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Sample records for brazilian soils estudo

  1. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  2. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  3. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  4. Sorption of fomesafen in Brazilian soils

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,G.R.; D'Antonino,L.; Faustino,L.A.; Silva,A.A.; Ferreira,F.A.; Texeira,C.C.

    2013-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of a herbicide in the soil focus on the interactions with environmental components to obtain agronomic efficiency, ensuring selectivity to the culture and risk reduction of environmental impact. This study evaluated the sorption process of fomesafen in the Brazilian soils Ultisol, Cambisol, and Organosol. Besides soil, washed sand was used as an inert material for determination of the sorption ratio of fomesafen in the soil. The bioassay method was applied, using Sor...

  5. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils; Estudo dos processos de corrosao de acos API 5L X70 em contato com alguns dos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-07-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  6. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Fernando C.A.; Signorelli, Carla de A.; Conti, Claudio de C.; Lauria, Dejanira da C.; Ferreira, Ingryd M.; Carvalho, Laercio L. de; Rio, Monica A. Pires do; Trindade Filho, Octavio Luiz; Gonzalez, Sergio de A.; Silva, Tadeu Augusto de A.; Sousa, Wanderson de O.; Cunha, Fernanda G. da

    2011-01-01

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  7. Trace elements in brazilian soils; Micronutrientes nos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    1995-03-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties. 76 refs.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  9. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1981-01-01

    14 C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14 C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14 C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author) [pt

  10. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de; Lord, K.A.; Bromilow, R.H.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Loss of [ 14 C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14 CO 2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO 2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO 2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author) [pt

  11. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchini, L.C.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author) [pt

  12. Sorption of fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides in 13 Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Rafael Marques Pereira; Alleoni, Luis Reynaldo Ferracciú; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges

    2013-08-01

    Animal production is a leading economic activity in Brazil and antibiotics are widely used. However, the occurrence, behavior, and impacts of antibiotics in Brazilian soils are still poorly known. We evaluated the sorption behavior of four fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, and enrofloxacin) and five sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimidine, and sulfathiazole) in 13 Brazilian soils with contrasting physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties. Fluoroquinolone sorption was very high (Kd≥544 L kg(-1)) whereas sulfonamide sorption ranged from low to high (Kd=0.7-70.1 L kg(-1)), consistent with previous reports in the literature. Soil texture and cation exchange capacity were the soil attributes that most affected sorption. Cation exchange was the most important sorption mechanism for the fluoroquinolones in highly weathered tropical soils, although cation bridging and ion pairing could not be ruled out. Hydrophobic partition played an important role in the sorption of the sulfonamides, but sorption was also affected by non-hydrophobic interactions with organic and/or mineral surfaces. Sorption for both compound classes tended to be higher in soils with high Al and Fe oxihydroxide contents, but they were not correlated with Kd values. No direct effect of soil pH was seen. The fluoroquinolones are not expected to leach even in worst-case scenarios (soils rich in sand and poor in organic carbon), whereas soil attributes dictate leaching potential for the sulfonamides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diversity of Archaea in Brazilian savanna soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catão, E; Castro, A P; Barreto, C C; Krüger, R H; Kyaw, C M

    2013-07-01

    Although the richness of Bacteria and Fungi in Cerrado' soils has been reported, here we report, for the first time, the archaeal community in Cerrado's soils. DNA extracted from soil of two distinct vegetation types, a dense subtype of sensu strict (cerrado denso) and riverbank forest (mata de galeria), was used to amplify Archaea-specific 16S rRNA gene. All of the fragments sequenced were classified as Archaea into the phylum Thaumarchaeota, predominantly affiliated to groups I.1b and I.1c. Sequences affiliated to the group I.1a were found only in the soil from riverbank forest. Soils from 'cerrado denso' had greater Archaea richness than those from 'mata de galeria' based on the richness indexes and on the rarefaction curve. β-Diversity analysis showed significant differences between the sequences from the two soil areas studied because of their different thaumarchaeal group composition. These results provide information about the third domain of life from Cerrado soils.

  14. Amazon soils : a reconnaissance of the soils of the Brazilian Amazon region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombroek, W.G.

    1966-01-01

    The study deals with soils of the Brazilian part of the Amazon basin. Most soils are Latosols, some with soft or hardened plinthite. The Latosols are characterized by a latosolic B horizon as defined in Brazil.

    Plinthite, its formation and morphology were extensively described. Five main

  15. 3rd Brazilian consensus on Helicobacter pylori 3º Consenso Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.Os avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Segundo Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 2004, em São Paulo, justificam este terceiro consenso. O evento foi organizado pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, departamento da Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia, tendo sido realizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS, nos dias 12 a 15 de abril de 2011. Contou com a participação de 30 delegados provenientes das cinco regiões brasileiras e um convidado internacional, incluindo gastroenterologistas

  16. Sorption study of U+6 in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M.; Perez, Daniel V.

    2015-01-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R 2 ); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC C ). The coefficient of determination (R 2 ), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R 2 values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  17. Sorption study of U{sup +6} in Brazilian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M., E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mantovan@ien.gov.br, E-mail: leonel@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: daniel@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuarias (Embrapa Solos-CNPS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}). The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R{sup 2} values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  18. Methods of soil organic carbon determination in Brazilian savannah soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hiromi Sato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several methods exist for determining soil organic carbon, and each one has its own advantages and limitations. Consequently, a comparison of the experimental results obtained when these methods are employed is hampered, causing problems in the comparison of carbon stocks in soils. This study aimed at evaluating the analytical procedures used in the determination of carbon and their relationships with soil mineralogy and texture. Wet combustion methods, including Walkley-Black, Mebius and Colorimetric determination as well as dry combustion methods, such as Elemental and Gravimetric Analysis were used. Quantitative textural and mineralogical (kaolinite, goethite and gibbsite analyses were also carried out. The wet digestion methods underestimated the concentration of organic carbon, while the gravimetric method overestimated. Soil mineralogy interfered with the determination of carbon, with emphasis on the gravimetric method that was greatly influenced by gibbsite.

  19. Microbial degradation of sulfentrazone in a Brazilian rhodic hapludox soil

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    Camila O. Martinez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfentrazone is amongst the most widely used herbicides for treating the main crops in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, but few studies are available on the biotransformation of this compound in Brazilian soils. Soil samples of Rhodic Hapludox soil were supplemented with sulfentrazone (0.7 µg active ingredient (a.i. g-1 soil and maintained at 27ºC. The soil moisture content was corrected to 30, 70 or 100 % water holding capacity (WHC and maintained constant until the end of the experimental period. Herbicide-free soil samples were used as controls. Another experiment was carried out using soil samples maintained at a constant moisture content of 70% WHC, supplemented or otherwise with the herbicide, and submitted to different temperatures of 15, 30 and 40º C. In both experiments, aliquots were removed after various incubation periods for the quantitative analysis of sulfentrazone residues by gas chromatography. Herbicide-degrading microorganisms were isolated and identified. After 120 days a significant effect on herbicide degradation was observed for the factor of temperature, degradation being higher at 30 and 40º C. A half-life of 91.6 days was estimated at 27º C and 70 % WHC. The soil moisture content did not significantly affect sulfentrazone degradation and the microorganisms identified as potential sulfentrazone degraders were Nocardia brasiliensis and Penicillium sp. The present study enhanced the prospects for future studies on the bio-prospecting for microbial populations related to the degradation of sulfentrazone, and may also contribute to the development of strategies for the bioremediation of sulfentrazone-polluted soils.

  20. Sorption of thiabendazole in sub-tropical Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Neto, Odilon França; Arenas, Alejandro Yopasa; Fostier, Anne Hélène

    2017-07-01

    Thiabendazole (TBZ) is an ionizable anthelmintic agent that belongs to the class of benzimidazoles. It is widely used in veterinary medicine and as a fungicide in agriculture. Sorption and desorption are important processes influencing transport, transformation, and bioavailability of xenobiotic compounds in soils; data related to sorption capacity are therefore needed for environmental risk assessments. The aim of this work was to assess the sorption potential of TBZ in four Brazilians soils (sandy, sandy-clay, and clay soils), using batch equilibrium experiments at three pH ranges (2.3-3.0, 3.8-4.2, and 5.5-5.7). The Freundlich sorption coefficient (K F ) ranged from 9.0 to 58 μg 1-1/n  (mL) 1/n  g -1 , with higher values generally observed at the lower pH ranges (2.3-3.0 and 3.8-4.2) and for clay soils. The highest organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficients (K OC ) obtained at pH 3.8-5.7 (around the natural pH range of 4.1-5.0) for both clay soils and sandy-clay soil were 3255 and 2015 mL g -1 , respectively. The highest correlations K F vs SOM (r = 0.70) and K F vs clay content (r = 0.91) were observed at pH 3.8-4.2. Our results suggest that TBZ sorption/desorption is strongly pH dependent and that its mobility could be higher in the studied soils than previously reported in soils from temperate regions.

  1. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  2. Soil Quality Evaluation Using the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF in Brazilian Oxisols with Contrasting Texture

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    Maurício Roberto Cherubin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF was developed in the U.S.A. and has been used as a tool for assessing and quantifying changes in soil quality/health (SQ induced by land uses and agricultural practices in that region and elsewhere throughout the world. An initial study using SMAF in Brazil was recently published, but additional research for a variety of soils and management systems is still needed. Our objective was to use data from five studies in southern Brazil to evaluate the potential of SMAF for assessing diverse land-use and management practices on SQ. The studies examined were: (i horizontal and vertical distribution of soil properties in a long-term orange orchard; (ii impacts of long-term land-use change from native vegetation to agricultural crops on soil properties; (iii effects of short-term tillage on soil properties in a cassava production area; (iv changes in soil properties due to mineral fertilizer and pig slurry application coupled with soil tillage practices; and (v row and inter-row sowing effects on soil properties in a long-term no-tillage area. The soils were classified as Oxisols, with clay content ranging from 180 to 800 g kg-1. Six SQ indicators [pH(H2O, P, K, bulk density, organic C, and microbial biomass] were individually scored using SMAF curves and integrated into an overall Soil Quality Index (SQI focusing on chemical, physical, and biological sectors. The SMAF was sensitive for detecting SQ changes induced by different land uses and management practices within this wide textural range of Brazilian Oxisols. The SMAF scoring curve algorithms properly transformed the indicator values expressed in different units into unitless scores ranging from 0-1, thus enabling the individual indicators to be combined into an overall index for evaluating land-use and management effects on soil functions. Soil sector scores (i.e., chemical, physical, and biological identify the principal soil limitations

  3. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  4. Uptake of radionuclides by plants growing on Brazilian soil: the effect of soil ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserman, Maria A.; Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Ferreira, Ana C.M.; Vidal Perez, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The behaviour of radionuclides in soil is governed by several mechanisms that can vary significantly according to the specific reactivity of each element and soil properties. The 137 Cs is one of radionuclides that generally reduces with time its mobility and phytoavailability due to irreversible fixation in high activity clay mineral such as illite, vermiculite and montmorilonite. A long-term experimental essay using Brazilian soils was done in order to determine the effect of ageing of contamination on 137 Cs mobility in soils and transfer to plants. To perform this study, 4 different soils with different properties were contaminated with 137 Cs at different period: The older contamination refers to an urban soil contaminated at the Goiania accident (1987). A similar type of Goiania's soil (Ferralsol rich in Gibbsite) was artificially contaminated with 137 Cs in 1993. A subtropical class of soil (Nitisol) was contaminated in 1996 and two other tropical soils were contaminated in 2000 (Acrisol and Ferralsol rich in Goethite). The time's effect was studied by characterizing the evolution of soil properties and the changes in the distribution of radionuclides between phases till 2006. In addition, the phytoavailability was evaluated by carrying out experiments in lysimeters where radish was sowed at different periods:1996, 2000 and 2004. These results showed that the phytoavailability changed with time only in 2 situations: after changes in some soil properties such as pH or due to Cs fixation in high activity clay mineral when it was present in the soils even as trace mineral. The 137 Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soil and 14 years after contamination, the 137 Cs was still available for plants in the Ferralsol Gbbiste rich. In the Nitisol, 5 years after contamination, the 137 Cs was not detected as in the slightly acidic phase of sequential extraction neither detectable in radish roots or leaves

  5. BRAZILIAN BUSINESS REVIEW: UM ESTUDO SOB A ÓTICA DA BIBLIOMETRIA E DA REDE SOCIAL DE 2004 A 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investigou a produção científica do periódico Brazilian Business Review, no período de 2004 a 2011. O estudo assenta numa pesquisa bibliométrica e rede social, utilizando-se de estatística descritiva, nos 129 artigos publicados no período. Os principais resultados foram: predominância de artigos em parceria; os autores Valcemiro Nossa, Ariovaldo dos Santos e Otávio Ribeiro de Medeiros são os mais prolíferos; Lopes, A. B. e Porter, M. E. foram os pesquisadores mais citados; a Universidade de São Paulo foi a IES que mais publicou artigos. Constatou-se uma centralidade de rede tanto na coautoria como também nas IES. E as temáticas mais evidenciadas em 8 anos de análise foram: Finanças, Mercado de capitais, Marketing, Organização e Negócios e Contabilidade e Auditoria. Conclui-se de maneira macro, que mesmo sendo uma revista nova na academia, a Brazilian Business Review, por meio de seu acervo, já retrata o universo da produção cientifica. Isto evidencia o amadurecimento e importância deste periódico, servindo como fomentador e disseminador do conhecimento e do fluxo das informações científicas na literatura acadêmica nacional, mas especificamente nas áreas de administração, contabilidade e economia.

  6. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  7. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soil's science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil's physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil's and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil's fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  8. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of iron concretions of some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical and physical analyses of concretionary materials were carried out, with the purpose of getting chemical and mineralogical characteristics of concretions found in some Brazilian soils in different ecosystems spectrophotometry was used for the chemical characterization, and x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy for the mineralogical characterization of the materials studied. (A.R.H.) [pt

  9. Adsorption, leaching and persistence of carbendazim in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musumeci, M.R.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Sorption, movement and degradation of carbendazin in gley humic, yellow red latosol and red latosol soils was studied in the laboratory using nuclear techniques. Soils rich in organic matter showed higher sorption and lower mobility. Carbendazin persisted in the three soils, higher degradation occuring in the humic gley soil, richest in organic matter. Recovery of carbendazin diminishes with time being lower in the soil richest in organic matter. After an incubation period of 150 days, 2-aminobenzimidazole a compound without fungitoxic activity was detected as the main degradation product of carbendazin. (Author) [pt

  10. Availability of native and fertilizer P in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivittaro, W.B.; Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.; Brasil, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic forms of phosphorus were determined in two Red-Yellow Latosols, which were incubated with P fertilizers for a month, after equilibration with 32 P for 60 hours. The methods used were soil P fractionation combined with the 32 P isotopic dilution technique. The fertilizers applied were: H 3 PO 4 , 10-30-0 suspension, MAP and triple superphosphate, at the rate of 92 mg P kg -1 of soil. In both soils, the isotopically exchangeable inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased in the following order: water soluble P > Al bound P > Fe bound P > calcium bound P > occluded-P. The water- soluble and Al bound P were the main source of available P for the newly fertilized soil. The Fe bound phosphate was also an important source of available P in both soils when fertilizer was not applied. The soil P fixing capacity affected the availability of native and added phosphorus. (author)

  11. Initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae in Brazilian Cerrado soil under liming and mineral fertilization

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    Ademilson Coneglian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High prices and the scarcity of hardwoods require the use of alternative wood sources, such as the Guapuruvu (Schizolobium parahybae, an arboreal species native to the Atlantic Forest, which has fast growth and high market potential. However, there is no information on its cultivation in the Brazilian Cerrado. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the contribution of mineral fertilization and liming in a Cerrado soil on the initial growth of Schizolobium parahybae. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, with 4 treatments (Cerrado soil; soil + liming; soil + fertilizer; and soil + fertilizer + liming and 15 replicates. The following variables were analyzed: plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, total, shoot, leaf, root and stem dry matter, and root/shoot ratio. The obtained data were subjected to the analysis of variance, Tukey test and regression analysis. During the initial growth, Schizolobium parahybae can be cultivated in a Brazilian Cerrado soil only under mineral fertilization, with no need for soil liming.

  12. Loss of soil (macro)fauna due to the expansion of Brazilian sugarcane acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Bartz, Marie L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Baretta, Dilmar; Cerri, Carlos E P; Feigl, Brigitte J; Wall, Diana H; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-09-01

    Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance

  13. Bacterial community composition in Brazilian Anthrosols and adjacent soils characterized using culturing and molecular identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B; Grossman, J; Tsai, M T; Gomes, J E; Lehmann, J; Peterson, J; Neves, E; Thies, J E

    2009-07-01

    Microbial community composition was examined in two soil types, Anthrosols and adjacent soils, sampled from three locations in the Brazilian Amazon. The Anthrosols, also known as Amazonian dark earths, are highly fertile soils that are a legacy of pre-Columbian settlement. Both Anthrosols and adjacent soils are derived from the same parent material and subject to the same environmental conditions, including rainfall and temperature; however, the Anthrosols contain high levels of charcoal-like black carbon from which they derive their dark color. The Anthrosols typically have higher cation exchange capacity, higher pH, and higher phosphorus and calcium contents. We used culture media prepared from soil extracts to isolate bacteria unique to the two soil types and then sequenced their 16S rRNA genes to determine their phylogenetic placement. Higher numbers of culturable bacteria, by over two orders of magnitude at the deepest sampling depths, were counted in the Anthrosols. Sequences of bacteria isolated on soil extract media yielded five possible new bacterial families. Also, a higher number of families in the bacteria were represented by isolates from the deeper soil depths in the Anthrosols. Higher bacterial populations and a greater diversity of isolates were found in all of the Anthrosols, to a depth of up to 1 m, compared to adjacent soils located within 50-500 m of their associated Anthrosols. Compared to standard culture media, soil extract media revealed diverse soil microbial populations adapted to the unique biochemistry and physiological ecology of these Anthrosols.

  14. Persistence, leaching and volatilization of 14C-aldrin in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Lord, K.A.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The persistence, leaching and volatilization of aldrin in two Brazilian soils, one rich (soil 1) the other poor (soil 2) in organic matter, was studied under field and laboratory conditions, by gas chromatography and radioisotope techniques. In the field, soils were packed into PVC tubes 30 cm long and 5.0 cm diameter, sunk in a bed of sand. After 1 year radioactivity was found in soil 1 only in the top 10 cm from which 36% of unchanged pesticide was extracted, in contrast with soil 2 where only 8% radioactivity remained and this was distributed to a depth of at least 20 cm. Laboratory tests were made in closed jars with plastic caps lined with a circle of polyurethane foam to absorb volatile materials. After 120 days 30,9% of radioactivity from soil 1 was found in the foam and 61,7% from soil 2. Increased soil moisture content increased the radioactivity found in foam above soil 2. Thin layer chromatography of soil extracts showed the presence of aldrin, dieldrin and a third non identified radioactive material. (Author) [pt

  15. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This congress discussed soils science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soils physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soils and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality. In the fourth volume of the abstracts were presented papers related to use of fertilizers and herbicides

  16. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, C.G.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    The degradation of 14 C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author) [pt

  17. Phosphorus migration analysis using synchrotron radiation in soil treated with Brazilian granular fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Melo Benites, Vinícius de; César Teixeira, Paulo; Anjos, Marcelino José dos; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil type red Oxisol treated with three different forms of granular fertilizer. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was applied to determine the concentration of P at different distances from granular fertilizer application point. The results showed that most of the P from fertilizers tends to concentrate in a region of up to 10 mm around the place of the fertilizer deposition. - Highlights: • Phosphorus (P) mobility in a tropical Brazilian soil. • Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was applied to determine the concentration of P. • Fertilizers used monoammonium phosphate and polymer coated monoammonium phosphate.

  18. Evaluation of mobility potential of 90Sr in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-01-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of 90 Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with 90 Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT corn : 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT radish : 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT cabbage : 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great 90 Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and nutrients content) improved

  19. Soil biodiversity in amazonian and other Brazilian ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira, F.M.S.; Siqueira, J.O.; Brussaard, L.

    2006-01-01

    This book reviews soil biodiversity and related ecological processes in one of the key biodiversity hotspots of the world, the Amazon, and nearby regions of Brazil. It covers both the tropical savannah and rainforests. Chapters describe the biology, ecology, taxonomy, geographic distribution and

  20. Evaluating Brazilian sugarcane expansion effects on soil structure using VESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing global demand for biofuel has accelerated land-use change (LUC) in Brazil, primarily by replacing degraded pasture with sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The intensive echanization associated with this LUC has increased concerns regarding soil structural quality (SSQ). Through decades of...

  1. Land cover changes affect soil chemical attributes in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Rezende Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forest plantations may minimize the effects of deforestation in the Amazon. However, there are differences among species in terms of their influences on soil recovery. The effects of monospecific plantations of Acacia mangium, Dipteryx odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Parkia decussata,and Swietenia macrophylla, and areas of pasture and native forest on the chemical soil attributes of the Brazilian Amazon were evaluated. One bulked soil sample was collected per plot (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m; three plots of 128 m2 in each area. No significant differences in most of the soil attributes were observed among the forest plantations. However, soil K+ and P were higher in the Swietenia macrophylla plantations, while higher values of Ca2+, sum of bases, and pH occurred in Jacaranda copaia plantations. In the native forest, the pH, and P content were lower, whereas the soil organic matter (SOM content, soil organic carbon (SOC content, cation exchange capacity (CEC, N content, H+Al content, and Al3+ content were higher than in the plantations. The lowest values of SOM, SOC, CEC, K+, Mg2+, N, H+Al, and Al3+ occurred in the pasture. None of the forest species led to the return of the original soil chemical attributes of the native forest. However, S. macrophylla and J. copaia plantations presented the highest positive edaphic influences.

  2. Institutional landmarks in Brazilian research on soil erosion: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of soil erosion in Brazil has been a focus of agricultural scientific research since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to provide a historical overview of the institutional landmarks which gave rise to the first studies in soil erosion and established the foundations of agricultural research in Brazil. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century saw the founding of a series of institutions in Brazil, such as Botanical Gardens, executive institutions, research institutes, experimental stations, educational institutions of agricultural sciences, as well as the creation and diversification of scientific journals. These entities, each in its own way, served to foster soil erosion research in Brazil. During the Imperial period (1808-1889, discussions focused on soil degradation and conserving the fertility of agricultural land. During the First Republic (1889-1930, with the founding of various educational institutions and consolidation of research on soil degradation conducted by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas in the State of São Paulo, studies focused on soil depletion, identification of the major factors causing soil erosion and the measures necessary to control it. During the New State period (1930-1945, many soil conservation practices were developed and disseminated to combat erosion and field trials were set up, mainly to measure soil and water losses induced by hydric erosion. During the Brazilian New Republic (1945-1964, experiments were conducted throughout Brazil, consolidating soil and water conservation as one of the main areas of Soil Science in Brazil. This was followed by scientific conferences on erosion and the institutionalization of post-graduate studies. During the Military Regime (1964-1985, many research and educational institutions were founded, experimental studies intensified, and coincidently, soil erosion reached alarming levels which led to the development of the no-tillage system.

  3. SOIL ERODIBILITY IN THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO NOS TABULEIROS COSTEIROS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Curi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available

    In order to determine soil losses caused by water erosion, in different situations, erosion prediction models, such as the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE, are used. Their application on agricultural and environmental planning depends on the determination of the USLE factors, including erodibility (K factor. The objective of this study was to determine erodibility for the main soil classes of the Brazilian Coastal Plains region, in Aracruz, Espírito Santo State. The experiment was established in the following soils: medium/clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, Haplic Plinthosol (FX, and moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA2. For the calculation of soil erodibility, data of erosivity and soil losses, from November 1997 to May 2004, were used. Soil losses samplings were performed for each rainfall event regarded as erosive. The erodibility values were 0.007 Mg h MJ-1 mm-1

  4. The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission

    Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. PhD thesis,

  5. Biochar improves fertility of a clay soil in the Brazilian Savannah: short term effects and impact on rice yield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melo Carvalho, de M.T.; Madari, B.E.; Bastiaans, L.; Oort, van P.A.J.; Heinemann, A.B.; Silva, da M.A.S.; Maia, A.H.N.; Meinke, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report single season effects of wood biochar (char) application coupled with N fertilization on soil chemical properties, aerobic rice growth and grain yield in a clayey Rhodic Ferralsol in the Brazilian Savannah. Char application effected an increase in soil pH,

  6. Esterase screening using whole cells of Brazilian soil microorganisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, Simone M.; Oliveira, Luciana G. de; Marsaioli, Anita J., E-mail: anita@iqm.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    A miniaturized enzymatic assay using fluorescent probes to reveal esterase producing microorganisms was optimized and applied to screen 64 soil bacterial strains. The best results were validated using traditional non-fluorogenic assays with acetyl and propanoyl phenylethanol to confirm the miniaturized results. The most active microorganisms belong to the genus Bacillus showing esterase activity and good enantiomeric ratios for the resolution of phenylethanol derivatives (E > 30). Part of the microorganisms are kept in our laboratory in glycerol or freezedried and the best microorganisms will be deposited in the CBMAI/CPQBA/UNICAMP culture collection. (author)

  7. Electroanalytical procedure for the determination of methylparathion in soil suspensions and its application for sorption studies with Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castanho Giuliane M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential pulse polarography technique was used to establish an electroanalytical procedure for the determination of the organophosphorous insecticide methyl parathion (O,O-dimethyl O-(4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate in soil samples. Three reduction peaks were observed in mercury electrodes as a function of the solution pH. The more cathodic peak (Ep= -0.55V, only observed for pH values higher than 5.0, was chosen for the analytical determinations. The limit of detection was 1.93x10-8 mol L-1 for pure water and about 8x10-8 mol L-1 for soil suspensions with a scan rate of 2 mV s-1 and a pH of 6.75. The electroanalytical procedure developed was applied for the determination of sorption isotherms of methylparathion on 3 soils from São Paulo State, Brazil, at different pH and diverse amounts of clay and organic matter. The experimental data were fitted using the Freundlich isotherm model and the Freundlich coefficients (K F obtained for each soil varied from 7 to 29 L kg-1, representing a low to medium sorption capacity, according to the IBAMA (Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency standards. The amounts of organic matter and clay were the most important soil parameters controling the sorption of methylparathion by these soils.

  8. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  9. Effect of sugarcane burning or green harvest methods on the Brazilian Cerrado soil bacterial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Caio T C C; Santos, Adriana L; Piccolo, Marisa C; Balieiro, Fabiano C; Coutinho, Heitor L C; Peixoto, Raquel S; Tiedje, James M; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is one of the most important biodiversity reservoirs in the world. The sugarcane cultivation is expanding in this biome and necessitates the study of how it may impact the soil properties of the Cerrado. There is a lack of information especially about the impacts of different sugarcane management on the native bacterial communities of Cerrado soil. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate and compare the soil bacterial community structure of the Cerrado vegetation with two sugarcane systems. We evaluated samples under native vegetation and the impact of the two most commonly used management strategies for sugarcane cultivation (burnt cane and green cane) on this diversity using pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR of the rrs gene (16S rRNA). Nineteen different phyla were identified, with Acidobacteria (≈35%), Proteobacteria (≈24%) and Actinobacteria (≈21%) being the most abundant. Many of the sequences were represented by few operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 3% of dissimilarity), which were found in all treatments. In contrast, there were very strong patterns of local selection, with many OTUs occurring only in one sample. Our results reveal a complex bacterial diversity, with a large fraction of microorganisms not yet described, reinforcing the importance of this biome. As possible sign of threat, the qPCR detected a reduction of the bacterial population in agricultural soils compared with native Cerrado soil communities. We conclude that sugarcane cultivation promoted significant structural changes in the soil bacterial community, with Firmicutes phylum and Acidobacteria classes being the groups most affected.

  10. Sorption and mobility of 14C-fenamiphos in Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Tanya; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala

    2018-02-02

    Although fenamiphos is widely used as an insecticide and nematicide in bowling greens and agriculture, information on its sorption in tropical soils is limited. In this study, mobility, sorption, and desorption dynamics of 14 C-fenamiphos in three contrasting Brazilian soils were examined both in batch and column experiments. Fenamiphos sorption coefficients (K d ) were 2.33, 3.86, and 3.9 L kg -1 for the three soils tested. The insecticide exhibited linear adsorption isotherms in all the three soils, and desorption was in a range of 30-40% during a 72-h period. With its low mobility, fenamiphos did not percolate through the soil profile even after 48 h. However, there is a risk of leaching to water bodies due to runoff because of its high solubility in water. In view of the fact that fenamiphos and its oxidation products are highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates and could affect the soil microbial activities even at low concentrations, the present information is of great importance in risk assessment of fenamiphos in the environment.

  11. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  12. Soil carbon storage in silvopasture and related land-use systems in the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonucci, Rafael G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D; Garcia, Rasmo; Bernardino, Fernando S

    2011-01-01

    Silvopastoral management of fast-growing tree plantations is becoming popular in the Brazilian Cerrado (savanna). To understand the influence of such systems on soil carbon (C) storage, we studied C content in three aggregate size classes in six land-use systems (LUS) on Oxisols in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The systems were a native forest, a treeless pasture, 24- and 4-yr-old eucalyptus ( sp.) plantations, and 15- and 4-yr-old silvopastures of fodder grass plus animals under eucalyptus. From each system, replicated soil samples were collected from four depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-50, and 50-100 cm), fractionated into 2000- to 250-, 250- to 53-, and <53-μm size classes representing macroaggregates, microaggregates, and silt + clay, respectively, and their C contents determined. Macroaggregate was the predominant size fraction under all LUS, especially in the surface soil layers of tree-based systems. In general, C concentrations (g kg soil) in the different aggregate size fractions did not vary within the same depth. The soil organic carbon (SOC) stock (Mg C ha) to 1-m depth was highest under pasture compared with other LUS owing to its higher soil bulk density. The soils under all LUS had higher C stock compared with other reported values for managed tropical ecosystems: down to 1 m, total SOC stock values ranged from 461 Mg ha under pasture to 393 Mg ha under old eucalyptus. Considering the possibility for formation and retention of microaggregates within macroggregates in low management-intensive systems such as silvopasture, the macroaggregate dynamics in the soil seem to be a good indicator of its C storage potential. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.

  13. Accumulation of 137Cs in Brazilian soils and its transfer to plants under different climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl, J.; Sachse, R.; Jakob, D.; Michel, R.; Evangelista, H.; Goncalves, A.C.; Freitas, A.C. de

    2008-01-01

    The spatial distribution and behaviour of the global fallout 137 Cs in the tropical, subtropical and equatorial soil-plant systems were investigated at several upland sites in Brazil selected according to their climate characteristics, and to the agricultural importance. To determine the 137 Cs deposition density, undisturbed soil profiles were taken from 23 environments situated between the latitudes of 02 o N and 30 o S. Sampling sites located along to the equator exhibited 137 Cs deposition densities with an average value of 219 Bq m -2 . Extremely low deposition densities of 1.3 Bq m -2 were found in the Amazon region. In contrast, the southern part of Brazil, located between latitudes of 20 o S and 34 o S, exhibited considerably higher deposition densities ranging from 140 Bq m -2 to 1620 Bq m -2 . To examine the 137 Cs soil-to-plant transfer in the Brazilian agricultural products, 29 mainly tropical plant species, and corresponding soil samples were collected at 43 sampling locations in nine federal states of Brazil. Values of the 137 Cs concentration factor plant/soil exhibited a large range from 0.020 (beans) to 6.2 (cassava). Samples of some plant species originated from different collecting areas showed different concentration factors. The 137 Cs content of some plants collected was not measurable due to a very low 137 Cs concentration level found in the upper layers of the incremental soils. Globally, the soil-to-plant transfer of 137 Cs can be described by a logarithmic normal distribution with a geometric mean of 0.3 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.9

  14. Soil, land use time, and sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Brazilian Cerrado region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, Kleber; Galvão, Lênio Soares; Formaggio, Antonio Roberto; de Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira E Cruz

    2017-02-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado area is in rapid decline because of the expansion of modern agriculture. In this study, we used extensive field data and a 30-year chronosequence of Landsat images (1980-2010) to assess the effects of time since conversion of Cerrado into agriculture upon soil chemical attributes and soybean/corn yield in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed. We determined the rates of vegetation conversion into agriculture, the agricultural land use time since conversion, and the temporal changes in topsoil (0-20 cm soil depth) and subsurface (20-40 cm) chemical attributes of the soils. In addition, we investigated possible associations between fertilization/over-fertilization and land use history detected from the satellites. The results showed that 61.8% of the native vegetation in the Alto do Rio Verde watershed was already converted into agriculture with 31% of soils being used in agriculture for more than 30 years. While other fertilizers in cultivated soils (e.g., Ca +2 , Mg +2 , and P) have been compensated over time by soil management practices to keep crop yield high, large reductions in C org (38%) and N tot (29%) were observed in old cultivated areas. Furthermore, soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming presented higher values of P and Mg +2 than the ideal levels necessary for plant development. Therefore, increased risks of over-fertilization of the soils and environmental contamination with these macronutrients were associated with soybean and cornfields having more than 10 years of farming, especially those with more than 30 years of agricultural land use.

  15. Amostragem de solo para estudos de fertilidade Sampling soils for fertility studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Catani

    1955-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de estabelecer um sistema e técnica mais adequados de se coletar amostras de terra, para fins de estudo de fertilidade. Foram escolhidas duas áreas de solos diferentes. Uma delas com seis hectares, situada na Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, em solo tipo terra roxa legítima ; a outra com quatro hectares e localizada na Fazenda Santa Maria, em Pindorama, em solo do tipo arenito Bauru. A retirada das amostras de cada área foi feita com tubos especialmente construídos para esse fim e obedeceu ao seguinte critério: 1 30 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área ; 2 10 amostras compostas, formadas de cinco amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. 3 5 amostras compostas, formadas de 20 amostras simples, cobrindo tôda a área. Nessas amostras foram determinados : pH, carbono total, potássio "trocável" e cálcio "trocável". Diante dos dados obtidos e levando-se em conta o trabalho exigido no laboratório, aconselha-se a retirada de três amostras compostas formadas de 20 simples cada uma, em glebas uniformes, de cinco hectares aproximadamente.The following methods of collecting soil samples for fertility studies were compared : 1 thirty individual samples covering the whole area ; 2 ten composite samples, each consisting of five individual samples, covering the whole area ; 3 five composite samples, each consisting of 20 individual samples, covering the whole area. The three types of samples were collected in each of two plots : 1 a six-hectare plot in the Estação Experimental de Ribeirão Prêto, representing the "terra roxa" soil; 2 a four-hectare plot in the Santa Maria Farm, Pindorama, where the soil is of the "arenito de Bauru" type. The pH, total carbon, and exchangeable potassium and calcium were determined in the samples. Based on data obtained in the present investigation and considering the amount of work involved in the routine laboratory tests, it is suggested that

  16. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] rhizobial diversity in Brazilian oxisols under various soil, cropping, and inoculation managements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loureiro, M.D.; Kaschuk, G.; Alberton, O.; Hungria, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, soybean nodules were collected from 12 sites in the State of Mato Grosso, in the Brazilian Cerrados, where both exotic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] and bradyrhizobial strains have been introduced from 1 to 18 years before. All soils were originally devoid of rhizobia capable of

  17. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of soil organic matter extracted from a Brazilian mangrove and Spanish salt marshes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perobelli Ferreira, F.; Buurman, P.; Macias, F.; Otero, X.L.; Boluda, R.

    2009-01-01

    The soil organic matter (SOM) extracted under different vegetation types from a Brazilian mangrove (Pai Matos Island, São Paulo State) and from three Spanish salt marshes (Betanzos Ría and Corrubedo Natural Parks, Galícia, and the Albufera Natural Park, Valencia) was investigated by pyrolysis-gas

  18. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  19. BRAZILIAN BUSINESS REVIEW: UM ESTUDO SOB A ÓTICA DA BIBLIOMETRIA E DA REDE SOCIAL DE 2004 A 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the scientific journal of the Brazilian Business Review, from 2004 to 2011. The study is based on bibliometric and social network, using descriptive statistics, in 129 articles published. The main results were: predominance of papers in partnership; the authors Valcemiro Nossa, Ariovaldo dos Santos e Otávio Ribeiro de Medeiros are the most prolific; Lopes, A. B. and Porter, M. E. were the most cited researchers; the University of São Paulo was the IES had published more papers. There was a central network both in coauthorship but also in IES. And the themes most prevalent in eight years of study were: Finance, Capital Markets, Marketing, Organization and Business and Accounting and Auditing. It is so macro, even being a new journal at the academia, the Brazilian Business Review, through its collection, now portrays the world of scientific production. This shows the maturity and importance of this journal, serving as fomenter and disseminator of knowledge and the flow of scientific information in the academic literature nationally, but specifically in the áreas of administration, accounting and economics.

  20. Custeio ABC no ambiente hospitalar: um estudo nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros ABC costing in hospital environment: a study in brazilian university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Custeio Baseado em Atividades tem se mostrado como uma alternativa promissora para fazer frente à complexidade que caracteriza os custos hospitalares. Nos últimos dez anos, somente na Plataforma Lattes, foram encontrados mais de uma centena de estudos dessa natureza. Este trabalho tem como objetivo, conhecer, empiricamente, a utilização do Custeio ABC nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros e comparar os resultados, conforme as possibilidades, com as pesquisas realizadas nas maiores empresas brasileiras pelos autores: Khoury (1999, Beuren e Roedel (2002 e Azevedo, Santos e Pamplona (2004. Dos 115 questionários enviados aos hospitais universitários, 34 foram respondidos. O estudo levou a conclusões importantes, como: Os sistemas de custos atuais dos hospitais têm poucas condições de fornecer informações úteis à gestão; o Custeio ABC é bastante conhecido no ambiente, mas o número de usuários ainda é relativamente pequeno: apenas 15% da amostra; mas existe expectativa por parte de 44% dos hospitais com relação ao uso futuro da abordagem. As principais causas apresentadas para a não-utilização do Sistema ABC foram: (a o sistema utilizado atende às necessidades da organização e (b o Custeio Baseado em Atividades é muito complexo.The Cost Based Activity has been a promising alternative to deal with the complexity that characterizes hospital costs. In the last ten years, only in the Plataforma Lattes, more than a hundred studies of this nature had been found. This work aims to find out, empirically, the use of ABC Costing in Brazilian university hospitals and to compare the results, according to the possibilities, with the researches that have been made in the biggest Brazilian companies by the authors: Khoury (1999, Beuren and Roedel (2002 and Azevedo, Santos and Pamplona (2004. A hundred and fifteen questionnaires were sent to the university hospitals, 34 had been answered. The study relates important

  1. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillar, V D; Tornquist, C G; Bayer, C

    2012-08-01

    The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.

  2. Changes in diversity, abundance, and structure of soil bacterial communities in Brazilian Savanna under different land use systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampelotto, Pabulo Henrique; de Siqueira Ferreira, Adão; Barboza, Anthony Diego Muller; Roesch, Luiz Fernando Wurdig

    2013-10-01

    The Brazilian Savanna, also known as "Cerrado", is the richest and most diverse savanna in the world and has been ranked as one of the main hotspots of biodiversity. The Cerrado is a representative biome in Central Brazil and the second largest biome in species diversity of South America. Nevertheless, large areas of native vegetation have been converted to agricultural land including grain production, livestock, and forestry. In this view, understanding how land use affects microbial communities is fundamental for the sustainable management of agricultural ecosystems. The aim of this work was to analyze and compare the soil bacterial communities from the Brazilian Cerrado associated with different land use systems using high throughput pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Relevant differences were observed in the abundance and structure of bacterial communities in soils under different land use systems. On the other hand, the diversity of bacterial communities was not relevantly changed among the sites studied. Land use systems had also an important impact on specific bacterial groups in soil, which might change the soil function and the ecological processes. Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the most abundant groups in the Brazilian Cerrado. These findings suggest that more important than analyzing the general diversity is to analyze the composition of the communities. Since soil type was the same among the sites, we might assume that land use was the main factor defining the abundance and structure of bacterial communities.

  3. Soil Extracellular Enzymes from Brazilian Cerrado as Quality Bioindicators in Agricultural Areas in Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leciana de Menezes Sousa Zago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of native Cerrado areas for the implementation of crops alters the physicochemical properties and biochemistry of soil. In this study we sought to understand the effect of seasonality and management used for planting sugarcane on the activity of hydrolases and oxidoreductases. Cerrado native soil samples and soil converted to sugarcane crops under different management underwent physical-chemical assessment, biological and biochemistry. The implementation of monocultures in Brazilian Cerrado caused reductions in the amount of organic matter and organic carbon in relation to the native vegetation, which in turn reflected in decreased biological activity in the soil. Thus, it was found that hydrolases and oxidoreductases are sensitive to the caused variations in drought and rain events, and in the vegetation cover and management used for the implementation of sugarcane. Therefore soil hydrolases and oxidoreductases can be used as quality bioindicators in the Cerrado soils of Goiás.

  4. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  5. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  6. Relationships between soil organic matter pools and nitrous oxide emissions of agroecosystems in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Cícero Célio; de Oliveira, Alexsandra Duarte; Dos Santos, Isis Lima; Ferreira, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza; Malaquias, Juaci Vitoria; de Sá, Marcos Aurélio Carolino; de Carvalho, Arminda Moreira; Dos Santos, João de Deus Gomes

    2018-03-15

    In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N 2 O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N 2 O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear. This study hypothesized that agroecosystems under no-till promote an accumulation of labile and stable SOM fractions along with a reduction of N 2 O emissions. This study evaluated the effects of crop-rotation agroecosystems: i) on C and N pools and labile and stable SOM fractions; ii) on cumulative N 2 O emissions; and iii) on the relationships between SOM fractions and N 2 O emissions. The agricultural systems consisted of: (I) soybean followed by sorghum under no-tillage (NT1); (II) maize followed by pigeon pea under no-tillage (NT2); (III) soybean under conventional tillage followed by fallow soil (CT); (IV) and native Cerrado (CER). After CT for 18years, following the replacement of CER, the soil C stock in the 0-20cm layer was reduced by 0.64tha -1 year -1 . The no-till systems were more efficient in accumulating labile and stable C fractions with values close to those observed under CER, and were directly related to lower soil N 2 O emissions. The cumulative pattern of N 2 O emissions was inverse to that of the following SOM fractions: microbial biomass carbon, permanganate-oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, inert carbon, and humic substances. Based on principal component analysis, the CT was generally separated from the other land use systems. This separation was strongly influenced by the low C contents in the different SOM fractions and higher N 2 O emissions promoted by the

  7. Kinetic study of the gum decomposition from brazilian gasoline; Estudo cinetico da decomposicao da goma oriunda de gasolina brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivesso, Paulo Roberto; Galvao, Luzia Patricia Fernandes de Carvalho; Fernandes Junior, Valter Jose; Coutinho, Ana Carla S.L.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Gouveia de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The modern gasoline contains in your composition insatured hydrocarbons that can be degraded by the action of the air, heat and substances presenting catalytic activity. The presence of air and heat promote oxidation reactions and polymerization, which promote the gum formation, that is a product with diverse characteristics. The petroleum and l the automobile industries have been investing in researches to lessen the gum undesirable effects. Nowadays, several products are added to the gasoline, for example, the surfactant additives, with the purpose to reduce the formation of deposits in the engine. This work evaluated the influence of a polyester amine addictive, used as the main active component in Brazilian gasoline. The gums were generated evaporating the gasolines according to the ASTM D 381 method. Two types of gum were obtained; the Common Washed Gum (White Sample) and the Additive based Washed Gum (Additive Sample). Both samples were characterized for thermal analysis and submitted for a kinetic study using the model-free method proposed by Vyazovkin. This approach was applied to the final stage of the gums decomposition, supplying the corresponding relative kinetic parameters, such as energy of activation and conversion (author)

  8. Influence of Extractant and Soil Type on Molecular Characteristics of Humic Substances From Two Brazilian Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Deborah Pinheiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study it was observed that humic substances (HS extracted with NaOH solution and with Na4P2O7 solution presented different molecular weights, and also that the extracted HS yield by each method varied between an Oxisol and a Mollisol from South Brazil. In the present study, we further investigated the organic matter in these soils by characterizing HS extracted with 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH and with neutral 0.15 mol L-1 Na4P2O7 solutions from the above mentioned samples, using elemental analysis and nuclear magnetic ressonance spectroscopy (liquid state ¹H- and 13C-NMR, and by relating the molecular differences to the extraction method and soil type. HS extracted with pyrophosphate were more humified, showing a higher aromaticity and higher carboxylic content. The NaOH-extracted HS were more aliphatic and contained a higher O-alkyl proportion, which is indicative of a less humified nature than the pyrophosphate-extracted HS.

  9. Polymer tensiometer with ceramic cones: a case study for a Brazilian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durigon, A.; de Jong van Lier, Q.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Gooren, H. P. A.; Metselaar, K.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2009-04-01

    Laboratory outflow experiments, in combination with inverse modeling techniques, allow to simultaneously determine retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. A numerical model solves the pressure-head-based form of the Richards' equation for unsaturated flow in a rigid porous medium. Applying adequate boundary conditions, the cumulative outflow is calculated at prescribed times, and as a function of the set of optimized parameters. These parameters are evaluated by nonlinear least-squares fitting of predicted to observed cumulative outflow with time. An objective function quantifies this difference between calculated and observed cumulative outflow and between predicted and measured soil water retention data. Using outflow data only in the objective function, the multistep outflow method results in unique estimates of the retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. To obtain more reliable estimates of the hydraulic conductivity as a function of the water content using the inverse method, the outflow data must be supplemented with soil retention data. To do so tensiometers filled with a polymer solution instead of water were used. The measurement range of these tensiometers is larger than that of the conventional tensiometers, being able to measure the entire pressure head range over which crops take up water, down to values in the order of -1.6 MPa. The objective of this study was to physically characterize a Brazilian red-yellow oxisol using measurements in outflow experiments by polymer tensiometers and processing these data with the inverse modeling technique for use in the analysis of a field experiment and in modeling. The soil was collected at an experimental site located in Piracicaba, Brazil, 22° 42 S, 47° 38 W, 550 m above sea level.

  10. Soil, water, and nutrient losses from management alternatives for degraded pasture in Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha Junior, Paulo Roberto da; Andrade, Felipe Vaz; Mendonça, Eduardo de Sá; Donagemma, Guilherme Kangussú; Fernandes, Raphael Bragança Alves; Bhattharai, Rabin; Kalita, Prasanta Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate sediment, water and nutrient losses from different pasture managements in the Atlantic Rainforest biome. A field study was carried out in Alegre Espiríto Santo, Brazil, on a Xanthic Ferralsol cultivated with braquiaria (Brachiaria brizantha). The six pasture managements studied were: control (CON), chisel (CHI), fertilizer (FER), burned (BUR), plowing and harrowing (PH), and integrated crop-livestock (iCL). Runoff and sediment samples were collected and analyzed for calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and organic carbon contents. Soil physical attributes and above and below biomass were also evaluated. The results indicated that higher water loss was observed for iCL (129.90mm) and CON (123.25mm) managements, and the sediment losses were higher for CON (10.24tha -1 ) and BUR (5.20tha -1 ) managements when compared to the other managements. Majority of the nutrients losses occurred in dissolved fraction (99% of Ca, 99% of Mg, 96% of K, and 65% of P), whereas a significant fraction of organic carbon (80%) loss occurred in a particulate form. Except for P, other nutrients (Ca, Mg and K) and organic carbon losses were higher in coarse sediment compared to fine sediment. The greater losses of sediment, organic carbon, and nutrients were observed for CON followed by BUR management (plosses from various practices, to reduce pasture degradation, farmers should adopt edaphic practices by applying lime and fertilize to improve pasture growth and soil cover, and reducing soil erosion in the hilly Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest biome. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Impact of Different Agricultural Waste Biochars on Maize Biomass and Soil Water Content in a Brazilian Cerrado Arenosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia B. Speratti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arenosols in the Brazilian Cerrado are increasingly being used for agricultural production, particularly maize. These sandy soils are characterized by low soil organic matter, low available nutrients, and poor water-holding capacity. For this reason, adding biochar as a soil amendment could lead to improved water and nutrient retention. A greenhouse experiment was carried out using twelve biochars derived from four feedstocks (cotton husks, swine manure, eucalyptus sawmill residue, sugarcane filtercake pyrolized at 400, 500 and 600 °C and applied at 5% w/w. The biochars’ effect on maize biomass was examined, along with their contribution to soil physical properties including water retention, electrical conductivity (EC, and grain size distribution. After six weeks, maize plants in soils with eucalyptus and particularly filtercake biochar had higher biomass compared to those in soils with cotton and swine manure biochars. The latter’s low biomass was likely related to excessive salinity. In general, our biochars showed potential for increasing θ in sandy soils compared to the soil alone. Filtercake and eucalyptus biochars may improve soil aeration and water infiltration, while applying cotton and swine manure biochars at levels <5% to avoid high salinity could contribute to improved soil water retention in Cerrado Arenosols.

  12. Land cover changes and greenhouse gas emissions in two different soil covers in the Brazilian Caatinga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Kelly; Sousa-Neto, Eráclito Rodrigues de; Carvalho, João Andrade de; Sousa Lima, José Romualdo de; Menezes, Rômulo Simões Cezar; Duarte-Neto, Paulo José; da Silva Guerra, Glauce; Ometto, Jean Pierre Henry Baulbaud

    2016-11-15

    The Caatinga biome covers an area of 844,453km(2) and has enormous endemic biodiversity, with unique characteristics that make it an exclusive Brazilian biome. It falls within the earth's tropical zone and is one of the several important ecoregions of Brazil. This biome undergoes natural lengthy periods of drought that cause losses in crop and livestock productivity, having a severe impact on the population. Due to the vulnerability of this ecosystem to climate change, livestock has emerged as the main livelihood of the rural population, being the precursor of the replacement of native vegetation by grazing areas. This study aimed to measure GHG emissions from two different soil covers: native forest (Caatinga) and pasture in the municipality of São João, Pernambuco State, in the years 2013 and 2014. GHG measurements were taken by using static chamber techniques in both soil covers. According to a previous search, so far, this is the first study measuring GHG emissions using the static chamber in the Caatinga biome. N2O emissions ranged from -1.0 to 4.2mgm(-2)d(-1) and -1.22 to 3.4mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and they did not significantly differ from each other. Emissions were significantly higher during dry seasons. Carbon dioxide ranged from -1.1 to 14.1 and 1.2 to 15.8gm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively. CO2 emissions were higher in the Caatinga in 2013, and they were significantly influenced by soil temperature, showing an inverse relation. Methane emission ranged from 6.6 to 6.8 and -6.0 to 4.8mgm(-2)d(-1) in the pasture and Caatinga, respectively, and was significantly higher only in the Caatinga in the rainy season of 2014. Soil gas fluxes seemed to be influenced by climatic and edaphic conditions as well as by soil cover in the Caatinga biome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. MOIRÉ INTEFEROMETRY APPLIED TO SOIL DYNAMIC STUDIES /MOIRÉ INTERFEROMÉTRICO APLICADO A ESTUDOS DE DINÂMICA DO SOLO

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    ANTONIO JOSÉ DA SILVA MACIEL

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis research work reports the application of a shadow moiré technique as a photoelastic method to support a qualitative stress distribution study on soil samples. The knowledge of stress distribution on undisturbed soil is of unquestionable value to tillage purposes as well as to the civil constructionfield. The name moiré has its origin in the French language, referring to wave like pattern. When screens of same mesh density are superposed, fringes are generated which move when its relative positions are displaced, it was reported that moiré fringes can be used to magnify displacements, being also suitable as a photoelastic method. The experimental setup for this work included a digital camera to capture the moiré patterns generated for the Ronchi grid and a light source. The images were processed by the softwares named IrfanView, and Idrizi. Five images were taken the sample of clay and they were submitted to varying axial loads kept under the failure stress. Undisturbed samples cylindrical were prepared at the dimensions of 60 mm of height and 60 mm of diameter. Results included the stress distribution maps for each case. It is concluded that the technique get to determine qualitatively the principal stress in soil cylindrical testing specimens.Keywords: Soil Behavior; Optical Interference; Brazilian Test.

  14. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km2 of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant–microbe–soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical, and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the “BP legacy effect.” Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques in

  15. SWEET SORGHUM PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY SOIL COMPACTION AND SOWING TIME AS A SECOND CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

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    Wellingthon da Silva Guimarães Júnnyor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing attention has recently been given to sweet sorghum as a renewable raw material for ethanol production, mainly because its cultivation can be fully mechanized. However, the intensive use of agricultural machinery causes soil structural degradation, especially when performed under inadequate conditions of soil moisture. The aims of this study were to evaluate the physical quality of aLatossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol under compaction and its components on sweet sorghum yield forsecond cropsowing in the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in a split plot arrangement, with four replications. Five levels of soil compaction were tested from the passing of a tractor at the following traffic intensities: 0 (absence of additional compaction, 1, 2, 7, and 15 passes over the same spot. The subplots consisted of three different sowing times of sweet sorghum during the off-season of 2013 (20/01, 17/02, and 16/03. Soil physical quality was measured through the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil water limitation; crop yield and technological parameters were also measured. Monitoring of soil water contents indicated a reduction in the frequency of water content in the soil within the limits of the LLWR (Fwithin as agricultural traffic increased (T0 = T1 = T2>T7>T15, and crop yield is directly associated with soil water content. The crop sown in January had higher industrial quality; however, there was stalk yield reduction when bulk density was greater than 1.26 Mg m-3, with a maximum yield of 50 Mg ha-1 in this sowing time. Cultivation of sweet sorghum as a second crop is a promising alternative, but care should be taken in cultivation under conditions of pronounced climatic risks, due to low stalk yield.

  16. Shoot and root responses of Trifolium vesiculosum to boron fertilization in an acidic Brazilian soil

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    Nerilde Favaretto

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the influence of boron fertilization on shoot and root growth of Trifolium vesiculosum (arrowleaf clover, an acid soil profile (60 cm depth with 67% Al saturation was recreated in a column (three layers of 20 cm each. Lime and fertilizer (P and K were incorporated into the top 20 cm. The treatments consisted of six boron rates where boric acid was mixed throughout the profile. Addition of boron to soil with low pH and high Al increased the root and shoot growth, independent of the rate applied. Boron inhibited Al toxicity, but no effect was observed in the root length when Al was not present in the soil. It was also observed that there was more root growth below the plow layer (0-20 cm, suggesting better root distribution in the soil profile which could be important for the plant growth, especially under drought conditions.Estudos têm mostrado que o boro (B afeta o crescimento das raízes em solo ácido reduzindo a toxidez do alumínio (Al. Para analisar a influência do boro no crescimento da parte aérea e raízes do Trifolium Vesiculosum (trevo vesiculoso um perfil de solo ácido (60 cm de profundidade com 67% de saturação de Al foi recriado em uma coluna (três camadas com 20 cm cada. Calcário e adubos (P e K foram incorporados na camada de 0-20 cm. Os tratamentos consistiram de seis doses de boro sendo o ácido bórico incorporado em todo o perfil. A adubação com boro em solo com baixo pH e elevado Al aumentou o crescimento da parte aérea e raízes, no entanto, independente da dose aplicada. Boro pode inibir a toxidez de Al, porém não observou-se efeito no comprimento de raízes sem a presença de Al no solo. Observou-se também um grande aumento no crescimento de raízes abaixo da camada arável (0-20 cm, fornecendo uma melhor distribuição de raízes no perfil do solo, o que pode ser importante para o crescimento da planta especialmente em condição de seca.

