caused by episodic events primarily shunt terrestrial DOM to coastal waters, whereas low flow promotes in-stream DOM transformation and amendment with microbial DOM.

  5. Spatial dynamics of understorey insectivorous birds and arthropods in a southeastern Brazilian Atlantic woodlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Manhães

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution and spatial relationships in capture rates of understorey insectivorous birds and density of arthropods were investigated in a patch of upper montane rain forest in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil, from January to December 2004. The composition of the arthropod fauna collected was similar to that reported for other tropical forests, with predominance of Araneae, Coleoptera, Hymenoptera and Hemiptera non-Heteroptera. A total of 26 bird species were captured, among which the more common were Dysithamnus mentalis, Conopophaga lineata, Platyrinchus mystaceus, Basileuterus culicivorus and Sclerurus scansor. Variation in the bird capture rates among sampling net lines were not correlated with arthropod density. Rather, individual analyses of some bird species suggest that spatial distribution of understorey insectivorous birds is better explained by habitat type.

  6. Trophic model of the outer continental shelf and upper slope demersal community of the southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela C. Nascimento

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that demersal communities are important for the functioning of continental shelf and slope ecosystems around the world, including tropical regions. Demersal communities are most prominent in areas of high detritus production and transport, and they link benthic and pelagic biological communities. To understand the structure and role of the demersal community on the southeastern Brazilian Bight, we constructed a trophodynamic model with 37 functional groups to represent the demersal community of the outer continental shelf and upper slope of this area, using the Ecopath with Ecosim 6 (EwE approach and software. The model indicates high production and biomass of detritus and benthic invertebrates, and strong linkages of these components to demersal and pelagic sub-webs. The level of omnivory indexes in this ecosystem was high, forming a highly connected trophic web reminiscent of tropical land areas. Although high levels of ascendency may indicate resistance and resilience to disturbance, recent and present fisheries trends are probably degrading the biological community and related ecosystem services.

  7. Feeding habit of the Brazilian tapir, Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae in a vegetation transition zone in south-eastern Brazil

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    Sônia A. Talamoni

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tapirs are considered generalist herbivores and the differences in the proportions of dietary items are often attributed to differences in the habitats where individuals live. This study characterized the feeding habit of Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758 in a nature reserve in south-eastern Brazil, located in a region considered a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna and the Atlantic Forest biomes. Fecal samples from T. terrestris individuals were collected monthly at six sampling areas that encompassed a total of 242.22 ha. There were 147 fresh samples found (77 during the dry season and 70 during the wet season. The diet of the tapirs in this reserve was characterized by the prevalent browsing on leaves and stems. There was a low frequency of fruit seeds in the diet of the tapirs during both the wet and dry seasons. However, in the dry season a higher percentage of samples containing seeds was observed. Fruits of Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, and Annonaceae were most consumed during the dry season. Most of the fruit seeds found presented small mean diameter (3.7-8.4 mm and most of the fruits were capsules and dry fruits. The characteristics of the fruits consumed by the tapirs indicate that they forage in the lower forest stratum and upon species from Cerrado. Additionally, Psidium myrtoides O. Berg. clusters found in the study site suggest that the tapirs may be acting as dispersal agents of this species.

  8. Bat Response To Carolina Bays and Wetland Restoration in the Southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer M. Menzel; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards

    2005-01-01

    Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist...

  9. FROG ASSEMBLAGE ASSOCIATED WITH BROMELIADS IN A SANDY COASTAL PLAIN IN THE STATE OF ESPÍRITO SANTO, SOUTHEASTERN BRAZIL

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    MARCIO MARQUES MAGESKI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians may use bromeliads for reproduction (i.e., bromeligenous species or only for refuge and foraging (i.e., bromelicolous species. The partition of bromeliad resources is essential to maintain the coexistence of the associated assemblages. We sampled 913 bromeliads in a sandy coastal plain (i.e., restinga habitat in southeastern Brazil and found 234 frogs belonging to seven species. One of the frog species was bromeligenous and the other six were facultative bromelicolous. The bromeliads of the genus Aechmea were the most frequently used by frogs. The low degree of frog occupancy of bromeliads (26% suggests habitat segregation. Our study highlights the importance of maintenance of bromeliad species for conservation of the associated frog assemblages.

  10. Production of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Ploimida: Brachionidae) in a Brazilian coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilho, M S; Arcifa, M S

    2000-12-01

    Secondary production, density and biomass fluctuations, and some reproductive aspects of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were studied weekly for two years in a Brazilian coastal lagoon. Food (and secondarily temperature) seemed to be the main factor involved in the summer increments. In the first summer, a mass mortality of fish caused changes in the phytoplankton, which switched from the dominance of Cyanophyceae to Chlorophyceae and other groups. For two months, production, density and biomass were relatively high until the recovery of the Cyanophyceae dominance. In the second summer, peaks of shorter duration and higher values of production, in comparison to the first one, were found. The contribution of resting eggs hatching, in the first summer, and the increment in parthenogenetic reproduction, in the second summer, would account for the population increases observed. Males and mictic females occurred when densities were high.

  11. Production of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis (Ploimida: Brachionidae in a Brazilian coastal lagoon

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    Maria Stela Maioli Castilho

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary production, density and biomass fluctuations, and some reproductive aspects of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were studied weekly for two years in a Brazilian coastal lagoon. Food (and secondarily temperature seemed to be the main factor involved in the summer increments. In the first summer, a mass mortality of fish caused changes in the phytoplankton, which switched from the dominance of Cyanophyceae to Chlorophyceae and other groups. For two months, production, density and biomass were relatively high until the recovery of the Cyanophyceae dominance. In the second summer, peaks of shorter duration and higher values of production, in comparison to the first one, were found. The contribution of resting eggs hatching, in the first summer, and the increment in parthenogenetic reproduction, in the second summer, would account for the population increases observed. Males and mictic females occurred when densities were high.

  12. Spatial and temporal distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in a Southeastern Brazilian river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, M P; Buss, D F; Nessimian, J L; Baptista, D F

    2006-05-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages are structured according to physical and chemical parameters that define microhabitats, including food supply, shelter to escape predators, and other biological parameters that influence reproductive success. The aim of this study is to investigate spatial and temporal distribution of macroinvertebrate assemblages at the Macaé river basin, in Rio de Janeiro state, Southeastern Brazil. According to the "Habitat Assessment Field Data Sheet--High Gradient Streams" (Barbour et al., 1999), the five sampling sites are considered as a reference condition. Despite the differences in hydrological parameters (mean width, depth and discharge) among sites, the physicochemical parameters and functional feeding groups' general structure were similar, except for the less impacted area, which showed more shredders. According to the Detrended Correspondence Analysis based on substrates, there is a clear distinction between pool and riffle assemblages. In fact, the riffle litter substrate had higher taxa in terms of richness and abundance, but the pool litter substrate had the greatest number of exclusive taxa. A Cluster Analysis based on sampling sites data showed that temporal variation was the main factor in structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages in the studied habitats.

  13. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

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    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  14. Water resources inventory of Connecticut Part 3: lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chester E.; Cervione, Michael A.; Grossman, I.G.

    1968-01-01

    The lower Thames and southeastern coastal river basins have a relatively abundant supply of water of generally good quality which is derived from streams entering the area and precipitation that has fallen on the area. Annual precipitation has ranged from about 32 inches to 65 inches and has averaged about 48 inches over a 30-year period. Approximately 22 inches of water are returned to the atmosphere each year by evaporation and transpiration; the remainder of the annual precipitation either flows overland to streams or percolates downward to the water table and ultimately flows out of the report area through estuaries and coastal streams or as underflow through the deposits beneath. During the autumn and winter months precipitation normally is sufficient to cause a substantial increase in the amount of water stored underground and in surface reservoirs within the report area, whereas in the summer most of the precipitation is lost through evaporation and transpiration, resulting in sharply reduced stream-flow and lowered ground-water levels. The mean monthly storage of water on an average is about 3.8 inches higher in November than it is in June. The amount of water that flows through and out of the report area represents the total amount of water potentially available for use by man. For the 30-year period 1931 through 1960, the annual runoff from the report area has averaged nearly 26 inches (200 billion gallons), from the entire Thames River basin above Norwich about 24 inches (530 billion gallons), and from the Pawcatuck River basin about 26 inches (130 billion gallons). A total average annual runoff of 860 billion gallons is therefore available. Although runoff indicates the total amount of water potentially available, it is usually not economically feasible for man to use all of it. On the other hand, with increased development, it is possible that some water will be reused several times. The water available may be tapped as it flows through the area or is

  15. Climate change impacts on coastal and pelagic environments in the southeastern Bay of Biscay

    OpenAIRE

    Chust, G; Borja, Á; Caballero, A; Irigoien, X; Sáenz, J; Moncho, R; Marcos, M; Liria, P; Hidalgo, J; Valle, M; Valencia, V

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The impacts of global climate change on the Basque coast and the pelagic systems within the southeastern Bay of Biscay are reviewed. Climate projections under greenhouse gas emission scenarios indicate that this area will experience changes in climate throughout the 21st century, including warming of surface air (especially heat wave episodes), intensification of extreme daily rainfall (10%), warming of the upper 100 m of the ocean layer (1.5 to 2.05°C), and sea level ...

  16. Redescription of Hanleya brachyplax (Polyplacophora, Hanleyidae from the south-southeastern Brazilian coast

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    Jaime A. Jardim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 is described in detail. The species occurs off the southeastern and south coast of Brazil (São Paulo and Santa Catarina states in depths from 250 to 408 m. It differs from its congeners in having uniform white valves; wide intermediate valves; the tail valve with straight profile in the antemucronal area, and a concave postmucronal surface; and a cream-colored girdle, covered by non-articulated spines. An anatomical investigation was also performed, showing the main muscle groups; the presence of gills in the posterior third of the pallial groove; auricle with six orifices; a very flat kidney, restricted to the posterior half of the animal; and a simple esophageal region. The odontophore has a single pair of long cartilages. The buccal musculature is also described.Hanleya brachyplax Simone & Jardim in Rios, 2009 é descrita em detalhes. A espécie ocorre entre as costas Sul e Sudeste do Brasil (Estados de São Paulo e Santa Catarina em profundidades de 250 a 408 m. Se diferenciando das espécies do mesmo gênero por apresentar valvas uniformemente brancas; valvas intermediarias largas; valva anal com a região antemucronal reta e região postmucronal suavemente concava; cinturão creme, revestido de espinhos não articulados. Um estudo anatômico foi realizado, evidenciando os principais grupos musculares; restrição dos filamentos branquiais à região posterior da cavidade palial; aurículas com seis orifícios; rim achatado e restrito a porção posterior do animal; região esofágica simples. O odontóforo composto por um par de cartilagens simples. Musculatura da massa bucal é também descrita.

  17. Disentangling the influences of habitat structure and limnological predictors on stream fish communities of a coastal basin, southeastern Brazil

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    Fabio Cop Ferreira

    Full Text Available In stream environments habitat structure and limnological factors interact regulating patterns of energy and material transfer and affecting fish communities. In the coastal basins of Southeastern Brazil, limnological and structural characteristics differ between clear and blackwaters streams. The former have a diversity of substrate types, higher water velocities, and lower water conductivity, while the latter have sandy substrate, tea-colored and acidic waters, and low water velocities. In this study, we verified the relative importance of habitat structure and limnological variables in predicting patterns of variation in stream fish communities. Eight first to third order streams were sampled in the coastal plain of Itanhaém River basin. We captured 34 fish species and verified that community structure was influenced by physical habitat and limnology, being the former more important. A fraction of the variation could not be totally decomposed, and it was assigned to the joint influence of limnology and habitat structure. Some species that were restricted to blackwater streams, may have physiological and behavioral adaptations to deal with the lower pH levels. When we examined only the clearwater streams, all the explained variation in fish community composition was assigned to structural factors, which express specific preferences for different types of habitats.

  18. Effect of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Effects of sea-level rise on salt water intrusion near a coastal well field in southeastern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Christian D.; Zygnerski, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A variable-density groundwater flow and dispersive solute transport model was developed for the shallow coastal aquifer system near a municipal supply well field in southeastern Florida. The model was calibrated for a 105-year period (1900 to 2005). An analysis with the model suggests that well-field withdrawals were the dominant cause of salt water intrusion near the well field, and that historical sea-level rise, which is similar to lower-bound projections of future sea-level rise, exacerbated the extent of salt water intrusion. Average 2005 hydrologic conditions were used for 100-year sensitivity simulations aimed at quantifying the effect of projected rises in sea level on fresh coastal groundwater resources near the well field. Use of average 2005 hydrologic conditions and a constant sea level result in total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of the well field exceeding drinking water standards after 70 years. When sea-level rise is included in the simulations, drinking water standards are exceeded 10 to 21 years earlier, depending on the specified rate of sea-level rise.

  20. A comparison of ship and Coastal Zone Color Scanner mapped distribution of phytoplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclain, C. R.; Sambrotto, R. N.; Ray, G. C.; Muller-Karger, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images of the southeastern Bering Sea are examined in order to map the near-surface distribution of phytoplankton during 1979 and 1980. The information is compared with the mesoscale (100-1000 km) distribution of phytoplankton inferred from pooled ship sampling obtained during the Processes and Resources of the Bering Shelf (PROBES) intensive field study during the late 1970s and early 1980s. The imagery indicates that open-water phytoplankton blooms occur first in late April in coastal waters, peak in early May over the middle shelf, and decay rapidly afterwards, reaching concentration minima in June in both regions. These patterns show that the earlier ship observations are valid for most of the eastern Bering shelf. A very tight correlation is found between the PROBES surface chlorophyll a concentrations and mean mixed-layer chlorophyll concentrations. The significant discrepancies between CZCS and ship-based chlorophyll estimates may be due to aliasing in time by the CZCS. It is concluded that neither satellite nor ship alone can do an adequate job of characterizing the physics or biological dynamics of the ocean.

  1. Spawning areas of Engraulis anchoita in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight during late-spring and early summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Favero, Jana M.; Katsuragawa, Mario; Zani-Teixeira, Maria de Lourdes; Turner, Jefferson T.

    2017-04-01

    Analysis of fish egg density and distribution is indispensable for the understanding of the adult stock variability, and is a powerful tool for fisheries management. Thus, the objective of the present study was to characterize the spatial-temporal spawning patterns of Engraulis anchoita in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight, in terms of geographic location and abiotic factors. We analyzed data of eggs sampled during ten years, from 1974 to 1993, to create maps of the mean and the standard deviation (sd) of the estimated probability of egg presence, through indicative kriging. Preferred, tolerated and avoided temperature, salinity, local depth and distance for spawning of E. anchoita were defined by the estimation of bootstrapped confidence intervals of the quotient values (Q). Despite not having identified any recurrent spawning sites, a few occasional and unfavorable spawning sites were identified, showing that the spawning habit of E. anchoita not only varied spatially, but also temporally. The largest occasional spawning site and with the highest probability of egg presence (0.6-0.7) was located around 27°S, close to Florianópolis (Santa Catarina state). On the other hand, a well-marked unfavorable spawning site was located off São Sebastião Island (São Paulo state), with the probability of egg presence between 0-0.1. Abiotic and biotic factors that could be related to the changes in the spawning areas of E. anchoita were discussed, with shelf width, mesoscale hydrodynamic features and biological interactions apparently playing important roles in defining spawning sites.

  2. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern Brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, L C; Rodrigues, M

    2014-08-01

    The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009) in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15' S and 43° 31' W). The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1) typical campos rupestres (TCR), (2) open fields (OPF), and (3) capões de mata (CAM). Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38), followed by the OPF (N = 18) and CAM (N = 17). Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird-plant pollination

  3. Flowers visited by hummingbirds in the open habitats of the southeastern brazilian mountaintops: species composition and seasonality

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    LC Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The hummingbird-visited plant community located on the open-habitat mountaintop of the Espinhaço Range was studied for two years (from August 2007 to July 2009 in Serra do Cipó National Park, Southeastern Brazil (19° 15′ S and 43° 31′ W. The floral characteristics and flowering period of the hummingbird-visited plants was monthly recorded along trails located in three vegetation types: (1 typical campos rupestres (TCR, (2 open fields (OPF, and (3 capões de mata(CAM. Hummingbird visitation was observed in 51 plant species, 22 ornithophilous and 29 non-ornithophilous species. The TCR showed the greatest number of species visited (N = 38, followed by the OPF (N = 18 and CAM (N = 17. Six species of hummingbirds were recorded visiting flowers: Augastes scutatus, Campylopterus largipennis, Colibri serrirostris, Chlorostilbon lucidus, Eupetomena macroura and Phaethornis pretrei. This study demonstrates that the species richness and the number of ornithophilous species visited by the hummingbirds at the study site are more similar to hummingbird-plant communities of the Atlantic Forest than to those of the Cerrado communities and other Brazilian highland open-habitat communities. The plant families most visited by hummingbirds were Bromeliaceae and Asteraceae. Although the Asteraceae family is rarely used as a food resource for hummingbirds in other high and lowland communities, in the study site this family is used mainly by the endemic hummingbird Augastes scutatus. We found a large overlap of flowering throughout the year among the species visited by the hummingbirds. Thus, the nectar availability supports these resident hummingbirds. The present study also showed that the studied hummingbird-plant community is composed of many species endemic to the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range, some of which are considered to be in danger of extinction, thus constituting a unique and threatened community. Thus, understanding hummingbird

  4. Using radon-222 to study coastal groundwater/surface-water interaction in the Crau coastal aquifer (southeastern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adriano; Nguyen, Bach Thao; Banton, Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Radon has been used to determine groundwater velocity and groundwater discharge into wetlands at the southern downstream boundary of the Crau aquifer, southeastern France. This aquifer constitutes an important high-quality freshwater resource exploited for agriculture, industry and human consumption. An increase in salinity occurs close to the sea, highlighting the need to investigate the water balance and groundwater behavior. Darcy velocity was estimated using radon activities in well waters according to the Hamada "single-well method" (involving comparison with radon in groundwater in the aquifer itself). Measurements done at three depths (7, 15 and 21 m) provided velocity ranging from a few mm/day to more than 20 cm/day, with highest velocities observed at the 15-m depth. Resulting hydraulic conductivities agree with the known geology. Waters showing high radon activity and high salinity were found near the presumed shoreline at 3,000 years BP, highlighting the presence of ancient saltwater. Radon activity has also been measured in canals, rivers and ponds, to trace groundwater discharges and evaluate water balance. A model of the radon spatial evolution explains the observed radon activities. Groundwater discharge to surface water is low in pond waters (4 % of total inputs) but significant in canals (55 l/m2/day).

  5. Sedimentary changes on the Southeastern Brazilian upper slope during the last 35,000 years

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    Michel M. Mahiques

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A first evaluation of the sedimentary changes, including accumulation of inorganic and organic carbon on the upper slope off Southeastern Brazil under different climatic conditions, based on the analysis of a sedimentary core, is here presented. Results indicate that sedimentation rate as well sedimentary characteristics, including the nature of the organic carbon deposited during the LGM (Last Glacial Maximum, were different from the present deposition, indicating higher primary productivity during the LGM, to be accounted for by the higher values of marine organic carbon. Nevertheless, the higher values of Accumulation Rate of calcium carbonate and organic carbon can be credited to the higher values of the sedimentation rates. Conditions prevailing during Isotope Stage 3 may be considered intermediate as between the LGM and the present day. The conditions for a higher primary productivity associated with the deposition of finer terrigenous sediments may be explained as a response to the off shoreward displacement of the main flow of the Brazil Current.Este trabalho apresenta uma primeira avaliação das mudanças sedimentares, incluindo a acumulação de carbono orgânico e inorgânico, no talude continental superior do Brasil, sob diferentes condições climáticas, baseadas em análises de um testemunho. Os resultados indicam que a taxa de sedimentação, assim como as características sedimentares, incluindo a natureza do carbono orgânico depositado durante o UMG (Último Máximo Glacial, foram diferentes dos processos deposicionais atuais, indicando maior produtividade primária durante o UMG, como determinado pelos maiores valores de carbono orgânico marinho. Entretanto, os maiores valores de Taxa de Acumulação de carbonato de cálcio e carbono orgânico podem ser creditados aos valores mais altos de taxas de sedimentação. As condições prevalentes durante o Estágio Isotópico 3 podem ser consideradas intermediárias entre o UMG e

  6. Atmospheric ammonia measurements along the coastal lines of Southeastern China: Implications for inorganic nitrogen deposition to coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shui-Ping; Dai, Lu-Hong; Wei, Ya; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Yin-Ju; Schwab, James J.; Yuan, Chung-Shin

    2018-03-01

    Ambient NH3 concentrations were determined using Ogawa passive samplers along the coastal lines of southeast China from June 2015 to May 2017. Additional monitoring of PM2.5 and precipitation around Xiamen Bay during the period from November 2015 to May 2017 were carried out to estimate atmospheric inorganic nitrogen (IN) deposition to the bay. Distinct seasonal variations of ambient NH3 were observed with summer averages 1.41-5.56 times higher than winter, which agreed well with the seasonal trend of air temperature. Nitrate concentrations (pNO3-) in PM2.5 were significantly higher than ammonium concentrations (pNH4+), and both species showed higher concentrations in winter and spring and lower values in summer and fall which were influenced mainly by the monsoon cycle, gas-to-particle transformation process and rain washout. Paired t-testing revealed that no significant differences of pNO3- and pNH4+ between the urban and suburban sites around the Xiamen Bay. Unlike pNO3- and pNH4+, there were no clear seasonal trends for NH4+ and NO3- concentrations in precipitation samples (wNH4+ and wNO3-). On average, the deposition of IN consisted of NH3-N (27.4-28.2%) and pNO3--N (25.9-26.8%), followed by pNH4+-N (17.0-17.7%), wNH4+-N (14.5%), wNO3--N (13.3-13.8%) and NO2-N (0.35-0.46%); and showed distinct seasonal trends with higher values in winter/spring and lower values in summer/fall. In 2016, the total IN deposition was determined to be 36.45 and 35.92 kg N ha-1 at the urban and suburban sites around the Xiamen Bay, respectively. The proportion of IN deposition to total IN loads (terrestrial + atmospheric), varied over the range of 7.1-13.3% depending on the data source of riverine influx. Our observations revealed that the total IN deposition could account for 9.6-25.1% (based on primary productivity over Taiwan Strait) and 1.7-5.3% (based on primary productivity in Guangdong coastal region) of new productivity in Xiamen Bay, respectively. As an important nutrient

  7. Winter climate change and coastal wetland foundation species: salt marshes vs. mangrove forests in the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osland, Michael J; Enwright, Nicholas; Day, Richard H; Doyle, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    We live in an era of unprecedented ecological change in which ecologists and natural resource managers are increasingly challenged to anticipate and prepare for the ecological effects of future global change. In this study, we investigated the potential effect of winter climate change upon salt marsh and mangrove forest foundation species in the southeastern United States. Our research addresses the following three questions: (1) What is the relationship between winter climate and the presence and abundance of mangrove forests relative to salt marshes; (2) How vulnerable are salt marshes to winter climate change-induced mangrove forest range expansion; and (3) What is the potential future distribution and relative abundance of mangrove forests under alternative winter climate change scenarios? We developed simple winter climate-based models to predict mangrove forest distribution and relative abundance using observed winter temperature data (1970-2000) and mangrove forest and salt marsh habitat data. Our results identify winter climate thresholds for salt marsh-mangrove forest interactions and highlight coastal areas in the southeastern United States (e.g., Texas, Louisiana, and parts of Florida) where relatively small changes in the intensity and frequency of extreme winter events could cause relatively dramatic landscape-scale ecosystem structural and functional change in the form of poleward mangrove forest migration and salt marsh displacement. The ecological implications of these marsh-to-mangrove forest conversions are poorly understood, but would likely include changes for associated fish and wildlife populations and for the supply of some ecosystem goods and services. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  9. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza; Xavier Chiappa-Carrara

    2015-01-01

    Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analys...

  10. Multi-temporal RADARSAT-1 and ERS backscattering signatures of coastal wetlands in southeastern Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwoun, Oh-Ig; Lu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Using multi-temporal European Remote-sensing Satellites (ERS-1/-2) and Canadian Radar Satellite (RADARSAT-1) synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over the Louisiana coastal zone, we characterize seasonal variations of radar backscat-tering according to vegetation type. Our main findings are as follows. First, ERS-1/-2 and RADARSAT-1 require careful radiometric calibration to perform multi-temporal backscattering analysis for wetland mapping. We use SAR backscattering signals from cities for the relative calibration. Second, using seasonally averaged backscattering coefficients from ERS-1/-2 and RADARSAT-1, we can differentiate most forests (bottomland and swamp forests) and marshes (freshwater, intermediate, brackish, and saline marshes) in coastal wetlands. The student t-test results support the usefulness of season-averaged backscatter data for classification. Third, combining SAR backscattering coefficients and an optical-sensor-based normalized difference vegetation index can provide further insight into vegetation type and enhance the separation between forests and marshes. Our study demonstrates that SAR can provide necessary information to characterize coastal wetlands and monitor their changes.

  11. Growth parameters estimates of Maurolicus stehmanni Parin & Kobyliansky 1996 (Teleostei, Sternoptichydae from south and southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bellucco

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper on the otolith microstructure analysis of Maurolicus stehmanni presents estimates of the species growth parameters and longevity. The species inhabits the outer shelf and slope of the southern and southeastern Brazilian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Growth parameters are important for the knowledge of the species' life history and rational management. M. stehmanni constitutes an important link between the initial and final components of the alimentary chain of the open sea ecosystem, being one of the main food items for squids and large pelagic fish. Among the various applied methods those which presented the most coherent values for growth parameters and were best adapted to the von Bertallanfy's equation were: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/day and to= 5.5 days Maurolicus stehmanni's longevity is of less than one year (around 220 days and the sagita daily otolith rings are useful for the determination of its age.Este estudo, baseado na análise da microestrutura dos otólitos de Maurolicus stehmanni, apresenta estimativas dos parâmetros de crescimento e longevidade para esta espécie que habita a plataforma externa e o talude da ZEE sul-sudeste do Brasil. Estes parâmetros são importantes para o conhecimento da estratégia de vida da espécie e para o manejo deste recurso, que constitui um importante elo entre os componentes iniciais e finais da teia alimentar no ecossistema de mar aberto, sendo um dos principais itens na dieta das lulas e grandes peixes pelágicos. Dentre os vários métodos aplicados, os valores dos parâmetros de crescimento mais coerentes com a estratégia da espécie e que melhor se ajustaram à equação de von Bertallanfy foram: Li= 55mm K= 0.0088/dia e to= 5.5 dias. A espécie vive cerca de 220 dias e as marcas diárias nos otólitos sagita são apropriadas para a determinação da idade.

  12. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    OpenAIRE

    Shui-Ping Wu; Yin-Ju Zhang; James J. Schwab; Shuai Huang; Ya Wei; Chung-Shin Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Levoglucosan (LG), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and potassium (K+), and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365) of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen). These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal ...

  13. Feeding ecology of juvenile marine fish in a shallow coastal lagoon of southeastern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Arceo-Carranza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many species of marine fish use coastal lagoons during early stages of their life cycles due to the protection provided by their turbid waters and complex structure of the environment, such as mangroves and mudflats, and the availability of food derived from the high productivity of these sites. In this study, we analyzed the diet of six species of juvenile marine fishes that use a karstic lagoon system in the northwest portion of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Through stomach contents analysis we determined the trophic differences among Caranx latus, Oligoplites saurus, Trachinotus falcatus, Synodus foetens, Lutjanus griseus, and Strongylura notata. C. latus, O. saurus, S. foetens, and S. notate, which are ichthyophagous species (>80% by number. L. griseus feeds mainly on crustaceans (>55% and fish (35%, while T. falcatus feeds on mollusks (>50% bivalves, >35% gastropods. The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM showed differences in the diet of all species. Cluster analysis, based on the Bray-Curtis similarity matrix revealed three groups; one characterized by the ichthyophagous guild (S. notata, S. foetens, C. latus, and O. saurus, other group formed by the crustacean consumers (L. griseus, and the third, composed by the mollusk feeder (T. falcatus. Species of the ichthyophagous guild showed overlap in their diets, which under conditions of low prey abundance may trigger competition, hence affecting juvenile stages of these marine species that use coastal lagoons to feed and grow.

  14. Specific absorption and backscatter coefficient signatures in southeastern Atlantic coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostater, Charles R., Jr.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of natural water samples in the field and laboratory of hyperspectral signatures of total absorption and reflectance were obtained using long pathlength absorption systems (50 cm pathlength). Water was sampled in Indian River Lagoon, Banana River and Port Canaveral, Florida. Stations were also occupied in near coastal waters out to the edge of the Gulf Stream in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center, Florida and estuarine waters along Port Royal Sound and along the Beaufort River tidal area in South Carolina. The measurements were utilized to calculate natural water specific absorption, total backscatter and specific backscatter optical signatures. The resulting optical cross section signatures suggest different models are needed for the different water types and that the common linear model may only appropriate for coastal and oceanic water types. Mean particle size estimates based on the optical cross section, suggest as expected, that particle size of oceanic particles are smaller than more turbid water types. The data discussed and presented are necessary for remote sensing applications of sensors as well as for development and inversion of remote sensing algorithms.

  15. Bat response to carolina bays and wetland restoration in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, Jennifer M.; Michael A. Menzel; John C. Kilgo; W. Mark Ford; ; John W. Edwards.

    2005-09-01

    Abstract: Bat activity in the southeastern United States is concentrated over riparian areas and wetland habitats. The restoration and creation of wetlands for mitigation purposes is becoming common in the Southeast. Understanding the effects of these restoration efforts on wetland flora and fauna is thus becoming increasingly important. Because bats (Order: Chiroptera) consist of many species that are of conservation concern and are commonly associated with wetland and riparian habitats in the Southeast (making them a good general indicator for the condition of wetland habitats), we monitored bat activity over restored and reference Carolina bays surrounded by pine savanna (Pinus spp.) or mixed pine-hardwood habitat types at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. In order to determine how wetland restoration efforts affected the bat community, we monitored bat activity above drained Carolina bays pre- and post-restoration. Our results indicate that bat activity was greater over reference (i.e., undrained) than drained bays prior to the restorative efforts. One year following combined hydrologic and vegetation treatment, however, bat activity was generally greater over restored than reference bays. Bat activity was also greater over both reference and restored bays than in random, forested interior locations. We found significantly more bat activity after restoration than prior to restoration for all but one species in the treatment bays, suggesting that Carolina bay restoration can have almost immediate positive impacts on bat activity.

  16. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, G.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Choubey, V. M.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Tokonami, S.; Sorimachi, A.; Sahoo, S. K.; Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m -3 and the below detection level to 77 Bq m -3 , respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m -3 , preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  17. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V M [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Vidya Sagar, D [Health Physics Unit (EAD, BARC), IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Dt. Ganjam, Orissa 761 045 (India); Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Sahoo, S K; Janik, M; Ishikawa, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263 8555 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m{sup -3} and the below detection level to 77 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m{sup -3}, preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Coastal habitat degradation and green sea turtle diets in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Robson G.; Martins, Agnaldo Silva; Farias, Julyana da Nobrega; Horta, Antunes Paulo; Pinheiro, Hudson Tercio; Baptistotte, Cecilia; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.; Balazs, George H.; Work, Thierry M.

    2011-01-01

    To show the influence of coastal habitat degradation on the availability of food for green turtles (Chelonia mydas), we assessed the dietary preferences and macroalgae community at a feeding area in a highly urbanized region. The area showed low species richness and was classified as degraded. We examined stomach contents of 15 dead stranded turtles (CCL = 44.0 cm (SD 6.7 cm)). The diet was composed primarily of green algae Ulva spp. (83.6%). In contrast, the macroalgae community was dominated by the green alga Caulerpa mexicana. We found a selection for red algae, seagrass and Ulva spp., and avoidance for C. mexicana and brown alga Dictyopteris delicatula. The low diversity of available food items, possibly a result of environmental degradation, likely contributed to the low dietary diversity. The nutritional implications of this restricted diet are unclear.

  19. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Hatano, F H; Vrcibradic, D; Van Sluys, M

    2008-02-01

    We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation) along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí), Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba) and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso). We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species), followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each). The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas), followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas). Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances) seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13 degrees; p = 0.007). Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  20. Frog species richness, composition and beta-diversity in coastal Brazilian restinga habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available We studied the species richness and composition of frogs in 10 restinga habitats (sand dune environments dominated by herbaceous and shrubby vegetation along approximately 1500 km of coastal areas of three Brazilian States: Rio de Janeiro (Grumari, Maricá, Massambaba, Jurubatiba and Grussaí, Espírito Santo (Praia das Neves and Setiba and Bahia (Prado and Trancoso. We estimated beta-diversity and similarity among areas and related these parameters to geographic distance between areas. All areas were surveyed with a similar sampling procedure. We found 28 frog species belonging to the families Hylidae, Microhylidae, Leptodactylidae and Bufonidae. Frogs in restingas were in general nocturnal with no strictly diurnal species. The richest restinga was Praia das Neves (13 species, followed by Grussaí and Trancoso (eight species in each. The commonest species in the restingas was Scinax alter (found in eight restingas, followed by Aparasphenodon brunoi (seven areas. Our data shows that richness and composition of frog communities vary consistently along the eastern Brazilian coast and, in part, the rate of species turnover is affected by the distance among areas. Geographic distance explained approximately 12% of species turnover in restingas and about 9.5% of similarity among frog assemblages. Although geographic distance somewhat affects frog assemblages, other factors (e.g. historical factors, disturbances seem to be also involved in explaining present frog assemblage composition in each area and species turnover among areas. The frog fauna along restinga habitats was significantly nested (matrix community temperature = 26.13°; p = 0.007. Our data also showed that the most hospitable restinga was Praia das Neves and indicated that this area should be protected as a conservation unit. Frog assemblage of each area seems to partially represent a nested subset of the original assemblage, although we should not ignore the importance of historical

  1. Trace element concentrations in wild mussels from the coastal area of the southeastern Adriatic, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the levels of trace elements (Zn, Cu, As, Pb, Cd and total Hg in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis (L.. Based on their levels, the quality of Montenegro seawater for future mussel farming was estimated. The mussel M. galloprovincialis (L. was collected from four sites in the Montenegrin costal area in the period of two years to determine trace element concentrations and to classify the quality of the coastal water and possible health risks from its consumption. The mean metal concentrations in the mussels ranged from 133.5-205.9 for Zn, 7.50-14.5 for Cu, 4.42-13.3 for As, 4.70-12.9 for Pb, 1.73-2.41 for Cd and 0.07-0.59 for total Hg in mg/kg dry weight. The levels of toxic metals (except for Pb in the mussels were within the maximum residual levels prescribed by the laws of Montenegro, the EU and the USFDA. In addition, the trace metal concentrations found in the mussels in this study were similar to regional data using this mussel as a biomonitoring agent of seawater quality.

  2. A significant longshore transport divergence zone at the Northeastern Brazilian coast: implications on coastal Quaternary evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABÍLIO C.S.P. BITTENCOURT

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available By using the mean directions of the wave-fronts approaching the Brazilian northeastern coastal stretch comprised between the localities of Real river (Sergipe State and Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte State - coincident with those of the main winds occurring in the area - and their periods, we have defined a wave climate model based on the construction of refraction diagrams. The resulting model of sediment transport, as obtained by numerical modelling from the refraction diagrams, taking into consideration the angle of approach and waves heights along the 10-m isobath, was capable of reproducing the patterns of sediment dispersion provided by geomorphic indicators of the longshore drift. All this coastal region, approximately 900 km in length, is characterized by a significant divergence zone in the direction of net longshore drift of sediments, the potential intensity of which increases considerably in value, in almost its entire length, continuously toward downdrift, which might explain the greater or lesser long term susceptibility to erosion, during the Quaternary, along the coastal stretch studied.Utilizando-se as direções médias das principais frentes-de-onda que se aproximam do trecho costeiro do nordeste brasileiro compreendido entre as localidades de Rio Real (Sergipe e Galinhos (Rio Grande do Norte - coincidentes com aquelas dos principais ventos que ocorrem na área - e de seus períodos, nós definimos um modelo de clima de ondas baseado na construção de diagramas de refração. O modelo resultante de transporte de sedimentos, obtido por modelagem numérica feita a partir dos diagramas de refração, considerando o ângulo de aproximação e a altura das ondas ao longo da isóbata de 10m, foi capaz de reproduzir os padrões de dispersão de sedimentos fornecidos pelos indicadores geomórficos de deriva litorânea. Toda essa região costeira, com cerca de 900km de extensão, caracteriza-se por se constituir em uma grande zona de

  3. Biomass burning contributions to urban PM2.5 along the coastal lines of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Ping Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Levoglucosan (LG, water soluble organic carbon (WSOC and potassium (K+, and the light absorption at 365 nm (Abs365 of the extracted WSOC are measured in PM2.5 samples collected from November 2011 to July 2013 at four coastal urban sites in southeast China (Fuzhou, Putian, Quanzhou and Xiamen. These species are markers of biomass burning and used to determine the contributions of biomass burning to the PM2.5 burden in these locations. LG and WSOC concentrations exhibited a clear seasonal pattern, with a large enhancement in winter and spring and a minimum in summer, and annual means across all sites of 59.2±46.8 ng m−3 and 2.69±1.21 µg C m−3, respectively. The distinctive seasonal patterns of LG and WSOC are more explained by the East Asian monsoon than the upwind varying emission sources according to the HYSPLIT backward trajectories and MODIS fire spots. Observations produced significant correlation (at the p<0.01 level between LG and non-sea salt K+ (nss-K+ at each site, but the correlations exhibited no clear seasonal trend. The LG/nss-K+ ratios ranged from 0.03±0.01 to 0.24±0.13 which lay within the limits for the crop residues and/or grass combustion smoke. Stronger correlations were found between WSOC or Abs365 and sulphate than between WSOC and LG. This observation is consistent with the fact that biomass burning is a less important contributor to WSOC and/or brown carbon than is secondary organic aerosol formation and oxidation. The average relative contributions of biomass burning to OC and WSOC in PM2.5 were 8.3 and 15.2 %, respectively, estimated by the measured LG to OC and WSOC (LG/OC and LG/WSOC ratios in comparison to literature-derived LG/OC and LG/WSOC values for biomass burning smoke. Using the reported conversion factor of LG to PM2.5 for crop straw burning smoke, the LG-estimated PM2.5 contributions from biomass burning exhibited minimum values in summer and higher values in winter and spring. Positive Matrix

  4. Spatial and temporal variability in the otolith chemistry of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei from estuarine and coastal environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbrenner, A; Ferreira, B P; Rooker, J R

    2016-07-01

    Otolith chemistry of juvenile and adult individuals of the Brazilian snapper Lutjanus alexandrei was measured to assess the utility of natural markers for investigating individual movements. Individuals were collected over a 3-year period (2010-2012) along the north-eastern coast of Brazil from both estuarine (juvenile to sub-adult stages) and coastal (sub-adult to adult stages) areas. Six elements ((7) Li, (24) Mg, (55) Mn, (59) Co, (88) Sr and (137) Ba) were measured in sectioned otoliths of L. alexandrei using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). Edge composition analysis indicated that element:Ca ratios in the otoliths of juvenile and sub-adult L. alexandrei from estuaries were not significantly different among the three consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), suggesting that physicochemical conditions within the nursery area investigated were temporally stable. Similarly, apart from two elements (Ba and Co), element:Ca ratios for larger L. alexandrei inhabiting coastal waters were also similar. In contrast, otolith chemistry of similar sized L. alexandrei from estuarine and coastal areas was significantly different (based on recently accreted material). Otolith Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca were both significantly higher for L. alexandrei collected in estuaries compared to fish from adjacent coastal reefs, while the opposite trend was observed for Sr:Ca. Given the pronounced differences in otolith chemistry between estuarine and coastal areas, element:Ca transects were constructed from the core to margin of the otoliths for adults (age 7+ years) collected on reefs to determine the timing of movement (ontogenetic migration) from estuarine to coastal areas. Based on observed patterns of decline for both Mn:Ca and Ba:Ca, it appears that L. alexandrei begin the move to more coastal habitats (i.e. lower element:Ca ratios) after age 2 years. The patterns observed for this species highlight the importance of conserving connectivity between

  5. Coupling fallout 210Pb and stables isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) for catchment urbanization reconstruction in southeastern coastal zone of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerda, Mauricio; Macario, Kita Damasio; Roberto Meigikos dos Anjos; Universidade Federal Fluminense; Lamego, Fernando; Universidade Federal Fluminense

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication history was reconstructed by bulk organic and inorganic proxies (C, N, P) and isotope (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) analysis constrained by geochronological model derived from fallout 210 Pb in Brazilian coastal lagoon. The sedimentary record spanning the last four decades showed impact of urbanization starting from 1970s. These changes were marked by increase of TN, TP, IP fluxes that were significantly correlated with population growth. Significant covariation of C:N, MDP and δ 15 N along age-depth profiles provided linkage with sedimentation rates, serving as an independent time marker for geochronology and validating use of 210 Pb dating model based on constant initial concentration. (author)

  6. Hydrocarbons and trace metals in mussels in the Macaé coast: Preliminary assessment for a coastal zone under influence of offshore oil field exploration in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Igor U; Molisani, Mauricio M; Nudi, Adriana H; Scofield, Artur L; Wagener, Angela de L R; Limaverde Filho, Aricelso M

    2016-02-15

    Concentrations of PAHs and metals were obtained from mussels collected in beaches, coastal island and estuary of the Macaé coast, the main operational basin for offshore oil exploration in Brazil. This survey provides reference levels for scenarios of increasing exploration, as well as for other areas of the coast undergoing urbanization to support exploration. As expected, urban areas such as the Macaé river estuary presented high concentrations of PAHs, although unsuspected sites such the island also presented signs of contamination. PAH in mussels originated from pyrolytic and petrogenic sources. Metals were typical of non-contaminated coastal environments, although Cr concentrations were above Brazilian Reference Levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A satellite view of riverine turbidity plumes on the NE-E Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Negri de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbidity plumes of São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, and Paraiba do Sul river systems, located along the NE/E Brazilian coast, are analyzed for their dispersal patterns of Total Suspended Solids (TSS concentration using Landsat images and a logarithmic algorithm proposed by Tassan (1987 to convert satellite reflectance values to TSS. The TSS results obtained were compared to in situ collected TSS data. The analysis of the satellite image data set revealed that each river system exhibits a distinct turbidity plume dispersal pattern. The behavior, dimension and degree of turbidity of the São Francisco River plume have been greatly altered by the construction of a cascade of hydroelectric dam reservoirs in its hydrological basin. The plume has lost its typical unimodal seasonal pattern of material dispersion and its turbidity has decreased due to the regulation of river flow by the dams and TSS retainance by the reservoirs. In contrast, the Doce and Paraíba do Sul river plumes are still subject to seasonal pulsations and show more turbid conditions than the SF plume, as dams are less numerous, set in the middle river sections and the natural river flow has been maintained. The Caravelas Coastal System river plume is restricted to near shore shallow waters dominated by resuspension processes. During austral spring and summer when NE-E winds prevail, all plumes generally disperse southward. Short-term northward reversals may occur in winter with the passage of atmospheric cold fronts. The São Francisco and Doce river plumes tend to disperse obliquely to the coast and transport materials further offshore, while the Caravelas and Paraíba do Sul plumes tend to disperse mainly parallel to the coast, enhancing TSS retention nearshore.O presente estudo analisa as plumas de turbidez dos sistemas dos rios São Francisco, Caravelas, Doce, e Paraiba do Sul localizados na costa NE/E do Brasil utilizando imagens Landsat e o algoritmo logarítmico para Total

  8. Reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii var. elliottii in Brazilian sandy coastal plain vegetation: implications for biological invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campanhã Bechara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pinus is the most invasive woody taxon, exceeded only by herbaceous plants. This study reports the reproductive biology and early establishment of Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, describing its invasive properties in a protected natural area of the Brazilian coastal sandy plains. We evaluated the seed germination and rain, longevity of seed viability and the initial dynamics of the seedlings of Pinus elliottii var elliottii through field and laboratory experiments. We recorded a continuous seed rain of about 204.0 viable seeds m- 2 per year, with a 90 % germination rate. The seeds exhibited a low longevity of viability in the soil and a dense, permanent seedling bank that may explain the high levels of pine invasion. The environmental impact caused by the pine's biological invasion suggests the recommendation for its immediate eradication, together with a restoration plan to restitute the native biodiversity gradually.