  17. Socialização organizacional: estudo comparativo entre servidores públicos brasileiros e noruegueses Organizational socialization: a comparative study among Brazilian and norwegian civil servants

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    Virgínia Donizete de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi delineado com vistas a identificar os resultados de socialização organizacional de servidores atuantes em duas universidades públicas, de diferentes países (Brasil e Noruega, e compará-los numa perspectiva de análise transcultural. As amostras foram constituídas de professores e funcionários técnico-administrativos de uma universidade brasileira (N=72 e de uma universidade norueguesa (N=63. Na obtenção dos dados foi utilizado o Inventário de Socialização Organizacional (ISO e uma ficha sociodemográfica. Considerando que os respondentes são provenientes de diferentes culturas, os procedimentos de análise dos dados foram precedidos de testes para a verificação da ocorrência de diferentes estilos de resposta entre os mesmos. Para a identificação e comparação dos resultados de socialização organizacional foram estimadas as médias nos fatores do ISO, aplicados testes t para a comparação das médias e realizados testes ANOVA para verificar a ocorrência de diferenças significativas nos níveis de socialização organizacional em função da nacionalidade e da ocupação. Com base nos achados obtidos, observou-se que os servidores noruegueses, de modo geral, relataram maior integração às pessoas do que os servidores brasileiros e estes, por sua vez, tenderam a resultados mais satisfatórios de integração à organização. Notou-se, ainda, um efeito interativo entre nacionalidade e ocupação nos resultados de socialização organizacional, de forma que uma homogeneidade nos níveis de socialização de servidores docentes e técnico-administrativos foi verificada somente na universidade norueguesa, sendo expressivas as diferenças nos níveis de socialização dos servidores, em ocupações distintas, na universidade brasileira. Além disso, os funcionários técnico-administrativos noruegueses tenderam a se mostrar mais socializados do que os brasileiros, ao passo que, entre estes últimos, os docentes

  18. Partitioning and redistribution of exogenous Ra226 in farm soils from the vicinity of the First Brazilian Mine and Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, V.S.; Franca, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    A sequential selective extration method was employed to assess the partitioning and redistribution of exogenous 226 Ra into geochemical fractions of farm soils collected around the first Brazilian Uranium Mine and Mill. Six soil samples were contaminated in the laboratory by 226 a solution, simulating an irrigation procedure. After selective extractions, 226 Ra was analysed in six geochemical fractions: soluble (A); exchangeable (E); bound to carbonates (C); reducible (R); oxidizable (O); residual or matricial (M). The same method was also used in these soils before and after cultivation. The exogenous 226 Ra was mainly associated to the (R) and (O) fractions followed by the (E) and (C) ones. Exchangeable 226 Ra (fractions (A) + (E)) represents 21.8%. Statistically significant differences before and after cultivation were obtained only in the fractions (C) and (M). (Author) [pt

  19. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-01-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  20. Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (IM-P: estudo preliminar no contexto brasileiro Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P: preliminary study in the Brazilian context

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    Tárcia Rita Davoglio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A observação direta do comportamento interpessoal é um recurso importante na descrição e diagnóstico da personalidade psicopática. A Medida Interpessoal de Psicopatia (Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy, IM-P é um instrumento psicométrico composto por 21 itens, desenvolvido para ser utilizado em associação com outras escalas de avaliação da psicopatia. Foca-se, especificamente, nos comportamentos interpessoais e aspectos não verbais evidentes na interação do entrevistador com indivíduos que apresentam características psicopáticas. OBJETIVO: Descrever resultados preliminares sobre a investigação de aspectos interpessoais da psicopatia mediante a utilização da IM-P, incluindo as etapas de tradução/adaptação e avaliação de confiabilidade interavaliadores da IM-P, em uma amostra de adolescentes brasileiros. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo transversal, descritivo e correlacional realizado com 20 adolescentes masculinos cumprindo medida socioeducativa com privação de liberdade na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RS. Após os procedimentos de tradução da escala, treinamento dos pesquisadores e teste piloto por meio de uma entrevista semiestruturada, a IM-P foi pontuada por três juízes independentes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados estatísticos, obtidos através do coeficiente de concordância de Kendall, revelaram grau de concordância interavaliadores elevado e satisfatório para os escores totais da IM-P (W = 0,84; p INTRODUCTION: The direct observation of interpersonal behaviors is an important resource in the description and diagnosis of the psychopathic personality. The Interpersonal Measure of Psychopathy (IM-P is a psychometric instrument comprised of 21 items, designed to be applied in association with other instruments that also evaluate psychopaths. It focuses specifically on interpersonal and non-verbal behaviors that become evident during the interaction between the interviewer and individuals

  1. A prática do parto humanizado no SUS: estudo comparativo = The practice of humanized delivery in the Brazilian Health System (SUS: a comparative study

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    Luciele de Lima Wrobel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descritivo foi realizado em maternidades que prestamatendimento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, nas cidades de Guarapuava e Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Dentro do programa de Humanização implantado na Maternidade de Londrina pretendeu-se analisar o atendimento a parturiente quanto à humanização ao partocomparando com a realidade de dois hospitais de Guarapuava onde não existe o programa implantado e assim verificar se os direitos destas parturientes quanto à humanização estão sendo respeitados. Foi aplicado um questionário a 40 primíparas no puerpério imediato comperguntas semi-estruturadas. Ao comparar duas realidades diferentes, concluiu-se que alguns dos direitos das parturientes preconizados pela OMS não estavam sendo respeitados, especialmente onde não havia a implantação do parto humanizado, pois não era permitida a entrada de acompanhante e nem utilizadas técnicas de relaxamento para a parturiente, evidenciando assim que algumas instituições necessitam intensificar esses cuidados para melhorar a qualidade do atendimento prestado.This descriptive study was conducted in maternities assisted by the Brazilian Health System (SUS, in the cities of Guarapuava and Londrina, State of Paraná. In the program implanted in Londrina, the aim was to analyze the assistance to the parturient regarding humanization to the child delivery. This context was then comparedwith the reality in the maternities of two hospitals in Guarapuava, where these practices are not applied. The comparison intended to verify if the rights of these women to humanized delivery are being respected. A half-structured questionnaire was applied to forty women in labor. While comparing these two different realities, it was observed that a few of these rights, advocated by the OMS, were not being respected, especially where the humanization delivery was not a practice. Data revealed that the partner’s entrance was not allowed,neither were

  2. Estudo audiológico de uma população idosa brasileira Audiological study of an elderly brazilian population

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    Luís Cláudio do Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A população idosa brasileira cresce e representa 8,6% do total populacional. Fatores ambientais, hábitos de vida, sexo e fatores genéticos interferem na evolução da presbiacusia que reduz a qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Investigar queixas audiológicas e vestibulares em idosos, executar audiometria tonal, verificar se há diferenças entre os sexos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 320 pacientes idosos (160 homens e 160 mulheres foram submetidos a anamnese audiológica e audiometria tonal. Análise estatística dos resultados pelos testes ANOVA, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. RESULTADO: As queixas audiológicas e vestibulares (perda auditiva, tinnitus, plenitude auricular, tontura foram similares entre os sexos (exceção, a tontura: pThe Brazilian elderly population is growing, and already represents 8,6% of our total population. Environmental factors, lifestyle, gender and genetics impact the development of presbycusis, which reduces quality of life. AIM: investigate audiologic and vestibular complaints in the elderly; perform tonal audiometry and check to see if there are differences between genders. STUDY: Cross-sectional clinical prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 320 elderly patients (160 men and 160 women were submitted to audiologic interview and tonal audiometry. The results were statistically analyzed by the following methods: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Squared. RESULTS: audiologic and vestibular complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus, ear fullness, dizziness were similar between the genders (except for dizziness: p<0,05; tonal audiometry showed a significant difference, with hearing loss in the high frequencies among men; and among women the curves were descending and flat. These results were statistically significant (P<0,001. CONCLUSION: our results lead us to conclude that, when the genders are compared, hearing loss in the elderly has similar symptoms; however, there are

  3. Risk factors for recurrent falls among Brazilian women and men: the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS Fatores de risco para quedas recorrentes entre mulheres e homens brasileiros: o Estudo Brasileiro sobre Osteoporose (BRAZOS

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    Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to estimate the frequency of recurrent falls and identify the main associated risk factors. The BRAZOS is the first epidemiological study performed on a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Anthropometric data, living habits, previous fractures, falls, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life were evaluated in 2,420 individuals aged 40 and older. Recurrent falls were reported by 15.5% of men and 25.6% of women. Among women, the risk factors significantly associated to recurrent falls were age, previous fracture, sedentary lifestyle, poor quality of life, diabetes mellitus and current use of benzodiazepine. In men, the risk factors were age, poor quality of life, intake of alcoholic beverages, diabetes mellitus, previous fracture and use of benzodiazepine. A greater intake of vitamin D had a protector effect on the risk of recurrent falls. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of recurrent falls and emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to minimize recurrent falls and their consequences, including osteoporotic fractures.Estimar a freqüência de quedas recorrentes e identificar os principais fatores de risco associados. O BRAZOS é o primeiro estudo epidemiológico realizado em amostragem representativa da população brasileira. Dados antropométricos, hábitos de vida, fratura prévia, quedas, dieta, atividade física e qualidade de vida foram avaliados em 2.420 indivíduos adultos. Quedas recorrentes foram referidas por 15,5% dos homens e 25,6% das mulheres. Nas mulheres, os fatores de risco associados com quedas recorrentes foram idade, fratura prévia, sedentarismo, pior qualidade de vida, diabete mellitus e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Nos homens, foram idade, pior qualidade de vida, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, diabete mellitus, fratura prévia e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Maior ingestão de vitamina D desempenhou efeito protetor sobre o

  4. Reference values for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú

    2013-07-01

    Guideline values are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background values. Brazilian law establishes three guideline values for pollutants: a quality reference value (QRV), a prevention value, and an intervention value. Reference values refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These values inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference values for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th percentiles of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These values are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference values for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study.

  5. Soil Organic Matter Responses to Anthropogenic Forest Disturbance and Land Use Change in the Eastern Brazilian Amazon

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    Mariana Regina Durigan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic forest disturbance and land use change (LUC in the Amazon region is the main source of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere in Brazil, due to the carbon (C and nitrogen (N emitted from vegetation clearance. Land use conversion associated with management practices plays a key role in the distribution and origin of C in different soil organic matter (SOM fractions. Here, we show how changing land use systems have influenced soil C and N stocks, SOM physical fractions, and the origin of SOM in the Santarém region of the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Soil C and N stocks were calculated for the surface layer of 0–30 cm. Anthropogenic disturbances to the standing forest, such as selective logging and wildfires, led to significant declines in soil C and N stocks. However, in the long-term, the conversion of the Amazon forest to pasture did not have a noticeable effect on soil C and N stocks, presumably because of additional inputs from pasture grasses. However, the conversion to cropland did lead to reductions in soil C and N content. According to the physical fractionation of SOM, LUC altered SOM quality, but silt and clay remained the combined fraction that contributed the most to soil C storage. Our results emphasize the importance of implementing more sustainable forest management systems, whilst also calling further attention to the need for fire monitoring systems, helping to ensure the resilience of C and N stocks and sequestration in forest soils; thereby contributing towards urgently needed ongoing efforts to mitigate climate change.

  6. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

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    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  7. Disfunção erétil: resultados do estudo da vida sexual do brasileiro Erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian sexual life study

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    Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da disfunção erétil (DE e fatores de risco associados em amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de 2.862 homens, maiores de 18 anos, por meio de questionário anônimo e auto-responsivo. A prevalência de DE na amostra foi obtida mediante questão global derivada diretamente da definição de DE. Os dados foram submetidos a testes Qui-quadrado e t de Student. Foram utilizadas análises de regressão logística para cálculos dos riscos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada de DE foi 45,1% (31,2% mínima, 12,2% moderada e 1,7% completa. Indivíduos com DE apresentaram comprometimento da auto-estima, dos relacionamentos interpessoais, menos relações sexuais por semana, mais relações extraconjugais, queixas de falta de desejo sexual e ejaculação rápida. Comparados aos homens com idades entre 18 e 39 anos, aqueles com 60 a 69 têm 2,2 (95% IC; 1,4-3,4; p OBJETIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ED and related risk factors in a sample of the Brazilian male population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of 2,862 men, 18 years of age or older, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. ED prevalence in the sample was obtained by a general question which was directly derived from the ED definition. Data were submitted to chi-square or Student's t tests. Logistic regression analyses were used for risk factor calculations. RESULTS: The prevalence of ED was 45.1% (31.2% mild, 12.2% moderate and 1.7% complete. Subjects with ED presented lower self-esteem, hindered interpersonal relationships, fewer sexual intercourses per week, more extra-marital relationships, complaints of lack of libido and premature ejaculation. When compared with men aged 18-39 years, men aged 60-69 presented 2.2 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-3.4; p < 0.01, whereas men aged 70 or older presented 3.0 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-6.3; p < 0

  8. Fertility Evaluation of Limed Brazilian Soil Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue

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    Flávia Almeida Gabos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the main inorganic contaminants and evaluate the effect of lime addition, combined with soil dilution with uncontaminated soil, as a strategy for mitigation of these contaminants present in a soil polluted with auto scrap. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse at Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil in plastic pots (3 dm−3. Five soil mixtures, obtained by mixing an uncontaminated soil sample with contaminated soil (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated soil, were evaluated for soil fertility, availability of inorganic contaminants, and corn development. In addition to the expected changes in soil chemistry due to the addition of lime, only the availability of Fe and Mn in the soil mixtures was affected, while the available contents of Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb increased to some extent in the soil mixtures with higher proportion of contaminated soil. Liming of 10 t ha−1 followed by soil dilution at any proportion studied was not successful for mitigation of the inorganic contaminants to a desired level of soil fertility, as demonstrated by the available amounts extracted by the DTPA method (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd and hot water (B still present in the soil. This fact was also proved by the phytotoxicity observed and caused by high amounts of B and Zn accumulating in the plant tissue.

  9. Análise dos componentes principais e métodos multicritério ordinais no estudo de organossolos e solos afins Principal component analysis and ordinal multicriteria methods to study organosols and related soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Souza Valladares

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma importante propriedade dos Organossolos, e de outros solos com alto teor de C orgânico para predizer o potencial de uso e riscos de degradação, é o grau de subsidência (perda de massa e volume. Nos Organossolos ocorrem diferentes riscos de subsidência, resultantes de seus atributos, em especial da natureza da matéria orgânica e do ambiente de deposição. Este estudo foi realizado com dados de 19 perfis de solos de diferentes regiões do Brasil. Foram adotados os procedimentos da SBCS para descrição e coleta dos perfis, e os métodos analíticos da Embrapa Solos para caracterização dos solos. A análise dos componentes principais foi utilizada para agrupar os perfis com o auxílio de atributos morfológicos, físicos, químicos e do ambiente de ocorrência e mostrou-se adequada no agrupamento dos solos estudados com base em seus atributos, comparando-se com a sua taxonomia. Neste artigo foram usados os métodos multicritério ordinais de Borda, Condorcet e Copeland para ordenar, segundo o risco de subsidência, os perfis de Organossolos estudados. Os resultados mostram correlação entre os métodos (exceto Condorcet, que não foi capaz de ordenar as alternativas e o resíduo mínimo, parâmetro usual para avaliar subsidência. Isso indica eficácia para ordenar/classificar os perfis de solos estudados quanto ao risco de subsidência. Os métodos quantitativos utilizados neste trabalho mostraram-se promissores como ferramentas em estudos na Ciência do Solo.One important property of Organosols (Histosols (and soils with high content of organic carbon to predict use potential and degradation risks is the degree of subsidence (loss of mass and volume. In Organosols the subsidence risks vary according to the soil attributes, mainly the nature of organic matter and deposition environment. In this paper we studied 19 soil profiles from different parts of the country, collected and described according to procedures recommended by the

  10. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Sousa Neto; J.B. Carmo; Michael Keller; S.C. Martins; L.F. Alves; S.A. Vieira; M.C. Piccolo; P. Camargo; H.T.Z. Couto; C.A. Joly; L.A. Martinelli

    2011-01-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the...

  11. Topossequência de solos na ilha da trindade, atlântico sul Topossequence of soils on the trindade island in the brazilian south atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Paula Clemente

    2009-10-01

    Ilha da Trindade que os tornam difíceis de enquadramento no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, carecendo de adaptações em diversos níveis categóricos.The Brazilian Oceanic islands are unique environments which have received increasing attention from the scientific community due to their environmental importance. This study aimed to provide a first characterization of soils of the Trindade Island, considering mainly the chemical and physical properties in the different geoenvironments. Another objective was to contribute to a deeper undestanding of the pedogeomorphological relationships, allowing a preliminary identification of soils along a typical toposequence. A total of 10 soil profiles representing all geoenvironments were sampled. These soils were the result of lithological, topographical and vegetation influences, frequently in close association. Soil chemical, morphological and physical analyses were performed and the results indicate the ocurrence of unique features that suggest an endemic character. The pedodiversity on Trindade is primarily related to the parent material and topographical variations. Soils generally have high fertility, particularly in terms of Ca and P contents associated with bird excreta inputs. On the southern side of the island, with a cooler and wetter climate, narrow valleys and steep slopes shelter a more exuberant vegetation of giant ferns, with accumulation of fíbrous organic material even on steep slopes, forming atypical Histosols. Soils at an altitude of over 400 m are more acid and nutrient-poor, but P contents are still very high, which was attributed to bird activity. On the northern side of the island, semi-arid to tropical dry climates prevail, and soils are shallower, nutrient-rich and highly eroded, with dominance of Litholic or Regolitic Neosols. Some pedological features of Trindade soils prevent an appropriate fitting by the Brazilian Soil Classification System, calling for adaptations at various

  12. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 2; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the second volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s fertility and plants nutrition are discussed where nuclear methods of analysis are presented

  13. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 1; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil`s science with emphasis in the Brazilian morphoclimatics dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation,fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the first volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to soil`s physics and biology where nuclear methods of analysis were utilized

  14. Aplicabilidade do teste de identificação de olfato da Universidade da Pensilvânia (SIT para brasileiros: estudo piloto Applicability of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (SIT in Brazilians: pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Fornazieri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O teste de identificação do olfato da Universidade da Pensilvânia (SIT é o exame olfatório mais citado na literatura devido a sua fácil aplicação e alta confiabilidade teste-reteste. Ainda não foram normatizados seus valores de olfação normal para a população brasileira. OBJETIVO: Verificar o escore no SIT alcançado por um grupo de brasileiros e o nível de dificuldade encontrado para a execução do teste. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: O SIT foi aplicado a 25 voluntários brasileiros de diversas classes econômicas, sem queixas olfatórias prévias. Após a aplicação do teste, todos preencheram um questionário com uma escala visual analógica (VAS referente ao nível de dificuldade encontrado na realização do teste. RESULTADOS: O escore médio da amostra de brasileiros foi 32,5 (desvio-padrão:3,48 de 40, abaixo do considerado normal para a população americana. O nível de dificuldade médio encontrado foi 26mm (desvio padrão: 24,68 segundo a VAS, tendendo a facilidade, e 4(16% participantes não conheciam algum dos odores escritos nas alternativas. CONCLUSÃO: Nesse estudo piloto, houve indícios de boa aplicabilidade do teste, com o escore dos brasileiros pouco abaixo da normosmia. São necessários estudos futuros para confirmar a existência de diferença de pontuação entre pessoas de diferente classe econômica.The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (SIT is the most cited olfactory test in the literature because it is easy to perform and there is high test-retest reliability. There were no standardized olfaction values in a normal Brazilian population. AIM: To measure the SIT score in a group of Brazilians, and to assess the level of difficulty when implementing the test. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SIT was applied in 25 Brazilian volunteers of various income levels who presented no olfactory complaints. Following the test, subjects answered

  15. Early Hg mobility in cultivated tropical soils one year after slash-and-burn of the primary forest, in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Lopes, Luis Otávio do Canto; Paquet, Serge

    2009-07-15

    In the Brazilian Amazon, forest conversion to agricultural lands (slash-and-burn cultivation) contributes to soil mercury (Hg) release and to aquatic ecosystem contamination. Recent studies have shown that soil Hg loss occurs rapidly after deforestation, suggesting that Hg mobility could be related to the massive cation input resulting from biomass burning. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the first year of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil Hg levels at the regional scale of the Tapajós River, in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. A total of 429 soil samples were collected in 26 farms of five riparian communities of the Tapajós basin. In September 2004, soil samples were collected from primary forest sites planned for slash-and-burn cultivation. In August 2005, one year after the initial burning, a second campaign was held and the exact same sites were re-sampled. Our results showed that total Hg levels in soils did not change significantly during the first year following slash-and-burn, suggesting no immediate release of soil Hg at that point in time. However, an early Hg mobility was detected near the surface (0-5 cm), reflected by a significant shift in Hg distribution in soil fractions. Indeed, a transfer of Hg from fine to coarser soil particles was observed, indicating that chemical bonds between Hg and fine particles could have been altered. A correspondence analysis (CA) showed that this process could be linked to a chemical competition caused by cation enrichment. The regional dimension of the study highlighted the prevailing importance of soil types in Hg dynamics, as shown by differentiated soil responses following deforestation according to soil texture. Confirming an early Hg mobility and indicating an eventual Hg release out of the soil, our results reinforce the call for the development of more sustainable agricultural practices in the Amazon.

  16. Balancing work, study and home: a research with master’s students in a Brazilian University / Equilibrando trabalho, estudo e lar: um estudo com mestrandos em uma universidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Magri Eller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understand the tactics that nontraditional students use to manage the boundaries between work, home and study. Originality/gap/relevance/implications: The originality of this study relies on transfer of the focus from the conflict to the balance between work, home and study. It also breaks new ground by directing attention to the micro level of individual action, in contrast to a literature that traditionally studied organizational actions. Finally, it performs an innovative reading of the interface between work, home and study domains from the perspective of the boundary theory. Key methodological aspects: This qualitative study was held from 18 interviews that were recorded, transcribed and content analyzed, which revealed a list of individual tactics employed by respondents to reconcile the demands of work, home and study. Summary of key results: The analysis allowed us to identify 18 tactics that our respondents employ to negotiate the level of permeability between the boundaries between work, school and home. These tactics were classified as behavioral, communicative, physical and temporal. Key considerations/conclusions: The study revealed that students develop an active role by interpreting the expectations of the social actors from the home and work domains and from the institution where they study and adopt boundaries with degrees of permeability that enable a state of greater balance between these domains Objetivo: Compreender as táticas que estudantes não tradicionais utilizam para gerenciar as fronteiras entre trabalho, lar e estudo. Originalidade/Lacuna/Relevância/Implicações: O estudo se mostra original ao transferir o foco do conflito para o equilíbrio entre trabalho, lar e estudos. Além disso, também inova ao direcionar a atenção para o nível micro da ação individual, contrastando com uma literatura que tradicionalmente estuda ações organizacionais. Por fim, realiza uma leitura inovadora do fenômeno da

  17. Fatores de marketing na construção de marcas sólidas: estudo exploratório com marcas brasileiras Marketing factors for building strong brands: an exploratory Brazilian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Motta Romeiro Khauaja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propôs a investigar o processo de construção de marcas sólidas criadas e desenvolvidas no Brasil e comercializadas por empresas de controle acionário brasileiro. O objetivo geral foi ampliar o conhecimento sobre os fatores de marketing voltados para a construção de marcas sólidas. Conduziu-se uma pesquisa exploratória, de caráter qualitativo, por meio do estudo dos casos de construção das marcas Gol, O Boticário e DPaschoal. Seguiu-se a lógica da replicação literal. Cada caso particular consistiu em um estudo completo, cujas conclusões foram comparadas para que se indicasse a extensão da lógica da replicação. Concluiu-se que a adoção do conjunto de todos os fatores de marketing foi o que ajudou as três marcas estudadas a se construir e a se tornar tão sólidas quanto são atualmente. Com base nas conclusões e levando-se em consideração as limitações do método da pesquisa, foram efetuadas recomendações sobre procedimentos e ações para a construção de marcas sólidas no Brasil.Strong brands developed for use by Brazilian owned companies were investigated to better understand marketing aspects involved. A qualitative exploratory case study was conducted for each of the brands, Gol, O Boticario and DPaschoal. Work was done and reported separately to facilitate identification of the extent of replication logic. Results indicated that a combination of all Marketing factors was necessary to achieve the current solidity of these brands which, however, did not necessarily imply perfection. Conclusions were included in recommendations for building strong Brazilian brands.

  18. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. La Scala Júnior

    Full Text Available Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha-1 year-1. The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  19. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies.

  20. Prediction of soil shear strength in agricultural and natural environments of the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Barboza da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop uni- and multivariate models to predict maximum soil shear strength (τmax under different normal stresses (σn, water contents (U, and soil managements. The study was carried out in a Rhodic Haplustox under Cerrado (control area and under no-tillage and conventional tillage systems. Undisturbed soil samples were taken in the 0.00-0.05 m layer and subjected to increasing U and σn, in shear strength tests. The uni- and multivariate models - respectively τmax=10(a+bU and τmax=10(a+bU+cσn - were significant in all three soil management systems evaluated and they satisfactorily explain the relationship between U, σn, and τmax. The soil under Cerrado has the highest shear strength (τ estimated with the univariate model, regardless of the soil water content, whereas the soil under conventional tillage shows the highest values with the multivariate model, which were associated to the lowest water contents at the soil consistency limits in this management system.

  1. Dialogic and integrated approach to promote soils at different school levels: a Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole

    2017-04-01

    From ancient civilizations to present technological societies, soil is the material and immaterial ground of our existence. Soil is essential to life as are water, air and sun light. Nevertheless, it is overlooked and has its functions and importance not known and recognized by people. In formal education and in most school curricula, soil contents are not approached in the same way and intensity other environmental components are. In its essence, soils are an interdisciplinary subject, crossing over different disciplines. It has a great potential as unifying theme that links and synthesizes different contents and areas of knowledge, especially hard sciences as physics, chemistry and biology. Furthermore, soils are familiar and tangible to everyone, making them a meaningful subject that helps to build an efficient learning process. The challenge remains on how to bring such teaching-learning possibilities to formal education at all levels. Soil education deals with the significance of soil to people. What makes soil meaningful? What are the bases for effective learning about soil? The answers are very much related with subjective perceptions and life experiences carried by each individual. Those dimensions have been considered by the pedagogical approach based on Paulo Freire's socio constructivism which considers social inclusion, knowledge building, horizontal learning and collective action. This approach has been applied within the soil (science) education spaces of the Federal University of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, both with university students and basic education pupils. At the university an average of 200 students per semester follow a 60 hours Soil Genesis course. With primary and secondary schools the activities are developed through the Soil Education Programme (PES) of the Earth Sciences Museum. In the classes and activities, materials, methods and learning strategies are developed to stimulate involvement, dialogues and exchange of experiences and

  2. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  3. Tax influences on Brazilian and Argentine biodiesel exports: a comparative study; A interferencia da tributacao na competitividade da exportacao de biodiesel brasileiro e argentino: um estudo comparado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Evandro L. Heinzen da; Vieira, Diogo Guimaraes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The rules of taxation in Brazil favor the export of primary products, while in Argentina the taxation stimulates the export of products which aggregated value is bigger. In this study we will analyse the sceneries of taxation in Argentina and Brazil. The comparison is useful so that it is possible to analyse the competitive differentials from in the countries. We agree that the great problem of the Brazilian taxation is in the accumulated credits of VAT, which in fact are incorporated like cost in the result of a business. In case of Argentina, the problem is related to the macroeconomic scenery, that emerged after the economic crisis in 2001. The study demonstrates that Argentina is not the best example of taxation for Brazil, and the risk of the Argentinian biodiesel enter in Brazilian market was perceived in 2007, however, after the tax alterations this risk was reduced. (author)

  4. Dependência da prática de exercícios físicos: estudo com maratonistas brasileiros Exercise dependence: a study with Brazilian marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Rosa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar, numa amostra de maratonistas brasileiros, a versão em português da adaptação da Escala de Dependência de Corrida proposta por Hailey e Bailey (1982. Métodos e resultados:59 maratonistas de uma equipe da cidade de São Paulo foram abordados e orientados a preencher a Escala de Dependência de Corrida (EDC. A amostra foi composta, na sua maior parte, por homens (72% com média de 34 ± 7 anos, sendo que 77% corriam habitualmente havia cerca de dois a oito anos; 42,5% corriam de quatro a cinco vezes/semana e 81% dedicavam-se de uma a duas horas/dia em média para seus treinos. A média na pontuação total da EDC foi de 5 ± 2,5 pontos (escala 0-14 pontos. A correlação entre a pontuação total da EDC com cada uma das 23 questões que compõem o instrumento revelou que 10 questões apresentaram níveis de correlação significativos. As respostas positivas que apresentaram maior sensibilidade foram: "Sinto que me falta algo quando não corro" (r = 0,61; "A corrida tem influenciado meu estilo de vida" (r = 0,58 e "Experimento grande prazer quando corro" (r = 0,56. Conclusão: Observamos na amostra brasileira níveis médios de pontuação na escala semelhantes aos descritos pelos autores do instrumento original, sugerindo que a tradução não alterou a sensibilidade da escala e que este instrumento possa ser útil no estudo da dependência da prática de corrida (ou exercícios físicos em desportistas brasileiros.This study aimed at testing, in a sample of Brazilian marathon runners, the Brazilian adaptation of the Negative Addiction Scale (Haley & Bailey, 1982. Methods: 59 marathon runners of a team from São Paulo were asked to fill out the Brazilian version of the Negative Addiction Scale. Most of the sample was made up by men (72% aged 34 ± 7; 77% of whom had been running four to five times a week (42.5% for two to eight years; 81% spent one to two hours a day training. The average score in

  5. The effect of water content on the persistence of 14C- lindane in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, R.; Mesquita, T.B.; Ruegg, E.F.

    1985-01-01

    The effect to the water content on the behaviour of 14 C-lindane was determined under laboratory conditions in two soil samples from the state of Parana, differing in organic matter and clay content. In Brunizem soil, richer in organic matter, the rate of degradation of 14 C-lindane, as measured by 14 CO 2 evolution, was twice under 3/3 field capacity and flooded condition as compared with 2/3 field capacity. The percentage of 14 CO 2 envolved from the Dark Red Latosol soil practically the same for the three levels of moisture content and about equal to the Brunizem soil at 2/3 field capacity. Although after 240 days of incubation with 14 C-lindane about 5% of the applied activity could be extracted from both soils, between 20 to 36% of the parent radiocarbon was yet bound to the soils. The degradation of 14 C-lindage into 14 CO 2 , the volatization of 14 C-lindage, and the radiocarbon probably lost as volatile metabolites were the main routes of dissipation of the insecticide from both soils. (Author) [pt

  6. Assessing heavy metal sources in sugarcane Brazilian soils: an approach using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Vieira; da Silva, Roberto Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and soils in the northeastern part of the country have been cultivated with the crop for over 450 years. However, so far, there has been no study on the status of heavy metal accumulation in these long-history cultivated soils. To fill the gap, we collect soil samples from 60 sugarcane fields in order to determine the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. We used multivariate analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in soils. Analytical determinations were performed in ICP-OES after microwave acid solution digestion. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.9, 18.8, 6.4, 4.9, 11.2, and 16.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The principal component one was associated with lithogenic origin and comprised the metals Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis confirmed that 68 % of the evaluated sites have soil heavy metal concentrations close to the natural background. The Cd concentration (principal component two) was clearly associated with anthropogenic sources with P fertilization being the most likely source of Cd to soils. On the other hand, the third component (Pb concentration) indicates a mixed origin for this metal (natural and anthropogenic); hence, Pb concentrations are probably related not only to the soil parent material but also to industrial emissions and urbanization in the vicinity of the agricultural areas.

  7. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  8. LBA-ECO LC-09 Soil Composition and Structure in the Brazilian Amazon: 1992-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set reports basic soil structure and composition information for five Amazonian research sites: Altamira, Bragantina, Tome-Acu, and Ponta de Pedras, all...

  9. LBA-ECO LC-09 Soil Composition and Structure in the Brazilian Amazon: 1992-1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set reports basic soil structure and composition information for five Amazonian research sites: Altamira, Bragantina, Tome-Acu, and Ponta de...

  10. Technical study of brazilian vehicular natural gas program and impact of normative regulators; Estudo tecnico do programa de gas natural veicular e o impacto das normas reguladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Newton; Fragoso, Karine; Caselli, Bruno [Servicco Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (SENAI), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Burrowes, Mariana [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2004-07-01

    This paper it concept to present the evaluation of the Brazilian natural gas program in the last decade, our technological aspects and use, as those economical implications of this program. Verification of environment advantages from this gas system and the relation between another fuel system from the bibliographic review. Discussions of future scenarios in this market share, those threats and opportunities. The impact of new stands from next years and it considerations. Finally will be present proposes for sustainable grow of this program with base in the relationship of market, stand and technology, in expose aspects. (author)

  11. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B.; Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da

    2009-01-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. 238 U and 232 Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; 226 Ra, 228 Ra, and 210 Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and 210 Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. 22 '6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg -1 ) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg -1 for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10 -3 to 2.3 10 -2 for 232 Th; 3.5 10 - '2 to 4.1 10 -2 for 226 Ra, 2.4 10 -1 to 3.2 10 - '1 for 228 Ra, and 3.5 10 -2 to 8.5 10 -2 for 210 Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results obtained in the present study indicated that mobility of radionuclides was low in both soils studied. Calculated effective

  12. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Siqueira, Maria C.; Taddei, Maria H.; Dias, Fabiana F., E-mail: mc_quimica@hotmail.co, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and {sup 210}Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. {sup 22}'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -}'2 to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -}'1 for {sup 228}Ra, and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOGENIC, INTERMEDIATE AND PHYSICOGENIC SOIL AGGREGATES OF AREAS IN THE BRAZILIAN ATLANTIC FOREST

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    JÚLIO CÉSAR FEITOSA FERNANDES

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggregate formation and stability are related to soil quality, contributing significantly to the carbon storage and nutrient maintenance capacities of the soil. Soil aggregates are formed by two different process: physicogenic, related to moistening and drying cycles and input of organic matter; and biogenic, related to the action of macrofauna organisms and roots. The objective this work was to classify aggregates according to their formation process, quantify and compare organic carbon contents in humic substances and assess the stability of aggregates formed by different processes, in areas with different coverage in the Mid Paraiba Valley, Pinheiral, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Aggregated soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-10 cm, in a Cambisol (Cambissolo Háplico Tb Distrófico under four plant covers: secondary forest in advanced (SFAS, medium (SFMS and initial (SFIS successional stages and managed mixed pasture (MMP. Aggregates were classified and identified into three morphological classes (physicogenic, biogenic and intermediate. The variables evaluated were mean weight diameter (MWD and geometric mean diameter (GMD of aggregates, chemical fractions of organic matter, total organic carbon (TOC and humic substances: humin (C-HUM humic acid (C-FAH and fulvic acid (C-FAF. Biogenic aggregates were found in smaller quantities and showed higher TOC, C-HUM and C-FAH, compared to intermediate and physicogenic aggregates. Thus, biogenic aggregates have potential to be used as soil quality indicators for structured environments, which are able to maintain its intrinsic formation processes.

  14. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: The soil in the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 3; Anais do 25 congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soil science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soil`s physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soil`s and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality were discussed. In the third volume of the abstracts are presented papers related to physics and chemical characteristics of building soils in coal mines areas

  15. Quantification of pathogenic Leptospira in the soils of a Brazilian urban slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Schneider

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality globally, primarily in residents of urban slums. While contact with contaminated water plays a critical role in the transmission of leptospirosis, little is known about the distribution and abundance of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in soil and the potential contribution of this source to human infection.We collected soil samples (n = 70 from three sites within an urban slum community endemic for leptospirosis in Salvador, Brazil. Using qPCR of Leptospira genes lipl32 and 16S rRNA, we quantified the pathogenic Leptospira load in each soil sample. lipl32 qPCR detected pathogenic Leptospira in 22 (31% of 70 samples, though the median concentration among positive samples was low (median = 6 GEq/g; range: 4-4.31×102 GEq/g. We also observed heterogeneity in the distribution of pathogenic Leptospira at the fine spatial scale. However, when using 16S rRNA qPCR, we detected a higher proportion of Leptospira-positive samples (86% and higher bacterial concentrations (median: 4.16×102 GEq/g; range: 4-2.58×104 GEq/g. Sequencing of the qPCR amplicons and qPCR analysis with all type Leptospira species revealed that the 16S rRNA qPCR detected not only pathogenic Leptospira but also intermediate species, although both methods excluded saprophytic Leptospira. No significant associations were identified between the presence of pathogenic Leptospira DNA and environmental characteristics (vegetation, rat activity, distance to an open sewer or a house, or soil clay content, though samples with higher soil moisture content showed higher prevalences.This is the first study to successfully quantify the burden of pathogenic Leptospira in soil from an endemic region. Our results support the hypothesis that soil may be an under-recognized environmental reservoir contributing to transmission of pathogenic Leptospira in urban slums. Consequently, the role of soil should be

  16. Bibliometrics, history and geography of Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion

    OpenAIRE

    BARRETTO, Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira; BARROS, Marcelo Geraldo Estriga; SPAROVEK, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Há poucos estudos sobre a história da ciência do solo e, no Brasil, essa matéria ainda não recebeu maior atenção por parte de sua comunidade científica. Este trabalho focaliza a formação histórica da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo a partir de uma análise bibliométrica e geográfica, com base numa ampla compilação de artigos científicos publicados sobre o tema por autores vinculados a instituições brasileiras. A metodologia envolveu o armazenamento, em um banco de dados dimensi...

  17. Dinheiro no Brasil: um estudo comparativo do significado do dinheiro entre as regiões geográficas brasileiras Money in Brazil: a comparative study about the meaning of money among Brazilian geographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou o significado do dinheiro predominante nas regiões brasileiras usando a Escala de Significado do Dinheiro (ESD, composta pelos componentes Desigualdade, Progresso, Cultura, Poder, Desapego, Conflito, Estabilidade, Sofrimento e Prazer. O estudo foi conduzido com amostra de 760 sujeitos, 60% mulheres, com idades, ocupações e renda variadas, e mais de cinco anos de residência no local. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas em todos os componentes, exceto Prazer e Sofrimento, e padrões diferenciados: maior Estabilidade no Norte, maior Conflito e Desapego no Nordeste, menor Estabilidade e Poder no Distrito Federal, menor Conflito e Poder no Sul, e no Sudeste, maior Poder, Desigualdade, Cultura, Prazer e Sofrimento e menor Desapego. Exame separado da região Sudeste indicou maior diversidade interna do que entre as regiões do país. Estes resultados são discutidos a partir de diferenças histórico-culturais e estereótipos, indicando a sensibilidade da ESD para discriminar perfis de significado do dinheiro.This study compared the meaning of money that prevail in Brazilian Regions using the Money Meaning Scale (MMS, composed by Inequality, Culture, Power, Progress, Detachment, Conflict, Stability, Pain and Pleasure Factors. The study was carried out with a sample of 760 subjects, 60% women, with varied ages, occupation and income, and more than five years living in the place. Results indicated significant differences in all components, except Pleasure and Pain, and differential patterns: higher Stability in the North, higher Conflict and Detachment in the Northeast, lower Stability and Power in the Federal District, lower Power and Conflict in the South, and in the Southeast higher Power, Inequality, Culture, Pleasure and Pain, and lower Detachment. A separated exam of the Southeast showed a higher internal diversity than among Brazilian Regions. These results are discussed considering historic-cultural aspects

  18. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  19. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes.

  20. The 'Brazilian Test' as an indicator of workability for paddy soils in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, W.B.; Nguyen, V.L.

    2006-01-01

    Farmers in Mekong delta prefer to till their soil in dry conditions when possible. They claim that crops establish and yield better when the field have been ploughed when dry compared to the wet preparation by puddling. Experiments were carried out to investigate the optimum workabilty range for the

  1. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecológicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanças globais

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    Marcos Callisto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.Este artigo resulta de discussões ocorridas durante o Simpósio de Ecologia de Riachos que aconteceu durante o XIII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Limnologia em setembro de 2011 em Natal, Brasil. Baseados em nossa experiência, propomos algumas perguntas sobre ecologia de riachos na perspectiva de mudanças globais e sugerimos alguns aspectos a serem abordados em futuros estudos no país. Esses estudos estão relacionados à necessidade de se conhecer a biologia das espécies; à elaboração de modelos para avaliar as mudanças (o que implica a necessidade de um grande volume de dados em larga escala temporal e espacial; a ecologia das zonas ribeirinhas e o intercâmbio de materiais e energia através das interfaces terra-água; as alterações na cobertura florestal e estratégias de amostragem e tratamento de dados padronizados para avaliar as mudanças globais.

  2. Efeitos de vizinhança ortográfica no português brasileiro: um estudo com a tarefa de identificação perceptual Orthographic neighborhood effects in brazilian portuguese: a study on perceptual identification tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ricardo dos Reis Justi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo investigou os efeitos do número de vizinhos ortográficos (N e do número de vizinhos ortográficos de maior frequência de ocorrência (NF na tarefa de identificação perceptual. Trinta e dois estudantes de psicologia falantes do português brasileiro participaram do estudo. Os estímulos experimentais consistiram em 64 palavras que atenderam a uma manipulação fatorial 2 x 2 de N e NF. Os participantes apresentaram uma maior porcentagem de erros nas palavras com vizinhos ortográficos de maior frequência e uma menor porcentagem de erros nas palavras com muitos vizinhos ortográficos. Argumentou-se que esses resultados refletem o efeito dessas variáveis no processo de acesso lexical e que os modelos de Dupla Rota e PPD têm dificuldades em acomodá-los.This study investigated the effects of Neighborhood Density (ND and Neighborhood Frequency (NF on visual word recognition in 32 Brazilian Portuguese speakers. Participants were given a standard perceptual identification task in which they had a 3-second time-limit for saying aloud what the target word was. Experimental stimuli consisted of 64 words according to an ND (2 x NF (2 factorial design. Higher percentages of errors were made for words with a higher frequency neighbor and lower percentages of errors were made for words with a high neighborhood density. It is argued that the results were due to ND and NF effects on lexical access and that they pose difficulties for Dual Route and PDP models of visual word recognition.

  3. Etapas da implementação da educação corporativa e seus impactos em empresas brasileiras: um estudo multicaso Corporate education implementation stages and their impacts on Brazilian companies: a multi-case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique Antunes Vieira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a Educação Corporativa - EC nas organizações brasileiras, como uma forma de aprendizado contínuo, apesar dessa prática ainda estar em fase de amadurecimento no País. O objetivo da pesquisa é avaliar as etapas da implementação do processo da EC através de um estudo multicaso. Foi observado que a implementação da unidade de EC deve levar em consideração a singularidade de cada empresa, com suas características e especificidades. Pode-se concluir que a maioria das empresas desse estudo indicou que a implementação foi realizada após decisão dos dirigentes como a etapa inicial. Mesmo inexistindo uma fórmula capaz de atender às especificações das mais diversas organizações, houve uma sequência lógica para a estruturação e implementação da unidade.This study presents the corporate education (CE in Brazilian organizations as a means of continuous learning, despite the fact that this practice is still under development in the country. The purpose of this research was to analyze the implementation stages of the CE process through a multi-case study. It was possible to observe that the CE unit implementationshould consider the singularities of each company, with its characteristics and specificities. It is possible to conclude that most enterprises in this study indicated that the implementation was carried out after the executives' decision as the first phase. Although there is no formula capable of meeting the specifications of all organizations, there was a logical sequence for the structuring and implementation of the unit.

  4. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Detection of β-lactamase encoding genes in feces, soil and water from a Brazilian pig farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, João Pedro Rueda; Stehling, Eliana Guedes

    2018-01-10

    β-lactam antibiotics are widely used for the treatment of different types of infections worldwide and the resistance to these antibiotics has grown sharply, which is of great concern. Resistance to β-lactams in gram-negative bacteria is mainly due to the production of β-lactamases, which are classified according to their functional activities. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of β-lactamases encoding genes in feces, soil, and water from a Brazilian pig farm. Different β-lactamases encoding genes were found, including bla CTX-M-Gp1 , bla CTX-M-Gp9 , bla SHV , bla OXA-1-like , bla GES , and bla VEB . The bla SHV and bla CTX-M-Gp1 genes have been detected in all types of samples, indicating the spread of β-lactam resistant bacteria among farm pigs and the environment around them. These results indicate that β-lactamase encoding genes belonging to the cloxacillinase, ESBL, and carbapenemase and they have high potential to spread in different sources, due to the fact that genes are closely related to mobile genetic elements, especially plasmids.

  6. Um estudo experimental do processamento de metáforas do português brasileiro / An experimental study on Brazilian Portuguese metaphor processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio João Carvalho Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo experimental do processamento psicolinguístico de metáforas nominais do português brasileiro (X é um Y, p. ex., “Irene é um furacão”, foi realizado com o objetivo de evidenciar, a partir de tempos de leitura (RTs, a compreensão de expressões familiares, high-apt (“bem construídas” e cujo veículo se acha convencionalizado. Na primeira fase da pesquisa, realizaram-se dois norming studies (“estudos normativos” com vistas ao ranqueamento de metáforas nominais (p. ex. “Algumas mulheres são furacões” em relação a familiaridade, aptness (“adequação” e convencionalidade. Na segunda fase da pesquisa, um experimento de leitura automonitorada (self-paced, non-cumulative, moving-window reading foi conduzido, recorrendo, para a composição dos estímulos, às metáforas, p. ex., “Irene é um furacão”, que alcançaram, nos estudos normativos da primeira fase, ratings (ou “classificações” de “muito familiares”, “very high-apt’’ e “altamente convencionalizadas”. Evidências do português brasileiro em favor do processamento direto de metáforas foram obtidas, conforme preconiza o modelo de Class-inclusion, de Glucksberg e Keysar (1990, pois não se revelaram diferenças significativas entre os RTs médios nas três condições: “metáfora”, “literal” e “declaração literal de inclusão em classe”, em contraposição aos achados de Janus e Bever (1985, que observaram tempos de leitura de metáforas novas significativamente maiores do que os de expressões literais, conforme as predições do Modelo Pragmático Padrão de processamento indireto.

  7. Ametryn Leaching in Soils from the Sugarcane Region in Northeastern Brazilian

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, K.S.; FREITAS, F.C.L.; BRAGA, D.F.; DOMBROSKI, J.L.D.; SANTOS, A.F.B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ametryn is one of the most widely used herbicides in the sugarcane culture. Little is known about the interactions between this herbicide and the attributes of soils in the sugarcane region of northeastern Brazil. This knowledge, before recommending herbicide, will minimize the negative effects on the environment, particularly on water resources, and will ensure weed control efficacy. In this work, ametryn leaching potential was estimated through bioassays and chromatography, in five...

  8. Êxitos e limites na prevenção da violência: estudo de caso de nove experiências brasileiras Success and limitations in the prevention of violence: a case study of nine Brazilian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Gomes

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar os êxitos e os limites de experiências nacionais na prevenção da violência e indicar possibilidades de enfrentamento do problema.A pesquisa que dá origem ao artigo consistiu em um estudo de caso de nove experiências, seguindo princípios da triangulação de métodos. Foram aplicados questionários quantitativos e realizadas entrevistas (individuais e grupais. Os resultados apontam que os principaisêxitos relatados são: informação para a cidadania; preparação para o trabalho; envolvimento de crianças e adolescentes em atividades lúdicas e educativas e o fortalecimento da auto-estima dos jovens e crianças participantes. As maiores dificuldades das experiências são a manutenção financeira e a articulação de suas propostas com as de outros grupos e instituições. O estudo leva a concluir que essas experiências, ainda que não sejam as únicas bem-sucedidas no País, apontam para um horizonte novo pela forma como atuam, inovando e criando uma práxis diferenciada na abordagem da violência.The present study analyzes the success of Brazilian experiences engaged in prevention of violence as well as their limitations, and seeks to show ways for a solution of the problem. The investigation underlying this article consisted in a case study of nine experiences, using triangulation of methods. For this purpose, we used questionnaires and interviewed individuals and groups. Successful results were mainly: informed citizenship,work preparation, involvement of children and adolescents in recreating and educative activities, and increased self-esteem of the children and teens involved in the experiences. The greatest difficulties found were the lack of funds and of articulation of proposals with other groups and institutions. These experiences are not the only successful ones carried out in the country, but they point to a new horizon by innovating and creating a different practical approach

  9. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  10. Dentição decídua: estudo da prevalência dos espaços interproximais em crianças brasileiras Deciduous dentition: prevalence study of interdental spaces in brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mendes SOVIERO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de conhecer mais sobre as características da dentição decídua, apresentadas pelas crianças brasileiras, realizou-se um estudo de prevalência do qual participaram 400 crianças, com dentição decídua completa e idade variando de 2 a 6 anos, na cidade de Petrópolis - RJ. O arco tipo I foi o mais prevalente tanto no arco superior (93,2% como no inferior (90,5%, sendo que o superior tipo II foi mais comum no sexo feminino (p For the purpose of ascertaining more information about the characteristics of deciduous dentition presented by the Brazilian children, a prevalence study was performed. Four hundred children with complete deciduous dentitions and age ranging from 2 to 6 years, were examined in Petrópolis - RJ - Brazil. The type I arch was the most prevalent in the upper arch (93.2% and in the lower arch (90.5%. The type II upper arch was more common in the females (p < 0.01. The primate spaces were the most frequent spaces found in both arches. The association between the presence of interdental spaces and age was statistically significant (p < 0.05, suggesting that there is a tendency for the spaces to close with age.

  11. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, J. W. V.; Talbott, J.L.; Scott, J.; Roy, W.R.; Stucki, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Methods. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L-1 suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Results. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Discussion. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. Conclusions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising

  12. Sistema regional de inovação: estudo das regiões brasileiras Regional innovation system: a study of brazilian regions

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    Giovana F. Rossi Casali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o processo de formação regional do Brasil, os desequilíbrios existentes entre as regiões e as perspectivas futuras. Teve como proposta básica analisar o possível processo de convergência de renda das regiões brasileiras, utilizando o conceito de gap tecnológico. Segundo esse conceito, os desequilíbrios regionais são o resultado de diferentes taxas de desenvolvimento econômico, que, por sua vez, resultam de diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento tecnológico, os quais, por fim, são consequências de condições históricas, sociais e culturais específicas de cada região. Dessa forma, pressupôs-se a existência de relação positiva entre nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico, dependência tecnológica, dependência econômica, nível de desenvolvimento econômico e convergência de renda. Os resultados mostram que, em relação à possibilidade de as regiões e os estados menos desenvolvidos realizarem o catching up com aqueles mais desenvolvidos, as variáveis que representam tanto a geração quanto a apropriação de novas tecnologias são significativas e diretamente relacionadas com o produto. Dessa forma, pode-se afirmar que o catching up seria possível caso houvesse um maior investimento no processo de desenvolvimento e apropriação de novas tecnologias por parte dos governos regionais.This research developed an analysis on the regional imbalances at the Brazilian economy, the historic formation of the regions and perspectives. As a result of the distinctive courses followed by each region, an economical concentration process occurs in the Southeast. In this sense, this study intended to analyze the possible process of the Brazilian regional formation, using the concept of technological gap. The result show that, in relation to the possibilities of the regions and states that are less developed to accomplish the catching up with those that are more developed, the variables that represent generation

  13. Proceedings of the 25. Brazilian congress on soil science: the soil on the great morpho climatic dominion in Brazil and the sustained development. v. 4; Anais do 25. Congresso brasileiro de ciencia do solo: O solo nos grandes dominios morfoclimaticos do Brasil e o desenvolvimento sustentado. v. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This congress discussed soils science with emphasis in the Brazilian morpho climatic dominion and the sustained development. Topics related to soils physics, chemical, biology, fertility, classification, nutrition, mineralogy, soils and water conservation, fertilizers, pollution and environmental quality. In the fourth volume of the abstracts were presented papers related to use of fertilizers and herbicides

  14. Estudos de gênero na Psicologia Brasileira – perspectivas e atuações da terceira geração Gender studies in Brazilian Psychology - perspectives and actions of the third generation Estudos de gênero na Psicologia Brasileira – perspectivas e atuações da terceira geração

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    Adriano Beiras

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Buscamos neste texto mapear e refletir sobre a terceira geração de pesquisadores na área de gênero na psicologia brasileira, articulando estes à inserção dos estudos de masculinidades e estudo queers em seus núcleos de pesquisa. Esta geração, da qual os autores deste artigo participam é constituída por pesquisadores alocados em um campo já organizado, o qual já vem utilizando a categoria gênero, há alguns anos reconhecida nas ciências sociais e humanas. Faz-se importante observar que um dos principais papéis desta geração tem sido divulgar e aprofundar as conquistas tanto teóricas quanto metodológicas geradas pelas primeiras gerações. De um modo geral podemos apontar que a terceira geração reflete a atual valorização da pluralidade, da valorização de novos sujeitos do campo feminista no Brasil trazendo temáticas para investigação que são foco da busca da legitimidade nas novas configurações dos movimentos feministas brasileiros.

     

    The aim of this text is mapping and reflecting on the third generation of Brazilian researchers in gender psychology, doing an articulation with the integration of masculinities studies and queer studies on these groups of research. This generation, to which the authors of this paper belong, consists of groups of researchers already enrolled in an organized field, in which they use the gender category, concept recognized in the social sciences and humanities a long time ago. It is important to take into account that one of the main roles of this generation has been spreading and deepening the achievements, both theoretical and methodological, attained by earlier generations. In general, we can state that the third generation reflects the current value of plurality, the appreciation of new subjects on the feminism field on Brazil, bringing topics for research focused on the search for legitimacy in the new configurations of the Brazilian feminist movement

  15. Comunidades em redes sociais na internet: um estudo de caso dos fotologs brasileiros | Communities in Social Networks on the internet: a case study of Brazilian photologs

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    Raquel Recuero

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Redes sociais online são grupos de atores que se constituem através da interação mediada pelo computador. Essas interações são capazes de estabelecer novas formas sociais de grupos e comunidades. Através da discussão de diversos conceitos de comunidade e comunidade virtual, propõe-se o estudo das comunidades virtuais como uma forma de rede social. Esse debate teórico é discutido então no campo de estudo constituído pelo Fotolog, durante os anos de 2005 e 2006. O fotolog é um sistema que permite aos usuários a publicação de fotografias, textos e comentários. Dos dados coletados através de formas qualitativas e quantitativas, propomos uma tipologia para as comunidades virtuais baseada em sua estrutura (a rede em si e sua composição (tipos de laços sociais e capital social. Esses tipos são definidos como comunidades virtuais emergentes, comunidades virtuais de associação e comunidades virtuais híbridas. Palavras-chave redes sociais, comunidades virtuais, fotolog. Abstract Online social networks are groups of actors formed by computer-mediated social interaction. These interactions are capable of establishing new social forms of groups and communities. Based on a discussion over several concepts of community and virtual community we propose the virtual community as a specific form of online social network. This theoretical debate is brought to the field studying the system named Fotolog during 2005 and 2006. Fotolog (www.fotolog.com is a web service that allows for its users to post photographs or images with an associated text and other users may comment on each other’s posts. From the collected data, we propose a typology for communities found in these networks, based on their structure (network and composition (social ties and social capital. We define three types of communities as associative virtual communities, emergent virtual communities and hybrid virtual communities. Keywords social networks, virtual

  16. Amizades internacionais de universitários brasileiros: um estudo exploratório International friendships of Brazilian college students: an exploratory investigation

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    Agnaldo Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Amizades internacionais, entre pessoas de diferentes nacionalidades e culturas, ainda são pouco conhecidas. Este artigo investigou as amizades internacionais de estudantes universitários brasileiros utilizando um questionário contendo questões fechadas e abertas, com a participação de 120 universitários de ambos os sexos. Foram investigados: a rede internacional de amigos, a comunicação com esses amigos, início, interesses comuns e dificuldades nas amizades e a relação com o país do amigo. Ao todo foram citados 331 amigos de 59 países. Estas amizades geralmente se iniciaram por contato pessoal e eram mantidas pela Internet. Os dados foram discutidos à luz das propostas de Robert Hinde. Sugere-se a possibilidade das amizades internacionais servirem de base para a ampliação da cooperação cultural e científica entre diferentes países.International friendships involving individuals from different nations and cultures have not been widely investigated. This paper investigated the international friendships of Brazilian college students with the participation of 120 students, 46 males and 74 females, who answered a questionnaire with open and closed questions on international friends network, communication with friends, friendship beginnings, shared interests and difficulties in friendships and the perception of the friend's country. In sum, 331 friends from 59 countries have been mentioned. Friendships usually started by personal contact but they were maintained by Internet. The theoretical framework proposed by Hinde was used to discuss and interpret data. It is suggested that international friendships should serve as basis for fostering cultural and scientific cooperation among countries.

  17. Extraction Kinetics and Molecular Size Fractionation of Humic Substances From Two Brazilian Soils

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    Dick Deborah Pinheiro

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the extraction behaviour of humic substances (HS from an Oxisol and a Mollisol from South Brazil, by using 0.1 and 0.5 mol L-1 NaOH and 0.15 mol L-1 neutral pyrophosphate solutions, respectively, was systematically studied. The kinetics and efficiency of HS extraction were evaluated by means of UV/Vis spectroscopy. The isolated humic acids (HA and fulvic acids (FA were size-classified by multistage ultrafiltration (six fractions in the molecular weight range of 1 to 100 kDa. The obtained data show that the HS extraction yield depended not only on the extractant, but also on the soil type. Within 3 h approximately 90% of the soluble HS could be extracted following complex extraction kinetics by both methods and none or little structural modification was verified as observed from their stable extinction ratio E350/E550. In the Mollisol the pyrophosphate extraction was more effective, suggesting that a great part of HS occurred as macromolecules bonded to clay minerals and aggregated between themselves through cationic bridges. In the Oxisol a higher HS yield was verified with the alkaline method, presumably due to HS fixation onto the oxide surface by H-bonds and/or surface complexation reactions. In general, HS extracted by the pyrophosphate procedure showed higher molecular weights than those extracted by NaOH.

  18. How accurate are pedotransfer functions for bulk density for Brazilian soils?

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    Raquel Stucchi Boschi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of pedotransfer functions (PTFs available in the literature to estimate soil bulk density (ρb in different regions of Brazil, using different metrics. The predictive capacity of 25 PTFs was evaluated using the mean absolute error (MAE, mean error (ME, root mean squared error (RMSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and the regression error characteristic (REC curve. The models performed differently when comparing observed and estimated ρb values. In general, the PTFs showed a performance close to the mean value of the bulk density data, considered as the simplest possible estimation of an attribute and used as a parameter to compare the performance of existing models (null model. The models developed by Benites et al. (2007 (BEN-C and by Manrique and Jones (1991 (M&J-B presented the best results. The separation of data into two layers according to depth (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm demonstrated better performance in the 10-30 cm layer. The REC curve allowed for a simple and visual evaluation of the PTFs.

  19. Estimation of the degree of soil P saturation from Brazilian Mehlich-1 P data and field investigations on P losses from agricultural sites in Minas Gerais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, P; Pöthig, R; Gücker, B; Venohr, M

    The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) of agricultural soils is studied worldwide for risk assessment of phosphorus (P) losses. In previous studies, DPS could be reliably estimated from water-soluble P (WSP) for European and Brazilian soils. In the present study, we correlated measured WSP and Mehlich-1 P (M1P) from soils of Minas Gerais (MG) and Pernambuco (PE) (R(2) = 0.94, n = 59) to create a DPS map from monitoring data. The resulting DPS map showed high spatial variability and low values of DPS (54 ± 22%, mean and standard deviation; n = 1,827). Measured soil DPS values amounted to 63 ± 14% and resulted in relatively low dissolved P concentrations measured in a surface runoff study in MG. However, fertilizer grains on the soil surface led to high WSP values (>30 mg/kg) indicating high risks of dissolved P losses. We suppose that small Oxisol particles with Fe and Al hydroxides sorbed most of the dissolved fertilizer P in runoff so that P was mainly exported in particulate form. In soils with lower contents of P sorption and binding partners, e.g. Entisols in PE, this effect may be less dominant. Consequently, superficial fertilizer effects have to be considered in addition to DPS in risk assessment of P losses from agricultural areas in Brazil.

  20. Impacts of conversion of the original Brazilian cerrado vegetation in agriculture systems: changes of soil organic carbon and δ13C

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    Vania Rosolen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian savannah (cerrado is an area of expansion of agribusiness. Among the various environmental changes related to deforestation of the savannah stand out impacts related to soil organic matter such as the imbalances in stocks and the changing nature of soil organic carbon. The objective of these study was to evaluate changes in nature (δ13C and quantity (C% of soil carbon after conversion of the dense savannah vegetation in areas under different lan duses (pasture, soybeans, corn / soybean rotation, management (conventional and zero tillage developed in soils with different textural characteristics. The results showed that the average data set of non–managed grazing was the most distanced from the value obtained in cerrado soil. Another factor that determined the lowest concentrations of organic carbon was the presence of sandy soil. The results showed that the carbon C4 grasses in areas occupied by pastures, with or without management, replaced the original C3 carbon originated by cerrado. In the areas of conventional tillage, and no–tillage soybean, and consortium soybean/corn, no clear trend of impoverishment or enrichment of carbon and the carbon substitution as well as the incorporation of different nature of the carbon could be found.

  1. Siestas among Brazilian native Terena adults: a study of daytime napping Sono diurno em indígenas Terena: um estudo da sesta

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    RUBENS REIMÃO

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Regular daytime napping behavior, also known as siesta culture, is influenced by circadian, cultural and environmental factors. This research analyzes characteristics of regular daytime napping in Brazilian Native Terenas. We evaluared 65 adults ( 32 M; 33 F from 18 to 75 years, with a mean age of 37.2, from the Indian Reservation village Córrego do Meio, in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul. Daytime napping characteristics were evaluated by means of a standard questionnaire applied to each individual. It was observed that weekly daytime napping (at least once a week was present in 72.3% of the population. There was a tendency to occur in males. The effects of weekends was mild. Mean onset time of daytime sleep was 12.2 h, remarkably earlier than usually described in urban populations. This data stresses the need to consider ethnic influences in order to understand sleep habits.O comportamento de dormir regularmente durante o dia, denominado cultura de sesta, é influenciado por fatores circadianos, culturais e ambientais.Esta pesquisa buscou verificar as características do sono diurno regular em indígenas Terena. Avaliamos 65 adultos (32 M; 33 F de 18 a 75 anos de idade (média 37,2 anos da aldeia Córrego do Meio, situada em reserva indígena na região central de Mato Grosso do Sul. As características do sono diurno foram avaliadas por meio de questionário padronizado. Como resultado, verificamos que 72,3% dos indivíduos apresentavam sesta, pelo menos uma vez por semana. Este hábito tendeu a ser mais encontrado no sexo masculino. Apenas 9,2% referiram sesta só nos fins de semana. O horário de sesta foi acentuadamente mais cedo do que o descrito em populações urbanas, iniciando a sesta em média às 12,2 h. É necessário ponderar as influências étnicas para compreender as características do dormir.

  2. Leitura contextual e processamento metalingüístico no português do Brasil: um estudo longitudinal Contextual reading and metalinguistic processing in Brazilian portuguese: a longitudinal study

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    Márcia Maria Peruzzi Elia da Mota

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habilidade metalingüística é a habilidade de refletir sobre a linguagem como objeto do pensamento. Dentre as habilidades metalingüísticas duas parecem estar associadas à leitura e a escrita: a consciência morfológica e consciência fonológica. Consciência fonológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os fonemas que compõem a fala e a consciência morfológica é a habilidade de refletir sobre os morfemas que compõem as palavras. Esta última parece ser particularmente importante para compreensão de texto e leitura contextual, visto que além das informações fonológicas, informações sintático-semânticas devem ser utilizadas. Este estudo se propôs a investigar a relação entre essas habilidades e a compreensão de texto medida pelo Cloze em um estudo longitudinal. Na primeira parte foi explorada a relação entre as tarefas de consciência morfológica e os escores no Cloze através de correlações simples e, na segunda, averiguou-se a especificidade desta relação utilizando-se regressões múltiplas. Os resultados dão certo apoio à hipótese de que a consciência morfológica contribui independentemente da fonológica para leitura contextual no português.Metalinguistic skill is the ability to reflect upon language as an object of thought. Amongst metalinguistic skills, two seem to be associated with reading and spelling: morphological awareness and phonological awareness. Phonological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the phonemes that compose words, and morphological awareness is the ability of reflecting upon the morphemes that compose the words. The latter seems to be particularly important for reading comprehension and contextual reading, as beyond phonological information, syntactic and semantic information are required. This study is set to investigate - with a longitudinal design - the relation between those abilities and contextual reading measured by the Cloze test. The first part of the study

  3. Método para análise de benefícios em cadeias de suprimento: um estudo de caso A method to analyze benefits in supply chain benefits: a case study un the brazilian dairy sector

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    Fernando Cezar Leandro Scramim

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um método para realizar análises quantitativas de desempenho de configurações operacionais alternativas, em cadeias de suprimentos empresariais. Este método propõe integrar, em um único framework de análise, os conceitos advindos da gestão da cadeia de suprimentos e de sistemas de custeios gerenciais. O trabalho propõe a operacionalização do método por meio da utilização dos conhecimentos advindos da abordagem conhecida como system dynamics (SD. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso junto a uma Cooperativa de Laticínios do interior do Estado de São Paulo, no qual modelos de simulação foram construídos, baseados na análise prévia dos elementos do sistema. Deste modo, tornou-se possível examinar as relações de causalidade por meio da construção de cenários alternativos e controle sistemático das variáveis pesquisadas. Do exame dos cenários alternativos e do desempenho do sistema frente aos "distúrbios" aos quais as variáveis são submetidas, natureza do processo de simulação, pôde-se ganhar um maior aprendizado sobre o sistema em estudo.This paper proposes an analytical method, based on a framework that integrates the concepts of Supply Chain Management and Cost Management Systems, to study and restructure Brazilian agricultural supply chains. Using systemic reasoning and the system dynamics (SD approach, the proposed method was applied to Brazil's dairy sector to quantitatively analyze the performance of organizational and technical configurations of the sector's economic agents. A network of companies in Brazil's dairy supply chain was defined in terms of an SD model, which indicated that the impact of actions on the agents' production costs can be forecasted before such actions are taken, conferring greater consistency on the study. The network consisted of four representative groups of rural producers and a dairy company. Input data were based on a network

  4. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

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    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo de natureza empírico-teórica foi entender os relacionamentos entre o Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial; o desenvolvimento de Competências Organizacionais e Desempenho usando o framework proposto por Henri 2006 . A dimensão Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial proposta por Simons 1995; 2000 em Uso Diagnóstico e Uso Interativo é pouco estudada no Brasil; contrariamente à literatura internacional; embora esta tenha mostrado alguns resultados que são contraditórios. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2008; por meio de um survey em uma amostra de 104 empresas constantes da relação das 1.000 Maiores Empresas da Revista Exame. Com a aplicação da Modelagem de Equação Estrutural; os principais resultados mostram que não existem evidências de relacionamento negativo entre o Uso Diagnóstico e o desenvolvimento de Competências Organizacionais; o que contradiz os resultados de Henri 2006 . Também se identificou que o Uso Interativo influencia positivamente as competências Aprendizagem Organizacional e Orientação para Mercado e estas influenciam positivamente o Desempenho medido por auto-avaliação . O estudo contribui para a literatura nacional ao abordar um tema que integra Contabilidade Gerencial e Estratégia; e também por operacionalizar o construto Tensões Dinâmicas. O resultado contribui para a prática ao mostrar que as empresas devem continuar usando diagnosticamente o Controle Gerencial; pois este auxilia a organização a corrigir desvios; ao mesmo tempo que recomenda a utilização da forma interativa para ativar as competências organizacionais.The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among Management Control System Use, development of company's organizational competences and performance using Henri's framework (HENRI, 2006. The dimension Use of Management Control System, proposed by Simons (1995, 2000 in diagnostic use and interactive use is scarcely studied in Brazil, in spite

  5. Reposicionamento de Marcas: estudo de casos brasileirosBrands Repositioning: Brazilian case studiesReposicionamiento de Marcas: estudio de casos brasileños

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    FURRIER, Marcio Tadeu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOEste trabalho teve por objetivo aprofundar o conhecimento existente sobre o processo de reposicionamento de marcas, partindo da premissa da relevância crescente do posicionamento e do patrimônio da marca no contexto da gestão do marketing em ambientes competitivos. A verificação empírica constou da análise de seis relatos (casos de reposicionamento de marcas brasileiras vencedoras do Prêmio Top de Marketing das edições de 1999 a 2003, com o emprego da metodologia da análise de conteúdo, tomando por base a estrutura de quatro referenciais teóricos, obtidos na revisão da literatura pertinente. Este texto conclui pela existência de três blocos constituintes de um programa de reposicionamento, formados pelas fases de diagnóstico, decisão e implantação, predominando os dois primeiros nos modelos teóricos, enquanto nas experiências verificadas (casos a fase de implantação foi dominante.ABSTRACTBased on the assumption of the increasing relevance of both brand positioning and equity in the context of marketing management in competitive environments, the objective of this work was to deepen the existing knowledge on the brand repositioning process. Four theoretical models of reference obtained after literature review supported the empiric verification represented by content analysis of six reports (cases of Brazilian brands repositioning experiences awarded with the “Top of Marketing” prize in the period 1999-2003. Results conclude for the existence of three constituent blocks of a repositioning program, formed for the phases of diagnosis, decision and implementation, with the predomination of the two first ones in the theoretical models, while in the practical experiences the implementation phase was dominant.RESUMENEl trabajo tuvo por finalidad profundizar el conocimiento existente sobre el proceso de reposicionamiento de marcas, considerando como premisa la creciente relevancia del posicionamiento y del valor de la

  6. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Brazilian AIDS patients: a study of 144 cases Sarcoma de Kaposi em pacientes com AIDS: estudo de 144 casos

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    Esther G. BIRMAN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-four Brazilian AIDS patients presenting with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS were evaluated with respect to the frequency of oral neoplasms and their clinical features. The majority of the patients were young male adults (age range: 21-40 years old, from which 11.1 % presented with oral KS (OKS exclusively. Oral and skin lesions were associated in 25% of the cases, while only four patients showed association between oral and visceral KS; 49.3% of the cases were exclusively dermatological. The hard palate was the main site affected, followed by the oropharynx. The localization of KS was found to be similarly frequent in the tongue, gingiva and other sites of the oral mucosa. Candidosis was the prevailing fungal disease; in 20% of the cases it was restricted to the oral mucosa and in 80% it was systemic. No high frequency of paracoccidioidomicosis and cryptococcosis was detected. The prevailing bacterial disease was Tuberculosis and there was only one case of syphilis. Among the viral diseases, the most frequently detected was herpes simplex, followed by molusco contagiosum, condiloma acuminatum and cytomegaloviroses at lower frequencies. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystes carinii and toxoplasmosis were also identified. The authors emphasise the importance of oral examination in HIV-infected patients bearing in mind several aspects related especially to KS, and stress the need for an interdisciplinary team in the management of these patients, in order to provide better quality of life as well as rapid diagnosis and treatment.Foram estudados pacientes brasileiros portadores de SIDA apresentando sarcoma de Kaposi (SK. O perfil de idade mostrou um grupo com média de idade entre 21 e 40 anos, sendo que 11,1% da amostra apresentava SK exclusivamente na cavidade bucal, observando-se em 25% da amostra uma associação de lesões bucais e na pele. Somente quatro pacientes apresentaram associação de lesões bucais e viscerais, enquanto 49

  7. The Brazilian smoker: a survey in the largest cities of Brazil Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar do brasileiro: um estudo nas maiores cidades do país

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    Emérita Sátiro Opaleye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the sociodemographic factors associated with daily consumption of cigarettes and pattern of cigarette use among Brazilian smokers. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005 involving the 108 largest Brazilian cities. Data were collected through interviews with subjects aged 12 to 65 years in randomly selected households. Based on a questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context, a logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and smoking. RESULTS: Of the 7,921 subjects interviewed, 16.4% reported daily use of cigarettes. The smoking prevalence was similar between genders, although women reported to start smoking at a later age and smoke fewer cigarettes per day. Almost 65% of the smokers were interested in quitting or reducing their smoking habit. The main sociodemographic characteristics associated with smoking were as follows: adult age (30-59 years old, unemployment, low education level, and low socioeconomic level. Alcohol abuse was also shown to be associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse socioeconomic characteristics are implicated in increased susceptibility to smoking in Brazil. In our sample, a high proportion of smokers reported interest to quit or reduce smoking. These data suggest that sociodemographic factors should be considered in the elaboration of smoking prevention and treatment policies.OBJETIVO: Conhecer fatores sociodemográficos associados ao consumo diário de cigarros, bem como o padrão de uso de cigarros do tabagista brasileiro. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado em 2005 nas 108 maiores cidades brasileiras através de entrevistas a indivíduos de 12 a 65 anos em domicílios sorteados por amostragem representativa. Com base em questionário adaptado para o contexto brasileiro, as características sociodemográficas foram investigadas em modelo de regressão logística para

  8. Estudos sobre religião e saúde mental realizados no Brasil: histórico e perspectivas atuais Brazilian studies on religion and mental health: history and current perspectives

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    Paulo Dalgalarrondo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: Há mais de um século, vários pesquisadores brasileiros têm estudado as relações entre religiosidade e transtornos mentais, mas estes trabalhos são pouco conhecidos atualmente. OBJETIVOS: apresentar um panorama e uma análise crítica da produção sobre saúde mental e religião no Brasil. MÉTODOS: análise das pesquisas de relevância histórica, assim como investigações contemporâneas sobre o tema saúde mental e religião no Brasil. RESULTADOS: os trabalhos históricos foram iniciados no final do século XIX e muitos deles dedicam-se ao tema do messianismo e de formas coletivas de "loucura religiosa". Os trabalhos contemporâneos tratam de temas como religião, uso de álcool e drogas, assim como de uma variedade de condições clínicas, como esquizofrenia e suicídio. Falta a esta linha de pesquisa uma melhor articulação entre investigação empírica e análise teórica dos dados, assim como um diálogo mais próximo com ciências sociais, como a antropologia e a sociologia da religião. CONCLUSÕES: há uma rica multiplicidade metodológica e de temas abordados nestes estudos sobre religiosidade e saúde mental. A busca de teorias para nortear as pesquisas empíricas e uma maior articulação com as ciências sociais poderão contribuir para uma maior avanço nesta área.BACKGROUND: Several Brazilian scientists have been studying the relationship between religiousness and mental disorders for more than one century. However, currently, those works are poorly known. OBJECTIVES: to present an overview of past and current Brazilian studies on mental health and religion. METHODS: Analysis of historically important research, as well as current investigation on mental health and religion in Brazil. RESULTS: These studies started in Brazil by the end of XIX Century usually focusing on messianism and collective forms of "religious insanity". Current studies deal with topics like religion and alcohol or drug use, as well as

  9. Racionalidade e métodos: estudo BREATHE - I registro brasileiro de insuficiência cardíaca Rationale and design: BREATHE registry - I brazilian registry of heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos registros locais buscam de forma isolada retratar características clínicas de pacientes internados com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC em hospitais e comunidades brasileiras. De forma geral, a análise desses dados sugere que existam diferenças importantes na etiologia, nos fatores de descompensação, no tratamento e no prognóstico de pacientes com IC nas diferentes regiões brasileiras. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as características demográficas, clínicas, prognósticas de 1.200 pacientes admitidos com diagnóstico clínico de insuficiência cardíaca descompensada em um grupo de 60 hospitais representativos das diferentes regiões brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal (registro com seguimento longitudinal de doze meses (visitas de admissão, alta hospitalar, três meses, seis meses e doze meses após inclusão, em que pacientes admitidos em hospitais da rede pública e privada com quadro clínico primariamente de IC definida serão estudados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados serão apresentados logo após o término da coleta, avaliação da qualidade e análise estatística dos dados. CONCLUSÕES: A análise dos resultados deste registro multicêntrico permitirá um planejamento mais adequado do aporte de recursos financeiros, pessoais e tecnológicos para a área da saúde, bem como o planejamento de medidas preventivas mais eficazes na IC descompensada.BACKGROUND: Several local registries have sought to individually depict clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF in Brazilian hospitals and communities. Overall, the analysis of these data suggests that there are important differences in etiology, decompensation factors, treatment and prognosis of patients with HF in different Brazilian regions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics of 1,200 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of decompensated HF in a group of 60 hospitals

  10. Outsourcing e geração de valor na indústria de computadores pessoais (PCs: estudo de múltiplos casos The disruption of the Brazilian Personal Computer (PC industry: a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Barbin Laurindo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o conceito de computador pessoal (personal computer - PC ter surgido nos anos 70, essa indústria realmente deslanchou somente após o lançamento do IBM PC, em 1981. Por meio de uma agressiva estratégia de outsourcing, a IBM rapidamente conquistou o mercado, mas esta estratégia também causou perda de competências internas para seus principais parceiros, Intel e Microsoft, bem como outros revendedores autônomos. No Brasil, atualmente, a indústria de PCs está relegada à montagem de kits importados e também à manufatura das etapas finais do processo de produção de componentes, com pouco valor agregado localmente. Após o término da reserva de mercado, marcado pela súbita abertura aos concorrentes externos, houve desmantelamento da indústria brasileira de PCs e de semicondutores, nos elos de maior valor agregado dessa cadeia. Para obter inserção nas cadeias globais, as empresas brasileiras precisam atingir qualificação nos critérios de desempenho, a fim de participar dos processos de outsourcing. Este artigo visa, por meio de um aparato teórico que relaciona aspectos de outsourcing, inovação, valor e evolução da indústria de PCs, a investigar os impactos desses aspectos na competitividade da indústria de PCs do Brasil e as repercussões para seu crescimento e inserção no mercado global. A abordagem metodológica adotada foi estudo de múltiplos casos, com os seguintes critérios de seleção: diferentes papéis na cadeia de valor, grau de verticalização, principal mercado visado e tamanho da empresa.Although the personal computer (PC appeared in the seventies, this industry really boomed only after IBM launched its PC, in 1981. Through an aggressive outsourcing strategy, IBM rapidly conquered the market, but this strategy also caused lost of internal competences to its main partners, Intel and Microsoft and also to autonomous vendors. Many PC manufacturers have appeared since then. In Brazil, nowadays, PC

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a Brazilian hospital: a retrospective study of endoscopic records Sangramento digestivo alto em um hospital brasileiro: estudo retrospectivo de registros endoscópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrla ZALTMAN

    2002-04-01

    attributed to a higher prevalence of variceal bleeding and underlying liver disease.Racional - A hemorragia digestiva alta é complicação comum e grave da maioria das doenças do trato gastrointestinal superior. A endoscopia tem papel fundamental no diagnóstico e no tratamento da hemorragia digestiva, mas os dados epidemiológicos a esse respeito ainda são precários em nosso meio. Objetivos - Determinar as características clínicas, a acurácia endoscópica, a eficácia do tratamento e a evolução clínica dos pacientes admitidos no setor de endoscopia digestiva do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, com sangramento digestivo alto. Pacientes e Métodos - Estudo retrospectivo de registros consecutivos de pacientes com hemorragia digestiva alta submetidos a endoscopia de urgência, em período de 2 anos. Resultados - A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (68.7% com idade média de 54,5 ± 17,5 anos. O sítio de sangramento foi identificado em 75.6% dos pacientes. A acurácia diagnóstica da endoscopia foi maior quando realizada nas primeiras 24 horas do início do sangramento e quando da presença de hematêmese. A úlcera péptica foi a principal causa de hemorragia digestiva alta (35%. A prevalência de sangramento varicoso (20,45% indica freqüência alta de hepatopatia subjacente. O tratamento endoscópico foi realizado em 23,86% dos pacientes. Hemostasia permanente foi alcançada em 86% dos pacientes após a primeira intervenção endoscópica e em 62,5% dos pacientes após ressangramento. Cirurgia de emergência foi raramente necessária. A quantidade de unidades de sangue utilizada foi em média 1,44 ± 1,99 por paciente. O tempo médio de internação hospitalar foi de 7,71 ± 12,2 dias. Ressangramento foi observado em 9,1% dos pacientes. A taxa de mortalidade de 15,34% foi significativamente relacionada com a presença de doença hepática prévia. Conclusões - A acurácia diagnóstica foi

  12. Bibliometria, história e geografia da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo Bibliometrics, history and geography of Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira Barretto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre a história da ciência do solo e, no Brasil, essa matéria ainda não recebeu maior atenção por parte de sua comunidade científica. Este trabalho focaliza a formação histórica da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo a partir de uma análise bibliométrica e geográfica, com base numa ampla compilação de artigos científicos publicados sobre o tema por autores vinculados a instituições brasileiras. A metodologia envolveu o armazenamento, em um banco de dados dimensional, estruturado especificamente para esse objetivo, de informações espaciais e bibliométricas. Indicadores quantitativos foram calculados, e a geografia da pesquisa foi mapeada por meio de consultas SQL e ferramentas de geoprocessamento. Os resultados apontaram para gênese recente da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo e centralização da produção científica e formação de linhas em instituições e autores do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Ainda, a análise dos dados temáticos indicou predominância do enfoque da erosão a partir de uma perspectiva agrícola e grande ênfase na pesquisa dos fatores do modelo USLE de estimativa de erosão.Soil science history studies are rare and the Brazilian scientific community has not given substantial attention to this subject yet. The present study focused on the formation of research on accelerated soil erosion in the Brazil from a bibliometric perspective. A comprehensive database of published scientific papers was organized in a relational database and analyzed by SQL queries and GIS tools. These data were used to calculate quantitative indicators and spatial distribution patterns. Results indicate a recent development of research on accelerated soil erosion in Brazil by few institutions and authors in the South and Southeast regions. Moreover, a thematic analysis indicated the agricultural perspective as the main focus of erosion studies, with a great emphasis on the USLE

  13. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Ayarza, M.; Lopes, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  14. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, R J; Ayarza, M [Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, Cali (Colombia); Lopes, A S [Federal University of Lavras, Lavras (Brazil)

    2000-06-01

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  15. Persistence of Brazilian isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. robertsii in strawberry crop soil after soil drench application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago; Mayerhofer, Johanna; Enkerli, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Establishment, persistence and local dispersal of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (ESALQ1037) and M. robertsii (ESALQ1426) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) were investigated in the soil and rhizosphere following soil drench application in strawberries between 2012 and 2013 at a single...... sequence repeat analysis. Both applied fungal isolates were frequently recovered from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of the treated plots, suggesting that they were able to establish and disperse within the soil. Persistence within the soil and strawberry rhizosphere for both fungal isolates...

  16. Reflexões sobre água de abastecimento e saúde pública: um estudo de caso na Amazônia brasileira Considerations about water supply and public health: a case study in the Brazilian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Luiz Giatti

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Embora a Amazônia ostente grandioso patrimônio ambiental e abundância de recursos hídricos, é na região Norte do Brasil, contida neste notável bioma, que se verificam os piores índices de acesso a serviços de saneamento e respectivos indicadores de saúde pública. Por meio de estudo de caso efetuado na cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, localizada à noroeste do Estado do Amazonas, com aproximadamente 18.000 habitantes e substancial parcela de população indígena, verificou-se a complexidade de fatores relacionados ao provimento de água e à melhoria da saúde pública para núcleos urbanos da Amazônia. A ausência de políticas concisas, as peculiaridades ambientais, as dificuldades logísticas e financeiras somam-se a questões socioculturais, a aspectos migratórios e a processo de urbanização desordenada, associada a impactos ambientais. Para melhoria da saúde pública nessas circunstâncias torna-se necessária uma abordagem interdisciplinar, que possibilite a gestão dos recursos hídricos, a implementação de saneamento básico e, não obstante, a promoção de adesão dos habitantes.Even though Amazonia displays magnificent environmental heritage and abundance of water resources, it is exactly in the Brazilian northern region, contained in this remarkable biome, that the worst indices of access to sanitation services and respective public health indicators are found. A case study carried out in the town of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, located to the northwest in the State of Amazonas, with nearly 18,000 inhabitants, a large portion of whom are Indians, revealed a complexity of factors related to water supply and public health improvement for urban centers in Amazonia. Lack of proper policies, environmental peculiarities, logistic and financial difficulties, are added to socio-cultural matters, migratory processes, and unorganized urbanization associated with environmental impacts. In order to improve the public health

  17. A teoria das representações sociais nos estudos sobre representações de professores The social representations theory in studies of teacher's representation: analysis of brazilian theses and dissertations

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    Maria Suzana de Stefano Menin

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa apresentada analisou 27 teses de doutorado e dissertações de mestrado de programas brasileiros de Pós-Graduação em Educação que usam a teoria de representações sociais para estudar representações de ou sobre professor. Para a realização dessa análise foram investigados, principalmente, aspectos metodológicos relacionados ao uso da TRS, tais como: modo de descrição dos sujeitos da pesquisa e variáveis selecionadas nessa caracterização; descrição do objeto de estudo, sua contextualização e justificação como objeto de representação social; procedimentos de coleta de dados, sua adequação e justificação; tratamento dos dados; procedimentos de análise; síntese dos resultados e sua contribuição para a educação, para a formação de professores e para a TRS. Concluiu-se que a TRS é pouco explorada nos trabalhos, embora, de modo geral, eles contribuam para aclarar as representações que professores têm a respeito de vários campos que compõem sua vida profissional.This study analyzed 27 Ph.D dissertations and master's theses from Brazilian graduate programs in education that use the social representation theory to study representations of or about teachers. For this analysis, principally methodological aspects related to the use of SRT were used, such as: description of the research subjects and the variables selected for this characterization; description of the research object, its contextualization and justification as an object of social representation; procedures adopted for data collection, their suitability and justification; data treatment; analysis procedures; results summary and their contribution towards education, teacher education programs and SRT. It was concluded that SRT has received little attention from researchers, although generally speaking these studies have contributed to clarifying the representations that teachers have about the different fields that constitute their

  18. Prevalência e fatores associados a sintomas depressivos em adultos do sul do Brasil: estudo transversal de base populacional Prevalence of depressive symptons and associated factors among southern Brazilian adults: cross-sectional population-based study

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    Airton José Rombaldi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de identificar a prevalência de sintomas depressivos e examinar fatores associados em uma população adulta do sul do Brasil, foi realizado um estudo transversal de base populacional, incluindo 972 indivíduos, de ambos os sexos, idade entre 20 e 69 anos, moradores na zona urbana da cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. A seleção amostral teve os setores censitários do município como unidades amostrais primárias e os domicílios como unidades secundárias. O questionário incluiu variáveis socioeconômicas, comportamentais e nutricionais. As prevalências dos sintomas depressivos tristeza, ansiedade, falta de energia, falta de disposição, pensar no passado e preferir ficar em casa, na população de Pelotas, foram, respectivamente, de 29,4%, 57,6%, 37,4%, 40,4%, 33,8% e 54,3%. Concluiu-se que as prevalências de sintomas depressivos foram elevadas e os indivíduos do sexo feminino, idade avançada, fumantes e obesos mostraram-se associadas à maioria dos desfechos. A depressão é um importante problema de saúde publica e o conhecimento de como a sintomatologia depressiva se distribui na população e os fatores associados à sua presença podem ajudar no melhor entendimento da fenomenologia dos transtornos depressivos e a traçar estratégias de prevenção e intervenção.To identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and examine associated factors in a Southern Brazilian adult population, a cross-sectional population-based study was carried out, including 972 subjects, men and women, aged 20 to 69 years, living in the urban area of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul. The sampling strategy relied on the census tracts of the city as primary sampling units and households as the secondary units. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, behavioral and nutritional variables. The prevalence of sadness, anxiety, loss of energy, lack of will to do things, thinking about the past, and wishing to stay at home were 29.4%, 57

  19. Cultura organizacional no setor público: um estudo junto a um departamento administrativo de uma universidade federal brasileira Organizational Culture In The Public Administration: A Study In Administrative Department Of Brazilian Federal University

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    Evandro Dotto Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The organizacional culture is a complex subject and that constantly it comes being studied for specialists and researchers of the whole world, for the fact of its relevance in the understanding of the functioning of the organizations. However, this type of study not yet total was spread out in the Brazilian public organizations, mainly in federal universities. Therefore, the present work has as objective generality to identify to the organizacional culture under the personal and institucional points of view in an managemental department of the Federal University of Saint Maria, through a comparison with four deuses Greek (Zeus, Apolo, Atena and Dionísio that they reflect the form as the politics and strategies in an organization are lead, according to Handy study (1994. By means of a survey carried through with the employees of the related department, the gotten results had allowed the conclusion of that it has the predominance of the organizacional culture of the Apolo type in the institucional optics and of the Atena type in the personal optics, where a made comparative degree enter the predominant characteristics in each one of these cultures showed a divergence enter the yearnings of the collaborators and the form as the organization acts day-by-day in its, as the points boarded for the research and presented in the analysis of the results.A cultura organizacional é um tema complexo e constantemente em estudo por especialistas e pesquisadores de todo o mundo, pela sua relevância na compreensão do funcionamento das organizações. No entanto, esse tipo de estudo ainda não foi totalmente difundido nas organizações públicas brasileiras, principalmente em universidades federais. Por isso, este trabalho tem como objetivo geral identificar a cultura organizacional sob os pontos de vista pessoal e institucional em um departamento administrativo da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, através de uma relação com os quatro deuses gregos

  20. Effects of plough pan development on surface hydrology and on soil physical properties in Southeastern Brazilian plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolino, Ana V. F. A.; Fernandes, Nelson F.; Miranda, João P. L.; Souza, Andréa P.; Lopes, Marcel R. S.; Palmieri, Francesco

    2010-10-01

    SummaryConventional tillage may impose changes in soil physical properties that lead to a decrease in soil physical quality. Although plough pan formation is considered to be an important consequence of conventional tillage practices in Southeastern Brazil, few studies have focused on its hydrological consequences. Detailed investigations in two experimental plots located in the hilly landscape of Serra do Mar close to Rio de Janeiro city were carried out to characterize the changes in soil physical properties and in soil hydrology due to plough pan formation. Conventional (CT) and minimum tillage (MT) practices were implemented in two plots for 3 years and soil matric potential (SMP) was monitored in each plot via nests of tensiometers and Watermark® sensors installed at different depths. Undisturbed soil blocks were collected for micromorphological analyses to quantify the total pore space in soils under CT and MT systems, and in soils under natural tropical forest. Results suggest that soils under the CT system developed a plough pan layer at about 20 cm depth that had 44% less total porosity as compared to surface conditions. It is shown that soils under the CT system tended to stay saturated for longer periods of time after each rainfall event. Besides, during intense rainy periods soils under the CT system may develop hydrologic conditions that favor lateral flows while soils under the MT system were still draining. Such hydrological responses may explain why average soil erosion rates measured for individual rainfall events under the CT system were about 2.5 times greater than the ones observed at MT. The results attested that conventional tillage in this area generated modifications in soil fabric, especially in pore-size distribution and connectivity, which induced important changes in soil hydrology and soil erosion. The agricultural practices used in this area, associated with the local steep hillslopes and intense rainfall events, are definitely not

  1. Biological Invasion Influences the Outcome of Plant-Soil Feedback in the Invasive Plant Species from the Brazilian Semi-arid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena; da Silva Sandim, Aline

    2017-05-30

    Plant-soil feedback is recognized as the mutual interaction between plants and soil microorganisms, but its role on the biological invasion of the Brazilian tropical seasonal dry forest by invasive plants still remains unclear. Here, we analyzed and compared the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and soil characteristics from the root zone of invasive and native plants, and tested how these AMF communities affect the development of four invasive plant species (Cryptostegia madagascariensis, Parkinsonia aculeata, Prosopis juliflora, and Sesbania virgata). Our field sampling revealed that AMF diversity and frequency of the Order Diversisporales were positively correlated with the root zone of the native plants, whereas AMF dominance and frequency of the Order Glomerales were positively correlated with the root zone of invasive plants. We grew the invasive plants in soil inoculated with AMF species from the root zone of invasive (I changed ) and native (I unaltered ) plant species. We also performed a third treatment with sterilized soil inoculum (control). We examined the effects of these three AMF inoculums on plant dry biomass, root colonization, plant phosphorous concentration, and plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas. We found that I unaltered and I changed promoted the growth of all invasive plants and led to a higher plant dry biomass, mycorrhizal colonization, and P uptake than control, but I changed showed better results on these variables than I unaltered . For plant responsiveness to mycorrhizas and fungal inoculum effect on plant P concentration, we found positive feedback between changed-AMF community (I changed ) and three of the studied invasive plants: C. madagascariensis, P. aculeata, and S. virgata.

  2. O cargo público de livre provimento na organização da administração pública federal brasileira: uma introdução ao estudo da organização da direção pública na perspectiva de estudos organizacionais Public position filled by appointment in the Brazilian federal administration: an introduction to the study of public management organization from the organizational studies perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Moreira Câmara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A organização da administração pública federal brasileira é raramente abordada na pesquisa no campo de estudos organizacionais (EOs. Privilegia-se a tomada de decisão, seguindo-se a tradição de pesquisa operacional de cunho funcionalista. Contudo, direção é mais complexa e inclui decisão. A direção na administração pública federal brasileira se dá exclusivamente por meio de cargos de livre provimento. Tal realidade permite entender a direção como ação eminentemente política, cristalizada na organização da administração pública. Este artigo possui caráter metodológico e demonstra que o cargo público de livre provimento possui centralidade na organização da administração pública federal brasileira. Identifica, ainda, práticas de operação e interações no exercício da direção pública.The organization of the Brazilian federal public administration is seldom addressed by organizational studies (OS research. The decision-making process is privileged, according to the tradition of functionalist operational research. However, managing is more complex than decision-making, which is included by it. Management level in Brazilian federal public administration is completely filled by appointment. This reality makes us understand management as an utterly political action, crystallized in the public administration organization. This article has a methodological perspective and demonstrates that public positions filled by appointment are central to the Brazilian federal public administration,. It also identifies practices and interactions of public management.

  3. Mapeamento digital de classes de solos: características da abordagem brasileira Digital soil mapping: characteristics of the brazilian approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O solo é cada vez mais reconhecido como tendo um importante papel nos ecossistemas, assim como para a produção de alimentos e regulação do clima global. Por esse motivo, a demanda por informações relevantes e atualizadas em solos é crescente. Pesquisadores em ciência do solo estão sendo demandados a gerar informações em diferentes resoluções espaciais e com qualidade associada dentro do que está sendo chamado de Mapeamento Digital de Solos (MDS. Devido ao crescente número de trabalhos relacionados ao MDS, faz-se necessário reunir e discutir as principais características dos estudos relacionados ao mapeamento digital de classes de solos no Brasil, o que irá possibilitar uma perspectiva mais ampla dos caminhos, além de nortear trabalhos e demandas futuras. O mapeamento de classes de solos empregando técnicas de MDS é recente no país, com a primeira publicação em 2006. Entre as funções preditivas utilizadas, predomina o emprego da técnica de regressões logísticas. O fator de formação relevo foi empregado na totalidade dos estudos revisados. Quanto à avaliação da qualidade dos modelos preditivos, o emprego da matriz de erros e do índice kappa têm sido os procedimentos mais usuais. A consolidação dessa abordagem automatizada como ferramenta auxiliar ao mapeamento convencional passa pelo treinamento dos jovens pedólogos para a utilização de tecnologias da geoinformação e de ferramentas quantitativas dos aspectos de variabilidade do solo.Soil is increasingly being recognized as having an important role in ecosystems, as well as for food production and global climate regulation. For this reason, the demand for relevant and updated soil information is increasing. Soil science researchers are being demanded to produce information in different spatial resolutions with associated quality in what is being called Digital Soil Mapping (DSM. Due to an increasing number of papers related to the DSM in Brazil, it is

  4. Caracterização física e hidráulica de solos em bacias experimentais do semiárido brasileiro, sob manejo conservacionista Hydraulic and physical characterization of soils in experimental basins of the brazilian semiarid under conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto L. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudos de movimento da água no solo tornam-se imprescindíveis o conhecimento de suas propriedades físicas e hidráulicas e suas correlações. Ambas as propriedades têm importância fundamental no armazenamento e transporte de água, tal como, também, de nutrientes e no controle da infiltração, sendo influenciadas pelas condições de superfície do solo. Neste contexto buscou-se realizar, com o presente estudo, a caracterização físico-hídrica de solos de duas bacias experimentais (Jatobá e Mimoso/Pesqueira, PE do semiárido brasileiro, em diferentes profundidades e distintas coberturas vegetais (cobertura natural, solo descoberto, cultivo morro abaixo, palma em curva de nível e barramento de pedra com cobertura morta. Observou-se alta variabilidade da condutividade hidráulica nas camadas até 50 cm além de decaimento dos teores de areia, de matéria orgânica e da condutividade hidráulica com a profundidade, no perfil dos solos, nas bacias estudadas. Já com relação às diferentes coberturas vegetais constatou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre médias da condutividade hidráulica entre os diferentes tratamentos conservacionistas avaliados, para as profundidades estudadas.For the study involving the water movement in soil, it becomes imperative to know their physical and hydraulic properties and their correlations. Both are of fundamental importance in the storage and transport of water and nutrients and in controlling infiltration, being influenced by the conditions of the soil surface. In this context, this study aimed to perform physical and hydraulic characterization of the soil in two experimental basins (Jatoba and Mimoso/Pesqueira, PE, in the brazilian semiarid, at different depths and vegetation cover conditions (natural vegetation, bare soil, cultivation downhill, palm contour and stone micro walls with mulching. High variability of hydraulic conductivity was observed in layers up to 50 cm. Besides

  5. Reduction of soil erosion and mercury losses in agroforestry systems compared to forests and cultivated fields in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Paquet, Serge; Mertens, Frédéric; Passos, Carlos J; Romana, Christine A

    2017-12-01

    In addition to causing physical degradation and nutrient depletion, erosion of cultivated soils in the Amazon affects aquatic ecosystems through the release of natural soil mercury (Hg) towards lakes and rivers. While traditional agriculture is generally cited as being among the main causes of soil erosion, agroforestry practices are increasingly appreciated for soil conservation. This study was carried out in family farms of the rural Tapajós region (Brazil) and aimed at evaluating soil erosion and associated Hg release for three land uses. Soils, runoff water and eroded sediments were collected at three sites representing a land cover gradient: a recently burnt short-cycle cropping system (SCC), a 2-year-old agroforestry system (AFS) and a mature forest (F). At each site, two PVC soil erosion plots (each composed of three 2 × 5 m isolated subplots) were implemented on steep and moderate slopes respectively. Sampling was done after each of the 20 rain events that occurred during a 1-month study period, in the peak of the 2011 rain season. Runoff volume and rate, as well as eroded soil particles with their Hg and cation concentrations were determined. Total Hg and cation losses were then calculated for each subplot. Erosion processes were dominated by land use type over rainfall or soil slope. Eroded soil particles, as well as the amount of Hg and cations (CaMgK) mobilized at the AFS site were similar to those at the F site, but significantly lower than those at the SCC site (p agroforestry systems, even in their early stages of implementation, are characterized by low erosion levels resembling those of local forest environments, thus contributing to the maintenance of soil integrity and to the reduction of Hg and nutrient mobility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From solid to liquid: assessing the release of organic matter into soil solution in response to land-use conversion in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jason; Gross, Cole; Dwivedi, Pranjal; Bernardi, Rodolpho; Guerrini, Irae; Harrison, Rob; Butman, David

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in freshwater research indicate that roughly double the quantity of carbon is exported from soils to streams and rivers than was previously estimated, and that the age of carbon exported from major rivers globally increases with greater human disturbance in the watershed. This implies that human land-use can release old, previously mineral-associated C into solution with subsequent export to groundwater and ultimately freshwater systems where terrestrial organic matter is either mineralized to CO2, stored in aquatic sediments, or exported to the ocean. Consequently, it is important to understand the mechanisms that cause the release of SOM that is mineral-bound into solution in response to human disturbance and land-use change. Research methods have been established to examine both the fast turnover, dissolved pool of soil organic matter (SOM), as well as the slow turnover, mineral-associated pool. However, to better characterize the response of the total SOM pool to disturbance, it is necessary to understand the interactions between these functional pools by examining them both simultaneously. This study seeks to examine the interaction between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bulk SOM throughout the soil profile in response to conversion of Brazilian Cerrado (savannah forest) to Eucalyptus plantation forest on the same soil type. The water-extractable organic matter was obtained from soil samples down to 150 cm, characterized using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, and carbon-dated. Simultaneously, bulk mineral soil samples were analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon content and age, and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. SOM spectra were obtained by washing subsamples with sodium hypochlorite and subtracting the subsequent mineral matrix spectra from bulk soil spectra. Preliminary results show that microbial biomass decreases much more quickly with depth than DOM, suggesting that C released into solution from deeper

  7. Land use and climate change impacts on runoff and soil erosion at the hillslope scale in the Brazilian Cerrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in land use and climate can influence runoff and soil erosion, threatening soil and water conservation in the Cerrado biome in Brazil. The adoption of a process-based model was necessary due to the lack of long-term observed data. Our goals were to calibrate the WEPP (Water Erosion Predictio...

  8. Saúde mental na atenção primária à saúde: estudo avaliativo em uma grande cidade brasileira Mental health in primary care: an evaluative study in a large Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Onocko Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A Atenção Primária à Saúde é reconhecida mundialmente como a responsável pela solução dos principais problemas de saúde da comunidade, incluso a mental. O presente estudo buscou avaliar a articulação entre as redes de atenção primária e de saúde mental em regiões de alta vulnerabilidade social de uma grande cidade brasileira (Campinas - SP através dos parâmetros: pesquisa avaliativa, participativa e predominantemente qualitativa. Foram definidos dois grupos pela técnica de clusters: um de Unidades Básicas de Saúde com maior grau de implantação das ações inovadoras e outro com menor grau de implantação. Posteriormente foi realizada uma comparação. O apoio matricial se mostrou potente para definir fluxos, qualificar as equipes e promover uma assistência conjunta e compartilhada. Detectou-se um papel estratégico do agente comunitário de saúde para identificar ofertas em potencial e propiciar escuta de forma mais próxima à população. As práticas de promoção à saúde ainda não estão consolidadas. Quando os arranjos possibilitam inserções dos profissionais em atividades extramuros, os usuários reconhecem e se apropriam dos espaços, possibilitando ações que se distanciam da tradicional queixa-conduta.Primary Healthcare (PHC is internationally acknowledged to be responsible for dealing with most community health problems, including mental health issues. The scope of this work was to evaluate the links between primary care and mental health in areas of high social vulnerability in a large Brazilian city (Campinas, State of São Paulo using parameters defined in this study. Evaluative and participative - mainly qualitative - research, was conducted. Two groups were defined by cluster technique: one group of Basic Health Units with a higher degree of innovative strategies and another with a lower level of innovation, and the two were then compared. Matrix support was observed as a powerful tool to define

  9. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city O manejo da hipertensão arterial sistêmica na comunidade:estudo de base populacional em uma cidade brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto X. Piccini

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.Há poucas informações disponíveis a respeito do manejo de pacientes hipertensos na comunidade. Esse estudo mede a freqüência de hipertensão em uma cidade de médio porte do Brasil ao estudar uma amostra aleatória de 1.657 adultos com idade entre 20 e 69 anos. Os 328 hipertensos (19,8% encontrados foram submetidos a um questionário que investigava o conhecimento a respeito de sua condição e dados do manejo deste problema. Dois terços deles sabiam ser hipertensos, mais da metade usava medicação para hipertensão, mas apenas um terço apresentava cifras tensionais controladas. Os médicos não recomendaram, para muitos dos seus pacientes, realizarem exercícios físicos, abandonar o tabagismo e reduzirem o peso corporal. Embora exames laboratoriais tenham sido realizados em muitos pacientes, exame de fundo de olho e Rx de tórax foram feitos em menos de

  10. Processo de produção rural e saúde na serra gaúcha: um estudo descritivo The rural labor process and health in the Southern Brazilian mountains: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal entre trabalhadores rurais na região serrana do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estudar o perfil sócio-demográfico da população, conhecer as características do trabalho rural e descrever a prevalência de algumas patologias na população referida. A amostra foi de 1.479 trabalhadores, em 495 estabelecimentos agrícolas. Nesta amostra, a idade média foi de 41 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, com escolaridade média de cinco anos, sendo 87% da família proprietária. Os estabelecimentos tinham área média de 37 ha, 50% tinham pelo menos um tipo de máquina agrícola e a principal produção era a fruticultura. Cerca 75% dos trabalhadores lidavam com agrotóxicos de vários tipos e 12% referiram intoxicação por estes produtos em algum momento da vida. A prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos menores foi de 36%, a freqüência anual de acidentes de trabalho foi 10%. Os dados revelam a diversidade de atividades e de riscos ocupacionais. As altas prevalências dos problemas de saúde avaliados alertam para a necessidade de se priorizar ações de proteção para a saúde do trabalhador rural.This cross-sectional study among rural workers in the mountainous region of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul was designed to identify the characteristics of work performed on family farms. The research focused on the socio-demographic profiles of rural workers, identifying the characteristics of rural labor and describing the prevalence of some disease entities in such populations. Some 1479 rural workers from 495 farms were interviewed. In this sample, 87% of the individuals were members of the farm-owning family, mean age was 41 years, 56% were males, and mean schooling was 5 years. Farms had a mean area of 37 hectares, 50% had at least one type of farm machinery, and fruits constituted the main crop. About 75% of workers handled several types of pesticides, while 12% reported at least one

  11. Comparação entre métodos para o estudo da estabilidade de agregados em solos Comparison of methods for aggregate stability studies in soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCOS AURÉLIO CAROLINO DE SÁ

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available A estabilidade de agregados constitui-se em importante parâmetro na avaliação do efeito de manejo na agregação de solos. Entretanto, os resultados obtidos pelos diferentes métodos são, às vezes, contrastantes, e alguns desses métodos não permitem a definição do nível de energia envolvido na análise. Objetivou-se, com este estudo, comparar diferentes métodos para determinação da estabilidade de agregados em solos. Agregados de horizontes A e B de Latossolo Roxo (LR e Terra Roxa Estruturada (TR foram submetidos a peneiramento úmido, três testes de impacto de gotas, e sonificação a oito níveis de energia ultra-sônica; o primeiro foi comparado aos últimos, que permitem a quantificação da energia aplicada. De modo geral, o LR apresentou agregados mais estáveis do que a TR; a resistência dos agregados a altos níveis de energia ultra-sônica foi relacionada a teores de matéria orgânica, óxidos de ferro e gibbsita. Os resultados de diâmetro médio ponderado e porcentagem de agregados maiores que 2 mm foram semelhantes nos horizontes A de ambos os solos. O impacto de gotas causou maior desagregação no material de horizonte B do LR, enquanto o material de horizonte B da TR foi mais afetado pelo peneiramento úmido. O nível de 15,88 J mL-1 se apresentou, na sonificação, como mais sensível para detectar diferenças entre solos estudados.Aggregate stability is an important parameter to express the effect of management on soil aggregation. However, the results from different methods are sometimes contrasting. Some of them do not express the aggregate stability in terms of level of energy needed for aggregate disruption. The objective of this study was to compare methods for determining soil aggregate stability. Aggregates of Dusky-Red Latossol (DRL and a Structured Dusky-Red Earth (SDR were submitted to wet sieving (WS, three water drop tests, and eight levels of sonication energy. Correlation was obtained between the

  12. Aspergillus and Penicillium (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) in soils of the Brazilian tropical dry forest: diversity in an area of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Renan do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jadson Diogo Pereira; Costa, Phelipe Manoel Oller; de Lima-Júnior, Nelson Correia; Alves de Souza Galvão, Ivana Roberta Gomes; Alves dos Santos-Júnior, Anthony; Fernandes, Maria José; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Oliveira, Neiva Tinti

    2016-03-01

    Soil is a complex biological system that plays a key role for plants and animals, especially in dry forests such as the Caatinga. Fungi from soils, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, can be used as bioindica- tors for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium in soil, from the municipalities of Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, with dry forests, in the Catimbau National Park. Five collections were performed in each area during the drought season of 2012, totaling 25 soil samples per area. Fungi were isolated by suspending soil samples in sterile distilled water and plating on Sabouraud Agar media plus Chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal, and Glycerol Dicloran Agar. Isolates were identified by morphological taxonomy in the Culture Collection Laboratory and confirmed by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA. A total of 42 species were identified, of which 22 belong to the genus Aspergillus and 20 to Penicillium. Penicillium isolates showed uniform distribution from the collecting area in Tupanatinga, and the evenness indices found were 0.92 and 0.88 in Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, respectively. Among isolates of Aspergillus evenness, the value found in Tupanatinga (0.85) was very close to that found in Ibimirim (0.86). High diversity and low dominance of fungi in soil samples was observed. These results con- tributed to the estimation of fungal diversity in dry environments of the Caatinga, where diversity is decreasing in soils that have undergone disturbance.