  9. Ground-water quality in three urban areas in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, M.P.; Galeone, D.R.; Spruill, T.B.; Crandall, C.A.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water quality is generally good in three urban areas studied in the Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States?Ocala and Tampa, Florida, and Virginia Beach, Virginia. The hydrology of these areas differs in that Ocala has many karst depressions but virtually no surface-water features, and Tampa and Virginia Beach have numerous surface-water features, including small lakes, streams, and swamps. Samples were collected in early 1995 from 15 wells in Ocala (8 in the surficial aquifer and 7 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), 17 wells in Tamps (8 in the surficial aquifer and 9 in the Upper Floridan aquifer), and in the summer of 1995 from 15 wells in Virginia Beach (all in the surficial aquifer). In the surficial aquifer in Ocala, the major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate in five samples and mixed (no dominant ions) in three samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 78 to 463 milligrams per liter. In Tampa, the water type was calcium bicarbonate in one sample and mixed in seven samples, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 38 to 397 milligrams per liter. In Virginia Beach, water types were primarily calcium and sodium bicarbonate water, with dissolved-solids concentrations ranging from 89 to 740 milligrams per liter. The water types and dissolved-solids concentrations reflect the presence of carbonates in the surficial aquifer materials in the Ocala and Virginia Beach areas. The major ion water type was calcium bicarbonate for all 16 samples from the upper Floridan aquifer in both Florida cities. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 210 to 551 milligrams per liter in Ocala, with a median of 287 milligrams per liter, and from 187 to 362 milligrams per liter in Tampa, with a median of 244 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of nitrate nitrogen were highest in the surficial aquifer in Ocala, and one sample exceeded 10 milligrams per liter, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant level for drinking

  10. Diurnal tidal currents attributed to free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Hiroshi; Kusaka, Akira; Isoda, Yutaka; Honda, Satoshi; Ito, Sayaka; Onitsuka, Toshihiro

    2018-04-01

    To understand the properties of tides and tidal currents on the Pacific shelf off the southeastern coast of Hokkaido, Japan, we analyzed time series of 9 current meters that were moored on the shelf for 1 month to 2 years. Diurnal tidal currents such as the K1 and O1 constituents were more dominant than semi-diurnal ones by an order of magnitude. The diurnal tidal currents clearly propagated westward along the coast with a typical phase velocity of 2 m s-1 and wavelength of 200 km. Moreover, the shape and phase of the diurnal currents measured by a bottom-mounted ADCP were vertically homogeneous, except in the vicinity of the bottom boundary layer. These features were very consistent with theoretically estimated properties of free baroclinic coastal-trapped waves of the first mode. An annual (semi-annual) variation was apparent for the phase (amplitude) of the O1 tidal current, which was correlated with density stratification (intensity of an along-shelf current called the Coastal Oyashio). These possible causes are discussed in terms of the propagation and generation of coastal-trapped waves.

  11. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a Southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEIXEIRA R. L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of Presidente Kennedy, southeastern Brazil,. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus were found during the dry season (August 1999, and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus in the rainy season (February 2000. Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999 (11 males and 4 females. During the rainy season (February 2000, we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile. Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  12. The occurrence of amphibians in bromeliads from a southeastern Brazilian restinga habitat, with special reference to Aparasphenodon brunoi (Anura, Hylidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, R L; Schineider, J A P; Almeida, G I

    2002-05-01

    Five species of anuran amphibians, all belonging to the family Hylidae, were collected at Praia das Neves, municipality of President Kennedy, southeastern Brazil. The species were represented by four genera: Scinax, Hyla, Aparasphenodon, and Trachycephalus. Four species (A. brunoi, Hyla albomarginata, Scinax altera, and S. cuspidatus) were found during the dry season (August 1999), and two (A. brunoi and Trachycephalus nigromaculatus) in the rainy season (February 2000). Aparasphenodon brunoi was the most abundant species in Praia das Neves. Some reproductive aspects and feeding habits of this hylid were investigated. Aparasphenodon brunoi was found mainly inside the bromeliad Aechmea lingulata, the largest plant analyzed. Fifteen specimens were collected during the dry season (August 1999) (11 males and 4 females). During the rainy season (February 2000), we collected 14 specimens (3 males, 10 females, and 1 juvenile). Sex-ratio was 1:1. Frogs ranged in snout-vent length from 31.2 to 69.3 mm. Females were larger than males. One female had 1,451 fully developed oocytes in her ovaries. The major groups of prey found in the stomachs were: Insecta, Myriapoda, and Arachnida. Blattodea, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, and Hymenoptera (only ants) were the main food types in frequency, number, and weight. Aparasphenodon brunoi is a threatened species in many habitats of southeastern Brazil. Only natural vegetation protection may guarantee its survival during the immediate future.

  13. Bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals (Mussismilia spp.) in a coastal reef of the Abrolhos shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Alinne Pereira; Araújo, Samuel Dias; Reis, Alessandra M. M.; Pompeu, Maira; Hatay, Mark; de Moura, Rodrigo Leão; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B.; Thompson, Fabiano L.; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2013-11-01

    The diversity of bacterial communities associated with three Brazilian endemic reef corals from genus Mussismilia (M. hispida, M. braziliensis, and M. harttii) at a single site was assessed using 16S rRNA clone libraries. The study site, Pedra do Leste, is a coastal reef within the largest and richest South Atlantic coralline reef complex (Abrolhos Bank) and is subject to high fishing pressure, high sedimentation loads, and other land-based stressors. The three coral species are Neogene relicts with unique biological and morphological traits that enable them to survive relatively high sedimentation levels. Our results show that sequences affiliated with γ-Proteobacteria predominated, accounting for more than 60% of the examined sequences. Indeed, the most frequent species were related to Alteromonas, Marinomonas, Neptuniibacter, and Vibrio, which are copiotrophic microorganisms common in environments highly affected by anthropogenic stress. Principal component analysis revealed that bacterial communities of M. braziliensis and M. hispida were more similar to each other than to M. harttii-associated bacteria. Such pattern is likely related to distinct morphological properties of M. harttii, such as the existence of phaceloid colonies, in which polyps are not connected by soft tissue. This is the first investigation assessing the bacterial communities of the three Brazilian endemic Mussismilia species at the same location.

  14. Geochemistry of shallow ground water in coastal plain environments in the southeastern United States: implications for aquifer susceptibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Spruill, Timothy B.; Eimers, Jo L.

    2004-01-01

    Ground-water chemistry data from coastal plain environments have been examined to determine the geochemical conditions and processes that occur in these areas and assess their implications for aquifer susceptibility. Two distinct geochemical environments were studied to represent a range of conditions: an inner coastal plain setting having more well-drained soils and lower organic carbon (C) content and an outer coastal plain environment that has more poorly drained soils and high organic C content. Higher concentrations of most major ions and dissolved inorganic and organic C in the outer coastal plain setting indicate a greater degree of mineral dissolution and organic matter oxidation. Accordingly, outer coastal plain waters are more reducing than inner coastal plain waters. Low dissolved oxygen (O 2 ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentrations and high iron (Fe) concentrations indicate that ferric iron (Fe (III)) is an important electron acceptor in this setting, while dissolved O 2 is the most common terminal electron acceptor in the inner coastal plain setting. The presence of a wide range of redox conditions in the shallow aquifer system examined here underscores the importance of providing a detailed geochemical characterization of ground water when assessing the intrinsic susceptibility of coastal plain settings. The greater prevalence of aerobic conditions in the inner coastal plain setting makes this region more susceptible to contamination by constituents that are more stable under these conditions and is consistent with the significantly (p 3 - found in this setting. Herbicides and their transformation products were frequently detected (36% of wells sampled), however concentrations were typically low (<0.1 μg/L). Shallow water table depths often found in coastal plain settings may result in an increased risk of the detection of pesticides (e.g., alachlor) that degrade rapidly in the unsaturated zone

  15. Late Pleistocene Vegetation, Climate and Relative Sea Level Changes in the Southeastern Brazilian Coast, Based on C and N Isotopes and Bio Indicator Analysis of Mangrove Organic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessenda, L. C.R.; Vidotto, E.; Buso, Jr., A. A.; Assarini, Jr., J. P.; Bendassollia, J. A. [Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA), University of Sao Paulo (USP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Oliveira, P. E. [University of Guarulhos (UNG), Guarulhos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Macias, F. [' ' Luiz de Queiroz' ' College of Agriculture/USP, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ricardi-Branco, F. [University of Campinas - Geosciences Institute, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    On the southeastern Brazilian coast, mangrove organic matter records have been studied by C and N isotopes, pollen and diatom analysis to reconstruct 40 ka of vegetation and climatic history. The {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N presented more depleted values from 40 to 19 ka BP. The high C/N ratios and depleted isotopic values indicate the predominance of C3 land plants in the location presently occupied by the mangrove vegetation, and a lower sea level than today. The presence of pollen of Ilex, Weinmannia, Symplocos, Drimys and Podocarpus suggest a colder and more humid climate than present. From 19 to 2.2 ka BP a sedimentary hiatus is associated with a sea level rise. The presence of mangrove in its present position since at least 2.200 a BP and the return of the marine coastline are associated with the lowest C/N ratio, more enriched {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 15}N values and the presence of marine diatoms. (author)

  16. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  17. Taxonomic and functional distinctness of the fish assemblages in three coastal environments (bays, coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Márcia Cristina Costa; Gomes-Gonçalves, Rafaela de Sousa; Mattos, Tailan Moretti; Uehara, Wagner; Guedes, Gustavo Henrique Soares; Araújo, Francisco Gerson

    2017-08-01

    Several species of marine fish use different coastal systems especially during their early development. However, these habitats are jeopardized by anthropogenic influences threatening the success of fish populations, and urgent measures are needed to priorize areas to protect their sustainability. We applied taxonomic (Δ+) and functional (X+) distinctiveness indices that represent taxonomic composition and functional roles to assess biodiversity of three different costal systems: bays, coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches. We hypothesized that difference in habitat characteristics, especially in the more dynamism and habitat homogeneity of oceanic beaches compared with more habitat diversity and sheltered conditions of bays and coastal lagoons results in differences in fish richness and taxonomic and functional diversity. The main premise is that communities phylogenetically and functionally more distinct have more interest in conservation policies. Significant differences (P PERMANOVA. Fish richness was higher in bays compared with the coastal lagoons and oceanic beaches. Higher Δ+ was found for the coastal lagoons compared with the bays and oceanic beaches, with the bays having some values below the confidence limit. Similar patterns were found for X+, although all values were within the confidence limits for the bays, suggesting that the absence of some taxa does not interfere in functional diversity. The hypothesis that taxonomic and functional structure of fish assemblages differ among the three systems was accepted and we suggest that coastal lagoons should be priorized in conservation programs because they support more taxonomic and functional distinctiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Carolina Sandhills: Quaternary eolian sand sheets and dunes along the updip margin of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swezey, Christopher; Fitzwater, Bradley A.; Whittecar, G. Richard; Mahan, Shannon; Garrity, Christopher P.; Aleman Gonzalez, Wilma B.; Dobbs, Kerby M.

    2016-01-01

    The Carolina Sandhills is a physiographic region of the Atlantic Coastal Plain province in the southeastern United States. In Chesterfield County (South Carolina), the surficial sand of this region is the Pinehurst Formation, which is interpreted as eolian sand derived from the underlying Cretaceous Middendorf Formation. This sand has yielded three clusters of optically stimulated luminescence ages: (1) 75 to 37 thousand years ago (ka), coincident with growth of the Laurentide Ice Sheet; (2) 28 to 18 ka, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM); and (3) 12 to 6 ka, mostly coincident with the Younger Dryas through final collapse of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Relict dune morphologies are consistent with winds from the west or northwest, coincident with modern and inferred LGM January wind directions. Sand sheets are more common than dunes because of effects of coarse grain size (mean range: 0.35–0.59 mm) and vegetation. The coarse grain size would have required LGM wind velocities of at least 4–6 m/sec, accounting for effects of colder air temperatures on eolian sand transport. The eolian interpretation of the Carolina Sandhills is consistent with other evidence for eolian activity in the southeastern United States during the last glaciation.

  19. Geohydrology and water quality of stratified-drift aquifers in the lower Merrimack and coastal river basins, southeastern New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekl, Peter J.; Flanagan, Sarah M.

    1992-01-01

    Communities in the lower Merrimack River basin and coastal river basins of southeastern New Hampshire are experiencing increased demands for water because of a rapid increase in population. The population in 1987 was 225,495 and is expected to increase by 30 percent during the next decade. As of 1987, five towns used the stratified-drift aquifers for municipal supply and withdrew an estimated 6 million gallons per day. Four towns used the bedrock aquifer for municipal supply and withdrew an average of 1 .6 million gallons per day. Stratified-drift deposits cover 78 of the 327 square miles of the study area. These deposits are generally less than 10 square miles in areal extent, and their saturated thickness ranges front less than 20 feet to as much as 100 feet . Transinissivity exceeds 4,000 square feet per day in several locations. Stratified-drift aquifers in the eastern part are predominantly small ice-contact deposits surrounded by marine sediments or till of low hydraulic conductivity. Stratified-drift aquifers in the western part consist of ice-contact and proglacial deposits that are large in areal extent and are commonly in contact with surface-water bodies. Five stratified-drift aquifers, in the towns of Derry, Windham, Kingston, North Hampton, and Greenland, have the greatest potential to supply additional amounts of water. Potential yields and contributing areas of hypothetical supply wells were estimated for an aquifer in Windham near Cobbetts Pond and for an aquifer in Kingston along the Powwow River by use of a method analogous to superposition in conjunction with a numerical ground-waterflow model. The potential yield is estimated to be 0 .6 million gallons per day for the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4 .0 million gallons per day for the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer. Contributing recharge area for supply wells is estimated to be 1.6 square miles in the Windham-Cobbetts Pond aquifer and 4.9 square miles in the Kingston-Powwow River aquifer

  20. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castello, A C D; Coelho, S; Cardoso-Leite, E

    2017-01-01

    Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V), and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm) and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m) were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas) because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil.) K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott) Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  1. Can environmental pollution by metals change genetic diversity? Ucides cordatus (Linnaeus, 1763) as a study case in Southeastern Brazilian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banci, Karina Rodrigues da Silva; Mori, Gustavo Maruyama; Oliveira, Marcos Antonio de; Paganelli, Fernanda Laroza; Pereira, Mariana Rangel; Pinheiro, Marcelo Antonio Amaro

    2017-03-15

    Industrial areas on estuarine systems are commonly affected by heavy metals, affecting all local biota. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to evaluate genetic diversity of Ucides cordatus at mangroves in southeastern Brazil (Juréia, J; São Vicente, SV; and Cubatão, C), with distinct pollution levels by metals. The genetic diversity of this species was compared with concentrations of metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Hg) in the environment. A pollution gradient was confirmed (SV>C>J), with low levels detected in water, except for mercury in SV. All metals in the sediment samples were below Threshold Effect Level (TEL), without an apparent biological risk to the biota. Genetic distance was very similar between J and C, with SV occurring as an out-group. RAPD was a powerful tool to investigate the effect of metal pollution on genetic diversity of this mangrove crab, and to evaluate the conservation status of the mangrove ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lianas, tree ferns and understory species: indicators of conservation status in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest remnants, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. D. Castello

    Full Text Available Abstract Indicators are applied faster and at lower costs than conventional surveys, providing quick and efficient responses that can facilitate protected areas management. Our aim was to select indicators from vegetation to monitor protected areas. For this purpose, we analyzed understory and quantified lianas and tree ferns in protected and non-protected areas, in order to find indicator species. Our study areas are located in Vale do Ribeira, southeastern São Paulo state, Brazil. One of the areas is under two protection categories (IUCN's categories II and V, and the other is a privately owned farm. Lianas with large diameters (> 13 cm and tree ferns with great heights (> 19 m were considered indicators of undisturbed areas (protected areas because their growth is directly related to forest successional stage. Indicator species within the protected area were shade tolerant species, such as Bathysa australis (A.St.-Hil. K.Schum., whereas outside the protected area were pioneer species, such as Pera glabrata (Schott Poepp. ex Baill. e Nectandra oppositifolia Ness. All of the suggested indicators can be used in management actions, especially in protected areas, to guarantee forest maintenance and ensure fulfillment of the conservation objectives of these areas.

  3. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Silveira, Cynthia Barbosa da; Vieira, Ricardo Pilz; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Paranhos, Rodolfo Pinheiro da Rocha; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Martins, Orlando Bonifácio

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. MET...

  4. Effects of plough pan development on surface hydrology and on soil physical properties in Southeastern Brazilian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Ana V. F. A.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Miranda, João P. L.; Souza, Andréa P.; Lopes, Marcel R. S.; Palmieri, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    SummaryConventional tillage may impose changes in soil physical properties that lead to a decrease in soil physical quality. Although plough pan formation is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in Southeastern Brazil, few studies have focused on its hydrological consequences. Detailed investigations in two experimental plots located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar close to Rio de Janeiro city were carried out to characterize the changes in soil physical properties and in soil hydrology due to plough pan formation. Conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices were implemented in two plots for 3 years and soil matric potential (SMP) was monitored in each plot via nests of tensiometers and Watermark® sensors installed at different depths. Undisturbed soil blocks were collected for micromorphological analyses to quantify the total pore space in soils under CT and MT systems, and in soils under natural tropical forest. Results suggest that soils under the CT system developed a plough pan layer at about 20 cm depth that had 44% less total porosity as compared to surface conditions. It is shown that soils under the CT system tended to stay saturated for longer periods of time after each rainfall event. Besides, during intense rainy periods soils under the CT system may develop hydrologic conditions that favor lateral flows while soils under the MT system were still draining. Such hydrological responses may explain why average soil erosion rates measured for individual rainfall events under the CT system were about 2.5 times greater than the ones observed at MT. The results attested that conventional tillage in this area generated modifications in soil fabric, especially in pore-size distribution and connectivity, which induced important changes in soil hydrology and soil erosion. The agricultural practices used in this area, associated with the local steep hillslopes and intense rainfall events, are definitely not

  5. Toxicity of puffer fish: two species (Lagocephalus laevigatus, linaeus 1766 and Sphoeroides spengleri, Bloch 1785 from the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, where puffer fish are considered poisonous, there are few documented cases on human consumption and consequent poisoning. In this study, toxicity of two puffer fish species from the Brazilian coast was examined. Specimens of Sphoeroides spengleri and Lagocephalus laevigatus were caught in São Sebastião Channel (North coast of São Paulo State, Brazil between January 1996 and May 1997. Acidic ethanol extracts from muscle and skin plus viscera were tested for mice acute toxicity using the standard method of Kawabata. Polar extracts of S. spengleri showed high toxicity up to 946 MU/g. Extracts from L. laevigatus showed very low levels of toxicity, never exceeding 1.7 MU/g. All extracts from both species blocked amielinic nerve fiber evoked impulses of crustacean legs; this effect reverted on washing similar to the standard tetrodotoxin TTX. The aqueous extract solutions were partially purified using an ionic exchange column (Amberlit GC-50 followed by treatment with activated charcoal (Norit-A. The presence of TTX and their analogs in the semi-purified extracts were confirmed by HPLC and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF.

  6. Marine debris ingestion by Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus (Aves: Sphenisciformes), from the Brazilian coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Martha L; Braga, Karina M; Luque, José L

    2011-10-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are non-breeding winter visitors to the Brazilian coast. In 2008 and 2010, plastic items and other marine debris were found in the stomachs and intestines of 15% of 175 dead penguins collected in the Lagos Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro. One bird had its stomach perforated by a plastic straw, which may have caused its death. There are few records of penguins ingesting plastic litter, but previous studies have found similar levels of debris ingestion among Magellanic penguins stranded on the Brazilian coast (35.8% of 397 birds). The high incidence of marine debris in this species in Brazil may result at least in part from the predominance of juveniles reaching these waters, as juvenile penguins may have a broader diet than adults. It is unclear to what extent plastic ingestion affects the mortality rate in this species and whether the incidence in stranded birds reflects that in the entire population. The present study addresses the increasing impact of plastic debris on marine life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution of the sediments of the coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula and the Curonian Spit (Southeastern Baltic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Krechik, Viktor; Danchenkov, Aleksandr; Krek, Elena

    2018-01-01

    The detailed environmental survey of the coastal zone of the Kaliningrad Region northern coast was carried out. The pollutants distribution in the silty clay fraction and calculation of ecological indexes allowed the evaluation of distribution of potentially harmful elements (PHEs). The sources of pollution in the most intensively used areas were identified, and transit and accumulation zones were allocated. A large area of anomalous content of PHEs was revealed on the underwater coastal slope of the Curonian Spit National Park, which is situated far from the sources of pollution. The alongshore bed load transport provides the contamination of the underwater slope whereas the beaches are less exposed to pollution.

  8. Organic Carbon Burial in Brazilian Mangrove Sediments (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, C.; Smoak, J. M.; Sanders, L.; Patchineelam, S.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) burial rates in mangrove forests, margins and mud flats in geographically distinct areas of the Brazilian coastline. We exam the burial rates, taking into account the geomorphology of each region. Our initial results indicate that the Northeastern region of Brazil is sequestering significantly more OC than in the Southeastern areas, being that the mass sediment accumulation rates remained consistent within the forests as opposed to large variations found in the mudflats. The other pertinent factor was OC content, which differed substantially in respect to region. Given that the mangrove forests of the Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to a rising sea level, as these areas are constricted by vast mountain ranges, this work attempts to put in perspective the possible impacts of climate change on mangrove ecosystems and OC burial along the Brazilian coastal ocean. We also compare our result to global averages.

  9. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz; Dias, Johnny Ferraz

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  10. Elemental detection in muscle of flatfish Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) from Santos Bay, Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Maria Luiza Chiste Flaquer da; Dias, June Ferraz [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto Oceanografico. Laboratorio de Ecologia Reprodutiva e do Recrutamento de Organismos Marinhos; Dias, Johnny Ferraz [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, ES (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Laboratorio de Implantacao Ionica

    2013-07-01

    Full text: Studies on the presence of elements, including metals, in organisms can prevent both degradation of aquatic systems and the bioaccumulation of elements especially those that offer risk to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence elements in the muscle of two species of flatfish, Achirus Iineatus and Trinectes paulistanus (Achiridae, Pleuronectiformes), using Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE). This technique is considered one of the most sensitive for detecting trace metals in biomaterials. These flatfish specimens are considered residents in Santos Bay, central coast of Sao Paulo state, and they were caught monthly throughout the year 2005 and sorted by size and maturity stage as juveniles and adults. The two species have no spatial overlap and this allows a mapping of the Santos Bay for the presence of bioavailable metals and other elements. Sampling was done in six distinct points in the Bay, under different antropic influences: two along the beaches, one in the vicinity of the out fall diffuser and three along the entrance of the bay. Results from 54 samples of muscle allowed detect the following elements: aluminium (AI), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), strontium (Sr), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn). There were no correlation with the levels of sediment contamination for most metals analyzed in muscles, with the exception of copper and also no clear pattern of differential level of metals between young and adult specimens of A. Iineatus and T. paulistanus. According to the maximum tolerance values of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria -ANVISA), fish muscle presented levels of contamination above the permitted for human consumption, mainly for some elements: mercury, in samples from the internal area; arsenic, in samples from west side and selenium, in samples from east side of the bay. (author)

  11. Comparison of the diel and spatial distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton and ichthyoneuston in the Southeastern Brazilian Bight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Katsuragawa

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Fish larvae were collected by neuston and bongo nets, in the Southeastern Brazil, during four océanographie cruises (January 1980; January 1981; October 1981; and March 1982. The results are compared and analyzed in order to study the patterns of diel vertical distributions of fish larvae and to detect sampling problems. Larvae collected with neuston net were quite different in types and size composition, when compared with those collected with bongo net in oblique tows. Clear tendency of stratification in size composition at the uppermost layer can be observed on juveniles ( > 19 mm of Sardinella brasiliensis which also showed day time avoidance. Most of the neustonic taxa were also caught in the deeper layers, although some groups, e.g. Mugilidae, Mullidae, and Gerreidae, were more abundant at the surface. Density of ichthyoneuston is much higher than those observed in the Northwest Atlantic and number of fish larvae collected during the day by neuston net exceeded that of night samples.Larvas de peixes foram coletadas com rede de nêuston e rede bongô, na costa sudeste do Brasil, durante quatro cruzeiros oceanográficos (Jan/1980; Jan/1981; Out/1981; Mar/1982. São estudados os padrões de distribuição diária de larvas e problemas de amostragem. Numa comparação entre coletas de superfície e coletas oblíquas, observam-se diferenças em composição, tanto em termos de espécies como de tamanho de larvas. Pode ser observada uma clara tendência de estratificação por composição de tamanho para Sardinella brasiliensis em que espécimes juvenis (> 19 mm ocorreram preferencialmente na camada superficial. Estes juvenis também apresentaram maior capacidade de fuga da boca da rede durante o período diurno. A maioria dos táxons de ocorrência neustônica foi também capturada em camadas mais profundas, mas alguns grupos como Mugilidae, Mullidae e Gerreidae predomiram na camada superficial. A densidade do ictionêuston é mais elevada na

  12. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, W.S., E-mail: fernandez@usp.br [Graduate Program in Oceanography, Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Dias, J.F. [Oceanographic Institute, University of São Paulo, Praça do Oceanográfico 191, Cidade Universitária, CEP 05508-120 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F. [Physics Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g{sup −1} for Fe to 7 μg g{sup −1} for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  13. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, W. S.; Dias, J. F.; Boufleur, L. A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g-1 for Fe to 7 μg g-1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA).

  14. Bioacumulation of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of the white mullet Mugil curema Valenciennes, 1836 (Actinopterygii, Mugilidae) in two coastal systems in southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, W.S.; Dias, J.F.; Boufleur, L.A.; Amaral, L.; Yoneama, M.L.; Dias, J.F.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the presence and the concentration of trace elements in hepatic and renal tissues of white mullet (Mugil curema) by Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Fish specimens were collected in two coastal areas of São Paulo state-Brazil: the Santos estuary (from March 2009 to February 2010) and the Cananéia-Iguape coastal estuarine system (from May 2008 to April 2009). For the elemental analysis, n = 470 sample tissues (liver and kidney) were pooled according to location and type of organ. Trace elements such as Fe, Cu, Zn and Br were observed in both tissues of M. curema with concentrations ranging from 800 μg g −1 for Fe to 7 μg g −1 for Cu. The concentrations of Cu and Zn showed statistical significant differences among the tissues of M. curema (p < 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations of Cu and Zn were observed in the liver tissue. There was no significantly difference in the elemental concentrations between the two studied areas. The Cu levels in liver tissues of M. curema were found to be above the maximum limits for consumption, according to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA)

  15. Vertical and Horizontal Analysis of Crustal Structure of Southeastern Mediterranean and the Egyptian Coastal Zone, from Bouguer and Satellite Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Salah

    2016-07-01

    The present Tectonic system of Southeastern Mediterranean is driven by the collision of the African and Eurasian plates, the Arabian Eurasian convergence and the displacement of the Anatolian Aegean microplate, which generally represents the characteristic of lithospheric structure of the region. In the scope of this study, Bouguer and the satellite gravity (satellite altimetry) anomalies of southeastern Mediterranean and North Eastern part of Egypt were used for investigating the lithospheric structures. Second order trend analyses were applied firstly to Bouguer and satellite altimetry data for examining the characteristic of the anomaly. Later, the vertical and horizontal derivatives applications were applied to the same data. Generally, the purpose of the applying derivative methods is determining the vertical and horizontal borders of the structure. According to the results of derivatives maps, the study area could mainly divided into important four tectonic subzones depending on basement and Moho depth maps. These subzones are distributed from south to the north as: Nile delta-northern Sinai zone, north Egyptian coastal zone, Levantine basin zone and northern thrusting (Cyprus and its surroundings) zone. These zones are separated from each other by horizontal tectonic boundaries and/or near-vertical faults that display the block-faulting tectonic style of this belt. Finally, the gravity studies were evaluated together with the seismic activity of the region. Consequently, the geodynamical structure of the region is examined with the previous studies done in the region. Thus, the current study indicates that satellite gravity mission data is a valuable source of data in understanding the tectonic boundary behavior of the studied region and that satellite gravity data is an important modern source of data in the geodynamical studies.

  16. Depositional history of sedimentary linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the reconstruction of the contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Brazil) using linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Three sediment cores were dated by 137 Cs. Concentrations in surficial layers were comparable to the midrange concentrations reported for coastal sediments worldwide. LAB concentrations increased towards the surface, indicating increased waste discharges into the estuary in recent decades. The highest concentration values occurred in the early 1970s, a time of intense industrial activity and marked population growth. The decreased LAB concentration, in the late 1970s was assumed to be the result of the world oil crisis. Treatment of industrial effluents, which began in 1984, was represented by decreased LAB levels. Microbial degradation of LABs may be more intense in the industrial area sediments. The results show that industrial and domestic waste discharges are a historical problem in the area. - The contamination history of a large South American industrial coastal area indicated by molecular indicator of sewage input.

  17. Hyaline Tintinnina (Protozoa-Ciliophora-Oligotrichida from northeast Brazilian coastal reefs

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    Roberto Sassi

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of hyaline Tintinnina were obtained from plankton samples collected near the coastal reefs of Ponta do Seixas (Lat. 7º09'16"S, Long. 34º4735"W, Northeastern Brazil, from April 1981 to May 1982 and from April 1983 to May 1984: Amphorellopsis acuta (Schmidt, 1901, Dadayiella ganymedes (Entz Sr., 1884, Epiplocyloides reticulata (Ostenfeld & Schmidt, 1901, Eutintinnus tubulosus (Ostenfeld, 1899, Favella ehrenbergi (Claparède & Lachmann, 1858, Metacylis mereschkowskyi Kofoid & Campbell, 1929 and M. perspicax (Hada, 1938. The most frequent and abundant species were M. mereschkowskyi and F. ehrenbergi. Except/.ganymedes, E. reticulata and F. ehrenbergi all species are new records from Brazil. Metacylis perspicax is also the seventh world register. For all species we provide description, drawings, measurements, seasonal occurrence, world distribution and some systematic comments.

  18. Influence of Salinity on Bacterioplankton Communities from the Brazilian Rain Forest to the Coastal Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B.; Vieira, Ricardo P.; Cardoso, Alexander M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M.; Martins, Orlando B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Conclusions/Significance Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters

  19. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Vieira, Ricardo P; Cardoso, Alexander M; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Albano, Rodolpho M; Martins, Orlando B

    2011-03-09

    Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore) and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove) environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%), whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%), Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%), and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3%) dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical parameters. Furthermore, this paper reveals for the first time the pristine

  20. Influence of salinity on bacterioplankton communities from the Brazilian rain forest to the coastal Atlantic Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia B Silveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Planktonic bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems, however, the taxa that make up these communities are poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate bacterial communities in aquatic ecosystems at Ilha Grande, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, a preserved insular environment of the Atlantic rain forest and how they correlate with a salinity gradient going from terrestrial aquatic habitats to the coastal Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed chemical and microbiological parameters of water samples and constructed 16S rRNA gene libraries of free living bacteria obtained at three marine (two coastal and one offshore and three freshwater (water spring, river, and mangrove environments. A total of 836 sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 269 freshwater and 219 marine operational taxonomic units (OTUs grouped at 97% stringency. Richness and diversity indexes indicated that freshwater environments were the most diverse, especially the water spring. The main bacterial group in freshwater environments was Betaproteobacteria (43.5%, whereas Cyanobacteria (30.5%, Alphaproteobacteria (25.5%, and Gammaproteobacteria (26.3% dominated the marine ones. Venn diagram showed no overlap between marine and freshwater OTUs at 97% stringency. LIBSHUFF statistics and PCA analysis revealed marked differences between the freshwater and marine libraries suggesting the importance of salinity as a driver of community composition in this habitat. The phylogenetic analysis of marine and freshwater libraries showed that the differences in community composition are consistent. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data supports the notion that a divergent evolutionary scenario is driving community composition in the studied habitats. This work also improves the comprehension of microbial community dynamics in tropical waters and how they are structured in relation to physicochemical

  1. Arsenic enrichment in shelf and coastal sediment of the Brazilian subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, N.; Medeanic, S.; Garcia, F. A.; Travassos, M. P.; Baisch, P.

    2012-03-01

    High levels of As (i.e., above the nationally legislated threshold of 70 mg kg-1) were found in shelf sediment of the Espirito Santo state of Brazil. The elevated content of this metalloid propagated in the sediment to a depth of approximately 1.5 m. The adjacent beach sands and mangrove sediments were also enriched in As. The variation in As levels along the shelf sediment profiles was acompained by calcareous-material distribution, which reflects the paleogeographical circumstances that promote local reef development during the corresponding intervals of sedimentation. Arsenic-rich calcareous bioclast materials migrate to a beach from the surface horizon of nearby shelf sediment, thereby replacing the part of the As that previously entered the marine environment with eroded material from the continent to the littoral zone. The segment of the Brazilian tropical shelf that was studied clearly demonstrated that the As enrichment of the shelf sediment is determined by the exposure of the Barreiras formation on the coast and the development of reefs, which are favorable sites for the settling of bodies of biogenic carbonates.

  2. High-resolution mapping of wetland vegetation biomass and distribution with L-band radar in southeastern coastal Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N. M.; Simard, M.; Byrd, K. B.; Windham-Myers, L.; Castaneda, E.; Twilley, R.; Bevington, A. E.; Christensen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Louisiana coastal wetlands account for approximately one third (37%) of the estuarine wetland vegetation in the conterminous United States, yet the spatial distribution of their extent and aboveground biomass (AGB) is not well defined. This knowledge is critical for the accurate completion of national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories. We generated high-resolution baselines maps of wetland vegetation extent and biomass at the Atchafalaya and Terrebonne basins in coastal Louisiana using a multi-sensor approach. Optical satellite data was used within an object-oriented machine learning approach to classify the structure of wetland vegetation types, offering increased detail over currently available land cover maps that do not distinguish between wetland vegetation types nor account for non-permanent seasonal changes in extent. We mapped 1871 km2 of wetlands during a period of peak biomass in September 2015 comprised of flooded forested wetlands and leaf, grass and emergent herbaceous marshes. The distribution of aboveground biomass (AGB) was mapped using JPL L-band Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR). Relationships between time-series radar imagery and field data collected in May 2015 and September 2016 were derived to estimate AGB at the Wax Lake and Atchafalaya deltas. Differences in seasonal biomass estimates reflect the increased AGB in September over May, concurrent with periods of peak biomass and the onset of the vegetation growing season, respectively. This method provides a tractable means of mapping and monitoring biomass of wetland vegetation types with L-band radar, in a region threatened with wetland loss under projections of increasing sea-level rise and terrestrial subsidence. Through this, we demonstrate a method that is able to satisfy the IPCC 2013 Wetlands Supplement requirement for Tier 2/Tier 3 reporting of coastal wetland GHG inventories.

  3. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation

  4. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species.

  5. Diversity of Bacteria in the Marine Sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian Coastal Waters▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardoim, C. C. P.; Costa, R.; Araújo, F. V.; Hajdu, E.; Peixoto, R.; Lins, U.; Rosado, A. S.; van Elsas, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using “direct” and “indirect” approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups—Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria—revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species. PMID:19304829

  6. Perceptions of environmental changes and Lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmo Angélica MS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Methods Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. Results According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. Conclusions The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural

  7. Perceptions of environmental changes and lethargic crab disease among crab harvesters in a Brazilian coastal community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmo, Angélica M S; Tognella, Mônica M P; Có, Walter L O; Barboza, Raynner R D; Alves, Rômulo R N

    2011-11-16

    Lethargic Crab Disease (LCD) has caused significant mortalities in the population of Ucides cordatus crabs in the Mucuri estuary in Bahia State, Brazil, and has brought social and economic problems to many crab-harvesting communities that depend on this natural resource. The present work examined the perceptions of members of a Brazilian crab harvesting community concerning environmental changes and the Lethargic Crab Disease. Field work was undertaken during the period between January and April/2009, with weekly or biweekly field excursions during which open and semi-structured interviews were held with local residents in the municipality of Mucuri, Bahia State, Brazil. A total of 23 individuals were interviewed, all of whom had at least 20 years of crab-collecting experience in the study region. Key-informants (more experienced crab harvesters) were selected among the interviewees using the "native specialist" criterion. According to the collectors, LCD reached the Mucuri mangroves between 2004 and 2005, decimating almost all crab population in the area, and in 2007, 2008 and 2009 high mortalities of U. cordatus were again observed as a result of recurrences of this disease in the region. In addition to LCD, crabs were also suffering great stock reductions due to habitat degradation caused by deforestation, landfills, sewage effluents, domestic and industrial wastes and the introduction of exotic fish in the Mucuri River estuary. The harvesting community was found to have significant ecological knowledge about the functioning of mangrove swamp ecology, the biology of crabs, and the mass mortality that directly affected the economy of this community, and this information was largely in accordance with scientific knowledge. The study of traditional knowledge makes it possible to better understand human interactions with the environment and aids in the elaboration of appropriate strategies for natural resource conservation.

  8. First steps of integrated spatial modeling of titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources within the Coastal Plain sediments of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellefsen, Karl J.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Fey, David L.; Budahn, James R.; Smith, Steven M.; Shah, Anjana K.

    2015-01-01

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States has extensive, unconsolidated sedimentary deposits that are enriched in heavy minerals containing titanium, zirconium, and rare earth element resources. Areas favorable for exploration and development of these resources are being identified by geochemical data, which are supplemented with geological, geophysical, hydrological, and geographical data. The first steps of this analysis have been completed. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium tend to decrease as distance from the Piedmont (which is the likely source of these resources) increases and are moderately correlated with airborne measurements of equivalent thorium concentration. The concentrations of lanthanum, yttrium, and titanium are relatively high in those watersheds that adjoin the Piedmont, south of the Cape Fear Arch. Although this relation suggests that the concentrations are related to the watersheds, it may be simply an independent regional trend. The concentration of zirconium is unrelated to the distance from the Piedmont, the equivalent thorium concentration, and the watershed. These findings establish a foundation for more sophisticated analyses using integrated spatial modeling.

  9. THE DRAINAGE EFFICIENCY INDEX (DEI) AS AN MORPHOLOGIAL INDICATOR OF LANDSLIDE SPATIAL OCCURRENCE IN MOUNTAINOUS CATCHMENTS. A case of study applied in the mountainous region of Brazilian Southeastern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrique Muniz Lima, Pedro; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana; do Couto Fernandes, Manoel

    2016-04-01

    Morphometric parameters, acquired notoriety mainly after the Drainage Density proposition (Horton 1932, 1945) and after they were applied by geomorphologists on the perspective to understand landscape functionalities, quantifying their characteristics through parameters and indexes. After the drainage density, many other parameters which describe the basin characteristics, behavior and dynamics have been proposed. Among them, for example, the DEI was proposed by Coelho Netto and contributors during the 80's, while they were seek to understand the hydrological and erosive dynamics on Bananal river basin (Brazilian Southeastern). Through this investigations the DEI was created, revealing the importance of parameters as hollow and drainage density, conjugated to the topographic gradient (Meis et al. 1982) who prosecute controls on the water flow efficiency along the hollows in order to activate the regressive erosion of the main channel. Later on this index was applied on the basin scale in several works developed in mountainous regions, showing a remarkable correlation with the occurrence of landslides such as showed by Coelho Netto et al. (2007); that posteriorly use this index as one of the components of the landslide susceptibility map for the Tijuca Massif, located in Rio de Janeiro Municipality. This work aims to establish patterns of the DEI index values (applied to mountainous low order basins) and the relationship on the occurrence of Debriflows or shallow translational slides. For this, the DEI index was applied on 4 different study areas located on the Southeastern mountainous region of Brazil to address deeply the connection between the index and the occurrence of landslides of different types applied for first and second order basins. The major study area is the Córrego Dantas Basin, situated in Nova Friburgo municipality (RJ), which is a 53 km² basin was affected by 327 landslides caused by a heavy rainfall on January 2011; Coelho Netto et al. (in

  10. Application of radiometric analysis in the study of provenance and transport processes of Brazilian coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.; Anjos, R.M.; Veiga, R.; Macario, K.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gamma radiation of beach sand deposits was measured along the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the aim of studying the provenance and transport processes of sediments in this area. Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium were evaluated using γ-ray spectrometry and a behavioral study of eTh/eU and eTh/K cross plots was performed, reflecting the mineralogical properties of beach sands, as well as their history of transport and sorting processes. The results show that such technique can be efficiently used to map heavy mineral distributions and to distinguish the different origins of coastal sediments disclosing the influence of nearby rivers. - Research highlights: → Based on the natural γ-ray analyses of beach sand, high concentrations of heavy minerals have been found around the Mambucaba River deltaic complex, located in the South of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. → Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium concentration can give information on the mineral composition and provenance of beach sands and consequently investigate heavy mineral deposits.