  13. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  14. The Influence of Land-Use Change on Soil and Dissolved Organic Matter Age, Lability, and Chemical Characteristics in Brazilian Oxisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J. N.; Harrison, R. B.; Gross, C. D.; Dwivedi, P.; Myers, T.; Butman, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Recent advances in freshwater research indicate that the age of carbon exported from major rivers globally increases with greater human disturbance in the watershed. This implies that human land-use can release old, previously mineral-associated C into solution with subsequent export to groundwater and ultimately freshwater systems where terrestrial organic matter is either mineralized to CO2, stored in aquatic sediments, or exported to the ocean. It is important to understand the mechanisms that cause the release of mineral-bound soil organic matter (SOM) into solution in response to human disturbance and land-use change. To better characterize the response of the total soil organic matter (SOM) pool to disturbance, this study examines the interactions between dissolved and bulk soil pools in response to conversion of Brazilian Cerrado (savannah forest) to Eucalyptus plantations. Water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was obtained from soil samples down to 150 cm at 4 sites in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These WEOM samples were characterized using fluorescence and NMR spectroscopy, incubated to assess biolability, and carbon-dated. Simultaneously, bulk mineral soil samples were analyzed for microbial biomass, carbon content and age, and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. FTIR spectra of SOM were obtained by washing subsamples with sodium hypochlorite and subtracting the subsequent mineral matrix spectra from bulk soil spectra. Preliminary results show that microbial biomass decreases much more quickly with depth than WEOM, suggesting that C released into solution from deeper horizons may be less likely to be intercepted, and thus preferentially leached to groundwater. Native Cerrado forests had substantially more roots compared to Eucalyptus, and also released substantially larger quantities of WEOM from their O horizons. Furthermore, the age of WEOM released under Eucalyptus forest was more similar in age to bulk SOM, while Cerrado forest

  15. Organic Carbon and Physical Properties in Sandy Soil after Conversion from Degraded Pasture to Eucalyptus in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Nascimento Sena

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Soil is currently seen as the most relevant carbon sink and the most effective carbon stabilizer. In contrast, agriculture is the second largest C emitter, after burning of fossil fuels. This organic carbon (OC introduced into the soil, mainly via organic matter (OM, is essential for several soil properties and plays an extremely important role in sandy soils. The objective of this study was to describe the changes in the amounts and pools of OC and the influence thereof on some physical soil properties in areas converted from pasture to eucalyptus. The following areas were analyzed: a degraded pasture (PAST, two areas of pasture-eucalyptus conversion after 2 and 15 years (EU02 and EU15, respectively and a preserved Cerrado area (CER in the east of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Soil samples were taken from the 0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m layers. The OC was measured and analyzed, the carbon pool (CP calculated, aggregate stability, bulk density (BD, and macro- and microporosity determined, and total porosity (TP calculated to analyze the influence of land use on soil properties. The experimental design was completely randomized, and four clusters per area were established, with nine subsampling points, for a total of 36 subsamples per area, organized in 20 × 20 m grids, The soil under natural vegetation (preserved Cerrado was used as a control. The change from CER to commercial cultivation accelerates the process of OC loss (reductions of 25-35 % and reductions in soil physical quality. In the PAST area, OC was reduced by 30 % in the 0.00-0.05 m layer. Cumulative OC and CP were highest in the 0.00-0.05 m layer and decreased in the deeper layers in all land use treatments. Organic C in the 0.10-0.30 m layer was not influenced by land use, indicating the possibility of OC persistence in the soil for longer periods. Macroporosity and total porosity may be considered appropriate in CER and EU15, whereas the conditions for plant

  16. Oral and maxillofacial biopsied lesions in Brazilian pediatric patients: a 16-year retrospective study = Biópsias de lesões orais e maxilo-faciais em pacientes pediátricos brasileiros: estudo retrospectivo de 16 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouchrek, Monique Maria Melo

    2011-01-01

    Conclusão: Este estudo mostra uma tendência semelhante à relatada em estudos anteriores sobre as lesões mais freqüentes na região oral e maxilo-facial na população pediátrica. A maioria das lesões detectadas foram benignas, enquanto as malignas foram diagnosticadas em um número muito reduzido de pacientes

  17. Regional scale modeling of erosion related to land cover evolution: a case study in brazilian southeastern region Modelagem em escala regional da erosão relacionada com a evolução da cobertura do solo: um estudo de caso no sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Marco Da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerated soil erosion is, at present, one of the most widespread environmental problems in the world. Geographic Information Systems (GIS have become an essential tool in soil erosion studies and consequently in the development of appropriate soil conservation strategies. The objective of this paper was to assess the degree of soil erosion associated with land cover dynamics through GIS analysis and to validate the modeling with indicators of soil erosion. Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model, GIS technology and ground-truth dataset (erosion indicators were employed to elaborate the soil loss maps for four dates at Sorocaba Municipality (SP, Brazil. It was verified that, although the predicted soil loss rate is normally small along the study area, such rate is significantly greater than the soil formation rate. This shows a non-sustainable situation of soil and land cover management. Unplanned urban expansion seems be the main driving force that acts in increasing the erosion risk/occurrence along the study area.A erosão acelerada é um dos maiores problemas ambientais ocorrentes em larga escala na atualidade. Por sua vez, Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (SIG tornou-se uma ferramenta essencial em estudos de erosão e conseqüentemente no desenvolvimento de estratégias apropriadas para a conservação do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de erosão do solo associada com a dinâmica da cobertura do solo através de uma análise geoespacial e validar a modelagem com indicadores de erosão. Utilizou-se a Equação Universal de Perda de Solo (EUPS, recursos de SIG e dados de campo (indicadores de erosão para elaborar os mapas de perda de solo para quatro datas para o município de Sorocaba (SP, Brasil. Verificou-se que, embora a taxa de perda de solo ao longo da área de estudo é normalmente baixa, esta taxa é expressivamente maior que as taxas de formação do solo. Isto mostra uma situação não sustentável de

  18. estudo comparativo

    OpenAIRE

    Álvaro, Rocha

    2005-01-01

    O sítio web é um importante meio de comunicação e competitividade das universidades. Há diferentes razões para acreditar que os sítios possam variar entre universidades, mas contudo há certeza da existência de requisitos de qualidade comuns e transversais a todas. Este estudo visou avaliar, de forma quantitativa e objectiva, o cumprimento de requisitos de qualidade pelos sítios web das Universidades Portuguesas, com base nas características de alto nível da norma ISO 9126-1 que interessam aos...

  19. Soil-vegetation relationships on a banded ironstone 'island', Carajás Plateau, Brazilian Eastern Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Jaquelina A; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Ferreira Júnior, Walnir G; Neri, Andreza V; Correa, Guilherme R; Enright, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    Vegetation and soil properties of an iron-rich canga (laterite) island on the largest outcrop of banded-iron formation in Serra de Carajás (eastern Amazonia, Brazil) were studied along a topographic gradient (738-762 m asl), and analyzed to test the hypothesis that soil chemical and physical attributes play a key role in the structure and floristic composition of these plant communities. Soil and vegetation were sampled in eight replicate plots within each of the four vegetation types. Surface (0-10 cm) soil samples from each plot were analyzed for basic cations, N, P and plant species density for all species was recorded. CCA ordination analysis showed a strong separation between forest and non-forest sites on the first axis, and between herbaceous and shrubby campo rupestre on the second axis. The four vegetation types shared few plant species, which was attributed to their distinctive soil environments and filtering of their constituent species by chemical, physical and hydrological constraints. Thus, we can infer that Edaphic (pedological) factors are crucial in explaining the types and distributions of campo rupestre vegetation associated with ferruginous ironstone uplands (Canga) in Carajás, eastern Amazonia, therefore the soil properties are the main drivers of vegetation composition and structure on these ironstone islands.

  20. Soil organic matter in fire-affected pastures and in an Araucaria forest in South-Brazilian Leptosols

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    Mariana da Luz Potes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution pattern and composition of soil organic matter (SOM and its physical pools of Leptosols periodically affected by fire over the last 100 years in South Brazil. Soil samples at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths were collected from the following environments: native pasture without burning in the last year and grazed with 0.5 livestock per hectare per year (1NB; native pasture without burning in the last 23 years and grazed with 2.0 livestock per hectare per year (23NB; and an Araucaria forest (AF. Physical fractionation was performed with the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil C and N stocks were determined in the three depths and in the physical pools, and organic matter was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The largest C stocks in all depths and physical pools were found under the AF. The 23NB environment showed the lowest soil C and N stocks at the 5-15 cm depth, which was related to the end of burning and to the higher grazing intensity. The SOM of the occluded light fraction showed a greater chemical recalcitrance in 1NB than in 23NB. Annual pasture burning does not affect soil C stocks up to 15 cm of depth.

  1. Estudo químico de alguns pontos do solo superficial do aterro controlado do Botuquara / Chemestry study of some points of soil surface the Botuquara controlled garbage

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    Daniele Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAtualmente, a produção e armazenamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, têm gerado uma gama de discussões acerca de aspectos ligados à veiculação de doenças e danos ambientais, principalmente, se sua disposição for realizada de maneira inadequada, pois isto pode acarretar a infiltração do lixiviado no solo, causando a sua contaminação e, possivelmente, do lençol freático e cursos d’água. Na cidade de Ponta Grossa (PR, a coleta dos RSU teve início em 1969 e a disposição final desses resíduos era em um lixão, que foi transformado em aterro controlado no ano de 2001. Este estudo tem por objetivo, avaliar as características de alguns pontos da camada superficial do solo localizado na base do agora aterro controlado do Botuquara, para verificar possíveis tendências à contaminação da área. Foram determinados pH, carbono orgânico, matéria orgânica, nitrogênio total, relação C:N, capacidade de troca catiônica, saturação de bases e teores de areia, argila e silte, além da verificação das concentrações de Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn na forma de metais biodisponíveis e pseudototais. Os resultados mostraram que o solo apresenta altas concentrações de Cr e Pb biodisponíveis e Pb, Cu e Ag pseudototais. Já a saturação dos colóides, indica que o solo atingiu sua capacidade máxima de retenção.AbstractCurrently, the production and storage of urban solid residues (USR have generated a discussion range about aspects close to the diseases propagation and environment damage especially in the boundaries in which it is done improperly. Since, this may lead to the leached into the soil, causing its contamination as well as the groundwater contamination going deep in the groundwater. In Ponta Grossa, a city in the state of Paraná the final disposition place of the USR started out in 1969 and the final disposition of such waste was in a big dump, which become into a controlled landfill in 2001. The

  2. Variáveis relacionadas à estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais em solos tropicais e subtropicais brasileiros Selected soil-variables related to the stability of organo-minerals complexes in tropical and subtropical brazilian soils

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    Alberto Vasconcellos Inda Junior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais é uma característica importante quanto à química e física de solos tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar variáveis relacionadas à estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais, avaliada pela energia de ultra-som necessária para a dispersão total do solo em partículas primárias, em seis solos das regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil com textura e mineralogia distintas. A energia de ultra-som necessária para dispersão total dos solos variou de 239 a 2.389J mL-1, sendo diretamente relacionada aos teores de carbono orgânico (R²=0,799, PThe stability of organo-mineral complexes is an important characteristic related to the soil chemistry and physics of tropical and subtropical soils. This study was aimed at identifing the variables related to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, evaluated by ultrasonic energy necessary to complete soil dispersion, of six soils from South and West-Center regions of Brazil with distint texture and mineralogy. The ultrasonic energy to complete soil dispersion varied from 239 a 2389J mL-1, and was positively related to the soil organic carbon concentrations (R²=0.799, P<0.05. The clay mineralogy had an important role to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, which were related to the content of low cristalinity iron oxides (R²=0.586, P<0.10, but did not had relationship with the total pedogenic iron oxides. The qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, by X-ray diffraction, evidenced that gibbsite and goethite are the main clay minerals related to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, reinforcing the importance of these minerals on the physical protection and coloidal stability of the soil organic matter in the tropical and subtropical soils.

  3. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil

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    Ricardo Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296 bp and G + C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria.

  4. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: study of the items and internal consistency Validação transcultural da versão para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: estudo dos itens e da consistência interna

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    Flávia de Lima Osório

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. METHOD: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named " Inventário de Fobia Social" . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a validação transcultural para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory, um instrumento para avaliação e mensuração dos sintomas de medo, evitação e sintomas fisiológicos associados ao transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: O processo de tradução e adaptação envolveu quatro profissionais bilingües, apreciação e aprovação da back

  5. Atributos físicos e carbono orgânico em solo sob cerrado convertido para pastagem e sistema misto / Physical attributes and organic carbon in soil under brazilian Savannah converted to pasture and mixed system

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    Thalita Mendes Resende

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The pasture is an important economic activity in the brazilian Savannah. From the 1970s and 1980s, the implementation of the programs to improve the productivity of pastures, was introduced grasses, especially Brachiaria. When handled properly, the pasture is an efficient method to contribute to carbon sequestration and to the mitigation of concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which are dependent to the time of the land-use and the properties of each soil type. The microregion of Uberlandia in Triangulo Mineiro (MG is traditionally linked to the pasture. However, the geological and natural soil conditions and climate are factors that can accelerate soil degradation when pasture is not handled properly. The objective of this article was to compare the changes of soil properties and the incorporation of C in covered areas [1] natural brazilian Savannah, [2] mixed system initially converted to agricultural use and the last 15 years of pasture, and [3] pasture cultivated with 30 years of implantation. The results show the influence of the land use on organic matter dynamics, and evaluate the potential degradation of soil by the activity, management and time of land use.

  6. Runoff and soil erosion plot-scale studies under natural rainfall: A meta-analysis of the Brazilian experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research to measure soil erosion rates in the United States from natural rainfall runoff plots began in the early 1900’s. In Brazil, the first experimental study at the plot-scale was conducted in the 1940’s; however, the monitoring process and the creation of new experimental field plots have not c...

  7. Soil aggregation and bacterial community structure as affected by tillage and cover cropping in the Brazilian Cerrados

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peixoto, R. S.; Coutinho, H. L. C.; Madari, B.; Machado, P. L. O. A.; Rumjanek, N. G.; Van Elsas, J. D.; Seldin, L.; Rosado, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Microbial-based indicators of soil quality are believed to be more dynamic than those based on physical and chemical properties. Recent developments in molecular biology based techniques have led to rapid and reliable tools to characterize microbial community structures. We determined the effects of

  8. Tipos de delineamento de pesquisa de estudos publicados em periódicos odontológicos brasileiros = Survey of study design of papers published in brazilian dental journals

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    Oliveira, Geraldo José de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos científicos têm diferentes potenciais de influenciar práticas clínicas devido aos aspectos metodológicos do seu delineamento. A escolha do tipo de estudo mais adequado deve ser baseada no objetivo da pesquisa e em fatores práticos como questões éticas, amostra, tempo, custos e recursos disponíveis. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência dos diferentes tipos de estudos na literatura odontológica brasileira. Foram avaliados 28 títulos de periódicos nacionais cujos fascículos compreendiam, total ou parcialmente, o período entre 1993 e 2003. Todos os 5. 453 artigos publicados nos 564 fascículos selecionados foram referenciados e submetidos à classificação do tipo de delineamento empregado, a partir de critérios predefinidos e formulário próprio para a avaliação. Os resultados mostraram as seguintes freqüências: 1. 341 (24,6% pesquisas laboratoriais in vitro; 1. 302 (23,9% revisões narrativas da literatura; 1. 064 (19,5% relatos de caso; 862 (15,8% estudos descritivos (transversal ou de prevalência; 351 (6,4% ensaios clínicos; 242 (4,4% séries de casos; 188 (3,4% pesquisas em animais; 36 (0,7% estudos coorte ou caso-controle; 4 (0,1% revisões sistemáticas ou metanálise; e 63 (1,2% não foram classificáveis. O resultado mostrou que a maioria dos artigos publicados refere-se a estudo de baixo potencial de estabelecer evidências diretamente aplicáveis à prática clínica (pesquisa laboratorial in vitro, revisões narrativas e relatos de caso. O baixo número de estudos com maior força de evidência ressalta a necessidade de ampliação do conhecimento de métodos baseados em evidências entre os pesquisadores brasileiros

  9. Palaeovegetation dynamics of an ecotone forest-savanna in southern Brazilian Amazon during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gouveia, S.E.M.; Freitas, H.A. de; Bendassoli, J.A.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, R.

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out in the Brazilian southern Amazon region (Rondonia state and Humaita, southern Amazon state). Carbon isotope data on soil organic matter have been collected along an ecosystem transect of about 750 km that includes a savanna, a wooded savanna (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The main objective is to evaluate the expansion-regression dynamics of these vegetation units in relation to climate changes during the Late Pleistocene (Late Glacial) and Holocene. Large ranges in δ 13 values were observed in soil organic matter collected from profiles in the savanna (-27 to -14 per mille and forest regions (-26 to -19 per mille) reflecting changing distribution of 13 C-depleted C 3 forest and 13 C enriched C 4 savanna vegetation in response to climate change. 14 C data of humin fraction and buried charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is at least 17,000 years BP at 300-cm depth. In this period, the entire ecosystem transect are characterized by δ 13 C soil depth profiles, generated typically by C 3 plants (forest), inferring a humid climate in the southern Amazon region after the end of last glaciation. 13 C data also indicate that C 4 plants (grasses) have influenced significantly the vegetation at the transitional forest and the cerrado sites of southern Rondonia state and two distinct points in the forest ecosystem in the southern Amazon state. These typical C 4 type isotopic signatures probably reflect a drier climate during about 9000-8000 yr BP to 3000 yr BP and the savanna and wooded savanna expansion in distinct points of the transect. The 13 C records representing the 3000 yr show an expansion of the forest, due to a climatic improvement, in areas previously occupied by savanna vegetation. This study adds to the mounting evidence that extensive forested areas existed in the Amazon during the last glacial and that savanna vegetation expanded in response

  10. Estudo retrospectivo do tratamento de leucemia mielóide aguda com o transplante de medula óssea: a experiência brasileira Retrospective study of stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML: the Brazilian experience

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    Nelson Hamerschlak

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dados do Registro Internacional de Transplante de Medula Óssea, International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribuem para o progresso do transplante de medula óssea (TMO em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a experiência brasileira em leucemia mielóide aguda e comparamos os resultados do TMO com os dados internacionais. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com dados de tratamento de LMA com o TMO de 16 instituições brasileiras. A análise estatística dos transplantes da modalidade autogênica (TMO auto e alogênica (TMO alo foi realizada com o método de Kaplan-Meier e log-rank. Todos os valores de p foram bicaudados. Foram avaliados os dados de 731 pacientes (205 TMO auto e 526 TMO alo. A mediana de sobrevida global dos pacientes submetidos ao TMO auto foi superior à dos submetidos ao TMO alo (1.035 vs 466 dias, p=0,0012. A origem das células-tronco (OCT no TMO alo em 73% dos pacientes foi de medula óssea (CTMO, em 23% de sangue periférico (CTSP e em 4% de cordão umbilical. No TMO auto, a OCT foi 63% de CTSP, 22% CTMO e 15% de ambas as fontes. A OCT não teve impacto na sobrevida global (SG. Não houve diferença na SG também entre os pacientes segundo a classificação FAB no TMO alo, mas os pacientes com LMA M3 com o TMO auto tiveram SG longa. Como esperado, a principal causa de óbito entre os pacientes do TMO auto foi relacionada à recidiva de doença (60%, enquanto no TMO alo as principais causas foram a doença enxerto versus hospedeiro e infecções (38%. Em ambos os grupos foi observada SG mais longa nos pacientes tratados em primeira remissão completa (1RC quando comparados aos de segunda remissão (2RC e outras fases (pData from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribute for the improvement of Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT worldwide. We studied the Brazilian experience in BMT for AML to compare this with international data. We performed a retrospective study by sending

  11. Participação social como elemento de análise da sustentabilidade: estudo do Programa Brasileiro de DST/AIDS Social participation as element of sustainability analysis: study on the Brazilian STD/AIDS Program

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    Maria Matilde Zraik Baracat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta um estudo exploratório sobre a participação social na construção das políticas públicas de controle do HIV/AIDS no Brasil e contribui ao caracterizar a participação social como medida de análise qualitativa da sustentabilidade social. Inicia-se com uma contextualização dos processos de globalização e crescimento populacional que levaram a problemas econômicos, sociais e ambientais evidenciados especialmente a partir da segunda metade do século XX e início do século XXI, e que culminaram em maior necessidade de discussão e definição de um desenvolvimento sustentável na sociedade. Apresenta-se um panorama histórico da epidemia da AIDS e, em sua proposta, procura-se inserir a participação social no contexto da sustentabilidade, considerando-se as experiências brasileiras de construção coletiva das políticas públicas que tiveram êxito a partir da Constituição de 1988, com especial atenção à criação da Política Nacional de HIV/AIDS. A pesquisa de campo, de abordagem qualitativa, foi efetuada por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas, observação não participante e análise documental. Os dados foram examinados por meio da técnica de análise de conteúdo, considerando-se a triangulação entre as diferentes fontes de dados. Conclui-se que a participação social se insere na perspectiva do desenvolvimento sustentável, uma vez que é a partir desse mecanismo que a sociedade civil, especialmente os grupos menos favorecidos, conseguem obter representatividade junto ao Poder Público e contribuir efetivamente com a construção da democracia. Contudo, revelam-se algumas fragilidades específicas relativas ao contexto socioeconômico, cultural e político no Brasil, o que pode comprometer a democratização dos diferentes espaços de escuta da sociedade e a efetivação das políticas públicas relacionadas ao caso em análise.This paper presents an exploratory study on social participation

  12. O STF e a construção institucional das autoridades reguladoras do financeiro: um estudo de caso das ADIns The Brazilian Supreme Court and the institutional design of the public authorities of the National Financial System: an ADIns' empirical study

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    Camila Duran-Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar a atuação da corte constitucional brasileira, o Supremo Tribunal Federal, como verdadeiro ator no desenho institucional das autoridades reguladoras do sistema financeiro nacional, o Conselho Monetário Nacional (CMN e o Banco Central do Brasil (BCB. Sua interação com os poderes políticos, por meio do julgamento de Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade (ADIns, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, forneceu balizas jurídicas para a construção dessas autoridades. Esta pesquisa, que parte de uma análise qualitativa das decisões do Tribunal como estudo de caso, mapeou os temas e atores interessados na regulação do sistema financeiro e na estrutura dessas entidades, assim como procurou demonstrar como a atuação da corte reforçou a competência normativa desses órgãos. Ao final, este artigo delineia parâmetros para eventual edição de futura legislação, que vise regular o sistema financeiro, revogando a Lei 4594 de 1964, e conceder eventual autonomia ao Banco Central do Brasil.The purpose of this study is to analyse the manner the Brazilian Supreme Court's (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF decisions have influenced the institutional design of the national monetary council and the Brazilian Central Bank. During the last 20 years, STF provided limits to the power of these public authorities, by judging Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality (ADIns. This research is based on empirical study that intends to identify the actors and the issues submitted to the court and how its decision enforced their power of regulating the financial system. As a result, it is possible to perceive directions to enact the law that intends to regulate the financial system and eventually to attribute the independence to the Brazilian Central Bank.

  13. Manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose: estudo de trinta casos procedentes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão Skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis: a study of thirty cases in the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão

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    Antônio de Deus Filho

    2010-02-01

    involving 30 patients from the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão with coccidioidomycosis diagnosed by direct microscopy, sputum culture or screening serology using agar gel double immunodiffusion, in association with anamnesis and physical examination. RESULTS: Extrapulmonary lesions were found in 13 cases (43.3%, consisting predominantly of dermatological manifestations of hypersensitivity: erythema nodosum (26.6%, exanthema with erythematosquamous lesions (26.6% and erythema multiforme (23.3%, as well as ulcerations of the tongue (13.3%, lip ulcers (6.6% and subcutaneous abscess (3.3%. These manifestations were seen during the acute phase of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Skin manifestations associated with an acute respiratory infection reinforce the hypothesis of a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, particularly in individuals who hunt armadillos or in those exposed to soil excavation.

  14. Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Joao Batista Rossetto; Rheinheimer dos Santos, Danilo; Goncalves, Celso Santos; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz [Dept. de Solos, Univ. Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciencias Rurais, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bortoluzzi, Edson Campanhola [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria da Univ. de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Tessier, Daniel [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles (France)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands. The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures. Materials and methods On three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water and sediment samples were collected automatically in upstream and downstream discharge points in six rainfall events during the tobacco growing season. Phosphorus desorption capacity from soil sediments was estimated by successive extractions with anion exchange resins. First-order kinetic models were adjusted to desorption curves for estimating potentially bioavailable particulate phosphorus, desorption rate constant, and bioavailable particulate phosphorus. Results and discussion The amount of bioavailable particulate phosphorus was directly correlated with the iron oxide content. The value of desorption rate constant was directly related with the total organic carbon and inversely with the iron oxide contents. Phosphate ions were released to solution, on average, twice as rapidly from sediments collected in subwatersheds with low anthropic activity than from those ones of highly anthropic subwatersheds. Anthropic pressure on watershed can engender high sediment discharge, but these solid particles seem to present low phosphorus-releasing capacity to water during transport due to the evidenced high affinity between phosphorus and iron oxide from sediments. Conclusions Anthropic pressure was related with sediment concentration and phosphorus release to aquatic systems. While natural vegetation along streams plays a role on soil and water depuration, it is unable to eliminate the phosphorus inputs intrinsic to the agricultural-intensive systems. Recommendations and perspectives The contamination of water in watershed by phosphates is facilitated by the

  15. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. strain F1, a potential source for glycoside hydrolases isolated from Brazilian soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Persinoti, Gabriela Felix; Paixão, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Squina, Fábio Márcio; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Helia Harumi

    Here, we show the draft genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. F1, a strain isolated from soil with great potential for secretion of hydrolytic enzymes used to deconstruct cellulosic biomass. The draft genome assembly of Streptomyces sp. strain F1 has 69 contigs with a total genome size of 8,142,296bp and G+C 72.65%. Preliminary genome analysis identified 175 proteins as Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes, being 85 glycoside hydrolases organized in 33 distinct families. This draft genome information provides new insights on the key genes encoding hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass deconstruction employed by soil bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative partitioning and availability of endogenous and exogenous 226Ra in farm soils from a Brazilian high natural radioactive region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, V.T.; Penna Franca, E.; Fizsman, M.

    1988-01-01

    A sequential selective extraction was performed to determine and compare the partitioning of endogenous and exogenous Ra-226 in farm soils. The methodology allowed a good discrimination between the natural and anthropogenic origins of radium, and the exogenous form was three times more available than the endogenous one. After, a brown-bean crop, it was observed a remobilization of Ra-226 in the exchangeable, bound to carbonates and reducible fractions, and a increment of this element in the soluble phase. (author)

  17. Spatial variability of forage yield and soil physical attributes of a Brachiaria decumbens pasture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Magalhães Pariz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze variability, linear and spatial correlations of forage dry mass yield (FDM and dry matter percentage (DM% of Brachiaria decumbens with the bulk density (BD, gravimetric (GM and volumetric (VM moisture, mechanical resistance to penetration (RP and organic matter content (OM, at depths 1 (0-0.10 m and 2 (0.10-0.20 m, in a Red Latosol (Oxisol, in order to select an indicator of soil physical quality and identify possible causes of pasture degradation. The geostatistical grid was installed to collect soil and plant data, with 121 sampling points, over an area of 2.56 ha. The linear correlation between FDM × DM% and FDM × BD2 was low, but highly significant. Spatial correlations varied inversely and positively, respectively. Except for DM% and BD, at both depths, the other attributes showed average to high variability, indicating a heterogeneous environment. Thus, geostatistics emerges as an important tool in understanding the interactions in pasture ecosystems, in order to minimize possible causes of degradation and indicate better alternatives for soil-plant-animal management. The decrease in FDM and increased BD1 are indicators of physical degradation (compaction of Red Latosol (Oxisol, particularly in the places with the highest concentration of animals and excessive trampling, in Cerrado conditions, in the municipality of Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil.

  18. A contabilidade e o hipertexto: um estudo sobre o uso de websites como meio de disseminação científica contábil por instituições de ensino superior brasileiras Accounting and hypertext: a study on the websites use as a means of disseminating scientific accounting by Brazilian Postsecondary Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Sena Oliveira

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo buscou investigar como as Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES brasileiras utilizam os Websites institucionais para disseminar a produção acadêmico-científica da área contábil. Foi realizado um estudo com IES que oferecem o curso de graduação em Ciências Contábeis e que se submeteram ao Exame Nacional de Cursos (ENC 2003. O universo de pesquisa compreendeu 461 cursos que se submeteram ao ENC. A amostra foi composta pelos cursos que obtiveram conceitos A, B ou C (médios ou superiores à média no referido exame, totalizando 303 cursos. A metodologia utilizada foi o estudo empírico-exploratório. Foram efetuados 5.711 registros referentes à produção científica. Concluiu-se que a maneira como as IES pesquisadas utilizam os Websites pode ser considerada tímida, uma vez que um elevado número de Instituições não utiliza os sites como meio de disseminação do conhecimento e as evidências apresentaram forte concentração sob os diversos parâmetros analisados: região geográfica, unidade federativa e conceito no ENC 2003.The present study investigated how the institutional Websites are being used by the Brazilian schools (heretofore "IES" for disseminating accounting academic-scientific knowledge. A research was carried out with those IESs, which offer the undergraduate program in Accounting and were submitted to the National Exam of Educational Programs (ENC 2003, coordinated by the Ministry of Education. The total research - includes 461 programs in Accounting offered in Brazil that were submitted to the ENC. The sample was composed of the 303 programs graded A, B or C (medium or superior to the average in the above mentioned Exam. The methodology used was an empiric-exploratory study. - There were 5.711 entries referring to scientific knowledge. The use of Websites by the analyzed IESs can be considered incipient given the high number of institutions that - do not have sites as a way of disseminating - knowledge

  19. Study of the precision and trueness of the Brazilian method for ethanol and gasoline determination; Estudo da precisao e exatidao do metodo brasileiro para determinacao de etanol e gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R.; Hinata, Patricia [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gioseffi, Carla S.; Franco, Joao B.S. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Cristina R.; Torres, Eduardo S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The determination of repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations of an analytical method, s{sub r} and s{sub R}, obtained by Interlaboratory program, makes it possible to calculate many kinds of precision limits of the method, which are needed in every laboratory's routine result comparisons and also in between-laboratories comparisons. This paper presents the results of the first interlaboratory trial, accomplished in the Brazilian petroleum sector, performed to define the trueness and precision of the Brazilian standard method for the determination of fuel anhydrous ethylic alcohol content in gasoline, that was performed by 34 experienced laboratories. The r and R values were 0,7 and 2,3 and main factors that would improve and optimize the method are presented. (author)

  20. Development of a Studies and Formation of experts on management and planning for the brazilian petroleum sector; A criacao de um organismo de estudos e formacao de especialistas em gestao e planejamento para o setor petroleo brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozorio, Augusto Cesar Lemos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-07-01

    The changes which occurred in Brazil's petroleum sector have clearly shown the ever increasing importance of developing professionals who would be able to supply the new sector with the competencies and experience required especially with regards to the managerial, economic, organizational and strategic analysis of petroleum issues. Therefore the need to discuss international models of institutions which might carry out studies and offer specialized tutoring on Planning and management in the petroleum sector. Additionally, we also present a Brazilian framework on research and training related to the petroleum sector - the Petroleum Brazilian Institute (IBP) - which through partnership is an institution concerned with the technical issues. Concluding we present a domestic institution model which can execute those studies though not in definitive terms but rather as the possibility of being a starting point towards making our ideas a reality. (author)

  1. SOYBEAN YIELD AND MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO SOIL PENETRATION UNDER NO-TILLAGE IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH PRODUTIVIDADE DA SOJA E RESISTÊNCIA MECÂNICA À PENETRAÇÃO DO SOLO SOB SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO NO CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Teodora de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The mechanical resistance to soil penetration can be a negative influence to soybean root growth, greatly affecting its yield. In the agricultural year 2008/2009, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the Brazilian Savannah, the soybean yield was analyzed in relation to the mechanical resistance to soil penetration, in a Dystropherric Red Latosol (Typic Acrustox under no-tillage. The main purpose was to select, among the soil attributes, the one that best presented spatial and linear correlation to explain the soybean yield variability. A geostatistical grid was installed to collect the soil and plant data, with 120 sampling points, in an area of 8.34 ha and homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. Thus, in order to support future researches concerning precision agriculture, based on the same soil’s attributes used for this study, the values for spatial dependence range should be placed between 38.1 m and 114.7 m. From the linear point of view, the mechanical resistance to soil penetration, when evaluated in the 0.10-0.20 m layer, showed good inverse exponential correlation with the soybean yield. However, from the spatial point of view, the number of pods per plant showed to be a good indicator for soybean yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max, soybean production components; precision agriculture; soil management; cone index.

  2. Macroaggregation and soil organic carbon restoration in a highly weathered Brazilian Oxisol after two decades under no-till.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Ferreira, Ademir; de Moraes Sá, João Carlos; Lal, Rattan; Tivet, Florent; Briedis, Clever; Inagaki, Thiago Massao; Gonçalves, Daniel Ruiz Potma; Romaniw, Jucimare

    2018-04-15

    Conclusions based on studies of the impacts of soil organic carbon (SOC) fractions and soil texture on macroaggregation and SOC stabilization in long-term (>20years) no-till (NT) fields remain debatable. This study was based on the hypothesis that the amount and frequency of biomass-C input associated with NT can be a pathway to formation of macroaggregates and to SOC buildup. The objectives were to: 1) assess the macroaggregate distribution (proportional mass, class mass) and the SOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) stocks of extra-large (8-19mm), large (2-8mm) and small (0.25-2mm) macroaggregate size classes managed for two decades by NT, and 2) assess the recovery of SOC stocks in extra-large macroaggregates compared to adjacent native vegetation (Andropogon sp., Aristida sp., Paspalum sp., and Panicum sp.). The crop rotation systems were: soybean (Glycine max L.), maize (Zea mays L.) and beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in summer; and black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb), white oat (Avena sativa), vetch (Vicia sativa L.), black oat.+vetch (Avena strigosa Schreb+vetch) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in winter. The experimental was laid out as 2×2 randomized block factorial with 12 replicates of a NT experiment established in 1997 on two highly weathered Oxisols. The factors comprised of: (a) two soil textural types: clay loam and sandy clay, and (b) two sampling depths: 0-5 and 5-20cm. The three classes of macroaggregates were obtained by wet sieving, and the SOC content was determined by the dry combustion method. The extra-large macroaggregate classes in 0-20cm depth for sandy clay (SdC) and clay loam (CL) Oxisol represented 75.2 and 72.4% of proportional mass, respectively. The SOC and POC stocks among macroaggregate classes in 0-5 and 5-20cm depths decreased in the order: 8-19mm>2-8mm ≈ 0.25-2mm. The SdC plots under soybean/maize at 3:1 ratio recovered 58.3%, while those at 1:1 ratio (high maize frequency) in CL recovered 73.1% of SOC stock in the extra

  3. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, 40 K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of 40 K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of 40 K to cow's milk. (author)

  4. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S., E-mail: karina.uerj@ymail.com, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN--RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, {sup 40}K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of {sup 40}K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of {sup 40}K to cow's milk. (author)

  5. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  6. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP: I - Estimativa das taxas de perda de solo e estudo de sensibilidade dos fatores do modelo EUPS Erosion study in the Ceveiro Watershed (Piracicaba, SP.: I - Estimation o soil loss rates and sensitivity factor analysis of the USLE model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara de Andrade Marinho Weill

    2008-04-01

    estimativas foi muito menor do que a do fator topográfico. A aplicação da EUPS permitiu estimar a expectativa de erosão do solo na área de estudo. O uso de geotecnologias e de métodos geoestatísticos de análise mostrou-se uma abordagem promissora nos estudos de erosão.Accelerated soil erosion is a serious global problem that degrades agriculture lands. Since erosion research is normally expensive and time-consuming, the use of models allows to estimate soil losses at locations and under conditions not represented directly in the research. The objective of this study was to estimate the soil erosion in an area intensively cultivated with sugarcane near the city of Piracicaba, São Paulo, contributing to diagnose the current land uses aimed at controlling erosion. The study was carried out based on a geographic information system using the universal soil loss equation (USLE to estimate erosion. A specific objective of the study was to analyze the influence of K (soil erodibility, LS (topography, C (crop use and management and P (erosion control practices factors in soil loss estimates. The results show an intense soil degradation process by accelerated erosion in nearly two-thirds of the studied area, mainly occupied by sugarcane. In these areas, the average estimated soil loss rate of 58 Mg ha-1 year-1 is equivalent to nearly four times the indicated average upper tolerance limit. In the remaining areas occupied by forest, riparian vegetation, afforestation and pasture, the estimated soil loss rates are low, around 2 Mg ha-1 year-1 , below the tolerance values. The model factor sensitivity analysis revealed that under the same weather condition (constant R factor, factors C and P (crop management and coverage and erosion control practices defined the magnitude of the soil losses, whether in units, tens or hundreds of Mg ha-1 year-1. For a same category of land use (factors C and P constant, the LS factor (topographic explained most of the observed variation. The

  7. Desenvolvimento de banco de dados para estudo sobre ocorrências médicas no espaço aéreo brasileiro = The development of a database for the study of medical occurrences in the Brazilian airspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Ricardo Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do número de passageiros transportados ao ano, devido à crescente demanda por serviços aéreos, resulta em uma ampliação das ocorrências médicas a bordo de aeronaves. Por esta razão, a importância da implantação de sistemas de segunda-opinião a distância são cada vez mais relevantes na condução desses eventos. Dado o contexto apresentado, este estudo tem o objetivo de desenvolver um banco de dados que subsidie estudos sobre ocorrências médicas a bordo de aeronaves que operam no espaço aéreo brasileiro. Para tanto, foram mapeados os aeroportos utilizados pelas companhias aéreas brasileiras junto aos hospitais de referência próximos a estes aeroportos e identificadas as principais ocorrências médicas a bordo. Dessa forma, pretende-se melhor definir a realidade das companhias aéreas quanto ao atendimento de ocorrências médicas a bordo

  8. Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in brazilian sedimentary basins (Updated); Estudo preliminar de integracao do Pre-Cambriano com os eventos tectonicos das bacias sedimentares brasileiras (Atualizacao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordani, Umberto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], Email: ucordani@usp.br; Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], Email: bbleybn@usp.br; Thomaz Filho, Antonio [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia], Email: antoniothomaz@globo.com

    2008-11-15

    The article 'Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in Brazilian sedimentary basins,' by U. G. Cordani, B. B. Brito-Neves, R. A. Fuck, R. Porto, A. Thomaz-Filho and F. M. B. da Cunha, was published in PETROBRAS Petroleum Technical Science Series (Serie Ciencia Tecnica Petroleo da PETROBRAS) in 1984 and is being reissued by PETROBRAS Geosciences Bulletin. Naturally, the work requires many updates in the light of geosciences' progress in Brazil over the past 26 years. In these comments, numerous reflections have been addressed at short notice, but nevertheless considered appropriate, to occupy space conceded by the publishers for an assessment of the original work. In principle, only the latest summaries and newer published items on the topic have been consulted and commented. For this reason, it was decided to 'overlook' a number of important references on this issue, apologizing to the authors of omitted relevant works. The study, conducted in the early '80s, was based on the knowledge at the time regarding the tectonic evolution of the South American basement; an examination of PETROBRAS subsurface data in Brazilian sedimentary basins and the study of the Company's core samples obtained from perforations which reached the basement. Since then, great advances have been made in understanding the Brazilian territory tectonic evolution and important geophysical data collected regarding its sedimentary basins. On the other hand, there are virtually no recent perforations of the interior Cratonic basins. Moreover, in the marginal and offshore basins, many wells have not reached the basement. Therefore, in these comments, we sought to review the original study's interpretations and confirm the relevant geological knowledge added in recent decades, in the range of the original work. In this article, we try to follow the same structural sequence of the original text, giving the reader a better understanding

  9. Study on the mechanical properties of a HMS-PP nanocomposite with a Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de um nanocomposito de HMS-PP com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, D.M.; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B.; Oliani, W.L., E-mail: mfermino@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba (PB), known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  10. Study on the mechanical properties of a HMS-PP nanocomposite with a Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de um nanocomposito de HMS-PP com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, D M; Parra, D F; Lugao, A B; Oliani, W.L., E-mail: mfermino@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valenzuela-Diaz, F R [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba (PB), known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  11. Estudo comparativo do acesso semântico no processamento visual de palavras entre brasileiros monolíngues e chineses multilíngues falantes do português do Brasil como língua estrangeira Comparative study of the semantic access in the visual processing of words between monolinguistic Brazilians and multilinguistic Chinese who speak portuguese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O priming semântico é uma forma de avaliar o processamento semântico de palavras. Se a semântica é um importante fator contribuinte no reconhecimento visual de palavras, surge a questão de se chineses multilíngues (mandarin como L1 e inglês como L2, que estão aprendendo o português como L3, podem se beneficiar do contexto semântico em tarefa de decisão lexical na Língua Portuguesa, comparado aos controles (brasileiros universitários e crianças. Além de comparar a magnitude do efeito de priming semântico entre a amostra de chineses e de brasileiros, objetivou-se investigar nos chineses a relação entre o desempenho no experimento de priming semântico e na tarefa de consciência fonológica, ambos na língua portuguesa. Participaram do estudo 40 universitários chineses multilíngues, 31 universitários brasileiros e 26 crianças de 3ª série. Houve efeito de priming semântico nos chineses e nos brasileiros, universitários e crianças, ou seja, respostas mais rápidas na condição com prime relacionado do que na condição com prime não relacionado. Não houve diferenças significativas na magnitude do efeito entre os grupos de adultos, mas as crianças apresentaram maior magnitude de efeito do que os chineses. Considerando apenas o grupo de chineses, não houve correlação entre os escores na tarefa de decisão lexical no paradigma de priming semântico e a avaliação da consciência fonológica. Chineses parecem ter acessado o significado dos primes apresentados visualmente na Língua Portuguesa, não se diferenciando dos brasileiros adultos e crianças.The semantic priming paradigm can be used to evaluate word semantic processing. Considering that semantic is an important factor in visual word recognition, an experiment was conducted to verify if multilingual Chinese (L1 and L2 being respectively Mandarin and English that are learning Portuguese as L3 would benefit from the semantic context during a lexical decision

  12. Estudos sobre o regime de competência no setor público brasileiro: os desencontros da discussão acadêmica = Accrual basis in Brazilian public sector studies: the mismatches of Academic discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuton Alcedir de Lima Amaral Amaral

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As pesquisas sobre a adoção do regime de competência pelo setor público no Brasil são poucas e incipientes, o que é de se esperar devido à escassez de casos reais para estudo, pois a maioria dos entes federativos ainda não adotou o regime de competência de forma integral. Apesar disso, representam o estado da arte do conhecimento científico no assunto e esta pesquisa buscou identificar as contribuições da academia para a compreensão do regime de competência aplicado ao setor público no Brasil, por meio de uma revisão crítica dos estudos nacionais que tratam do tema. Foram selecionados os artigos que abordam o tema regime de competência no setor público, publicados de 2005-2012 em eventos e periódicos pontuados pela Capes, e que estão relacionados com contabilidade e/ou contabilidade pública. Os resultados indicam que não existe uma tendência definida de linhas de pesquisa e os achados de um estudo não costumam ser comparados com outros. As pesquisas não são levadas adiante, nem por outros autores, nem pelos próprios, e os autores não exploram lacunas deixadas por pesquisas anteriores, sejam elas nacionais ou estrangeiras. As comparações entre os estudos também são prejudicadas, em alguns casos, devido a fragilidades metodológicas. Com isso, as contribuições da academia para a compreensão do regime de competência aplicado ao setor público são bastante fragmentadas, o que pode tornar lento o avanço do tema. The research on the adoption of accrual basis by the public sector in Brazil are few and fledgling, what is expected due to the scarcity of real study cases, because most federal entities have not adopted the accrual basis in it integral form yet. Despite of this, existing research represent the state-of-art of scientific knowledge on the subject and this research has sought to identify the Academy contributions to the understanding of accrual basis applied to the public sector in Brazil through a review

  13. A contabilidade da gestão ambiental e sua dimensão para a transparência empresarial: estudo de caso de quatro empresas brasileiras com atuação global Environmental management accounting and its dimension in business transparency: case study of four Brazilian firms with global activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Prudêncio Tinoco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, com base nos casos de quatro empresas brasileiras com atuação global, aborda a contabilidade da gestão ambiental, em estudo exploratório que permitiu identificar a preocupação com a sustentabilidade econômica e o desenvolvimento social, bem como a importância do tema para a pesquisa acadêmica e para o apoio às decisões gerenciais e seu papel efetivo na comunicação das ações empresariais, em um passo à frente dos ditames legais.This article, based on four Brazilian firms with global action, addresses environmental management accounting. An exploratory study identifies the firms' concerns with economic sustainability and social development, as well as the subject's relevancy not only for further academic research, but also in supporting managerial decisions. The study shows effective role of environmental management accounting in communicating the firms' actions, a step ahead of legal constraints.

  14. Desigualdade social e saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Socioeconomic circumstances and health among the brazilian elderly: a study using data from a National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A influência da situação sócio-econômica sobre a saúde dos idosos é controversa. Nós utilizamos dados da PNAD 1998 para examinar esta influência em uma amostra de 19.068 idosos representativos da população brasileira com ³ 65 anos de idade. Aqueles com renda domiciliar per capita situada no quintil mais baixo foram comparados àqueles com renda mais alta (³ 0,67 salários mínimos. Os idosos com renda mais baixa apresentaram piores condições de saúde (pior percepção da saúde, interrupção de atividades por problemas de saúde, ter estado acamado e relato de algumas doenças crônicas, pior função física (avaliada através de seis indicadores e menor uso de serviços de saúde (menor procura e menos visitas a médicos e dentistas. Esses resultados não confirmam observações realizadas em alguns países desenvolvidos quanto à ausência de associação entre o nível sócio-econômico e a saúde do idoso. Ao contrário, os resultados deste trabalho mostram que mesmo pequenas diferenças na renda domiciliar são suficientemente sensíveis para identificar idosos com piores condições de saúde e menor acesso aos serviços de saúde no Brasil.The influence of socioeconomic circumstances on senior citizens' health is still controversial. We used data from the 1998 Brazilian National Household Survey (PNAD 1998 to examine this influence. A representative sample of the Brazilian population aged ³ 65 years (n = 19,068 were included in the study. The characteristics of those in the lower quintile of per capita household income were compared with those with higher income (³ 0.67 the Brazilian minimum wage. The lower income group presented worse health conditions (self-rated health, inability to perform routine activities due to a health problem, bedridden conditions, and a report of any disease, and worse physical functioning (level of difficulty in performing selected physical activities, and less frequent use of medical and

  15. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  16. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  17. Custos operacionais eficientes das distribuidoras de energia elétrica: um estudo comparativo dos modelos DEA e SFA The cost efficiency of the Brazilian electricity distribution utilities: a comparative study with DEA and SFA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pereira de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta medidas de eficiência para 40 distribuidoras de energia elétrica que operam no setor elétrico brasileiro. As medidas foram obtidas por modelos de análise envoltória de dados (DEA e modelos de fronteira estocástica (SFA, duas técnicas que podem mitigar a assimetria de informação e aprimorar a habilidade do agente regulador comparar os desempenhos das distribuidoras, requisitos fundamentais em esquemas de regulação incentivada. As duas abordagens são apresentadas e os resultados obtidos pelos diferentes modelos são comparados.This paper shows the efficiency measurements of 40 Brazilian electricity distribution companies. The efficiency scores are obtained using the data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA models, techniques that can reduce the information asymmetry and improve the regulator skills to compare the performance of the electricity companies, which are fundamental aspects of regulatory regimes. The two approaches are described, and the main results obtained from the different models are compared.

  18. Experimental study of hot water layer in a model in scale of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB); Estudo experimental da camada de Água quente em um modelo em escala do Reator Multipropósito Brasileiro (RMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Gabriel Caio Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is a 30 MW open pool research reactor planned to be constructed in Brazil. Such type of reactor is built inside a deep pool of purified and demineralized water, providing radiological protection still keeping the core accessible for maintenance and refueling. However, dissolved ions become activated in the pool water due to the core neutron flux, releasing radiation in the reactor room when the activated elements reach the top. Thus high power open pool reactors, as RMB, have an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit that creates a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool’s top, keeping the activated water under the HWL and mitigating the dose rate to which the operators are exposed to. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) built a 1/10 scale experimental bench of the RMB’s pool for the HWL investigation. This work presents the results of the pool’s heating due to the reactor startup in the HWL stability. (author)

  19. Fósforo extraído pela solução de Mehlich-1 determinado por colorimetria e ICP em solos do Sul do Brasil Phosphorus extracted with Mehlich-1 determined by colorimetric and ICP methods in South Brazilian soils

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    Leandro Bortolon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do ICP para análise de fósforo tem apresentado controvérsias, pois o valor determinado por essa técnica, muitas vezes, não é comparável com o obtido por colorimetria. Nos EUA, alguns laboratórios apresentam restrições à adoção dessa técnica, pelas seguintes razões: as recomendações de adubação em uso foram desenvolvidas empregando-se o método colorimétrico para a determinação do P; e as diferenças significativas têm sido obtidas entre os teores determinados por colorimetria e por ICP, pois, devido à alta temperatura do plasma, o ICP mede outras formas de P além do ortofosfato, atribuída ao P orgânico na solução. Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os teores de P extraído do solo pela solução de Mehlich-1, determinado por colorimetria (COL e por ICP, em 595 amostras de solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com amplas variações nas características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. Os teores de P extraído, determinado por ICP e por COL, não diferiram estatisticamente (r = 0,94; p The adoption of ICP technique to determine P in soil testing has been questioned, due the values determined with this technique is not comparable that those determined with colorimetric method. In the USA, some laboratories are restricted to adopt the ICP technique due the follow reasons: the nutrient recommendations to plants were developed for colorimetric method for P determination; significantly differences have been obtained between P determined with colorimetric and ICP techniques, because the high plasma temperature can measure other P forms besides orthophosphate, attributed to organic P in solution. This study compared the P amounts extracted by Mehlich-1 solution and determined by COL and ICP techniques, in 595 soil samples from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil with s wide range of soil physic, chemistry and mineralogic properties. The P amounts determined by ICP and COL did not differ statistically

  20. Perdas dentárias em adolescentes brasileiros e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional Perdidas dentarias en adolescentes brasileros y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional Tooth loss and associated factors in adolescents: a Brazilian population-based oral health survey

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    Paulo Roberto Barbato

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência das perdas dentárias em adolescentes brasileiros e os fatores a elas associados. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de 16.833 participantes do estudo epidemiológico nacional de saúde bucal, realizado em 2002/2003. O desfecho investigado foi a ocorrência de perda de pelo menos um dente. As variáveis independentes incluíram localização geográfica de residência, sexo, cor de pele, idade, renda per capita, atraso escolar, tipo de serviço e residência em município com fluoretação das águas de abastecimento. Foram estimadas razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas por meio da regressão de Poisson para cada macrorregião e para o País como um todo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de pelo menos uma perda dentária foi de 38,9% (IC 95%: 38,2%; 39,7%. Os adolescentes residentes em locais não servidos por água fluoretada apresentaram prevalência de perdas dentárias 40% maior do que os residentes em áreas com disponibilidade dessa medida. Houve forte associação (pOBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de las perdidas dentarias en adolescentes brasileros y los factores asociados a ellas. MÉTODOS: Fueron analizados datos de 16.833 participantes del estudio epidemiológico nacional de salud bucal, realizado en 2002/2003. El hecho investigado fue la ocurrencia de pérdida de por lo menos un diente. Las variables independientes incluyeron localización geográfica de residencia, sexo, color de piel, edad, renta per capita, atraso escolar, tipo de servicio y residencia en municipio con fluorificación de las aguas de abastecimiento. Fueron estimadas las tasas de prevalencia brutas y ajustadas por medio de la regresión de Poisson para cada macro región y para Brasil como un todo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de por lo menos una pérdida dentaria fue de 38,9% (IC 95%: 38,2%; 39,7%. Los adolescentes residentes en locales no servidos por agua fluorificada presentaron prevalencia de pérdida dentaria 40% mayor que los

  1. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  2. Study of Cesium and Strontium sorption in Brazilian clays for their use as a barrier in repositories of radioactive wastes; Estudo de sorcao de cesio e estroncio em argilas nacionais para sua utilizacao como barreira em repositorios de rejeitos radioativos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freire, Carolina Braccini

    2007-07-01

    Wastes in general should be properly treated and stored. Then the radioactive wastes also require suitable and safe management beginning in their generation until the storage in repository. The main purpose of the radioactive waste management is to preserve the human beings and the environment. The objective of this research was to characterize some Brazilian clays in order to evaluate the viability of their use in the backfill layer, one of the radioactive waste repository barriers. The main function of this barrier is to contribute in the delay of the radionuclides movement, and to prevent their release into the environment. Four clays provided by national suppliers were selected for the research: Ca-Montmorillonite (Dol 01), Na-Montmorillonite (Dol 02), Kaolinite (Ind 01) and Vermiculite (Ubm 04). Their physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristics were determined, and also their sorption potential of Cesium and Strontium cations. It was confirmed through these results a direct relationship among their specific surface (SS), the capacity of cationic exchange (CCE) and pH. The CCE results followed this increasing order: Ind 01, Dol 01, and Dol 02. In accordance with the models of Freundlich (KJ) and Langmuir (M), the clays Dol 01 and Dol 02 were the best sorbers of Sr{sup 2+}. The Ind 01 and Ubm 04 were the best ones in the case of Cs{sup +}. The Gibbs free energy change ({delta}G deg) was calculated for the sorption reactions between the clays and the cations, and it was negative for all clays, confirming the sorption reaction spontaneity. (author)

  3. Nunca aos domingos: um estudo sobre a temática do câncer nas emissoras de TV Brasileiras Never on Sundays: a study of the topic of cancer on Brazilian television stations

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    Claudia Jurberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Analisa notícias sobre câncer no jornalismo da televisão brasileira, entre 2006 e 2007, resultando em 51 notícias exclusivas e 62 veiculações, em 12 diferentes emissoras nacionais de televisão (comerciais, educativas e fechadas. Os itens observados foram: origem (nacionais, internacionais; assunto (prevenção, diagnóstico, tratamento, cura, epidemiologia e/ou tabagismo; dia da semana e horários mais veiculados; características dos entrevistados; e ainda se as reportagens analisadas ofereciam aos espectadores explicações sobre fatores de risco e prevenção. Além disso, colheram-se depoimentos dos editores de telejornais das principais emissoras brasileiras. A análise dessas notícias e entrevistas evidenciou características relevantes da cobertura televisiva sobre temas de ciência e saúde, relacionadas aos critérios de seleção de pautas.The article analyzes news items about cancer on Brazilian television, based on reports that aired in 2006 and 2007, encompassing 51 exclusive news items and 62 airings on 12 national television stations (commercial, educational, and closed networks. The categories observed were: origin (national or international; subject matter (prevention, diagnosis, treatment, cure, epidemiology, and/or smoking; most common day of week and time of broadcast; characteristics of those interviewed; and whether the analyzed reports offered viewers explanations on risk factors and prevention. Statements were also taken from newsroom editors at Brazil's largest television stations. The analysis of these news items and interviews revealed interesting features of television coverage of science and health topics, which have to do with the criteria for defining news lineups.

  4. Trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital: a 4-year study Evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos em um hospital terciário brasileiro: um estudo de 4 anos

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    Natália Conceição

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the past two decades members of the genus Enterococcus have emerged as important nosocomial pathogens worldwide. This study prospectively analyzed the distribution of species and trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of enterococci in a Brazilian tertiary hospital from 2006-2009. METHODS: Enterococcal species were identified by conventional biochemical tests. The antimicrobial susceptibility profile was performed by disk diffusion in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI. A screening test for vancomycin was also performed. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for vancomycin was determined using the broth dilution method. Molecular assays were used to confirm speciation and genotype of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE. RESULTS: A total of 324 non-repetitive enterococcal isolates were recovered, of which 87% were E. faecalis and 10.8% E. faecium. The incidence of E. faecium per 1,000 admissions increased significantly (p 256µg/ mL and harbored vanA genes. The majority (89.5% of VRE belonged to E. faecium species, which were characteristically resistant to ampicillin and quinolones. Overall, ampicillin resistance rate increased significantly from 2.5% to 21.4% from 2006-2009. Resistance rates for gentamicin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, and erythromycin significantly decreased over time, although they remained high. Quinolones resistance rates were high and did not change significantly over time. CONCLUSIONS: The data obtained show a significant increasing trend in the incidence of E. faecium resistant to ampicillin and vancomycin.INTRODUÇÃO: Nas últimas duas décadas, os enterococos emergiram como importantes patógenos nosocomiais no mundo inteiro. Neste estudo, foi analisada a distribuição das espécies e a evolução da resistência aos antimicrobianos entre isolados clínicos de enterococos obtidos em um hospital terciário, no período de 2006 a 2009. M

  5. Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental soil surveys in each province of Austria have been performed, soils of about 5,000 sites were described and analyzed for nutrients and pollutants, the majority of these data are recorded in the soil information system of Austria (BORIS) soil database, http://www.ubavie.gv.at/umweltsituation/boden/boris), which also contains a soil map of Austria, data from 30 specific investigations mainly in areas with industry and results from the Austria - wide cesium investigation. With respect to the environmental state of soils a short discussion is given, including two geographical charts, one showing which sites have soil data (2001) and the other the cadmium distribution in top soils according land use (forest, grassland, arable land, others). Information related to the soil erosion, Corine land cover (Europe-wide land cover database), evaluation of pollutants in soils (reference values of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Pb, Tl, Va, Zn, AOX, PAH, PCB, PCDD/pcdf, dioxin), and relevant Austrian and European standards and regulations is provided. Figs. 2, Tables 4. (nevyjel)

  6. Cadmium quantification in Brazilian mothers colostrum: a regional study Quantificação de cádmio em colostro de mães brasileiras: um estudo regional

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    Luiz Fernando C. Nascimento

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to estimate the amount of cadmium in human colostrum of mothers from Taubaté. METHODS: it was a cross-sectional study with mothers who delivered in University Hospital of Taubaté, in year 2003. The colostrum was collected in special tubes, one day after the delivery and frozen at -200 C. The independent variables were maternal age, birthweight, gestational age, parity, dietary habits, smoking report and maternal occupation. Cadmium was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. It was used Mann-Whitney non-parametric approach to compare mean values; Pearson correlation was also used to verify associations. The level of significance was alpha = 5%. RESULTS: the mean value of cadmium was 54.5 mg/L (sd=381.0 mg/L. Cadmium was detected in 18 out of 58 samples (31.0%. There was neither correlation nor differences between the cadmium values and the independent variables maternal age, birthweight, gestational age, parify and smoking report. CONCLUSIONS: these values are above those the amounts described in other papers and it is important to identify the possible sources of this heavy metal in maternal environment.OBJETIVOS: estimar a quantidade de cádmio em colostro de mães de Taubaté. MÉTODOS: foi realizado um estudo do tipo transversal envolvendo mães que deram à luz no Hospital Universitário de Taubaté, no ano de 2003. O colostro foi coletado até um dia após o parto, em tubos de polipropileno previamente tratados e refrigerado a -20° C. As variáveis independentes foram idade materna, peso do recém-nascido, idade gestacional, paridade, hábitos alimentares, relato de fumo e ocupação materna. Cádmio foi quantificado através da técnica da espectroscopia de absorção atômica. Foram utilizados a técnica não-paramétrica de Mann-Whitney para comparação das médias e a correlação de Pearson para verificar associações. O nível de significância adotado foi alfa = 5%. RESULTADOS: o valor médio de c

  7. Armas brasileiras na América Central: um estudo sob a perspectiva da Política Nacional de Exportação de Material de Emprego Militar - PNEMEM (1974-1991 Brazilian arms in Central America: a study in the perspective of the Brazilian's Arms Transfer Policy - PNEMEM (1974-1991

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    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo avalia a Política Nacional de Exportação de Material de Emprego Militar e seu impacto nas relações brasileiro-centro-americanas durante os anos 1970 e 1980. Parte-se do critério que o comércio internacional de armas implica relevantes consequências políticas, econômicas e estratégicas, especialmente quando se trata de transferências para países em conflito interno ou regional. O texto utiliza fontes primárias resgatadas no Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil (AHMRE.The paper explores the Brazilian's Arms Transfer Policy and its impact in the Brazilian-Central American relations between 1970 and 1990. The text suggests that arms transfer has relevant politics, economics and strategic consequences, particularly in countries with national or regional conflicts. The paper uses some information from the Brazil's Foreign Affairs Archives.

  8. Estudo de adulteração em méis brasileiros através de razão isotópica do carbono A study of adulteration in brazilian honeys by carbon isotope ratio

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    Cibele Regina de Souza-Kruliski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar isotopicamente méis comercializados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, para a detecção de fraude. Foram colhidas amostras comerciais com registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal, Estadual ou Municipal. As amostras foram submetidas à combustão no Analisador Elementar EA 1108 CHN e analisadas no espectrômetro de massas de razão isotópica DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. Os valores isotópicos (δ13C dos méis in natura foram comparados aos de suas respectivas proteínas (padrão interno. Foram consideradas adulteradas as amostras cuja diferença entre o valor isotópico da proteína e do mel foi igual ou inferior a -1‰. As amostras consideradas adulteradas pela análise isotópica foram submetidas a testes químicos qualitativos que não foram capazes de indicar adulteração para algumas delas. Das 61 amostras analisadas, 18,0% encontram-se adulteradas, sendo 11,5% na Região Sudeste e 6,5% na Região Sul. Ao contrário dos testes químicos, a análise isotópica mostrou-se eficaz em identificar e quantificar a adulteração de méis comerciais.The aim of this study was the isotopic evaluation of honey traded in the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian regions, to detect fraud. Commercial samples, registered in the municipal, State or Federal Inspection Service, were collected and submitted to combustion in the EA 1108 CHN Elemental Analyzer and analyzed in the DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic values (δ13C of in natura honey were compared to their respective proteins (internal standard. Samples whose difference between the isotopic value of protein and honey was equal or inferior to -1‰ were considered adulterated. The samples considered adulterated were submitted to qualitative chemical tests which were unable to show adulteration for some of them. Among the 61 samples analyzed, 18.0% were adulterated; 11.5% in the Southeastern and 6.5% in the Southern region

  9. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenschuss, A.; Huber, S.; Riss, A.; Schwarz, S.; Tulipan, M.

    2001-01-01

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  10. The effectiveness of parent management training in a Brazilian sample of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder A eficácia de treinamento de pais em grupo para pacientes com transtorno desafiador de oposição: um estudo piloto

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    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD is considered a hard to treat condition. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent management training (PMT on the symptoms of ODD and conduct disorder (CD in Brazilian children with ODD. METHODS: We conducted a clinical evaluation in which data was analyzed from parents of five patients with ODD who participated in a PMT group. The ODD and CD symptoms were assessed before and at least a month after they started participating in the group. The outcome measures were rating scales based on the DSM-IV criteria for ODD and CD. RESULTS: Most patients continued to fulfill criteria for ODD, but the severity of their ODD symptoms was reduced 48,75%. The difference between the means on the severity scale of ODD symptoms was statistically significant (p= 0,031 The fulfillment of criteria for CD was largely diminished. CONCLUSIONS: PMT was effective for the reduction of ODD and CD symptoms in patients with ODD. PMT may represent a valuable therapeutic option for patients with ODD in different cultures.INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é considerado uma condição de difícil tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um programa em grupo de treinamento de pais (TP na redução dos sintomas de TDO e transtorno de conduta (TC em crianças brasileiras com TDO. MÉTODO: conduziu-se um estudo naturalístico em que se analisou dados dos pais de cinco pacientes com TDO que participaram de um grupo de TP. Os sintomas de TDO e TC foram avaliados antes e pelo menos um mês depois de iniciarem a participação no grupo. As medidas utilizadas foram escalas baseadas nos critérios da DSM-IV para TDO e TC. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes continuou preenchendo critérios para TDO, mas a gravidade dos seus sintomas de TDO diminuiu 48,75%. A diferença entre as médias na escala de gravidade de sintomas desafiadores-opositivo foi estatisticamente significativa (p

  11. Disponibilização de informações à sociedade em meios eletrônicos: um estudo nas prefeituras dos maiores municípios brasileiros = Availability of information to the society through electronic media: a study on the city halls of the major Brazilian municipalities

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    Fabiano Maury Raupp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta os resultados do estudo que teve por objetivo investigar a disponibilização de informações à sociedade pelas prefeituras dos maiores municípios brasileiros em meios eletrônicos. Empreendeu-se uma pesquisa descritiva, a partir de um estudo de levantamento, com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa. A população refere-se aos portais eletrônicos das prefeituras localizadas nos municípios brasileiros com população superior a 200.000 habitantes, totalizando 133 portais. A coleta de dados foi realizada por meio de protocolo de observação. Na análise e tratamento dos dados foi utilizada a técnica da análise descritiva. A disponibilização de informações à sociedade por meios eletrônicos ainda não é uma realidade nas prefeituras dos maiores municípios brasileiros, pois foram identificados sucessivos descumprimentos legais. Se a disponibilização de informações ainda não é uma realidade, fica prejudicada a construção de transparência nesses municípios.The article presents the results of the study whose goal was to investigate the availability of information to the society through electronic media by the City Halls of the largest Brazilian municipalities. A descriptive study was carried out based on a survey with qualitative and quantitative approach. The population was the electronic portals of the City Halls located in municipalities with more than 200,000 inhabitants, totaling 133 portals. Data collection was conducted through observation protocol. The technique of descriptive analysis was used for the analysis and data processing. It was concluded that the availability of information to the society through electronic media is not a reality in the City Halls of the largest municipalities yet, since successive legal breaches were identified. Since the availability of information is not yet a reality, it hampers the construction of transparency in these municipalities.

  12. Pós-graduação e trabalho: um estudo sobre projetos e expectativas de doutorandos brasileiros Graduate studies and work: a study on the plans and expectations of Brazilian doctoral candidates

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    Rita de Cássia Ramos Louzada

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo analisa a relação entre a pós-graduação e o trabalho através de observação participante e relatos de um grupo de doutorandos, de um curso de excelência, na área de ciências da saúde (básica. As entrevistas (n=12, individuais e realizadas nos moldes do método de história de vida, foram gravadas, integralmente transcritas e submetidas à análise de conteúdo. Os resultados mostraram que a maioria dos doutorandos apresentava dúvidas quanto à futura inserção laboral e tinha interesse em trabalhar na universidade pública. Além disso, e em função do número insuficiente de postos permanentes de trabalho em ciência no país, os entrevistados pensavam em alternativas que envolviam, por um lado, as instituições de fomento, através de bolsas (pós-doutorado, projetos de pesquisa em colaboração, e por outro, os contratos temporários de trabalho (professor visitante em instituições públicas. Esses resultados são discutidos em função das metamorfoses observadas no campo científico.This analysis of the relation between graduate studies and work is based on participative observation and on the accounts of a group of doctoral candidates at a top school in the area of health sciences. Conducted using life history methodology, individual interviews (n=12 were recorded, transcribed in full, and subjected to content analysis. Findings showed that most of these doctoral candidates had doubts about their future on the market and were interested in working at a public university. Furthermore, because there are not enough permanent job positions in science in Brazil, the interviewees were considering job alternatives that involved either research institutions (doing post-doctoral work or collaborative research under fellowships or temporary contracts (visiting professor at a public institution. The article discusses the relationship between these findings and changes observed in the field of science.

  13. CHEK2 1100DELC germline mutation: a frequency study in hereditary breast and colon cancer Brazilian families Mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2: estudo da frequência em famílias brasileiras com câncer de mama e cólon hereditários

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    Jamile Abud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: CHEK2 encodes a cell cycle checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in the DNA damage repair pathway, activated mainly by ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. A germline mutation in CHEK2, 1100delC, has been described as a low penetrance allele in a significant number of families with breast and colorectal cancer in certain countries and is also associated with increased risk of contralateral breast cancer in women previously affected by the disease. About 5%-10% of all breast and colorectal cancers are associated with hereditary predisposition and its recognition is of great importance for genetic counseling and cancer risk management. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have assessed the frequency of the CHEK2 1100delC mutation in the germline of 59 unrelated Brazilian individuals with clinical criteria for the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. METHODS: A long-range PCR strategy followed by gene sequencing was used. RESULTS: The 1100delC mutation was encountered in the germline of one (1.7% individual in this high risk cohort. This indicates that the CHEK2 1100delC is not commonly encountered in Brazilian families with multiple diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: These results should be confirmed in a larger series of families and further testing should be undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer phenotype.INTRODUÇÃO: CHEK2 codifica uma proteína quinase envolvida em um ponto de checagem do ciclo celular que desempenha um papel importante na via de reparação do DNA, danos ativados principalmente por ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutado em resposta a danos na dupla hélice do DNA. A mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2 tem sido descrita como um alelo de baixa penetrância em um número significativo de famílias com câncer de mama e cólon em certos países e também está associada com risco

  14. The Brazilian cohort of pulp and paper workers: the logistic of a cancer mortality study Coorte brasileira de trabalhadores de indústria de celulose e papel: a logística de um estudo de mortalidade por câncer

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    Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC proposed this international historical cohort study trying to solve the controversy about the increased risk of cancer in the workers of the Pulp and Paper Industry. One of the most important aspects presented by this study in Brazil was the strategies used to overcome the methodological challenges, such as: data access, data accuracy, data availability, multiple data sources, and the large follow-up period. Through multiple strategies it was possible to build a Brazilian cohort of 3,622 workers, to follow them with a 93 percent success rate and to identify in 99 percent of the cases the cause of death. This paper, has evaluated the data access, data accuracy and the effectiveness of the strategies used and the different sources of data.A Agência Internacional para Pesquisa sobre Câncer (IARC propôs uma coorte histórica internacional para tentar resolver a controvérsia sobre o risco aumentado de câncer em trabalhadores das indústrias de celulose e papel. Um dos aspectos mais relevantes deste estudo no Brasil refere-se às estratégias utilizadas para superar desafios metodológicos, tais como: acesso aos dados, acurácia e disponibilidade dos dados, múltiplas fontes de dados e longo período de acompanhamento. Através de múltiplas estratégias, foi possível construir uma coorte brasileira de 3.622 trabalhadores, acompanhar 93% dos casos e identificar a causa de 99% dos óbitos. Este artigo avalia o acesso aos dados, sua acurácia e a efetividade das estratégias utilizadas para o acompanhamento da coorte.

  15. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

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    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento do Earned Value vem obtendo aceitação crescente nas empresas e entre profissionais tais como gerentes de projetos e funcionais, devido à sua efetividade no controle dos resultados do projeto. Earned Value é definido como uma ferramenta de controle que permite avaliar simultaneamente de maneira quantitativa como se encontram os custos e prazos em uma data de controle, permitindo também prever a data de término e o valor gasto (VARGAS, 2005. Este artigo avalia a aplicabilidade do earned value como ferramenta de controle de projetos aeronáuticos na EMBRAER. Contribui também para a aplicação do earned value no controle de projetos complexos. Utilizam-se como técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas, observações e análise documental. Conclui-se que o earned value é utilizado apenas nos projetos da área de aviação de defesa, por ser uma exigência contratual. O uso do earned value nas áreas de programas executivos e comerciais restringe-se às fases de definição conjunta, projeto detalhado e certificação, pois o escopo do projeto é bem definido, o cronograma é detalhado e os custos são previstos e obtidos com maior acuidade. Nas demais fases de desenvolvimento do produto, o uso do earned value é restrito, devido principalmente às constantes alterações de escopo do produto e do projeto.Earned value management has been increasingly used by companies as well as by functional and project managers due to its effectiveness in controlling project results. It is defined as a control tool that enables a quantitative and simultaneous evaluation of the costs and process time within a pre-scheduled date as well as predicting the deadline and the total value spent (VARGAS, 2005.This study evaluates the earned value applicability as a tool to control aeronautical projects at EMBRAER, A Brazilian Aeronautical Company. It is also concerned with the application of earned value in the control of complex projects. The data

  16. Índice de informação contábil pública: um estudo nos municípios brasileiros = Public Accounting Information Index: a study in the brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Jaiany Viana de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de avaliar os índices de divulgação de informação contábil pública dos municípios brasileiros. A pesquisa pode ser classificada como qualitativa, descritiva e documental. Os resultados revelaram que São Paulo foi aquele com maior pontuação para o índice analisado, com 67,86% dos itens divulgados em seu sitio, seguido por Vitória (64,29%, Londrina e Porto Alegre com (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá e Curitiba com (50% das práticas observadas nos sítios. Além disso, identificou-se Belford Roxo como o município com o menor índice (7,14% de divulgação de informações contábeis, seguido por Juazeiro do Norte (10,71% e Boa Vista (14,30%. Conclui-se que os municípios não estão evidenciando em seus portais eletrônicos informações que permitam aos cidadãos conhecer a gestão financeira de seus municípios, uma vez que foi observada a existência de entes municipais que não divulgam nenhum dos demonstrativos contábeis exigidos pela legislação vigente e que não foi possível perceber nos sítios um estímulo a sociedade participar da gestão municipal.This research aimed at evaluating the levels of disclosure of public financial information from Brazilian municipalities. The methodology consisted qualitative, descriptive and documentary research. The sample selection technique was performed by convenience and corresponded to the 100 most populous municipalities in Brazil, because these municipalities concentrate the largest share of the population (approximately 45% of the total population. The results revealed that São Paulo was the one with the highest score for the analyzed index, with 67,86% of the items published in its site, followed by Victoria (64,29%, Londrina and Porto Alegre (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá and Curitiba (50% of the practices observed on their sites. In addition, it was identified Belford Roxo as the municipality with the lowest index (7,14% to

  17. Degradation of 2,4-D herbicide by microorganisms isolated from Brazilian contaminated soil Degradação do herbicida 2,4-D por microrganismos isolados de solo contaminado do Brasil

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    Tatiane M. Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to isolate microorganisms from Brazilian soil contaminated with 2,4-D herbicide, and analyze the efficiency for 2,4D degradation, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Serratia marcescens and Penicillium sp had never been reported as able to degrade 2,4-D. The isolated strains represent a great potential for bioremediation.O objetivo deste trabalho foi isolar microrganismos de solo brasileiro contaminado com o herbicida 2,4-D, e analisar a eficiência da degradação por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Serratia marcescens e Penicillium sp jamais haviam sido relatadas como degradadoras de 2,4-D. As linhagens isoladas representam um grande potencial em biorremediação.

  18. Estudo do relacionamento ântero-posterior entre os arcos dentários decíduos, de crianças nipo-brasileiras, dos dois aos seis anos de idade Study of the anteroposterior relationship between deciduous dental arches of Japanese-Brazilian children, from 2 to 6 years of age

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    Dirce Yamada Kataoka

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as prevalências dos diferentes tipos de relacionamentos ântero-posteriores entre os arcos dentários decíduos, bem como o possível dimorfismo sexual, em crianças nipo-brasileiras na faixa etária dos dois aos seis anos de idade. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliadas por inspeção visual 310 crianças nipo-brasileiras, matriculadas em 19 escolas do estado de São Paulo, sendo 154 do gênero masculino e 156 do feminino. Os resultados foram submetidos ao teste do qui-quadrado e revelaram ausência de dimorfismo sexual para a maioria dos relacionamentos analisados, permitindo apresentar os resultados conjuntamente para ambos os gêneros. RESULTADOS: as prevalências dos relacionamentos entre os segundos molares decíduos foram: 47,4% para o degrau mesial, 41,3% para o plano terminal reto, 5,5% para o degrau distal e 5,8% para os casos com assimetrias. Para os relacionamentos entre os caninos decíduos, conforme Foster e Hamilton, constataram-se prevalências de 77,4% para a Classe 1, 6,8% para a Classe 2, 6,8% para a Classe 3 e 9% para as relações assimétricas. Apenas a Classe 2 apresentou dimorfismo sexual, sendo de 3,9% para o feminino e de 9,7% para o masculino. Quanto à sobressaliência verificaram-se prevalências de 71,3% para a normal, 14,2% para a aumentada, 7,4% para a mordida cruzada anterior e 7,1% para a mordida topo-a-topo. RESULTADOS: concluiu-se que a maioria das crianças nipo-brasileiras avaliadas neste estudo, apresentaram um relacionamento ântero-posterior normal entre os arcos decíduos, merecendo atenção uma ligeira tendência para o desenvolvimento da Classe 3.AIM: the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to verify the prevalences of different types of anteroposterior relationships between deciduous dental arches and its possible sexual dimorphism, in Japanese-Brazilian children from 2 to 6 years of age. METHODS: a total of 310 Japanese-Brazilian children from 19 schools in São Paulo, Brazil

  19. Study of oil diesel degradation in soil using oxidative advanced processes; Estudo da degradacao do oleo diesel em solo utilizando processos oxidativos avancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suenia S.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta, Mauricio da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Paula Tereza de S. e; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2004-07-01

    Recently it comes if observing several accidents during the exploration, refinement, transport and operation of storage of petroleum and yours derived, such as the diesel oil and the gasoline. In this paper We do a study of the degradation of the diesel oil in a characteristic soil of the state of Pernambuco using peroxide of hydrogen and Fenton reagent. Those two processes are based on the generation of the radical hydroxyl (OH.) that has to can oxidizer loud capable to promote the destruction of recalcitrant organic compositions. The studied soil has about 16,5{+-}0,3 g/kg of total organic carbon. A factorial planning was accomplished 2{sup 3} with 2 repetitions in the central point with the objective of finding the best conditions of degradation of the pollutant. The variables and the studied levels were: FeSO{sub 4} - 0,18 M (0, 4 and 8 Ml); pH (3; without adjustment and without adjustment) and Time of exhibition in the sun (8; 12 and 16:00). The volumes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used in the rehearsals were constant, being 80 mL. Soon afterwards it accomplished a fractional experimental planning 2{sup 3-1}, repeating the variables of the first planning, they put using a smaller volume of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 40 mL, to evaluate the influence of the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used about the degradation of the diesel oil. The mass of the soil used in each experiment was of 5 g. It was observed that there were not significant differences in the degradation in relation to the peroxide volume. The best found degradation was around 87% in the following conditions (4 mL of Faith, without pH adjustment, Time of exhibition in the sun of 12:00 and 80 ml of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). That found degradation was quite satisfactory being still due to study more economical conditions. (author)

  20. Associação entre presença de oclusopatias e insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas: estudo com adolescentes brasileiros Association between malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance: study with brazilian adolescents

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    Carolina Marques Borges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da alta prevalência de oclusopatias em adolescentes ser mundialmente relatada, poucos estudos investigaram a associação entre oclusopatias definidas por critérios clínicos e a auto-avaliação da aparência dentária e das gengivas em adolescentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre oclusopatias e auto-avaliação da aparência dentária e gengival em adolescentes brasileiros. Foram utilizados os dados de um estudo transversal realizado com adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos de idade (n = 16.126 de 250 cidades localizadas nas cinco macrorregiões do Brasil. O desfecho foi a insatisfação com a aparência dentária e gengival, sendo a principal variável exploratória as oclusopatias, medidas através do Índice de Estética Dental - DAI. As demais variáveis exploratórias, potenciais fatores de confusão e mediação, foram renda familiar per capita, atraso escolar, condição de estudo, sexo, idade, cor da pele, agravos bucais (cárie não tratada, perda dentária devido à cárie, cálculo, fluorose e dor nos dentes e gengivas e a utilização dos serviços odontológicos. Realizaram-se análises de regressão de Poisson simples e multiva-riável. A prevalência de insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas foi de 11,4% (IC 95%: 10,4-12,5. Todos os graus de oclusopatias foram associados à insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas. A análise multivariável ajustada mostrou que a auto-avaliação negativa da aparência em adolescentes com oclusopatias graves ou muito graves foi 40% e 80% maior quando comparados àqueles com oclusão normal, respectivamente. Os resultados contribuem para a inclusão do critério de auto-avaliação da aparência dental durante as decisões de tratamento ortodôntico, principalmente no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde.In spite of the high prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents reported worldwide, there are few studies that have investigated the

  1. A pharmacoepidemiologic study of drug interactions in a Brazilian teaching hospital Um estudo farmacoepidemiológico de interações medicamentosas em um hospital universitário brasileiro

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    Joice Mara Cruciol-Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although drug-drug interactions constitute only a small proportion of adverse drug reactions, they are often predictable and therefore avoidable or manageable. There are few studies on drug-drug interactions from Brazil. This study aimed to assess the frequency of drug-drug interactions in prescriptions and their potential clinical significance in patients of a Brazilian teaching hospital. METHODS: From January to April 2004, a sample of 1785 drug prescriptions was drawn from a total of 11,250. Drug-drug interactions were identified by using Micromedex® DrugReax® System. Patients'records with major drug-drug interactions were reviewed by a pharmacist and a medical doctor looking for signs, symptoms, and lab tests that could indicate adverse drug reactions due to such interactions. RESULTS: From the 1785 prescriptions examined, 1089 (61% were from the male adult ward. Patients' average age was 52.7 years (SD = 18.9; range, 12-98. The median number of drugs in each prescription was 7 (range, 2-26. At least 1 drug-drug interactions was present in 887 (49.7% prescriptions. Regarding the severity of the clinical result, the interactions were classified as minor (20; 2.3%, moderate (184; 20.7%, major (30; 3.4%, and undetermined because of an incidence of more than 1 interaction in a single patient (653; 73.6%. From the 30 patients with major interactions, 17 (56.7% presented adverse drug reactions induced by exposure to a major drug-drug interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients did suffer adverse drug reactions from major drug-drug interactions. Many physicians may be unaware of drug-drug interactions. Education, computerized prescribing systems and drug information, collaborative drug selection, and pharmaceutical care are strongly encouraged for physicians and pharmacists.INTRODUÇÃO: Embora as interações medicamentosas constituam uma pequena parcela das reações adversas a medicamentos, elas geralmente são previsíveis e às vezes podem

  2. Microbiologic profile of flexible endoscope disinfection in two Brazilian hospitals Estudo microbiológico da desinfecção de endoscópios flexíveis em dois hospitais brasileiros

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    Alexandre P. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: Endoscopes are routinely used in hospitals and clinics of the world and they can be potential sources of cross-infection when the decontamination process is unsuitable AIM: The routines of flexible endoscope (bronchoscopes, esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes disinfection procedures used in two Brazilian university hospitals were evaluated during a 3-year period METHODS: Aleatory samples from internal channels of endoscopes were collected after patient examination and after cleaning/disinfection procedures RESULTS: A contamination >3 log10 was achieved in samples recovered from endoscopes after patient examination. These samples yielded gram-negative bacilli (n = 142: 56%, gram-positive cocci (n = 43: 17%, yeast cells (n = 43: 17%, and gram-positive bacilli (n = 26: 10%. Approximately, 72 out of 149 samples (48.32% collected after undergoing the cleaning and disinfection procedures disclosed gram-negative bacilli (n = 55: 61%, gram-positive cocci (n = 21: 23%, gram-positive bacilli (n = 8: 9% and yeast cells (n = 6: 7%. Esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes were the most frequently contaminated devices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, Bacillus spp and Corynebacterium spp were predominantly identified CONCLUSION: Inappropriate cleaning and low times of disinfection were respectively the major factors associated with the presence of microorganisms in colonoscopes and esophagogastroduodenoscopes. By analyzing the identified germs, hospital disinfection was considered of either intermediate or poor level. After this investigation, both university centers improved their previous protocols for disinfection and conditions for reprocessing endoscopes.RACIONAL: Endoscópios s

  3. Quantificação e utilização das frações húmicas como característica diferencial em horizontes diagnósticos de solos Brasileiros Humic fractions quantification as a differential characteristic and use in diagnostic horizons in Brazilian soils

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    Ademir Fontana

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available As informações obtidas pela distribuição das frações húmicas podem ser utilizadas em estudos pedológicos brasileiros como atributo diagnóstico ou característica diferencial e, assim, contribuir para a evolução do Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos (SiBCS. Os objetivos deste trabalho foam quantificar o C orgânico das frações húmicas de horizontes diagnósticos superficiais e subsuperficiais de solos e propor a utilização no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos. Foram utilizados 169 horizontes diagnósticos distribuídos entre O hístico, H hístico, A chernozêmico, A húmico e B espódico. Eles foram avaliados quanto à composição química e física. Quantificaram-se os teores de C orgânico nas frações: ácidos fúlvicos (C-FAF, ácidos húmicos (C-FAH e humina (C-HUM. Foram calculadas as relações C-FAH/C-FAF, C-EA/C-HUM e C-EA/COT (C-EA = C-FAF + C-FAH e o percentual de cada fração em relação a C orgânico total (COT, %FAF, %FAH, %HUM e %EA (extrato alcalino. Os horizontes O e H hístico apresentaram predomínio do C-HUM, seguido do C-FAH; o A chernozêmico, dominância absoluta do C-HUM; o A húmico, predomínio da C-HUM, seguido do C-FAH; e o B espódico, maior expressividade de C-FAH ou do C-FAF. Com base na avaliação da distribuição das frações húmicas, propõe-se o uso das seguintes características diferenciais para os níveis de família e série do SiBCS: matéria orgânica estável (horizontes minerais superficiais - C-EA/C-HUM ( 2,0; e potencial de lixiviação (sistema ou solo - C-FAH/C-FAF e C-EA/C-HUM (> 1,0.The information obtained through the humic fractions distribution can be used in brazilian soil studies as a diagnostic attribute or differential characteristic and therefore, contribute to the evolution of Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS. The objective of this study was to quantify the organic carbon in humic fractions of surface and subsurface diagnostic

  4. Proceedings of the 5. Brazilian Meeting on Analytical Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The works of 5 0 Brazilian Meeting on Analitycal Chemistry are presented, including topics about elements determination with instrumental technique. The use of these techniques in soil and food are also cited. (C.G.C.) [pt

  5. Preliminary survey of soil erosion in a micro-basin in the Brazilian state of Parana, using the Cs-137 methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto; Parreira, Paulo Sergio

    2000-01-01

    The measurement of the 137 Cs redistribution in the field allows the determination of soil erosion or deposition in an area. The 137 Cs activities were measured in soil samples to determine the soil losses or gains in a basin at the north of Parana State. The detection efficiency was determined by measurement of standards, prepared with well-known activities of 137 Cs. The soil losses or gains were determinate in up-slope, hill-slope and down-slope, in six different transect in the studied basin using three models of the literature. (author)

  6. Os microrganismos nas atividades de disposição de esgotos no solo: estudo de caso The microrganisms in the sewage disposal in soil: a case study

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    Adriana de Souza Cavinatto

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta os resultados da pesquisa de ovos de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e E. coli no esgoto afluente, efluente e no solo da Estação de Tratamento de Esgotos de Populina (SP, cujo método de tratamento é o escoamento superficial no solo. Os resultados mostraram que o sistema de tratamento foi capaz de reduzir o número de ovos de helmintos presentes no esgoto. O número de organismos encontrados a 50 metros de distância do ponto de aplicação foi menor do que a 20 metros e os mesmos são encontrados em maior número na superfície do solo e a 20 m de distância do ponto de aplicação dos esgotos. O sistema não foi eficiente na remoção de Salmonella sp., coliformes totais e E. coli. Cabe salientar que a Estação de Tratamento está operando acima da capacidade para a qual foi projetada, o que justificaria tais resultados.This work shows the results of the research of helminthes eggs, Salmonella sp., total coliforms and E. coli in the sewage affluent and effluent and in the soil at the Sewage Treatment Plant in Populina, SP, which treatment method is the overland flow. The results have shown that the system was capable to reduce the number of helminthes eggs in the final effluent and that they are found in a bigger number on the soil surface and in twenty meters from the point of appliance of sewage. It is likely that the humidity has a certain influence on the viability of Ascaris sp. eggs. The system was not efficient on the removal Salmonella sp., total coliform and E. coli. It is worth pointing out that sewage treatment plant is operating over the capacity it was built to operating at, what would justify such results.

  7. Estudo brasileiro de validação para localização e lista de qualidade formal do Rorschach-SC: não-pacientes psiquiátricos Estudio brasileño de validación para localización y lista de calidad formal del Rorschach-SC: no-pacientes psiquiátricos Brazilian validation study to locate and list of formal quality of the Rorschach-CS: non-psychiatric patients

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    Juliana de Cassia Leonel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se refere à validação do Atlas de Localização de respostas e da Lista de Qualidade Formal de respostas e conteúdos, FQ, do Rorschach-SC de uma amostra brasileira. Foram selecionados, 46 adultos não-pacientes psiquiátricos, de ambos os sexos, níveis sociais e escolaridade diversos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o SRQ-20 e o Método de Rorschach. As respostas ao Rorschach foram codificadas segundo as áreas e a lista de qualidade formal norte-americanas e brasileiras. As análises comparativas realizadas por meio da ANOVA não encontraram diferenças entre os dois grupos, no que diz respeito às áreas de localização, W, D, Dd nas áreas brasileiras e norte-americanas, comprovando-se a validade das áreas brasileiras. Não foram também encontradas diferenças quanto à qualidade formal FQo e X+%, nas listas brasileiras e norte-americanas, comprovando-se a validade da lista brasileira para essas duas variáveis. Os resultados indicam validade para o atlas brasileiro.Este estudio se refiere a la validación del Atlas de Localización de respuestas y de la Lista de Calidad Formal de respuestas y contenidos, FQ, del Rorschach-SC de una muestra brasileña. Fueron seleccionados, 46 adultos no-pacientes psiquiátricos, de ambos sexos, niveles sociales y de escolaridad diversos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el SRQ-20 y el Método de Rorschach. Las respuestas al Rorschach fueron codificadas según las áreas y la lista de calidad formal norteamericanas y brasileñas. Los análisis comparativos realizados, por medio de la ANOVA, no encontraron diferencias entre los dos grupos en lo que respecta a las áreas de localización, W, D, Dd en las áreas brasileñas y norteamericanas, comprobando la validez de las áreas brasileñas. No fueron también encontradas diferencias cuanto a la calidad formal FQo y X+%, en las listas brasileñas y norteamericanas, comprobando la validez de la lista brasileña para esas dos variables. Los

  8. Estudo exploratório do uso da vinhaça ao longo do tempo: I. Características do solo Exploratory study of the stillage use along the time: I. Characteristics of the soil

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    Cornélio A. Zolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, a realização de um estudo exploratório da aplicação de vinhaça, ao longo dos anos, nas propriedades dos solos com cana-de-açúcar, através de uma análise comparativa e sistemática. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido na empresa USACIGA - Açúcar, Álcool e Energia Elétrica S.A. localizada em Cidade Gaúcha, região noroeste do estado do Paraná cujos tratamentos foram constituídos de áreas cultivadas com cana-de-açúcar e submetidas a diferentes tempos de aplicação de vinhaça, respectivamente 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 e 20 anos, e uma área Testemunha, sem aplicação. Em todas as áreas estudadas foram abertas trincheiras de 1 m3, georreferenciadas em 340 m de altitude para realização da classificação dos solos e coleta de amostras. Realizaram-se avaliações da densidade do solo, densidade de partícula, teor de carbono orgânico, Capacidade de Troca Catiônica (CTC, porosidade total, armazenamento e disponibilidade de água para a cultura de cana-de-açúcar, além das relações entre K, Ca, Mg e V%. Os resultados indicaram que a aplicação de vinhaça contribuiu para o aumento dos teores de carbono orgânico e potássio do solo e que a produtividade da cultura da cana-de-açúcar apresentou uma relação direta ao aumento da razão de adsorção de potássio no solo.The aim of this study was to accomplish an exploratory study of the stillage in the areas with sugarcane, through a comparative and systematic analysis. The present work was conducted in the company USACIGA - Sugar, Alcohol and Electric Power S.A. located at Gaúcha, northwest Paraná state. Treatments constituted of areas cultivated with sugarcane and submitted to different times of stillage application, respectively 1, 2, 3, 4, 12 and 20 years, and a reference area, without application. In all the studied areas trenches of 1 m3 were opened, geo referenced in 340 m of altitude for accomplishment of the soil classification and sample

  9. Disponibilidade de nitrato em solos brasileiros sob efeito da calagem e de fontes e doses de nitrogênio Nitrate availability in Brazilian soils under effect of liming and sources and amounts of nitrogen

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    CARLOS ALBERTO SILVA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da calagem e de fontes e doses de N sobre a disponibilidade de nitrato, em amostras (020 cm de solos brasileiros. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um com cinco solos da Bahia e o outro com cinco solos de Minas Gerais. Os materiais de solo foram previamente umedecidos e incubados por sete dias, a 26°C, visando ativar a flora microbiana. Nas amostras de solo da Bahia, aplicou-se a uréia ou o sulfato de amônio nas concentrações de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg de N por kg de solo e nas de Minas Gerais, foi avaliado o efeito da calagem sobre a nitrificação. Os materiais de solo foram incubados a 26°C por 15 dias. Independentemente da dose de N aplicada, auréia nitrificou mais rapidamente do que o sulfato de amônio. Na Areia Quartzosa não foi observada nitrificação líquida do Nsulfato de amônio, sendo constatada, porém, a oxidação do Nuréia. A calagem afetou a nitrificação, notando-se nos solos que receberam calcário maior disponibilidade de nitrato. A saturação por bases e o teor de matéria orgânica apresentaram, respectivamente, a melhor correlação com o nitrato formado e os teores de uréia presentes no solo ao término da incubação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of liming and sources and doses of nitrogen on nitrate availability in Brazilian soils. Two experiments were carried out: one with five soils from Bahia State and the other with five soils from Minas Gerais State. Soil samples were previously moistened and incubated at 26°C in order to activate the microorganism population. Soil samples from Bahia State were incubated with50, 100, 150 e 200 mg of N per kg of soil as ammonium sulfate or urea and in the Minas Gerais soils it was evaluated the effect of liming on nitrification. Soil samples were incubated at 26°C during 15 days. Urea nitrified faster than ammonium sulfate. The sandy soil did not exhibit net nitrification following ammonium application, but

  10. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP: II - Interpretação da tolerância de perda de solo utilizando o método do Índice de Tempo de Vida Erosion study in the Ceveiro watershed (Piracicaba, SP: II - Interpreting soil loss tolerance using the Soil Useful Life Index methodology

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    Mara de Andrade Marinho Weill

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A erosão acelerada do solo, um processo basicamente induzido pela ação antrópica, muito contribui para a degradação da qualidade das terras aráveis em todo o mundo, além de constituir a principal fonte não pontual de poluição dos recursos hídricos superficiais. Considerando a demanda efetiva pelo desenvolvimento de indicadores para avaliação do impacto da erosão na qualidade do solo em sistemas de produção agrícola, este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver um índice, com valor prognóstico, para ser aplicado como uma ferramenta de planejamento na interpretação da tolerância de perda de solo em áreas agrícolas. Foi desenvolvido o método designado "Índice de Tempo de Vida do Solo", para se proceder ao diagnóstico da erosão em uma área predominantemente utilizada com a cultura da cana-de-açúcar no município de Piracicaba (SP. Na realização do trabalho, foram empregados geotécnicas e métodos de análise geoestatística, sendo o processamento e a análise dos dados efetivados em ambiente de sistema de informação geográfica do tipo matricial. As taxas anuais médias de perda de solo foram estimadas em trabalho anterior, empregando a equação universal de perda de solo (EUPS, com ajuste dos fatores do modelo às condições locais da área de estudo. Nos cálculos do índice de tempo de vida do solo, foi presumida uma taxa de renovação de 0,2 mm ano-1 e foram analisadas duas profundidades, de 50 e de 100 cm, consideradas mínimas para o uso agrícola. A avaliação da espessura do solum revelou que, na área de estudo, predominam solos pouco profundos, com médias ponderadas pelas áreas de ocorrência de 78 cm, solos ocupados com cana-de-açúcar, e de 72 cm, solos ocupados com outros usos. A aplicação do índice de tempo de vida revelou que, adotando a profundidade crítica de 50 cm, o tempo de vida médio do solo nas áreas ocupadas com cana-de-açúcar é de 178 anos, e que, mantida a expectativa atual

  11. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

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    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de

  12. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

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    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  13. Relação entre montadoras e fornecedores: modelos teóricos e estudos de caso na indústria automobilística Brasileira Relationship between assemblers and suppliers: theoretical models and case studies in the Brazilian auto industry

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    Rosangela Maria Vanalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas formas de relacionamento e de operação entre empresas participantes de uma mesma cadeia de suprimentos vêm sendo praticadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições competitivas da cadeia. A indústria automobilística é um exemplo marcante de uma indústria na qual as relações entre as empresas têm se renovado profundamente, motivadas principalmente pela influência das montadoras nos fornecedores primários, que por sua vez atuam junto a seus próprios fornecedores, formando uma aliança competitiva a partir das visões de negócio das montadoras. Este artigo tem como objetivo estudar as relações entre montadoras e fornecedores do parque industrial automobilístico brasileiro, por meio de estudos de caso, com a finalidade de se constatar a possibilidade de haver uma tendência à formação de uma nova tipologia relacional entre esses atores. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas em 14 empresas fornecedoras de montadoras, para levantamento de informações acerca das principais características estruturais e da relação entre montadora e fornecedor na indústria automobilística brasileira. As entrevistas foram realizadas com profissionais em nível gerencial ou de diretoria das áreas de produção, logística e suprimentos, desenvolvimento de produto e processo, compras e recursos humanos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as relações dependem de características institucionais do fornecedor, da complexidade da tecnologia dos componentes, da capacidade produtiva e da história das relações entre cliente e fornecedor. Foi possível concluir também que as relações entre cliente e fornecedor nas empresas pesquisadas estão mais próximas das características de um modelo associativo, com relações contratuais de longo prazo e grande interdependência, mas o preço ainda é utilizado como o principal critério ganhador de pedido na seleção de fornecedores pelas montadoras.New forms of relationship and transaction between

  14. Sleep problems and social support: Frailty in a Brazilian Elderly Multicenter Study Problemas de sueño y soporte social: estudio multicéntrico sobre Fragilidad en Ancianos Brasileños Problemas de sono e suporte social: estudo multicêntrico Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros

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    Shintia Viana da Costa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies relationships among the quality of perceived social support and sleep problems and napping habits in community-dwelling elderly. This study is part of a larger multicenter project entitled "Frailty in Brazilian Elderly Individuals", conducted in 17 Brazilian cities. A total of 498 elderly individuals capable of participating in interviews and free of cognitive deficits or functional impairment were found. The following instruments were used in data collection: Questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data; Interpersonal Support Evaluation Scale; questions concerning sleep patterns (Nottingham Health Profile; questions related to napping habits (Minnesota Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney test were used for data analysis. The elderly individuals who reported having sleep problems in general, taking longer to fall asleep and sleeping poorly at night had lower scores on the Interpersonal Support Evaluation Scale than the elderly who denied such problems. Strategies to improve the quality of social support could also help reduce sleep problems.Este artículo tiene como objetivo identificar relaciones entre calidad del soporte social percibido, problemas de sueño y hábito de dormitar, en ancianos de la comunidad. Se trata de un recorte del estudio Fragilidad en Ancianos Brasileiros (FIBRA, proyecto multicéntrico desarrollado en 17 ciudades brasileñas. Participaron 498 ancianos, capaces de responder a las entrevistas, sin déficit cognitivo o funcional grave. Se adoptó para la recolección de datos: el Cuestionario Sociodemográfico; la Escala de Percepción de la Calidad del Soporte Social; preguntas sobre problemas de sueño (Perfil de Salud de Nottingham; y, preguntas sobre el hábito de dormitar (Minnesota Leisure Activity Questionnaire. Se utilizó estadística descriptiva y prueba de Mann-Whitney para tratamiento de los datos. Los ancianos que refirieron problemas de sue

  15. Perdas de solo e de água em sistemas de captação in situ no Semi-Árido brasileiro Soil and water losses in situ water harvesting systems in the brazilian semi-arid

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    Luiza T. L. Brito

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de cultivo utilizados no semi-árido brasileiro apresentam riscos de perda devido à irregularidade das chuvas, devendo-se associá-los a práticas que propiciem maior infiltração e, conseqüentemente, menor erosão, o que pode ser obtido por meio de técnicas de captação de água de chuva in situ. Neste trabalho, teve-se o objetivo de avaliar as perdas de água e de solo em área cultivada com milho (Zea mays L., submetida a diferentes sistemas de preparo do solo, correspondendo aos tratamentos Guimarães Duque (T1; aração profunda (T2; aração parcial (T3 e sulcos barrados (T4, comparados com o sistema tradicional (T5, que corresponde ao plantio sem preparo do solo. Após cada evento de chuva, a água e o solo escoados foram coletados e medidos. A umidade do solo em diferentes profundidades foi monitorada durante o ciclo de produção da cultura e avaliada a produtividade dos grãos por meio da análise de variância. A partir dos resultados, pode-se observar que o método Guimarães Duque (T1 proporcionou maiores perdas de água (6.696 L e de solo (15.225 kg ha-1, enquanto as menores perdas foram obtidas com os sulcos barrados (T4, correspondendo a 1.066 L e 1.022 kg ha-1, respectivamente. Nesse tratamento (T4, também foi obtida a maior produtividade de grãos (606 kg ha-1, apresentando-se como o sistema mais indicado para as condições analisadas.The cropping systems used in the Brazilian semi-arid show risks of losses due to irregularity of rainfall, requiring the use of practices which produce higher water infiltration and, as a consequence, lower soil erosion, which can be obtained through in situ rainwater harvest techniques. This study had the objective of evaluating soil and water losses in a corn (Zea mays L. area subjected to different soil preparation systems: Guimarães Duque (T1, deep plowing (T2, partial plowing (T3, and furrows with barriers (T4, compared to the traditional system (T5, i.e., plain planting

  16. A prática do parto humanizado no SUS: estudo comparativo - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1108 The practice of humanized delivery in the Brazilian Health System (SUS: a comparative study - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1108

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    Sueli Terezinha Martins Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descritivo foi realizado em maternidades que prestam atendimento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, nas cidades de Guarapuava e Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Dentro do programa de Humanização implantado na Maternidade de Londrina pretendeu-se analisar o atendimento a parturiente quanto à humanização ao parto comparando com a realidade de dois hospitais de Guarapuava onde não existe o programa implantado e assim verificar se os direitos destas parturientes quanto à humanização estão sendo respeitados. Foi aplicado um questionário a 40 primíparas no puerpério imediato com perguntas semi-estruturadas. Ao comparar duas realidades diferentes, concluiu-se que alguns dos direitos das parturientes preconizados pela OMS não estavam sendo respeitados, especialmente onde não havia a implantação do parto humanizado, pois não era permitida a entrada de acompanhante e nem utilizadas técnicas de relaxamento para a parturiente, evidenciando assim que algumas instituições necessitam intensificar esses cuidados para melhorar a qualidade do atendimento prestadoThis descriptive study was conducted in maternities assisted by the Brazilian Health System (SUS, in the cities of Guarapuava and Londrina, State of Paraná. In the program implanted in Londrina, the aim was to analyze the assistance to the parturient regarding humanization to the child delivery. This context was then compared with the reality in the maternities of two hospitals in Guarapuava, where these practices are not applied. The comparison intended to verify if the rights of these women to humanized delivery are being respected. A half-structured questionnaire was applied to forty women in labor. While comparing these two different realities, it was observed that a few of these rights, advocated by the OMS, were not being respected, especially where the humanization delivery was not a practice. Data revealed that the partner’s entrance was not allowed, neither

  17. Estudos de prevalência da brucelose bovina no âmbito do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação de Brucelose e Tuberculose: Introdução Prevalence studies on bovine brucelosis according to Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis: Introduction

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    F. Poester

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de combate à brucelose bovina são bastante conhecidas e, até o momento, os resultados são divergentes. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA implementou, em 2001, o Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose. Conhecer a situação epidemiológica da brucelose no início de um programa de controle permite: 1 - escolher as melhores estratégias de controle em função da frequência e padrão de distribuição da doença na população e 2 - acompanhar o programa com a finalidade de promover correções e evitar o desperdício de tempo e de recursos. Em razão disso, é necessário realizar estudos para dar suporte à escolha das melhores estratégias para os vários estados e regiões brasileiras e criar um mecanismo racional de verificação da efetividade das ações implementadas. Para tanto, o MAPA estabeleceu um Termo de Cooperação Técnica com a Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de São Paulo e envolveu também a Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília. Até o momento, foram concluídos os estudos de 15 unidades federativas, cujos resultados são apresentados nos artigos subsequentes. Além disso, há um 16º artigo que explora o impacto da vacinação de bezerras com a B19 na redução da prevalência da brucelose.Although strategies for controlling and eradicating of bovine brucellosis are well known, the achievements vary widely. In 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA started a new National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (NPCEBT. In the beginning of a brucellosis control program, it is of utmost importance to gain insights into the epidemiological status of the disease in order to: (1 determine the sanitary measures according to the frequency and distribution patterns of the disease in the population; (2 monitor the development

  18. Neighborhood sociodemographic and environmental contexts and self-rated health among Brazilian adults: a multilevel study O contexto sociodemográfico e ambiental da vizinhança e autopercepção de saúde em adultos de um município do Sul do Brasil: um estudo multinível

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    Cleber Cremonese

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between sociodemographic and environmental contexts on self-rated health. A population-based cross-sectional study with a random sample of 38 neighborhoods (census tracts and 1,100 adults was carried out. Data analysis used multilevel logistic regression. Data from the Brazilian Census of 2000, mean income, years of study of the head of household and mean number of residents per tract were R$955 (SD = 586, 8 years (SD = 3, and 746 residents (SD = 358 respectively. Higher prevalences of fair/poor self-rated health were found in neighborhoods with greater populations and lower income/schooling levels. After control for individual variables, the odds for fair/poor self-rated health was twice as high in more populous (OR = 2.04; 95%CI: 1.15-3.61 and lower-income neighborhoods (OR = 2.29; 95%CI: 1.16-4.50 compared to less populous, higher-income ones. Self-rated health depends on individual characteristics and the sociodemographic context of neighborhoods.O objetivo foi investigar a associação entre o contexto sociodemográfico e ambiental e a autopercepção de saúde. Realizou-se um estudo transversal de base populacional com uma amostra aleatória de 38 vizinhanças (setor censitário e 1.100 adultos de São Leopoldo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A análise dos dados utilizou regressão logística multinível. Dados do Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística no ano 2000, as médias de renda e anos de estudo do chefe do domicílio, e o número de residentes por vizinhança eram R$955,00 (DP = 586, 8 anos (DP = 3 e 746 (DP = 358, respectivamente. Após o controle por aspectos sociodemográficos, comportamentais e relacionados ao serviço no nível individual, as chances de relatar uma autopercepção de saúde como razoável ou ruim eram cerca de duas vezes maiores em vizinhanças mais populosas (OR = 2,04; IC95%: 1,15-3,61 e nas com baixa renda (RP = 2,29; IC95%: 1,16-4,50, quando

  19. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

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    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  20. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  1. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S P.S.

    1992-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  2. Avaliação de diferentes coberturas na supressão de plantas daninhas no cerrado Evaluation of weed suppression using different crop covers under Brazilian cerrado soil conditions

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    D.K. Meschede

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A definição de espécies com elevada produtividade de fitomassa para cobertura do solo é um dos fatores de sucesso do sistema plantio direto. O cultivo de solos tropicais e subtropicais, baseado em práticas de preparo com intenso revolvimento, normalmente resulta na maior incidência de plantas invasoras. Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal quanto ao potencial de supressão das plantas invasoras em áreas do cerrado. Foram avaliados sete tipos de cobertura (milheto ADR500, milheto ADR 300, sorgo, milho, crotalária, mamona e vegetação espontânea mais a testemunha mantida no limpo (capinada. O delineamento foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O sorgo apresentou maior peso de cobertura seca (11.890 kg ha-1 e, juntamente com o milheto e a crotalária, demonstrou maior capacidade de supressão das plantas invasoras, pela maior capacidade de cobertura do solo. A vegetação espontânea apresentou os menores valores de biomassa. O milho e a mamona são culturas com menor potencial de cobertura do solo. O acúmulo de biomassa pelas coberturas foi inversamente proporcional ao da biomassa das plantas invasoras.The definition of plant species with higher production for soil mulching is one of the main factors for a successful no-tillage system. The practice of soil tillage in tropical and subtropical regions based on intensive soil revolving results in decreased organic matter and increased weed incidence. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare the potential of different soil mulching to suppress weeds under no-tillage system in Brazilian cerrado areas. Thus, seven treatments were evaluated consisting of the following soil crop covers: Millet ADR 500 (Penisetum americanum L., Millet ADR300, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L., Maize (Zea mays L., Crotalaria (Crotalaria juncea L., Castorbean plant (Ricinus communis L. and spontaneous vegetation. A randomized block experimental design with 4

  3. Evaluation of mobility potential of {sup 90}Sr in Brazilian soils; Avaliacao do potencial de mobilidade do {sup 90}Sr em solos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-07-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of {sup 90}Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with {sup 90}Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT{sub corn}: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT{sub radish}: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT {sub cabbage}: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great {sup 90}Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and

  4. Feasibility study of the immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTPw/Hib (PRP-T Brazilian combination compared to a licensed vaccine in healthy children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age Estudo de viabilidade de imunogenicidade e segurança de uma nova vacina brasileira combinada DTPw/Hib (PRP-T, comparada com uma vacina registrada, em crianças de 2, 4 e 6 meses de idade

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    SueAnn Costa Clemens

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of infants with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has been proven to reduce Hib meningitis by 95% and pneumoniae by 20%. The routine use of Hib vaccine is facilitated by the introduction of combination vaccines into the EPI (Expanded Plan of Immunization. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an extemporaneously mixed DTPw/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis combination, using the technology of two Brazilian manufacturers, against a licensed DTPw/Hib European combination in 108 infants vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months according to the local national schedule. The Brazilian combination was highly immunogenic with Hib seroprotection rates (anti-PRP > 0.15 mg /ml of 98% after 2 doses and 100% after 3. Also for tetanus and pertussis the new Brazilian combination was as immunogenic as the European counterpart, except the diphtheria seroprotection rates and titers were lower. There was also no clinically relevant difference in reactogenicity. If these feasibility results are confirmed, the Brazilian DTPw/Hib combination should help to boost the uptake of Hib vaccination in Brazil.A vacinação contra (Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, utilizando vacinas conjugadas, provou reduzir em 95% os casos de meningite e em 20% as pneumonias por Hib. O uso rotineiro da vacina Hib foi facilitado pela introdução das vacinas combinadas no Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da mistura extemporânea da vacina combinada contra difteria-tétano-pertussis de células inteiras/Haemophilus influenzae (DTPw/Hib, de tecnologia e produção de 2 fabricantes brasileiros, à vacina européia registrada DTPw/Hib. Estudo realizado em 108 crianças em idade de 2, 4 e 6 meses, seguindo o esquema nacional de imunização. A vacina combinada brasileira foi altamente imunogênica, apresentando taxas de soroprote

  5. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de.