  11. Application of radiometric analysis in the study of provenance and transport processes of Brazilian coastal sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, C. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Macario, K. [Laboratorio de Radioecologia (LARA), Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-02-15

    Natural gamma radiation of beach sand deposits was measured along the south coast of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, with the aim of studying the provenance and transport processes of sediments in this area. Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium were evaluated using {gamma}-ray spectrometry and a behavioral study of eTh/eU and eTh/K cross plots was performed, reflecting the mineralogical properties of beach sands, as well as their history of transport and sorting processes. The results show that such technique can be efficiently used to map heavy mineral distributions and to distinguish the different origins of coastal sediments disclosing the influence of nearby rivers. - Research highlights: {yields} Based on the natural {gamma}-ray analyses of beach sand, high concentrations of heavy minerals have been found around the Mambucaba River deltaic complex, located in the South of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. {yields} Concentrations of thorium, uranium and potassium concentration can give information on the mineral composition and provenance of beach sands and consequently investigate heavy mineral deposits.

  12. What does the Southern Brazilian Coastal Plain tell about its diversity? Syrphidae (Diptera) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, F D; Marinoni, L; Krüger, R F

    2017-10-01

    The natural areas of the Coastal Plain of Rio Grande do Sul (CPRS) have suffered fragmentation due to anthropic action. The faunal surveys offer a low-cost method to quickly evaluate environmental alterations, and Syrphidae flies are often used as models in this kind of study. We aimed to ascertain the diversity of Syrphidae in the South region of Brazil by estimating its species' richness, and to use this data to identify new areas for conservation. In this survey Malaise traps were installed for 8 days in the CPRS, which was divided into five regions. Each region was subdivided into seven collecting areas and each of those areas received four traps, totaling 140 traps. A total of 456 Syrphidae individuals from 18 genera and 49 species were collected. In Region 1, there were nine exclusive species; in Region 2, there were three; in Region 3, there were 13, ten of which came from Estação Ecológica do Taim (ESEC Taim). In the Individual-based rarefaction analysis, Region 1 possessed the largest number of expected species out of the regions in the CPRS; we found 97% of these species. This insect collection effort, as one of the first in the CPRS, has broadened the known geographic distributions of 11 species of Syrphidae, and also indicated areas to be conserved. Additionally, it gave support for expanding ESEC Taim and creating new areas of conservation in Region 1, in Arroio Pelotas and Arroio Corrientes.

  13. Juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of the present study is to describe the juvenile fish use of the shallow zone of beaches of the Cananéia-Iguape coastal system, São Paulo, Brazil, analyzing its occurrence period and the patterns of utilization for the most abundant species. Using a beach seine monthly for one year, we sampled 13861 individuals, of 57 species and 24 families. The fish species used the study area for different proposes: Atherinella brasiliensis was sampled in all phases of gonadal development and considered as resident, juveniles of Trachinotus goodei used the beaches for growth and juveniles of Mugil curema and Mugil liza used the beaches as a route from the ocean to the estuary. Our results showed the importance of the sandy beaches for juvenile fish, especially in spring and summer when most juveniles occur and recruit. Unfortunately, this is the period of the most intense tourist activity. As many of the species studied are commercially important, this study highlighted the necessity of coastal habitat preservation for better fishery management.

  14. A non-deltaic clinoform wedge fed by multiple sources off São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazilian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ivo; Lobo, Francisco José; Montoya-Montes, Isabel; Siegle, Eduardo; Passos, Jorge Luiz; De Mahiques, Michel Michaelovitch

    2018-02-01

    São Sebastião Island (SSI) marks the latitudinal boundary between two sedimentological and geochemical provinces in the São Paulo Bight, an arc-shaped sector of the southeastern Brazilian Shelf. The island is separated from the continent by the narrow, deep São Sebastião Channel (SSC). A relatively thick sediment wedge—the São Sebastião Wedge (SSW)—has been formed offshore SSI. This study explores the possible genetic and evolutionary mechanisms of the wedge, bearing in mind that clinoform wedges can form at considerable distances from major fluvial sources. For that, a marine geological database has been interpreted comprising high-resolution seismic data, a surficial sediment map and several sediment cores, from which radiocarbon dates were obtained and sedimentation rates deduced. A wave model was also applied to obtain the dominant wave directions. The SSW is a wedge-shaped deposit, and its internal structure presents three seismic units. The two lowest are wedge shaped and arranged in a backstepping pattern. The most recent unit is mostly aggradational and can be divided into three seismic subunits. Sedimentological data show that at least the most recent unit is composed of a mixture of sands and silts. Modeled wave conditions indicate a major influence from southerly waves that are able to remobilize shelf sediments and to create a bypass sediment zone until the foreset of the deposit is reached at the water depths where the SSW is found. Taken together, these data suggest that the SSW formed through contributions from different sediment sources, and should be regarded as an intermediate case of a non-deltaic clinoform wedge. Sand transport in the area involves wind-driven currents passing through the SSC and sediment remobilization by energetic southerly waves. Fine-grained sediment is derived mostly from the joint contributions of many minor catchments located north of the island, and this sediment is later transported southwestward by the

  15. Evaluating the climate capabilities of the coastal areas of southeastern Iran for tourism: a case study on port of Chabahar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Azadeh Arbabi; Miri, Morteza; Raziei, Tayeb; Oroji, Hassan; Rahimi, Mojtaba

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the influence of climate conditions on tourism in the port of Chabahar, southeastern Iran, using the climate comfort indices (CIT, PMV, and TCI) and the field data relative to the tourist satisfaction. According to the computed TCI, the autumn-winter season (October-April) is climatically favorable for tourism in Chabahar, but it is ideal during January to March. Based on the computed PMV index, the studied region is in the range of climate comfort in most parts of the year. However, when the PMV thermal comfort limits (- 0.5 tourism that does not coincide with the reality of the region. However, by blending the PMV and the tourist's degree of satisfaction, a slight modification was made to the CIT index to better represent the reality of the region regarding the climate comfort. The modified CIT gave a different result, reflecting the importance of tourists' perceptions in defining the climate comfort rather than merely relying on the climate variables. The modified CIT also suggests November-March as a period with favorable to ideal climate condition for tourism in Chabahar which is a more realistic assessment of climate condition of the region as perceived by the tourists interviewed.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a large South American industrial coastal area (Santos Estuary, Southeastern Brazil): Sources and depositional history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Cesar C.; Bicego, Marcia C.; Mahiques, Michel M.; Figueira, Rubens C.L.; Tessler, Moyses G.; Montone, Rosalinda C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In early 1980s, Santos Estuary became known as one of the worst polluted in the world. → PAHs levels were similar to the values reported for marine sediments worldwide. → PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin). → The decline of oil consumption due to the world oil crisis (late 1970s) was shown. → The input of organic pollutants is a historical problem for the Santos Estuary. - Abstract: Located in southeastern Brazil, the Santos Estuary has the most important industrial and urban population area of South America. Since the 1950's, increased urbanization and industrialization near the estuary margins has caused the degradation of mangroves and has increased the discharge of sewage and industrial effluents. The main objectives of this work were to determine the concentrations and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediment cores in order to investigate the input of these substances in the last 50 years. The PAHs analyses indicated multiple sources of these compounds (oil and pyrolitic origin), basically anthropogenic contributions from biomass, coal and fossil fuels combustion. The distribution of PAHs in the cores was associated with the formation and development of Cubatao industrial complex and the Santos harbour, waste disposal, world oil crisis and the pollution control program, which results in the decrease of organic pollutants input in this area.

  17. Evaluating the climate capabilities of the coastal areas of southeastern Iran for tourism: a case study on port of Chabahar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzevari, Azadeh Arbabi; Miri, Morteza; Raziei, Tayeb; Oroji, Hassan; Rahimi, Mojtaba

    2018-03-14

    The present study aims to evaluate the influence of climate conditions on tourism in the port of Chabahar, southeastern Iran, using the climate comfort indices (CIT, PMV, and TCI) and the field data relative to the tourist satisfaction. According to the computed TCI, the autumn-winter season (October-April) is climatically favorable for tourism in Chabahar, but it is ideal during January to March. Based on the computed PMV index, the studied region is in the range of climate comfort in most parts of the year. However, when the PMV thermal comfort limits (- 0.5 < PMV < 0.5) and the PPD limits (0 < PPD < 10) are considered, only the March and November are included in the thermal comfort range. The CIT index also indicates that all months of the year are acceptable for tourism that does not coincide with the reality of the region. However, by blending the PMV and the tourist's degree of satisfaction, a slight modification was made to the CIT index to better represent the reality of the region regarding the climate comfort. The modified CIT gave a different result, reflecting the importance of tourists' perceptions in defining the climate comfort rather than merely relying on the climate variables. The modified CIT also suggests November-March as a period with favorable to ideal climate condition for tourism in Chabahar which is a more realistic assessment of climate condition of the region as perceived by the tourists interviewed.

  18. Larval abundance and its relation to macrofouling settlement pattern in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam, southeastern part of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Gouri; Satpathy, K K; Mohanty, A K; Biswas, Sudeepta; Achary, M Smita; Sarkar, S K

    2013-02-01

    The present work revealed that salinity, water temperature, and food availability were the most crucial factors affecting the abundance of larvae and their settlement as macrofouling community in the coastal waters of Kalpakkam. Quantitative as well as qualitative results showed that late post-monsoon (April-May) and pre-monsoon (June-September) periods were found to be suitable periods for larval growth, development, and survival to adult stages for most of the organisms. Clustering of physico-chemical and biological (including larval and adult availability) data yielded two major clusters; one formed by northeast (NE) monsoon months (October-January) and the other by post-monsoon/summer (February-May) months, whereas; pre-monsoon months (June-September) were distributed between these two clusters. Among all the major macrofouler groups, only bivalves established a successful relationship between its larval abundance and adult settlement. Principal component analysis indicated good associations of bivalve larvae with polychaete larvae and adult bivalves with adult barnacles. However, biotic relation between ascidians and bryozoans was observed both in the larval as well as adult community.

  19. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  20. Leaf δ15N as an indicator of arbuscular mycorrhizal nitrogen uptake in a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardegan, S. F.; Valadares, R.; Martinelli, L.

    2013-12-01

    Restinga diversity contrasts with a series of adverse environmental conditions that constrain their development, including nutrient limitation. In this sense, the mutualistic symbiosis between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) may contribute in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen. However, this association deeply affects plant nitrogen isotopic composition (δ15N), since assimilation processes and biochemical reactions within the fungi may reflect in a delivered product with an isotopic composition about 8 to 10 ‰ lower than that observed at the fungal symbiont per se. Here we assessed if the association with AMF affects δ15N values of plant species from a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at Southeastern Brazil. Accordingly, we analyzed the nutritional and isotopic compositions from ecosystem key-compartments (soil, litter and leaves), relating plant δ15N with the colonization rates. The study was carried out in a permanent plot (1 ha) at a coastal-plain forest (restinga forest) at the Serra do Mar State Park, SP, Brazil. Sampled vegetation is characterized by the lack of a well-defined stratification and a rather open canopy. It also comprises trees ranging from 10 to 15-m high. Soils are deep and sandy, being characterized by high acidity, nutrient deficiency and a dense litter cover. We randomly collected five samples (250 mg) from topsoil (0-10 cm) and five to ten leaves from individuals belonging to 16 plant species of high relevance within the site (IVI index). We also collected superficial (0-10 cm depth) fine roots (5 g) and 13 samples (100 g) of fine litter next to the individuals sampled. Soil samples were air-dried, sieved, homogenized and used in the physical-chemical characterization. The remainder was ground to a fine powder to determine nitrogen concentrations and δ15N values. Leaves were dried at 50 °C, finely milled and used for the determination of nitrogen concentrations, C/N ratios and δ15N values. Root samples were

  1. Techniques for Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. control suitable for use in fallow organic transition in the southeastern U.S. coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (common bermudagrass) is a troublesome perennial grass common in the southeastern U. S. and extremely difficult to control in organic crop production systems. Research trials in a site heavily infested with C. dactylon were conducted from 2008 to 2010 to evaluate systems...

  2. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Zink,Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado,André L. S.; Casper,Peter; Schwark,Lorenz

    2004-01-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extract...

  3. Cytogenetics of the Brazilian whiptail lizard Cnemidophorus littoralis (Teiidae) from a restinga area (Barra de Maricá) in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peccinini-Seale, D; Rocha, C F D; Almeida, T M B; Araújo, A F B; De Sena, M A

    2004-08-01

    Chromosomes of Cnemidophorus littoralis, a new species of teiid lizard recently described, were studied. The animals are from a restinga area in Barra de Maricá, RJ. The karyotype presents a diploid number of 2n = 46 chromosomes and a chromosomal sex determination mechanism of the type XX:XY. Nucleolar organizer regions, Ag-NORs, are at the sixth pair of chromosomes; there is variability of size and number of the Ag-stained nucleoli on the 50 interphase nuclei for each specimen analyzed. These nucleoli are related to NOR patterns that also demonstrated variability in size and number. This paper presents the first description of the karyotype of Cnemidophorus littoralis and of a chromosomal sex determination mechanism of the XX:XY type in the genus Cnemidophorus from Southeastern Brazil.

  4. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations. PMID:27355355

  5. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Mariana Samôr; Bertucci, Thayse Cristina Pereira; Rapagnã, Luciano; Tubino, Rafael de Almeida; Monteiro-Neto, Cassiano; Tomas, Acácio Ribeiro Gomes; Tenório, Maria Cristina; Lima, Tânia; Souza, Rosa; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge Domingo; Haimovici, Manuel; Macario, Kita; Carvalho, Carla; Aguilera Socorro, Orangel

    2016-01-01

    Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others) at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp.) that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  6. The Path towards Endangered Species: Prehistoric Fisheries in Southeastern Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Samôr Lopes

    Full Text Available Brazilian shellmounds are archaeological sites with a high concentration of marine faunal remains. There are more than 2000 sites along the coast of Brazil that range in age from 8,720 to 985 cal BP. Here, we studied the ichthyoarchaeological remains (i.e., cranial/postcranial bones, otoliths, and teeth, among others at 13 shellmounds on the southern coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, which are located in coastal landscapes, including a sandy plain with coastal lagoons, rocky islands, islets and rocky bays. We identified patterns of similarity between shellmounds based on fish diversity, the ages of the assemblages, littoral geomorphology and prehistoric fisheries. Our new radiocarbon dating, based on otolith samples, was used for fishery characterization over time. A taxonomical study of the ichthyoarchaeological remains includes a diversity of 97 marine species, representing 37% of all modern species (i.e., 265 spp. that have been documented along the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. This high fish diversity recovered from the shellmounds is clear evidence of well-developed prehistoric fishery activity that targeted sharks, rays and finfishes in a productive area influenced by coastal marine upwelling. The presence of adult and neonate shark, especially oceanic species, is here interpreted as evidence of prehistoric fisheries capacity for exploitation and possibly overexploitation in nursery areas. Various tools and strategies were used to capture finfish in seasonal fisheries, over rocky reef bottoms and in sandy littoral environments. Massive catches of whitemouth croaker, main target dermersal species of South Atlantic coast, show evidence of a reduction in body size of approximately 28% compared with modern fisheries. Fishery activity involving vulnerable species, especially in nursery areas, could mark the beginning of fish depletion along the southeastern Brazilian coast and the collapse of natural fish populations.

  7. Species Profile: Flatwoods Salamander (Ambystoma cingulatum) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service. The species inhabits the lower Southeastern Coastal Plain from southern South Carolina to northern Florida, and westward through Georgia to extreme southwestern Alabama...

  8. Mercury species, selenium, metallothioneins and glutathione in two dolphins from the southeastern Brazilian coast: Mercury detoxification and physiological differences in diving capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehrig, Helena A.; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A.; Seixas, Tercia G.; Pinheiro, Ana Beatriz; Di Beneditto, Ana Paula M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the concentration of trace elements, total mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) and mercury forms (MeHg, Hg inorg and HgSe) in the vulnerable coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis were appraised and compared, using metallothioneins (MT) and glutathione (GSH) as biomarkers for trace element exposure. The trace element concentrations varied between muscle and liver tissues, with liver of all dolphin specimens showing higher Hg and Se concentrations than those found in muscle. Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg molar concentrations showed a clear increase with Se molar concentrations in the liver of both dolphins, and Se concentrations were higher than those of Hg on a molar basis. Se plays a relevant role in the detoxification of MeHg in the hepatic tissue of both dolphins, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals in liver. In contrast, MT were involved in the detoxification process of Hg inorg in liver. GSH levels in P. blainvillei and S. guianensis muscle tissue suggest that these dolphins have different diving capacities. Muscle Hg concentrations were associated to this tripeptide, which protects dolphin cells against Hg stress. - Highlights: • Se aids in MeHg detoxification in dolphin liver, forming Hg-Se amorphous crystals. • MT was involved in liver Hg inorg detoxification and GSH was associated to muscle Hg. • Feeding habits seem to influence muscle GSH, suggesting different diving capacities. • MT, GSH and Se and Hg in different forms were investigated in two dolphin species. • Hepatic Hg, MeHg and Hg inorg increased with higher Se concentrations. - “Coastal dolphins showed Se-mediated detoxification of MeHg and MT-mediated detoxification of Hg inorg , while GSH suggests different diving capacities”.

  9. Effects of cultural intensity and density regime treatment on post-thinning loblolly pine individual tree DBH increment in the lower coastal plain of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Perren; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Richard Daniels

    2016-01-01

    Thinning is a well understood concept used to manage density dependent factors at the stand level. This study evaluates the effect of planting density, cultural intensity, and thinning treatment on loblolly pine post-thinning individual tree development. The Lower Coastal Plain Culture/Density Study, has four initial densities, in combination with two cultural...

  10. Distribution pattern of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and F. paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 on the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Caetano da Costa

    Full Text Available Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of juveniles of the pink shrimps Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis (Latreille, 1817 and Farfantepenaeus paulensis (Pérez-Farfante, 1967 in the Ubatuba region (SP was investigated. Sampling was performed in the bays of Ubatumirim (UBM, Ubatuba (UBA and Mar Virado (MV. A total of 2,018 F. brasiliensis and F. paulensis were collected. The largest catch of juveniles of both species occurred in UBA (N = 867, followed by UBM (N = 729 and MV (N= 422. The bottom sediment in MV had the highest silt and clay content, which explains the negative correlation of the substrate with the abundance of both species. Temperature was positively correlated with the abundance of both species. Juveniles were highly abundant in shallower areas in the summer of 1998. The high rainfall in this El Niño period may have lowered the salinity in estuarine waters and led the shrimps to move to coastal areas in search of higher salinities such as in bays. With this unusually early reduction in salinity, individuals migrated to the bay before the closed season began and thus became more exposed to fishing. We confirmed that monitoring environmental variations, especially in El Niño years, is essential for understanding the distribution patterns of juveniles of both species.

  11. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Klaus-Gerhard; Furtado, André L S; Casper, Peter; Schwark, Lorenz

    2004-03-01

    Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols) were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm) per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36), which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.

  12. Species Profile: Gopher Frog (Rana capito spp.) on Military Installations in the Southeastern United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Palis, John

    1997-01-01

    ....' Gopher frogs inhabit xeric upland pine communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain from the southern half of the North Carolina coastal plain to southern Florida and westward to eastern Louisiana...

  13. Redescription of Hisonotus notatus Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1889 (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae, the type species of the genus, and description of a new species from coastal drainages of southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda O. Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Our analyses showed that the type series of Hisonotus notatus , type species of the genus, is mixed, composed by two different species. Based on that, we redescribe H. notatus with the designation of a lectotype, restricting the species to rio São João drainage and other small coastal drainages running to the Baía de Guanabara and to the Baía de Sepetiba in Rio de Janeiro State. We also describe a new species of Hisonotus from drainages of the rio Paraíba do Sul, Lagoa Feia, rio Macaé, and coastal rivers of Espírito Santo State, from rio Itabapoana to rio Doce basin. These two species are sister-taxa and can be distinguished by the number of plates in the mid-dorsal series.

  14. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management. Appendix F: User's guide for advection, convection prototype. [southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    A user's manual is provided for the environmental computer model proposed for the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) application project for coastal zone land use investigations and marine resources management. The model was developed around the hydrologic cycle and includes two data bases consisting of climate and land use variables. The main program is described, along with control parameters to be set and pertinent subroutines.

  15. Two new species of Monogenea (Platyhelminthes: Cercomeridea parasitic on Chaetodipterus faber (Teleostei: Ephippidae from the Brazilian coastal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Cezar

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Metazoan parasites were extracted for 110 Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782 (Teleostei: Ephippidae specimens from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (nearly 21-23° S, 41-45° W. Two new species of monogeneans belonging to genera Sprostoniella and Parancylodiscoides are described and illustrated. The new species of Sprostoniella, differ from S. multitestis, the only known species of the genus, by: 1. the arrangement of septa (with 17 septa, two of them bifid and two incomplet in the new species; 17 septa, two of them trifid in S. multitestis. 2. the new species showed two central loculi, while S. multitestis only one, and 3. the first pair of anchors of the new species is small and poorly developed, while in S. multitestis is well developed and strong. The new species of Parancylodiscoides differs from P. chaetodipteri, the only known species of the genus, by: 1. the testis shape (bilobated in the new species, not bilobated in P. chaetodipteri, and 2. by the presence of accessory prostatic reservoir at the copulatory organ base (absent in P. chaetodipteri.Se extrajeron metazoos parásitos de 110 Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet, 1782 (Teleostei: Ephippidae del litoral del Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (aprox. 21-23° S, 41-45° W. Se describe e ilustra dos nuevas especies de monogéneos de los géneros Sprostoniella y Parancylodiscoides. La nueva especie de Sprostoniella difiere de S. multitestis, la otra especie del género, por 1. la disposición de los septos (con 17 septos, dos de ellos bífidos y dos incompletos en la nueva especie; 17 septos, dos de ellos trífidos en S. multitestis, 2. la nueva especie muestra dos lóculos centrales, mientras S. multitestis sólo uno, y 3. el primer par de ganchos en la nueva especie es pequeño y poco desarrollado, mientras que en S. multitestis es robusto y bien desarrollado. La nueva especie de Parancylodiscoides difiere de P. chaetodipteri, la otra especie del género, por

  16. The development of a non-linear autoregressive model with exogenous input (NARX) to model climate-water clarity relationships: reconstructing a historical water clarity index for the coastal waters of the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cameron C.; Sheridan, Scott C.; Barnes, Brian B.; Hu, Chuanmin; Pirhalla, Douglas E.; Ransibrahmanakul, Varis; Shein, Karsten

    2017-10-01

    The coastal waters of the southeastern USA contain important protected habitats and natural resources that are vulnerable to climate variability and singular weather events. Water clarity, strongly affected by atmospheric events, is linked to substantial environmental impacts throughout the region. To assess this relationship over the long-term, this study uses an artificial neural network-based time series modeling technique known as non-linear autoregressive models with exogenous input (NARX models) to explore the relationship between climate and a water clarity index (KDI) in this area and to reconstruct this index over a 66-year period. Results show that synoptic-scale circulation patterns, weather types, and precipitation all play roles in impacting water clarity to varying degrees in each region of the larger domain. In particular, turbid water is associated with transitional weather and cyclonic circulation in much of the study region. Overall, NARX model performance also varies—regionally, seasonally and interannually—with wintertime estimates of KDI along the West Florida Shelf correlating to the actual KDI at r > 0.70. Periods of extreme (high) KDI in this area coincide with notable El Niño events. An upward trend in extreme KDI events from 1948 to 2013 is also present across much of the Florida Gulf coast.

  17. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  18. Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonadaceae family pathogens isolated from marine mammals of Southern and Southeastern Brazilian coast Plesiomonasshigelloides e patógenos da família Aeromonadaceae isolados de mamíferos marinhos da costa sul e sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane S. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic environment is the habitat of many microorganisms, including Plesiomonasshigelloides and Aeromonas species which are pathogenic to human and animals. In the present investigation, we evaluated the occurrence of these pathogens from marine mammals beached or accidentally captured by fishing net in southeastern (RJ and southern (RS coastal Brazilian regions. A total of 198 swabs from 27 specimens of marine mammals, including 11 different species, were collected by DEENSP and GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS Institutes and sent to LRNCEB/IOC/FIOCRUZ. The samples were enriched in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% of sodium chloride (NaCl, APW plus 3% NaCl and incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. Following, samples were streaked onto Pseudomonas-Aeromonas Selective Agar Base (GSP Agar and suspected colonies were biochemically characterized. The results revealed 114 strains, including ten Aeromonas species and P.shigelloides. The main pathogens isolated were A.veronii biogroup veronii (19.3%, A. caviae (12.3%, A. hydrophila (9.6% and P.shigelloides (7%. The pathogens were isolated in both coastal and offshore marine mammals. These data point the importance of epidemiological surveillance and microbiological monitoring and reinforce the need to implement environmental protection programs, especially related to endangered cetacean species.O ambiente aquático é o habitat de vários microrganismos, incluindo Plesiomonasshigelloides e espécies de Aeromonas, os quais são patogênicos para o homem e os animais. Na presente investigação, foi avaliada a ocorrência destes patógenos a partir de swabs coletados de mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados acidentalmente em redes de pesca nas regiões costeiras do sudeste (RJ e sul (RS do Brasil. O total de 198 swabs de 27 espécimes de mamíferos marinhos, incluindo 11 espécies distintas, foi coletado por profissionais dos institutos DEENSP, GEMARS-CECLIMAR/UFRGS e enviado ao LRNCEB

  19. Organic matter composition in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons: district of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Gerhard Zink

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater lagoons comprise important coastal ecosystems and natural buffers between urbanized land areas and open ocean in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Studies of sediment and water chemistry, zooplankton and bacterial communities to assess the extent of anthropogenic disturbance are available. Here we contribute with an organic-geochemical approach supplemented by some microbiological aspects to complete the characterization of these lagoonal ecosystems. Bulk organic matter and extractable lipids (aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols and fatty acids, sterols were investigated from two locations per lagoon: at the seaward site and landward ends - and at two depth intervals (0-3 and 3-6 cm per site. Urbanized Imboacica Lagoon received increased anthropogenic input over the most recent years represented by the topmost 3 cm of sediment, whereas deeper sediment layers are less affected by human influence. Eutrophication or nutrient availability favored enhanced algal/cyanobacterial growth. In remote Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons pristine conditions are preserved. Organic matter from vascular plants dominates (chain length of free lipids up to C36, which is exceptionally well preserved by acidic lagoonal waters. Differentiation between landward and seaward sites in these two lagoons is less well established due to much smaller surface/volume to catchment ratios. No anthropogenic influences are yet detectable in sediments of Cabiúnas and Comprida Lagoons.As lagoas costeiras são importantes ecossistemas costeiros no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, localizadas entre áreas urbanizadas da costa e o oceano aberto. Vários estudos enfocando o sedimento, a água, a comunidade zooplanctônica e comunidades bacterianas demonstraram a extensão da influência antrópica sobre estes ecossistemas aquáticos. Neste estudo foi investigada a composição da matéria orgânica presente no sedimento, assim como, alguns parâmetros microbiológicos, com o intuito de

  20. Macroalgae blooms and δ15N in subtropical coastal lagoons from the Southeastern Gulf of California: Discrimination among agricultural, shrimp farm and sewage effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinon-Gimate, Alejandra; Soto-Jimenez, Martin F.; Ochoa-Izaguirre, Maria Julia; Garcia-Pages, Eynar; Paez-Osuna, Federico

    2009-01-01

    Macroalgae blooms of Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Hypnea spinella and Spyridia filamentosa have been found in coastal lagoons in the SE Gulf of California. Agriculture, livestock, shrimp and poultry farms and sewage contribute anthropogenic nitrogen to the systems. The δ 15 N of these sources, water column and macroalgae were studied in order to identify the N supply for macroalgae blooms. δ 15 N of three species of macroalgae (4.3-13.6 per mille ) were enriched compared to the water column (δ 15 N-NO 3 - 3.7-6.8 per mille ), probably because of fractioning from the macroalgae. δ 15 N of POM (1.4-10.3 per mille ) was similar to the water column but the relationship was unclear. Depending on the site, macroalgae showed different δ 15 N values since some sites receive more or less influence from one given source of the associated watershed, which is reflected in the different δ 15 N values of the macroalgae of the same system and in the relative contributions of the sources.

  1. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia. PMID:27594800

  2. Composition and natural history notes of the coastal snake assemblage from Northern Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ricardo; Mebert, Konrad; Fonseca, Érica; Rödder, Dennis; Solé, Mirco; Tinôco, Moacir Santos

    2016-01-01

    Information about the snake diversity and their natural history from the Atlantic forest domain in Brazil refer mostly to inland forests than to coastal region. Within the state of Bahia, this knowledge is concentrated to the southeastern coastal stretch. Herein we report on the diversity of snakes from the restinga, ombrophilous forest and anthropogenic environment from the northern Atlantic coast of Bahia. We sampled nine sites for three years and visited four museum collections. Furthermore, we provide anecdotal natural history information, voucher analyses, literature complements, and a key to fascilitate species identification. We report a total of 774 snakes belonging to 50 species and 23 new distribution records for northeastern coast of Bahia, supplemented by new data on feeding and reproduction. The number of detected species is similar to numbers obtained in comparable studies from other Brazilian ecoregions. This study reports and focuses for the first time on all known species of snakes from the northeastern coast of Bahia.

  3. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  4. Structure and floristic similarities of upper montane forests in Serra Fina mountain range, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Dias Meireles

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The upper montane forests in the southern and southeastern regions of Brazil have an unusual and discontinuous geographic distribution at the top of the Atlantic coastal mountain ranges. To describe the floristic composition and structure of the Atlantic Forest near its upper altitudinal limit in southeastern Brazil, 30 plots with 10 × 10 m were installed in three forest sites between 2,200 and 2,300 m.a.s.l. at Serra Fina. The floristic composition and phytosociological structure of this forest were compared with other montane and upper montane forests. In total, 704 individuals were included, belonging to 24 species, 15 families, and 19 genera. Myrsinaceae, Myrtaceae, Symplocaceae, and Cunoniaceae were the most important families, and Myrsine gardneriana, Myrceugenia alpigena, Weinmannia humilis, and Symplocos corymboclados were the most important species. The three forest sites revealed differences in the abundance of species, density, canopy height, and number of stems per individual. The upper montane forests showed structural similarities, such as lower richness, diversity, and effective number of species, and they tended to have higher total densities and total dominance per hectare to montane forests. The most important species in these upper montane forests belong to Austral-Antartic genera or neotropical and pantropical genera that are typical of montane areas. The high number of species shared by these forests suggests past connections between the vegetation in southern Brazilian high-altitude areas.

  5. Bromeliaceae species from coastal restinga habitats, Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo, and Bahia

    OpenAIRE

    Cogliatti-Carvalho, Luciana; Rocha-Pessôa, Thereza; Nunes-Freitas, André; Rocha, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Bromeliaceae is one of the most representative plant families in restinga habitats. We analyzed the species richness and composition of Bromeliaceae in 13 restinga habitats along the Brazilian coast. We found a total of 41 species distributed along the restinga habitats studied. The restinga of Praia do Sul, in the state of Rio de Janeiro, had the highest number of species (15), whereas the restinga of Abaeté, in the state of Bahia, had the lowest (4). Our data are suggestive that the Doce Ri...

  6. Measurements of labile Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn levels at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production with diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, João M; Menegário, Amauri A; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus A G; Francioni, Eleine

    2014-12-01

    In this work, the ability of the diffusive gradients in thin films technique (DGT) was evaluated for monitoring the concentrations, and estimating the availability, of metals at a northeastern Brazilian coastal area under the influence of oil production. Three sites with an average distance between 0m (EM-1), 100 m (EM-2), and 1,000 m (EM-3) of a submarine outfall-I (Guamaré-RN, Brazil) and another site (GA-1) with an average distance of 12,000 m east of Outfall I, near the city of Galinhos, were studied. DGT units were deployed at the same sites in three campaigns from July, 2010 to June, 2011. Effects on the accuracy of analytical results regarding the deployment time, gel porosity, and thickness were evaluated. There was no difference between the measurements obtained with two sets of DGT devices, those assembled with open or restrictive pore gel, respectively, showing that organic metallic species are not present near the submarine outlet. After 21 day deployments in a region (near Submarine Outfall I) that receives produced waters that have been treated, there was evidence of biofilm formation on DGT membranes. However, it was demonstrated that the biofilm interference with DGT measurements was negligible. Data found in this work show that total concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in seawater samples collected at sites GA-1 and EM-1 in two campaigns were below 0.33, 1.67, 0.47, 0.70, 2.86 ng mL(-1) respectively. For the first time, labile levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in an area under the influence of oil production were determined. DGT measurements allowed the verification of the effects of temporal variation on levels of Zn and Ni. There were no effects of spatial variations on levels of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn at the four studied sites, suggesting no contamination of these metals at the northeastern Brazilian coastal area investigated in this work. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Coupling of Coastal Zone Color Scanner data to a physical-biological model of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf ecosystem. I - CZCS data description and Lagrangian particle tracing experiments. II - An Eulerian model. III - Nutrient and phytoplankton fluxes and CZCS data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Joji

    1990-01-01

    Surface phytoplankton biomass of the southeastern U.S. continental shelf area is discussed based on coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images obtained in April 1980. Data of chlorophyll distributions are analyzed in conjunction with concurrent flow and temperature fields. Lagrangian particle tracing experiments show that the particles move consistently with the evolution of the chlorophyll patterns. A four-component physical-biological model for a horizontal plane at a nominal depth of 17 m is presented. Model simulations using various physical-biological dynamics and boundary conditions show that the variability of chlorophyll distributions is controlled by horizontal advection. Phytoplankton and nutrient fluxes, calculated using the model, show considerable variability with time. The chlorophyll distributions obtained from the CZCS images are assimilated into the model to improve the phytoplankton flux estimates.

  8. Attaining provenance proxies from OSL and TL sensitivities: Coupling with grain size and heavy minerals data from southern Brazilian coastal sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zular, André; Sawakuchi, André O.; Guedes, Carlos C.F.; Giannini, Paulo C.F.

    2015-01-01

    In the São Francisco do Sul (SFS) barrier in southern Brazil, the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) sensitivities of coastal sands vary according to geomorphological units. Sands from older beach ridges (ages older than 2000 years ago) show higher OSL and TL sensitivities than younger units (ages younger than 2000 years). Geomorphological units in the SFS attest to changes in provenance as a result of a coastal climate shift evidenced through grain size and heavy mineral analysis. We argue that in the SFS barrier sands, OSL and TL sensitivity signals provide an additional proxy to climate events and can be used as an alternative method to assess changes in provenance and tracking source-to-sink systems to monitor past and future environmental changes. - Highlights: • OSL and TL sensitivities are confronted with grain size and heavy minerals data. • We report OSL and 110 °C TL sensitivities as provenance proxies. • 110 °C TL sensitivity outlines environmental changes better than OSL sensitivity data.

  9. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Jones Flores Cassenote

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in metropolitan areas.

  10. Cubozoa e Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa de águas costeiras do Brasil Cubozoa and Scyphozoa (Cnidaria: Medusozoa from Brazilian coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André C. Morandini

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available As espécies de Cubozoa e Scyphozoa costeiras que ocorrem no Brasil são descritas, com base em espécimes de coleções de museus e exemplares recém-coletados. Chaves de identificação e um glossário também são apresentados. As espécies descritas são: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 e Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.Coastal species of Cubozoa and Scyphozoa occurring in Brazil are described, based on museum specimens and recently collected ones. Identification keys and a glossary are also presented. The listed species are: Aurelia sp.; Cassiopea xamachana Bigelow, 1892; Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829; Drymonema dalmatinum Haeckel, 1880; Linuche unguiculata (Swartz, 1788; Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880; Nausithoe aurea Silveira & Morandini, 1997; Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884; Stomolophus meleagris Agassiz, 1862; Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859; and Tripedalia cystophora Conant, 1897.

  11. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Threatened fish and fishers along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begossi, Alpina; Salivonchyk, Svetlana; Hallwass, Gustavo; Hanazaki, Natalia; Lopes, Priscila F M; Silvano, Renato A M

    2017-12-01

    Small-scale fisheries of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Coast (BAFC) depend on fish resources for food and income. Thus, if the catch diminishes or if fish species that are a target for fishers are overexploited or impacted, this could affect fishers' livelihoods. The exclusion of threatened fish species from the catch is believed to be a threat to small-scale fisheries, which is likely to be the case along the BAFC. Many fish species are currently listed as threatened or vulnerable, whereas there is not enough biological information available to determine the status of the majority of the other species. Failure to protect the BAFC biodiversity might negatively impact fishers' income and the regional economy of local small-scale fisheries. We collected data from 1986 to 2009 through 347 interviews and 24-h food recall surveys at seven southeastern coastal sites of the Atlantic Forest. We show that important species of consumed fish are currently threatened: of the 65 species mentioned by fishers as the most consumed fishes, 33% are decreasing and 54% have an unknown status. Thus, biological and ecological data for BAFC marine species are urgently needed, along with co-management, to promote fish conservation.

  13. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  14. Southeastern Science Policy Colloquium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphries, F.

    1995-06-22

    This conference covers four main topics: (1) Southeastern Labor Market and its Impact on Corporate/Industry Development; (2) New Issues for Science and Technology in the Year 2000 and Beyond; (3) The Role of Academia in Developing the Labor Force of the Southeast; and (4) K-12 Education: Challenges for the 21st Century.

  15. Ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Jennifer M.; Costanza, Jennifer

    2016-08-11

    Two recent investigations of climate-change vulnerability for 19 terrestrial, aquatic, riparian, and coastal ecosystems of the southeastern United States have identified a number of important considerations, including potential for changes in hydrology, disturbance regimes, and interspecies interactions. Complementary approaches using geospatial analysis and literature synthesis integrated information on ecosystem biogeography and biodiversity, climate projections, vegetation dynamics, soil and water characteristics, anthropogenic threats, conservation status, sea-level rise, and coastal flooding impacts. Across a diverse set of ecosystems—ranging in size from dozens of square meters to thousands of square kilometers—quantitative and qualitative assessments identified types of climate-change exposure, evaluated sensitivity, and explored potential adaptive capacity. These analyses highlighted key gaps in scientific understanding and suggested priorities for future research. Together, these studies help create a foundation for ecosystem-level analysis of climate-change vulnerability to support effective biodiversity conservation in the southeastern United States.

  16. Modelagem numérica de ressacas na plataforma sudeste do Brasil a partir de cartas sinóticas de pressão atmosférica na superfície Numerical modeling of storm surges in the brazilian southeastern shelf using synopitc charts of atmospheric pressure at the surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Camargo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Um modelo numérico tri-dimensional, linear, barotrópico e de meso-escala, é usado para a plataforma sudeste brasileira, de maneira a representar a composição das principais componentes astronômicas de maré, sobrepostas a efeitos meteorológicos extremos, para períodos específicos de interesse. No entanto, como dados meteorológicos relativos a esta área são muito escassos e esparsos, foi utilizada uma metodologia de fornecimento de condições meteorológicas para o modelo de circulação oceânica, baseada somente em cartas sinóticas de pressão atmosférica na superfície. O campo de pressão foi bem representado, mas as intensidades calculadas para os ventos foram bem maiores do que as observadas na costa. Os resultados do modelo indicam que é possível associar o centro de alta pressão do Atlântico Sul e as correspondentes elevações de superfície paralelas à linha da costa a um sistema geostrófico de circulação oceânica. Por outro lado, a passagem de frentes frias na área induz sistemas transientes que modificam o padrão geostrófico, também mudando a configuração das isolinhas de elevação de superfície.A three-dimensional, linear, barotropic and meso-scale numerical model is used for the southeastern Brazilian shelf, in order to represent the composition of the main astronomical tidal constituents, superimposed to extreme meteorological effects, for specific periods of interest. However, meteorological data relative to this area are very few and sparse, so that a methodology to provide meteorological conditions to the oceanic circulation model was used, based only on atmospheric pressure charts at the surface. The pressure field was well represented, while the calculated wind speeds were much larger than the observed winds at the coast. The model results indicate that it is possible to associate the predominant high pressure center in the South Atlantic and the correspondent surface elevations parallel to the

  17. Southeast Regional Implementation Manual for Requirements and Procedures for Evaluation of the Ocean Disposal of Dredged Material in Southeastern U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coast Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Regional Implementation Manual was prepared by EPA Region 4 to provide guidance for applicants proposing open-water disposal of dredged material in southeastern U.S. coastal waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  19. Seismic risk map for Southeastern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioto, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    During the last few years, some studies regarding seismic risk were prepared for three regions of Brazil. They were carried on account of two basic interests: first, toward the seismic history and recurrence of Brazilian seismic events; second, in a way as to provide seismic parameters for the design and construction of hydro and nuclear power plants. The first seismic risk map prepared for the southeastern region was elaborated in 1979 by 6he Universidade de Brasilia (UnB-Brasilia Seismological Station). In 1981 another seismic risk map was completed on the basis of seismotectonic studies carried out for the design and construction of the Nuclear power plants of Itaorna Beach (Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro) by IPT (Mining and Applied Geology Division). In Brazil, until 1984, seismic studies concerning hydro and nuclear power plants and other civil construction of larger size did not take into account the seismic events from the point of view of probabilities of seismic recurrences. Such analysis in design is more important than the choice of a level of intensity or magnitude, or adoption of a seismicity level ased on deterministic methods. In this way, some considerations were made, concerning the use of seisms in Brazilian designs of hydro and nuclear power plants, as far as seismic analysis is concerned, recently altered over the current seismic risk panorama. (D.J.M.) [pt

  20. Estimating crustal thickness using SsPmp in regions covered by low-velocity sediments: Imaging the Moho beneath the Southeastern Suture of the Appalachian Margin Experiment (SESAME) array, SE Atlantic Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, E. Horry, Jr.; Hawman, Robert B.; Fischer, Karen M.; Wagner, Lara S.

    2016-09-01

    Deconvolved waveforms for two earthquakes (Mw: 6.0 and 5.8) show clear postcritical SsPmp arrivals for broadband stations deployed across the coastal plain of Georgia, allowing mapping of crustal thickness in spite of strong reverberations generated by low-velocity sediments. Precritical SsPmp arrivals are also identified. For a basement in which velocity increases linearly with depth, a bootstrapped grid search suggests an average basement velocity of 6.5 ± 0.1 km/s and basement thickness of 29.8 ± 2.0 km. Corresponding normal-incidence Moho two-way times (including sediments) are 10.6 ± 0.6 s, consistent with times for events interpreted as Moho reflections on coincident active-source reflection profiles. Modeling of an underplated mafic layer (Vp = 7.2-7.4 km/s) using travel time constraints from SsPmp data and vertical-incidence Moho reflection times yields a total basement thickness of 30-35 km and average basement velocity of 6.35-6.65 km/s for an underplate thickness of 0-15 km.

  1. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  2. Prevalence of anemia in a sample of elderly southeastern Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Callera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the proportion of anemia and its association with demographic and clinical characteristics in a representative sample of elderly people from São José dos Campos, São Paulo. Methods: Demographic data and blood samples were collected from 398 over 65-year-old male and female individuals. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration 75-80, >85-90 and >90-95 years (p-value = 0.0251. There were no significant differences in gender, ethnic background, place of residence, years of schooling, income, comorbidities and use of medications. Accord- ing to gender, the mean hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular volume were 11.5 g/dL (range: 8.4-11.9 g/dL and 90.7 fL (range: 63.0-111.7 fL for women and 11.9 g/dL (range: 8.6-12.8 g/dL and 92.1 fL (range: 59.8-100.1 fL for men. The great majority of ane- mia cases were mild with less than 6% having hemoglobin concentrations below 10.9 g/dL. Mean corpuscular volume was lower than 80 fL in six cases (8%, between 80 and 100 fL in 65 cases (88% and higher than 100 fL in three cases (4%. Conclusion: A total of 18.6% of elderly people from São José dos Campos had mild anemia with the majority being normocytic. The percentages of anemia rose as the age increased demonstrating an association between age and anemia.

  3. Pervasive hydrologic effects on freshwater mussels and riparian trees in southeastern floodplain ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew L. Rypel; Wendell R. Haag; Robert H. Findlay

    2009-01-01

    We present long-term growth trends for 13 freshwater mussel species from two unregulated rivers and one regulated river in the southeastern U.S. Coastal Plain. We also collected baldcypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.) tree cores adjacent to mussel collection sites in one river and directly compared tree and mussel chronologies in this river. To extend our analysis...

  4. The south-eastern North Sea : losses of vertebrate fauna during the past 2000 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, W.J.

    At least 31 species of marine mammals, marine and coastal birds, and marine and anadromous fish have disappeared temporarily or permanently from the coasts of The Netherlands and in most cases also from the south-eastern North Sea (south of 54 degrees N) during the past 2000 years-In 18-22 cases,

  5. Low water quality in tropical fishponds in southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMONE M. COSTA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of aquaculture around the world has heavily impacted the environment. Because fertilizers are needed to raise fish, one of the main impacts is eutrophication, which lowers water quality and increases the frequency of algal blooms, mostly cyanobacteria. To evaluate whether the water quality in 30 fishponds in southeastern Brazilian met the requirements of Brazilian legislation, we analyzed biotic and abiotic water conditions. We expected that the high nutrient levels due to fertilization would cause low water quality. We also analyzed cyanotoxins in seston and fish muscle in some systems where cyanobacteria were dominant. The fishponds ranged from eutrophic and hypereutrophic with high phytoplankton biomass. Although cyanobacteria were dominant in most of the systems, cyanotoxins occurred in low concentrations, possibly because only two of the 12 dominant species were potential producers of microcystins. The high phosphorus concentrations caused the low water quality by increasing cyanobacteria, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, and thermotolerant coliforms, and by depleting dissolved oxygen. We found that all the 30 systems were inappropriate for fish culture, according to Brazilian legislation, based on at least one of the parameters measured. Furthermore, there was not any single system in the water-quality thresholds, according to the Brazilian legislation, to grow fish. Our findings indicate the need for better management to minimize the impacts of eutrophication in fishponds, in addition to a rigorous control to guarantee good food.

  6. Population biology and diet of Pomadasys corvinaeformis Perciformes: Pomadasyidae in Caraguatatuba Bay, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Denadai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pomadasys corvinaeformis inhabits sandy and rocky bottoms in coastal waters, and is common in trawl samples taken from beaches. The species is very abundant on the Brazilian coast, and is of high economic and ecological importance. This study examined the spatio-temporal distribution, population biology and diet of P. corvinaeformis in Southeastern Brazil. Samples were taken by trawling monthly from August 2003 to October 2004, in two previously selected areas. The Northern area is more exposed to wave activity and is influenced by a river, functioning as a small estuary. In contrast, the Southern area is relatively sheltered from wave energy and influenced to a lesser degree by smaller rivers. The length of the specimens was measured, and the sex and gonadal stage were macroscopically identified. The abundance of this species was compared between areas and among months. The diet was analyzed seasonally by the frequency of occurrence, the percent volume, and the index of alimentary importance. P. corvinaeformis occurred in unequal proportions in the two study areas 86 in the Northern area and 14 in the Southern area and was found most abundant in May 2004, followed by June 2004. The proportion of mature and in-maturation individuals increased gradually from autumn to summer. Nine major groups of food items were recorded in the diet of P. corvinaeformis, and crustaceans comprised five of the categories: unidentified crustacean fragments, zoea larvae, amphipods, copepods and shrimps. In both, fish stomach and intestine, crustacean fragments were the most frequent item. The second most frequent items were shrimp in the stomach, and amphipods in the intestine mainly represented by their tubes. These results demonstrate that P. corvinaeformis can be considered a carnivore, with a preference on benthic organisms.

  7. Ichthyoplankton distribution and abundance off southeastern and southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Martins de Freitas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the distribution of fish eggs and larvae along the southeastern and southern Brazilian coast. Plankton samples were collected at 85 stations using a Bongo net, and water salinity and temperature were profiled with a CTD. Results showed that fish eggs and larvae, and zooplankton biovolume were distributed in coastal waters with mean temperature of 23ºC and salinity between 33 and 34. The largest egg abundance occurred along Iguape (24º'S with a partial overlap with zooplankton biovolume and fish larvae were most abundant near shore close to Santos (24ºS. These protected coastal waters presented a surface layer with lower salinity and higher temperatures, while the bottom layer had cooler water. Ichthyoplankton abundance was low off Cabo Frio (22º'S, while a maximum in fish eggs occurred around Cabo Santa Marta Grande (28ºS.A abundância de ovos e larvas de peixes serve como um indicador do tamanho do estoque desovante, e a variabilidade nestes parâmetros está associada a flutuações no recrutamento de recursos pesqueiros. No sul e sudeste do Brasil a distribuição do ictioplâncton é influenciada pela dinâmica da Confluência Subtropical, pelo aporte de água doce e pela ação do vento na camada superficial do oceano. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a distribuição de ovos e larvas de peixes ao longo da área compreendida entre Cabo Frio (22º'S e o Cabo de Santa Marta Grande (28ºS, entre 15/11 e 05/12/95. Em 85 estações foram coletadas amostras de plâncton com uma rede Bongo de 60cm de diâmetro e 330m m de malha, dotada de fluxômetro e arrastada obliquamente. Salinidade e temperatura foram obtidas em cada estação com um CTD. O maior número de ovos e larvas de peixes e biovolume de zooplâncton foram encontrados em áreas distintas na região costeira, em temperaturas entre 23 e 24ºC e salinidades entre 33 e 34. As larvas foram mais abundantes na costa de Santos; os

  8. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelvink, J.A.; Steetzel, H.J.; Bliek, A.; Rakhorst, H.D.; Roelse, P.; Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  9. Coastal plain soils and geomorphology: a key to understanding forest hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Williams; Devendra M. Amatya

    2016-01-01

    In the 1950s, Coile published a simple classification of southeastern coastal soils using three characteristics: drainage class, sub-soil depth, and sub-soil texture. These ideas were used by Warren Stuck and Bill Smith to produce a matrix of soils with drainage class as one ordinate and subsoil texture as the second for the South Carolina coastal plain. Soils...

  10. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  11. 77 FR 52701 - Board on Coastal Engineering Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... Environment and Human Health, and panel presentations dealing with Challenges to Ports and Navigation and Challenges to Beaches and Coastal Risk. Presentations dealing with Challenges to Ports and Navigation include Strategic Environmental Issues in Southeastern Dredging Operations; Mobile Bay Sediment Management Program...

  12. Thalassomya gutae sp. n., a new marine chironomid (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae) from the Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Caroline Silva Neubern; Da Silva, Fabio Laurindo; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    2013-01-01

    One new species of Thalassomya Schiner, 1856 (Diptera: Chironomidae: Telmatogetoninae), T. gutae sp. n. is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The specimen was collected in the marine zone between tidemarks, in southeastern Brazilian coast and is the first species of this genus recorded to Brazil.

  13. Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  14. Thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil estimated from different data sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pinto Jr.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparative analysis of the thunderstorm incidence in southeastern Brazil obtained from thunderstorm days observed at two different epochs (from 1910 to 1951 and from 1971 to 1984 and from lightning data provided by the Brazilian lightning location system RINDAT (from 1999 to 2006 and the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS on board the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM satellite (from 1998 to 2010. The results are interpreted in terms of the main synoptic patterns associated with thunderstorm activity in this region, indicating that the prevailing synoptic pattern associated with thunderstorm activity is the occurrence of frontal systems and their modulation by the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and topography. Evidence of urban effects is also found. The results are also discussed in the context of practical applications involving their use in the Brazilian lightning protection standards, suggesting that the present version of the Brazilian standards should be revised incorporating RINDAT and LIS data. Finally, the results are important to improve our knowledge about the limitations of the different techniques used to record the thunderstorm activity and support future climatic studies.

  15. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  16. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  17. NOAA submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) habitat mapping orthoimagery, collection subset 1 of 2, coastal North Carolina and SE Virginia, 2007-2008 (NODC Accession 0086096)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Orthophotography was flown in coastal regions of North Carolina and southeastern Virginia in an effort to establish long term mapping and monitoring of submerged...

  18. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  19. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  20. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  1. Land changes and their driving forces in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, Darrell E.; Auch, Roger F.; Headley, Rachel; Taylor, Janis

    2010-01-01

    The ecoregions of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain, Southeastern Plains, Piedmont, and Blue Ridge provide a continuum of land cover from the Atlantic Ocean to the highest mountains in the East. From 1973 to 2000, each ecoregion had a unique mosaic of land covers and land cover changes. The forests of the Blue Ridge Mountains provided amenity lands. The Piedmont forested area declined, while the developed area increased. The Southeastern Plains became a commercial forest region, and most agricultural lands that changed became forested. Forests in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain declined, and development related to recreation and retirement increased. The most important drivers of land conversion were associated with commercial forestry, competition between forest and agriculture, and economic and population growth. These and other drivers were modified by each ecoregion’s unique suitability and land use legacies with the result that the same drivers often produced different land changes in different ecoregions.

  2. Timing of floods in southeastern China: Seasonal properties and potential causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Luo, Ming

    2017-09-01

    Flood hazards and flood risks in southeastern China have been causing increasing concerns due to dense population and highly-developed economy. This study attempted to address changes of seasonality, timing of peak floods and variability of occurrence date of peak floods using circular statistical methods and the modified Mann-Kendall trend detection method. The causes of peak flood changes were also investigated. Results indicated that: (1) floods were subject to more seasonality and temporal clustering when compared to precipitation extremes. However, seasonality of floods and extreme precipitation was subject to spatial heterogeneity in northern Guangdong. Similar changing patterns of peak floods and extreme precipitation were found in coastal regions; (2) significant increasing/decreasing seasonality, but no confirmed spatial patterns, were observed for peak floods and extreme precipitation. Peak floods in northern Guangdong province had decreasing variability, but had larger variability in coastal regions; (3) tropical cyclones had remarkable impacts on extreme precipitation changes in coastal regions of southeastern China, and peak floods as well. The landfalling of tropical cyclones was decreasing and concentrated during June-September; this is the major reason for earlier but enhanced seasonality of peak floods in coastal regions. This study sheds new light on flood behavior in coastal regions in a changing environment.

  3. Two new species of Portanini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Aphrodinae) from Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Márcio; Mejdalani, Gabriel

    2016-11-23

    Two new species, Portanus restingalis and Paraportanus marica, are described and illustrated from Restinga de Maricá, a sandy coastal plain in Rio de Janeiro State, Southeastern Brazil. Comparative notes on the two new species are given. Portanus youngi and Paraportanus eburatus are newly recorded from Brazil and Guyana, respectively. A checklist of all known species of Portanini with their geographic distribution is provided.

  4. Geomorphology Drives Amphibian Beta Diversity in Atlantic Forest Lowlands of Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz, Amom Mendes; Le?o-Pires, Thiago Augusto; Sawaya, Ricardo J.

    2016-01-01

    Beta diversity patterns are the outcome of multiple processes operating at different scales. Amphibian assemblages seem to be affected by contemporary climate and dispersal-based processes. However, historical processes involved in present patterns of beta diversity remain poorly understood. We assess and disentangle geomorphological, climatic and spatial drivers of amphibian beta diversity in coastal lowlands of the Atlantic Forest, southeastern Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that geomorph...

  5. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  6. Coastal resuspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1991-11-01

    There are several potential mechanisms for the suspension in air of radioactive or other pollutants from coastal sea water, beaches, mud banks and salt marshes. Available measurements rarely allow these mechanisms to be distinguished. The limited data show a broad spread of results. When normalised by the concentration of radionuclides in beach sediments most of the data indicate concentrations equivalent to 1 to 30 μg m -3 of sediment suspended in air, both for sampling sites on open coasts and near estuaries. Limited evidence for sampling sites located on salt marshes indicates about 0.2 μg m -3 of suspended sediment. These values represent the aggregate effect of the mechanisms that operate at a limited number of coastal locations. At other locations it is possible that additional mechanisms will contribute to the suspension of sediment. (Author)

  7. Disentangling plant establishment in sandy coastal systems: biotic and abiotic factors that determine Allagoptera arenaria (Arecaceae germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Tavares de Menezes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Germination rate and establishment success of plants in harsh environments depend on the ability of seeds to withstand unfavorable environmental conditions and avoid predators. Brazilian coastal plains, known as restinga, are subject to environmental factors that seriously limit plant establishment and survival (e.g. salinity, desiccation, oligotrophy, flooding, high temperature and radiation levels. We tested, both in field and laboratory experiments, conditions for germination and establishment of Allagoptera arenaria, a palm tree often found in restinga ecosystems of southeastern Brazil, and which have a principal role in plant community dynamics. Our results showed that the absence of mesocarp, high radiation exposure, and temperature were the main drivers of seed germination. In the field, the highest germination rate was linked to nude seeds buried in open areas. High temperatures and/or predation damaged seeds that remained on the soil surface, especially if they were close to the mother plant and alongside dung piles made by dispersers. Under controlled conditions, seeds exhibited optimum germination at 35 ºC. Therefore, the germination and establishment of A. arenaria depend as much on environmental conditions as on a network of interactions including vertebrates and invertebrates, which allow this species to colonize harsh, open areas in restinga ecosystems.

  8. Restoration of freshwater Cypress-Tupelo Wetlands in the southeastern U.S. following severe hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, William H.; Krauss, Ken W.; Shaffer, Gary P.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater forested wetlands commonly occur in the lower Coastal Plain of the southeastern US with baldcypress (Taxodium distichum [L.] L.C. Rich.) and water tupelo (Nyssa aquatica L.) often being the dominant trees. Extensive anthropogenic activities combined with eustatic sea-level rise and land subsidence have caused widespread hydrological changes in many of these forests. In addition, hurricanes (a common, although aperiodic occurrence) cause wide-spread damage from wind and storm surge events, with impacts exacerbated by human-mediated coastal modifications (e.g., dredging, navigation channels, etc.). Restoration of forested wetlands in coastal areas is important because emergent canopies can greatly diminish wind penetration, thereby reducing the wind stress available to generate surface waves and storm surge that are the major cause of damage to coastal ecosystems and their surrounding communities. While there is an overall paucity of large-scale restoration efforts within coastal forested wetlands of the southeastern US, we have determined important characteristics that should drive future efforts. Restoration efforts may be enhanced considerably if coupled with hydrological enhancement, such as freshwater, sediment, or sewage wastewater diversions. Large-scale restoration of coastal forests should be attempted to create a landscape capable of minimizing storm impacts and maximizing wetland sustainability in the face of climate change. Planting is the preferred regeneration method in many forested wetland sites because hydrological alterations have increased flooding, and planted seedlings must be protected from herbivory to enhance establishment. Programs identifying salt tolerance in coastal forest tree species need to be continued to help increase resilience to repetitive storm surge events.

  9. Tectonic history and the biogeography of the freshwater fishes from the coastal drainages of eastern Brazil: an example of faunal evolution associated with a divergent continental margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cunha Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The eastern Brazilian coastal drainages are of great biogeographical significance, because of their highly endemic fish faunas. Phylogenetic patterns suggest a close biotic relationship between the rivers that flow into the Atlantic and those on the adjacent upland crystalline shield. However, little has been said on the dynamics of the geological processes causally related to the cladogenetic events between these areas. Distributional and phylogenetic patterns suggest a close association with the geological history of the passive continental margin of South America, from the Cretaceous to the present day. In this area megadome uplifts, rifting, vertical movements between rifted blocks and the erosive retreat of the South American eastern continental margin are hypothesized as the main geological forces controlling the distribution of freshwater fishes. The tectonic activity associated with the break-up of Gondwana and separation of South America and Africa formed six megadomes that control most of the current courses of the main crystalline shield river basins. Except for basins located at the edges of such megadomes, these river systems developed long, circuitous routes over the ancient Brazilian crystalline shield before emptying into the recently opened Atlantic Ocean. Initial cladogenetic events between upland crystalline drainages and Atlantic tributaries were probably associated with vicariant processes, and some ancient basal sister-groups of widespread inclusive taxa are found in these coastal hydrographic systems. Later, generalized erosive denudation resulted in an isostatic adjustment of the eastern margin of the platform. These, along with reactivations of ancient rifts led to vertical movements between rifted blocks and gave rise, in southeastern Brazil, to taphrogenic (rift related basins. These basins, such as the Taubaté, São Paulo, Curitiba and Volta Redonda basins, among others, captured adjacent upland drainages and fauna

  10. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  11. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  12. Food insecurity and coping strategies in a marine protected area in southeastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Vinay R; Woo Kinshella, Mai-Lei

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the perceived food security and coping strategies in coastal communities located in a marine protected area (MPA) in southeastern Tanzania. Drawing on fieldwork concentrated in a representative coastal village, the article illustrates how women in particular understand their food security situation in relation to the MPA. Data from interviews with 120 women suggest that the majority of the households in the study area were food insecure. Only few respondents, however, specifically attributed their food insecurity to the MPA's presence in their village, suggesting that food security is multidimensional and is undergirded by several interrelated factors that vary over time. The findings query the assertion that MPAs can and do contribute to improved food security in coastal populations through increased fish biomass or ecotourism projects.

  13. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  14. The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa (Linnaeus, 1758, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caldeira Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The blunt-headed vine snake, Imantodes cenchoa, has a large distribution, occurring from the east coast of Mexico to Argentina. In Brazil, it is found from the Amazon in the north, to Santa Catarina in the south. In the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, there are only two records of I. cenchoa in the literature. In the present study, a search for I. cenchoa from Minas Gerais was conducted in the main Brazilian herpetological collections, revealing a total of 13 localities with records of this species.

  15. The nematode community in the Atlantic rainforest lizard Enyalius perditus Jackson, from south-eastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-Lima, A F; Toledo, G M; Anjos, L A

    2012-12-01

    Studies focusing on communities of helminths from Brazilian lizards are increasing, but there are many blanks in the knowledge of parasitic fauna of wild fauna. This lack of knowledge hampers understanding of ecological and parasitological aspects of involved species. Moreover, the majority of research has focused on parasitic fauna of lizards from families Tropiduridae and Scincidae. Only a few studies have looked at lizards from the family Leiosauridae, including some species of Enyalius. This study presents data on the gastrointestinal parasite fauna of Enyalius perditus and their relationships with ecological aspects of hosts in a disturbed Atlantic rainforest area in the state of Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. Two nematode species, Oswaldocruzia burseyi [(Molineidae) and Strongyluris oscari (Heterakidae) were found. Nematode species showed an aggregated distribution in this host population, with O. burseyi being more aggregated than S. oscari. The present study extends the range of occurrence of O. burseyi to the Brazilian continental area.

  16. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  17. Patterning and predicting aquatic insect richness in four West-African coastal rivers using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Edia E.O.; Gevrey M.; Ouattara A.; Brosse S.; Gourène G.; Lek S.

    2010-01-01

    Despite their importance in stream management, the aquatic insect assemblages are still little known in West Africa. This is particularly true in South-Eastern Ivory Coast, where aquatic insect assemblages were hardly studied. We therefore aimed at characterising aquatic insect assemblages on four coastal rivers in South-Eastern Ivory Coast. Patterning aquatic insect assemblages was achieved using a Self-Organizing Map (SOM), an unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) method. This metho...

  18. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Jayakaran; T. M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D. M. Amatya; B. Song; C. C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a rev...

  19. Cultural intensity and planting density effects on individual tree stem growth, stand and crown attributes, and stand dynamics in thinned loblolly pine plantations during the age 12- to age 15- year period in the Upper Coastal Plain and Piedmont of the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Johnson; Michael Kane; Dehai Zhao; Robert Teskey

    2015-01-01

    Three existing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) installations in the Plantation Management Research Cooperative's Upper Coastal Plain/Piedmont Culture Density Study were used to examine the effects of two cultural intensities, four initial planting densities, and their interactions on stem growth at the individual tree level from age 12 to 15 years and at the stand...

  20. A behavioral intervention in a cohort of Japanese-Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida-Pititto,Bianca de; Griffin,Simon J; Sharp,Stephen J; Hirai,Amélia T; Gimeno,Suely G A; Ferreira,Sandra R G

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a health promotion program on cardiometabolic risk profile in Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 466 subjects from a study on diabetes prevalence conducted in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, in 2000 completed a 1-year intervention program (2005-2006) based on healthy diet counseling and physical activity. Changes in blood pressure and metabolic parameters in the 2005-2006 period were compared with annual changes in these same variables in the 2...

  1. Streamflow characteristics of a naturally drained forested watershed in southeast Atlantic coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Carl C. Trettin

    2010-01-01

    Information about streamflow characteristics e.g. runoff-rainfall (R/O) ratio, rate and timing of flow, surface and subsurface drainage (SSD), and response time to rainfall events is necessary to accurately simulate fluxes and for designing best management practices (BMPs). Unfortunately, those data are scarce in the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain, a highly...

  2. Intertidal mangrove mudflat 240+239Pu signatures, confirming a 210Pb geochronology on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, C.J.; Patchineelam, S.R.; Ketterer, M.E.

    2010-01-01

    A sediment core was taken to determine if sediment accumulation rates could be conducted using 240+239 Pu signatures in the coastal mangrove mudflats of southeastern Brazil. The results from this study show that 240+239 Pu fallout activities are sufficient and well preserved in the coastal sediments of this region. Sediment accumulation rates determined from the 240+239 Pu signatures were 4.4 mm/year and 4.1 from 210 Pb (CIC) method. A sediment mixing coefficient rate was calculated using chlorophyll-a profile (9.5 cm 2 ). (author)

  3. A new record of the non-native fish species Butis koilomatodon (Bleeker 1849 (Teleostei: Eleotridae for southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riguel Feltrin Contente

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2016v29n2p113 This work reports the second record of the Indo-Pacific invasive mud sleeper, Butis koilomatodon, for coastal São Paulo in southeastern Brazil, and represents the southernmost record for this species in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. The risks of a potential invasion mediated by anthropogenic impacts on the area of occurrence are also discussed.

  4. Trends in the risk of mortality due to cardiovascular diseases in five Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To analyze the trends in risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases in the northern, northeastern, southern, southeastern, and central western Brazilian geographic regions from 1979 to 1996. METHODS - Data on mortality due to cardiovascular, cardiac ischemic, and cerebrovascular diseases in 5 Brazilian geographic regions were obtained from the Ministry of Health. Population estimates for the time period from 1978 to 1996 in the 5 Brazilian geographic regions were calculated by interpolation with the Lagrange method, based on the census data from 1970, 1980, 1991, and the population count of 1996, for each age bracket and sex. Trends were analyzed with the multiple linear regression model. RESULTS - Cardiovascular diseases showed a declining trend in the southern, southeastern, and northern Brazilian geographic regions in all age brackets and for both sexes. In the northeastern and central western regions, an increasing trend in the risk of death due to cardiovascular diseases occurred, except for the age bracket from 30 to 39 years, which showed a slight reduction. This resulted from the trends of cardiac ischemic and cerebrovascular diseases. The analysis of the trend in the northeastern and northern regions was impaired by the great proportion of poorly defined causes of death. CONCLUSION - The risk of death due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and cardiac ischemic diseases decreased in the southern and southeastern regions, which are the most developed regions in the country, and increased in the least developed regions, mainly in the central western region.

  5. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  6. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  7. The influence of the Itaipu 60 Hz excitation system and stabilizer in the dynamic performance of the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Gomes, P.; Garos, I. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pedroso, A. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Jardim, J.L [FURNAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Queiroz, V. [Itaipu Binacional, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)

    1987-12-31

    This paper presents the main characteristics of Brazilian South/Southeastern interconnected system. Special attention is given to the Itaipu power plant which was considered the main basis for hydro generation expansion in the Brazilian interconnected system for the period 1982/1990. The paper also analyses the flexibility of the Itaipu 60 Hz Power System Stabilizer (PSS) for a more effective contribution to attenuate the dynamic problems, considering its influence not only for local mode oscillations, but also for the inter-area types. 7 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Mortality due to Cardiovascular Diseases in Women and Men in the Five Brazilian Regions, 1980-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Padua Mansur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Studies have shown different mortalities due to cardiovascular diseases (CVD, ischemic heart disease (IHD and cerebrovascular diseases (CbVD in the five Brazilian regions. Socioeconomic conditions of those regions are frequently used to justify differences in mortality due to those diseases. In addition, studies have shown a reduction in the differences between the mortality rates of the five Brazilian regions. Objective: To update CVD mortality data in women and men in the five Brazilian regions. Methods: Mortality and population data were obtained from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics and Ministry of Health. Risk of death was adjusted by use of the direct method, with the 2000 world standard population as reference. We analyzed trends in mortality due to CVD, IHD and CbVD in women and men aged ≥ 30 years in the five Brazilian regions from 1980 to 2012. Results: Mortality due to: 1 CVD: showed reduction in the Northern, West-Central, Southern and Southeastern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; 2 IHD: reduction in the Southeastern and Southern regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in the Northern and West-Central regions; 3 CbVD: reduction in the Southern, Southeastern and West-Central regions; increase in the Northeastern region; and unchanged in Northern region. There was also a convergence in mortality trends due to CVD, IHD, and CbVD in the five regions. Conclusion: The West-Central, Northern and Northeastern regions had the worst trends in CVD mortality as compared to the Southeastern and Southern regions. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2016; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0

  9. Brazilian infectious diseases specialists: who and where are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassenote, Alex Jones Flores; Scheffer, Mario César; Segurado, Aluísio Augusto Cotrim

    2016-01-01

    The infectious diseases specialist is a medical doctor dedicated to the management of infectious diseases in their individual and collective dimensions. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the current profile and distribution of infectious diseases specialists in Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study using secondary data obtained from institutions that register medical specialists in Brazil. Variables of interest included gender, age, type of medical school (public or private) the specialist graduated from, time since finishing residency training in infectious diseases, and the interval between M.D. graduation and residency completion. Maps are used to study the geographical distribution of infectious diseases specialists. A total of 3229 infectious diseases specialist registries were counted, with 94.3% (3045) of individual counts (heads) represented by primary registries. The mean age was 43.3 years (SD 10.5), and a higher proportion of females was observed (57%; 95% CI 55.3-58.8). Most Brazilian infectious diseases specialists (58.5%) practice in the Southeastern region. However, when distribution rates were calculated, several states exhibited high concentration of infectious diseases specialists, when compared to the national rate (16.06). Interestingly, among specialists working in the Northeastern region, those trained locally had completed their residency programs more recently (8.7yrs; 95% CI 7.9-9.5) than physicians trained elsewhere in the country (13.6yrs: 95% CI 11.8-15.5). Our study shows that Brazilian infectious diseases specialists are predominantly young and female doctors. Most have concluded a medical residency training program. The absolute majority practice in the Southeastern region. However, some states from the Northern, Northeastern and Southeastern regions exhibit specialist rates above the national average. In these areas, nonetheless, there is a strong concentration of infectious diseases specialists in state capitals and in

  10. Southern African Coastal vulnerability assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rautenbach, C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available or business. The CSIR coastal systems group uses specialist skills in coastal engineering, geographic engineering systems and numerical modelling to assess and map vulnerable coastal ecosystems to develop specific adaptation measures and coastal protection...

  11. Essential element contents in food groups from the second Brazilian total diet study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrogi, J.B.; Avegliano, R.P.; Maihara, V.A.

    2016-01-01

    Total diet study (TDS) has been considered as one of the most appropriate approaches to estimate dietary exposure of essential elements. This paper presents preliminary results of concentrations and average dietary daily intakes of Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Na, Se and Zn from the 2nd Brazilian TDS. Nineteen groups from a Food List which represents the daily intake of the population from the Brazilian southeastern region were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The dietary daily intake values for Ca (641 mg), Fe (19.6 mg), K (2738 mg), Na (2466 mg), Se (56.4 μg), and Zn (15.3 mg) were higher than the 1st Brazilian TDS. (author)

  12. Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zorello Laporta

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da

  13. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  14. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winck, Gisele R; Hatano, Fabio; Vrcibradic, Davor; VAN Sluys, Monique; Rocha, Carlos F D

    2016-01-01

    Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba). We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic) using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  15. Lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat from southeastern Brazil: a niche overlap analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GISELE R. WINCK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Communities are structured by interactions of historical and ecological factors, which influence the use of different resources in time and space. We acquired data on time of activity, microhabitat use and diet of a lizard assemblage from a sand dune habitat in a coastal area, southeastern Brazil (Restinga de Jurubatiba. We analyzed the data of niche overlap among species in these three axes (temporal, spatial and trophic using null models. We found a significant overlap within the trophic niche, whereas the overlap for the other axes did not differ from the expected. Based on this result, we discuss the factors acting on the structure of the local lizard community.

  16. Influence of land-based Kaliningrad (Primorsky) amber mining on coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krek, Alexander; Ulyanova, Marina; Koschavets, Svetlana

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we report on the pollution in the coastal zone of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea (Russian coast). It was studied through a range of methods, including analyses potential water quality indicators (WQIs) and potentially harmful elements (PHEs). A contamination factor and modified degree of contamination were used for describing the contamination of the sediments by toxic substances. Special attention was paid to activity of the Kaliningrad Amber Combine (KAC), the biggest world amber mining company, located onshore close to the coastal zone (Kaliningrad Region). The amber extraction contribution to the ecological state of the coastal zone was estimated. Contamination of the quarry by metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn) was comparable with contamination of abrasion bench. The pollution of the western coastal zone of the Sambia Peninsula is caused both by land-based anthropogenic developments (including KAC) and natural processes (coastal abrasion). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  18. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Moreira Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000 was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000 and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000 were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8% and preventable causes (51.6% were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6% and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%, suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  19. Mortality among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Barreto, Carla Tatiana Garcia; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide, indigenous peoples display a high burden of disease, expressed by profound health inequalities in comparison to non-indigenous populations. This study describes mortality patterns among the Guarani in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, with a focus on health inequalities. The Guarani population structure is indicative of high birth and death rates, low median age and low life expectancy at birth. The crude mortality rate (crude MR = 5.0/1,000) was similar to the Brazilian national rate, but the under-five MR (44.5/1,000) and the infant mortality rate (29.6/1,000) were twice the corresponding MR in the South and Southeast of Brazil. The proportion of post-neonatal infant deaths was 83.3%, 2.4 times higher than general population. The proportions of ill-defined (15.8%) and preventable causes (51.6%) were high. The principal causes of death were respiratory (40.6%) and infectious and parasitic diseases (18.8%), suggesting precarious living conditions and deficient health services. There is a need for greater investment in primary care and interventions in social determinants of health in order to reduce the health inequalities.

  20. Observations on inshore and pelagic Dolphins on the South-Eastern Cape coast of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S Saayman

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence, size and seaward distribution of schools of inshore and pelagic dolphins is described for three study areas on the south-eastern Cape coast (Algoa Bay; the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park and Plettenberg Bay. Inshore dolphins {Tursiops and Sousa sp. frequented the coastline in relatively small schools whereas pelagic dolphins {Delphinus delphis and Stenella caeruleoalba occurred in very large schools far out to sea. Different ecological zones were used by Sousa for feeding and for social behaviour and maintenance activities. The frequency of occurrence of Sousa at Plettenberg Bay was not affected by seasonal fluctuations in sea surface temperatures. The role of dolphins as predators and their implication in the regulation of the ecosystem of the Tsitsikama Coastal National Park is discussed.

  1. A new Neotibicen cicada subspecies (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from the southeastern USA forms hybrid zones with a widespread relative despite a divergent male calling song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, David C; Hill, Kathy B R

    2017-05-31

    A morphologically cryptic subspecies of Neotibicen similaris (Smith and Grossbeck) is described from forests of the Apalachicola region of the southeastern United States. Although the new form exhibits a highly distinctive male calling song, it hybridizes extensively where it meets populations of the nominate subspecies in parapatry, by which it is nearly surrounded. This is the first reported example of hybridization between North American nonperiodical cicadas. Acoustic and morphological characters are added to the original description of the nominate subspecies, and illustrations of complex hybrid song phenotypes are presented. The biogeography of N. similaris is discussed in light of historical changes in forest composition on the southeastern Coastal Plain.

  2. Age determination, validation, and growth of Brazilian flathead (Percophis brasiliensis from the southwest Atlantic coastal waters (34°-41°S Determinación de edad, validación y crecimiento del pez palo (Percophis brasiliensis de aguas costeras del Atlántico sudoccidental (34°-41°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo C Barretto

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The age and growth parameters of Brazilian flathead, Percophis brasiliensis, from the southwest Atlantic coastal waters (34°-41°S were determined for samples collected in spring (n = 853; years 1998 and 2000 and winter (n = 596; year 2004, whereas age was validated through the edge analysis of otoliths collected in 2007 (n = 1367 otoliths. The indices of precision APE, V, and D were used to test the reproducibility, between agers, of the ages determined from 845 otoliths. Maximum determined ages were 19 years for males and 15 years for females. One opaque and one translucent band are laid down per year, in the sagittal otolith. According to the APE (0.668%, V (1.121%, and D (0.647% indices, the age determination was consistent. Von Bertalanffy's growth parameters [males: spring (L∞ = 58.1 cm, k = 0.26 year-1, t0= -2.02 years, winter (L∞ = 58.7 cm, k = 0.21 year-1, t0 = -2.90 years; females: spring (L∞ = 65.2 cm, k = 0.29 year-1, t0 = -1.15 years, winter (L∞= 63.5 cm, k = 0.26 year-1, t0 = -2.01 years] were significantly different between sexes and seasons. From the first year of life, females grow faster and reach greater lengths than males of the same age due, probably, to an asynchronism in the sexual maturity.Se determinó la edad y los parámetros de crecimiento del pez palo, Percophis brasiliensis, de aguas costeras del Atlántico sudoccidental (34°-41°S en muestras obtenidas durante primavera (n = 853; años 1998 y 2000 e invierno (n = 596; año 2004, mientras que la edad fue validada mediante análisis del tipo de borde de otolitos colectados durante 2007 (n = 1367 otoliths. Los índices de precisión APE, V, y D fueron usados para probar la reproducibilidad, entre lectores, de las edades determinadas a partir de 845 otolitos. Las edades máximas determinadas fueron 19 años para machos y 15 años para hembras. Una banda opaca y una translúcida se depositan anualmente en el otolito sagitta. Los índices APE (0,668%, V (1

  3. Microbial diversity in Brazilian mangrove sediments – a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghizelini, Angela Michelato; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda Cristina Santana; Macrae, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The importance and protection of mangrove ecosystems has been recognized in Brazilian Federal law since 1965. Being protected in law, however, has not always guaranteed their protection in practice. Mangroves are found in coastal and estuarine locations, which are prime real estate for the growth of cities, ports and other economic activities important for Brazilian development. In this mini-review we introduce what mangroves are and why they are so important. We give a brief overview of the microbial diversity found in mangrove sediments and then focus on diversity studies from Brazilian mangroves. We highlight the breadth and depth of knowledge about mangrove microbial communities gained from studying Brazilian mangroves. We report on the exciting findings of molecular microbial ecology methods that have been very successfully applied to study bacterial communities. We note that there have been fewer studies that focus on fungal communities and that fungal diversity studies deserve more attention. The review ends with a look at how a combination of new molecular biology methods and isolation studies are being developed to monitor and conserve mangrove ecosystems and their associated microbial communities. These recent studies are having a global impact and we hope they will help to protect and re-establish mangrove ecosystems. PMID:24031949

  4. Sensitivity of stream flow and water table depth to potential climatic variability in a coastal forested watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaohua Dai; Carl Trettin; Changsheng Li; Devendra M. Amatya; Ge Sun; Harbin Li

    2010-01-01

    A physically based distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE, was used to evaluate the effects of altered temperature and precipitation regimes on the streamflow and water table in a forested watershed on the southeastern Atlantic coastal plain. The model calibration and validation against both streamflow and water table depth showed that the MIKE SHE was applicable for...

  5. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  6. Vascular epiphytic flora of a high montane environment of Brazilian Atlantic Forest: composition and floristic relationships with other ombrophilous forests

    OpenAIRE

    Furtado,Samyra Gomes; Menini Neto,Luiz

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Only a few studies regarding vascular epiphytes have been conducted in mixed ombrophilous forests (MOF) in Serra da Mantiqueira, a mountainous environment in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, where the relationships of epiphytic flora with other physiognomies are unknown. This study aimed to survey the epiphytes of a MOF remnant located in Serra da Mantiqueira, and to analyze the floristic relationships with ombrophilous forests of the Southern and Southeastern regions of Brazil. The ch...

  7. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  8. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  9. A revised annotated checklist of the Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Broughton A.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Lenat, David R.; Smith, David

    1997-01-01

    A revised annotated checklist for the chironomid midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) of the southeastern United States is presented that includes the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee. Much of the information concerns occurrence and habitat preference records based upon the authors' data, as well as published and unpublished data. Some information is also presented that includes aspects of biology, habitat preference, bibliographic sources, and nomenclatorial changes. Based upon the present work, the chironomid fauna of the southeastern states is comprised of 189 genera (172 described, 17 informally or unofficially described) and 754 species (505 described, 17 informally or unofficially described, 33 that are assumed for generic or subgeneric presence only, 197 estimated species, and 2 species groups). Several new species synonyms and generic placements are recognized. Thirty-eight genera known from the Nearctic region remain unknown from the southeastern states. Diversity of species was greatest in the subfamily Chironominae, considering named as well as unnamed and estimated species. There were no significant changes in overall regional distribution patterns of subfamilies or habitat preferences form that which has been previously reported. The greatest totals for regional records, habitat types, and state occurrences were the Coastal Plain (378), streams (271), and North Carolina (373), respectively.

  10. Spatial distribution of mercury in southeastern Alaskan streams influenced by glaciers, wetlands, and salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagorski, Sonia A.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Hudson, John P.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Hood, Eran; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Southeastern Alaska is a remote coastal-maritime ecosystem that is experiencing increased deposition of mercury (Hg) as well as rapid glacier loss. Here we present the results of the first reported survey of total and methyl Hg (MeHg) concentrations in regional streams and biota. Overall, streams draining large wetland areas had higher Hg concentrations in water, mayflies, and juvenile salmon than those from glacially-influenced or recently deglaciated watersheds. Filtered MeHg was positively correlated with wetland abundance. Aqueous Hg occurred predominantly in the particulate fraction of glacier streams but in the filtered fraction of wetland-rich streams. Colonization by anadromous salmon in both glacier and wetland-rich streams may be contributing additional marine-derived Hg. The spatial distribution of Hg in the range of streams presented here shows that watersheds are variably, yet fairly predictably, sensitive to atmospheric and marine inputs of Hg. -- Highlights: • We sampled 21 streams in southeastern Alaska for water, sediments, and biota. • Aqueous Hg showed significant relationships with wetlands and DOC. • Biota had higher mercury in wetland-rich streams than in glacier-fed streams. • Spawning salmon appear to contribute methylmercury to stream foodwebs. -- This original survey of mercury concentration and form in southeastern Alaskan streamwater and biota shows substantial spatial variation linked to landscape factors and salmon influence

  11. Southeastern Power Administration 2011 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2011-12-31

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2011 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2010, and ending September 31, 2011. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 6.2 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 489 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled more than $264 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2011. This funding, which totaled more than $45 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in the funding efforts in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems of projects. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rain placed strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2011 totaled approximately $38 million. About $9 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We are committed to providing reliable hydroelectric power to

  12. Southeastern Power Administration 2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Dear Secretary Moniz: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern) fiscal year (FY) 2012 Annual Report for your review. This report reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2011, and ending September 30, 2012. This past year, Southeastern marketed approximately 5.4 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 487 wholesale customers in 10 southeastern states. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled about $263 million. With the financial assistance and support of Southeastern’s customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at hydroelectric facilities operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) continued in FY 2012. Currently, there are more than 214 customers participating in funding infrastructure renewal efforts of powerplants feeding the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina, Kerr-Philpott, and Cumberland Systems. This funding, which totaled more than $71 million, provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging projects in Southeastern’s marketing area. Drought conditions continued in the southeastern region of the United States this past year, particularly in the Savannah River Basin. Lack of rainfall strained our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2012 in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System totaled approximately $29 million. About $8 million of this amount was for replacement power, which is purchased only during adverse water conditions in order to meet Southeastern’s customer contract requirements. Southeastern’s goal is to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Competing uses of these resources will present another challenging year for Southeastern’s employees. With the cooperation and communication among the Department of Energy (DOE), preference customers, and Corps, I am certain Southeastern is positioned to meet these challenges in the future. We

  13. Effects of human trampling on a rocky shore fauna on the Sao Paulo coast, southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, M N; Rosso, S

    2009-11-01

    Increased tourist activity in coastal regions demands management strategies to reduce impacts on rocky shores. The highly populated coastal areas in southeastern Brazil are an example of degradation caused by development of industry and tourism. Among different shore impacts, trampling has been intensively studied, and may represent a significant source of stress for intertidal fauna. A randomised blocks design was applied to experimentally study the effects of two different trampling intensities on richness, diversity, density and biomass of the rocky shore fauna of Obuseiro beach, Guarujá, southeastern Brazil. Blocks were distributed in two portions of the intertidal zone, dominated respectively by Chthamalus bisinuatus (Cirripedia) and Isognomon bicolor (Bivalvia). Blocks were trampled over three months, simulating the vacation period in Brazil and were monitored for the following nine months. Results indicate that Chthamalus bisinuatus is vulnerable to trampling impacts. Richness, diversity and turn-over index tended to be higher in trampled plots four months after trampling ceased. In general, results agree with previous trampling studies, suggesting that even low intensities of trampling may cause some impact on intertidal communities. Management strategies should include isolation of sensitive areas, construction of boardwalks, visitor education and monitoring programmes. In Brazil, additional data obtained from experimental studies are necessary in order to achieve a better understanding of trampling impacts on rocky shore communities.