    1992-01-01

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  6. SOIL EMISSIONS OF N2O, NO AND CO2 IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS: EFFECTS OF VEGETATION TYPE, SEASONALITY, AND PRESCRIBED FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using closed chamber techniques, soil fluxes of NO, N20 and C02 were measured from September 1999 through October 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) subjected to prescribed fires. Our studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto sensu (20-50% canopy cov...

  7. Raça, cor e etnia em estudos epidemiológicos sobre populações brasileiras: revisão sistemática na base PubMed Race, color and ethnicity in epidemiologic studies carried out with Brazilian populations: systematic review on the PubMed database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fernandes Kabad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar o uso das variáveis raça, cor e etnia em estudos epidemiológicos sobre populações brasileiras. Trata-se de revisão sistemática, conduzida na base PubMed,entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2010. Para o conjunto dos trabalhos revisados, aplicou-se ficha com questões sobre seus objetivos e a relevância da classificação étnico-racial em suas análises, características sócio-demográficas e aspectos da identificação étnico-racial das populações investigadas, bem como o seguimento de recomendações quanto ao uso das classificações de raça, cor e etnia. Dos 1.174 artigos identificados, 151 foram elegíveis para a revisão. Maiores proporções de cada um dos seguintes aspectos foram observadas nos artigos em que a identificação étnico-racial ocupou papel central em suas análises - destes, 18% justificaram o emprego das categorias; 16% consideraram a classificação étnico-racial como fluida e relativa ao contexto da produção dos dados; 65% descreveram o método da classificação étnico-racial; 17% entenderam esta classificação como medida de variabilidade genética; 26% interpretaram a variável como fator de risco para o desfecho em questão; 47% consideraram fatores socioeconômicos na interpretação das desigualdades étnico-raciais; e 27% incluíram tais fatores no ajuste de modelos estatísticos. Apenas dois estudos explicitaram o conceito, que embasou o uso da variável étnico-racial. Uma proporção expressiva dos estudos epidemiológicos analisados não segue os critérios mínimos que vêm sendo sugeridos quanto ao uso de variáveis relacionadas à classificação étnico-racial, de modo que este aspecto deve ser aperfeiçoado nas pesquisas em Saúde Coletiva.This paper aims to analyze the use of the variables race, color and ethnicity in epidemiologic studies, carried out with Brazilian populations. This is a systematic review, conducted in the PubMed bibliographic database, on papers

  8. Genetic diversity of symbiotic Paraburkholderia species isolated from nodules of Mimosa pudica (L.) and Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) grown in soils of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Agnol, Rebeca Fuzinatto; Bournaud, Caroline; de Faria, Sérgio Miana; Béna, Gilles; Moulin, Lionel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2017-04-01

    Some species of the genus Paraburkholderia that are able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in symbiosis with legumes are called β-rhizobia and represent a group of ecological and biotechnological importance. We used Mimosa pudica and Phaseolus vulgaris to trap 427 rhizobial isolates from rhizospheric soil of Mimoseae trees in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Eighty-four representative strains were selected according to the 16S rRNA haplotypes and taxonomically characterized using a concatenated 16S rRNA-recA phylogeny. Most strains were assembled in the genus Paraburkholderia, including Paraburkholderia sabiae and Pa. nodosa. Mesorhizobium (α-rhizobia) and Cupriavidus (β-rhizobia) were also isolated, but in smaller proportions. Multilocus sequence analysis and BOX-PCR analyses indicated that six clusters of Paraburkholderia represent potential new species. In the phylogenetic analysis of the nodC gene, the majority of the strains were positioned in the same groups as in the 16S rRNA-recA tree, indicative of stability and vertical inheritance, but we also identified horizontal transfer of nodC in Pa. sabiae. All α- and β-rhizobial species were trapped by both legumes, although preferences of the host plants for specific rhizobial species have been observed. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Um estudo dos relatos afetivos subjetivos a estímulos do International Affective Picture System em uma amostra geriátrica brasileira Subjective affective ratings to photographic stimuli of the International Affective Picture System in a Brazilian elderly sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyler Galvão Porto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura científica indica a possibilidade de a percepção da emoção e a formação da memória emocional serem discordantes entre jovens e idosos. A mesma é pobre ao explorar essa possibilidade. Neste estudo, relatamos os resultados obtidos em um experimento-piloto com uma amostra de idosos brasileiros, que classificaram subjetivamente, através da escala Self Assessment Manikin, imagens oriundas do International Affective Picture System. MÉTODO: Quarenta e oito idosos voluntários da Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade, saudáveis clínica e cognitivamente, avaliaram o caráter alertante e a valência afetiva de 71 imagens do International Affective Picture System, aleatoriamente escolhidas. RESULTADOS: O grau de alerta reportado por idosos diante de um estímulo emocional é tanto maior quanto menor o prazer provocado por essa imagem-estímulo, resultando na existência de uma forte correlação negativa (r = 0,93 entre o grau de alerta e o estímulo desprazeroso. Em uma comparação do acima obtido com outro experimento normativo semelhante feito com jovens brasileiros e americanos, apontou-se para uma possível diferença cultural na forma de relatar subjetivamente um estímulo emocional. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos com esta amostra estudada sugerem que pode existir uma diferença nos relatos afetivos entre os jovens e idosos, onde uma normatização do International Affective Picture System para uma amostra maior, representativa da população de idosos, seria útil para responder esta questão.INTRODUCTION: The scientific literature points to a possible bias in the form perception and emotional memory are constructed when elderly and young individuals are compared. However, this possibility is underexplored. This paper presents the results obtained from a pilot study based on an elderly emotional subjective report after evaluation using the International Affective Picture System images and Self Assessment

  10. Evolução das desigualdades sociais em saúde entre idosos e adultos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 1998, 2003 Health inequality trends among Brazilian adults and old-aged: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as desigualdades sociais em saúde de adultos (20-64 anos e idosos (> 65 anos brasileiros se alteraram entre 1998 e 2003. O estudo foi realizado em uma amostra de 203.455 e 239.700 participantes da PNAD 1998 e 2003, respectivamente. As condições de saúde e função física, uso de serviços de saúde e filiação a plano de saúde daqueles pertencentes ao quintil inferior da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita foram comparadas às daqueles com renda mais alta, utilizando-se métodos multivariados de análise. Os resultados mostraram que nos dois anos considerados, os indivíduos no estrato mais baixo de renda apresentavam piores condições de saúde, pior função física e menor uso de serviços de saúde, tanto na faixa etária de 20-64 quanto na de > 65 anos de idade. As forças das associações entre renda domiciliar per capita, condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde não se modificaram entre 1998 e 2003, indicando que não houve alterações nas desigualdades sociais em saúde no período estudado. A persistência dessas desigualdades aponta para a ineficiência de políticas, nos últimos cinco anos, que as reduzissem.The aim of this study was to verify whether health inequalities among Brazilian adults (20-64 years and old-aged (> 65 years have changed from 1998 to 2003. The study was conducted in samples of 203.455 and 239.700 participants of the National Household Sample Survey in 1998 and 2003 respectively. The health characteristics of those in the lower quintile of the per capita family income were compared to those with higher income by means of multivariate analysis methods. The characteristics considered in this study were health conditions and physical functioning, use of medical and dental services and health plan affiliation. The results from both years showed poorer health conditions, poorer physical functioning and less use of medical and dental services

  11. Governança e a lógica das associações de interesse privado: um estudo de caso da Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Massas Alimentícias (ABIMA Governance and strategy of Private Interest Associations: a case study of the Brazilian Pasta Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Antonio Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa as características e objetivos das associações de interesse privado (AIP, destacando o papel coordenador deste tipo de organização no sentido de buscar criar e defender margens para seus associados. São destacadas as mudanças no papel do Estado e das empresas e, como decorrência, a necessidade de repensar a estrutura e a própria missão das associações, visando sua adequação a um novo ambiente institucional. Outro aspecto central relaciona-se com os mecanismos de governança em associações de interesse privado. O artigo destaca desafios no alinhamento de interesses entre os componentes das associações. A dificuldade em avaliar a eficiência dos gestores é devida à falta de informações claras e de conhecimento específico, já que a avaliação dos resultados é em grande parte intangível e são raros os indicadores que possibilitam a comparação com outras organizações. As associações de interesse privado possuem características idiossincráticas, sendo difícil a parametrização de indicadores de eficiência, em razão das especificidades próprias de cada organização. O trabalho destaca um estudo de caso de uma associação ligada ao sistema agroindustrial brasileiro, a Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Massas Alimentícias (ABIMA, analisando um processo de gestão estratégica implementado na organização com o objetivo de um alinhamento de interesses em torno de um conjunto específico de projetos estratégicos priorizados.Characteristics and objectives of Private Interest Associations, PIA, were analyzed to highlight their coordination in creating and defending actions of benefit to associates. Changes in public and private organization roles were identified in view of the need to examine the structure and mission of these associations for better adaptation to the new institutional environment. PIA governance was then addressed as were the challenges of aligning member

  12. Estudo das mutações C282Y, H63D e S65C do gene HFE em doentes brasileiros com sobrecarga de ferro Study of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations in the HFE gene in Brazilian patients with iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo D. Cançado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hemocromatose é uma das doenças genéticas mais freqüentes no ser humano e uma das causas mais importantes de sobrecarga de ferro. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar a freqüência das mutações C282Y, H63D e S65C do gene HFE em doentes brasileiros com sobrecarga de ferro, verificar a coexistência de anemia hemolítica hereditária, hepatite C e consumo excessivo de bebida alcoólica nestes doentes e avaliar a influência destas variáveis sobre os depósitos de ferro do organismo. Saturação da transferrina, ferritina sérica e análise das mutações C282Y, H63D e S65C do gene HFE, pelo método da PCR, foram determinadas em cinqüenta doentes com sobrecarga de ferro atendidos no Hemocentro da Santa Casa de São Paulo entre janeiro de 2000 e maio de 2004. A freqüência de mutação do gene HFE nos doentes com sobrecarga de ferro foi de 76,0% (38/50. Saturação da transferrina e ferritina foram significativamente maiores nos doentes homozigotos para a mutação C282Y confirmando a correlação entre genótipo C282Y/C282Y e maior risco de sobrecarga de ferro. A coexistência de hepatite C, consumo excessivo de bebida alcoólica ou anemia hemolítica hereditária estão implicados em aumento dos estoques de ferro e constituem fator de risco adicional em pacientes com mutação do gene HFE para a condição de sobrecarga de ferro.Hemochromatosis is one of the most frequent genetic diseases in humans and one of the most important causes of iron overload. The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of C282Y, H63D and S65C mutations of the HFE gene in Brazilian patients with iron overload, to verify the coexistence of chronic hemolytic anemia, hepatitis C and excessive alcohol consumption and to evaluate the influence of these variables on body iron deposits. Transferrin saturation, serum ferritin and C282Y, H63D and S65C HFE gene mutations (by PCR method were determined in 50 patients with iron overload in the Hemocentro da

  13. Estudos de atmosfera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Riccioppo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Joker e Estudos de balística possuíam formas distintas dos cadernos ou livros quando foram exibidos pela primeira vez, na mostra Dual Overdrive. De algum modo, o flagrante das imagens dos cartazes da campanha política parisiense e daquelas cusparadas sobre o asfalto era preservado no modo como eram mostrados os trabalhos, que repunham não apenas a orientação espacial dos objetos fotografados, mas, igualmente, sua escala: Joker apresentava-se na parede, em dimensões relativamente próximas às dos cartazes lambe-lambe que retratavam; e Estudos de balística, no chão da galeria, também com ampliação suficiente para que se tivesse a impressão de que se tratava de imagens “em tamanho real”.

  14. Lesões nos jogadores de futebol profissional do Marília Atlético Clube: estudo de coorte histórico do campeonato brasileiro de 2003 a 2005 Injuries in the professional soccer players of Marília Atlético Clube: a cohort study of the Brazilian Championship, 2003 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Pereira Palacio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVOS: Vários autores têm investigado a incidência de lesões no futebol, poucos têm-se preocupado com o tempo de afastamento dos atletas ou com os prejuízos financeiros oriundos de tal situação. O objetivo deste estudo foi confrontar, através de um estudo de coorte histórico, o tempo total de afastamento de atletas lesionados com as variáveis: idade, posição dos jogadores e tipo de lesão. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os jogadores de futebol profissional do Marília Atlético Clube que atuaram no Campeonato Brasileiro de Futebol - Série B, de 2003 a 2005. As informações foram coletadas através do acesso direto aos prontuários médicos e protocolo de coleta de dados, com um período de seguimento de 24 meses, sendo, posteriormente, realizada a análise estatística. RESULTADOS: A idade dos jogadores variou de 18 a 35 anos (24,5 ± 4,4; os jogadores mais freqüentemente lesionados foram: atacantes (36,8%, zagueiros (26,6%, meias (20%, laterais (10% e goleiros (6,6%; as lesões mais comuns foram: musculares (46,8%, ligamentares (26,6%, ósseas (16,6% e meniscais (10%; o tempo de afastamento nos atacantes variou de 10 a 240 dias (28 ± 78,3, nos zagueiros de 20 a 120 dias (26,5 ± 33,9, nos meias de 10 a 180 dias (18,5 ± 66,3, nos laterais de 13 a 240 dias (17 ± 129,9 e nos goleiros de 35 a 60 dias (47,5 ± 17,6. CONCLUSÃO: A análise estatística mostrou não haver correlação entre a idade dos jogadores e o tempo total de afastamento dos mesmos (p = 0,31, não houve diferença significativa entre o tempo de afastamento nas diferentes posições dos jogadores dentro de campo (p = 0,49, houve diferença significativa entre o tempo total de afastamento e os diferentes tipos de lesão (p INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: several authors have investigated the incidence of injuries occurred in outdoor soccer games. However, just a few are concerned about the athletes' healing period or the financial damage due to this

  15. Tuberculose em indígenas da Amazônia brasileira: estudo epidemiológico na região do Alto Rio Negro Tuberculosis in indigenous peoples in the Brazilian Amazon: an epidemiological study in the Upper Rio Negro region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Patrícia Giraldo Rios

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as características sociodemográficas e clínico-epidemiológicas dos casos de tuberculose notificados na população indígena do Município de São Gabriel de Cachoeira, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil, e identificar fatores associados ao óbito durante o tratamento; e estimar a prevalência de infecção latente por tuberculose (ILTB e fatores associados e obter informações sobre o itinerário terapêutico e a percepção acerca do adoecimento dos indígenas do Distrito de Iauaretê. MÉTODOS: Primeiramente, realizou-se um estudo epidemiológico retrospectivo (1997 a 2007 com base nos dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação. Posteriormente, realizou-se um estudo transversal (2010 em sintomáticos respiratórios e contatos no Distrito Indígena de Iauaretê. RESULTADOS: Registraram-se 723 casos novos, com incidência de 273,4/100 000 e mortalidade de 13,2/100 000. Houve predomínio em homens (57%, idade > 45 anos (37,6%, pessoas sem escolaridade (42,7% e na área rural (76,9%. Doentes de 0 a 20 anos apresentaram menor chance de óbito quando comparados à idade > 45 anos (OR = 0,3; IC95%: 0,1 a 0,9. Em Iauaretê, que concentrou 15,3% das notificações, foram entrevistados 184 indígenas. Revelou-se prevalência de ILTB de 76,1%. Prova tuberculínica > 5 mm associou-se com idade > 15 anos, história de tuberculose ativa e alterações radiológicas. Tuberculose anterior foi citada por 54 indígenas (29,3%. A principal explicação para o adoecimento foi sopro/envenenamento (24,1%. O itinerário terapêutico incluiu medicamentos industrializados (42,6%, plantas medicinais/raízes, pajelança/xamanismo e reza (42,7%. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de infecção tuberculosa e doença ativa nessa população foi elevada. As estratégias de controle tiveram resultados positivos, com redução na incidência em tempos recentes. Entretanto, para controlar a tuberculose é necessário intensificar a vigilância dos

  16. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc [pt

  17. Tendências nas condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998, 2003 Trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar as tendências das condições de saúde e do uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios (PNAD. Foram incluídos no estudo 28.943 e 35.042 participantes das PNAD 1998 e 2003 com idade > 60 anos, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que houve melhora nas condições de saúde dos idosos nesse período, considerando-se indicadores como percepção da saúde, ter estado recentemente acamado, capacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária e número de doenças crônicas. Os resultados também monstraram que houve aumento do número de consultas médicas e odontológicas entre 1998 e 2003. Tais tendências foram consistentemente observadas em ambos os sexos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do suplemento de saúde da PNAD como fonte de informação para o monitoramento e/ou vigilância das condições de saúde da população idosa brasileira.This study examined trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly, based on health data from the National Household Sample Surveys (PNAD conducted in 1998 and 2003. 28,943 and 35,042 individuals aged > 60 years were included in the study, respectively. The results showed an improvement in health conditions in the study population during this period, as measured by self-rated health, having remained bedridden in the previous two weeks, ability to perform selected activities of daily living, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported arthritis. There was also an increase in the number of doctor and dentist visits from 1998 to 2003. The trends were consistent for both men and women. The results emphasize the importance of the PNAD health supplement as a source of information for the surveillance or monitoring of health and health-related conditions in the Brazilian elderly population.

  18. Condições de saúde, capacidade funcional, uso de serviços de saúde e gastos com medicamentos da população idosa brasileira: um estudo descritivo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Health status, physical functioning, health services utilization, and expenditures on medicines among Brazilian elderly: a descriptive study using data from the National Household Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever as condições de saúde e o uso de serviços de saúde da população idosa brasileira. Participaram do estudo 28.943 (99,9% idosos (³ 60 anos incluídos na amostra da PNAD 1998. Os resultados mostraram que as prevalências de pelo menos uma doença crônica (69,0%, de hipertensão (43,9%, de artrite (37,5% e de incapacidade para alimentar-se/tomar banho/ir ao banheiro (2,0% são muito semelhantes ao observado em outras populações. Os padrões de consultas médicas e de hospitalizações estão dentro das variações observadas em diferentes países. As baixas proporções de idosos que interromperam atividades por problemas de saúde (13,9% e estiveram acamados nas duas últimas semanas (9,5% ou foram hospitalizados no último ano (13,6% mostram que a imensa maioria não está sujeita a estes eventos. Considerando-se que 50% desta população têm renda pessoal ¾ 1 salário mínimo, o gasto médio mensal com medicamentos compromete aproximadamente um quarto da renda (23% de metade da população idosa brasileira.The objective of this research was to describe health conditions and health services utilization among Brazilian seniors. The study was based on 28,943 adults > 60 years (99.9% from an overall National Household Survey (PNAD 1998. The results show that prevalence rates for at least one chronic disease (69.0%, hypertension (43.9%, arthritis (37.5%, and inability to feed oneself/bathe/use the toilet (2.0% are very similar to those observed in other populations. Physician visits and hospitalization patterns are within the variation reported by different countries. The low prevalence rates of older adults who had interrupted activities because of a health problem (13.9% or had been bedridden (9.5% in the previous 2 weeks or hospitalized in the previous year (13.6% show that the vast majority are not subject to these events. Considering that 50% of this population live on less than or equal to one

  19. Estudo da relação pedomorfogeológica na distribuição de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico na paisagem de Lavras (MG Study of the relationship pedo-geomorphological in the soil distribution with argillic horizons in the landscape of Lavras (MG, Brazil

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    Marilusa Pinto Coelho Lacerda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento das relações entre geologia, geomorfologia e pedologia auxilia nas atividades de classificação dos solos e na avaliação da distribuição pedológica de uma área. Este trabalho foi motivado pela escassez de estudos dessa natureza na região de Lavras (MG, onde ocorrem várias classes de solos, relacionados com a grande variedade petrológica do material de origem e com a ocorrência de domínios geomorfológicos distintos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as relações entre material de origem (relação pedogeológica, classes de relevo (relação pedogeomorfológica e solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico, visando propor um modelo da distribuição desses solos na paisagem de Lavras. Os solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico de ocorrência regional foram selecionados de acordo com o estádio de evolução, que permite preservar características das rochas parentais. Esses solos são desenvolvidos nessa região em relevos ondulados a forte ondulados, originando diferentes classes de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico relacionados ao material de origem. Para desenvolvimento deste estudo, foram realizadas a interpretação petrológica do substrato rochoso e a individualização do relevo, por meio de classes de declividade. Mediante campanhas de campo, foram selecionados e caracterizados perfis representativos das principais classes dos solos em estudo e foram avaliadas as relações pedogeológicas associadas às relações pedogeomorfológicas, permitindo a proposição de um modelo preditivo de distribuição de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico na paisagem de Lavras (MG.The understanding of the relationships between geology, geomorphology and pedology underlies activities of soil classification and the evaluation of the pedological distribution of an area. This study was motivated by the lack of reports of this nature for the region of Lavras (MG, where several soil classes occur

  20. Estudos de atmosfera

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Riccioppo

    2016-01-01

    Joker e Estudos de balística possuíam formas distintas dos cadernos ou livros quando foram exibidos pela primeira vez, na mostra Dual Overdrive. De algum modo, o flagrante das imagens dos cartazes da campanha política parisiense e daquelas cusparadas sobre o asfalto era preservado no modo como eram mostrados os trabalhos, que repunham não apenas a orientação espacial dos objetos fotografados, mas, igualmente, sua escala: Joker apresentava-se na parede, em dimensões relativamente próximas às d...

  1. um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cátia Filipa Pereira da

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica As situações de abuso sexual de crianças nas quais o perpetrador pertence ao sexo feminino obtiveram ao longo dos últimos anos um acrescido reconhecimento por parte da comunidade científica, evidenciado pelo significativo incremento das investigações no âmbito desta temática consistindo na sua maioria estudos de caso. Um conjunto de particularidades encont...

  2. Lesões desportivas na elite do atletismo brasileiro: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Lesiones deportivas en la elite del atletismo brasileño: estudio a partir de morbilidad informada Sports injuries in Brazilian elite of the athletics: study based on referred morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de quantificação e associação das lesões do esporte aos seus possíveis fatores causais são importantes para melhor entendimento sobre assunto. Assim constituiu-se como objetivo do presente estudo a observação das lesões desportivas (LD em atletas da elite brasileira do atletismo, associando-as aos seus mecanismos de instalação e características da modalidade. Foram entrevistados 86 atletas (47 homens e 39 mulheres convocados para representar o Brasil durante o ano de 2003. Utilizou-se um inquérito de morbidade referida, validado anteriormente, para obtenção dos dados referentes aos atletas e suas lesões. Para a análise dos resultados adotou-se o teste de Goodman para contrastes entre e dentro de proporções binomiais, sendo todas as conclusões discutidas para 5% de significância estatística. Os resultados mostraram que há maior taxa de lesão por atleta (l/a, nas provas combinadas (3,5 l/a, seguidas por eventos de velocidade (2,6 l/a, resistência (1,9 l/a e saltos (1,9 l/a respectivamente. O principal mecanismo causal é a alta intensidade acometendo preferencialmente velocistas e fundistas. Outra forte associação foi observada entre lesões musculares e provas de velocidade, que também apresentam preferência para ocorrência de lesão na região da coxa. As atividades com elevada intensidade foram o principal responsável por lesões musculares, enquanto as osteoarticulares e tendinopatias ocorrem com excesso de repetições. Concluiu-se, a partir dos achados, que existem associações entre lesões e fatores causais, como entre provas e lesões, mecanismos de lesão e local anatômico.Los procesos de cuantificación y de asociación de las lesiones del deporte y sus posibles factores causales son importantes para un mejor entendimiento sobre el asunto. De esta manera se estarán contribuyendo como objetivo del presente estudio a la observación de las lesiones deportivas (LD en atletas de la elite

  3. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  4. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  5. Ciclagem de nutrientes por plantas de cobertura na entressafra em um solo de cerrado Nutrient cycling in off-season cover crops on a Brazilian savanna soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Adriano Boer

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo e a liberação de nutrientes (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S de resíduos culturais de plantas de cobertura na entressafra, em condições de Cerrado. O experimento foi conduzido em um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico com textura argilosa. As plantas de cobertura avaliadas foram: amaranto (Amaranthus cruentus L., milheto (Pennisetum glaucum L. e capim-pé-de-galinha (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Na fase de florescimento das espécies, foi avaliada a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes. A fim de avaliar a liberação de nutrientes dos resíduos culturais, o material vegetal de cada espécie foi acondicionado em sacolas de náilon, as quais foram dispostas sobre o solo e seu conteúdo analisado em intervalos de 30 dias, até 240 dias após sua instalação. As maiores quantidades de nutrientes acumulados na fitomassa das plantas de cobertura foram observadas no milheto e no capim-pé-de-galinha. O potássio foi o nutriente acumulado em maior quantidade, chegando a atingir 416,9 kg ha-1 no milheto. As maiores taxas de liberação de nutrientes foram observadas nos resíduos culturais do amaranto.The objective of this work was to evaluate the accumulation and the liberation of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S of cultural residues by three species of cover crops, in off-season. Tested cover crops were amaranthus (Amaranthus cruentus L., pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L. and finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L. Gaertn.. The experiment was carried out in a Typic Haplorthox clay texture soil. A randomized block desing in a split-plot array in time, with four replications, was used. At the flowering of the species, the production of dry matter and the accumulation of nutrients were evaluated. Proportional samples of dry matter of each cover crop species were placed in

  6. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  7. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  8. Superficial soil erosion assessment in agricultural land and bare land using {sup 7}Be fallout; Estudo da redistribuicao de solo superficial em areas cultivadas e nao cultivadas utilizando o fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marestoni, Luiz Diego

    2007-02-15

    Geologic and hydrologic phenomenon monitoring presents great environmental and financial interest and several radioisotopes, natural and artificial, have been used for this purpose. The more used are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb not supported and {sup 7}Be. In the present work, {sup 7}Be was used to determine the soil erosion in three areas: one with soy ploughed at the direction of the slope, one with it perpendicular to the slope and one in an area with bare soil. {sup 7}Be is a cosmogenic radionuclide, with half-life of 53.3 days, produced by spallation of oxygen and nitrogen by cosmic rays in the troposphere and stratosphere. {sup 7}Be deposition occurs by dry and wet deposition, although wet deposition contributed by 95%. This can be verified through the measures of the {sup 7}Be inventory correlated with the precipitation, which resulted in a good linear adjustment. The experimental set up consisted of two HPGe detectors: one with 66% of relative efficiency and one with 10% of relative efficiency, both detectors coupled to standard gamma ray spectrometry nuclear electronic chain. Soil samples were packed in 1 liter Marinelli beckers. Sampling was accomplished until the depth where {sup 7}Be was present and it was possible to verify that its penetration in the soils could be very well adjusted by an exponential type function. The maximum beryllium-7 penetration in the bare soil without sign of soil erosion was 3 cm, that is, beryllium-7 is a useful tool as tracer for superficial soil erosion determination. The constant of mass relaxation h{sub 0} was determined as 4.71 {+-} 0.36, result that is in agreement with other works in the international literature. It was verified that when the soy is ploughed perpendicular to the slope, the soil redistribution rate is smaller, resulting in economic advantage. The bare soil is very exposed to the erosion, because does not exist any barrier to contain the soil that flows at the direction of the slope, such fact was verified

  9. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission; Estudo da viabilidade da utilizacao de fotodiodos na determinacao de umidade de solos por transmissao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, L A.P. dos

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ({sup 241} Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs.

  10. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  11. Alguns estudos preliminares sôbre possíveis problemas de fertilidade, em solos de diferentes campos cerrados de São Paulo e Goiás Some preliminary studies on fertility problems of soils from several "campos cerrados" in São Paulo and Goiás

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. McClung

    1958-01-01

    Full Text Available Êste trabalho representa uma primeira contribuição para o estudo da fertilidade dos solos de campos cerrados. Tais solos, que ocupam importante superfície do território nacional, apresentam muitas vezes boas propriedades físicas e regulares disponibilidades de água, que parecem estar em desacôrdo com a pobreza da vegetação nêles desenvolvida. Uma deficiência ou um agudo desequilíbrio de nutrientes deve, pois, estar envolvido. De fato, a cultura em vasos permitiu verificar uma acentuada deficiência em fósforo nas amostras estudadas, assim como um menor crescimento do capim que não recebeu nitrogênio. A produção foi também menor em todos os quatro solos de Goiás, quando se omitiram, num tratamento, enxôfre, cobre, zinco, ferro, boro e molibdênio.Evidence of severe phosphorus deficiency was found in grasses and legumes grown in pot culture on six soils from "campos cerrados" in São Paulo and Goiás. The minus-phosphorus treatment in most cases produced only 5 to 10% as much growth as the complete treatment. Dry matter production by pangola grass was lower on all four soils from Goiás when the elements iron, zinc, copper, boron, sulfur and molybdenum were omitted from the fertilizer misture. Similar results were obtained for alfafa on one soil from São Paulo. The data do not indicate which of these elements were involved in this response. Less growth of grass ocurred when nitrogen was omitted, but in no case, either with grasses or legumes, did the omission of potassium have a measurable effect on dry matter production. Omission of lime resulted in reduced growth of alfafa and soybeans, and, on one soil, of Pangola grass.

  12. Hydrogels in Brazilian Agriculture = Hidrogel na agricultura brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Lopes Monteiro Neto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The rational use of water is essentual as it is a finite resource. Consequerntly, studies of methids that minimize water use water are essential. As a result, agricultural hydrogels have been extensively tested in as a means of promoting agriculture improvements because of their water- and nutriente-retention characteristics. However, even though hydrogels are used in several sectors of Brazilian agriculture, there are still very few studies on their applications, the best methods and the quantities to be used. Consequently, there is a need for research into the applicability of this technology in Brazil, so that future research needs can be identified and appropriate decisions made at the production level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to collate currently available information on the applicability of agricultural hydrogels in Brazilian agriculture. Over the last decade, forestry is the sector in Brazil that has most studied and used hydrogels, but others such as fruit- and coffeegrowing have also been involved. The method of applying the polymer in granules directly mixed-in with growth substrates is the most used in the production of seedlings. However, use of hydrated gel at planting sites has also been explored. While synthetic hydrogels are most commonly used, those made of natural materials have great potential due to the low preparation costs and their in-soil biodegradability. The quantities of hydrogel used vary according to the target species, application method and objective. = A utilização racional da água faz-se necessária uma vez que esse recurso é finito, assim, estudos sobre a produção e minimização do uso da água são essenciais. A partir disso, os hidrogéis agrícolas vêm sendo amplamente testados na agricultura por promoverem benfeitorias às plantas pelas suas características de retenção de água e nutrientes. No entanto, mesmo sendo utilizados em diversos ramos da agricultura brasileira, estudos quanto

  13. Um Estudo sobre o Uso da Evidência Física como Forma de Gerar Percepções de Qualidade de Serviços: casos de hospitais brasileirosA Study of the use of Physical Evidence as a way of Generating Perception of Service Quality: a case study of Brazilian hospitalsUn Estudio sobre el Uso de la Evidencia Física como Forma de Generar Percepciones de Calidad de Servicios: casos de hospitales brasileños

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAMPOMAR, Marcos Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo tem por objetivo estudar o uso da evidência física como forma de gerar percepções de qualidade de serviços por parte de clientes em prestadores de serviços hospitalares. A natureza exploratória do trabalho está diretamente relacionada à baixa produção acadêmica existente sobre o tema no Brasil. O artigo está dividido em três partes. Na primeira parte faz-se uma revisão da literatura pertinente ao tema em que se abrange: importância dos serviços; serviços de saúde; qualidade de serviços; e evidência física. Na segunda parte apresentam-se a metodologia e os resultados de uma pesquisa de campo realizada com o uso do método de estudo de casos para verificar de que maneira os conceitos de evidência física são aplicados por hospitais brasileiros. Na terceira parte conclui-se que, em geral, as ações desenvolvidas pelas organizações pesquisadas são coerentes com as práticas descritas na literatura internacional. Também na terceira parte são apresentadas as limitações do estudo e oferecidas sugestões para futuras pesquisas sobre o tema.ABSTRACTThe aim of this paper is to study the use of physical evidence as a way to generate service quality perceptions from clients of hospitals. The realization of an exploratory research is directly related to the low academic production on the subject in Brazil. In the first part of the paper we present a literature review including: the importance of services; health care services; service quality; and physical evidence. In the second part of the paper are presented the methodology and the results of a field research made with the use of the case study method in order to verify how the concept of physical evidence is practiced by Brazilian hospitals. In the third part we conclude that in general the actions developed by the researched organizations are coherent with the practices described in the international literature. Also in the third part we present

  14. Manidipina no tratamento da hipertensão arterial essencial estágio I e II do paciente com sobrepeso ou obesidade andróide. Estudo multicêntrico brasileiro de eficácia, tolerabilidade e efeitos metabólicos Manidipine in the treatment of stage I and II essential hypertensive patients with overweight or android obesity. A brazilian multicentre study of efficacy, tolerability and metabolic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Kohlmann Júnior

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia anti-hipertensiva, efeitos metabólicos e tolerabilidade da manidipina no tratamento de hipertensos essenciais estágio I e II com sobrepeso ou obesidade do tipo andróide. MÉTODOS: Em estudo aberto, não comparativo, realizado em 11 centros brasileiros de pesquisa, 102 pacientes de ambos os sexos com sobrepeso ou obesidade central, foram tratados por 12 semanas com manidipina em dose única diária de 10 a 20mg e avaliadas pressão arterial, freqüência cardíaca e a presença de eventos adversos. Ao final dos períodos placebo e de droga ativa foram obtidos os valores plasmáticos da glicemia de jejum, colesterol total e frações e triglicérides. Em 12 pacientes foi avaliada a sensibilidade à insulina. RESULTADOS: A manidipina reduziu a pressão arterial de 159±15 / 102±5mmHg para 141±15 / 90±8mmHg sem acarretar aumento da freqüência cardíaca. A taxa de eficácia foi de 71,9% com 51,1% de normalização pressórica. Não foram observadas alterações significativas dos parâmetros metabólicos. A tolerabilidade da manidipina foi muito boa e no final do estudo 87,1% estavam livres de qualquer reação adversa. CONCLUSÃO: A manidipina constitui opção adequada, altamente eficaz, livre de efeitos metabólicos e segura para tratamento de hipertensos estágios I e II com sobrepeso ou obesidade andróide.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, metabolic effects and tolerability of manidipine used in the treatment of stage I and II essential hypertensive patients with overweight or android obesity. METHODS: By an open-label, non comparative protocol in 11 Brazilian clinical research centers 102 hypertensive patients of both sexes with over weight or central obesity were treated with manidipine 10 to 20mg once daily for 12 weeks. Blood pressure, heart rate and adverse events were monitored. Fasting plasma glucose, total, HDL and LDL-cholesterol and triglicerides were determined at both placebo period and end of

  15. Homa1-ir And Homa2-ir Indexes In Identifying Insulin Resistance And Metabolic Syndrome - Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (brams) [Índices Homa1-ir E Homa2-ir Para Identificação De Resistência à Insulina E Síndrome Metabólica - Estudo Brasileiro De Síndrome Metabólica (brams)

    OpenAIRE

    Geloneze B.; Vasques A.C.J.; Stabe C.F.C.; Pareja J.C.; de Lima Rosado L.E.F.P.; de Queiroz E.C.; Tambascia M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate cut-off values for HOMA1-IR and HOMA2-IR to identify insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MS), and to assess the association of the indexes with components of the MS. Methods: Nondiabetic subjects from the Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study were studied (n = 1,203, 18 to 78 years). The cut-off values for IR were determined from the 90th percentile in the healthy group (n = 297) and, for MS, a ROC curve was generated for the total sample. Results: In the he...

  16. A hydrological-modeling study of the impact of land use/land cover and climate change on runoff in a watershed in the western Brazilian Amazonia | Um estudo de modelagem hidrológica do impacto do uso da terra / cobertura da terra e mudanças climáticas ..

    OpenAIRE

    Ranyere Silva Nóbrega

    2016-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effect of land use and land cover in the Jamari sub river basin, located in the Brazilian Amazonian. The objective is twofold: 1) to study the impact of deforestation and climate change on the basin's runoff, and 2) to test the feasibility of using a semi-distributed hydrological model  for studying runoff of a low-slope river basin such as Jamari. We use a wide variety of data such as Landsat imagery, digital elevation data as well as conventional precipitatio...

  17. Study of calibration equations of {sup 137}Cs methodology for soil erosion determination; Estudo de equacoes de calibracao para metodologia do {sup 137}Cs de determinacao da erosao de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Elias Antunes dos

    2001-02-01

    Using the method of {sup 137} Cs and gamma-ray spectrometry, soil samples of two plots erosion were studied at Londrina city. the soil class studied was a dystrophic dark red soil (LRd), with erosion indexes measured by Agronomic Institute of Parana State (IAPAR) using a conventional method, since 1976. Through the percentage reduction of {sup 137} Cs related to the reference site, the soil losses were calculated using the proportional, mass balance and profile distribution models. Making the correlation between the {sup 137} Cs concentrations and the erosion measured by IAPAR, two calibration equations were obtained and applied to the data set measured in the basin of the Unda river and compared to those models in the literature. As reference region, was chosen a natural forest located close to the plots. The average inventory of {sup 137} Cs was 555{+-} 16 Bq.m{sup -2}. The inventories of the erosion plots varied from 112 to 136 Bq.m{sup -2} for samples collected until 30 cm depth. The erosion rates estimated by the models varied from 64 to 85 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} for the proportional and profile distribution models, respectively, and 137 to 165 ton.ha{sup -1} for the mass balance model, while the measured erosion obtained by IAPAR was 86 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}. From the two calibration equations obtained, the one that take into account the {sup 137} Cs distribution with the soil profile was that showed the best consistence with the erosion rated for the basin of the Unda river (same soil class) in the range from 4 to 48 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, while the proportional and profile distribution models applied rates from 7 to 45 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} and 6 to 69 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  18. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, H.G. de

    1980-01-01

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed [pt

  19. Soil sampling in emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de; Ramos Junior, Anthenor Costa

    1997-01-01

    The soil sampling methods used in Goiania's accident (1987) by the environmental team of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) are described. The development of this method of soil sampling to a emergency sampling method used in a Nuclear Emergency Exercise in Angra dos Reis Reactor Site (1991) is presented. A new method for soil sampling based on a Chernobyl environmental monitoring experience (1995) is suggested. (author)

  20. Relações entre o conhecimento de agricultores e de pedólogos sobre solos: estudo de caso em Rio Pardo de Minas, MG Relationships between local farmers' and pedologists' knowledge on soil science: A case study in Rio Pardo de Minas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Correia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um dos desafios para construção de modelos agrícolas que se referenciam pela sustentabilidade é a utilização de conhecimentos científicos adequados a singulares situações sociais. Para isso, é necessário considerar saberes acumulados por agricultores no espaço e no tempo. No caso do recurso 'solos', pouco desse saber é considerado no ensino em ciência do solo e nos trabalhos de pedologia. Por isso, a aplicação de tecnologias geradas com base no conhecimento científico é limitada quando destinada a grupos tradicionais, principalmente pela não-adequação às necessidades por eles reconhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma abordagem integrada entre os saberes de pedólogos e de agricultores, utilizando-se a hierarquização de ambientes no Cerrado pelos agricultores como ferramenta para compreender as bases sob as quais essa relação pode ocorrer. O estudo baseou-se em características ambientais e sociais da Comunidade Água Boa 2, em Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, onde, por trabalho de campo, foi possível analisar a terminologia local e, assim, descrever os ambientes, classificar as terras e constituir diálogos acerca do ambiente do Cerrado e dos solos.One of the challenges of constructing agricultural systems that aim to be sustainable, is the usage of scientific knowledge adapted to the peculiar social situation. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the knowledge that farmers accumulated over time and space. In the case of the soil resources, a modest amount of the local knowledge is considered in classrooms and in soil research. This is a constraint to the application of technologies based on local scientific knowledge involving traditional farmer groups, mainly because of the lack of adaptation to the needs they are aware of. The objective of this study is to show a new methodology that integrates the pedologists' and local farmers' knowledge. The traditional local hierarchy of environments in the Cerrado

  1. Advanced oxidation treatment of Abreu e Lima/PE Refinery soil contaminated by oil products; Estudo do tratamento por oxidacao avancada de solos da Refinaria de Abreu e Lima/PE contaminados por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniella Fartes dos Santos e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio Alves da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Celmy Maria B. de Menezes; Cavalcanti, Jorge Vinicius Fernandes Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Soil contamination by toxic organic compounds derived from petroleum is a serious environmental problem. Diesel is a petroleum derivative that being used in many transportation is subject to potential accidents and spills. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which are present in diesel are biorefractory, hydrophobic and recalcitrant, being known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. The soil is a combination of fragments of rocks, minerals, water, air and living things and is responsible for maintaining the cycle of water and nutrients and protection of groundwater. The advanced oxidation processes (POA) show good results with regard to the decontamination of polluted by oil derivatives. This work used as POA Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}) and photo-Fenton (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}/ UV) via the sodium percarbonate to decontaminate a soil sample contaminated with diesel oil. This work aimed to study the degradation of organic matter contained in the soil, carrying out 10 different experiments in duplicate, following an experimental design. The degradation of total organic carbon obtained exceeded 60% and degradation of some HPA's exceeded 80%. (author)

  2. Advanced oxidation treatment of Abreu e Lima/PE Refinery soil contaminated by oil products; Estudo do tratamento por oxidacao avancada de solos da Refinaria de Abreu e Lima/PE contaminados por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniella Fartes dos Santos e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio Alves da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Celmy Maria B. de Menezes; Cavalcanti, Jorge Vinicius Fernandes Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Soil contamination by toxic organic compounds derived from petroleum is a serious environmental problem. Diesel is a petroleum derivative that being used in many transportation is subject to potential accidents and spills. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which are present in diesel are biorefractory, hydrophobic and recalcitrant, being known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. The soil is a combination of fragments of rocks, minerals, water, air and living things and is responsible for maintaining the cycle of water and nutrients and protection of groundwater. The advanced oxidation processes (POA) show good results with regard to the decontamination of polluted by oil derivatives. This work used as POA Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}) and photo-Fenton (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}/ UV) via the sodium percarbonate to decontaminate a soil sample contaminated with diesel oil. This work aimed to study the degradation of organic matter contained in the soil, carrying out 10 different experiments in duplicate, following an experimental design. The degradation of total organic carbon obtained exceeded 60% and degradation of some HPA's exceeded 80%. (author)

  3. Tuberculose infantil: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaventura Antonio dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A tuberculose (TB infantil permanece como uma das doenças mais prevalentes e preocupantes no mundo, sobretudo em nações em desenvolvimento, onde as taxas são ainda mais elevadas e os casos descritos subestimados pela dificuldade em se estabelecer um diagnóstico definitivo. Dessa forma, este estudo tem como objetivo descrever o perfil clínico e epidemiológico dos pacientes com TB infantil pulmonar e extrapulmonar. Métodos: Foram avaliados retrospectivamente, através de questionário, pacientes com idade de até 15 anos, internados no Serviço de Pediatria do HCPA, no período de janeiro de 2002 a setembro de 2007.   Resultados: Dos 52 pacientes incluídos, 63% apresentavam TB pulmonar. Das formas extra-pulmonares, a meningoencefalite foi a mais prevalente (22%. Comorbidades foram dectadas em 31 (60% pacientes, dos quais 15 (29% apresentavam desnutrição grave, 9 (18% HIV positivo e 7 (13% pneumopatia crônica. Das manifestações clínicas, febre e tosse estavam presentes na maioria dos pacientes. O padrão radiológico predominante foi o de consolidação pulmonar (51%. A maioria dos pacientes referia história de contato com paciente bacilífero (64%. Conclusão: A TB pulmonar representa a principal forma de apresentação clínica da TB, sendo o diagnóstico feito de forma presuntiva na maioria dos casos. O diagnóstico baseado na comprovação bacteriológica foi obtido numa minoria de pacientes, demonstrando a importância dos achados clínico-laboratoriais, história epidemiológica e vacinal para o diagnóstico. Nesse sentido, a criação de escores tem se tornado uma ferramenta de fácil acesso e com razoável acurácia para auxiliar o diagnóstico de TB em serviços de baixa complexidade, especialmente o ambulatorial.

  4. Estimativa do balanço de radiação por sensoriamento remoto de diferentes usos de solo no sudoeste da Amazônia brasileira / Estimative of radiation balance by remote sensing of different soil uses in the brazilian southern Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in land use have motivated research on the dynamics of radiative and energy exchange in the Brazilian Amazon, which in turn cause demand for such data on the surface in spatial and temporal scales. While measuring these changes in micrometeorological towers provides punctual results, remote sensing provides accurate and low cost results to estimate them on a regional scale. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of estimates of net radiation and biophysical parameters from remote sensing in different land uses in southwestern Brazilian Amazon. Four sites were selected with soil covers by natural Amazon forest, Amazon managed forest, pasture and silvopastoral system. The net radiation and biophysical parameters (NDVI, leaf area index, albedo and radiometric temperature were estimated by the SEBAL algorithm, using images from the Landsat TM sensor 5 in July of 2009, 2010 and 2011. The NDVI, LAI, albedo and net radiation were higher in natural forest, followed by managed forest, grassland and silvopastoral system. Radiometric surface temperature were higher in the silvopastoral system followed by pasture, natural forest and managed forest.

  5. O q de Tobin e o Setor Siderúrgico: um estudo em companhias abertas brasileiras e norte-americanasTobin’s q and Iron and Steel Companies: a study of Brazilian and North-American open companiesEl q de Tobin y el Sector Siderúrgico: un estudio de las compañías abiertas brasileñas y norteamericanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOGUEIRA, Igor Vasconcelos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOModelos de avaliação de investimentos, que empregam medidas financeiras com base no mercado, como o q de Tobin, ainda são incipientes na literatura nacional. Assim, o presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar o comportamento do q de Tobin para Companhias Siderúrgicas Brasileiras e Norte-americanas, com ações negociadas na BOVESPA e NYSE, apresentando um estudo econométrico sobre alguns de seus principais determinantes macro e microeconômicos no período de 1997 a 2005. O q de Tobin calculado para as empresas brasileiras selecionadas apresentou-se crescente ao longo do período selecionado. Em relação ao q de Tobin para as empresas norte-americanas, verificou-se que este indicador foi menor que 1, demonstrando um desestímulo a novos investimentos. A análise econométrica realizada indicou que, as variáveis econômicas tais como a taxa de juros, a taxa de desemprego e o nível de produção industrial foram fatores de influência determinantes para explicar o comportamento do q de Tobin, tanto para as empresas brasileiras como para as empresas norte-americanas. Conclui-se que este indicador captura informações relevantes dos principais determinantes macro e microeconômicos do setor siderúrgico, destacando o seu potencial para a análise financeira deste setor.ABSTRACTModels for investment evaluation that employ financial measures based on the market such as Tobin's q, are still scarce in the national literature. Therefore, the present work aims to analyze the behavior of Tobin's q for Brazilian and North American iron and steel companies present in the stock market at BOVESPA and NYSE, by presenting an econometric study on some of its key macroeconomic and microeconomic determinants from 1997 to 2005. Tobin's q calculated for selected Brazilian companies revealed to be increasing over the selected period. Regarding Tobin’s q for U.S. companies, it was verified that such indicator was less than 1, thus pointing to a

  6. Brazilian women in politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  7. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  8. Entre a Arbitragem Brasileira e a Arbitragem Europeia: Um estudo acerca da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL e a Office of Comunications (OFCOM / Between the Brazilian and European Arbitration: A study of the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL and the Office of Communications (OFCOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Albenes Bezerra Júnior

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The demand for arbitration as a dispute resolution is important due to the large volume of cases to be adjudicated at the Judiciary system and its lack of technical expertise to do so. The topic of alternative dispute resolution is clouded with debates of how far should it go before interfering in the core functions of the Judiciary. Thus, this paper seeks to support the use of arbitration in the Brazilian telecommunications sector, inspired by the experience of OFCOM. Methodology/Approach/Design: The paper starts with a historical analysis on the institute of the arbitrage followed by its connection with the regulatory phenomenon in Brazil and Europe. The study format follows a comparative approach by identifying the main characteristics of arbitration in both Brazilian and European telecommunications models. Results: One of the duties of the regulatory agencies is precisely the solution of conflicts between players in the sector at the administrative level. When analyzing the forms of dispute resolution in the European Union, a peculiar behavior can be highlighted. In major disputes that occur on the continent, it is more common to use arbitration than the judiciary. In fact, arbitration can be used by ANATEL as an important tool to ensure a broad, free and fair competition between providers of telecommunications services, as it dodges the slowness of the judiciary and the possibility of sham litigations, enabling the rapid adoption of a decision that often affects the rights of a great number of users of telecommunications services. The high prestige enjoyed by these methods of dispute resolution pays homage to their characteristic of being a neutral forum positioned far from a regulatory agency of a specific country and close to referees chosen by common agreement, or even connected to international institutions that provide the arbitration services in commercial disputes.

  9. Análise da associação entre saneamento e saúde nos estados Brasileiros: estudo comparativo entre 2001 e 2006 Analysis of the association between sanitation and health in Brazilian states: comparative study in from 2001 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Em um contexto de baixo investimento em saneamento, Teixeira e Guilhermino (2006 estudaram a associação entre as condições de saneamento e os indicadores epidemiológicos nos estados brasileiros, utilizando dados secundários do banco de dados IDB (2003 do Ministério da Saúde. A partir de 2003, os investimentos em saneamento básico no Brasil aumentaram. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo testar a hipótese de que a ampliação da cobertura por serviços de saneamento básico no período entre 2001 e 2006 foi um investimento capaz de melhorar os indicadores de saúde nos estados brasileiros. Concluiu-se que houve melhoria nos indicadores de saúde, porém não-expressiva, sendo fundamental a utilização de indicadores epidemiológicos e de desenvolvimento social na decisão sobre a priorização de investimentos em saneamento no Brasil.In a context of poor investment in sanitation, Teixeira e Guilhermino (2006 studied the association between the sanitation conditions and the epidemiological indicators in the Brazilian states, based on secondary data from the database from IDB (2003 of the Ministry of Health. Since 2003, investments in basic sanitation in Brazil had an expressive increase. Thus, the present paper had as a purpose to test the hypothesis that the improvement in the coverage by basic sanitation services from 2001 to 2006 was an investment capable to improve the studied health indicators in the Brazilian states. It has been concluded that there was an improvement in the health indicators, which is still not expressive, being of the most importance the use of epidemiological and social development indicators in the priority of investments in basic sanitation in Brazil.