  14. Patterns of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Distribution on Mainland and Island Sandy Coastal Plain Ecosystems in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Iolanda Ramalho; de Souza, Francisco Adriano; da Silva, Danielle Karla Alves; Oehl, Fritz; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2017-10-01

    Although sandy coastal plains are important buffer zones to protect the coast line and maintain biological diversity and ecosystem services, these ecosystems have been endangered by anthropogenic activities. Thus, information on coastal biodiversity and forces shaping coastal biological diversity are extremely important for effective conservation strategies. In this study, we aimed to compare arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities from soil samples collected on the mainland and nearby islands located in Brazilian sandy coastal plain ecosystems (Restingas) to get information about AM fungal biogeography and identify factors shaping these communities. Soil samples were collected in 2013 and 2014 on the beachfront of the tropical sandy coastal plain at six sites (three island and three mainland locations) across the northeast, southeast, and south regions of Brazil. Overall, we recorded 53 AM fungal species from field and trap culture samples. The richness and diversity of AM fungal species did not differ between mainland and island locations, but AM fungal community assemblages were different between mainland and island environments and among most sites sampled. Glomeromycota communities registered from island samples showed higher heterogeneity than communities from mainland samples. Sandy coastal plains harbor diverse AM fungal communities structured by climatic, edaphic, and spatial factors, while the distance from the colonizing source (mainland environments) does not strongly affect the AM fungal communities in Brazilian coastal environments.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum in the southeastern Atlantic forest: a challenge to the bromeliad-malaria paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Levy, Debora; Fukuya, Linah Akemi; de Oliveira, Tatiane Marques Porangaba; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Conn, Jan Evelyn; Massad, Eduardo; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-04-25

    Recently an unexpectedly high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was found in asymptomatic blood donors living in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. The bromeliad-malaria paradigm assumes that transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae involves species of the subgenus Kerteszia of Anopheles and only a few cases of P. vivax malaria are reported annually in this region. The expectations of this paradigm are a low prevalence of P. vivax and a null prevalence of P. falciparum. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if P. falciparum is actively circulating in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest remains. In this study, anophelines were collected with Shannon and CDC-light traps in seven distinct Atlantic forest landscapes over a 4-month period. Field-collected Anopheles mosquitoes were tested by real-time PCR assay in pools of ten, and then each mosquito from every positive pool, separately for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Genomic DNA of P. falciparum or P. vivax from positive anophelines was then amplified by traditional PCR for sequencing of the 18S ribosomal DNA to confirm Plasmodium species. Binomial probabilities were calculated to identify non-random results of the P. falciparum-infected anopheline findings. The overall proportion of anophelines naturally infected with P. falciparum was 4.4% (21/480) and only 0.8% (4/480) with P. vivax. All of the infected mosquitoes were found in intermixed natural and human-modified environments and most were Anopheles cruzii (22/25 = 88%, 18 P. falciparum plus 4 P. vivax). Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by sequencing in 76% (16/21) of positive mosquitoes, whereas P. vivax was confirmed in only 25% (1/4). Binomial probabilities suggest that P. falciparum actively circulates throughout the region and that there may be a threshold of the forested over human-modified environment ratio upon which the proportion of P. falciparum-infected anophelines increases significantly. These results

  16. Fire feedbacks facilitate invasion of pine savannas by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Beckage, Brian

    2009-10-01

    * Fire disturbance can mediate the invasion of ecological communities by nonnative species. Nonnative plants that modify existing fire regimes may initiate a positive feedback that can facilitate their continued invasion. Fire-sensitive plants may successfully invade pyrogenic landscapes if they can inhibit fire in the landscape. * Here, we investigated whether the invasive shrub Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) can initiate a fire-suppression feedback in a fire-dependent pine savanna ecosystem in the southeastern USA. * We found that prescribed burns caused significant (30-45%) mortality of Brazilian pepper at low densities and that savannas with more frequent fires contained less Brazilian pepper. However, high densities of Brazilian pepper reduced fire temperature by up to 200 degrees C, and experienced as much as 80% lower mortality. * A cellular automaton model was used to demonstrate that frequent fire may control low-density populations, but that Brazilian pepper may reach a sufficient density during fire-free periods to initiate a positive feedback that reduces the frequency of fire and converts the savanna to an invasive-dominated forest.

  17. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  18. Geochemistry of 210Pb in the southeastern, US estuarine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storti, F.W.

    1980-11-01

    This study was an attempt to determine the geochemical behavior of 210 Pb in southeastern salt marsh estuaries. As a part of this study the 210 Pb dating technique was applied to natural and anthropogenic deposits of the region. 210 Pb activity of sediment and water from the Georgia coastal area was measured by alpha spectroscopy. The effects of grain size and carbon content of the sediment on 210 Pb concentrations was evaluated and the activity of 210 Pb in dissolved and particulate phases of rivers was measured as a function of salinity. Ages and sedimentation rates of sedimentary deposits were also determined for some deposits. 210 Pb activity in dissolved and particulate phases of rivers showed no clear trends as functions of salinity. River particulate activities were three to four times higher than dissolved activities. The relationship between 210 Pb activity in salt marsh sediments and grain size was highly significant. Direct application of the 210 Pb method to date and determine sedimentation rates of natural and anthropogenic deposits was partially successful. The anthropogenic deposits, however, had to be dated on the basis of normalizing 210 Pb activities to grain size (% silt and clay) and carbon content

  19. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  20. Predicting red wolf release success in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Frank T.; Crawford, Barron A.; Clark, Joseph D.

    2000-01-01

    Although the red wolf (Canis rufus) was once found throughout the southeastern United States, indiscriminate killing and habitat destruction reduced its range to a small section of coastal Texas and Louisiana. Wolves trapped from 1973 to 1980 were taken to establish a captive breeding program that was used to repatriate 2 mainland and 3 island red wolf populations. We collected data from 320 red wolf releases in these areas and classified each as a success or failure based on survival and reproductive criteria, and whether recaptures were necessary to resolve conflicts with humans. We evaluated the relations between release success and conditions at the release sites, characteristics of released wolves, and release procedures. Although <44% of the variation in release success was explained, model performance based on jackknife tests indicated a 72-80% correct prediction rate for the 4 operational models we developed. The models indicated that success was associated with human influences on the landscape and the level of wolf habituation to humans prior to release. We applied the models to 31 prospective areas for wolf repatriation and calculated an index of release success for each area. Decision-makers can use these models to objectively rank prospective release areas and compare strengths and weaknesses of each.

  1. The coastal transportation in Brazil - potential for the improvement of aiming intermodality logistic flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmo Alves Moura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes aspects related to coastal shipping in Brazil and its main actors and intermodal factors (road, rail, fluvial transportation etc. which corroborate to the increase of logistics competitiveness and efficiency of transportation in a large country like Brazil. The purpose of the study is bibliographic research on the topic, analyzing it inside the Brazilian scenario and also how it has been implemented in some countries. The objective of the study is also analyzing legislation which defines parameters to coastal shipping. This fact interferes directly with the logistics system and its intermodal aspects. If Brazil intends to reduce its logistics costs, coastal shipping should be an effective way to contribute to the Brazilian matrix of transport. Coastal shipping is supposed to bring competitive advantage and reduction of logistic costs. The conclusion is that integration is essential among the systems of domestic transportation and coastal shipping with its outstanding role in this environment, can contribute substantially to the Brazilian maritime industry.

  2. Zirconium and hafnium in the southeastern Atlantic States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertie, J.B.

    1958-01-01

    The principal source of zirconium and hafnium is zircon, though a minor source is baddeleyite, mined only in Brazil. Zircon is an accessory mineral in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, but rarely occurs in hardrock in minable quantities. The principal sources of zircon are therefore alluvial deposits, which are mined in many countries of five continents. The principal commercial deposits in the United States are in Florida, though others exist elsewhere in the southeastern Coastal Plain. The evidence indicates that conditions for the accumulation of workable deposits of heavy minerals were more favorable during the interglacial stages of the Pleistocene epoch than during Recent time. Therefore detrital ores of large volume and high tenor are more likely to be found in the terrace deposits than along the present beaches. Other concentrations of heavy minerals, however, are possible at favored sites close to the Fall Line where the Tuscaloosa formation rests upon the crystalline rocks of the Piedmont province. A score of heavy and semiheavy minerals occur in the detrital deposits of Florida, but the principal salable minerals are ilmenite, leucoxene, rutile, and zircon, though monazite and staurolite are saved at some mining plants. Commercial deposits of heavy minerals are generally required to have a tenor of 4 percent, though ores with a lower tenor can be mined at a profit if the content of monazite is notably high. The percentages of zircon in the concentrates ranges from 10 to 16 percent, and in eastern Florida from 13 to 15 percent. Thus the tenor in zircon of the ore-bearing sands ranges from 0.4 to 0.6 percent. The content of hafnium in zircon is immaterial for many uses, but for some purposes very high or very low tenors in hafnium are required. Alluvial zircon cannot be separated into such varieties, which, if needed, must be obtained from sources in bedrock. It thus becomes necessary to determine the Hf : Zr ratios in zircon from many kinds of

  3. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  4. Judicialization of access to medicines in Minas Gerais state, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marina Amaral de Ávila; Acurcio, Francisco de Assis; Brandão, Cristina Mariano Ruas; Faleiros, Daniel Resende; Guerra, Augusto Afonso; Cherchiglia, Mariângela Leal; Andrade, Eli Iola Gurgel

    2011-06-01

    To analyze the profile of claimants and medicines demanded in lawsuits. Descriptive study that examined 827 lawsuits with 1,777 demands of access to medicines in the period between July 2005 and June 2006 in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. There were examined the type of health care provided to claimants and their attorneyship. The medicines were described based on the following: drug registration at the National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa); wheter they were essential medicines; supply in the Brazilian Health System programs; and evidence of drug efficacy. More than 70% of the claimants were provided care in the private health system and 60.3% hired private lawyers. The most common diagnosis of claimants was rheumatoid arthritis (23.1%) and the immunosuppressant agents were the most frequent demand medicines (mainly adalimumab and etanercept). Approximately 5% of the medicines demanded were not registered at Anvisa, 19.6% were included in the Brazilian List of Essential Medicine, 24.3% were included in the High-Cost Drug Program and 53.9% showed consistent evidence of efficacy. Among the medicines that were not available in Brazilian Health System, 79.0% had therapeutic alternatives in drug programs. The phenomenon of judicialization of health in Brazil can point out failures in the public health system as some medicines demanded are included in its lists. However, it is a barrier for rational drug use and application of the National Drug Policy guidelines, especially when there are demanded medicines with no evidence of efficacy and that are not included in Brazilian Health System standards.

  5. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  6. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  7. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  8. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  9. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  10. Emerging Energy Alternatives for the Southeastern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanakos, E. K. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    The proceedings of the first symposium on emerging energy alternatives for the Southeastern States are presented. Some topics discussed are: (1) solar energy, (2) wood energy, (3) novel energy sources, (4) agricultural and industrial process heat, (5) waste utilization, (6) energy conservation and (7) ocean thermal energy conversion.

  11. Summary of southeastern group breakout sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Ford; Charles P. Nicholson

    1993-01-01

    The breakout sessions held by the southeastern representatives at the Partners In Flight meeting in Colorado were extremely well attended Most states were represented, as well as several federal agencies (including USFS, USFWS, TVA, EPA), and non-government organizations. Two sessions were held, one to discuss a strategy of management by...

  12. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  13. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  14. Southeastern Power Administration 2008 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-12-29

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am pleased to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2008 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this document reflects our agency’s programs, accomplishments, operational and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2007 and ending September 30, 2008. Southeastern marketed more than 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 491 wholesale customers in ten southeastern states this past year. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $263 million. Drought conditions persisted in the southeastern region of the United States during FY 2008 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Power purchases for FY 2008 totaled $91 million. Approximately $44 million of this amount was for replacement power which is paid only during adverse water conditions in order to meet our customers’ contract requirements. With the continued financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, funding for capitalized equipment purchases and replacements at U.S. Army Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for these aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security programs continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) standards and requirements. In the coming year, Southeastern will continue open communication and cooperation with DOE, the Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our region’s water resources. Although competing uses of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency, Southeastern’s employees will meet these challenges and continue to provide reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E.Legg Administrator

  15. Resilience from coastal protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. © 2015 The Author(s).

  16. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  17. Hospital morbidity among Guarani Indians in Southeastern and Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Tavares, Felipe Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Studies on hospital morbidity among Brazilian indigenous peoples are relatively recent, show limited coverage, and lack data sources capable of generating specific indicators according to ethnic group. The current study describes hospital morbidity in the indigenous population living in 83 Guarani villages in Southern and Southeastern Brazil (N=6,483), based on primary data obtained from a hospital admissions surveillance system implemented in 2007-2008, specifically for a case-control study on acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Guarani children. During the study period there were 666 hospitalizations in a total of 497 individuals, the majority under 5 years of age (71.9%). Respiratory illnesses were the main causes of hospitalization (64.6%), especially in children (<5 years: 77.6%; <1 year: 83.4%) and exceeded the proportions of hospital admissions from these causes in other indigenous groups. The overall hospitalization rate (per 100 person-years) was 8.8, or 71.4 under 1 year and 21.0 from 1 to 4 years of age. The ARI hospitalization rate (5.3) was 6.5 and 2.0 times higher than for diarrhea and other causes, respectively, while in children under 5 years of age (ARI=23.7) these differences were 7.4 and 5.4 times, respectively. The standardized Guarani hospitalization rate exceeded the standardized rates for the South and Southeast of Brazil by 40% and 210%, respectively. Hospitalization for primary care sensitive conditions and the high ARI rates indicate the need for studies to understand the epidemiology of ARI and investments to upgrade primary health care for the Guarani.

  18. Mineralogy and Genesis of Heavy Minerals in Coastal Dune Sands, South Eastern Qatar

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El-Kassas, Ibrahim A.; Sadiq, A. Ali M.

    1999-01-01

    Large amounts of aeolian sand occur in the southeastern coastal zone of Qatar Peninsula as sand dunes accumulated in a vast sand field locally called " Niqyan Qatar ". The present work, carried out on a sand dune belt of this field near Mesaied Industrial City, revealed the distribution of heavy minerals shows a regional variability induced by provenance and local variability reflecting genetic differences. The studied dune sands are rich in shells of pelecypods, with the light mineral assemb...

  19. Gulf Atlantic Coastal Plain Long Term Agroecosystem Research site, Tifton, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Strickland; David D. Bosch; Dinku M. Endale; Thomas L. Potter

    2016-01-01

    The Gulf-Atlantic Coastal Plain (GACP) physiographic region is an important agricultural production area within the southeastern U.S. that extends from Delaware in the Northeast to the Gulf Coast of Texas. The region consists mainly of low-elevation flat to rolling terrain with numerous streams, abundant rainfall, a complex coastline, and many wetlands. The GACP Long ...

  20. Life after fire: the impact of fire on species composition and diversity in coastal heathlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bargmann, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Fire prone coastal heathlands are widespread, and range from naturally fire prone Mediterranean-type heathlands, to the anthropogenic heathlands of north-west Europe. Regardless of its source, fire is an important disturbance factor in these systems. This thesis investigates the effects of fire on the species diversity and composition of two heathland systems; one in south-eastern Tasmania and one in western Norway. I ask whether two important species groups in heathland, plants and carabids ...

  1. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  3. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  4. Coastal Geographic Structures in Coastal-Marine Environmental Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklanov, P. Ya.; Ganzei, K. S.; Ermoshin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    It has been proposed to distinguish the coastal geographic structures consisting of a spatial combination of three interconnected and mutually conditioned parts (coastal-territorial, coastal, coastal-marine), which are interlinked with each other by the cumulative effect of real-energy flows. Distinguishing specific resource features of the coastal structures, by which they play a connecting role in the complex coastalmarine management, has been considered. The main integral resource feature of the coastal structures is their connecting functions, which form transitional parts mutually connecting the coastal-territorial and coastalmarine environmental management.

  5. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  6. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    comparadas con base en estimaciones de la diversidad para medir la riqueza, dominancia y análisis de varianza (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se colectaron 31.134 formas inmaduras de mosquitos en las bromelias, distribuidas en siete géneros y 37 especies. El ambiente urbano registró mayor abundancia, 14.575 individuos, seguido del periurbano con 10.987, y la selva virgen, con el menor número de ejemplares, 5.572. Fueron colectadas 30 especies en el habitat urbano, 32 en el periurbano y 33 en la selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus en los ambientes urbano y perirurbano, y Culex ocellatus en la selva. De acuerdo con el test de ANOVA la frecuencia de mosquitos en bromelias no fue diferente entre los ambientes investigados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. La diversidad de especies en la selva fue mayor, y semejante entre el periurbano y el urbano. CONCLUSIONES: La composición específica de culícidos en bromelias de suelo se mostró diversificada, siendo mayor en aquellas de ambientes de selva. Las especies dominantes fueron Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJECTIVE: To compare diversity of Culicidae species collected from ground bromeliads in an urban, and periurban area and primitive forest. METHODS: Study carried out in the city of Ilhabela, northern stretch of the coast of the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, from March 1998 to July 1999. Fortnightly immature Culicidae collections were undertaken in bromeliad tanks located in urban, and periurban areas, and primitive forest. The frequencies of species collected in the different environments were compared based on the estimated diversity to assess their richness, dominance and variance (ANOVA. RESULTS: A total of 31,134 immature mosquitoes from seven different genera and 37 species were collected from ground bromeliads. The urban environment had the greatest abundance (14,575 specimens, followed by the periurban (10,987 and then the forest environment (5,572. There were collected 30 species

  7. Multiple Determinants of Anuran Richness and Occurrence in an Agricultural Region in South-Eastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Vitor H. M.; Rossa-Feres, Denise de C.

    2014-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, studies that identify factors driving species richness and occupancy are important because they can guide farmers to use conservation practices that minimize species loss. In this context, anurans are threatened by habitat loss because they depend on the characteristics of both local water bodies and adjacent landscapes. We used a model selection approach to evaluate the influence of local and landscape variables in determining anuran species richness and occurrence in 40 freshwater bodies in a heavily deforested region of semideciduous Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil. Our aim was to develop recommendations for conservation of anuran communities in rural areas. Pond hydroperiod and area were the most important variables for explaining anuran species richness and occupancy, with greatest species richness being found in water bodies with intermediate hydroperiod and area. Other important variables that reflected individual species occupancies were the number of vegetation types and pond isolation. In addition, recent studies evidenced that water bodies near forest fragments have higher anuran abundance or diversity. In conclusion, we suggest the maintenance of semi-permanent ponds, isolated from large rivers or reservoirs and near forest fragments, as an effective strategy to conserve anuran fauna in agricultural landscapes of southeastern Brazil. Brazilian government requires the maintenance of forests as legal reserve in each farm, and farmers need to maintain ponds as drinking water for cattle or crop irrigation. For this reason, the guidelines suggested in the present study can be easily adopted, without additional costs to rural productivity.

  8. Transport processes near coastal ocean outfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, M.A.; Sherwood, C.R.; Lee, Hooi-Ling; Xu, Jie; Dartnell, P.; Robertson, G.; Martini, M.

    2001-01-01

    The central Southern California Bight is an urbanized coastal ocean where complex topography and largescale atmospheric and oceanographic forcing has led to numerous sediment-distribution patterns. Two large embayments, Santa Monica and San Pedro Bays, are connected by the short, very narrow shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula. Ocean-sewage outfalls are located in the middle of Santa Monica Bay, on the Palos Verdes shelf and at the southeastern edge of San Pedro Bay. In 1992, the US Geological Survey, together with allied agencies, began a series of programs to determine the dominant processes that transport sediment and associated pollutants near the three ocean outfalls. As part of these programs, arrays of instrumented moorings that monitor currents, waves, water clarity, water density and collect resuspended materials were deployed on the continental shelf and slope information was also collected on the sediment and contaminant distributions in the region. The data and models developed for the Palos Verdes shelf suggest that the large reservoir of DDT/DDE in the coastal ocean sediments will continue to be exhumed and transported along the shelf for a long time. On the Santa Monica shelf, very large internal waves, or bores, are generated at the shelf break. The near-bottom currents associated with these waves sweep sediments and the associated contaminants from the shelf onto the continental slope. A new program underway on the San Pedro shelf will determine if water and contaminants from a nearby ocean outfall are transported to the local beaches by coastal ocean processes. The large variety of processes found that transport sediments and contaminants in this small region of the continental margin suggest that in regions with complex topography, local processes change markedly over small spatial scales. One cannot necessarily infer that the dominant transport processes will be similar even in adjacent regions.

  9. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  10. Profile of the Brazilian scientific production in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araujo C.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the profile of the Brazilian output in the field of multiple sclerosis from 1981 to 2004. The search was conducted through the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "multiple sclerosis" was defined as the main topic and "Brazil" or "Brasil" as others. The data were analyzed regarding the themes, the state in Brazil and institution where the papers were produced, the journals where the papers were published, journal's impact factor, and language. The search disclosed 141 documents (91 from MEDLINE and LILACS, and 50 from LILACS only published in 44 different journals (23 of them MEDLINE-indexed. A total of 111 documents were produced by 17 public universities, 29 by 3 private medical schools and 1 by a non-governmental organization. There were 65 original contributions, 37 case reports, 20 reviews, 6 PhD dissertations, 5 guidelines, 2 validation studies, 2 clinical trials, 2 chapters in textbooks, 1 Master of Science thesis, and 1 patient education handout. The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0217 to 6.039 (median 3.03. Of 91 papers from MEDLINE, 65 were published by Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria. More than 90% of the papers were written in Portuguese. São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, followed by Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and Paraná. Eighty-two percent of the Brazilian output came from the Southeastern region.

  11. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Ana Patrícia de; Giozza, Silvana Pereira; Pereira, Michelle Zanon; Boaventura, Patrícia Souza; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Sachetti, Camile Giaretta; Tamayo, César Omar Carranza; Kowalski, Clarissa Campos Guaragna; Elias, Flavia Tavares Silva; Serruya, Suzanne Jacob; Guimarães, Reinaldo

    2012-01-01

    Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa), especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  12. [The situation of Brazilian children and adolescents with regard to mental health and violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Avanci, Joviana Quintes; Pesce, Renata Pires; Ximenes, Liana Furtado

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects about the situation of mental health and violence against Brazilian children and adolescents, proposing a discussion about the need for public health policies including these extremely relevant issues in their priority agenda. In Brazil, the debate about this problem has occurred in a fragmented and not very consistent way. This article presents a non-systematic selection of epidemiological investigations on this subject conducted in Brazilian schools and communities. The great variety and prevalence of familiar and community violence and of mental health problems is pointed out and the methodological differences between the studies and the concentration of studies in the South and Southeastern regions of the country are emphasized. The article still highlights to the scarce service network for dealing with this kind of problem and the lack of concern with the prevention of mental disorders and promotion of mental health.

  13. The distribution of seabirds and fish in relation to ocean currents in the southeastern Chukchi Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatt, John F.; Wells, John L.; MacCharles, Andrea; Fadely, Brian S.; Montevecchi, W.A.; Gaston, A.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late August 1988, we studied the distribution of seabirds in the southeastern Chukchi Sea, particularly in waters near a major seabird colony at Cape Thompson. Foraging areas were characterized using hydrographic data obtained from hydroacoustic surveys for fish. Murres (Uria spp.) and Black-legged Kitttiwakes Rissa tridactyla breeding at Cape Thompson fed mostly on Arctic cod, which are known from previous studies to be the most abundant pelagic fish in the region. Our hydroacoustic surveys revealed that pelagic fish were distributed widely, but densities were estimated to be low (e.g., 0.1-10 g∙m-3) throughout the study area and a few schools were recorded. Large feeding flocks of murres and kittiwakes were observed over fish schools with densities estimated to exceed 15 g∙m-3. Fish densities were higher in shallow Alaska Coastal Current waters than offshore in Bering Sea waters, and most piscivorous seabirds foraged in coastal waters. Poor kittiwake breeding success and a low frequency of fish in murre and kittiwake stomachs in late August suggested that fish densities were marginal for sustaining breeding seabirds at that time. Planktivorous Least Auklets Aethia pusilla and Parakeet Auklets Cyclorrhynchus psittacula foraged almost exclusively in Bering Sea waters. Short-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris and Tufted Puffins Fratercula cirrhata foraged in transitional waters at the front between Coastal and Bering Sea currents.

  14. Palynostratigraphy, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition of Selandian to Aquitanian sediments, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Kingsley K.; Umeji, Obianuju P.

    2016-08-01

    Investigation of outcrop sections along the Onitsha-Awka transect in the Niger Delta Basin southeastern Nigeria was undertaken to assess the palynological composition, palynofacies and palaeoenvironment of deposition. Stratigraphic ranges of palynomorphs suggest an age of Selandian to Aquitanian. The palynological composition is marked by abundance of dinoflagellate cysts in the Imo Formation (Selandian to Thanetian), dominance of spores and pollen over dinoflagellate cysts in the Nanka Formation (Ypresian to Bartonian), and overwhelming amounts of spore and pollen in the Ogwashi Formation (Pariabonian to Aquitanian). Palynofacies content shows dominance of structureless organic matter in the Imo Formation, few phytoclasts in the Nanka Formation and maximum phytoclast amounts in the Ogwashi Formation. Thanetian to Ypresian boundary was marked by the mixing of older Palaeocene and younger Eocene microfossils, decrease of microflora towards the end of Palaeocene and the evolution of abundant and more diverse Eocene taxa. The Imo Formation was deposited in middle to outer neritic zone based on abundance of gonyaulacacean cysts. However, peridiniacean and terrestrial microflora extend the deposition range to shallow waters of inner neritic and coastal zone. Increase in diversity and abundance of terrestrial palynomorphs over marine palynomorphs assemblages in the overlying Nanka Formation suggest deposition under alternating coastal and inner neritic conditions while the Ogwashi Formation records oscillating coastal plain and brackish water depositional conditions. The palaeoenvironments illustrate that general retrogradation was followed by progradation of the delta during the Cenozoic.

  15. Southeastern Power Administration 2007 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-12-28

    Dear Secretary Chu: I am proud to submit Southeastern Power Administration’s (Southeastern’s) fiscal year (FY) 2007 Annual Report for your review. The information included in this report reflects Southeastern’s programs, accomplishments, and financial activities for the 12-month period beginning October 1, 2006 and ending September 30, 2007. Southeastern marketed more than 5 billion kilowatt-hours of energy to 492 wholesale Federal power customers in an 11-state marketing area in FY 2007. Revenues from the sale of this power totaled approximately $219 million. Drought conditions continued to plague the southeast region of the United States during 2007 placing strains on our natural and financial resources. Southeastern purchased more than $40 million in replacement power to meet customer contract requirements to ensure the continued reliability of our nation’s power grid. With the financial assistance and support of our Federal power customers, continued funding for capitalized equipment replacements at various Corps of Engineers’ (Corps) hydroelectric projects provided much needed repairs and maintenance for aging facilities. Southeastern’s cyber and physical security program continued to be reviewed and updated to meet Department of Energy (DOE), Homeland Security, and North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and requirements. Plans for the upcoming year include communication and cooperation with DOE, Federal power customers, and the Corps to maximize the benefits of our nation’s water resources. Competition for the use of water and the prolonged drought conditions will present another challenging year for our agency. The employees at Southeastern will be proactive in meeting these challenges and providing reliable hydroelectric power to the people in the southeast. Sincerely, Kenneth E. Legg Administrator

  16. Post-Palaeozoic uplift history of southeastern Australia revisited: results from a process-based mode of landscape evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Beek, P.A.; Braun, J.; Lambeck, K.

    1999-01-01

    Developments over the last decade in the debate concerning the geomorphic evolution of the south-eastern Australian highlands are reviewed, taking as a starting point the model of passive denudation and isostatic rebound of a Palaeozoic mountain belt presented by Lambeck and Stephenson (1986). This model has been popular in the geomorphological community because it provides a quantitative framework to explain the very low rates of landscape evolution inferred from most geomorphological studies. The model has, however, also been criticised for its treatment of erosion as being linearly dependent on elevation, as well as for its predictions of regional uplift and denudation patterns that are not in accord with inferences from fission-track thermochronological data. Part of controversy stems from conceptual misunderstandings on the interpretation of data and from insufficient consideration of questions of spatial and temporal scale. First results of a new physical process-based model for large-scale long-term landscape evolution in the south-eastern highlands are presented. These show that the denudation history and drainage development of south-eastern Australia can be explained to a first order without invoking large-scale mid-Cretaceous or Tertiary uplift events. The model predicts drainage patterns in southeastern Australia to have evolved by rearrangement of an initially north-westerly directed drainage net, caused by drops in base-level during Mesozoic rifting along the southern and eastern margins of the study region. The geomorphology and available fission-track data in the Snowy Mountains region (and possibly also in the Bathurst - Blue Mountains region) do require renewed (mid Cretaceous?) uplift to have taken place. The model results are discussed in the light of recent controversies surrounding the southeastern highlands-their uplift history, denudation rates, depth of denudation of the coastal strip and inferred Mesozoic drainage patterns. Copyright (1999

  17. Coastal Dunes of the Baltic Sea Shores: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łabuz Tomasz Arkadiusz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article summarises results of studies conducted along the Baltic Sea sandy coasts by scientists involved in coastal dune research, and presents an attempt to describe the types and distribution of dune coasts. The Baltic Sea coasts feature lower and higher foredunes. The lowland behind the coastal dune belt is covered by wandering or stabilised inland dunes – transgressive forms, mainly parabolic or barchans. The source of sediment for dune development includes fluvioglacial sands from eroded coasts, river-discharged sand, and older eroded dunes. Due to the ongoing erosion and coastal retreat, many dunes have been eroded, and some are withdrawing onto the adjacent land. There are visible differences between the south-eastern, western, and northern parts of the Baltic Sea coast with respect to dune development. The entire southern and eastern coast abounds in sand, so the coastal dunes are large, formerly or currently wandering formations. The only shifting dunes are found at the Polish and the Russian–Lithuanian coasts on the Łebsko Lake Sandbar as well as on the Vistula and Curonian Spits. The very diverse shoreline of the south-western coast experiences a scarcity of larger sandy formations. Substantial parts of the Baltic Sea sandy coasts have been eroded or transformed by humans. The northern part of the Baltic Sea coast features mainly narrow and low sandy coasts (e.g. in Estonia. Further north, sandy dunes are virtually absent.

  18. Coastal upwelling south of Madagascar: Temporal and spatial variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanantsoa, Juliano D.; Krug, M.; Penven, P.; Rouault, M.; Gula, J.

    2018-02-01

    Madagascar's southern coastal marine zone is a region of high biological productivity which supports a wide range of marine ecosystems, including fisheries. This high biological productivity is attributed to coastal upwelling. This paper provides new insights on the structure, variability and drivers of the coastal upwelling south of Madagascar. Satellite remote sensing is used to characterize the spatial extent and strength of the coastal upwelling. A front detection algorithm is applied to thirteen years of Multi-scale Ultra-high Resolution (MUR) Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and an upwelling index is calculated. The influence of winds and ocean currents as drivers of the upwelling is investigated using satellite, in-situ observations, and a numerical model. Results reveal the presence of two well-defined upwelling cells. The first cell (Core 1) is located in the southeastern corner of Madagascar, and the second cell (Core 2) is west of the southern tip of Madagascar. These two cores are characterized by different seasonal variability, different intensities, different upwelled water mass origins, and distinct forcing mechanisms. Core 1 is associated with a dynamical upwelling forced by the detachment of the East Madagascar Current (EMC), which is reinforced by upwelling favourable winds. Core 2 appears to be primarily forced by upwelling favourable winds, but is also influenced by a poleward eastern boundary flow coming from the Mozambique Channel. The intrusion of Mozambique Channel warm waters could result in an asynchronicity in seasonality between upwelling surface signature and upwelling favourables winds.

  19. The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Iain; Alpaslan-Roodenberg, Songül; Posth, Cosimo; Szécsényi-Nagy, Anna; Rohland, Nadin; Mallick, Swapan; Olalde, Iñigo; Broomandkhoshbacht, Nasreen; Candilio, Francesca; Cheronet, Olivia; Fernandes, Daniel; Ferry, Matthew; Gamarra, Beatriz; Fortes, Gloria González; Haak, Wolfgang; Harney, Eadaoin; Jones, Eppie; Keating, Denise; Krause-Kyora, Ben; Kucukkalipci, Isil; Michel, Megan; Mittnik, Alissa; Nägele, Kathrin; Novak, Mario; Oppenheimer, Jonas; Patterson, Nick; Pfrengle, Saskia; Sirak, Kendra; Stewardson, Kristin; Vai, Stefania; Alexandrov, Stefan; Alt, Kurt W; Andreescu, Radian; Antonović, Dragana; Ash, Abigail; Atanassova, Nadezhda; Bacvarov, Krum; Gusztáv, Mende Balázs; Bocherens, Hervé; Bolus, Michael; Boroneanţ, Adina; Boyadzhiev, Yavor; Budnik, Alicja; Burmaz, Josip; Chohadzhiev, Stefan; Conard, Nicholas J; Cottiaux, Richard; Čuka, Maja; Cupillard, Christophe; Drucker, Dorothée G; Elenski, Nedko; Francken, Michael; Galabova, Borislava; Ganetsovski, Georgi; Gély, Bernard; Hajdu, Tamás; Handzhyiska, Veneta; Harvati, Katerina; Higham, Thomas; Iliev, Stanislav; Janković, Ivor; Karavanić, Ivor; Kennett, Douglas J; Komšo, Darko; Kozak, Alexandra; Labuda, Damian; Lari, Martina; Lazar, Catalin; Leppek, Maleen; Leshtakov, Krassimir; Vetro, Domenico Lo; Los, Dženi; Lozanov, Ivaylo; Malina, Maria; Martini, Fabio; McSweeney, Kath; Meller, Harald; Menđušić, Marko; Mirea, Pavel; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Petrova, Vanya; Price, T Douglas; Simalcsik, Angela; Sineo, Luca; Šlaus, Mario; Slavchev, Vladimir; Stanev, Petar; Starović, Andrej; Szeniczey, Tamás; Talamo, Sahra; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Thevenet, Corinne; Valchev, Ivan; Valentin, Frédérique; Vasilyev, Sergey; Veljanovska, Fanica; Venelinova, Svetlana; Veselovskaya, Elizaveta; Viola, Bence; Virag, Cristian; Zaninović, Joško; Zäuner, Steve; Stockhammer, Philipp W; Catalano, Giulio; Krauß, Raiko; Caramelli, David; Zariņa, Gunita; Gaydarska, Bisserka; Lillie, Malcolm; Nikitin, Alexey G; Potekhina, Inna; Papathanasiou, Anastasia; Borić, Dušan; Bonsall, Clive; Krause, Johannes; Pinhasi, Ron; Reich, David

    2018-03-08

    Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

  20. Brazilian union actions for workers' health protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolpho Repullo Junior

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Many authors have emphasized the importance of worker strength through unionized organizations, in relation to the improvement of working procedures, and have reported on the decisiveness of labor movement actions in achieving modifications within the field of work and health. OBJECTIVE: To describe the ways in which Brazilian unions have tried to intervene in health-illness and work processes, identifying the existence of commonality in union actions in this field. TYPE OF STUDY: Qualitative study. SETTING: Postgraduate Program, Environmental Health Department, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Union health advisers and directors were interviewed. Documents relating to union action towards protecting workers' health were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Unions articulate actions regarding workers' health of a technical and political nature that involve many aspects and high complexity. These have been divided into thematic categories for better analysis. DISCUSSION: Union actions regarding workers' health in Brazil are restricted to some unions, located mainly in the southern, southeastern and northeastern regions of the country. Nonetheless, the unions undertaking such actions represent many professions of great economic and political importance. CONCLUSIONS: The recent changes in health and safety at work regulations, recognition of professional diseases, creation of workers' health services and programs within the unified health system, and operational improvements in companies' specialized safety and occupational medicine services, all basically result from union action. There is commonality of union action in this field in its seeking of technical and political strengthening for all workers and their general and local representation. This has the objective of benefiting collective bargaining between employers and workers. Inter-institutional action on behalf of workers' rights

  1. Cabernet Sauvignon grapevine grafted onto rootstocks during the autumn-winter season in southeastern Brazilian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rita de Souza

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The change of grape (Vitis vinifera harvest from summer to winter through double pruning management has improved the fine wine quality in southern Brazil. High altitude, late cultivar and grafting combination all need to be investigated to optimize this new viticulture management. For this purpose, this study was carried out during the 2011 and 2012 growing seasons in a high altitude region of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using eight grafting combinations for five year old Cabernet Sauvignon vines. The stem water potential, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were not affected by rootstock type. The rootstocks IAC 766 and 101-14 induced, respectively, the highest and lowest vegetative vigor in Cabernet Sauvignon, as shown by leaf area and pruning weight. In the 2011 growing season, the leaf chlorophyll contents were increased in IAC 766, whereas vines grafted onto 101-14 accumulated more leaf starch, probably due to reduced vegetative and reproductive growth. In general, rootstocks K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 had the highest yield as compared to 1103P and 101-14. Berries from the grapevine with the highest yield did not differ in pH, total soluble solids and acidity. The rootstocks did not influence the anthocyanins and total phenols in both growing seasons. Quality parameters were better in the 2011 than in the 2012 growing season due to better climatic conditions, mainly less rainfall. The best performance of Cabernet Sauvignon was achieved when grafted onto K5BB, 1045P, SO4 and IAC 766 rootstocks.

  2. Bioaccumulation Study of Produced Water Discharges from Southeastern Brazilian Offshore Petroleum Industry Using Feral Fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Rafael André; Francioni, Eleine; da Silva, Antonio Henrique M F T; Magalhães, Caio Augusto; Gallotta, Fabiana Dias Costa; de Oliveira, Fabio Francisco; de Souza, João Maximino; de Araújo, Leandro Franco Macena; de Araújo, Liliane Pequeno; de Araújo Júnior, Marcus Antonio G; de Fátima Guadalupe Meniconi, Maria; de Souza Bindes Gomes Lopes, Monica Aparecida Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    The main effluent of oil and gas production is the discharge of produced water (PW). Despite the potential environmental impact, the structure of oil and gas platforms can act as artificial reefs. Two species of fish, Caranx crysos and Tylosurus acus, were captured under two discharging platforms at Campos Basin, P19 and P40. A nondischarging platform, P25, was taken as reference. The highest median concentration of PAH in muscle tissue was observed for C. Crysos at P40 (219.38 ng g -1 ) followed by P19 (68.26 ng g -1 ). For T. acus, the highest median concentrations were 40.07 and 42.21 ng g -1 from P19 and P40 respectively. P25 presented the smallest recorded concentrations. The results of PAH in the muscle tissue of C. crysos enabled to distinguish the platforms with PW discharge from the platform without discharge. Trace elements concentrations reflected the background levels and were not influenced by the PW release.

  3. Evapotranspiration of a Mid-Rotation Loblolly Pine Plantation and a Recently Harvested Stands on the Coastal Plain of North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cao; Ge Sun; Steve G. McNulty; J. Chen; A. Noormets; R. W. Skaggs; Devendra M. Amatya

    2006-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) is the primary component of the forest hydrologic cycle, which includes plant transpiration, canopy rainfall interception, and soil evaporation. Quantifying ET processes and potential biophysical regulations is needed for assessing forest water management options. Loblolly pines are widely planted in the coastal plain of the Southeastern US, but...

  4. Coastal Wetland Restoration Bibliography

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yozzo, David

    1997-01-01

    This bibliography was compiled to provide biologists, engineers, and planners at Corps Districts and other agencies/ institutions with a guide to the diverse body of literature on coastal wetland restoration...

  5. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  6. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  7. Pollution of Coastal Seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These are the things ideally required for locating industries also. The mega-cities .... waste water released into coastal seas raises the ambient temperature causing .... Problems of ozone holes and greenhouse gases were, perhaps, beyond ...

  8. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  9. Pollution of coastal seas

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Pollution of various environments is a consequence of population growth and industrialisation. Coastal seas form part of marine environment and are very rich in minerals, crude oil fishes etc. They are also being used for disposal of wastes from...

  10. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  11. Evidence for a transgressive barrier within a regressive strandplain system : Implications for a complex coastal response to environmental change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hein, Christopher J.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Cleary, William J.; Boechat Albernaz, M.; Menezes, João Thadeu de; Klein, Antonio H. da F.

    2013-01-01

    Clastic, depositional strandplain systems have the potential to record changes in the primary drivers of coastal evolution: climate, sea-level, and the frequency of major meteorological and oceanographic events. This study seeks to use one such record from a southern Brazilian strandplain to

  12. Genetic diversity and structure of Brazilian ginger germplasm (Zingiber officinale) revealed by AFLP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Eleonora Zambrano; Bajay, Miklos Maximiliano; Siqueira, Marcos Vinícius Bohrer Monteiro; Zucchi, Maria Imaculada; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2016-12-01

    Ginger is a vegetable with medicinal and culinary properties widely cultivated in the Southern and Southeastern Brazil. The knowledge of ginger species' genetic variability is essential to direct correctly future studies of conservation and genetic improvement, but in Brazil, little is known about this species' genetic variability. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity and structure of 55 Brazilian accessions and 6 Colombian accessions of ginger, using AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) molecular markers. The molecular characterization was based on 13 primers combinations, which generated an average of 113.5 polymorphic loci. The genetic diversity estimates of Nei (Hj), Shannon-Weiner index (I) and an effective number of alleles (n e ) were greater in the Colombian accessions in relation to the Brazilian accessions. The analysis of molecular variance showed that most of the genetic variation occurred between the two countries while in the Brazilian populations there is no genetic structure and probably each region harbors 100 % of genetic variation found in the samples. The bayesian model-based clustering and the dendrogram using the dissimilarity's coefficient of Jaccard were congruent with each other and showed that the Brazilian accessions are highly similar between themselves, regardless of the geographic region of origin. We suggested that the exploration of the interspecific variability and the introduction of new varieties of Z.officinale are viable alternatives for generating diversity in breeding programs in Brazil. The introduction of new genetic materials will certainly contribute to a higher genetic basis of such crop.

  13. Profile of Brazilian scientific production on A/H1N1 pandemic influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchs, Adriana

    2012-06-01

    In the last few years, bibliometric studies have proliferated, seeking to provide data on world research. This study analyzes the profile of the Brazilian scientific production in the A (H1N1) influenza field between 2009 and 2011. The research was conducted in MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS databases, selecting papers in which the term "H1N1" and "Brazil" were defined as the main topics. The data were analyzed taking into consideration the Brazilian state and institution in which the articles were produced, the impact factor of the journal and the language. The research revealed 40 documents (27 from MEDLINE, 16 from SciELO and 24 from LILACS). The journal impact factor ranged from 0.0977 to 8.1230. A similar amount of articles were written in English and Portuguese and São Paulo was the most productive state in the country, with 95% of the Brazilian production originating from the Southern and Southeastern regions. Linguistic data indicate that previous efforts made in order to improve the scientific production of Brazilian researchers making their observations attain a broader scientific audience produced results. It is necessary to assess the scientific studies, especially those conducted with public funds, in order to ensure that the results will benefit society.

  14. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. Methods A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. Results A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Conclusions Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends. PMID:26535196

  15. Acromioclavicular dislocation: treatment and rehabilitation. Current perspectives and trends among Brazilian orthopedists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Utino, Artur Yudi; Nishimura, Eduardo Misao; Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Astur, Diego Costa

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the approaches and procedures used by Brazilian orthopedic surgeons in treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation of the shoulder. A questionnaire comprising eight closed questions that addressed topics relating to treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation was applied to Brazilian orthopedic surgeons over the three days of the 45th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in 2013. A total of 122 surgeons completely filled out the questionnaire and formed part of the sample analyzed. Most of them came from the southeastern region of the country. In this sample, 67% of the participants would choose surgical treatment for patients with grade 3 acromioclavicular dislocation. Regarding the preferred technique for surgical treatment of acute acromioclavicular dislocation, a majority of the surgeons used subcoracoid ligature with acromioclavicular fixation and transfer of the coracoacromial ligament (25.4%). Regarding complications found after surgery had been performed, 43.4% and 32.8% of the participants, respectively, stated that residual deformity of the operated joint and pain were the complications most seen during the postoperative period. Although there was no consensus regarding the treatment and rehabilitation of acromioclavicular dislocation, evolution had occurred in some of the topics analyzed in this questionnaire applied to Brazilian orthopedists. However, further controlled prospective studies are needed in order to evaluate the clinical and scientific benefit of these trends.

  16. Stranding Events of Kogia Whales along the Brazilian Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailson F Moura

    Full Text Available The genus Kogia, which comprises only two extant species, Kogia sima and Kogia breviceps, represents one of the least known groups of cetaceans in the global ocean. In some coastal regions, however, stranding events of these species have been relatively common over the last decades. Stranding provides the opportunity to investigate the biology of these cetaceans and to explore the epidemiological aspects associated with the mortality of the organisms found on the beach. A number of disturbances (including pelagic fisheries, chemical pollution, boat strikes, and noise pollution have been confirmed to pose a particular threat to the Kogia species. However, no study has yet investigated potential relationships between environmental conditions and stranding events. Here we analyse how a collection of environmental, physical, and biological variables, such as wind, sea surface temperature (SST, water depth, and chlorophyll-a, correlate to Kogia stranding events along the Brazilian coast. The results of our statistical analyses suggest that K. sima is more likely found in warm tropical waters, which provide an explanation for the high frequency of stranding in northeastern Brazilian coast. In contrast, K. breviceps appears to have a preference for temperate and productive waters. Wind speed results to be also an important factor for predicting Kogia strandings in Brazilian coast. Additionally, literature information in combination with our own data and analyses of stomach contents confirms that oceanic cephalopods constitute the primary nutritional source of both Kogia species. By using the available information as a qualitative proxy for habitat preference and feeding ecology, our study provides a novel and comprehensive assessment of Kogia stranding data in relation to environmental conditions along the Brazilian coast.

  17. Bats from the Restinga of Praia das Neves, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz, J. L.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on bat richness and diversity in coastal sand dunes (‘restinga’ are still scarce. Therefore, the objectives of thepresent study were to estimate bat richness in the restinga of Praia das Neves (state of Espírito Santo, southeasternBrazil and to analyze species abundance. Ten sampling nights were carried out in May and July 2008, resulting in asampling effort of 21,847.5 h.m2. We captured 125 individuals from 17 bat species. In this study, Tonatia saurophilawas recorded for the first time not only in the state of Espírito Santo but also in the restinga ecosystem. The mostabundant species was Artibeus lituratus with 32% of all captures. Surveys in coastal restingas are urgently needed inorder to obtain more information about the bats living in this environment.

  18. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  19. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  20. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  1. Anomalies from aerial spectrometric and total count radiometric surveys in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.H.; Lawton, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Aerial radiometric reconnaissance surveys are conducted because of their cost, time, and manpower savings compared to surface studies. Two types of aerial surveys are being flown in the southeastern United States: total count gamma-ray surveys for the Coastal Plains Regional Commission and the US Geological Survey, and differential gamma-ray spectrometric surveys for the US Department of Energy. Anomalous radioactivity detected during aerial surveys is related to higher concentrations of naturally occurring uranium, or to cultural activities, natural causes, or mapping errors which simulate real uranium anomalies. Each anomaly should be ground checked; however, several types of anomalies may be eliminated by evaluation of the aerial data in the office if field time is limited

  2. Coastal vertebrate exposure to predicted habitat changes due to sea level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A.; Nibbelink, Nathan P.; Alexander, Clark R.; Barrett, Kyle; Mengak, Lara F.; Guy, Rachel; Moore, Clinton; Cooper, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Sea level rise (SLR) may degrade habitat for coastal vertebrates in the Southeastern United States, but it is unclear which groups or species will be most exposed to habitat changes. We assessed 28 coastal Georgia vertebrate species for their exposure to potential habitat changes due to SLR using output from the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model and information on the species’ fundamental niches. We assessed forecasted habitat change up to the year 2100 using three structural habitat metrics: total area, patch size, and habitat permanence. Almost all of the species (n = 24) experienced negative habitat changes due to SLR as measured by at least one of the metrics. Salt marsh and ocean beach habitats experienced the most change (out of 16 categorical land cover types) across the three metrics and species that used salt marsh extensively (rails and marsh sparrows) were ranked highest for exposure to habitat changes. Species that nested on ocean beaches (Diamondback Terrapins, shorebirds, and terns) were also ranked highly, but their use of other foraging habitats reduced their overall exposure. Future studies on potential effects of SLR on vertebrates in southeastern coastal ecosystems should focus on the relative importance of different habitat types to these species’ foraging and nesting requirements. Our straightforward prioritization approach is applicable to other coastal systems and can provide insight to managers on which species to focus resources, what components of their habitats need to be protected, and which locations in the study area will provide habitat refuges in the face of SLR.

  3. Influence Of Crop Management And Soil On Plantain [Musa spp. z AAB Group Response To Black Sigatoka Infection In Southeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobambo, KN.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available An on-farm survey was carried out to assess the severity of black sigatoka caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet on plantain in southeastern Nigeria. Two different geomor-phological zones (Meander belts and Coastal plain sands were surveyed. Four locations were selected for each zone and two traditional farming systems (backyard and field were studied in each location. Based on geomorphological zones, less black sigatoka infection was observed in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands. On farming systems basis, plantain grown in the backyard gardens had lower disease severity than that planted in the field plots. This difference in black sigatoka severity is attributable to the higher soil fertility in the Meander belts than in the Coastal plain sands and in the backyards than in the fields.

  4. Perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chin-Hsien; Chang, Wen-Hsiung; Shih, Shou-Chuan; Lin, Shee-Chan; Bair, Ming-Jong

    2010-09-01

    No studies focus on the population with perforated peptic ulcer in southeastern Taiwan. The present study aimed to assess the differences between the different races and the risk factors related to mortality and morbidity in postoperative patients in southeastern Taiwan. The medical records of 237 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The following factors were analyzed: patient profiles, coexisting illnesses, diagnostic method, fever, preoperative shock, clinical data at emergency room, delay operation, site of perforation, operative method, positive ascites culture, species of microbes in ascites culture, postoperative complications, death and the length of hospital stay. Aborigines were significantly different from non-aborigines in the ratio of female cases and in the habits of alcohol drinking and betel nut chewing. There were also four significantly different variables between them: fever, hemoglobin value, site of perforation and operative method. Total postoperative complication rate was 41.3% and 39 patients (16.6%) died. In multivariate analysis, age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent predictors of mortality. Significant risk factors associated with morbidity were NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock. Aborigines were different from non-aborigines in several categories. In southeastern Taiwan, NSAIDs use, creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of morbidity, and age > or = 65 years, lipase > upper normal limit and preoperative shock were independent risk factors of mortality in postoperative perforated peptic ulcer. Lipase > upper normal limit is needed for further research on the influence on mortality.

  5. Environmental monitoring of coastal and oceanic areas with orbital sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Genovez

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PETROBRAS is using spaceborne multi-sensor remote sensing for its sea surface monitoring program at the Campos, Santos and Espírito Santo basins, southeastern Brazilian coast. Ocean color (SeaWiFS and MODIS, thermal infrared (NOAA/AVHRR, scatterometer (QuikSCAT and Synthetic Aperture Radar (RADARSAT-1 and ASAR/ENVISAT data were integrated in order to detect and characterize different sorts of marine pollution and meteo-oceanographic phenomena. The near real time processing and delivery of the radar data allowed the timely in-situ verification and sampling of the remotely detected events. The integrated analysis of these dataset presents an important decision tool for emergencies, as well for the elaboration of contingency plans and evaluation of the oil industry activity impacts.

  6. Between the sea and the land: the livelihood of estuarine people in southeastern Brazil Entre o mar e a terra: modos de vida de comunidades estuarinas no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia anazaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The central focus of this study is to characterize and compare the livelihood strategies of two coastal communities from the estuarine region of Ribeira Valley (São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, analyzing the interplay among four economic activities: small-scale agriculture, fishing, tourism-related jobs, and extraction of non-timber vegetal resources. The local people of these communities are mostly Caiçara, the native inhabitants of southeastern Brazilian coast, in an Atlantic forest area. The miscegenation of Amerindians, European colonizers, and African Brazilians gave rise to the Caiçara people, whose subsistence was originally based on small-scale itinerant agriculture, small-scale fishery, and some extraction of forest products. Their livelihoods activities changed through time: agricultural practices were gradually abandoned, while fishing grew in importance. Recently, tourism-related jobs and the extraction of non-timber vegetal resources acquired a key role in the estuarine Caiçara livelihood. After an historical overview, we focus our analysis on the local factors and external pressures affecting the combination of these activities.O objetivo central deste artigo é caracterizar e comparar as estratégias dos meios de vida de duas comunidades da região estuarina do vale de Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, analisando a inter-relação entre quatro atividades econômicas: agricultura de pequena escala, pesca, trabalhos relacionados ao turismo e extração de recursos vegetais não madeireiros. Os habitantes destas comunidades são na maior parte Caiçaras, nativos da costa sudeste do Brasil, vivendo em área do domínio Mata Atlântica. Caiçaras são descendentes de ameríndios e colonizadores europeus, com influências mais recentes de escravos africanos. Sua subsistência era baseada originalmente na agricultura itinerante de pequena escala, na pesca artesanal e, em menor grau, na extração de produtos florestais. Suas

  7. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of Ocean and...

  8. Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasiliensis spawning in the southeast Brazilian Bight over the period 1976-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunobu Matsuura

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on sampling over the period 1976-1993 in the southeast Brazilian Bight, the distribution of spawning of the Brazilian sardine (Sardinella brasi/iensis is described in relation to environmental conditions. The area of intense spawning occurs in the southern part of the bight where coastal upwelling was less /Tequent. Spawning intensity showed high interannllal variation and the egg abundance in the survey area ranged /Tom 99 billion eggs in the January 1988 cruise to 4669 billion eggs in the January 1981 cruise. Peak spawning takes place one hour after midnight and eggs hatch . out within 19 hours with a water temperature of 24 °e.Baseado nos dados coletados durante nove cruzeiros oceanográficos realizados na região sudeste, as áreas de desova da sardinha-verdadeira (Sardinella brasiliensis foram apresentadas c discutidas em relação às condições oceanográficas. As áreas de desova intensiva foram localizadas na parte sul da área de investigação, onde a ressurgência costeira foi menos freqüente. A intensidade de desova demonstrou uma variação anual relativamente grande. A produção total de ovos da sardinha- ­verdadeira variou de 99 bilhões de ovos durante o cruzeiro de janeiro de 1988 para 4669 bilhões de ovos em janeiro de 1981. O pico de desova ocorre na camada de mistura de superfície uma hora após a meia noite e os ovos eclodem em 19 horas com a temperatura de água 24 °e.

  9. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  10. Flammability of litter from southeastern trees: a preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Varner; Jeffrey M. Kane; Erin M. Banwell; Jesse K. Kreye

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern United States possesses a great diversity of woody species and an equally impressive history of wildland fires. Species are known to vary in their flammability, but little is known about southeastern species. We used published data and our own collections to perform standard litter flammability tests on a diverse suite of 25 native overstory trees from...

  11. Assessing climate-sensitive ecosystems in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Jennifer; Beck, Scott; Pyne, Milo; Terando, Adam; Rubino, Matthew J.; White, Rickie; Collazo, Jaime

    2016-08-11

    Climate change impacts ecosystems in many ways, from effects on species to phenology to wildfire dynamics. Assessing the potential vulnerability of ecosystems to future changes in climate is an important first step in prioritizing and planning for conservation. Although assessments of climate change vulnerability commonly are done for species, fewer have been done for ecosystems. To aid regional conservation planning efforts, we assessed climate change vulnerability for ecosystems in the Southeastern United States and Caribbean.First, we solicited input from experts to create a list of candidate ecosystems for assessment. From that list, 12 ecosystems were selected for a vulnerability assessment that was based on a synthesis of available geographic information system (GIS) data and literature related to 3 components of vulnerability—sensitivity, exposure, and adaptive capacity. This literature and data synthesis comprised “Phase I” of the assessment. Sensitivity is the degree to which the species or processes in the ecosystem are affected by climate. Exposure is the likely future change in important climate and sea level variables. Adaptive capacity is the degree to which ecosystems can adjust to changing conditions. Where available, GIS data relevant to each of these components were used. For example, we summarized observed and projected climate, protected areas existing in 2011, projected sea-level rise, and projected urbanization across each ecosystem’s distribution. These summaries were supplemented with information in the literature, and a short narrative assessment was compiled for each ecosystem. We also summarized all information into a qualitative vulnerability rating for each ecosystem.Next, for 2 of the 12 ecosystems (East Gulf Coastal Plain Near-Coast Pine Flatwoods and Nashville Basin Limestone Glade and Woodland), the NatureServe Habitat Climate Change Vulnerability Index (HCCVI) framework was used as an alternative approach for assessing

  12. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  13. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  14. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  15. Coastal Inlets Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Geomorphic  Evolution • ADCP Currents  • ADCP Backscatter • Total Suspended  Solids • Turbidity  Sensor  Array • Wave Array • Light Attenuation • Surface...shore for both East and West Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory 38 Coast Applications Summary and New Initiatives http://cirp.usace.army.milCIRP...Nearshore Berm Target Date: Sep FY15- Sep FY17 • Coastal experiments on Atlantic • Estuary experiments in Currituck Sound • Overland

  16. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  17. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline S. dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. dos Santos C.S., McIntosh D., Berto B.P., de Jesus V.L.T., da Rocha C.N.C., Fernandes J.I., Scott F.B. & Lopes C.W.G. Diagnosis of Pentatrichomonas hominis from domestic cats in Southeastern Brazil. [Diagnóstico de Pentatrichomonas hominis em gatos no sudeste do Brasil.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:25-31, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação em Ci- ências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, RJ 23897-970, Brasil. E-mail: carolinespitz@yahoo.com.br The parabasalid flagellate Tritrichomonas foetus is recognized as the causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in domestic cats. A second species of parabasalid flagellate Pentatrichomonas hominis, has also been reported in association with domestic cats, albeit almost exclusively as a commensal organism. However, there is growing evidence to suggest that P. hominis may also be involved in feline gastro-intestinal disorders including diarrhea and that the incidence of infection with P. hominis may have been underestimated due to it being misidentified as T. foetus. The aim of the current study was to establish the basis for routine morphological identification of P. hominis employing light microscopy and to apply the methodology to the examination of cases of diarrhea in a laboratory population of Brazilian domestic cats (n =39. A detailed morphological description of P. hominis isolated from 11 cats with diarrhea was produced and molecular analyses were performed in support of the morphological data and to demonstrate the absence of T. foetus in infected cats. All animals with diarrhea were demonstrated to be infected solely with P. hominis. The findings of the current study provide a straight forward and validated method for the differential diagnosis of P. hominis and contribute to the on-going debate surrounding the pathogenic potential of this parabasalid flagellate.

  18. Zoonotic Leprosy in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rahul; Singh, Pushpendra; Loughry, W.J.; Lockhart, J. Mitchell; Inman, W. Barry; Duthie, Malcolm S.; Pena, Maria T.; Marcos, Luis A.; Scollard, David M.; Cole, Stewart T.

    2015-01-01

    Nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus) are naturally infected with Mycobacterium leprae and have been implicated in zoonotic transmission of leprosy. Early studies found this disease mainly in Texas and Louisiana, but armadillos in the southeastern United States appeared to be free of infection. We screened 645 armadillos from 8 locations in the southeastern United States not known to harbor enzootic leprosy for M. leprae DNA and antibodies. We found M. leprae–infected armadillos at each location, and 106 (16.4%) animals had serologic/PCR evidence of infection. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism variable number tandem repeat genotyping/genome sequencing, we detected M. leprae genotype 3I-2-v1 among 35 armadillos. Seven armadillos harbored a newly identified genotype (3I-2-v15). In comparison, 52 human patients from the same region were infected with 31 M. leprae types. However, 42.3% (22/52) of patients were infected with 1 of the 2 M. leprae genotype strains associated with armadillos. The geographic range and complexity of zoonotic leprosy is expanding. PMID:26583204

  19. A new six-pored Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae) from the coastal zone of northeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Igor Joventino; Brito, Lucas B M; Avila, Robson W

    2014-01-06

    We describe a new Amphisbaena from the Brazilian coastal zone at the municipalities of Guamaré and Macau, state of Rio Grande do Norte. The new species, Amphisbaena littoralis sp. nov., is characterized by six precloacal pores, 252-264 body annuli, 30-34 tail annuli with autotomy on the 6th tail annuli, 20-22 dorsal and 21-24 ventral segments to the midbody annulus.

  20. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Veres, P.; Roberts, J. M.; Warneke, C.; Urbanski, S. P.; Reardon, J.; Weise, D. R.; Hao, W. M.; de Gouw, J.

    2010-11-01

    Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO), an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg-1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx) ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels, particularly those found in the chaparral biome in the coastal regions of California.

  1. Normal and Extreme Wind Conditions for Power at Coastal Locations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Meng; Ning, Jicai; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the normal and extreme wind conditions for power at 12 coastal locations along China's coastline were investigated. For this purpose, the daily meteorological data measured at the standard 10-m height above ground for periods of 40-62 years are statistically analyzed. The East Asian Monsoon that affects almost China's entire coastal region is considered as the leading factor determining wind energy resources. For most stations, the mean wind speed is higher in winter and lower in summer. Meanwhile, the wind direction analysis indicates that the prevalent winds in summer are southerly, while those in winter are northerly. The air densities at different coastal locations differ significantly, resulting in the difference in wind power density. The Weibull and lognormal distributions are applied to fit the yearly wind speeds. The lognormal distribution performs better than the Weibull distribution at 8 coastal stations according to two judgement criteria, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and absolute error (AE). Regarding the annual maximum extreme wind speed, the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution performs better than the commonly-used Gumbel distribution. At these southeastern coastal locations, strong winds usually occur in typhoon season. These 4 coastal provinces, that is, Guangdong, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang, which have abundant wind resources, are also prone to typhoon disasters.

  2. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  3. Coastal erosion in Sicily: geomorphologic impact and mitigation (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, V.; Manno, G.

    2009-04-01

    The coast of Sicily region stretches about 1400 km, bathing three different seas: the North tract, from Messina to Capo San Vito wash to the Tyrrhenian Sea, the oriental side, from Messina to Capo Passero, wash to the Ionian Sea, and finally the southern side wash to the Mediterranean. Of these, 395 km are made up of beaches and 970 km from rocky shores. The coastal morph-type were analyzed in relation to their evolutionary trend (backspace or advancement of the seaside), can be summarized as follows: a low shores of torrent plain (Messina), low shores with salt (Trapani), low shores beaches edged with dunal systems, subject to backspace, where urbanization has reduced or eliminated the internal sand dunes, shores on marine terraces, with beaches at the foot (Agrigento) and high shores non-affected of real phenomena of backspace, but subject to often dangerous events of detachment and collapse of blocks (high rocky shores). The marine and coastal environment is a complex and articulated, in balance with the Earth's environment, in which live together, but through different dynamics strongly interacting, ecosystems and marine ecosystems typically transition. The increasing density of population concentrated along the shores, the gradual expansion of activities related to the use of marine and coastal resources, are some of the issues that threaten the delicate balance of nature and the sea coast. The sicilian coastal areas most subject to erosion are those in Ragusa shores areas in south-eastern of Sicily, where the critical areas interesting low coastline and high shores. Following the coast, between Capo Peloro and Milazzo (Messina),where the erosion affects the coast with a low of about 23 km. In the coastal between Capo St. Marco and Capo Feto (Trapani) the critical areas interesting the low coastline and, in part erodible bluffs. One of this case is localized in the town of Mazara del Vallo. In general, the phenomenon erosive affects almost all the sicilian

  4. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 1. Analytic solutions forced by interior Ekman pumping and local alongshore winds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shankar, D.; Mc; Han, W.; Shetye, S.R.

    and Computer Simulation, National Aerospace Laboratories Bangalore, India J.P. McCreary and W. Han Oceanographic Center, Nova Southeastern University, Dania, Florida S. R. Shetye National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa, India Abstract. A... that compensates for southward Sverdrup transport in the interior ocean, as in the barotropic models of Stommel [1948] and Munk [1950]. SHANKAR ET AL' DYNAMICS OF THE EAST INDIA COASTAL CURRENT, 1 13,977 McCreary et al. [1993] suggested that forcing by both...

  5. Coping with Coastal Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nichols, Robert J.; Stive, Marcel J.F.; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter focuses on how to cope with coastal change and its implications. There are two major types of response: mitigation representing source control of drivers, such as greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater withdrawal, and adaptation referring to behavioral changes that range from

  6. Managing Coastal Pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quevenco, R.

    2010-01-01

    Concern over the growing incidence of pollution in the Caribbean has been on the rise, as it has the potential to affect livelihoods dependent on fishing and tourism. The IAEA's Department of Technical Cooperation launched a regional project on the use of nuclear techniques to address coastal management issues in the Caribbean.

  7. Proceedings of the 39. Brazilian congress on geology. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The book presents the 39. Brazilian Congress on Geology works, occurred in Salvador, Bahia, during the period of September 1 to 6, 1996. The meeting main subject - geology and society - reflects the current change epoch. The symposiums revealed the more important actions about geosciences applications to the society in the country. The round tables, structured for the polemical subjects debates that involves the geosciences and the mineral sector crisis aspects, were achieved by several invited participants completely embraced with the subject. During the congress activities development there were some courses, technical excursions and external actions in Salvador, aiming to to show the geosciences role to the social welfare. The works were presented the following symposiums: the social value of the environment study; urban geology and geology risks; degraded areas recovery; coastal erosion; global paleoregisters; and carstic terranes geology

  8. Tribes and chiefdoms: An analytical study of some Brazilian ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabino, C.V.S.; Prous, A.P.; Wuest, I.; Guapindaia, V.

    2003-01-01

    There is no evidence of urban civilization in Brazilian prehistory; most inhabitants lived in tribal organizations, probably with regional economic integration among several independent tribes. There is little evidence of seasonal migrations between the coastal and inland areas of southern Brazil. Some specialized horticulturists competed among themselves but other groups lived more in isolation, and probably peacefully, in the upper interfluvial regions.The chiefdom system is supposed to have existed only along the river Amazon. In this region, some pottery makers may have been specialized craftsmen, and the finest ceramics that could have been exported from one village or region to another can be found. Outside this region, pottery was generally plain, except the tupiguarani, which was partly decorated. In this study some limited possibilities were tested, in three different cultural and regional contexts, to find out if the application of chemical analysis to economically and politically 'simple' societies can produce any results of additional archaeological relevance. (author)

  9. Long-Term Studies of Prescribed Burning in Loblolly Pine Forests of the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; David H. van Lear; F. Thomas Lloyd; William R. Harms

    1987-01-01

    Prescribed fire provides many benefits in southern pine A study begun in 1946 provides a unique opportunity stands. to observe long-term changes in understory vegetation, soil properties, and overstory tree growth caused by repeated burning.

  10. Impacts of Agriculture on Nitrates in Soil and Groundwater in the Southeastern Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) contamination of surface and groundwater is a health concern for both humans and animals. Excess N in surface water bodies may contribute to eutrophication. Elevated nitrate (NO3-N) concentrations in drinking water have caused infant death from the disease methemoglobinemia. Nitrates...

  11. Estimating the size of juvenile fish populations in southeastern coastal-plain estuaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjelson, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    Understanding the ecological significance of man's activities upon fishery resources requires information on the size of affected fish stocks. The objective of this paper is to provide information to evaluate and plan sampling programs designed to obtain accurate and precise estimates of fish abundance. Nursery habitats, as marsh--tidal creeks and submerged grass beds, offer the optimal conditions for estimating natural mortality rates for young-of-the-year fish in Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coast estuaries. The area-density method of abundance estimation using quantitative gears is more feasible than either mark-recapture or direct-count techniques. The blockage method provides the most accurate estimates, while encircling devices enable highly mobile species found in open water to be captured. Drop nets and lift nets allow samples to be taken in obstructed sites, but trawls and seines are the most economical gears. Replicate samples are necessary to improve the precision of density estimates, while evaluation and use of gear-catch efficiencies is feasible and required to improve the accuracy of density estimates. Coefficients of variation for replicate trawl samples range from 50 to 150 percent, while catch efficiencies for both trawls and seines for many juvenile fishes range from approximately 30 to 70 percent

  12. Microbial community structure across a wastewater-impacted riparian buffer zone in the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducey, T F; Johnson, P R; Shriner, A D; Matheny, T A; Hunt, P G

    2013-01-01

    Riparian buffer zones are important for both natural and developed ecosystems throughout the world because of their ability to retain nutrients, prevent soil erosion, protect aquatic environments from excessive sedimentation, and filter pollutants. Despite their importance, the microbial community structures of riparian buffer zones remains poorly defined. Our objectives for this study were twofold: first, to characterize the microbial populations found in riparian buffer zone soils; and second, to determine if microbial community structure could be linked to denitrification enzyme activity (DEA). To achieve these objectives, we investigated the microbial populations of a riparian buffer zone located downslope of a pasture irrigated with swine lagoon effluent, utilizing DNA sequencing of the 16S rDNA, DEA, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of the denitrification genes nirK, nirS, and nosZ. Clone libraries of the 16S rDNA gene were generated from each of twelve sites across the riparian buffer with a total of 986 partial sequences grouped into 654 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The Proteobacteria were the dominant group (49.8% of all OTUs), with the Acidobacteria also well represented (19.57% of all OTUs). Analysis of qPCR results identified spatial relationships between soil series, site location, and gene abundance, which could be used to infer both incomplete and total DEA rates.

  13. Vulnerability of Coastal Wetlands in the Southeastern United States: Climate Change Research Results, 1992-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    Zieman 1989), the Big Bend area of Florida between St. Marks and Tarpon Springs (300,000 ha; Iverson and Bittaker 1986) and the Laguna Madre of Texas...through the canopies of taller neighbors. Light attenuation was calcu- lated with Beer’s Law based on a maximum leaf area index of 5.5. Growth was...meadows of the Laguna Madre of Texas. Pages 275-277 in E.T. LaRoe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac, editors. Our living

  14. FACTORS INFLUENCING PHOTOREACTIONS OF DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER IN A COASTAL RIVER OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photoreactions of dissolved organic matter can affect the oxidizing capacity, nutrient dynamics, trace gas exchange, and color of surface waters. This study focuses on factors that affect the photoreactions of the colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Satilla River, a co...

  15. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  16. Vulnerability of Coastal Wetlands in the Southeastern United States: Climate Change Research Results, 1992-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Marks and Tarpon Springs (300,000 ha; Iverson and Bittaker 1986) and the Laguna Madre of Texas (73,000 ha; Onuf 1995). Most of the remaining...tree dynamics in north 94 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE REPORT USGS/BRLVBSR-1998-0002 Honda longleaf pine savannas. Ecological Monographs 65:441-476...meadows of the Laguna Madre of Texas. Pages 275-277 in E.T. LaRoe, G.S. Farris, C.E. Puckett, P.D. Doran, and M.J. Mac, editors. Our living resources: a

  17. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the southeastern United States. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bledsoe, H.W. Jr.; Marine, I.W.

    1980-10-01

    The geology of the southeastern United States was studied to recommend areas that should be considered for field exploration in order to select a site for a radioactive waste repository. The region studied included the Piedmont Province, the Triassic Basins, and the Atlantic Coastal Plain in Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. This study was entirely a review of literature and existing knowledge from a geotechnical point of view and was performed by subcontractors whose individual reports are listed in the bibliography. No field work was involved. The entire study was geotechnical in nature, and no consideration was given to socioeconomic or demographic factors. These factors need to be addressed in a separate study. For all areas, field study is needed before any area is further considered. A total of 29 areas are recommended for further consideration in the Piedmont Province subregion: one area in Maryland, 8 areas in Virginia, 4 areas in North Carolina, 6 areas in South Carolina, and 10 areas in Georgia. Of the 14 exposed and 5 buried or hypothesized basins identified in the Triassic basin subregion, 6 are recommended for further study: one basin in Virginia, 3 basins in North Carolina, and 2 basins in South Carolina. Four potential candidate areas are identified within the Atlantic Coastal Plain subregion: one in Maryland, one in North Carolina, and 2 in Georgia

  18. Particulate and dissolved spectral absorption on the continental shelf of the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James R.; Guarda, Sonia

    1995-05-01

    Visible absorption spectra of particulate and dissolved materials were characterized on the continental shelf off the southeastern United States (the South Atlantic Bight), emphasizing cross-shelf and seasonal variability. A coastal front separates turbid coastal waters from clearer midshelf waters. Spatial and seasonal patterns were evident in absorption coefficients for phytoplankton, detritus, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM); spectral shape parameters for CDOM and detritus; and phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption. The magnitude of CDOM absorption reflected seasonal differences in freshwater discharge and the salinity of the midshelf waters. In the spring of 1993 (high discharge), CDOM absorption at 443 nm was >10 times that of total particulate absorption between 12 and 50 km offshore (0.28-0.69 m-1 versus 0.027-0.062 m-1) and up to 10 times the CDOM absorption measured in the previous summer (low discharge). Phytoplankton chlorophyll-specific absorption in the blue increased with distance from shore (from shift in phytoplankton species composition (from predominantly diatoms inshore to a cyanobacteria-dominated assemblage midshelf in summer), pigment packaging, and higher carotenoid:chlorophyll with distance from shore.

  19. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  20. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  1. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  2. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  3. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C.

    2008-01-01

    We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of 14 C-, 137 Cs-, and 210 Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and agricultural activities has intensified erosion processes on land, which is reflected in depositional environments, such as coastal lagoons, estuaries and mangroves. Of the processes discussed in this paper, SGD is the one that requires the most scientific effort in the short-term. There have been only two case studies using 222 Rn and radium isotopes as groundwater tracers in Brazil. These investigations showed that SGD can be a major source of nutrients and other dissolved species to the coastal ocean. Baseline 137 Cs, 90 Sr, 239+240 Pu, and 238 Pu concentrations in seawater from the whole Brazilian coastal zone are very low. Therefore, in spite of contamination problems in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, artificial radionuclide pollution appears to be negligible along the Brazilian coast. Phosphate fertilizer industries and petroleum processing facilities are the main economic activities producing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). Even though a few attempts have been made to assess the radiological effects of these activities, their potential threats indicate a need for the radiological control of their wastes. This review showed that the number of studies within the field of environmental radioactivity is still small in Brazil and much more research is needed to understand processes of high interest for environmental managers. In the near future, it is likely that such studies in Brazil will move from descriptive

  4. Radionuclides as tracers of coastal processes in Brazil: review, synthesis, and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isaac R.; Burnett, William C., E-mail: santos@ocean.fsu.edu [Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States). Dept. of Oceanography. Environmental Radioactivity Measurement Facility; Godoy, Jose M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-04-15

    We review the usefulness, limitations, significance, and coastal management implications of radionuclide measurements in Brazilian coastal environments. We focus on the use of radionuclides as tracers of sedimentary processes and submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). We also discuss artificial radionuclide contamination and high natural radioactivity areas. The interpretation of {sup 14}C-, {sup 137}Cs-, and {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rates has provided evidence that inappropriate soil use by urban and agricultural activities has intensified erosion processes on land, which is reflected in depositional environments, such as coastal lagoons, estuaries and mangroves. Of the processes discussed in this paper, SGD is the one that requires the most scientific effort in the short-term. There have been only two case studies using {sup 222}Rn and radium isotopes as groundwater tracers in Brazil. These investigations showed that SGD can be a major source of nutrients and other dissolved species to the coastal ocean. Baseline {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 239+240}Pu, and {sup 238}Pu concentrations in seawater from the whole Brazilian coastal zone are very low. Therefore, in spite of contamination problems in many ecosystems in the northern hemisphere, artificial radionuclide pollution appears to be negligible along the Brazilian coast. Phosphate fertilizer industries and petroleum processing facilities are the main economic activities producing Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM). Even though a few attempts have been made to assess the radiological effects of these activities, their potential threats indicate a need for the radiological control of their wastes. This review showed that the number of studies within the field of environmental radioactivity is still small in Brazil and much more research is needed to understand processes of high interest for environmental managers. In the near future, it is likely that such studies

  5. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  6. Hydrography, phytoplankton biomass and photosynthesis in shelf and oceanic waters off southeastern Brazil during autumn (may/june, 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Pereira Brandini

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a, phytoplankton photosynthesis and nutrients were studied in relation to the hydrographic environment of the southeastern Brazil from May 3 to June 31 of 1983 during an oceanographia cruise conducted by the R/V "Almirante Saldanha" of the Brazilian Navy. Temperature and salinity at 5 meters depth ranged from 21 to 25º C and from 33.00 to 37.11, respectively. The concentration of nutrients varied, nitrate + nitrite-N from 1.0-3.0 µg-at/l, phosphate-P 0.1-0.9 µg-at/l and silicate-Si 5-25 µg-at/l. The chlorophyll-a concentrations along the coast varied from 0.35 to 1.48 mg/m³ with maxima in front of Paranaguá Bay (PR and over the southern shelf of Santa Catarina State. Low concentrations around 0.20 mg/m³ of uniform distribution were observed in shelf and off-shelf areas. Comparatively high concentrations were measured over the shelf break zone in front of Paranaguá Bay indicationg the occurrence of shelf break upwelling of deep nutrient rich waters. The pattern of vertical distribution was stratified and irregular in coastal stations and uniform in shelf and oceanic waters although some subsurface peaks were sometimes detected. The integrated chlorophyll values within the euphotic layer varied between 2.70 and 28.06 mg/m². The surface photo synthetic capacity varied from 0.4 to 7.7 mgC/mgChl.a/hr with higher values obtained in coastal areas.. The vertical distributions were variable in coastal areas and more uniform in mid-shelf stations. Sub-surface maxima of photosynthesis were detected in both nearshore and off-shore stations, and surface inhibition was not observed.Os padrões de distribuição espacial de parâmetros hidrográficos, clorofila-a e fotossíntese do fitoplancton são estudados em relação ao regime oceanográfico da região sueste do Brasil nos meses de maio e junho de 1983. A região oceânica foi totalmente dominada pela Agua Tropical da Corrente do Brasil (AT com caracter

  7. Redistribution of cesium-137 in southeastern watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, J.R.; Ritchie, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    Sediment samples from 14 southeastern agricultural reservoirs and surface samples from representative soils from the contributing water shed areas were analyzed for 137 Cs. The concentrations of 137 Cs measured reflect the nature of the watershed, its cover, its use, and man's activities. Since the redistribution of 137 Cs was assumed to result from soil erosion, recent erosion rates can be calculated from the measured 137 Cs accumulations in sediments and from the decreases in the 137 Cs calculated to have been deposited on upland soils. Measured concentrations of 137 Cs ranged from 14 to 158 nCi/m 2 in surface soils. As much as 525 nCi/m 2 of 137 Cs was measured in the deposited sediment profile. Watershed budgets for 137 Cs were calculated for three representative watersheds using available sediment survey information and the measured 137 Cs concentrations

  8. Do edaphic aspects alter vegetation structures in the Brazilian restinga?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Soares Santos-Filho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of the Brazilian restinga (coastal woodland presents a variety of species and different characteristics, encompassing fields, fruit groves and forests on quartzarenic neosols. We hypothesised that the structure of the restinga landscape along the coast of the state of Piauí is influenced by edaphic factors and presents a pattern similar to that of other northeastern restingas. We evaluated three restingas in Piauí, using the quarter method to determine their structure. Composite soil samples were collected to determine their chemical and physical properties. Edaphic variables were correlated with plant species by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA. Phytosociological data for all three areas indicated regenerating vegetation comprising several small individuals, 82.5% of which showed a diameter at ground level < 13 cm. We also observed considerable tillering. In two of the areas, there was a predominance of Fabaceae species, such as Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Copaifera martii. Although the structural characteristics of the restingas studied were similar to those of other northeastern restingas, the former showed lower Shannon diversity indices (2.18-2.44. The CCA indicated that species distribution was influenced by edaphic factors such as pH, aluminium content and amount of organic matter. The restingas studied were similar to others along the Brazilian coast.

  9. Clinical investigations for SUS, the Brazilian public health system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Patrícia de Paula

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Scientific and technological development is crucial for advancing the Brazilian health system and for promoting quality of life. The way in which the Brazilian Ministry of Health has supported clinical research to provide autonomy, self-sufficiency, competitiveness and innovation for the healthcare industrial production complex, in accordance with the National Policy on Science, Technology and Innovation in Healthcare, was analyzed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive investigation, based on secondary data, conducted at the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Health. METHODS: The Ministry of Health's research management database, PesquisaSaúde, was analyzed from 2002 to 2009, using the key word "clinical research" in the fields "primary sub-agenda" or "secondary sub-agenda". The 368 projects retrieved were sorted into six categories: basic biomedical research, preclinical studies, expanded clinical research, clinical trials, infrastructure support and health technology assessment. From a structured review on "clinical research funding", results from selected countries are presented and discussed. RESULTS: The amount invested was R$ 140 million. The largest number of projects supported "basic biomedical research", while the highest amounts invested were in "clinical trials" and "infrastructure support". The southeastern region had the greatest proportion of projects and financial resources. In some respects, Brazil is ahead of other BRICS countries (Russia, India, China and South Africa, especially with regard to establishing a National Clinical Research Network. CONCLUSION: The Ministry of Health ensured investments to encourage clinical research in Brazil and contributed towards promoting cohesion between investigators, health policies and the healthcare industrial production complex.

  10. Distribution and habitat of brazilian-pine according to global climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Silveira Wrege

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol. O. Kuntze., also known as brazilian-pine, is a forest native species from Brazil. A. angustifolia is more vulnerable to global climate change, considering it is living in cold and humid mountain regions from southern and southeastern Brazil. Among the native Brazilian forest species, it presents one of the greatest growth and genetic gain potential. It shows excellent wood quality and can still be used in human and animal food, presenting great economic, social and environmental value. In order to determine current distribution of the species and better know its habitat, we worked in the regions representing the borders of natural occurrence, identifying populations and getting trees altitude and geographycal position. Field information along with secondary data from the Environmental Information Center (CRIA were used to map current distribution of brazilian-pine and to project the distribution in the next decades, with the projection of future climate scenarios. Mapping studies of ecological niches in present and future climate scenarios characterizing the environments in which they are living is essential for a better understanding of the risks of species extinction and which mitigating measures could be adequate to reduce the impacts of global climate change on species, thus contributing to the conservation and knowledge of this important species.

  11. Characterization of yields for Pinus taeda genotypes at the half-sib, full-sib, and varietal levels of genetic improvement at two planting densities at age 5 in the upper coastal plain of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Dougherty; Michael Kane; Robert Teskey; Richard Daniels; Jeff Wright

    2012-01-01

    Seedling deployment options for the establishment of operational Pinus taeda plantations in the Southeastern U.S. now include half-sib families, full-sib crosses, and varietals. In 2005, a study to evaluate the effects of genotype and density on yield and quality was established on a moderately well-drained upland site in the Upper Coastal Plain in...

  12. Coastal research: Observational challenge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nayak, M.R.

    research. Modeling has also benefited from new tech nologies and is playing an increasingly important tole as well. Problems such as global climate change as affected by and affecting the oceans, variability in biomass and fish abun dance and regime... will be needed. Further, numerical modeling is central to these collective programs. Many of the societally important coastal problems, like their atmospheric counterparts, require forecasting and rapid information dissemination to decision-makers and the public...

  13. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-03-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  14. Coastal risk forecast system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabino, André; Poseiro, Pedro; Rodrigues, Armanda; Reis, Maria Teresa; Fortes, Conceição J.; Reis, Rui; Araújo, João

    2018-04-01

    The run-up and overtopping by sea waves are two of the main processes that threaten coastal structures, leading to flooding, destruction of both property and the environment, and harm to people. To build early warning systems, the consequences and associated risks in the affected areas must be evaluated. It is also important to understand how these two types of spatial information integrate with sensor data sources and the risk assessment methodology. This paper describes the relationship between consequences and risk maps, their role in risk management and how the HIDRALERTA system integrates both aspects in its risk methodology. It describes a case study for Praia da Vitória Port, Terceira Island, Azores, Portugal, showing that the main innovations in this system are twofold: it represents the overtopping flow and consequent flooding, which are critical for coastal and port areas protected by maritime structures, and it works also as a risk assessment tool, extremely important for long-term planning and decision-making. Moreover, the implementation of the system considers possible known variability issues, enabling changes in its behaviour as needs arise. This system has the potential to become a useful tool for the management of coastal and port areas, due to its capacity to effectively issue warnings and assess risks.

  15. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under the Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS...

  16. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Commission's Interstate Fishery Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission... New Jersey failed to carry out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the...