  10. A transferência de tecnologia universidade-empresa no contexto brasileiro: uma revisão de estudos científicos publicados entre os anos 2005 e 2009 University-industry technology transfer in the brazilian context: a review of scientific studies published from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Quadrado Closs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema da gestão da inovação e transferência de tecnologia (TT no contexto de interação universidade-empresa é relativamente novo no Brasil e emergente em âmbito internacional (REISMAN, 2005, assim, seus dados e teorias ainda se apresentam de modo fragmentado. Considerando essa fragilidade, este estudo objetivou identificar e analisar pesquisas recentes publicadas no Brasil sobre o tema, buscando contribuir para a consolidação desse corpo teórico. O trabalho, de cunho exploratório, revisou as pesquisas publicadas em periódicos nacionais entre 2005 e 2009, sob uma abordagem qualitativa. Os objetivos, métodos e principais resultados desses estudos foram sintetizados e discutidos. A análise coletiva desses trabalhos sugere que a cooperação universidade-empresa (U-E gera inovações, aprendizados e benefícios mútuos. Esta aponta ainda existir muito espaço para ampliar a transferência de tecnologia U-E. O estudo identificou os métodos usados nas pesquisas; motivadores, facilitadores e obstáculos ao processo; elementos das estruturas universitárias, bem como políticas das IES e do governo intervenientes no processo; características de empresas geradas a partir de spillovers acadêmicos; o papel social exercido pelas IES; diferentes formas de TT na interação U-E; lacunas de pesquisas e sugestões para a realização de estudos futuros.Innovation management and technology transfer (TT in the context of university-industry interaction is a relatively new topic in Brazil and an emerging field internationally (REISMAN, 2005; thus, the data and theories related to it are still presented in a fragmented way. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and analyze recent studies published in Brazil on the subject seeking to contribute to the consolidation of this theoretical framework. This exploratory study reviewed articles published in national journals between 2005 and 2009 using a qualitative approach. The goals, methods

  11. "Eu fui, voltei e ninguém viu": um estudo sobre a expectativa de carreira após a repatriação em uma empresa brasileira "I went, I got back, and nobody saw it": a study on the expected career after repatriation in a Brazilian company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalimar Gallon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available No mundo corporativo, estudos mostram que os repatriados, ou seja, profissionais expatriados que retornam da sua missão no exterior, tornam-se mais comprometidos com o desenvolvimento de sua carreira após uma experiência internacional. A expatriação agrega conhecimento e experiência profissional, o que pode ser relacionado, pelo repatriado, a uma possível ascensão de carreira ou a um melhor desempenho na organização. Entretanto, quando isso não ocorre, a frustração pode levá-lo a procurar outra empresa que valorize seus conhecimentos, sendo esse um dos grandes desafios empresariais: a retenção dos repatriados. Este estudo tem por propósito analisar a relação percebida entre repatriação e expectativas de carreira profissional por parte dos profissionais que tiveram ou estão tendo uma experiência profissional internacional pela empresa Alpha, organização de grande porte com presença em mais de 100 países e que mantém um processo de expatriação há 12 anos, em 9 países. Assim, foi realizado um estudo de caso com 21 entrevistas, discutidas mediante análise de conteúdo. Como principal achado deste estudo constata-se que os repatriados passam a dar mais valor ao seu desenvolvimento profissional, estabelecendo um maior vínculo consigo mesmos do que com a organização em que trabalham. Como existem falhas por parte da empresa em apresentar um planejamento para aproveitar a experiência desse empregado em posições que demandem mais responsabilidade, alguns entrevistados deixam de pensar em sua carreira dentro da empresa. Desse modo, abrem-se para a busca de outras oportunidades no mercado de trabalho. Por outro lado, os que buscam espaço dentro da organização acabam se percebendo enquanto "um problema" para a empresa.In the corporate world, studies show that the repatriates, i.e. expatriated professionals who return from their mission abroad, become more committed to the development of their career after an

  12. Are there priority competencies for preparation of accountants?: A study about Brazilian accountants ¿Existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador?: Un estudio sobre los contadores Existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador?: Um estudo sobre os contadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the need for priority of competencies in preparation of accountants as well as variations between men and women. This question is motivated by Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997, Moramed and Lashine (2003and IFAC (2003 with a theoretical foundation of competencies related to McClelland (1973, 1998 and Boyatzis (1982. Professional references are Hardern (1995, AICPA (1999 and IFAC (2003. It was based on 18 competencies that were collected from 24 articles for questions submitted to 159 accountants and the data collection instrument showed a 0.8774 Cronbach alpha. Replies were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test which showed a significance level of El objetivo principal de este estudio es verificar si existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador, como también analizar si esa prioridad se altera entre hombres y mujeres. Ese cuestionamiento tiene como motivación las observaciones de Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997 y IFAC (2003. El fundamento teórico sobre competencias está relacionado al estudio de McClelland (1973,1998, Boyatzis (1982 y Spencer y Spencer (1993. Los estudios relacionados a las competencias del contador no están basados en fundamentos de la Psicología y de Recursos Humanos, y ni siquiera en el análisis de estructuras genéricas de competencias o en la determinación de prioridades en el desarrollo de competencias de los contadores, esta última es el objetivo de este trabajo. La investigación está basada en el estudio de 18 competencias del contador y fue submetida a 159 contadores. El instrumento de recolección de los datos presentó un Alfa de Cronbach de 0,8774. A partir de las respuestas se realizó el test de Kruskal-Wallis, que demostró un nivel de significancia O objetivo principal deste estudo é verificar se existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador, bem como analisar se essa prioridade se altera entre homens e mulheres. Esse

  13. Brazilian research on extremophiles in the context of astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rubens T. D.; Nóbrega, Felipe; Nakayama, Cristina R.; Pellizari, Vivian H.

    2012-10-01

    Extremophiles are organisms adapted to grow at extreme ranges of environmental variables, such as high or low temperatures, acid or alkaline medium, high salt concentration, high pressures and so forth. Most extremophiles are micro-organisms that belong to the Archaea and Bacteria domains, and are widely spread across the world, which include the polar regions, volcanoes, deserts, deep oceanic sediments, hydrothermal vents, hypersaline lakes, acid and alkaline water bodies, and other extreme environments considered hostile to human life. Despite the tropical climate, Brazil has a wide range of ecosystems which include some permanent or seasonally extreme environments. For example, the Cerrado is a biome with very low soil pH with high Al+3 concentration, the mangroves in the Brazilian coast are anaerobic and saline, Pantanal has thousands of alkaline-saline lakes, the Caatinga arid and hot soils and the deep sea sediments in the Brazilian ocean shelf. These environments harbour extremophilic organisms that, coupled with the high natural biodiversity in Brazil, could be explored for different purposes. However, only a few projects in Brazil intended to study the extremophiles. In the frame of astrobiology, for example, these organisms could provide important models for defining the limits of life and hypothesize about life outside Earth. Brazilian microbiologists have, however, studied the extremophilic micro-organisms inhabiting non-Brazilian environments, such as the Antarctic continent. The experience and previous results obtained from the Brazilian Antarctic Program (PROANTAR) provide important results that are directly related to astrobiology. This article is a brief synopsis of the Brazilian experience in researching extremophiles, indicating the most important results related to astrobiology and some future perspectives in this area.

  14. The southern Brazilian grassland biome: soil carbon stocks, fluxes of greenhouse gases and some options for mitigation Campos do sul do Brasil: estoques de carbono no solo, fluxos de gases de efeito estufa e algumas opções para mitigação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VD Pillar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The southern Brazilian grassland biome contains highly diverse natural ecosystems that have been used for centuries for grazing livestock and that also provide other important environmental services. Here we outline the main factors controlling ecosystem processes, review and discuss the available data on soil carbon stocks and greenhouse gases emissions from soils, and suggest opportunities for mitigation of climatic change. The research on carbon and greenhouse gases emissions in these ecosystems is recent and the results are still fragmented. The available data indicate that the southern Brazilian natural grassland ecosystems under adequate management contain important stocks of organic carbon in the soil, and therefore their conservation is relevant for the mitigation of climate change. Furthermore, these ecosystems show a great and rapid loss of soil organic carbon when converted to crops based on conventional tillage practices. However, in the already converted areas there is potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by using cropping systems based on no soil tillage and cover-crops, and the effect is mainly related to the potential of these crop systems to accumulate soil organic carbon in the soil at rates that surpass the increased soil nitrous oxide emissions. Further modelling with these results associated with geographic information systems could generate regional estimates of carbon balance.Os campos do sul do Brasil são ecossistemas naturais com alta diversidade e têm sido há séculos importantes para a atividade pastoril e para outros importantes serviços ambientais. Este trabalho aponta os principais fatores que controlam os processos ecossistêmicos, revisa e discute os dados disponíveis sobre os estoques de carbono no solo e as emissões de gases de efeito estufa dos solos, e sugere oportunidades de mitigação das mudanças climáticas. A pesquisa sobre as emissões de carbono e gases de efeito estufa nos campos do

  15. The Brazilian Twin Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Paulo H; Oliveira, Vinicius C; Junqueira, Daniela R; Cisneros, Lígia C; Ferreira, Lucas C; Murphy, Kate; Ordoñana, Juan R; Hopper, John L; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-12-01

    The Brazilian Twin Registry (BTR) was established in 2013 and has impelled twin research in South America. The main aim of the initiative was to create a resource that would be accessible to the Brazilian scientific community as well as international researchers interested in the investigation of the contribution of genetic and environmental factors in the development of common diseases, phenotypes, and human behavior traits. The BTR is a joint effort between academic and governmental institutions from Brazil and Australia. The collaboration includes the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil, the University of Sydney and University of Melbourne in Australia, the Australian Twin Registry, as well as the research foundations CNPq and CAPES in Brazil. The BTR is a member of the International Network of Twin Registries. Recruitment strategies used to register twins have been through participation in a longitudinal study investigating genetic and environmental factors for low back pain occurrence, and from a variety of sources including media campaigns and social networking. Currently, 291 twins are registered in the BTR, with data on demographics, zygosity, anthropometrics, and health history having been collected from 151 twins using a standardized self-reported questionnaire. Future BTR plans include the registration of thousands of Brazilian twins identified from different sources and collaborate nationally and internationally with other research groups interested on twin studies.

  16. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  17. Os espaços para a educação física no ensino secundário paranaense: um estudo comparativo entre os anos finais da ditadura varguista e os anos da ditadura militar brasileira pós 1964 The spaces for physical education on the secondary education in Paraná: a comparative study between the final years of the Vargas dictatorship and years of Brazilian military dictatorship after 1964

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Aurélio Taborda de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo comparativo pretendemos contemplar os diversos entendimentos e as diversas prescrições para a Educação Física escolar na segunda metade da década de 1940, e na primeira metade dos anos 70 do século passado no Estado do Paraná, Brasil. Como fonte privilegiamos as Diretrizes para a Educação Física nos Estabelecimentos de Ensino Secundário, de 1947, além de depoimentos de professores escolares e alguns números da Revista Brasileira de Educação Física e Desportos, dos anos 70. Nosso foco está centrado na redefinição das prescrições curriculares no que se refere ao espaço apropriado para as aulas daquela disciplina, tenham sido ou não edificados, mas que configurariam uma nova forma de conceber o ensino da disciplina, na segunda metade do séc. XX, fortemente ancorado nas práticas esportivas. Mais do que afirmar a máxima de que "o espaço educa e conforma", apresentamos como essas mudanças aconteceram pelo menos no âmbito das prescrições relacionadas à disciplina de Educação Física, ajudando a redefinir o seu sentido dentro da escola secundária brasileira. Trata-se, assim, de perspectivar a reconfiguração do espaço tanto quanto os seus usos possíveis, autorizados ou não. Nossas análises concluem que muitas recomendações que propalavam a redefinição espacial da Educação Física foram plenamente desenvolvidas, indicando assim que a disciplina ganharia um "espaço" próprio novo e mais vigoroso dentro dos diversos e plurais espaços da instituição escolar, até mesmo pelo grande volume de recursos financeiros envolvidos na sua efetivação.This comparative study intends to analyze some understandings and prescriptions of the Physical Education subject in the second half of the 1940's and the first half of 1970's in the state of Paraná, Brazil. This study uses as sources the Diretrizes para a Educação Física nos Estabelecimentos de Ensino Secundário, from 1947, some testimonies of school

  18. Uso de geoprocessamento na estimativa da perda de solo em microbacia hidrográfica do semiárido brasileiro.= Applied geoprocessing for soil loss estimation in a Brazilian semiarid watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Guerreiro Chaves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays soil loss by erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems which has caused the degradation of various resources, especially soil and water. The aim of this study was to predict the soil loss due to erosion at a small watershed sited in Semiarid region of Ceara State, Brazil, through an arrangement of Geographic Information System tools with a quantitative model of soil loss, by the Universal Soil Loss Equation, USLE. The watershed delimitation was performed using the Digital Elevation Model. The density of drainage network was estimated using the extension ArcHydro/ArcMap 9.1. The soil loss in 74% of the studied small watershed presents a value smaller than 11 t ha-1 year-1 in more plain and vegetated areas. It was observe that more than 90% of the area presented a soil loss below 37 t ha-1 year-1, being this characteristic very influenced by the local geography, which is smooth and low sloped in more than 83% of the area of the small watershed. 66% of the area presents a low vulnerability to erosion (<10 t ha-1 year-1, being associated to this region cover vegetation and low values of slope factors. The integrated use of GIS and USLE has allowed a fast and dynamic analysis of the study area, beyond identifying most vulnerable areas to the soil loss process within the basin.

  19. PERCEPÇÕES E CONSUMO DE JOVENS UNIVERSITÁRIAS BRASILEIRAS EM RELAÇÃO AO LEITE FLUIDO INDUSTRIALIZADO: UM ESTUDO DE CASO Perceptions and consumption among Brazilian young female university students in relation to industrialized fluid milk: the case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. SAMPAIO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, entre jovens universitárias, as crenças, atitudes e hábitos de consumo de leites fluidos (pasteurizados tipo A, B e C e leite longa vida comercializados no Brasil. Para o estudo de crenças e atitudes, utilizou-se escala Likert de atitude. Avaliou-se também, através da aplicação do inquérito recordatório 24 horas, o consumo de cálcio, fósforo, protéico e calórico. Participaram da pesquisa 291 universitárias da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. O leite consumido pela maioria das jovens (79% foi o longa vida, percebido por elas como microbiologicamente seguro, de bom sabor e qualidade. O leite pasteurizado tipo C foi percebido como sendo de baixa qualidade tanto em termos sensoriais como microbiológicos e nutricionais; sendo consumido por 2% das entrevistadas. O consumo de leite revelou-se baixo frente às recomendações, sendo que somente 20% das entrevistadas informaram consumir a desejável quantidade de um copo de leite (230ml de duas a três vezes ao dia. O consumo médio de cálcio encontrado foi de 737,2 mg/dia, o de fósforo 954,5 mg/dia, o protéico 83,4 g/dia e o calórico 1752,2 Kcal/dia. O estudo revelou a necessidade de um trabalho de educação nutricional para a aquisição de conhecimentos e mudança de hábitos cotidianos.

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the attitudes (beliefs and opinions and consumption habits in relation to the fluid milks marketed in Brazil among young female university students. The consumption of calcium, phosphorus, protein and calorie was also evaluated using the 24- hour recall. As for beliefs and attitudes, the Likert scale of attitude was used. A panel of 291 female university students from the State University of Campinas took part in

  20. The transforming role of education in reducing the perception of risk and the implementation of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor: a case study; O papel transformador da educação na diminuição da percepção de risco e a implementação do Reator Multipropósito Brasileiro: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alex de A.; Ayllon, Rafaella Menezes; Farias, Luciana A., E-mail: adac_vpdc_mfgac@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de São Paulo (USP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas

    2017-07-01

    Nuclear technology has been very successful when related to energy, radioisotopes production and scientific research. However, it did not obtain the same success from socio-political point of view, going through periods of strong public rejection, especially after adverse events related to nuclear issues. In Brazil, the first Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) will be implemented in the municipality of Iperó - SP, for which it is important to have the support of the local population and knowledge about the project. Mainly because the RMB is intended to produce radioisotopes for application in health and industry, therefore, with strong social appeal. However, despite the achievement of three public hearings in the municipalities of Iperó, Sorocaba and São Paulo, there was little involvement of the region's schools in this debate, reflecting on the important role that education can have in reducing the perception of risk and the attitude of the population in relation to the issue. Through the application of semi-structured questionnaire answered by teachers, coordinators, deputy directors and directors of the public school network of the Municipality, it was observed that the participants have a high risk perception and a negative social representation, as well as there was no interaction of the people in charge of the RMB with the schools, who said they did not know the project. We believe that the school has a fundamental role to raise awareness and inform, and can change this reality, together with the implementation of some public policies.

  1. A hydrological-modeling study of the impact of land use/land cover and climate change on runoff in a watershed in the western Brazilian Amazonia | Um estudo de modelagem hidrológica do impacto do uso da terra / cobertura da terra e mudanças climáticas ..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranyere Silva Nóbrega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigate the effect of land use and land cover in the Jamari sub river basin, located in the Brazilian Amazonian. The objective is twofold: 1 to study the impact of deforestation and climate change on the basin's runoff, and 2 to test the feasibility of using a semi-distributed hydrological model  for studying runoff of a low-slope river basin such as Jamari. We use a wide variety of data such as Landsat imagery, digital elevation data as well as conventional precipitation and near-surface data. We defined scenarios ranging from a completely forested basin to a completely man-modified one. In addition, we tested realistic scenarios for the ongoing deforestation process with 20% and 30% deforestation and tested scenarios hypothetic for climate change.  Our scenarios suggest that for extreme and realistic scenarios there is an increase of runoff when deforestation occurs, since less water is intercepted in canopy, evapotranspiration and groundwater tends to decrease with deforestation. In climate change scenarios, increase temperature and precipitation tends to increase evapotranspiration and runoff and, increase temperature and decrease precipitation tend to increase evapotranspiration and decrease runoff and groundwater. The results suggest that Semi-distributed Land Use-based Runoff Processes (SLURP is suitable for use in the Jamari sub river basin with the advantage of being a light model, in terms of internal parameters. The proposed methodology is suitable for use in other basins of the region.

  2. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre algumas propriedades fisico-mecanicas de madeiras usadas em patrimonios artisticos e culturais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  3. Unconventional sexual behaviors and their associations with physical, mental and sexual health parameters: a study in 18 large Brazilian cities Comportamentos sexuais não convencionais e associações com parâmetros de saúde física, mental e sexual: um estudo em 18 grandes cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Mendes de Oliveira Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There have been many studies investigating paraphilias and sexual compulsion, but thus far little data about prevalence of unusual sexual practices that are subthreshold for these diagnoses. The associations between unconventional sexual behavior and sociodemographic and health parameters were investigated. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 7,022 individuals (45.4% of women was carried out using a selfadministered questionnaire that compared individuals carrying at least one reference of unconventional sexual behavior (group 1 with individuals without such reference (group 2. RESULTS: Women's mean age was 35.0 vs. 35.9 years (p OBJETIVO: Pesquisadores têm conduzido vários estudos relacionados a parafilias e compulsão sexual, mas há poucos dados sobre a prevalência de práticas sexuais não usuais que são subliminares para estes diagnósticos. Foi investigada a associação entre comportamento sexual não convencional e parâmetros sociodemográficos e de saúde. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, de 7.022 indivíduos (54,6% de homens, realizado por meio de questionário autorresponsivo, comparou indivíduos com pelo menos um comportamento sexual não convencional (grupo 1 e indivíduos sem esta refer��ncia (grupo 2. RESULTADOS: A idade média das mulheres (35,0 vs. 35,9 anos; p < 0,05 e dos homens (36,5 vs. 37,8 anos; p < 0,05 foi menor no grupo 1 do que no grupo 2, respectivamente. Mais homens (52,3% que mulheres (30,4% (p < 0,001 apresentaram comportamento sexual não convencional. Comportamentofetichista (13,4% evoyeurista(13,0% foramosmaisfrequentes. Comportamento sexual não convencional foi associado com: gênero masculino; estado civil solteiro e separado; raça negra e parda; nível educacional médio e fundamental; histórico de tratamento para transtorno do estresse pós-traumático; dependência por álcool; contracepção de emergência; dificuldade no início da vida sexual; violência sexual sofrida; bissexualidade

  4. Dyslipidemia and the risk of incident hypertension in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging Dislipidemia e risco de incidência de hipertensão em uma população de idosos Brasileiros vivendo em comunidade: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of lipid parameters for incident hypertension in elderly living in a community. The study included 306 (81% from total persons aged > 60 years who were free of hypertension and of cardiovascular diseases at the baseline survey of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. The cumulative incidence of hypertension over three years was 37.3%. The relative risk (RR of incident hypertension decreased 0.92 for each unit of HDL-cholesterol (95%CI: 0.86-0.99 independent of several potential confounding factors. Individuals with HDL-cholesterol in the top tercile (> 55mg/dL had a risk of hypertension halve that those in the bottom tercile (RR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.33-0.90. Other lipid parameters had no significant effect on the outcome. High HDL-cholesterol showed an independent protective effect on subsequent development of hypertension in the elderly.O objetivo do estudo foi examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos para a incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total pessoas com idade > 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí. A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37.3%. O risco relativo (RR para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC95%: 0,86-0,99, independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (> 55mg/dL apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC95%: 0,33-0,90. Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.

  5. Aggregate stability in soils cultivated with eucalyptus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eucalyptus cultivation has increased in many Brazilian regions. In order to recommend good management practices, it is necessary to understand changes in soil properties where eucalyptus is planted. Aggregate stability analyses have proved to be a useful tool to measure soil effects caused by change...

  6. 137 Cs and 90 Sr in marine samples from Brazilian southern coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, Jose Marcus; Carvalho, Zenildo L.; Pereira, Jose Carlos A.; Pereira, Wagner S.; Ferreira, Ana Cristina M.; Fernandes, Flavio C.; Danelon, Olga M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper are presented the results related to monitoring program of Cs-137 and Sr-90 distribution in marine ecosystem from Brazilian southern coast. This program is performed together Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN/MCT) and the Instituto de Estudos do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, aiming the evaluation of artificial radionuclide contents present in marine samples. The program, have started in experimental character in 1996 and became a routine program, carried out yearly

  7. Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (1956-2000). A case study under the science, technology and brazilian culture history; Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (1956-2000). Um estudo de caso a luz da historia da ciencia, da tecnologia e da cultura brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Ana Maria Pinho Leite

    2003-07-01

    We analysed a period of the contemporary Brazilian history with the aim to discuss the inter-relationship between science, technology (S and T) and culture in a developing country, showing as a background for a case of study the history of the 'Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares'. The history of Science and Technology, as a result of the human brain ability of innovate using the resources offered by nature, it is not only the description of successive findings carried out by talented men. It is a reflex of determined age of history as a consequence of accumulated knowledge connected also to human and cultural relationships, which together leads to the scientific and technological progress. In fact, the human brain and society march along together and can not be separated in this journey. In our study we recovered the initial steps of IPEN's outbreak; inserted its achievements in the context of the national policy for nuclear technology and evaluated how this policy was a reply of the governmental organizations to the worldwide situation. Finally, we spread the scientific ideas and technological findings of this institution, who has translate much of the life style and culture of our society. For this purposes, we analysed internal technical report series elaborated by several researchers and few testimonies. The Institution developed the fuel cycle technology, supplied radioisotopes for medical diagnosis and treatment purposes, generating economic resources for our country. The nuclear techniques are a relevant tool for researchers of this Institution applied for several purposes, including the assessment of the radioactivity levels in the environment, radioprotection, etc. Besides those applications, other techniques including the laser technology, the fuel cell, corrosion studies, etc, were implemented as a result of the improved capabilities and skills acquired during the almost 50 years of the Institute's existence. We make

  8. Death study of Spartina alteniflora in a phyto remediation process with landfarming soil; Estudo da mortalidade da Spartina alteniflora no processo de fitorremediacao em solo 'landfarming'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Thayna M. Brandao; Viana, Francine; Machado, Maria Isabel; Baisch, Paulo; Costa, Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil pollution and its products is, nowadays, the major preoccupation of modern society, the environmentalists and, predominantly, the companies, because, beside loose money, the pollute companies can be pressed by the society and damage their image. Therefore, many techniques to repair oil impacted environments have being studied and improved. Into the most utilized techniques, phyto remediation, technique that uses vegetable species to make the process of degradation of oil organic and inorganic components faster, is a good alternative, because it's cheaper and the risk of second contamination is lower. In an acclimatized greenhouse, were transplanted in a landfarming soil, samples of a salt marsh specie, Spartina alteniflora, a very common specie in South of Brazil. The experiment had duration of 90 days and for about 20% of the samples died, three times the value of the control experiment. The conclusion of this paper is that even with high values of mortality, this salt marsh specie is very strong and can be use in remediation processes. (author)

  9. Hydrological studies in Brazilian Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried on as a result of collaboration between the Federal University of Ceara, Brazil (research team) and the Brazilian Northeastern Bank (financing agency), aiming at a better knowledge of the hydrological problems of Brazilian Northeastern region, are described. (I.C.R.) [pt

  10. Brazilian Portuguese Ethnonymy and Europeanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Delineates the incorporation and analyzes the impact of European borrowings in Brazilian racio-ethnic terminology. This overview covers French, Italian, Spanish, and English influences. Borrowings from European languages have had a small impact on the calculus of Brazilian racio-ethnic terms. (43 references) (Author/CK)

  11. Managing migration: the Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  12. Representações sociais e hanseníase em São Domingos do Capim: um estudo de caso na Amazônia Social representations and hansen's disease in São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará: a study in brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Umbelina Ferreira de Almeida Lins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as representações sociais da hanseníase em São Domingos do Capim-PA, a partir da perspectiva da antropologia da doença. As representações são compreendidas como estruturas dinâmicas socialmente construídas que fundamentam as ações dos sujeitos e dos grupos na resolução dos episódios de doença e na produção de sentido para as experiências de adoecimento. Para compreender a lógica das interpretações da doença, foram reconstituídos os itinerários terapêuticos dos doentes, a partir de dados coletados na observação de campo, realizada ao longo de quatro anos, e entrevistas narrativas com doentes, familiares e agentes comunitários de saúde. Foram deduzidas quatro categorias nosológicas êmicas referentes aos sintomas da hanseníase - "manchas", "lepra", "feitiço" e "hanseníase" -, que constituem o repertório a partir do qual as interpretações e práticas são formuladas. O uso das diferentes categorias ocorre segundo esquemas locais que permitem a avaliação dos contextos pessoal e social de irrupção da doença numa dinâmica que articula as percepções do doente e de seus familiares, as interpretações e diagnósticos de curadores tradicionais e a abordagem dos profissionais da Biomedicina. O estudo mostra que o repertório interpretativo e os meios terapêuticos da Biomedicina são reinterpretados, pelos doentes, segundo a lógica das representações e das práticas locais de saúde, e que o controle da endemia hansênica pressupõe a compreensão das dinâmicas sociais implicadas nas interpretações e práticas da doença, de forma a possibilitar o estabelecimento de uma relação dialógica entre os profissionais de saúde e os atores locais.This study analyzes the social representations of Hansen's disease in São Domingos do Capim-PA, from the perspective of the anthropology of disease. The representations are understood as socially constructed dynamic structures that underlie the

  13. Prevalência de internação hospitalar e fatores associados: um estudo de base populacional em um centro urbano no Sul do Brasil Prevalence and factors associated with hospital admissions in a population-based study in a southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Garbinato

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo transversal investiga a utilização de serviços hospitalares e fatores associados em indivíduos com 14 anos ou mais em Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram entrevistados 1.954 indivíduos de 40 setores censitários. A prevalência de internação hospitalar no período de um ano foi de 9,4%. Na análise ajustada para as demais variáveis, as que permaneceram associadas a uma maior chance de hospitalização foram: idade de 60 anos ou mais (RP = 4,14; IC95%: 2,07-8,25, realização de consulta médica nos últimos dois meses (RP = 2,79; IC95%: 2,03-3,83, a ocorrência de dois ou mais eventos estressantes (RP = 1,83; IC95%: 1,19-2,80. A renda individual, de 2,10 salários mínimos ou mais, esteve associada a uma menor chance de hospitalização (RP = 0,60; IC95%: 0,41-0,87. A prevalência de internações encontrada é compatível com outros estudos. A maior prevalência de hospitalização nos grupos de menor nível sócio-econômico pode indicar um menor acesso aos serviços de atenção básica. Outros fatores envolvidos poderiam ser a maior morbidade e severidade da doença entre os grupos mais pobres. Salienta-se a importância de investigar a relação entre eventos estressantes e morbidade.This cross-sectional study investigates the use of health services and associated factors in individuals > 14 years of age in Canoas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. 1,954 persons were interviewed in 40 census tracts. One-year prevalence of hospital admissions was 9.4%. Adjusted data analysis showed that hospitalization was associated with: age > 60 years (RP = 4.14; 95% CI: 2.07-8.25, physician visit in the previous two months (RP = 2.79; 95%CI: 2.03-3.83, and > 2 stressful life events (RP = 1.83; 95%CI: 1.19-2.80. Individual income of > 2.10 times the prevailing minimum wage was associated with decreased likelihood of hospitalization (RP = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.41-0.87. Prevalence of hospital admissions was consistent with other studies. Higher

  14. Radioprotection in Brazilian universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero, K.C.; Borges, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to obtain a broad knowledge of the circumstances under which activities involving ionizing radiations are held at brazilian academic institutions. Around 90 institutions (universities and isolated schools of both public and private sectors) were invited, by mail, to answer an inquiry with questions from technical to legal aspects of their activities with radiations. Information received from 2/3 of institutions contacted, permitted conclusions as: there is a wide ignorance about radioprotection procedures and legislation, although few universities maintain some efficient radioprotection staff; there is a need for the establishment of a standard radioprotection text dedicated to those specific activities of the sector. (author)

  15. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.A.M. de.

    1975-01-01

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  16. Análise da complexidade, estratégias e aprendizagem em projetos de melhoria contínua: estudos de caso em empresas brasileiras Analysis of complexity, strategies, and learning organization in continuous improvement processes: case studies in brazilian companies

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    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar projetos de melhoria contínua desenvolvidos por empresas industriais brasileiras com base na abordagem/programa da Manutenção Produtiva Total (Total Productive Maintenance, TPM e da Qualidade Total (Total Quality Management, TQM. As variáveis estudadas nas análises dos projetos foram as seguintes: i complexidade dos projetos; ii seus objetivos específicos; iii as estratégias competitivas relacionadas; iv o aprendizado organizacional obtido; e v as ferramentas e os principais pilares do TPM implementados. Selecionou-se para estudo projetos considerados de sucesso por suas empresas. Ao todo, analisaram-se 42 projetos de 12 diferentes empresas que representaram diversos segmentos industriais do Brasil. Os resultados indicaram correspondência entre a natureza do projeto, em termos da sua complexidade e estrutura organizacional, com a estratégia competitiva adotada.This paper analyses the major goals and results of TPM and TQM processes in companies that adopt these approaches. The main variables considered in this study were: i complexity of the projects developed by the companies; ii projects´ specific goals iii relationship between the projects and the company's strategy; iv relationship between projects and continuous improvement and organizational learning; v tools and TPM concepts that support the projects. A descriptive research was carried out using field research strategies. Forty-two processes adopted by 12 companies were analyzed in this study. The processes implemented were considered successful by the companies that adopt them and by outside specialists. The results indicated close relationship between the project`s nature (its complexity and team structure and the company`s strategy, project goals and organizational learning.

  17. Estudo comparativo de cultivares de trigo em latossolo roxo no estado de São Paulo em 1974 A comparative study on wheat cultivars on latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils in the state of São Paulo in 1974

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    João Carlos Felício

    1976-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi executado com o propósito de estudar o comportamento de diferentes cultivares de trigo, em latossolo roxo na região tritícola do Vale do Paranapanema no Estado de São Paulo. Foram instalados três experimentos em 1974. Os cultivares IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 e Pitic-62 foram os que apresentaram maior produtividade por unidade de área; os cultivares IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, Triticum agropyrum, Tobari-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67 e Super X mostraram-se resistentes às raças prevalentes de ferrugem do colmo. Os cultivares Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkirk, IRN-152-63 e Triticum agropyrum mostraram-se resistentes à ferrugem da folha, e BH-1146, IAC-5, IAC-11, LA-1434, T. agropyrum e IRN-152-63 foram suscetíveis ao acamamento.Selected germplasms of wheat were tested for yield potential and resistance to rusts and cultivar trials in the State of São Paulo. Performance was evaluated in several locations in 1974 in the wheat area of the State on Latossolic B "Terra Roxa" soils. The cultivars IRN-526-63, IAS-55, Sonora-63, BH-1146, IAS-54, Londrina, LA-1434 and Pitic-62 showed superior performance for yield. The cultivars IAC-5, Sonora-63, Sonora-64 x Selkink, Triticum agropyrum, Tobai-66, IAC-11, Sonora-64, Norteno-67, and Super X showed better resistance to stem rust. The cultivars Super X, Sonora-64 x Selkink, IRN-152,63, and Triticum agropyrum, were more resistant to leaf rust. The cultivars BH-1146, IAC-5, Triticum agropyrum, IRN-152-62, LA-1434 and IAC-11 were susceptible to lay.

  18. Sistemas de classificações geotécnicas de solos: estudo de caso aplicado à rodovia não pavimentada vcs 346, Viçosa, MG Geotechnical soil classification systems: case study applied to the vcs 346 unpaved road, Viçosa, MG

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    Taciano Oliveira da Silva

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda uma contribuição às classificações geotécnicas tradicionais de solos Unified Soil Classification System (USC, Transportation Research Board System (TRB e a Metodologia Miniatura, Compactado, Tropical (MCT para um caso aplicado à rodovia municipal não pavimentada VCS 346, no Município de Viçosa, MG, considerando-se várias amostras deformadas de solos coletadas no subleito da referida via. Os principais objetivos deste estudo residem na contribuição de um banco de dados geotécnicos sobre classificações de solos tropicais, bem como na verificação de possíveis agrupamentos entre os sistemas geotécnicos tradicionais de classificação e a metodologia MCT. O programa de laboratório envolveu a realização dos seguintes ensaios: (i granulometria conjunta; (ii limites de Atterberg (LL e LP; (iii massa específica dos grãos do solo; (iv compactação Mini-MCV; e (v perda de massa do corpo-de-prova por imersão em água. Os resultados possibilitaram verificar que, após a classificação das amostras, vários agrupamentos entre os sistemas de classificações geotécnicas tradicionais coincidiram com aqueles já apresentados na metodologia MCT e, considerando a pedogênese da região de Viçosa, MG, para o grupo NG', houve a contribuição dos grupos SC, SM e CL do Sistema USC e do grupo A-4 do Sistema TRB.This paper addresses a contribution to the traditional geotechnical soil classifications systems USC (Unified Soil Classification and TRB (Transportation Research Board, and the MCT methodology (Miniature, Compacted, Tropical applied to a case study involving the laboratory geotechnical characterization of disturbed samples from the subgrade of the VCS 346 municipal unpaved road, located in Viçosa - MG. The main goals of this study are to contribute to the formation of a database directed to the geotechnical classification of tropical soils as well as to verify possible groupings among the traditional

  19. Análise de desempenho econômico da produção orgânica de leite: estudo de caso no Distrito Federal Assessment of economic performance of organic milk production: case study in the brazilian federal district

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    Andréa Amaral Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar economicamente a produção orgânica de leite. Para esta avaliação foram utilizados os dados obtidos em uma propriedade certificada como orgânica, localizada no Distrito Federal, durante os períodos de 2002 e 2003. A Renda Líquida (RL por litro de leite foi positiva no ano de 2002 e negativa no de 2003, considerando-se o preço do leite a R$ 0,40/ L, (preço histórico pago ao produtor de leite convencional na região, apresentando resultados positivos com o preço simulado de R$ 0,80/L (preço pago aos produtores orgânicos nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Os índices de produtividade foram semelhantes aos observados nas propriedades convencionais. A produção orgânica de leite pode ser uma alternativa economicamente viável para a pecuária, desde que haja uma remuneração superior à praticada para o leite convencional.The objective of the present work is the economical analysis of the organic milk production. For this evaluation, statistics from a farm with organic certificate located in the Brazilian Federal District were appraised, during the period of 2002 and 2003. The Net Operating Revenue (NOR displayed a positive general average per liter of milk for 2002 and a negative average for 2003, considering the milk price at R$ 0.40/l (this being the historical price of the conventional milk in that region, presenting positive results at the simulated price of R$ 0.80/l (this being the common price of organic milk marketed at Southeast and South regions. The productivity indicators were similar to those observed for traditional properties. The organic milk production may become an economically practicable alternative for the national cattle farming, as long as the remuneration stays higher than that practiced for the conventional milk.

  20. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

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    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The

  1. Educação do corpo feminino: um estudo na Revista Brasileira de Educação Física (1944-1950 Education of female body: a study in the Brazilian magazine of physical education (1944-1950

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    Marcelo Moraes e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os discursos especializados sobre o corpo feminino vinculados a um importante periódico da Educação Física brasileira da década de 40: "A Revista Brasileira de Educação Física". As práticas corporais e desportivas eram vistas como conquistas para as mulheres, mas ao mesmo tempo podiam colocar em risco o projeto de "ordem" e "progresso" e a própria representação de feminilidade vigente. Então, foram colocadas em ação várias retóricas discursivas que apontavam restrições à inserção feminina neste universo. A principal justificativa apresentada nas páginas da revista era o fator biológico, baseado principalmente nas diferenças anatômicas e fisiológicas, bem como em um excessivo medo da virilização da mulher. A título de conclusão, o trabalho aponta que, apesar das enormes limitações impostas às mulheres dentro das práticas corporais e desportivas, o seu ingresso neste universo representou uma conquista devido ao fato da sua saída do espaço privado do lar e entrada na esfera pública.This study aims to analyze the specialized discourses about the female body coupled to an important magazine for the Brazilian Physical Education in the 1940's: "A Revista Brasileira de Educação Física". The body and sporting practices used to be seen as achievements for women, but at the same time they could endanger the project of "order" and "progress" and also the femininity representation in force. Thus, several rhetorical discourses were put into action, which showed restrictions on the female participation in this universe. The main justification presented in the pages of the magazine was the biological factor, based on anatomical and physiological differences, and on an excessive fear of the virilization of women. In conclusion, this work shows that, despite the limitations imposed on women within the corporal and sporting practices, their entrance in this universe represented

  2. The Brazilian Bolsa Escola

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    Rachel Cassidy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bolsa Escola (‘school stipend’ and its successor the Bolsa Familia (‘family stipend’ schemes have formed a crucial and successful part of Brazil’s welfare program. Bolsa Escola provided aid to Brazil’s poorest families on the condition that their children attended school, and Bolsa Familia has extended this idea, giving aid on the condition that children both attend school and receive vaccinations. Bolsa Familia is currently the largest Conditional Cash Transfer Program (CCTP in the world, costing roughly 0.5% of Brazilian GDP and helping around 11.2 million families (around 44 million Brazilians, constituting roughly one fifth of the population. Multilateral institutions have praised the schemes, and they are setting a leading example to other developing nations. In 2005, Paul Wolfowitz (former president of the World Bank said, ‘Bolsa Familia has already become a highly praised model of effective social policy. Countries around the world are drawing lessons from Brazil’s experience and are trying to produce the same results for their own people’.

  3. Fracionamento densimétrico com politungstato de sódio no estudo da proteção física da matéria orgânica em solos Densimetric fractionation with sodium polytungstate to investigate physical protection of soil organic matter

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    Paulo Cesar Conceição

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento físico densimétrico é uma técnica que permite estudar a proteção física da matéria orgânica (MO no solo, sendo utilizadas, de forma indistinta, soluções densas de iodeto de sódio (NaI e de politungstato de sódio (PTS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar (a o efeito de soluções de NaI (1,8 g cm-3 e de PTS (1,8, 2,0 e 2,2 g cm-3 no rendimento de carbono (C nas frações leve-livre (FLL e leve-oclusa (FLO da MO na camada de 0-5 cm de um Argissolo Vermelho [PVd, Eldorado do Sul (RS] e de um Latossolo Vermelho [LVdf, Dourados (MS] e (b a magnitude da proteção física da MO em agregados no acúmulo de C orgânico nesses solos submetidos, respectivamente, ao sistema plantio direto por 18 anos (PD e pastagem (Brachiaria decumbens por nove anos, em comparação à sua condição em preparo convencional (PC. Em ambos os locais, blocos indeformados de solo foram coletados em experimentos de longa duração; os agregados foram separados nos planos de fraqueza e passados em peneira de 9,51 mm; esse material foi submetido ao fracionamento densimétrico da MO do solo. O uso da solução de PTS 1,8 g cm-3 aumentou de 176 a 727 % o rendimento de C na FLO em comparação à solução de NaI na mesma densidade, mas não teve efeito no rendimento de C da FLL da MO do solo. O aumento da densidade da solução de PTS de 1,8 g cm-3 para 2,0 g cm-3 incrementou de 30 a 99 % o rendimento de C da FLO; contudo, o aumento da densidade para 2,2 g cm-3 resultou em aumento pouco expressivo (Through the densimetric fractionation it is possible to study the physical protection of soil organic matter (SOM. High density solutions of sodium iodide (NaI or sodium polytungstate (SPT have been indistinctively used for this purpose. This study aimed to assess: (a the capacity of these two solutions at a density of 1.8 g cm-3 (NaI-1.8 and SPT-1.8 and of SPT at densities of 2.0 (SPT-2.0 and 2.2 g cm-3 (SPT-2.2 to increase C recovery in the free light

  4. Substituição dos parâmetros do modelo de Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson para estimativa da infiltração em alguns solos do Brasil Adjustment of Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson parameters to predict infiltration in some Brazilian soils

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    Roberto Avelino Cecílio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma análise detalhada do processo de infiltração de água no solo, foram propostas alternativas para adequação dos parâmetros de entrada do modelo de Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML, na tentativa de melhorar a eficiência da estimativa da infiltração em alguns solos brasileiros. As adequações consistiram em substituir a condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado (K0 pela taxa de infiltração estável (Tie e o teor de água do solo saturado (q s pelo teor de água na zona de transmissão (q w, além de estabelecer uma equação para estimativa do potencial matricial na frente de umedecimento (y f com base nos parâmetros do modelo de curva de retenção de água de Brooks & Corey. Avaliou-se o desempenho do conjunto de adequações propostas (GAML-t para estimativa da infiltração de água em três solos: Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho e Argissolo Vermelho. O desempenho do GAML-t foi comparado com o obtido pelo GAML aplicado em sua forma original e adequado segundo cinco diferentes formas, evidenciando-se que o primeiro obteve melhor desempenho nos três solos estudados.Based on a detailed analysis of the process of water infiltration into the soil, an alternative is proposed to adjust the input parameters of the Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML model to optimize infiltration estimates of some Brazilian soils. The adjustments consisted of the replacement of the parameters saturated hydraulic conductivity (K0 by stable infiltration rate (Tie and soil moisture saturation (q s by water content in the transmission zone (q w. Moreover, an equation was established to estimate the matric potencial at the wetting front (y f, based on the parameters of the water retention curve of Brooks and Corey. The performance of the set of proposed adjustments (GAML-t was evaluated for the estimation of water infiltration in three soil types. The performance of GAML-t was compared with the original GAML and adjusted to five different

  5. Entre a Arbitragem Brasileira e a Arbitragem Europeia: Um estudo acerca da Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (ANATEL e a Office of Comunications (OFCOM / Between the Brazilian and European Arbitration: A study of the National Telecommunications Agency (ANATEL and the Office of Communications (OFCOM

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    José Albenes Bezerra Júnior

    2017-04-01

    praticamente todos os usuários dos serviços de telecomunicações. Confere-se, assim, um grande prestígio a esses métodos de resolução de disputas, na medida em que eles propiciam uma neutralidade de foro. Não se confere a decisão ao Poder Judiciário ou ao órgão regulador de um país específico, mas escolhem-se árbitros a partir do comum acordo das partes ou, ainda, apontam-se instituições de âmbito internacional que prestam o serviço de arbitragem em disputas comerciais. Abstract Purpose: The demand for arbitration as a dispute resolution is important due to the large volume of cases to be adjudicated at the Judiciary system and its lack of technical expertise to do so. The topic of alternative dispute resolution is clouded with debates of how far should it go before interfering in the core functions of the Judiciary. Thus, this paper seeks to support the use of arbitration in the Brazilian telecommunications sector, inspired by the experience of OFCOM. Methodology/Approach/Design: The paper starts with a historical analysis on the institute of the arbitrage followed by its connection with the regulatory phenomenon in Brazil and Europe. The study format follows a comparative approach by identifying the main characteristics of arbitration in both Brazilian and European telecommunications models. Results: One of the duties of the regulatory agencies is precisely the solution of conflicts between players in the sector at the administrative level. When analyzing the forms of dispute resolution in the European Union, a peculiar behavior can be highlighted. In major disputes that occur on the continent, it is more common to use arbitration than the judiciary. In fact, arbitration can be used by ANATEL as an important tool to ensure a broad, free and fair competition between providers of telecommunications services, as it dodges the slowness of the judiciary and the possibility of sham litigations, enabling the rapid adoption of a decision that often affects the

  6. Um Estudo Exploratório sobre o Estágio da Governança Corporativa nas Empresas BrasileirasAn Exploratory Study on Corporate Governance Development in Brazilian EnterprisesUn Estudio Exploratorio sobre la Fase de la Gobernanza Corporativa en las Empresas Brasileñas

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    MARINELLI, Marcos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo apresenta a geração e sistematização de conhecimentos, levando a reflexões conceituais, teóricas e aplicadas da governança corporativa, bem como sua contribuição ao desenvolvimento organizacional. Está estruturado em quatro partes: a primeira é constituída pela introdução; a segunda parte diz respeito ao referencial teórico; a terceira, retrata a governança corporativa no mundo e no Brasil; a quarta parte retrata pesquisas secundárias sobre a aplicação da governança corporativa, comprovando que há influências positivas nos resultados das organizações objeto dos estudos de caso.ABSTRACTThis article presents the generation and systematization of knowledge, leading to conceptual, theoretical and applied reflexions about corporate governance as well as its contribution to organizational development. It is structured in four parts: the first one contains the introduction; the second is related to the theoretical support; the third refers to corporate This article presents the generation and systematization of knowledge, leading to conceptual, theoretical and applied reflections about corporate governance as well as its contribution to organizational development. It is structured in four parts: the first one contains the introduction; the second is related to the theoretical support; the third refers to corporate governance in Brazil and in the world. In the fourth part portrays secondary researches about the application of governance proving that there are positive influences in the results of the organizations which are object of the case studies.RESUMENEl presente artículo expone la generación y sistematización de conocimientos que llevan a reflexiones conceptuales, teóricas y aplicadas de la gobernanza corporativa, como también su contribución al desarrollo organizacional. Está estructurado en cuatro partes: la primera está formada por la introducción; la segunda parte trata del referencial

  7. TI e eficiência organizacional: um estudo no setor brasileiro de bens de capital mecânicos com foco em micro, pequenas e médias empresas Information technology and organizational efficiency: a study in the Brazilian capital goods sector focusing on micro, small and medium enterprises

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    Cesar Alexandre de Souza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uma das medidas para o sucesso do uso da tecnologia da informação (TI é seu impacto na performance das empresas. Muitos estudos têm sido realizados analisando a influência da TI no resultado, especialmente em empresas de grande porte. Este trabalho tem como objetivo analisar a relação entre investimentos em TI e eficiência organizacional com foco em empresas de micro, pequeno e médio porte. Para isso, foram identificados fatores críticos de sucesso para o desempenho de empresas industriais, sendo em seguida desenvolvido um modelo para realização de análise envoltória de dados (DEA - Data Envelopment Analysis em dois estágios. A pesquisa de campo foi realizada com empresas ligadas à Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Máquinas e Equipamentos (Abimaq. Dentre os resultados destacam-se a maior capacidade das empresas de pequeno porte em converter o uso da TI em eficiência operacional e a maior capacidade das empresas maiores em converter fatores críticos de sucesso em rentabilidade.The impact on companies' performance is among the possible measures for Information Technology (IT success. Several researches showing the influence of IT on firms' results have been conducted, but mainly through studies carried out in large enterprises. The objective of this work was to analyze the relationship between IT investments and organizational efficiency - focusing on micro, small and medium sized enterprises. To this end, critical success factors for industrial companies' performance were identified, and a two-stage data envelopment analysis (DEA model was developed and tested in a sample of firms in the capital goods sector. DEA is especially interesting because it allows comparing and differentiating the firms in the sample which are more efficient in deriving results from IT. Among the results observed, there were the higher capacity of small firms to transform IT investments into operational efficiency and the higher capacity of

  8. High prevalence of hepatitis C infection among Brazilian hemodialysis patients in Rio de Janeiro: a one-year follow-up study Alta prevalência de infecção pelo virus da hepatite C em pacientes de hemodiálise do Rio de Janeiro: estudo de acompanhamento durante 1 ano

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    B. O. M. Vanderborght

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 400 hemodialysis patients treated at 5 different hemodialysis units in Rio de Janeiro were tested for one year for the presence of hepatitis C and B markers. During the same period, samples were also obtained from 35 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients and from 242 health care workers. Depending on the hemodialysis unit studied, anti-HCV prevalence rates ranging from 47% to 82% (mean 65% were detected. CAPD patients showed a lower prevalence of 17%. The prevalence of antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV among health care workers was 2.9%. We observed a hepatitis C attack rate of 11.5% per year in the anti-HCV-negative hemodialysis patient population. An average of 9.4% of the hemodialysis patients were chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV (range 1.8% - 20.4%, while 48.9% showed markers of previous HBV infection. The HBV attack rate was 4.5% per year (range 0% - 6%. These results indicate an alarming high prevalence of anti-HCV among hemodialysis patients of this studied region.Aproximadamente 400 pacientes de hemodiálise tratados em 5 diferentes unidades no Rio de Janeiro foram acompanhados durante 1 ano para presença de marcadores virais de hepatite B e C. Durante o mesmo período, amostras foram também de 35 pacientes ambulatoriais de diálise peritonial contínua (CAPD e de 242 funcionários das unidades. Dependendo da unidade em estudo foram detectadas prevalências de anti-HCV variando de 47% a 82% (média 65%. Pacientes de CAPD demonstraram uma baixa prevalência de 17%. A prevalência de anti-HCV em funcionários foi de 2.9%. Observamos uma taxa de ataque de hepatite C de 11.5% por ano na população paciente de hemodiálise anti-HCV-negativo. Uma média de 9.4% de pacientes de hemodiálise eram portadores crônicos do vírus da hepatite B (VHB (taxa de 1.8% a 20.4%, enquanto 48.9% apresentaram marcadores de infecção passada de HBV. A taxa de ataque de HBV foi de 4.5% por ano (taxa de 0% a

  9. Life Expectancy of Brazilian Neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Ricardo Vieira; Jardim Miranda, Bárbara Cristina; Nishikuni, Koshiro; Waisberg, Jaques

    2018-06-01

    Life expectancy (LE) refers to the number of years that an individual is expected to survive. Emphasis is frequently placed on the relationship between LE and the conditions under which a population lives, but fewer studies have investigated the relationship between stress factors associated with specific professions and their effects on LE. The aim of this study is to evaluate Brazilian neurosurgeons' life expectancies (BNLEs) and compare them with those of physicians (both Brazilian and foreign) from other fields, as well as with Brazilian nondoctors. The Brazilian Society of Neurosurgery death registry was used to obtain data that compared LEs from non-neurosurgeon physicians, as described in the national and international literature. BNLEs were also compared with the LEs of Brazilian citizens. Fifty-one neurosurgeons died between 2009 and 2016. All were males. The mean age at death was 68.31 ± 17.71 years. Among all-cause mortality, the breakdown was 20% cardiovascular diseases, 39% malignancies, 10% external factors, 6% gastrointestinal disorders, 12% neurologic illnesses, and 14% unknown causes. BNLE was shorter than LE of male Brazilian citizens. LE was similar among neurosurgeons and other doctors but shorter compared with Brazilian citizens. Further research is needed to provide data that can add to and confirm these results. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

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    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  11. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  12. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  13. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  14. Gestão e estratégia ambiental: um estudo bibliométrico sobre o interesse do tema nos periódicos acadêmicos brasileiros Gestión ambiental y estrategia: un estudio bibliométrico sobre el tema de interés en revistas académica brasileña Environmental management and strategy: a bibliometric study on the theme of interest in Brazilian academic journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar a evolução do interesse de publicação da administração nas questões da gestão ambiental, estratégia ambiental, desempenho ambiental e avaliação estratégica ambiental (em português, inglês ou espanhol, através da verificação de artigos com estas temáticas em periódicos da área. Realizou-se um estudo bibliométrico, com abordagem quantitativa, em 44 periódicos brasileiros classificados em 2008 pelo sistema Qualis/CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, como A1, A2, B1 e B2, para a área de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Turismo. Foram pesquisadas 1.203 edições disponibilizadas eletronicamente, entre 2000 e 2009, com a identificação de 113 artigos, de 22 periódicos, que citaram algum dos termos de busca no corpo de texto. Os artigos foram analisados com base nos seguintes parâmetros: identificação do periódico; ocorrência dos termos-chave; ano de publicação; e autoria. Identificou-se que apenas cinco periódicos publicaram 54,86% dos artigos selecionados: REAd - Rev. Eletrônica de Administração (15,04%, G&P - Gestão & Produção (11,50%, RAP - Rev. de Administração Pública (11,50%, CAD - Cadernos EBAPE.BR (9,74% e PROD - Produção (7,08%. O termo chave 'Gestão Ambiental' foi encontrado no título de 38 dos artigos, é citado como palavra-chave em 64 e está presente no corpo de texto de 111. Já 'Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica' somente foi citado em 2 artigos da amostra. Os anos de maior publicação dos artigos foram 2006 (20 e 2009 (24. Os autores que mais publicaram tiveram participação em 7 artigos diferentes da amostra. Observou-se que de 2000 a 2009 houve bom crescimento de periódicos brasileiros e número de artigos publicados que citaram os termos pesquisados, inclusive com edições especiais sobre a questão ambiental, porém com difusão pouco significativa nas publicações brasileiras, haja vista que somente

  15. Mensuração e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis em demonstrações contábeis: o estudo de caso em um clube de futebol brasileiro = Measurement and disclosure of intangible assets in financial statements: a case study in a brazilian football club

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    Caroline dos Santos Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda práticas de reconhecimento e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis em um time de futebol brasileiro. Para tanto, apresenta os ativos intangíveis e sua importância no contexto atual; evidencia técnicas de reconhecimento de ativos intangíveis; identifica práticas de reconhecimento, mensuração e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis passíveis de contabilização de um time de futebol do Brasil, comparando-as com os Procedimentos Contábeis vigentes, e faz uma análise sobre o impacto dessas práticas nas demonstrações contábeis da entidade. É conduzido por uma pesquisa qualitativa, mediada por análise documental e entrevista, trazendo aspectos da mensuração e da alocação de custos no caso estudado. Predomina nos resultados a carência de informações aos interessados e a mesma segue apenas em parte a norma vigente. Na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis da entidade são utilizados critérios bastante subjetivos, dando margem à disparidade existente entre as entidades deste segmento. Como principal implicação há a necessidade de que os sócios do clube exijam de seus gestores que evidenciem as práticas que estão sendo adotadas, para que se tenha maior transparência na gestão e maior atratividade no investimento. Considerando os resultados obtidos, entende-se que este artigo tem na temática escolhida seu principal valor, uma vez que estuda um ramo de negócio bastante explorado no cenário nacional e que, apesar disso, ainda é carente em legislação e padronização de condutas por parte da contabilidade. This article discusses practices of recognition and disclosure of intangible assets in a Brazilian football team. For that, it displays its intangible assets and their importance in the current context; it also shows recognition techniques of intangible assets; it identifies practices of recognition, measurement and disclosure of intangible assets, which are accounted for a soccer team in

  16. A ação externa dos governos subnacionais no Brasil: os casos do Rio Grande do Sul e de Porto Alegre. Um estudo comparativo de dois tipos de atores mistos The foreign actions of Brazilian governments: the cases of Rio Grande do Sul and Porto Alegre. A comparative study of two kinds of mixed actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Salomón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No artigo são descritas e comparadas as atividades externas de dois atores subnacionais de níveis de governo diferentes: a prefeitura de Porto Alegre (nível local e o governo estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (nível regional. Os dois atores considerados têm desenvolvido uma atividade externa destacável e pioneira no contexto brasileiro. O núcleo do artigo é a descrição e a comparação das dimensões institucional (estrutura paradiplomática e substancial (agenda e instrumentos dos dois governos subnacionais. Nosso principal objetivo é contribuir, a partir da análise desses casos concretos, para a conceituação diferenciada dos governos locais e dos regionais como atores internacionais. Tanto uns como outros podem ser considerados atores internacionais mistos, em parte condicionados pela soberania que compartilham com os outros níveis de governo no território que administram, mas também mais livres que os governos centrais no que diz respeito a suas opções de política exterior, com alguns pontos de atuação semelhantes às dos atores não estatais. Nossas perguntas de partida são como os dois tipos de atores conjugam as características próprias dos atores condicionados pela soberania e as dos livres e se há diferenças significativas entre a ação encaminhada nesse sentido pelos governos locais e pelos regionais.In this article we compare the external activities carried out by two subnational actors of different governmental levels: the Municipality of Porto Alegre (local government and the State of Rio Grande do Sul (regional government. These two actors have developed external activities that are both relevant and pioneering in the Brazilian context. A description and a comparison of the institutional dimension (paradiplomatic structure and the substantial dimension (agenda and instruments of these two subnational governments form the core of this article. Based on the analysis of these two cases, our aim is to contribute

  17. O mix público-privado na utilização de serviços de saúde: um estudo dos itinerários terapêuticos de beneficiários do segmento de saúde suplementar brasileiro The public-private mix and health service utilization: a study of the therapeutic itineraries of Brazilian supplementary care beneficiaries

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    Eleonor Minho Conill

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho analisou a experiência de saúde-doença-cuidados referida por usuários do segmento suplementar com situações ou necessidades de saúde nas áreas de cuidado cardiovascular, oncológico, saúde mental e obstétrico, no município de Florianópolis, capital de Santa Catarina. Discute-se o processo de escolha das situações marcadoras nessas áreas, o infarto agudo do miocárdio; o câncer de mama, o alcoolismo e o parto, além dos procedimentos sugeridos para explorar contribuições da socioantropologia no campo da gestão. Os resultados revelam a procura de recursos nos subsistemas de saúde profissional, informal e popular, sendo os dois últimos importantes nas áreas da saúde mental e oncologia. O uso combinado dos serviços públicos e da assistência suplementar aparece no cuidado cardiovascular e oncológico. Diversos arranjos se estabelecem no cotidiano assistencial dos usuários quando procuram superar lacunas do acesso e da integralidade da atenção através de suas próprias escolhas, caminhos ou estratégias. A abordagem socioantropológica mostra-se útil para uma compreensão mais abrangente do significado de público e privado no sistema de saúde, bem como dos modelos de cuidados empreendidos pelos usuários.This study analyzes the health-disease-care experience reported by users of the Brazilian supplementary system in cardiovascular, oncological, mental health and obstetric care in Florianópolis, capital of the state of Santa Catarina. It discusses the selection of indicators in these areas such as myocardial infarction, breast cancer, alcoholism and childbirth besides exploring socio-anthropological contributions to the management field. The results show a search for solutions in three interconnected sub-sectors of the system - the professional sector, the popular sector and the folk sector, the two latter being of greatest importance in mental and oncological care. Combined use of public and private

  18. Estudo de confiabilidade da versão em português de uma entrevista estruturada para o diagnóstico de demência Reliability study of the Brazilian version of a structured interview for the diagnosis of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. DE M. VENTURA

    2001-06-01

    and Dementia of other Aetiology (SIDAM Portuguese version; validated as a reliable instrument to be applied to patients with a presumed diagnosis of dementia or mild cognitive impairment1,2. METHODS: twenty elderly patients of our Service with a clinical diagnosis of dementia were interviewed simultaneously by the authors, utilizing the SIDAM's Portuguese version. The answers were noted down concomitantly, and then compared. The reliable evaluation of the diagnosis of the SIDAM's Portuguese version was based on Kappa's statistics (K. RESULTS: of the patients studied, ten were women; with an average age of 75.5 years. Nine were maried, two were not and nine widowers. They had attended school for about 5.3 years. The average score on the Mini Mental State was 16.8. As to their professional activities, 12 (60% were manual workers, eight were not. Everyone had the diagnosis of dementia, being most of them, Alzheimer's Type. The concordance rate between ICD-10, DSM III-R and the SIDAM's questions showed a K > 0.87; and between the interviewers, rarely K or = 0.87 suggests that the Brazilian version of SIDAM can be considered a reliable instrument to be applied to outpatients with presumed diagnosis of dementia in Brazil.