  17. Prioritizing conservation areas for coastal plant diversity under increasing urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doxa, Aggeliki; Albert, Cécile Hélène; Leriche, Agathe; Saatkamp, Arne

    2017-10-01

    Coastal urban expansion will continue to drive further biodiversity losses, if conservation targets for coastal ecosystems are not defined and met. Prioritizing areas for future protected area networks is thus an urgent task in such urbanization-threatened ecosystems. Our aim is to quantify past and future losses of coastal vegetation priority areas due to urbanization and assess the effectiveness of the existing protected area network for conservation. We conduct a prioritization analysis, based on 82 coastal plants, including common and IUCN red list species, in a highly-urbanized but biotically diverse region, in South-Eastern France. We evaluate the role of protected areas, by taking into account both strict and multi-use areas. We assess the impact of past and future urbanization on high priority areas, by combining prioritization analyses and urbanization models. We show that half of the highly diverse areas have already been lost due to urbanization. Remaining top priority areas are also among the most exposed to future urban expansion. The effectiveness of the existing protected area (PA) network is only partial. While strict PAs coincide well with top priority areas, they only represent less than one third of priority areas. The effectiveness of multi-use PAs, such as the Natura 2000 network, also remains limited. Our approach highlights the impact of urbanization on plant conservation targets. By modelling urbanization, we manage to identify those areas where protection could be more efficient to limit further losses. We suggest to use our approach in the future to expand the PA network in order to achieve the 2020 Aichi biodiversity targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coastal ecosystems, productivity and ecosystem protection: Coastal ecosystem management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoile, M.A.K.; Horrill, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal zone is a complex ecosystem under the influence of physical, chemical and biological processes. Under natural conditions these processes interact and maintain an equilibrium in the coastal ecosystem. Man makes a variety of important uses of coastal resources, ranging from harvesting of living resources, extraction of nonliving resources, and recreation, to the disposal of wastes. Man's extensive use of the oceans introduces factors which bring about an imbalance in the natural processes, and may result in harmful and hazardous effects to life hindering further use. Man's pressure on the resources of the coastal zone is already manifest and will increase manifold. This calls for an immediate solution to the protection and sustainable use of coastal resources. The current sectorized approach to the management of human activities will not solve the problem because the different resources of the coastal zone interact in such a manner that disturbances in one cause imbalance in the others. This is further complicated by the sectorized approach to research and limited communication between policy makers, managers, and scientists. This paper discusses strategies for managing coastal-resources use through an integrated approach. The coastal zone is presented as a unified ecosystem in equilibrium and shows that man's extensive use of the coastal resources destabilizes this equilibrium. Examples from the East Africa Region are presented. 15 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  19. The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Assessment Of Small Games On Fadama Land In Southeastern Nigeria And The Potential For Development. ... country can offer feasible operational strategy for sustainable wildlife species development. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. The potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The use of energy forms to provide future sources of energy for California is considered. Marginal desert lands in southeastern California are proposed for the siting of energy farms using acacia, eucalyptus, euphorbia, guayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk.

  1. The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The vegetation of Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, south-eastern Zimbabwe. ... African Journal of Range and Forage Science ... Comparisons with other southern African savannas are made, and similarities and differences are discussed.

  2. Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Rickettsia parkeri in Gulf Coast Ticks, Southeastern Virginia, USA Chelsea L. Wright, Robyn M. Nadolny, Ju Jiang, Allen L. Richards, Daniel E...Virginia. We found that 43.1% of the adult Gulf Coast ticks collected in the summer of 2010 carried Rickettsia parkeri, suggesting that persons living in...or visiting southeastern Virginia are at risk for infection with this pathogen. Rickettsia parkeri is an obligate intracellular bacterium belonging

  3. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming

  4. External dose rates in coastal urban environments in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.M.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Conti, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    A long term activity aiming on assessing the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation is being developed at IRD/CNEN. Several research groups within IRD work in this activity, although mostly as a parallel work associated to main research lines followed by researches of the institution. One main activity is related to the raise of external gamma dose rates throughout the country. The objective of this work is to present results from recent surveys performed as part of the emergency preparedness for radiological emergencies during major public events in Brazil, such as the the World Youth Day, held in Rio de Janeiro in 2013, and the Confederations Cup and the FIFA World Cup soccer games, in 2013 and 2014, respectively. In this work, only the recent (2014) coastal urban environments measurements were included. Average kerma rates for Fortaleza is 80 ± 23 nGy/h, for Vitoria is 96 ± 33 nGy/h and for Angra dos Reis is 147 ± 16 nGy/h. These results are then compared to previous results on other coastal urban towns (Rio de Janeiro, Niterói and Salvador), and with the high background coastal area of Guarapari town. (authors)

  5. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  6. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  7. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  8. Eastern Africa Coastal Forest Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Younge, A.

    2002-01-01

    The eastern African coastal forest ecoregion is recognised as one of Africa’s centres of species endemism, and is distributed over six countries (Somalia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Malawi). Most is found in Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, which form our focal region. The coastal forests are fragmented, small and surrounded by poor communities that have a high demand for land and forest resources. Although coastal forests have significant cultural and traditional...

  9. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  11. Circumscribing campo rupestre – megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RJV. Alves

    Full Text Available Currently campo rupestre (CR is a name accepted and used internationally by botanists, zoologists, and other naturalists, usually applied to a very specific ecosystem, despite the lack of a consensual published circumscription. We present a tentative geographic circumscription of the term, combining data on climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, flora, fauna and vegetation. The circumscription of campo rupestre proposed herein is based on the following premises: (1 the classification of vegetation is not an exact science, and it is difficult to attain a high degree of consensus to the circumscription of vegetation names; (2 despite this, vegetation classification is useful for conservation and management. It is thus desirable to circumscribe vegetation types with the greatest attainable precision; (3 there is a need to preserve all montane and rocky vegetation types, regardless of classification, biome, etc; (4 the CRs are formed by a complex mosaic of vegetation types including rock-dwelling, psammophilous, aquatic, epiphytic, and penumbral plant communities. Campos rupestres stricto sensu are a Neotropical, azonal vegetation complex endemic to Brazil, forming a mosaic of rocky mountaintop “archipelagos” inserted within a matrix of zonal vegetation, mainly in the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces of the Brazilian Shield (southeastern, northeastern and central-western regions, occurring mainly above 900 m asl. up to altitudes exceeding 2000 m, having measured annual precipitation between 800 and 1500 mm, and an arid season of two to five months.

  12. Circumscribing campo rupestre - megadiverse Brazilian rocky montane savanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, R J V; Silva, N G; Oliveira, J A; Medeiros, D

    2014-05-01

    Currently campo rupestre (CR) is a name accepted and used internationally by botanists, zoologists, and other naturalists, usually applied to a very specific ecosystem, despite the lack of a consensual published circumscription. We present a tentative geographic circumscription of the term, combining data on climate, geology, geomorphology, soil, flora, fauna and vegetation. The circumscription of campo rupestre proposed herein is based on the following premises: (1) the classification of vegetation is not an exact science, and it is difficult to attain a high degree of consensus to the circumscription of vegetation names; (2) despite this, vegetation classification is useful for conservation and management. It is thus desirable to circumscribe vegetation types with the greatest attainable precision; (3) there is a need to preserve all montane and rocky vegetation types, regardless of classification, biome, etc; (4) the CRs are formed by a complex mosaic of vegetation types including rock-dwelling, psammophilous, aquatic, epiphytic, and penumbral plant communities. Campos rupestres stricto sensu are a Neotropical, azonal vegetation complex endemic to Brazil, forming a mosaic of rocky mountaintop "archipelagos" inserted within a matrix of zonal vegetation, mainly in the Cerrado and Caatinga provinces of the Brazilian Shield (southeastern, northeastern and central-western regions), occurring mainly above 900 m asl. up to altitudes exceeding 2000 m, having measured annual precipitation between 800 and 1500 mm, and an arid season of two to five months.

  13. Dating method by fission tracks: some Brazilian examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Ariadne do Carmo

    1996-01-01

    The Fission Track method (TF) complements the dating of a interval of tectonic events occurred in low temperatures not detected by another radiometric methods. In the South part of Craton of Sao Francisco the dating of apatites of archaean rocks produced ages TF between 900 and 500 Ma, reflecting the progressive acting of the Brazilian margin mobile belts in the archaean craton areas. Apatite of some igneous and metamorphic rocks of the Braziliana age, in the Faixa Ribeira segment, between the Rio de Janeiro and Salvador cities, produced TF ages between 140 and 80 Ma. The basaltic and alkaline volcanism related to the Atlantic Ocean opening dated from this interval. The TF dating in apatites of the continental margin rocks allowed to date the event. In the Cabo Frio region (Southeastern part of Rio de Janeiro State), titanite and apatite of the Transamazonic orthognaisses produced TF dates between 190 and 80 to 40 Ma. The age around 190 Ma date previously the rift formation precursor of the South Atlantic Ocean opening, while the ages between 80 and 40 Ma were related to the alkaline rocks intrusion. The examples mentioned demonstrate the event diversity which may be dated by the Fission Tracks method, mainly in the craton area and margin belts study

  14. Black Sea coastal forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Kubryakov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP (European COastalshelf sea OPerational observing and forecasting system project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the north-western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal zone of Georgia. The system operates in the real-time mode during the ECOOP project and afterwards. The forecasts include temperature, salinity and current velocity fields. Ecosystem model operates in the off-line mode near the Crimea coast.

  15. Assessing the Nation's Coastal Waters....Better

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USEPA has been assessing estuarine and coastal condition in the United States since 1999 via the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) and National Aquatic Resources Surveys (NARS) programs. Approximately 1500 randomly selected coastal sites were surveyed annually during summers ...

  16. Capture and utilization of the Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) on the northern Brazilian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Marisol Menezes Pessanha; Ricardo José Soavinski; Régis Pinto de Lima; Fábia de Oliveira Luna; Janaina Pauline de Araújo; José Zanon de Oliveira Passavante

    2008-01-01

    The Antillean manatee (Trichechus manatus manatus) is now considered to be the most endangered aquatic mammal of Brazil. During 1992 and 1993, we surveyed 3000km of the coastal area of the Maranhão (MA), Pará (PA) and Amapá (AP) states where we visited 145 localities and performed 262 interviews aiming to identify the hunting pressure on the species, and how the population actually uses the manatees hunted on the Brazilian north coast. The people interviewed were involved in fishing activitie...

  17. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  18. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  19. Karst in evaporites in southeastern New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1987-09-01

    Permian evaporites in southeastern New Mexico include gypsum, anhydrite, and salt, which are subject to both blanket and local, selective dissolution. Dissolution has produced many hundreds of individual karst features including collapse sinks, karst valleys, blind valleys, karst plains, caves, and breccia pipes. Dissolution began within some formations during Permian time and has been intermittent but continual ever since. Karst features other than blanket deposits of breccia are not preserved from the early episodes of dissolution, but some karst features preserved today - such as breccia pipes - are remnants of karst activity that was active at least as early as mid-Pleistocene time. Rainfall was much more abundant during Late Pleistocene time, and many features visible today may have been formed then. The drainage history of the Pecos River is related to extensive karstification of the Pecos Valley during mid-Pleistocene time. Large-scale stream piracy and dissolution of salt in the subsurface resulted in major shifts and excavations in the channel. In spite of intensive groundwater studies that have been carried out in the region, major problems in near-surface evaporite karst remain to be solved. Among these are determination of recharge areas and time of recharge. 109 refs., 31 figs., 1 tab

  20. Groundwater Quality of Southeastern Brazzaville, Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matini Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The groundwater in southeastern Brazzaville (Congo was analyzed for their fluoride contents and others related parameters in rainy season. The fluoride contents in water samples (wells and spring can be gather in three classes in the study area: low, optimal, high. Fluoride concentration in water samples presents a low significant correlation with Ca2+. This suggests that fluoride in the groundwater come from fluoride-bearing minerals such as CaF2 (fluorite. Maps were drawn to show the geographical distribution of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+and F-. Factor analysis and cluster analysis were applied to the dataset. Factor analysis resulted in four factors explained 76.90% of the total groundwater quality variance. Factor 1 (hardness of the groundwater includes total hardness, the concentration of K+, Ca2+ and pH. Factor 2 (low mineralization of the groundwater includes concentrations of TDS, Cl--, SO42+ and EC. Factor 3 (anthropogenic activities with the impact of agricultural fertilizers, farming activities, domestic wastewater, septic tanks includes concentrations of Na+ and NO3-. Factor 4 (weathering of calcium minerals includes concentrations of F-. For cluster analysis, Ward’s method and the Euclidean distance were used. The findings of the cluster analysis are presented in the form of dendrogram of the well water sites (cases. The discriminating parameters between clusters have been highlighted from the Student test. In majority, they are in accordance with those highlighted by factor analysis.

  1. Dengue Virus in Bats from Southeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotomayor-Bonilla, Jesús; Chaves, Andrea; Rico-Chávez, Oscar; Rostal, Melinda K.; Ojeda-Flores, Rafael; Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Aguilar-Setien, Álvaro; Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Barbachano-Guerrero, Arturo; Gutiérrez-Espeleta, Gustavo; Aguilar-Faisal, J. Leopoldo; Aguirre, A. Alonso; Daszak, Peter; Suzán, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    To identify the relationship between landscape use and dengue virus (DENV) occurrence in bats, we investigated the presence of DENV from anthropogenically changed and unaltered landscapes in two Biosphere Reserves: Calakmul (Campeche) and Montes Azules (Chiapas) in southern Mexico. Spleen samples of 146 bats, belonging to 16 species, were tested for four DENV serotypes with standard reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocols. Six bats (4.1%) tested positive for DENV-2: four bats in Calakmul (two Glossophaga soricina, one Artibeus jamaicensis, and one A. lituratus) and two bats in Montes Azules (both A. lituratus). No effect of anthropogenic disturbance on the occurrence of DENV was detected; however, all three RT-PCR–positive bat species are considered abundant species in the Neotropics and well-adapted to disturbed habitats. To our knowledge, this study is the first study conducted in southeastern Mexico to identify DENV-2 in bats by a widely accepted RT-PCR protocol. The role that bats play on DENV's ecology remains undetermined. PMID:24752688

  2. A new species of Masteria (Araneae: Dipluridae: Masteriinae from southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Rafael Pedroso

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Masteria L. Koch, 1873 from iron ore caves at Caeté and Santa Bárbara, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, Masteria emboaba sp. nov., is described. It was collected inside caves and in the litter of nearby dry forests. It is the first masteriine species described from southeastern Brazil and the second masteriine species for the country. The new species is the only known Masteria with only two eyes. Additionally, the male of M. emboaba sp. nov. has only two regular, thin spines at the apex of tibia I, lacking the tibial apophysis found in most other Masteria species. The only other described Masteria species that has spines in the place of tibial apophysis is M. aimeae (Alayón, 1995 from Cuba; however, the last species has a longer and sinuous embolus, contrasting the embolus of M. emboaba sp. nov., which is much smaller, less sinuous and transversally placed. The only other described Brazilian species, M. manauara Bertani, Cruz & Oliveira, 2013, has a double tibial apophysis, with both ends tipped by a strong, short spine, and a very long embolus, parallel to the bulb.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration by agroforestry systems in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Moreira Miquelino Eleto; Jacovine, Laércio Antônio Gonçalves; Nolasco de Olivera Neto, Sílvio; Fraisse, Clyde William; Soares, Carlos Pedro Boechat; de Castro Neto, Fernando; Ferreira, Lino Roberto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Lemes, Pedro Guilherme

    2017-12-01

    Agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems can increase carbon sequestration, offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce the carbon footprint generated by animal production. The objective of this study was to estimate GHG emissions, the tree and grass aboveground biomass production and carbon storage in different agrosilvopastoral and silvopastoral systems in southeastern Brazil. The number of trees required to offset these emissions were also estimated. The GHG emissions were calculated based on pre-farm (e.g. agrochemical production, storage, and transportation), and on-farm activities (e.g. fertilization and machinery operation). Aboveground tree grass biomass and carbon storage in all systems was estimated with allometric equations. GHG emissions from the agroforestry systems ranged from 2.81 to 7.98 t CO 2 e ha -1 . Carbon storage in the aboveground trees and grass biomass were 54.6, 11.4, 25.7 and 5.9 t C ha -1 , and 3.3, 3.6, 3.8 and 3.3 t C ha -1 for systems 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The number of trees necessary to offset the emissions ranged from 17 to 44 trees ha -1 , which was lower than the total planted in the systems. Agroforestry systems sequester CO 2 from the atmosphere and can help the GHG emission-reduction policy of the Brazilian government.

  4. Reproductive strategy of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonoidea on the southeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Torres Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study was to evaluate the reproductive investment (RI and the fecundity of the shrimp Nematopalaemon schmitti (Holthuis, 1950, caught by trawling in the southeastern Brazilian coast in 2008, 2009 and 2011. The carapace length (CL of ovigerous females was measured and the development stage of their ovaries and embryos were analyzed. A significant relationship was observed between the female body and embryo weights (Linear regression: r² = 0.26, F = 20.77, P < 0.0001, Ln BDW = 0.92. Ln FBDW - 2.24 and between number of embryos and CL (Linear regression; stage I: r² = 0.38, F = 36.15, P < 0.0001; stage II: r² = 0.34, F = 14.10, P < 0.001, but not between the RI and CL (ANOVA: F = 0.47, df = 7, P = 0.85. Association of the changes in embryo development and ovarian maturation of ovigerous females was tested. Females with rudimentary ovaries predominantly showed embryos in stage I (early development and females with developed ovaries only showed embryos in stage II (final development, showing synchrony between the development of both, thus supporting the hypothesis of a continuous reproductive cycle for N. schmitti in the region. Such information is fundamental for understanding the reproductive biology of these crustaceans, as well as other caridean shrimps, in order to promote the maintenance and preservation of natural stocks.

  5. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  6. A new species of dusky salamander (Amphibia: Plethodontidae: Desmognathus) from the Eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States and a redescription of D. auriculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, D Bruce; Lamb, Jennifer Y; Bernardo, Joseph

    2017-05-10

    The Coastal Plain of the southeastern U. S. is one of the planet's top biodiversity hotspots and yet many taxa have not been adequately studied. The plethodontid salamander, Desmognathus auriculatus, was originally thought to occur from east Texas to Virginia, a range spanning dozens of interfluves and large river systems. Beamer and Lamb (2008) found five independent mitochondrial lineages of what has been called D. auriculatus in the Atlantic Coastal Plain, but did not examine the extensive distribution of D. auriculatus in the Gulf Coastal Plain. We present morphological and molecular genetic data distinguishing two evolutionarily independent and distantly related lineages that are currently subsumed under the taxon D. auriculatus in the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. We describe one of these as a new species, Desmognathus valentinei sp. nov., and assign the second one to D. auriculatus which we formally redescribe.

  7. Integrated coastal management in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Integrated coastal management in Uruguay Carmelo includes the following areas-Nueva Palmira challenges and opportunities for local development in a context of large-scale industrial (Conchillas Uruguay), coastal management and stream Arroyo Solis Solis Chico Grande, Punta Colorada and Punta Negra, Maldonado Province Arroyo Valizas and sustainable tourism.

  8. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  9. Ocean and Coastal Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  10. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CFD. Rocha

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the “Nestedness Temperature Calculator” to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island. Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P <0.00001; 5000 randomisations; randomisation temperature = 51.45° ± 7.18° SD, indicating that lizard assemblages in the coastal restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  11. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  12. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  13. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  14. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  15. Assessing man-induced environmental changes in the Sepetiba Bay (Southeastern Brazil) with geochemical and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Daniel Ferreira; Peres, Lucas G. M.; Yepez, Santiago; Mulholland, Daniel S.; Machado, Wilson; Tonhá, Myller; Garnier, Jérémie

    2017-10-01

    The Sepetiba Bay, Southeastern Brazil, has undergone intense environmental changes due to anthropogenic influence. This work aims to: (i) evaluate the changes in the drainage landscape use over the last decades, (ii) identify new and past punctual and diffuse anthropogenic sources and assess risks of man-induced disturbances of the coastal zones of Sepetiba. A multivariate statistics approach on the sediment's elemental geochemical dataset discriminated three groups: the electroplating waste-affected elements (As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), terrigenous elements (Si, K, Ti, Al and Fe), and biogenic and carbonate-derived elements (Ca, Mg, Mn, P, Ni, and Cr). Sediment core profiles of trace elements evidence records of former environmental impacts from old metallurgical wastes. Analysis of two Landsat images from 30 years ago and 2015 reveals a decrease in the mangrove area of nearly 26%. The ongoing suppression of mangroves could enhance the release of trace elements into the Sepetiba Bay, increasing the risks to human and biota health.

  16. Morphological and molecular characterization and phylogenetic relationships of a new species of trypanosome in Tapirus terrestris (lowland tapir), Trypanosoma terrestris sp. nov., from Atlantic Rainforest of southeastern Brazi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Igor da Cunha Lima; da Costa, Andrea Pereira; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; Gondim, Maria Fernanda Naegeli; Gatti, Andressa; Rossi, João Luiz; Gennari, Solange Maria; Marcili, Arlei

    2013-12-11

    The Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is the largest Brazilian mammal and despite being distributed in various Brazilian biomes, it is seriously endangered in the Atlantic Rainforest. These hosts were never evaluated for the presence of Trypanosoma parasites. The Lowland tapirs were captured in the Brazilian southeastern Atlantic Rainforest, Espírito Santo state. Trypanosomes were isolated by hemoculture, and the molecular phylogeny based on small subunit rDNA (SSU rDNA) and glycosomal-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) gene sequences and the ultrastructural features seen via light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy are described. Phylogenetic trees using combined SSU rDNA and gGAPDH data sets clustered the trypanosomes of Lowland tapirs, which were highly divergent from other trypanosome species. The phylogenetic position and morphological discontinuities, mainly in epimastigote culture forms, made it possible to classify the trypanosomes from Lowland tapirs as a separate species. The isolated trypanosomes from Tapirus terrestris are a new species, Trypanosoma terrestris sp. n., and were positioned in a new Trypanosoma clade, named T. terrestris clade.

  17. Saline water in southeastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.; Peterson, J.B.; Ramsey, T.R.

    1969-01-01

    Saline waters from formations of several geologic ages are being studied in a seven-county area in southeastern New Mexico and western Texas, where more than 30,000 oil and gas tests have been drilled in the past 40 years. This area of 7,500 sq. miles, which is stratigraphically complex, includes the northern and eastern margins of the Delaware Basin between the Guadalupe and Glass Mountains. Chloride-ion concentrations in water produced from rocks of various ages and depths have been mapped in Lea County, New Mexico, using machine map-plotting techniques and trend analyses. Anomalously low chloride concentrations (1,000-3,000 mg/l) were found along the western margin of the Central Basin platform in the San Andres and Capitan Limestone Formations of Permian age. These low chloride-ion concentrations may be due to preferential circulation of ground water through the more porous and permeable rocks. Data being used in the study were obtained principally from oil companies and from related service companies. The P.B.W.D.S. (Permian Basin Well Data System) scout-record magnetic-tape file was used as a framework in all computer operations. Shallow or non-oil-field water analyses acquired from state, municipal, or federal agencies were added to these data utilizing P.B.W.D.S.-compatible reference numbers and decimal latitude-longitude coordinates. Approximately 20,000 water analyses collected from over 65 sources were coded, recorded on punch cards and stored on magnetic tape for computer operations. Extensive manual and computer error checks for duplication and accuracy were made to eliminate data errors resulting from poorly located or identified samples; non-representative or contaminated samples; mistakes in coding, reproducing or key-punching; laboratory errors; and inconsistent reporting. The original 20,000 analyses considered were reduced to 6,000 representative analyses which are being used in the saline water studies. ?? 1969.

  18. Long-term change of protective forest during the past four decades at Dongshan Island, southeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caiyun; Yan, Jing; Shang, Shaoling

    2017-02-01

    The Dongshan Island is a typical protective forest area of the southeastern coastal region of China. In this work, we extract the variation of the Dongshan Island’s protective forest area since the 1970s from the remote sensing data of the LandSAT and the Chinese HJ 1A/B satellites, and we examined the possible reasons for the variation. The results showed that the maximum likelihood classification of the extracted remote sensing data of the Dongshan Island coastal protective forest had a total accuracy of 92.6%. In the last 40 years, the area of the Dongshan Island coastal protective forest experienced a waving variation of decrease (1973-1984), increase (1984-1999) and decrease (1999-2008), in which human activity was the predominant impact factor for this fluctuation pattern. Since the early 1960s to the 1980s, due to the Cultural Revolution and the later deforestation and land reclamation activities, the protective forest of Dongshan Island was severely damaged. The total area declined sharply from 2134.4 ha in 1964 to 1515.74 ha in 1984, and the northern area of the island had the most significant decrease. After 1988, the Fujian Province began to aggressively establish the coastal protective forest system, and the protective forest acreage increased significantly to 3370.22 ha in 1999, an increase of nearly 1.2 times based on the figure of 1984. In the past five years, the area of protective forest declined slightly again, mainly because of the natural aging of the protective forest ecosystem, tourism development and the booming aquaculture industry.

  19. Coastal nutrification and coral health at Porto Seguro reefs, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, O.; Attrill, M.; Nimmo, M.

    2003-04-01

    Human activities have substantially increased the natural flux of nutrients to coastal systems worldwide. In Brazilian reefs, all major stresses (sedimentation, overfishing, tourism-related activities and nutrification) are human induced. To assess nutrification levels in Brazilian coastal reefs, measurements of the distribution patterns of nutrients and chlorophyll concentrations were conducted in three nearshore and offshore reefs with distinct nutrient inputs along the south coast of Bahia State. Seawater and porewater samples were analysed for soluble reactive phosphorus, total oxidised nitrogen and reactive silica. Benthic surveys were performed at all sites to investigate the relationships between benthic community composition and nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Sampling was undertaken in dry and rainy seasons. Results of both seawater and porewater nutrient measurements revealed the occurrence of consistent spatial and temporal patterns. An inshore-offshore gradient reflects the occurrence of land-based point sources, with significant amount of nutrients being delivered by human activities on the coast (untreated sewage and groundwater seepage). Another spatial gradient is related to distance from a localized source of pollution (an urban settlement without sewerage treatment) with two nearshore reefs presenting distinct nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. Seasonal variations suggest that submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is the primary source of nutrients for the coastal reefs during rainy season. The data also suggests that the SGD effect is not restricted to nearshore reefs, and may be an important factor controlling the differences between landward and seaward sides on the offshore reef. Benthic community assessment revealed that turf alga is the dominant group in all studied reefs and that zoanthids are the organisms most adapted to take advantage of nutrient increase in coastal areas. At nearshore reefs, there was a negative

  20. The Brazilian marginal basins: current state of knowledge; As bacias marginais brasileiras: estagio atual de conhecimento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponte, Francisco Celso; Asmus, Haroldo Erwin

    2004-11-01

    Based on distinctive stratigraphic and/or structural characteristics, the brazilian continental margin can be divided into two main provinces : (1)The southeastern-eastern province, extending from the Pelotas to the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin, presents a tensional tectonic style of Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous age, paralleling the structural alignments of the Precambrian basement, except in the northeastern segment where the Mesozoic faults of the Recife - Joao Pessoa Basin cut across the east west basement directions. The basin-fill, Upper Jurassic through Recent, consists, where complete, of three stratigraphic sequences, each of a distinct depositional environment: (a) a lower clastic non-marine sequence; (b) a middle evaporitic sequence, and (c) an upper clastic paralic and open marine sequence. (2)The northern province, extending from the Potiguar Basin to the Amazon Submarine Basin, displays both tensional and compressional tectonic styles of Upper Jurassic (?) to Upper Cretaceous age either paralleling or cutting transversally the basement alignments. The stratigraphic column differs from the southeastern - eastern province in lacking the Lower Cretaceous evaporitic rocks. The integration of the stratigraphic and structural data allows one to determine in the eastern Brazilian marginal basins the main evolutionary stages of a typical pull-apart continental margin: a continental pre-rift and rift stage, an evaporitic proto-ocean stage, and a normal open ocean stage. In the northern province it is possible to infer a continental rift valley stage, a marine transform - movement stage and an open ocean stage. The relationship between the rift valley and transform movement stages is not clear. (author)

  1. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  2. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  3. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  4. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  5. Crustal thickness and Vp/Vs beneath the southeastern United States: Constraints from receiver function stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Gao, S. S.; Liu, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    To provide new constraints on crustal structure and evolution models beneath a collage of tectonic provinces in the southeastern United States, a total of 10,753 teleseismic receiver functions recorded by 125 USArray and other seismic stations are used to compute crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values. The resulting crustal thicknesses range from 25 km at the coast to 51 km beneath the peak of the southern Appalachians with an average of 36.2 km ± 5.5 km. The resulting crustal thicknesses correlate well with surface elevation and Bouguer gravity anomalies. Beneath the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the crustal thicknesses show a clear eastward thinning with a magnitude of 10 km, from about 40 km beneath the western margin to 30 km beneath the coast. The Vp/Vs values for the entire study area range from 1.71 to 1.90 with a mean value of 1.80 ± 0.04. The mean Vp/Vs value is 1.82±0.035 in the southern Appalachian Mountain. The slightly larger than normal crustal Vp/Vs for this area might be the result of significant erosion of the felsic upper crust over the past 300 million years. Alternatively, it could also suggest the existence of pervasive magmatic intrusion into the Appalachian crust. The Vp/Vs measurements in the Atlantic Coastal Plain increase toward the east, ranging from 1.75 to 1.82, probably indicating a gradual increase of mafic magmatic intrusion into thinner crust during the development of the passive continental margin.

  6. German-Brazilian nuclear deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krugmann, H.

    1981-01-01

    Examination of the arguments in favor of the nuclear deal with West Germany and the resulting program suggests that revisions of both are in order to make them more compatible with Brazil's national interests. The deficiencies of current policy appear to be too weighty and numerous to be ignored. Sooner or later the government will have to move toward adjusting its nuclear agreement with West Germany, if not for the reasons discussed here then for lack of capital. Current estimates of the nuclear package lie in the range of $25 to $30 billion, compared to an initial projection of about $5 billion. The deal has become so expensive that it would draw capital from the hydropower and alcohol programs essential for the short and medium-term energy needs of the country. Mr. Krugman feels the Brazilian government should hold off on further nuclear contracts. And it should thoroughly reassess what Brazil's nuclear energy and technology requirements are and how to meet them. There are indications that the reassessment process is already underway. As long as the German nuclear industry depends on the sale of technology to Brazil, the Brazilian government will have considerable bargaining power to enforce further changes in the deal. If this power is used wisely, the result could be cooperation between the two countries toward nuclear options that are consistent with Brazil's energy and development needs

  7. New records, threatens and conservation status for Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello, Louzada & Gavino (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae): an endangered dung beetle species from Brazilian atlantic forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L; Louzada, J; Vaz-de-Mello, F Z; Lopes, P P; Silva, F A B

    2011-01-01

    Dichotomius schiffleri Vaz-de-Mello et al is often cited as endemic to the preserved coastal sandy-dune vegetation (restinga) of Guriri Island, Espírito Santo state, and is included in the Brazilian List of Endangered Fauna as "critically endangered" (CR). However, we recorded its occurrence in twelve additional sites along the coasts of Espírito Santo, Bahia, Sergipe and Pernambuco. The geographic distribution of D. schiffleri is limited to the coastal Atlantic Forest domain, mainly in preserved restinga patches. We recommend that D. schiffleri remains in the List of Endangered species, but in the "endangered" (EN) category, according to the IUCN criteria.

  8. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (sagittae of Southeastern-Southern Brazil Part V: Perciformes (Sparidae, Sciaenidae, Polynemidae, Mullidae, Kyphosidae, Chaetodontidae, Mugilidae, Scaridae, Percophidae, Pinguipedidae, Blenniidae, Gobiidae, Ephippidae, Sphyraenidae, Gempylidae, Trichiuridae, Scombridae, Ariommatidae, Stromateidae and Caproidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Santificetur

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This publication is part of a series prepared with the purpose to constitute an Atlas of Teleostei Otoliths for the Southeastern-Southern Brazilian area. Here we present the results of 15 morphological features and six shape indices for 33 Perciformes species of 20 families. Whenever available in out collection, three otoliths of each species were illustrated and photographed. The frequency of occurrence of each feature was calculated inside and among total length classes being the differences analyzed through multiple χ2 tests (significance level 0.05. Based on otoliths measurements, six shape indices values were obtained being the minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviations values presented.

  9. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  10. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System. ...

  11. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National... moratorium on fishing for Atlantic coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the... Fisheries Commission's (Commission) Interstate Fishery Management Plan for Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Coastal...

  12. Extending GIS Technology to Study Karst Features of Southeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y.; Tipping, R. G.; Alexander, E. C.; Alexander, S. C.

    2001-12-01

    This paper summarizes ongoing research on karst feature distribution of southeastern Minnesota. The main goals of this interdisciplinary research are: 1) to look for large-scale patterns in the rate and distribution of sinkhole development; 2) to conduct statistical tests of hypotheses about the formation of sinkholes; 3) to create management tools for land-use managers and planners; and 4) to deliver geomorphic and hydrogeologic criteria for making scientifically valid land-use policies and ethical decisions in karst areas of southeastern Minnesota. Existing county and sub-county karst feature datasets of southeastern Minnesota have been assembled into a large GIS-based database capable of analyzing the entire data set. The central database management system (DBMS) is a relational GIS-based system interacting with three modules: GIS, statistical and hydrogeologic modules. ArcInfo and ArcView were used to generate a series of 2D and 3D maps depicting karst feature distributions in southeastern Minnesota. IRIS ExplorerTM was used to produce satisfying 3D maps and animations using data exported from GIS-based database. Nearest-neighbor analysis has been used to test sinkhole distributions in different topographic and geologic settings. All current nearest-neighbor analyses testify that sinkholes in southeastern Minnesota are not evenly distributed in this area (i.e., they tend to be clustered). More detailed statistical methods such as cluster analysis, histograms, probability estimation, correlation and regression have been used to study the spatial distributions of some mapped karst features of southeastern Minnesota. A sinkhole probability map for Goodhue County has been constructed based on sinkhole distribution, bedrock geology, depth to bedrock, GIS buffer analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis. A series of karst features for Winona County including sinkholes, springs, seeps, stream sinks and outcrop has been mapped and entered into the Karst Feature Database

  13. Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report. Executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final Southeastern Regional Geologic Characterization Report (RGCR) is issued primarily for public information purposes, and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RGCR presents available regional geologic information pertinent to siting a repository for high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the geologic disqualifying factor and the geologic regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  14. Characterizing rainfall parameters which influence erosivity in southeastern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obi, M.E.; Salako, F.K.

    1993-12-01

    An investigation was carried out to characterize some selected parameters which influence rainfall erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Rainfall amount, distribution, duration, intensity, storm types, energy loads and frequency of rain events in the region were studied using data from stations located in three major agroecological zones. Raindrop size and detaching capacity were evaluated in one of the stations for two months. The mean annual rainfall erosivity values for southeastern Nigeria point to the fact that rainfall tend to be highly erosive. 25 refs, 6 figs, 8 tabs

  15. Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report: executive summary. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This Executive Summary of the final ''Southeastern Regional Environmental Characterization Report'' (RECR) is issued primarily for public information purposes and provides a general overview of the report. The complete RECR presents available regional environmental information pertinent to siting a repository or high-level nuclear waste in crystalline rock in central Maryland; noncoastal Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; and northern Georgia. For each of the states within the Southeastern Region, information is provided on the environmental disqualifying factors and the environmental regional screening variables to be used in region-to-area screening

  16. Coastal remote sensing – towards integrated coastal research and management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lück-Vogel, Melanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available coastal resources and anthropogenic infrastructure for a safer future. What is the role of remote sensing? The coastal zone connects terrestrial biophysical systems with marine systems. Some marine ecosystems cannot function without intact inland... for the development of sound integrated management solutions. To date, however, remote sensing applications usually focus on areas landward from the highwater line (?terrestrial? remote sensing), while ?marine? remote sensing does not pay attention to the shallow...

  17. Piping Plover response to coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine R. Bourque

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in coastal storm frequency and intensity expected under most climate change scenarios is likely to substantially modify beach configuration and associated habitats. This study aimed to analyze the impact of coastal storms on a nesting population of the endangered Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus melodus in southeastern New Brunswick, Canada. Previous studies have shown that numbers of nesting Piping Plovers may increase following storms that create new nesting habitat at individual beaches. However, to our knowledge, no test of this pattern has been conducted over a regional scale. We hypothesized that Piping Plover abundance would increase after large coastal storms occurring during the nonbreeding season. However, we expected a delay in the colonization of newly created habitat owing to low-density populations, combined with high site fidelity of adults and high variability in survival rate of subadults. We tested this hypothesis using a 27-year (1986-2012 data set of Piping Plover abundance and productivity (nesting pairs and fledged young collected at five sites in eastern New Brunswick. We identified 11 major storms that could potentially have modified Piping Plover habitat over the study period. The number of fledged young increased three years after a major storm, but the relationship was much weaker for the number of nesting pairs. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized increase in suitable habitat after coastal storms. Including storm occurrence with other factors influencing habitat quality will enhance Piping Plover conservation strategies.

  18. Brazilian sparkling wine: A successful trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wurz Douglas André

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the evolution of internal and external commercialization of Brazilian sparkling wines during the period between 1986 and 2015, giving an overview of the current situation and its market trends, and highlighting the importance of Brazil in the world scenario for sparkling wines. This research is based on quantitative data sources provided by different institutions: International Organization of Vine and Wine (OIV, Brazilian Union of Viticulture (UVIBRA, Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply (MAPA and Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (EMBRAPA. Brazil is a promising country for the sparkling wine market. From 1986–2015, there was an increase of 465.6% in the sales of sparkling wine in the Brazilian domestic market, especially the last ten, which accounted for an increase of 215.7%. In 1998, Brazilian sparkling wines accounted for 70.5% of sparkling wines sold in Brazil. Today, they represent 82.1%of national market, and proved to be one of the most prestigious products from Brazilian viticulture when compared, for example, to non-sparkling wines, which 79% are imported wines. Of the imported sparkling wines consumed in Brazil, six countries account for 98.5% of the market (France: 32.7%; Italy: 24.8% and Spain: 21.9%. The volume exportation of Brazilian sparkling wine has grown significantly in recent years (4,210.2%, with Paraguay, China, Uruguay, the United States, France and the United Kingdom being the major buyers. The evolution of exports shows that Brazilian sparkling wine becomes an alternative to those produced in traditional countries, such as France, Italy and Spain, due to their quality and price. There is an increase in the commercialization of sparkling wines in the Brazilian domestic market, in addition to the growing participation of Brazil in the volume of exports in the world market, placing Brazil in a leading position in the production and sale of sparkling wines.

  19. In situ variation in leaf anatomy and morphology of Andira legalis (Leguminosae in two neighbouring but contrasting light environments in a Brazilian sandy coastal plain Variação in situ em anatomia e morfologia foliar de Andira legalis (Leguminosae em dois ambientes adjacentes, porém contrastantes quanto ao regime de luz, em restinga brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Pereira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo is a legume shrub widespread along the sandy plains of the Brazilian coast. It occurs both shaded, in forest habitats, or exposed to full sunlight, in the vegetation islands growing on sand deposits. Previous studies reported a high range of morpho-physiological variation for this species along a geographical gradient. This study compared leaf morphology and anatomy of A. legalis in two distinct but adjacent light environments: a dense forest (shaded and a scrub of Palmae (exposed. We studied the amplitude of variation for these traits within a small (0.5 ha geographical area. Leaf anatomy parameters were measured for five leaves collected from five plants in each habitat. The parameters measured were leaf and mesophyll thickness, thickness of the outer periclinal cell wall, thickness of the adaxial and abaxial epidermis and vascular bundle transversal section area, and also common epidermal cells, stomata and trichome density. Leaf morphology parameters were obtained from five leaves of each of 20 plants in each site. Dry and fresh weights were measured to obtain leaf specific mass and succulence. All anatomy and morphology parameters, except trichome density, were significantly higher for the sun-exposed plants. Less expected, however, was the marked qualitative difference between exposed and shaded plants: in the former the mesophyll had a unilateral symmetry (i.e., the whole mesophyll occupied by photosynthetic tissue, whereas in the latter there was a dorsiventral symmetry (i.e., partly palisade and partly spongy parenchyma. Such amplitude of variation shows that even within a small geographic area A. legalis has a broad ecological plasticity.Andira legalis (Vell. Toledo é uma leguminosa arbustiva distribuída ao longo de planícies arenosas da costa brasileira. Tem ocorrência em ambientes florestais, sombreadas, ou em ilhas de vegetação de restingas abertas, onde é exposta à plena radiação solar

  20. Effects of Biochar Blends on Microbial Community Composition in Two Coastal Plain Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Ducey

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The amendment of soil with biochar has been demonstrated to have an effect not only on the soil physicochemical properties, but also on soil microbial community composition and activity. Previous reports have demonstrated significant impacts on soil microbial community structure. These impacts are modulated not only by the biochar composition, but also on the soil’s physicochemical characteristics. This indicates that soil characteristics must be considered prior to biochar amendment. A significant portion of the soils of the southeastern coastal plain are severely degraded and, therefore, candidates for biochar amendment to strengthen soil fertility. In this study we focused on two common soil series in the southeastern coastal plain, utilizing feedstocks endemic to the area. We chose feedstocks in four ratios (100% pine chip; 80:20 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 50:50 mixture of pine chip to poultry litter; 100% poultry litter prior to pyrolysis and soil amendment as a biochar product. Soil was analyzed for bioavailable nutrients via Mehlich-1 extractions, as well as microbial community composition using phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA. Our results demonstrated significant shifts in microbial community composition in response to biochar amendment, the effects of which were greatest with 100% poultry litter biochar. Strong relationships between PLFAs and several Mehlich-1 extractable nutrients (Al, Cu, Fe, and P were observed.

  1. A warm thermal enclave in the late Pleistocene of the south-eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Dale A; Rich, Fredrick J; Schneider, Vincent; Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean

    2009-05-01

    Physical and biological evidence supports the probable existence of an enclave of relatively warm climate located between the Southern Appalachian Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean in the United States during the Last Glacial Maximum. The region supported a mosaic of forest and prairie habitats inhabited by a "Floridian" ice-age biota. Plant and vertebrate remains suggest an ecological gradient towards Cape Hatteras (35 degreesN) wherein forests tended to replace prairies, and browsing proboscideans tended to replace grazing proboscideans. Beyond 35 degreesN, warm waters of the Gulf Stream were deflected towards the central Atlantic, and a cold-facies biota replaced "Floridian" biota on the Atlantic coastal plain. Because of niche diversity and relatively benign climate, biodiversity may have been greater in the south-eastern thermal enclave than in other unglaciated areas of North America. However, the impact of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions may also have been shorter and more severe in the enclave than further north. A comparison with biotic changes that occurred in North America approximately 55 million years (ma) ago at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum suggests that similar processes of change took place under both ice-house and greenhouse climates.

  2. Feeding ecology of the beach silverside Atherinella blackburni (Atherinopsidae in a tropical sandy beach, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Guazzelli Gonzalez

    Full Text Available Abstract The feeding ecology of the beach silverside (Atherinella blackburni in the surf zone of a tropical sand beach, located in the southeastern Brazil, was accessed through the gut content analysis of 198 fish. Factors such as fish's size, season and day period were analysed to understand how these variables affect the diet composition of the species. Results show that A. blackburni is a coastal neritic fish with a broad feeding niche. Most recurrent prey were zooplanktonic crustaceans, insects and benthic molluscs, in which Copepoda crustaceans were the dominant dietary item in occurrence and abundance. A. blackburni appears to have a slight ontogenetic shift in its diet, changing from benthic molluscs to crustaceans and insects along its life cycle. The diel activity also reveals to be an important factor to the A. blackburni feeding ecology. The predominant occurrence of small fish during the morning, along with the main preys for this size class, suggests that small individuals use shallower waters as feeding grounds during the morning and, during the night, they move to deeper waters for protection against predators.

  3. The past, present, and future of manatees in the southeastern United States: realities, misunderstandings and enigmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    A review of the historical and recent (1970s-1980s) literature on the distribution, abundance, and mortality of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) in the southern United States is presented. Recent unpublished data on mortality, Florida boat registrations, size of certain manatee wintering populations, and records outside of Florida are also given. Manatees never regularly occurred outside of Florida, except during the summer in Georgia. Current distribution is also limited largely to Florida and coastal Georgia in summer, with extralimital records in other southeastern states. In winter the range contracts and is centered around warm water sources in Florida. The historical record on past abundance is inconclusive, but does not provide any compelling evidence to claim that manatees ever nearly became extinct. There are no satisfactory means to estimate manatee population size. However, within Florida, manatees have become more widespread and possibly more abundant during the past 30 years due to protection, greater availability of warm water in winter, and in some areas, increased exotic vegetation. Deliberate killing for food was long a historical pressure on manatee populations in Florida, but is not almost non-existent. Nevertheless, recent increasing trends in accidental mortality caused by boats, coupled with an understanding of manatee population dynamics, suggests that the future for manatees is not secure. Ample justification exists for continued manatee conservation efforts.

  4. The trace metals accumulation in marine organisms of the southeastern Adriatic coast, Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimovic Danijela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concentration and accumulation of trace metals (Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg were measured in sea water, sediments and marine organisms in the coastline of the Montenegro. The obtained results of trace metals in seagrass and mussels were compared with those found in the water column and sediment. Sampling was performed in the fall of 2005 at five locations in the Montenegrin coastline, Sveta Stasija, Herceg Novi, Zanjice, Budva and Bar, which present different levels and sources of human impact. The heavy metals analyses in seawater, sediment, P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis identified the harbor of Bar as the most Hg-contaminated site, Zanjice as the most As contaminated and Sveta Stasija as the most Pb-contaminated areas of the Montenegrin coastal area. This study showed that P. oceanica may have a greater bioaccumulation capacity than M. galloprovincialis for the considered metals, except for As and Hg, and both organisms may reflect contamination in the water column and in the sediment. For the first time, seagrass P. oceanica and M. galloprovincialis were employed as metal bioindicators for the southeastern Adriatic. The results of this study could serve as a baseline in the future for the assessment of anthropogenic effects in this marine ecosystem.

  5. Coupled geophysical characterization of shallow fluvio-clastic sediments in Agwagune, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, Anthony E.; Ekwok, Stephen E.; Ebong, Ebong D.; George, Anthony M.; Okwueze, Emeka E.

    2018-07-01

    Geophysical investigation performed using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), vertical electrical sounding (VES), seismic refraction (SRF) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques were used to constrain and characterize shallow lithologic units in the Cross River bank (CRB) in southeastern Nigeria. Results show that the upper layer sediments comprise a 3-5-layered lithostratigraphic sequence with high clayey content. Around the Cross River bank (CRB), the top sediments consist of loose, silty and clayey sands with low resistivities (sediments have no reasonable continuity beyond the vicinity of the CRB. The low attenuating indurated silts/sands characterized by low resistivities (channels truncate their lateral continuities. The lacustrine clays characterized by low resistivities (2400 m/s) make up the third layer. The clayey sediments impede vertical percolation of groundwater forcing it to accumulate at the bottom of the second layer resulting in high static water levels of 5 m elsewhere. Hydraulic gradient in the Cross River bed (CRBD) and in the coastal groundwater drives groundwater flow into the CRBD through macropores. The sediments become unstable when these macropores become enlarged as more materials are continuously transmitted through them.

  6. Laboratory measurements of trace gas emissions from biomass burning of fuel types from the southeastern and southwestern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Burling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation commonly managed by prescribed burning was collected from five southeastern and southwestern US military bases and burned under controlled conditions at the US Forest Service Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation including an open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR spectrometer for measurement of gas-phase species. The OP-FTIR detected and quantified 19 gas-phase species in these fires: CO2, CO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C3H6, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3OH, CH3COOH, furan, H2O, NO, NO2, HONO, NH3, HCN, HCl, and SO2. Emission factors for these species are presented for each vegetation type burned. Gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO, an important OH precursor, was detected in the smoke from all fires. The HONO emission factors ranged from 0.15 to 0.60 g kg−1 and were higher for the southeastern fuels. The fire-integrated molar emission ratios of HONO (relative to NOx ranged from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, with higher values also observed for the southeastern fuels. The majority of non-methane organic compound (NMOC emissions detected by OP-FTIR were oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs with the total identified OVOC emissions constituting 61 ± 12% of the total measured NMOC on a molar basis. These OVOC may undergo photolysis or further oxidation contributing to ozone formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl and SO2 were also detected during flaming combustion, with the amounts varying greatly depending on location and vegetation type. The fuels with the highest HCl emission factors were all located in the coastal regions, although HCl was also observed from fuels farther inland. Emission factors for HCl were generally higher for the southwestern fuels

  7. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Thiago R.; Valenzuela-Diaz, Francisco R.; Morales, Ana Rita; Paiva, Lucilene B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  8. Scientometrics: Nature Index and Brazilian science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Valter

    2016-09-01

    A recent published newspaper article commented on the (lack of) quality of Brazilian science and its (in) efficiency. The newspaper article was based on a special issue of Nature and on a new resource for scientometrics called Nature Index. I show here arguments and sources of bias that, under the light of the principle in dubio pro reo, it is questionable to dispute the quality and efficiency of the Brazilian science on these grounds, as it was commented on the referred article. A brief overview of Brazilian science is provided for readers to make their own judgment.

  9. Understanding human impacts to tropical coastal ecosystems through integrated hillslope erosion measurements, optical coastal waters characterization, watershed modeling, marine ecosystem assessments, and natural resource valuations in two constrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Zayas, J.; Melendez, J.; Barreto, M.; Santiago, L.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Figueroa, Y.; Setegn, S. G.; Guild, L. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal ecosystems are an asset to many tropical island economies. In Puerto Rico, however, many invaluable coastal ecosystems are at risk due to multiple social and natural environmental stressors. To quantify the role of anthropogenic versus natural stressors, an integrated multidisciplinary approach was applied in two contrasting watersheds in Puerto Rico. The Rio Loco (RL) watershed in Southeastern Puerto Rico is hydrologically modified with interbasin water transfers, hydroelectric generation, and with water extraction for irrigation and water supply. Intensive agricultural production dominates both the lower and upper portions of the basin. In contrast, the Rio Grande de Manatí (RGM) shows a natural flow regime with minor flow regulation and limited agriculture. The Surface Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to each watershed to assess the effects of land use changes on water and sediment fluxes to coastal areas. From 1977 to 2016, forest areas increased in both watersheds due to the abandonment of farms in the mountains. However, in upper and lower RL, agricultural lands have remained active. Coffee plantations in the upper watershed contribute with high sediment loads, particularly in unpaved service roads. We hypothesize that water fluxes will be higher in the larger RGM than in RL. However, suspended sediment fluxes will be higher in the agriculturally active RL basin. A willingness-to-pay approach was applied to assess how residents from each watershed value water and coastal ecosystems revealing a general higher natural resources valuation in the RGM than in RL. Coastal ecosystems at each site revealed structural differences in benthic coral communities due to local currents influenced largely by coastal morphology. The optical properties of coastal waters are also being determined and linked to fluvial sediment fluxes. Stakeholder meetings are being held in each watershed to promote transfer of scientific insights into a sustainable coastal and

  10. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  11. Coastal Structures and Barriers 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset is a compilation of the UCSC Sand Retention Structures, MC Barriers, and USACE Coastal Structures. UCSC Sand Retention Structures originate from a...

  12. STEER Coastal Use Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Coastal Use Mapping Project is designed to collect critical information on human activities in and near the St. Thomas East End Reserves (STEER). The project...

  13. Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Congress established the Pacific Coastal Salmon Recovery Fund (PCSRF) to monitor the restoration and conservation of Pacific salmon and steelhead populations and...

  14. NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Mapping Shoreline Products from the Remote Sensing Division are primarily for application to the nautical charts produced by NOAA's Office of Coast...

  15. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  16. Dental Procedures in Primary Health Care of the Brazilian National Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suellen R. Mendes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the procedures of primary dental health care performed by oral health teams (OHTs adhering to the second cycle of the ‘National Programme for Improving Access and Quality of Primary Care’ (PMAQ-AB in Brazil. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis was performed, across 23 dental procedures comprising preventive, restorative/prosthetic, surgical, endodontic and oral cancer monitoring. Descriptive analysis shows that most of the oral health teams carry out basic dental procedures. However, most of the time, they do not keep adequate records of suspected cases of oral cancer, diagnosis tests or follow-ups, and do not perform dental prosthetic procedures. Data also showed disparities in the average number of procedures performed in each Brazilian geographical region in 2013–2014, ranging from 13.9 in the northern to 16.5 in the southern and south-eastern regions, reinforcing the great social disparities between them. Brazilian regions with the highest volume of dental need deliver the lowest number of dental procedures. The need to tackle inequalities and further shape the supply of appropriate primary health care (PHC is evident.

  17. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Portuguese language version of a work ability index. Cross sectional survey of a sample of 475 workers from an electrical company in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil (spread across ten municipalities in the Campinas area), carried out in 2005. The following aspects of the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index were evaluated: construct validity, using factorial exploratory analysis, and discriminant capacity, by comparing mean Work Ability Index scores in two groups with different absenteeism levels; criterion validity, by determining the correlation between self-reported health and Work Ability Index score; and reliability, using Cronbach's alpha to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Factorial analysis indicated three factors in the work ability construct: issues pertaining to 'mental resources' (20.6% of the variance), self-perceived work ability (18.9% of the variance), and presence of diseases and health-related limitations (18.4% of the variance). The index was capable of discriminating workers according to levels of absenteeism, identifying a significantly lower (pindex and all dimensions of health status analyzed (pindex was high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.72. The Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index showed satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to construct validity, thus constituting an appropriate option for evaluating work ability in both individual and population-based settings.

  18. Pruning management of Chardonnay grapevines at high altitude in Brazilian southeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania dos Reis Mendonça

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The agronomical responses of Chardonnay, a variety indicated for sparkling wine production, is influenced by the vineyard management and the edaphoclimatic conditions of the region. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of two pruning types (Royat and double Guyot on vegetative and reproductive development of Chardonnay vine growing at high altitude in the Brazilian southeastern region. The experiment was carried out in a commercial vineyard located at 1,280 m of altitude in Divinolândia, São Paulo State, Brazil. The Chardonnay vines (clone 96, grafted onto 1103 Paulsen rootstock and trained in a vertical shoot positioning trellis system, were assessed. Vegetative vigor, bud fruitfulness, production and physicochemical composition of grapes were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 growing seasons. The Royat pruning induced higher vegetative vigor and increased the bud fruitfulness, the cluster number and the productivity of Chardonnay vine when compared to Guyot pruning. Even though the increase on yield was observed, there was no effect of pruning type on grape final quality. Therefore, the choice of pruning method in function of variety genetic characteristics and their interaction with environment can optimize the vineyard profitability. In the Brazilian southeast, the Royat system is the most suitable one to grow Chardonnay for sparkling wines production.

  19. Phylodynamics of Yellow Fever Virus in the Americas: new insights into the origin of the 2017 Brazilian outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Daiana; Delatorre, Edson; Bonaldo, Myrna; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Vicente, Ana Carolina; Bello, Gonzalo

    2017-08-07

    Yellow fever virus (YFV) strains circulating in the Americas belong to two distinct genotypes (I and II) that have diversified into several concurrent enzootic lineages. Since 1999, YFV genotype I has spread outside endemic regions and its recent (2017) reemergence in non-endemic Southeastern Brazilian states fuels one of the largest epizootic of jungle Yellow Fever registered in the country. To better understand this phenomenon, we reconstructed the phylodynamics of YFV American genotypes using sequences from nine countries sampled along 60 years, including strains from Brazilian 2017 outbreak. Our analyses reveals that YFV genotypes I and II follow roughly similar evolutionary and demographic dynamics until the early 1990s, when a dramatic change in the diversification process of the genotype I occurred associated with the emergence and dissemination of a new lineage (here called modern). Trinidad and Tobago was the most likely source of the YFV modern-lineage that spread to Brazil and Venezuela around the late 1980s, where it replaced all lineages previously circulating. The modern-lineage caused all major YFV outbreaks detected in non-endemic South American regions since 2000, including the 2017 Brazilian outbreak, and its dissemination was coupled to the accumulation of several amino acid substitutions particularly within non-structural viral proteins.

  20. Multidisciplinary re-description of Plasmodium (Novyella) paranucleophilum in Brazilian wild birds of the Atlantic Forest kept in captivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Raquel; Dias, Roberto Júnio Pedroso; Martinele, Isabel; Senra, Marcus Vinicius Xavier; D'Agosto, Marta; Massard, Carlos Luiz

    2017-07-01

    Haemosporidian blood parasites of the Plasmodium genus are the causative agents of avian malaria in many parts of the world. Despite the great diversity of Brazilian avifauna, few studies have been conducted to examine the haemosporidians of wild birds found in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, especially those kept in captivity. This study aimed to re-examine and further characterize the South American avian parasite Plasmodium paranucleophilum using a multidisciplinary approach. Blood samples were collected from 68 captive birds representing 15 species found in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Morphometric and morphological characterization was performed, in addition to PCR and sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The overall prevalence of P. paranucleophilum infection in the study was 13.23% (n = 9), with a mean parasitemia of 0.58%. We observed the highest parasitemia of 3.88% in Rupornis magnirostris. In our phylogenetic analysis, P. paranucleophilum and P lasmodium nucleophilum formed distinct, highly supported clades, with a mean genetic divergence of 2.48%. This study provides new morphological and molecular data, expanding our knowledge of the haemosporidians of wild birds in Brazil and highlighting the need for further investigation. The true depth of diversity in Brazilian avian haemosporidians remains largely unknown, and given the enormous variety of vectors and avian species, there may be many more species of these blood parasites yet to be described.

  1. Large-scale coastal behaviour in relation to coastal zone management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of coastal erosion management - addressing typical traditional erosion problems - towards coastal zone management addressing the evaluation of alternative solutions to guarantee a variety of coastal zone functions on their economic time scale - has necessitated the formulation of

  2. Elicited Imitation for Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonsdale, Deryle W.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elicited imitation (EI is an approach to measuring oral proficiency that consists of having test takers hear a sentence and repeat the sentence exactly as they heard it. Though indirect in nature, EI has successfully shown to correlate with previously established oral proficiency examinations, such as the Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI (Lonsdale and Christensen 2014, Matsushita and Lonsdale 2014, Millard 2011, Thompson 2013. This paper discusses the development, administration, and evaluation of an EI test for the Brazilian Portuguese language. We first discuss the relevant background of oral proficiency examination and EI. After presenting the pertinent research questions, we explain the methodology used to develop the EI test, recruit participants, and administer the test. We present the results and analysis and then summarize the findings, limitations, and possible future work

  3. Neymar, defender of brazilian tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Islandia Cardoso da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze how university students of Teresina-PI appropriate of the message of a report of the television show Esporte Espetacular. There was use of the technique of focus groups and analytical-descriptive method for collecting and analyzing data. The sample consisted of 24 university students, aged between 18 and 24 years. The report features Neymar as responsible to follow the "tradition" of Brazilians and to be crowned as the best player in the world. The subjects of research said that the speech conveyed by the report can reproduce and create a reality sometimes dreamlike, because objective to confer to Neymar great importance with regard to national identity.

  4. Lexicalization patterns in Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Gonçalves Santos Filho

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neolatin languages belong to a lexicalization pattern in which the verbal root expresses semantic primitives of MOVE and PATH, leaving MANNER or CAUSE to be expressed by an adverb or the gerund form. In German origin languages, on the contrary, verbs lexicalize the semantic primitives of MOVE, MANNER or CAUSE; as for the PATH, it is expressed by a grammatical element that is associated to the verb. Taking into consideration some of the concepts of event of move, guided by Cognitive Semantics, and an analysis of examples extracted from The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings’ books, the present study aims at showing, at least, three lexicalization patterns in which Brazilian Portuguese fits in.

  5. Best Practices in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia dos Reis Machado

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Competitive intelligence (CI is a systematic and ethical collection, analysis, dissemination and management of information about the external environment that may affect the plans, decisions and operations of the organization. Knowledge management (KM can be seen as a tool to promote organizational knowledge through the use of activities designed to identify, create, store, share and use knowledge. Companies face a challenge in the era of knowledge, it is the extraction and management of knowledge produced by people in the organization. CI and KM combined generates organizational intelligence. The exploratory study, based on literature and multicase study, we sought to identify best practices in processes of CI and KM in Brazilian companies. We identified practices related to the CI design process, the stages of the CI, the use of networks, and knowledge management. We also identified, points of attention on the internal/external organizational environment.

  6. Why the coastal plain of Paraiba do Sul river not be denominated the classical model of wave dominated delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, L.

    1987-01-01

    Existing coastal sedimentation models have not properly incorporated the fundamental role of Holocene sea-level history in the development of modern coastal regions. For example the classical work by COLEMAN and WRIGHT (1975), although analyzing the influence of as many as 400 parameters on the geometry of deltaic sand bodies, did not address the effects of Holocene sea-level oscillations. Previous work on the central portion of the Brazilian coastline indicated that the relative construction of the coastal plains. Detailed mapping and radiocarbon dating have allowed us to establish the different phases involved in the depositional history of the plain situated at the Paraiba do Sul river mouth. This history is not in keeping with the classical model of wave dominated delta. (author)

  7. Impact of petroleum pollution on aquatic coastal ecosystems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M. da; Peso-Aguiar, M.C.; Navarro, M.F.T.; Chastinet, C.B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Although oil activities generate numerous forms of environmental impact on biological communities, studies of these impacts on Brazilian coastal ecosystems are rate. Results of tests for the content of oil in sediments and organisms indicate a substantially high rate of degradation. Results for uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in bivalves suggested the recent occurrence of oil spills and that these organisms differed in their capabilities to bioconcentrate oil. The mangrove community has suffered constant inputs of oil and has responded with increased numbers of aerial roots, generation of malformed leaves and fruits by plants, and a decrease in litter production. Studies of the impact of oil on rocky shore communities and the toxicity of oil and its by-products to marine organisms have confirmed the results reported in the literature. Presently most of the available studies deal with the macroscopic effects of oil on organisms and have indicated that the nature of oil, climate characteristics, the physical environment, and the structure of the community influence the symptoms of oil contamination in organisms of coastal waters. Long-term studies should be carried out to assess changes in community structure, sublethal effects in populations, and the resilience of contaminated ecosystems

  8. State of pine decline in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori Eckhardt; Mary Anne Sword Sayer; Don Imm

    2010-01-01

    Pine decline is an emerging forest health issue in the southeastern United States. Observations suggest pine decline is caused by environmental stress arising from competition, weather, insects and fungi, anthropogenic disturbances, and previous management. The problem is most severe for loblolly pine on sites that historically supported longleaf pine, are highly...

  9. Some Spatial Aspects of Southeastern United States Climatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Peter T.

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on the climatology of an eight-state region in the southern and southeastern United States. Discusses general controls of climate and spatial patterns of various climatic averages. Examines mapped extremes as a means of fostering increased awareness of the variability that exists for climatic conditions in the region. (CMK)

  10. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  11. preliminary investigation of pegmatites in obudu area, southeastern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stream sediment samples were collected from Southern Obudu. Plateau area ... The elements in Obudu stream sediments show perfect, strong, moderate and weak correlations among themselves ..... also be due to the low radioactive materials in the area. However .... geochemistry in southeastern Asia: soils, sediments ...

  12. Southeastern Community College Annual Progress Report, December 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, R. Gene

    Presenting information on the status of Southeastern Community College (SCC), in Iowa, this annual progress report highlights basic institutional data, financial information, and improvements and planned changes of the college as of 1995. Part 1 presents basic data on SCC, including facility locations, assessed property valuation, district…

  13. Plant community variability on a small area in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    Plant communities are inherently variable due to a number of environmental and biological forces. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass were determined for understory vegetation in plant communities of a prairie grassland-forest ecotone in southeastern Montana. Vegetation units were described using polar ordination and stepwise discriminant analysis. Nine of a total of...

  14. Mulching An Arenic Hapludult In Southeastern Nigeria: Effects On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out over two cropping seasons at Umudike, southeastern Nigeria, to determine the type and quantity of mulch that would improve some selected physical properties of an Arenic Hapludult and optimize the rhizome yield of turmeric. Effects of mulch rate on bulk density (BD), total porosity (TP), ...

  15. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnant women in Southeastern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of Hepatitis C virus and its possible risk factors in antenatal clinic attendees. Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 820 consecutive and consenting antenatal clinic attendees at five antenatal clinics in Aba, Southeastern Nigeria over the period 15 June – 15 November, ...

  16. The Economics Of Goat Production In Southeastern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Dwarf goat is indigenous to Southeastern Nigeria and is raised by many families under small·scale and intensive management systems. Results showed that the average households kept 6 goats, but that expansion was limited by hour and feed procurement problems. Both males and females owned goats ...

  17. Oak-Black Bear Relationships in Southeastern Uplands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph D. Clark

    2004-01-01

    Bears (Ursus americanus) primarily occur in upland habitats in the Southeast because uplands were the last to be developed for agriculture and were more likely to become publicly owned. National parks and forests created in the early to mid-1900s served as sources to supply surrounding uplands with bears. Bears could not survive in southeastern...

  18. Lowland riparian herpetofaunas: the San Pedro River in southeastern Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip C. Rosen

    2005-01-01

    Previous work has shown that southeastern Arizona has a characteristic, high diversity lowland riparian herpetofauna with 62-68 or more species along major stream corridors, and 46-54 species in shorter reaches within single biomes, based on intensive fieldwork and museum record surveys. The San Pedro River supports this characteristic herpetofauna, at least some of...

  19. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  20. Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties of a Haplic Acrisol in Southeastern Nigeria amended with rice mill waste and NPK fertilizer. ... conductivity (Ksat) and mean weight diameter (MWD) of water stable aggregates significantly by 41.1, 368.2 and 155.8%, respectively, and resulted in 20.9% significant decrease in bulk density (BD).

  1. Health and Environmental Risk Assessment Project for bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the southeastern USA. II. Environmental aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, John S; Schaefer, Adam M; Bossart, Gregory D; Fair, Patricia A

    2017-07-24

    Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus are the most common apex predators found in coastal and estuarine ecosystems along the southeastern coast of the USA, where these animals are exposed to multiple chemical pollutants and microbial agents. In this review, we summarize the results of investigations of environmental exposures evaluated in 360 free-ranging dolphins between 2003 and 2015. Bottlenose dolphins inhabiting the Indian River Lagoon, Florida (IRL, n = 246), and coastal waters of Charleston, South Carolina (CHS, n = 114), were captured, given comprehensive health examinations, and released as part of a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional study of individual and population health. High concentrations of persistent organic pollutants including legacy contaminants (DDT and other pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyl compounds) as well as 'emerging' contaminants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, perfluorinated compounds) were detected in dolphins from CHS, with lower concentrations in the IRL. Conversely, the concentrations of mercury in the blood and skin of IRL dolphins were among the highest reported worldwide and approximately 5 times as high as those found in CHS dolphins. A high prevalence of resistance to antibiotics commonly used in humans and animals was detected in bacteria isolated from fecal, blowhole, and/or gastric samples at both sites, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at CHS. Collectively, these studies illustrate the importance of long-term surveillance of estuarine populations of bottlenose dolphins and reaffirm their important role as sentinels for marine ecosystems and public health.

  2. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, J.O.V.

    1988-01-01

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  3. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  4. Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis: report of two Brazilian brothers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, M.C.; Zetola, V.F.; Teive, H.; Scola, R.H.; Trentin, A.P.; Zavala, J.A.; Pereira, E.R.; Raskin, S.; Werneck, L.C.; Sistermans, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis is a treatable rare autossomal recessive disease characterized by lipid storage secondary to a sterol 27-hydroxylase deficiency in the formation of cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids. We describe two Brazilian brothers with cognitive impairement and chronic diarrhea.

  5. Waardenburg syndrome: Novel mutations in a large Brazilian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocángel, Magnolia Astrid Pretell; Melo, Uirá Souto; Alves, Leandro Ucela; Pardono, Eliete; Lourenço, Naila Cristina Vilaça; Marcolino, Humberto Vicente Cezar; Otto, Paulo Alberto; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2018-06-01

    This paper deals with the molecular investigation of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) in a sample of 49 clinically diagnosed probands (most from southeastern Brazil), 24 of them having the type 1 (WS1) variant (10 familial and 14 isolated cases) and 25 being affected by the type 2 (WS2) variant (five familial and 20 isolated cases). Sequential Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of PAX3, MITF, EDN3, EDNRB, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes, followed by CNV detection by MLPA of PAX3, MITF and SOX10 genes in selected cases revealed many novel pathogenic variants. Molecular screening, performed in all patients, revealed 19 causative variants (19/49 = 38.8%), six of them being large whole-exon deletions detected by MLPA, seven (four missense and three nonsense substitutions) resulting from single nucleotide substitutions (SNV), and six representing small indels. A pair of dizygotic affected female twins presented the c.430delC variant in SOX10, but the mutation, imputed to gonadal mosaicism, was not found in their unaffected parents. At least 10 novel causative mutations, described in this paper, were found in this Brazilian sample. Copy-number-variation detected by MLPA identified the causative mutation in 12.2% of our cases, corresponding to 31.6% of all causative mutations. In the majority of cases, the deletions were sporadic, since they were not present in the parents of isolated cases. Our results, as a whole, reinforce the fact that the screening of copy-number-variants by MLPA is a powerful tool to identify the molecular cause in WS patients. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The challenge to explore the Brazilian interior basins; O desafio da exploracao das bacias interiores brasileiras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacoccoli, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia; Guimaraes, Paulo Buarque [Organizacao da Industria do Petroleo (ONIP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the development of the fields, already discovered in the deep waters of the Southeastern Atlantic Margin, the Brazilian domestic production will shortly be equivalent to the consumption. Despite reaching this goal, the exploration of large interior basins is still considered a challenge. Surprisingly, after the discoveries in the Solimoes Basin, as well after the opening of the Brazilian Petroleum Sector in 1997, the present level of the exploration activities in these basins is far below the previous historical averages. The available data are still now considered too scarce, to perform a proper evaluation. Apparently, a vicious circle has been established: due to the a priori low attractiveness new data are not acquired and because the lack of new data the attractiveness cannot be modified nor improved. The Parnaiba Basin is usually mentioned as an example of this poor amount of data. A modest coverage of ancient 2D seismic lines, and obsolete aero magnetic survey and thirty one exploratory wells, mostly located without geophysical support, represents all the available data in this vast basin with an area over 600,000 sq km. Recent regional geologic interpretations in such interior basins, as in Solimoes, Parana and also Parnaiba, are pointing out the presence of remarkable intraplate tectonic events, successively reactivated along the geologic time. It is now intended that these events can play an important role in the control of the petroleum system and in focalizing the new exploration activities. However, efforts should be applied in the revision of some regulatory rules, in Brazil, in order to better stimulate the onshore exploration and particularly the exploration of the interior basins. As recommended by the new Brazilian Petroleum Law, part of the government takes shall be effectively applied to acquire more geologic and geophysical data in the onshore areas (author)

  7. Recharge-area nuclear waste repository in southeastern Sweden. Demonstration of hydrogeologic siting concepts and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provost, A.M.; Voss, C.I.

    2001-11-01

    sites are evaluated using a three-dimensional, variable-density flow and solute transport model of southeastern Sweden under present interglacial conditions. The analysis considers four structural models of the bedrock that represent the possible range of regional anisotropy in permeability. Results indicate that potential repository sites at Hultsfred and another comparison site have travel times ten times or longer than sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn, and at worst, have travel times equivalent to the latter sites. Potential repository sites at Simpevarp and Oskarshamn have flow paths of less than 3 kilometers (lower values cannot be resolved by the current model), while the Hultsfred and comparison sites have path lengths ranging from 25 kilometers to 130 kilometers, and much greater flow path volumes. Given the uncertainties in bedrock structure, thus, it is more likely that the Hultsfred site will provide greater flow path, travel time, and flow path volume than the coastal Simpevarp and Oskarshamn sites, and may therefore be preferable in terms of the hydrogeologic safety margin. Additionally, there are other repository locations in southeastern Sweden, such as the comparison site, that improve substantially on the Hultsfred site. Three techniques are introduced for illuminating important aspects of the three-dimensional flow field in a numerical model. (1) A technique for tracing the flow paths and flow path volume from potential repository sites in a three-dimensional variable-density ground-water model involves a solute transport simulation that fills the flow tube passing through the repository with a non-zero concentration. (2) Recharge areas may be mapped in the model by means of a transport simulation that delineates where inflow occurs to the top surface of the model. (3) Travel times may be determined in a 'return-flow time' transport simulation, in which the flow field is reversed and the solute undergoes a zero-order production rate of one per year

  8. Vulnerability of Coastal Crop Land to Climate Change in the Northern Part of Bay of Bengal: Issues, Challenges and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, A. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    The coastal communities of northeastern part of Bay of Bengal are used to live and survive through facing different types of natural disasters since primitive time. Among the natural disasters, salinity intrusion due to climate change and sea level rise in the coastal agriculture land is the major unpleasant incident now days. Because of that wide area of the coastal agricultural land, coastal forest, drinking water facilities and fresh water availability are in critical condition which may cause 40 million people of 147 coastal districts covering 47201 km area are placed in danger. The nation wide assessment on the detected of coastal soil and water salinity is not conducted since 9 years. The survey on the coastal soil salinity on 1973 and 2000 found that the saline effected land is increased from 0.83 million ha to 1.20 million ha within 27 years. It is assumed that at present the rate of salinity intrusion in the coastal agriculture land will be higher than those of 1973 and 2000. The soil salinity was recorded 18-20 psu after AILA in the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh and increased further 2-4 psu due to low precipitation which causes crop burning. This paper aims to know the salinity intrusion in the coastal soil and water of Bangladesh, which would help to plan and improvement of the sustainable agriculture production. Study revealed that to face any extra stresses on the coastal agriculture land due to climate change requires extensive inventory, awareness activities, mitigation measures, adaptation techniques and extension of indigenous technology.

  9. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  10. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  11. Species composition, richness and nestedness of lizard assemblages from Restinga habitats along the brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, C F D; Vrcibradic, D; Kiefer, M C; Menezes, V A; Fontes, A F; Hatano, F H; Galdino, C A B; Bergallo, H G; Van Sluys, M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation is well known to adversely affect species living in the remaining, relatively isolated, habitat patches, especially for those having small range size and low density. This negative effect has been critical in coastal resting habitats. We analysed the lizard composition and richness of restinga habitats in 16 restinga habitats encompassing three Brazilian states (Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and Bahia) and more than 1500km of the Brazilian coast in order to evaluate if the loss of lizard species following habitat reduction occur in a nested pattern or at random, using the "Nestedness Temperature Calculator" to analyse the distribution pattern of lizard species among the restingas studied. We also estimated the potential capacity that each restinga has to maintain lizard species. Eleven lizard species were recorded in the restingas, although not all species occurred in all areas. The restinga with the richest lizard fauna was Guriri (eight species) whereas the restinga with the lowest richness was Praia do Sul (located at Ilha Grande, a large coastal island). Among the restingas analysed, Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves, were the most hospitable for lizards. The matrix community temperature of the lizard assemblages was 20.49° (= P restingas exhibited a considerable nested structure. The degree in which an area is hospitable for different assemblages could be used to suggest those with greater value of conservation. We concluded that lizard assemblages in coastal restingas occur at a considerable level of ordination in restinga habitats and that some restinga areas such as Jurubatiba, Guriri, Maricá and Praia das Neves are quite important to preserve lizard diversity of restinga environments.

  12. Arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range in Taiwan: Geochronological constraints from U-Pb ages of zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Wei; Zhang, Xun-Hua; Huang, Long

    2018-04-01

    The oblique arc-continent collision between the Luzon arc and the southeastern margin of the Eurasian continent caused the uplift of Taiwan. The Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan is the northern section of the Luzon arc in the collision zone and thus records important information about the arc-continent collision. In this paper, we determine and analyze the U-Pb ages of magmatic zircons from the volcanic arc and clastic zircons from the fore-arc basin in the Coastal Range. For the volcanic arc in the Coastal Range, the eruption ages range from 16.8-5 Ma. Given that the initial subduction of the South China Sea oceanic crust (17 Ma) occurred before the Luzon arc formed, we conclude that the volcanic activity of the Coastal Range began at 16.8 ± 1.3 Ma; it was most active from 14 to 8 Ma and continued until approximately 5 Ma. The U-Pb chronology also indicates that the initial stage of arc-continent collision of the Coastal Range started at approximately 5 Ma, when the northern section of the Luzon arc moved away from the magmatic chamber because of the kinematics of the Philippine Sea Plate.

  13. Environmental sensitivity of the coastal islands of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getulio Teixeira Batista

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Environmental Sensitivity Index Maps for Oil Spills (ESI Maps, or SAO in Portuguese constitute an essential component and source of basic information for emergency planning, response decision support and damage evaluation in case of oil spills. This study aims at the elaboration of sensitivity maps for oil spills for the islands within the Ubatuba municipality, north coast of the State of São Paulo. The adopted methodology is based on the Technical Specifications for the production of Environmental Sensitivity Maps for oil spills (SAO maps proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Environment. The study involved the gathering of secondary data, followed by field work carried out in the summer and winter periods of 2007; the elaboration of the cartographic base maps and, finally, the integration of the data to a GIS (Geographic Information System. As a result it was registered and mapped the physical (geology, geomorphology, oceanography and climatology, biological (fauna, flora and coastal environments and socioeconomic (anthropic influence, human use, artificial structures and impacts resources of Ubatuba coastal islands. Eleven beaches have been identified, located at six islands, with distinct topographic and geomorphologic features. The beaches were classified with sensitivity index 4, because they are sheltered from actions of waves and currents. Most of the mapped environments (44.8% were classified with sensitivity index 8, indicating high sensitivity of the islands. The oil spill impacts on coastal environments can be significantly minimized during the contingency actions when previous knowledge of the ecosystems that compose the islands environment is available, especially when it is integrated into GIS data basis, capable of displaying easy-to-use maps. The environmental sensitivity mapping is an important management instrument, especially when dealing with sensible and poorly studied areas such as the islands of Ubatuba.

  14. Atlas of marine bony fish otoliths (sagittae of Southeastern-Southern Brazil Part VI: Albuliformes, Anguiliformes, Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, Myctophiformes, Ophidiiformes, Polimixiiformes, Batrachoidiformes and Lophiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Bockis Giaretta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This publication is part of a series that will constitute an Atlas of Teleostei Otoliths of the Southeastern-Southern Brazilian region. In this article, we present the results of sagittae's morphologic and morphometric analyses from fishes remaining to the orders: Albuliformes (one species, Anguiliformes (four, Osmeriformes (one, Stomiiformes (one, Aulopiformes (five, Myctophiformes (nine, Ophidiiformes (three, Polimixiiformes (one, Batrachoidiformes (one and Lophiformes (three. Features, measurements and indices were analyzed according to methodology used in anterior series. Whenever possible three otoliths of each species have been illustrated and photographed. The frequency of occurrence of each characteristic was calculated by total length classes (TL and differences within and among them have been analyzed applying multiple χ² test (significance 0.05.

  15. Vascular Flora of a Cerrado sensu stricto remnant in Pratânia, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado (Brazilian savanna has suffered massive destruction in recent years, mainly due tothe expansion of agricultural areas. Many remnants of this vegetation are still poorly studied. Therefore, thepurpose of this study was to carry out a floristic survey in a remnant of Cerrado in the municipality of Pratânia,central-west region of state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. In total, 120 species (38 families, 88 genera wereregistered. The families with greater richness were: Fabaceae (23 species, Asteraceae (15, Myrtaceae (10,Malpighiaceae and Rubiaceae (seven each and Bignoniaceae (five. The shrub component was predominant inthe study area representing 37.5 % of the recorded species. A comparison among eight Cerrado areas showedgreater similarity between areas with similar altitude.

  16. Abstracts and final report of the Southern Gulf of St. Lawrence Coalition on Sustainability workshop on climate change and coastal communities: concerns and challenges for today and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The participants at this workshop presented important climate change information from a national perspective and provided an opportunity for stakeholder comments on the Southeastern New Brunswick Sea-Level Rise Project. The abstracts presented in this report outlined current research on ocean current variabilities; climate change and coastal erosion impacts in the Gulf of St. Lawrence estuary; and agriculture and climate change. Community focus presentations addressed issues associated with coastal vulnerability to climate change and sea-level rise in Haida Gwaii, BC; Inuit observations of climate change; impacts and adaptation to climate change in Atlantic Canada; and communities, fisheries and tourism. Future research orientations from governments were also examined, with information on protection policies for coastal areas; climate change impact and adaptation directorates; climate change scenarios; and potential impacts and possible adaptations to the communities in the region. The studies indicate that the sea level will rise by 70 cm by the year 2100 in the southeastern Gulf of St. Lawrence. Immediate implementation of New Brunswick's Coastal Areas Protection Policy was recommended. Climate change is an issue that contains ecological, social and economic aspects, linking science to local knowledge. This final report contains 25 abstracts presented at the conference. A participant list and an appendix of the workshop's agenda was also included.

  17. Ramet demography of a nurse bromeliad in Brazilian restingas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Michelle C; Picó, F Xavier; Scarano, Fabio R

    2005-04-01

    Restingas are sandy coastal plains that stand between the sea and the Brazilian Atlantic forest mountains. The predominant restinga vegetation type in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is characterized by the formation of islands that begins with colonization by some pioneer herbs and/or woody plants. Pioneer plants are stress-resistant and nurse many other less-resistant plant species. Determining the spatiotemporal variation in the dynamics of nurse plants is essential to understand the ecological functioning of restingas as a whole. The goal of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics of the nurse bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. We monitored A. nudicaulis ramets in different habitats, microhabitats, and years. We analyzed the spatiotemporal variation in demographic traits and in population growth rate. Results showed young ramet traits were more variable at the microhabitat level, and when variable, vegetative ramet traits varied at all spatiotemporal scales. Overall, λ values indicated that A. nudicaulis basically remained spatiotemporally stable as most of the λ values did not significantly differ from unity. Hence, the stability of A. nudicaulis in different microhabitats and habitats in the restinga may create several settlement opportunities for many other less-resistant species.

  18. A behavioral intervention in a cohort of Japanese-Brazilians at high cardiometabolic risk Intervención conductual en nipo-brasileños con alto riesgo cardiometabólico Intervenção comportamental em nipo-brasileiros com alto risco cardiometabólico

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca de Almeida-Pititto; Simon J Griffin; Stephen J Sharp; Amélia T Hirai; Suely G A Gimeno; Sandra R G Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a health promotion program on cardiometabolic risk profile in Japanese-Brazilians. METHODS: A total of 466 subjects from a study on diabetes prevalence conducted in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, in 2000 completed a 1-year intervention program (2005-2006) based on healthy diet counseling and physical activity. Changes in blood pressure and metabolic parameters in the 2005-2006 period were compared with annual changes in these same variables in the 2...

  19. Geographic expression of AIDS epidemic in Campinas, Southeastern Brazil, between 1980 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Celso; Henn, Carlos Alberto; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2010-10-01

    To analyze the spatial distribution of reported AIDS cases in adults and its association with living conditions in the city of Campinas, Southeastern Brazil. Data on AIDS cases in men (n=2,945) and women (n=1,230) aged more than 13 years and living in Campinas, recorded in the SINAN (Brazilian Information System for Notifiable Diseases), were used to map the spatial distribution of this disease and the male:female ratio. Maps were constructed for the following periods: from 1980 to 1995, from 1996 to 2000, and from 2001 to 2005. The variables included in the analysis were address, sex and age. A weighted composite index was used to study living and health conditions in the area. Patients' home addresses were geocoded on a cartographic base, after correction and standardization according to a reference database of streets. A generalized additive model was adjusted to analyze the spatial distribution of the ratio of male:female cases in space, in the three study periods. The ratio of male:female cases was higher in areas with better living conditions (central) and around the prison (northwestern), where families of prisoners and former prisoners live temporarily, while this ratio was lower in the city suburbs (southwestern). The trends towards the AIDS epidemic affecting more women and poorer individuals were confirmed by the decrease in the ratio of male:female cases in the period, particularly in vulnerable and impoverished populations. Geographic information systems and spatial data analysis can be useful for AIDS control and surveillance actions.

  20. Discrimination of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon region based on multi-polarized L-band airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Filho, Pedro Walfir M.; Paradella, Waldir R.; Rodrigues, Suzan W. P.; Costa, Francisco R.; Mura, José C.; Gonçalves, Fabrício D.

    2011-11-01

    This study assessed the use of multi-polarized L-band images for the identification of coastal wetland environments in the Amazon coast region of northern Brazil. Data were acquired with a SAR R99B sensor from the Amazon Surveillance System (SIVAM) on board a Brazilian Air Force jet. Flights took place in the framework of the 2005 MAPSAR simulation campaign, a German-Brazilian feasibility study focusing on a L-band SAR satellite. Information retrieval was based on the recognition of the interaction between a radar signal and shallow-water morphology in intertidal areas, coastal dunes, mangroves, marshes and the coastal plateau. Regarding the performance of polarizations, VV was superior for recognizing intertidal area morphology under low spring tide conditions; HH for mapping coastal environments covered with forest and scrub vegetation such as mangrove and vegetated dunes, and HV was suitable for distinguishing transition zones between mangroves and coastal plateau. The statistical results for the classification maps expressed by kappa index and general accuracy were 83.3% and 0.734 for the multi-polarized color composition (R-HH, G-HV, B-VV), 80.7% and 0.694% for HH, 79.7% and 0.673% for VV, and 77.9% and 0.645% for HV amplitude image. The results indicate that use of multi-polarized L-band SAR is a valuable source of information aiming at the identification and discrimination of distinct geomorphic targets in tropical wetlands.