  19. Assessment of soil and groundwater contamination by potentially toxic and trace elements in an impounded vehicle scrapyard: Case study: Ribeirão Pires, SP, Brazil; Avaliação da contaminação de solos e água subterrânea por elementos potencialmente tóxicos e traços em um patio de recolhimento de veículos: estudo de caso: Ribeirão Pires, SP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Camila Neves

    2018-04-01

    Impounded vehicle scrapyard (IVS) overcrowding is currently a subject of concern in Brazilian scenario. The aim of this study was to assess the total levels of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) and trace elements (TE) in soil and groundwater in an IVS located in the city of Ribeirão Pires. In order to achieve this objective, topsoil, three soil cores and groundwater of three monitoring wells were analyzed. It was verified that the area is mainly affected by three factors: (1) a landfill layer with construction waste; (2) an oily residue from past industrial activities in the area; (3) vehicles parked on topsoil. For the evaluation of the results, statistical techniques, such as multivariate analysis, calculation of pollution, ecological and human health risk index were used. Mass fractions of all PTEs, except Co, Cu, Mo and Zn, were higher than reference values. Hot spots were observed for most elements suggesting vehicular source. The Geoaccumulation Index showed minimal to moderate pollution in soil for most elements, except for As and Ba, which showed higher accumulation than other elements. The enrichment factor pointed to a significant enrichment of As and Pb. Arsenic content in soil may pose a moderate to high potential ecological risk. The results of PTEs and as statistical approaches indicated that As, Ce, Co, Cu, Mn, Nb, Ni, Pb and Zn are mainly from anthropogenic sources. The content of most PTEs in topsoil does not pose a potential human health risk, except Cr content. Groundwater levels for most PTEs were below the drinking water recommendation limits, except Mn and Fe content. (author)

  20. Brazilian readers and contextual reference Brazilian readers and contextual reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia M. O. Carioni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an experiment carried out using Brazilian university students at UFSC, the purpose being to check comprehension relationships between two types of contextual reference and two languages, Portuguese and English. A major stimulus for the research was the question: are Brazilian students' difficulties in reading English related more to English language difficulties or to difficulties in processing text in general?

  1. Images of the third age: a study of the representation of the elderly aired television advertisements in two Brazilian Imagens da terceira idade: um estudo sobre a representação do idoso veiculada em duas propagandas da televisão brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the speech in two commercials aired by broadcast television, one of the 1990s, and another, from the 2000s, in which the characters are elderly. This study used the references of Discourse Analysis of French Line, which has its precursor Michel Pêcheux. From linguistics seeks to show the changes that occurred in the focus given to the people of the Third Age who were protagonists of the following commercial: Copercap Bamerindus, 1997, Banco Real Talent Contest and Maturity, 2007. Furthermore, it was possible to investigate how the advertising text contributes to changing the way of presenting the aged and also provide insight to what is reflected on the need to educate these people for conscious consumption. Assuming that an advertisement is much more than it appears, concepts of discourse, ideology, production conditions, discursive subject, among others, were seized and applied in an attempt to understand it in its scope and breadth. This analysis found that the elderly in 1997 was presented as weak and passive, and in 2007, as active, capable and with great potential, which should be shown.O presente trabalho se propõe a analisar o discurso em duas propagandas veiculadas pela televisão aberta, sendo uma da década de 1990 e, outra, da década de 2000, nas quais os personagens são pessoas idosas. Tal estudo utilizou as referências da Análise do Discurso de Linha Francesa, que teve como precursor Michel Pechêux. A partir da lingüística procuramos evidenciar as mudanças que ocorreram no enfoque dado às pessoas da Terceira Idade que foram protagonistas dos seguintes comerciais: Copercap Bamerindus, de 1997, e Concurso Banco Real Talentos da Maturidade, de 2007. Além disso, foi possível investigar de que forma o texto publicitário contribui para a mudança da forma de se apresentar o idoso e, também, oferecer subsídios para que se reflita acerca da necessidade de se educar essas pessoas para o consumo

  2. Relevância epidemiológica da desnutrição e da obesidade em distintas classes sociais: métodos de estudo e aplicação à população brasileira Relevance of under and overnutrition in different social classes: methods and application to the Brazilian population

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    Lenise Mondini

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se construir critérios de mesma especificidade no diagnóstico da desnutrição e da obesidade, de modo a produzir estimativas comparáveis para a prevalência desses eventos em distintos estratos socioeconômicos da população brasileira infantil e adulta. A fonte primária de dados é a Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição - PNSN, estudo do tipo transversal de base domiciliar, realizado no país em 1989. Foram considerados o conjunto das mulheres adultas estudadas pela PNSN, com idades entre 18 e 64 anos (n=15.669, o conjunto dos homens adultos com idades entre 20 e 64 anos (n=14.235 e o conjunto das crianças com idade entre 6 e 35 meses (n=3.641. Na avaliação do estado nutricional dos adultos empregou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (kg/m² e, na avaliação infantil, os índices peso/idade e peso/altura. Os percentis 5 e 95 da distribuição desses índices em uma população de referência foram utilizados como níveis críticos para o diagnóstico, respectivamente, da desnutrição e da obesidade. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam, entre outros aspectos, que a desnutrição infantil mostra-se controlada (prevalências muito baixas mesmo em estratos da população com níveis muito modestos de renda familiar, enquanto a obesidade em mulheres adultas constitui problema de Saúde Pública (altas prevalências, mesmo para famílias situadas abaixo da linha da pobreza extrema. Tais evidências indicam a necessidade de se rever os modelos de causalidade tradicionalmente admitidos no país para a desnutrição e para a obesidade, ao mesmo tempo em que apontam a urgência de uma ampla revisão das prioridades e das estratégias de intervenção da Saúde Pública brasileira, no campo da nutrição.The search for criteria of the same specificity in the diagnosis of both undernutrition and obesity is the main objective of this study. The selected criteria are applied to data collected by a nation-wide cross-sectional anthropometric

  3. Institutional and Strategic Influences on IT Architecture Decisions: comparative case studies in Brazilian companiesInfluências Institucionais e Estratégicas em Decisões de Arquitetura de TI: estudo de casos comparados em empresas brasileiras Influencias Institucionales y Estratégicas en la toma de Decisiones de la Arquitectura de TI: estudio de casos en empresas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA, Cesar Alexandre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this paper is to examine the influences on IT architecture decisions by viewing it through the lens of Institutional Theory and of Strategic Choice Theory, using the comparative case studies. Institutional influence can be the result of an external action or of something internal within the organizational, whereas strategic influence is related to the voluntary behavior of managers. The case of a large-scale company, where there is extensive internal policy formalization, was compared to a midsize company with a less mature architecture level. In spite of their differences as to the use of IT architecture, similar findings appeared in both organizations concerning these two influences. Both types of influence act together: the strategic type was most mentioned during interviews, whereas the institutional type appeared in decisions related to innovation and risks.RESUMOEsta pesquisa tem como objetivo examinar as influências sobre as decisões de arquitetura de TI sob as lentes da Teoria Institucional e da Teoria da Escolha Estratégica por meio de estudos de casos comparados. A influência institucional pode ser proveniente de uma ação externa ou de algo interno à organização, ao passo que a influência estratégica está relacionada com a ação voluntária dos gestores. O caso de uma empresa de grande porte, que possui maior formalização de suas políticas, foi comparado com o de outra de médio porte, que está em um estágio de maturidade de arquitetura menos avançado. As duas organizações, apesar de haver diferenças em relação ao uso da arquitetura de TI, apresentaram resultados semelhantes relacionados à atuação dessas duas influências. Ambas as influências agem em conjunto: a estratégica foi a mais mencionada pelos entrevistados e a institucional apareceu pontualmente em decisões que envolviam inovação e riscos.RESUMENA partir de la Teoría Institucional y de la Teoría de la Elección Estrat

  4. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  5. Strategy and competitive advantages in Brazilian telecommunications: a multiple case study from 1999 to 2007 Estrategia y ventaja competitiva en el mercado brasileño de telecomunicaciones: un estudio de casos múltiples para el periodo de 1999 a 2007 Estratégia e vantagem competitiva no mercado brasileiro de telecomunicações: um estudo de casos múltiplos para o período de 1999 a 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian telecommunications companies after privatization, from 1999-2007, to compare reasons for best and worst economic performances. Main indexes showed sector growth after privatization in 1998. Profitability rankings based on criteria by Matarazzo (1997 were studied as well as a subsequent review of selected multiple cases of best and worst performances. Reasons for best performance were a strategy to reduce costs and control intangible assets, implemented in a strong organizational culture with a focus on improving financial results. Worst performance was due to mistaken strategies related to the market technological standard and investment in indexes of questionable profitability, such as market share. Telefonica and Vivo were to be the best and worst, respectively.Este artículo analiza el mercado brasileño de telecomunicaciones en el periodo post-privatización (1999 a 2007, con el objetivo de establecer una comparación entre las razones que llevaron al mejor y al peor desempeño económico registrado entre los competidores de ese mercado. Público hasta 1998, el sector registró crecimiento en sus principales índices después de la privatización. Esta investigación contó con dos procedimientos metodológicos: el establecimiento de un ranking de rentabilidad de las empresas del mercado, basado en el criterio de rentabilidad definido por Matarazzo (1997, y un posterior estudio de casos múltiples, en el cual los casos seleccionados fueron aquellos que presentaron el mejor y el peor desempeño económico durante el periodo de análisis. Los resultados sugieren que las principales razones para el desempeño superior fueron una estrategia de reducción de costos y la pose de recursos inalcanzables, materializados en una fuerte cultura organizacional de generación de resultados financieros. Por otro lado, los motivos que llevaron una empresa al peor desempeño registrado en el período fueron estrategias

  6. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

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    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  7. Offshoring de serviços de call center: um estudo comparativo entre Brasil, Índia e África do Sul Offshoring de servicios de call center: un estudio comparativo entre Brasil, India y África del Sur Offshoring of call center services: a comparison of brazilian, indian and south african options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2009-06-01

    centers en tres países emergentes: India, África del Sur y Brasil. El segundo es entender los motivos que llevaron India a ocupar un rol de destaque mundial en offshoring de servicios de call center. El tercer objetivo es entender lo que distingue los call centers brasileños de los indianos, cuanto a las variables relevantes para el offshoring. Para eso fueron analizados datos primarios de 235 empresas de call center colectados a partir de la aplicación de un survey en los tres países analizados. Esos datos son oriundos de una investigación internacional intitulada The Global Call Center Industry Project (GCCIP, que está siendo realizada de manera simultánea en veinte países de todos los continentes.The call center sector has made great progress worldwide, driven by advances in telecommunications and information technology as well as the need to provide customer service, often as required by regulating agencies. A strong international trend has been observed to offshore these services from developed to emergent countries. This trend was discussed with three objectives. The call center industry was first compared in developing countries, Brazil, India and South Africa based on critical variables. Then the prominent world role of India for offshoring of these services was investigated. Finally a search was made for reasons that distinguish Brazilian and Indian call centers based on relevant variables for offshoring. Primary data were collected by a survey and analyzed regarding 235 call center organizations in the three countries in question. These data are from the international survey, The Global Call Center Industry Project, conducted simultaneously in twenty countries on all continents.

  8. Colestase neonatal prolongada: estudo prospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRADO Elizabeth Teixeira Mendes Livramento

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Em razão da urgência de se decidir por um tratamento clínico ou por uma intervenção cirúrgica imediata, o estudo da colestase neonatal prolongada envolve dois objetivos básicos: o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e a pesquisa dos agentes etiológicos associados. Desta maneira, através de estudo prospectivo desenvolvido na década de 1970, foram avaliadas 77 crianças portadoras de colestase neonatal prolongada para estabelecer o diagnóstico diferencial entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal e, numa segunda fase, 108 crianças, visando esclarecer a etiopatogenia da colestase neonatal prolongada. Os resultados do diagnóstico diferencial revelaram que, dos 18 atributos avaliados, apenas oito mostraram-se bons indicadores de atresia biliar, em ordem decrescente: ductos proliferados (espaço-porta, fibrose (espaço-porta, colestase (espaço-porta, cor das fezes -- acolia, hepatomegalia, colestase canalicular (lóbulo, infiltrado (espaço-porta, células gigantes (lóbulo. Estes oito atributos foram então compostos, mediante uma ponderação, em um único indicador de grande poder discriminativo, capaz de decidir o diagnóstico diferencial em 99% dos casos. Quanto à etiopatogenia, registrou-se: vírus rubéola 0%, vírus herpes simples 0%, listeriose 0%, citomegalovirose 2,2%, vírus hepatite B 2,4%, toxoplasmose 2,8%, deficiência de alfa-1-antitripsina 13,1%, sífilis 21,1 %, auto-anticorpos hepáticos 58,4%. O trabalho desenvolvido mostra que as 8 variáveis mais decisivas, como indicadoras diferenciais entre atresia biliar e hepatite neonatal, permanecem como índices fundamentais, auxiliando, em conjunto com novos métodos diagnósticos, na composição de uma estratégia multifatorial cada vez menos invasiva e mais precisa. O estudo da etiopatogenia, dependente das condições epidemiológicas locais e da época, com a introdução de novos métodos diagnósticos, torna-se atualmente cada vez mais

  9. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  10. Nova abordagem sobre o modelo Brasileiro de serviços ambientais New approach to the Brazilian model of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O programa brasileiro de serviços ambientais, denominado "Produtor de Água", apoia-se em incentivos financeiros proporcionais à redução da erosão advinda da implantação voluntária de projetos de conservação do solo por parte de produtores rurais. No entanto, esse programa não constitui restrições preestabelecidas de elegibilidade de áreas de aplicação ou de propostas de conservação. Assim, no sentido de contribuir para a evolução metodológica desse programa, propõe-se uma nova abordagem deste, analisando-se, essencialmente, duas adaptações: introdução de critério de elegibilidade; e utilização da aptidão agrícola para indicação de propostas de uso intensivo e conservação do solo. Para isso, tomou-se por base uma bacia hidrográfica rural próxima ao Pantanal brasileiro, em Terenos, MS. O novo critério de elegibilidade foi baseado no Risco Natural de Erosão (razão entre o potencial natural de erosão e a tolerância à perda de solo. As propostas de ocupação do solo, por sua vez, foram definidas a partir de mapa de aptidão agrícola predefinido. O estudo revela que o novo critério de elegibilidade foi capaz de contemplar somente cerca de 40 % da área de estudo. A aplicação da classificação de aptidão agrícola nessa parcela reduziu drasticamente as alternativas de uso intensivo do solo, direcionando-as, em grande parte, para a atividade pecuária. A análise das duas propostas de inovação do programa "Produtor de Água" permite inferir quanto à potencialidade delas na formação de estratégias de aplicação do programa, além de promover uso mais eficiente dos recursos financeiros destinados ao pagamento por serviços ambientais no contexto brasileiro.The Brazilian program of environmental services, called "Water Supplier", is based on financial incentives relative to the erosion reduction by the implementation of voluntary soil conservation projects by farmers. However, this program has no

  11. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm{sup 3} and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of {sup 23{sup 5}}U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive

  12. Brazilian multipurpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project is an action of the Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI) and has its execution under the responsibility of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Within the CNEN, the project is coordinated by the Research and Development Directorate (DPD) and developed through research units of this board: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN); Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN); Centre for Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN); Regional Center of Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE); and Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD). The Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP) and also the participation of other research centers, universities, laboratories and companies in the nuclear sector are important and strategic partnerships. The conceptual design and the safety analysis of the reactor and main facilities, related to nuclear and environmental licensing, are performed by technicians of the research units of DPD / CNEN. The basic design was contracted to engineering companies as INTERTHECNE from Brazil and INVAP from Argentine. The research units from DPD/CNEN are also responsible for the design verification on all engineering documents developed by the contracted companies. The construction and installation should be performed by specific national companies and international partnerships. The Nuclear Reactor RMB will be a open pool type reactor with maximum power of 30 MW and have the OPAL nuclear reactor of 20 MW, built in Australia and designed by INVAP, as reference. The RMB reactor core will have a 5x5 configuration, consisting of 23 elements fuels (EC) of U 3 Si 2 dispersion-type Al having a density of up to 3.5 gU/cm 3 and enrichment of 19.75% by weight of 23 5 U. Two positions will be available in the core for materials irradiation devices. The main objectives of the RMB Reactor and the other nuclear and radioactive facilities are

  13. Propriedades químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob diferentes sistemas de manejo no Cerrado mato-grossense Soil chemical properties in a Typic Quartzipisamment under different management systems in Brazilian savanna in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidivan Almeida Frazão

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes usos da terra e sistemas de manejo do solo, nas características químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico, no Cerrado de Mato Grosso. Os tratamentos estudados foram: cerrado nativo; uma pastagem de baixa produtividade com 22 anos de implantação; plantio convencional com 1 e 4 anos de uso e diferentes sucessões de culturas; e plantio direto com 5 anos de implantação. Foram determinados os teores de carbono e nitrogênio, pH, acidez potencial, capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC, fósforo disponível, bases trocáveis e saturação por bases do solo. Os valores mais baixos de pH, fósforo disponível, potássio, cálcio e magnésio foram observados nas áreas sob cerrado e pastagem, e a menor concentração de carbono no solo sob pastagem refletiu menor CTC do solo. A aplicação do calcário nos tratamentos com plantio convencional e direto favorece o aumento das concentrações de cálcio e magnésio no solo. Nesses sistemas, a saturação por bases (V% do solo é mais elevada nas áreas com maior tempo de implantação (4 e 5 anos. Embora o Neossolo Quartzarênico possua limitações para o cultivo, em razão de sua baixa fertilidade natural, se adequadamente manejado, este solo apresenta potencial para o cultivo agrícola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different land uses and soil management systems, on chemical characteristics of a Typic Quartzipisamment in the savanna (Cerrado of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The treatments studied were: native cerrado; pasture with low productivity for 22 years; conventional tillage with one and four years and different crop successions; and no-tillage for five years. Soil carbon and nitrogen, pH, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base saturation were determined. The cerrado and pasture treatments had the lowest pH, available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium

  14. Pinus afforestation in South Brazilian highlands: soil chemical attributes and organic matter composition Florestamento com Pinus em solos de altitude do Sul do Brasil: atributos químicos e matéria orgânica do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, exotic tree species are being introduced in the natural pastures of the highlands located at the northeastern part of Rio Grande do Sul State (RS, Brazil. This alteration of land use may impart drastic changes in the soil attributes. In this context, this work aimed to evaluate the impact of Pinus taeda afforestation on soil chemical attributes and organic matter (SOM composition in Leptosols from Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Soil samples under eight year old (Pi8 and 30 year old (Pi30 Pinus plantations and under native pasture (NP were studied. Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses and FTIR spectroscopy. The soil under pasture had a higher content of nutrients and of SOM in comparison to Pinus soils, reflecting the higher input and decomposition rate of the below ground added residue in the grassland environment. The SOM in pasture soils showed a higher content of carbohydrate and of structures derived from microbial metabolism. Besides the depletion of nutrients and of SOM, Pinus afforestation affected the SOM quality: following afforestation, the proportion of chemically recalcitrant structures and of carboxylic groups increased, whereas N-containing groups decreased.Nas três últimas décadas, o cultivo de espécies exóticas vem sendo introduzido nas áreas de pastagem de solos de altitude localizados na região nordeste do Estado do rio Grande do Sul. Essa alteração de uso do solo pode causar mudanças drásticas nos atributos do solo. Avaliou-se o impacto do florestamento com Pinus Taeda nos atributos químicos e na composição da matéria orgânica (MOS de Neossolos Litólicos dos Campos de Cima da Serra, RS. Foram estudadas amostras de solo sob plantação de Pinus há oito (Pi8 e há 30 anos (Pi30 e sob pastagem natural (NP, sendo determinados os teores de cátions trocáveis e de

  15. Bacterial diversity of soil under eucalyptus assessed by 16S rDNA sequencing analysis Diversidade bacteriana de solo sob eucaliptos obtida por seqüenciamento do 16S rDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico Leandro da Silveira

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the impact of Eucalyptus spp. on Brazilian soils have focused on soil chemical properties and isolating interesting microbial organisms. Few studies have focused on microbial diversity and ecology in Brazil due to limited coverage of traditional cultivation and isolation methods. Molecular microbial ecology methods based on PCR amplified 16S rDNA have enriched the knowledge of soils microbial biodiversity. The objective of this work was to compare and estimate the bacterial diversity of sympatric communities within soils from two areas, a native forest (NFA and an eucalyptus arboretum (EAA. PCR primers, whose target soil metagenomic 16S rDNA were used to amplify soil DNA, were cloned using pGEM-T and sequenced to determine bacterial diversity. From the NFA soil 134 clones were analyzed, while 116 clones were analyzed from the EAA soil samples. The sequences were compared with those online at the GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses revealed differences between the soil types and high diversity in both communities. Soil from the Eucalyptus spp. arboretum was found to have a greater bacterial diversity than the soil investigated from the native forest area.Estudos sobre impacto do Eucalyptus spp. em solos brasileiros têm focalizado propriedades químicas do solo e isolamento de microrganismos de interesse. No Brasil há pouco enfoque em ecologia e diversidade microbiana, devido às limitações dos métodos tradicionais de cultivo e isolamento. A utilização de métodos moleculares no estudo da ecologia microbiana baseados na amplificação por PCR do 16S rDNA têm enriquecido o conhecimento da biodiversidade microbiana dos solos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar e estimar a diversidade bacteriana de comunidades simpátricas em solos de duas áreas: uma floresta nativa (NFA e outra adjacente com arboreto de eucaliptos (EAA. Oligonucleotídeos iniciadores foram utilizados para amplificar o 16S rDNA metagenômico do solo, o qual foi

  16. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  17. Utilização dos modelos de Langmuir e de Freundlich na adsorção de cobre e zinco em solos Brasileiros Langmuir and Freundlich models applied to copper and zinc adsorption in Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucília Alves Linhares

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estudar o processo de adsorção de cobre e zinco em seis solos naturais do Estado de Minas Gerais e avaliar a influência que propriedades dos solos, como pH, capacidade de troca de cátions, teores de argila e de óxidos de ferro exercem no referido processo. Para construção das curvas de adsorção de cobre e zinco foram tomados 1 g de solo, em triplicata, suspensos em 25 mL de solução contendo os metais individualmente na forma de nitrato, preparadas em CaCl2 0,01 mol L-1 nas concentrações de 0 a 100 µg mL-1 e de 0 a 40 µg mL-1, respectivamente. A quantidade adsorvida dos elementos foi determinada indiretamente pelas quantidades dos mesmos, determinadas no sobrenadante, após a adsorção e os dados ajustados à isoterma de Langmuir e de Freundlich. Os solos com maiores teores de argila, óxidos de ferro e de pH mais elevado (Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, Chernossolo Argilúvico Carbonático saprolítico e Cambissolo Háplico Tb eutrófico latossólico, foram os que apresentaram os maiores valores de energia de ligação e capacidade máxima de adsorção, obtidos das isotermas de Langmuir. Estes resultados indicam uma baixa disponibilidade desses metais quando presentes no solo como contaminantes. Isso pode ser entendido como condição favorável, à priori, de menor contaminação do lençol freático. Para o Plintossolo Pétrico concrecionário distrófico, Cambissolo Háplico Tb distrófico típico e Neossolo Quartzarênico órtico latossólico os metais tendem ficar menos retidos e ou mais fracamente retidos aos constituintes do solo, tornando-se mais disponíveis à lixiviação.The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption of copper and zinc and the influence of soil properties, pH, cation exchange capacity, clay and iron oxide contents, in six natural soils of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The copper and zinc adsorption curves were plotted for triplicate soil samples (1 g suspended

  18. Soil properties related to 60Co bioavailability in tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoly, Flavia; Wasserman, Maria Angelica; Rochedo, Elaine Ruas Rodriguez; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Souza, Rodrigo Camara; Oliveira, Giselle Rodrigues; Reis, Wagner Goncalves Soares; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the results of field experiments to obtain soil to plants Transfer factor (TF) for 60 Co in reference plants cultivated in Ferralsol, Acrisol and Nitisol. These soils represent the majority of Brazilian agricultural area. Values of TF varied from 0.001 to 0.05 for corn and from 0.001 to 0.81 for cabbage. Results of 60 Co TF were discussed in relation to the physical and chemical properties of the soils and 60 Co geochemical partition. The sequential chemical extraction showed that more than 40% of the 60 Co present in the soils are associated to manganese oxides. These results will provide regional values for parameters used in the environmental radiological modeling aiming to optimize the planning of emergency interventions or the waste management related to tropical soils. (author)

  19. Sports Injuries in Brazilian Blind Footballers

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, MPME; Morato, MP; Bilzon, JLJ; Duarte, E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the characteristics and prevalence of sports-related injuries in visually disabled athletes of the Brazilian football 5-a-side team. The participants were 13 male athletes, all classified as B1 visual class, members of the Brazilian team, who played in five consecutive international competitions. Data were collected using the Brazilian Paralympic Committee and the Brazilian Confederation of Sports for the Blind report form. From the total of 13 athletes...

  20. Productivity growth and technological progress in the Brazilian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Farid Pereira

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting in the 1970's, the Brazilian agricultural sector has experienced an important process of modernization, whose principal effects include advances in technological progress and gains in productivity. The primary objective of this paper is to analyze technological progress and total productivity growth in the Brazilian agricultural sector during the period from 1970 to 1996. The methodology used here is based on the Malmquist productivity index and techniques in mathematical programming called Data Envelopment Analysis. The results show that significant progress was made in this sector of the economy but concentrated in only some regions of the country.O setor agropecuário brasileiro passou por um processo de modernização a partir dos anos 70, conseqüentemente, espera-se que exista uma contrapartida de progresso tecnológico e de ganhos de produtividade para o setor. Diante de tal fato tem-se como objetivo, neste estudo, avaliar o progresso tecnológico e o crescimento da produtividade total dos fatores (PTF do setor agropecuário brasileiro ao longo do período de 1970 a 1996. A metodologia utilizada foi baseada no índice Malmquist de produtividade e nas técnicas de programação matemática denominadas de Análise de Envoltória de Dados (DEA. Os resultados alcançados foram condizentes com estudos prévios e apontam para progresso técnico e ganhos de produtividade para o setor, porém concentrados em algumas regiões.

  1. Background levels of some trace elements in weathered soils from the Brazilian Northern region Valores de referência de alguns elementos-traço em solos intemperizados da região Norte brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Souza Fadigas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from the Barreiras Group sediments, located mainly along the coast of Brazil Northern and Northeastern regions, generally present low concentrations of iron oxides and total organic carbon, high quantities of quartz in the sand fraction, and kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The objective of the present study was to quantify the pseudo total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe in Xhantic Udox and Xhantic Udult soils derived from these sediments. The reference sites were covered by native vegetation and located in the States of Pará and Amapá, Brazil. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine correlations between soil parameters and the levels of these metals. The best correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, clay, and silt contents, and Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni. A correlation between pH and these metal levels was not found. Clay and sand contents showed a negative inverse correlation with the metal levels,of same magnitude but with a different sign; this was the reason for excluding one of the parameters in the regression model. In general, the contents of the elements were lower than those found in soils formed from other parent materials. The Mn content was included in the model of multiple linear regression for Cd and Co, due to its association with these last metals. Silt level showed to have a significant influence in the equations for Cr and Co, which is attributed to the presence of clay minerals and Fe and Mn oxides in ferruginous and clay aggregates of silt size. The equations obtained in this paper, are useful to predict, in general terms, the amounts of those heavy metals in an unknown soil sample, if the soil material were not contaminated or affected by land usage. Thus, they may be applied to evaluate soil contamination by the studied heavy metals.Solos formados a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras apresentam, em geral, baixos teores de ferro, mineralogia caulinítica, elevadas

  2. Phylogeny of culturable cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangroves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Caroline Souza Pamplona; Genuário, Diego Bonaldo; Vaz, Marcelo Gomes Marçal Vieira; Fiore, Marli Fátima

    2014-03-01

    The cyanobacterial community from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems was examined using a culture-dependent method. Fifty cyanobacterial strains were isolated from soil, water and periphytic samples collected from Cardoso Island and Bertioga mangroves using specific cyanobacterial culture media. Unicellular, homocytous and heterocytous morphotypes were recovered, representing five orders, seven families and eight genera (Synechococcus, Cyanobium, Cyanobacterium, Chlorogloea, Leptolyngbya, Phormidium, Nostoc and Microchaete). All of these novel mangrove strains had their 16S rRNA gene sequenced and BLAST analysis revealed sequence identities ranging from 92.5 to 99.7% when they were compared with other strains available in GenBank. The results showed a high variability of the 16S rRNA gene sequences among the genotypes that was not associated with the morphologies observed. Phylogenetic analyses showed several branches formed exclusively by some of these novel 16S rRNA gene sequences. BLAST and phylogeny analyses allowed for the identification of Nodosilinea and Oxynema strains, genera already known to exhibit poor morphological diacritic traits. In addition, several Nostoc and Leptolyngbya morphotypes of the mangrove strains may represent new generic entities, as they were distantly affiliated with true genera clades. The presence of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, polyketide synthase, microcystin and saxitoxin genes were detected in 20.5%, 100%, 37.5% and 33.3%, respectively, of the 44 tested isolates. A total of 134 organic extracts obtained from 44 strains were tested against microorganisms, and 26% of the extracts showed some antimicrobial activity. This is the first polyphasic study of cultured cyanobacteria from Brazilian mangrove ecosystems using morphological, genetic and biological approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  4. Fungi in coastal tableland soils of northeastern Brazil : Preliminary results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, QR; Bezerra, JL; Faleiro, RG; Bezerra, KMT; Menezes, PV; Faleiro, ASG; Ogram, AV; Al-Agely, A; Comerford, NB

    2004-01-01

    Soil compaction causes reduced agricultural production due to limited root development resulting in reduced water and nutrient access. This is particularly true of soils of the Brazilian tablelands (similar to200000 km(2)) that are characterized by a naturally occurring compact subsoil horizon. Most

  5. Brazilian and Cape Verdian literatures for Afro-Brazilian learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Sueli Rosa Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to examine the dialogue between the literary produc-tions from Brazil and Cape Verde from the point of view of the role and representation of orality (Creole / Brazilian Portuguese, colonial and post-colonial perspectives and their cultural and ethnic specificities.---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21881/abriluff.2016n17a385

  6. Clay Mineralogy of Brazilian Oxisols with Shrinkage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Alves Testoni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Shrinkage capacity (caráter retrátil in Portuguese is a new diagnostic characteristic recently introduced in the Brazilian System of Soil Classification (SiBCS to indicate shrink and swell properties observed in subtropical soils from highland plateaus in southern Brazil, specifically in Oxisols with brown colors. In soils located in road cuts exposed to drying for some weeks, strong shrinkage of soil volume is observed in these soils, resulting in the formation of pronounced vertical cracks and large and very large prismatic structures, which crumble in blocks when handled. We hypothesize that such properties are related to their clay mineralogy, although there are no conclusive studies about this, the motive for the present study. Samples of the A and B horizons from six Oxisols with expansive capacity from the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed. One Rhodic Hapludox, from the state of Paraná, without expansive capacity, was used for comparison. All the soils are very clayey, originated from basalt, and have similar iron oxide content. For identification of clay mineralogy, X-ray diffraction techniques were employed, together with the use of NEWMOD® software to investigate and describe the interstratified minerals. The results showed that most expansive soils have a similar mineralogical composition, with kaolinite, interstratified kaolinite-smectite (K-S, and hydroxy-Al interlayered smectites (HIS, unlike the non-expansive Rhodic Hapludox, which exhibited kaolinite with significant amounts of gibbsite and low amount of interstratified K-S. According to the mineralogical assemblage identified in the expansive soils, we can affirm that the mechanism of smectite expansion and contraction is related to the shrinkage capacity of the soil, considering that the level of hydroxy-Al intercalation is low. In addition, these mechanisms also are related to the presence of quasicrystals and domains that control the

  7. Teoria dos Stakeholders e Teoria da Firma: um estudo sobre a hierarquização das funções-objetivo em empresas brasileirasStakeholders Theory and Theory of the Firm: a study on the hierarchy of objective- functions in Brazilian companiesTeoría de los Stakeholders y Teoría de la Firma: un estudio sobre la jerarquización de las funciones objetivo, en empresas brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOAVENTURA, João Maurício Gama

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOAs discussões contrapondo a Teoria da Firma e a Teoria dos Stakeholders são contemporâneas e polêmicas. Um ponto central destas discussões refere-se a qual função-objetivo as empresas deveriam atender, se a decorrente dos shareholders ou a dos stakeholders, ou ainda se é possível atender simultaneamente a ambas. Diversos estudos empíricos buscaram testar uma possível correlação entre as duas funções, não se tendo encontrado até o momento um consenso. O objetivo desta pesquisa é investigar uma lacuna nesta discussão: há ou não uma subordinação da função-objetivo dos stakeholders à dos shareholders? A pesquisa caracteriza-se como empírica e analítica e utilizou-se de método quantitativo. Para a verificação de hipóteses e análise de dados empregaram-se testes estatísticos não-paramétricos (teste Qui-Quadrado e paramétricos (coeficiente de correlação para frequências. Foram coletados dados secundários do banco de dados da Economática e do sítio do Instituto Brasileiro de Análises Sociais e Econômicas (IBASE na Internet pertinentes às empresas brasileiras de capital aberto e que publicaram o Balanço Social no modelo IBASE no período de 1999 a 2006, o que totalizou uma amostra com 65 empresas. Para a função-objetivo da teoria dos shareholders criou-se uma proxy contemplando três indicadores: o ROE (return on equity, o EnterpriseValue e o QdeTobin. Para a função-objetivo dos stakeholders criou-se outra proxy com os indicadores do balanço social IBASE: sociais internos (ISI, sociais externos (ISE e ambientais (IAM. Os resultados demonstraram não haver subordinação da função-objetivo dos stakeholders em relação à dos shareholders nas empresas pesquisadas, contrariando algumas expectativas iniciais e instigando uma averiguação mais aprofundada deste resultado. A principal conclusão, que não ocorre a subordinação testada, está limitada a amostra pesquisada e enseja a continuidade

  8. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  9. Disturbios da olfacao: estudo retrospectivo

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    Luciano Lobato Gregorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: O olfato, fenômeno subjetivo de grande importância, é pouco compreendido e estudado no ser humano. Médicos com maior conhecimento sobre os distúrbios desse sentido tendem a considerar a doença mais importante e manejar melhor o diagnóstico e o tratamento. Objetivo: Descrever a amostra dos pacientes com queixa principal de distúrbios do olfato e mostrar a experiência do serviço no manejo e tratamento. Delineamento: Estudo retrospectivo de coorte histórica com corte transversal. Materiais e métodos: Descrição da amostra e avaliação de resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com queixa principal de hiposmia ou anosmia atendidos no ambulatório de Rinologia no período de janeiro de 2005 a outubro de 2011. Resultados: Dos 38 pacientes com distúrbio da olfação, 68,4% dos pacientes apresentaram queixa de hiposmia e 31,5% de anosmia, com duração média de 30,8 meses. Os diagnósticos etiológicos principais foram idiopática (31,5%, rinopatia alérgica (28,9% e RSC com pólipos (10,5%. As respostas ao tratamento com corticosteroide tópico e ácido alfa-lipoico foram variáveis, assim como na literatura. Conclusão: Maior importância deve ser dada aos distúrbios do olfato na prática do otorrinolaringologista, uma vez que o diagnóstico diferencial é amplo e pode trazer grande morbidade ao paciente, com impacto na sua qualidade de vida.

  10. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  11. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi Furtado, Andre; Gaya Scandiffio, Mirna Ivonne; Barbosa Cortez, Luis Augusto

    2011-01-01

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  12. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156696207

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  13. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  14. SULPHUR AVAILABILITY IN BRAZILIAN SOILS: AVAILABLE SULPHATE-SULPHUR EVALUATION BY CHEMICAL EXTRACTANTS DISPONIBILIDADE DE ENXOFRE EM SOLOS BRASILEIROS: AVALIAÇÃO DO ENXOFRE-SULFATO DISPONÍVEL POR EXTRATORES QUÍMICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eurípedes Malavolta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out with surface samples of 12 soils from the States of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Goiás (Brazil, with carbon contents ranging from 0.5 to 3.03%, sulphur from 0.0104 to 0.0319% and clay from 8 to 60%. The available S-SO4= was evaluated by four chemical extractants: Ca(H2PO4,.H2O-500 ppm P in 2.0 N acetic acid: 0.5 N ammonium acetate in 0.25 N acetic acid; CaCl2 0.15% and 0.05 M HCI. Corn (Zea mays L. was grown in two successive crops in the presence of three rates of S (0, 20 and 40 ppm S, in absence and presence of liming. Among the chemical extractants, calcium phosphate in 2.0 N acetic acid provided the best performance both in operational terms and with respect to correlation with dry matter yield and S uptake. Dilute 0.05 M HCl proved to be thoroughly inadequate due to the impossibility of giving clear uncolored extracts suitable for the turbidimetric determination of S-SO4= thereof. The critical levels were, in ppm of S: a Ca(H2PO42 H2O-500 ppm P in 2.0 N acetic acid - 11; b 0.5 N NH4OAc in 0.25 N acetic acid- 17; c CaCl2 0.15% - 19. The critical levels of available S-SO4= in soils would be overestimated if evaluated by relative uptake of available sulphur. Turbidimetric determinations of S-SO4= have small sensibility in low concentrations of sulphates in soil extracts. One suggest the refining of analytical techniques for sulphates, including several soil/solution ratios.

    Conduziu-se um experimento em casa de vegetação com amostras superficiais de 12 solos, provenientes dos Estados de São Paulo, Minas Gerais e Goiás (Brasil, com teores de carbono variando entre 0,5 e 3,03%, de enxofre entre 0,014 e 0

  15. Brazilian bentonite study: use in Goiania; Estudo das bentonitas nacionais: utilizacao em Goiania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The evaluation of the bentonite effect in the waste cementation process and in the final solidified product properties is presented. The research showed that bentonite amounts until 15% in the product improves the caesium retention without jeopardizing the other product properties. These results were very useful in the treatment of the wastes from the radiological accident occurred in Goiania in 1987, when a caesium sources was broken. Paste, mortar and grout with bentonite were used to solidify and immobilize these wastes. (author) 20 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.; e-mail: tellocc at urano.cdtn.br

  16. Instrumentos de Avaliação de Desempenho e Risco no Mercado Acionário Brasileiro: um estudo de anomalias de mercado na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPAInstruments for the Evaluation Analysis of Performance and Risk in the Brazilian Stock Market: a study of the market anomalies at (BOVESPA Sao PauloInstrumentos de Evaluación del Desempeño y Riesgo en el Mercado de Acciones Brasileño: un estudio de anomalías de mercado en la Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIERI, Francisco José

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOÀ partir da formulação das hipótese dos Mercados Eficientes e da descoberta do sentido das relações entre os ativos negociados no mercado bursátil , e um determinado padrão de conduta racional , eleito (representativo na tomada de decisão dos investidores, este estudo buscou desenvolver à partir do modelo CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model , de precificação em port-fólios , cujas relações entre seus componentes são traduzidas pelo Beta , os questionamentos advindos com o modelo APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Dedica-se pois, à evolução das teorias da avaliação e à quantificação do risco e, formação de preços (retornos esperados dos ativos, que em estudos mais atualizados verificam que o comportamento dos investidores muitas vezes , não confirma a propagada eficiência dos mercados. O trabalho se fundamentou em determinadas áreas tratadas na teoria de investimentos, enfatizando a abordagem do risco como fator de tomada de decisões, além dos modelos de precificação de ativos, de avaliação de carteiras. Fundamentou-se em pesquisa documental e de dados junto à Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo, Instituições gestoras de Fundos de Investimentos e Banco Central do Brasil ( período de 1997 a 2.001, de tal sorte que pudessem ser testadas as diversas teorias acerca da eficiência de mercado, e finalmente, análise das informações obtidas a partir da modelagem de dados, buscando identificar a consistência dos resultados, à luz dos diferentes modelos estudados, relacionado-os aos conceitos de anomalias de mercado. Como resultado, possibilitou definir a Linha de Mercado de Títulos (Security Market Line para o mercado brasileiro, baseando-se nos modelos de precificação de ativos; coeficientes Beta e Fatores do APT.ABSTRACTAs from the assumption of efficient markets, the discovery of the meaning of the relations among the assets negotiated in the Stock Exchange market and a certain standard of rational conduct

  17. Toxic metabolities of disulfoton: behavior in bean-seedlings, in soil, and in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrea, M.M. de

    1986-10-01

    The absorption, translocation and degradation in bean-seedlings of three toxic metabolites of the pesticide 14 C- disulfoton from nutrient solution or three different types of Brazilian soils is studied. (M.A.C.) [pt

  18. Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy form Sarney to Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Silva Ramos Becard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do Livro "Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy", de autoria de Tullo Vigevani e Gabriel Cepaluni. O tema central do livro é a busca brasileira por autonomia, desde a segunda metade dos anos 1980 até 2009. São apresentadas as grandes linhas da política externa brasileira dos pontos de vista teórico e empírico, a partir do estudo de literatura latino-americana sobre o tema.

  19. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  20. The Brazilian emergency response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Raul dos

    1997-01-01

    With the objective of improving the response actions to potential or real emergency situations generated by radiological or nuclear accidents, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) installed an integrated response system on a 24 hours basis. All the natiowide notifications on events that may start an emergency situation are converged to this system. Established since July 1990, this system has received around 300 notifications in which 5% were classified as potential emergency situation. (author)

  1. Efficiency Determinants in Brazilian Football Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Machado de Freitas; Rafael Araújo Sousa Farias; Leonardo Flach

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the efficiency of Brazilian football clubs in generating revenues and the reasons behind it. To achieve this goal, we applied quantitative methods including Data Envelopment Analysis and Tobit regression modeling to data on the best clubs from 2012 to 2014, according to the Brazilian Football Confederation ranking. The results allowed for the inference that the largest Brazilian clubs, such as Grêmio (RS), Palmeiras (SP) and Vasco (RJ), were not efficie...

  2. Chinese Competition and Brazilian Exports of Manufactures

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Rhys

    2014-01-01

    In recent years concerns have been raised over the impact of Chinese competition on Latin American exports, particularly those from Mexico. This article shows that Brazilian manufactured exports too have been negatively affected, and that this has been reflected in the “primarization” of Brazilian exports and a declining share in the import markets of its major customers. A variety of different indicators were used to analyse the extent to which Brazilian exports have faced competition from C...

  3. O cerrado brasileiro: notas para estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho; Carla Jorge Machado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a short literature review on the Brazilian Cerrado, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) characterization of the area, (2) environmental degradation and population occupation, (3) history of regional occupation (4) role of immigration; the use of technology; and the land market.

  4. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, J.R.; Serra, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  5. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  6. ESTUDOS ESTILÍSTICOS NO BRASIL

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    Carlos Eduardo Falcão Uchôa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo objetiva mostrar os inícios e a progressão dos estudos estilísticos no Brasil. Após uma introdução sobre o surgimento, na Europa, da Estilística como disciplina de pesquisa no campo da linguagem, detém-se, sucessivamente, nas contribuições de filólogos, linguistas, teóricos da literatura e gramáticos para o estudo dos mais variados recursos estilísticos ocorrentes sobretudo em autores brasileiros.

  7. Forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Michael C. Amacher

    2009-01-01

    Productive soils are the foundation of sustainable forests throughout the United States. Forest soils are generally subjected to fewer disturbances than agricultural soils, particularly those that are tilled, so forest soils tend to have better preserved A-horizons than agricultural soils. Another major contrast between forest and agricultural soils is the addition of...

  8. Soil and Soil Water Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Zachary M.; Bock, Emily

    2017-01-01

    Discusses the relationships between soil, water and plants. Discusses different types of soil, and how these soils hold water. Provides information about differences in soil drainage. Discusses the concept of water balance.

  9. Natural radionuclides in Brazilian underground mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Rock, soil and water contain "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th and their decay products. The distribution of these radionuclides differs in terms of activity concentration depending on the mineral type and origin. All ore processing releases long and short half-life radionuclides, mainly radon and its progeny. It is important to monitor this gas and its decay products in underground mines in order to assess the radiological hazards of the exposed workers. On this concern, the present work outlines the characterization of brazilian underground mines with relation to natural radionuclides, specially radon and its progeny. The radon concentration was measured by using E-PERM Electrets Ion Chamber (Radelec), AlphaGUARD (Saphymo GmbH) and CR-39 (Landauer) track etch detectors. The radon progeny was determined by using DOSEman detector. The equilibrium state between radon and its progeny was calculated. Based on these data, the total effective dose for miners was estimated. Moreover, the contribution from the main sources to the radon level inside mines was evaluated. For this, the following detectors were used: measurements of radon concentrations in soil gas were carried out by using AlphaGUARD detector; "2"2"6Ra ("2"1"4Bi), "2"3"2Th e "4"0K specific activity in ore and soil samples were determined by using gamma-ray spectrometry HPGe detector (Canberra); and radon concentration in groundwater samples was performed by using RAD7 (Durridge Inc.). The radon concentration ranged from 113 to 8171 Bq.m"-"3 and the Equilibrium Equivalent Concentration varied from 76 to 1174 Bq.m"-"3. The equilibrium factor mean value was 0.4 (0.2 -0.7). The workers estimated total effective dose ranged from 1 to 22 mSv.a"-"1 (mean 10 mSv.a"-"1). Therefore, results show the importance to assess continually and permanently the radon and its progeny behavior and the need to adopt safety measurements against natural radiation in underground mines environment. (author)

  10. Legacy phosphorus and no tillage agriculture in tropical oxisols of the Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Pavinato, Paulo Sergio; Withers, Paul John Anthony; Teles, Ana Paula Bettoni; Herrera, Wilfrand Ferney Bejarano

    2016-01-15

    Crop production in the Brazilian Cerrado is limited by soil phosphorus (P) supply without large inputs of inorganic P fertilizer, which may become more costly and scarce in the future. Reducing dependency on fertilizer P requires a greater understanding of soil P supply in the highly weathered soils in this important agricultural region. We investigated the impact of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) agriculture on accumulated (legacy) soil P and P forms in four long-term sites. Compared to the native savanna soils, tilled soils receiving regular annual P fertilizer inputs (30-50 kg P ha(-1)) increased all forms of inorganic and organic P, except highly recalcitrant P associated with the background lithology. However, 70-85% of the net added P was bound in moderately labile and non-labile forms associated with Fe/Al oxyhydroxides rather than in plant available forms. Under NT agriculture, organic P forms and labile and non-labile inorganic P forms were all significantly (Pagriculture. The contribution of organic P cycling in these tropical soils increased after conversion to agriculture and was proportionally greater under NT. The results highlight the large amounts of unutilized legacy P present in Brazil's Cerrado soils that could be better exploited to reduce dependency on imports of finite phosphate rock. No tillage agriculture confers a positive albeit relatively small benefit for soil P availability and overall soil function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Older adults abuse in three Brazilian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Rosalina Aparecida Partezani; Monteiro, Edilene Araújo; Santos, Ana Maria Ribeiro Dos; Pontes, Maria de Lourdes de Farias; Fhon, Jack Roberto Silva; Bolina, Alisson Fernandes; Seredynskyj, Fernanda Laporti; Almeida, Vanessa Costa; Giacomini, Suelen Borelli Lima; Defina, Giovanna Partezani Cardoso; Silva, Luipa Michele

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the police reports filed by older adults who suffered abuse in order to identify the socio-demographic characteristics of victims and aggressors, type of violence, location, as well as to compare rates in three Brazilian cities in the period from 2009 to 2013. Ecological study, in which 2,612 police reports registered in Police Stations were analyzed. An instrument was used to obtain data from the victim, the aggressor and the type of violence. Psychological abuse predominated and most cases occurred in the older adults own home. In the cities of Ribeirão Preto and João Pessoa, the older adults presented similar rates for both gender. Regarding the standardized rates, in João Pessoa, there was a rise of this type of abuse in the two first years, and later there was a certain stability. In the city of Teresina, there was an increase, also observed in the city of Ribeirão Preto in the three first years, followed by a decrease. Older adults abuse is a cultural phenomenon difficult to be reported by them, since it occurs in the family context. Analisar os boletins de ocorrência registrados por idosos que sofreram violência, a fim de identificar características sociodemográficas das vítimas e dos agressores, tipo de violência, local, bem como comparar as taxas em três municípios brasileiros no período de 2009 a 2013. Estudo ecológico, em que foram analisados 2.612 boletins de ocorrência registrados em Delegacias do Idoso. Utilizou-se um instrumento para obter dados da vítima, do agressor e tipo de violência. Predominou a violência psicológica, na maioria dos casos na própria residência do idoso. Em Ribeirão Preto e João Pessoa, os idosos mais jovens apresentaram taxas semelhantes entre ambos os sexos. Na comparação das taxas padronizadas, em João Pessoa, houve ascensão deste tipo de violência nos dois primeiros anos, e, posteriormente, certa estabilidade. Em Teresina, houve ascensão, também observada em Ribeirão Preto nos tr

  12. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamith, R.; Moutinho Dos Santos, E.

    2000-01-01

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  13. O desamparo aprendido revisitado: estudos com animais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Leite Hunziker

    Full Text Available O desamparo aprendido tem sido definido como a dificuldade de aprendizagem apresentada por indivíduos que tiveram experiência prévia com estímulos aversivos incontroláveis. O objetivo deste trabalho é fazer uma revisão crítica dos estudos sobre o desamparo aprendido, com animais. Nessa análise, são considerados aspectos conceituais e metodológicos dos estudos em questão e as interpretações teóricas sobre esse efeito comportamental. Aborda-se a evolução histórica desses estudos, bem como alguns aspectos controversos das publicações que se acumularam ao longo de quatro décadas de pesquisa. A associação do desamparo aprendido com a depressão clínica é analisada criticamente, destacando-se a necessidade de maior rigor metodológico e conceitual nos estudos da área.

  14. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  15. A source of methane from upland forests in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaina Braga do Carmo; Michael Keller; Jadson Dezincourt Dias; Plinio Barbosa de Camargo; Patrick Crill

    2006-01-01

    We sampled air in the canopy layer of undisturbed upland forests during wet and dry seasons at three sites in the Brazilian Amazon region and found that both methane(CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratios increased at night. Such increases were consistent across sites and seasons. A canopy layer budget model based on measured soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2 was...

  16. Are ant assemblages of Brazilian veredas characterised by location or habitat type?

    OpenAIRE

    Costa-Milanez,CB; Lourenço-Silva,G; Castro,PTA; Majer,JD; Ribeiro,SP

    2014-01-01

    Wetland areas in the Brazilian Cerrado, known as “veredas”, represent ecosystems formed on sandy soils with high concentrations of peat, and are responsible for the recharge of aquiferous reservoirs. They are currently under threat by various human activities, most notably the clearing of vegetation for Eucalyptus plantations. Despite their ecological importance and high conservation value, little is known about the actual effects of human disturbance on the animal community. To a...

  17. Brazilian Studies and Brazilianists: Conceptual remarks

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    Vinicius Mariano de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of Brazilian Studies. It does not intend to outline a defence for a new discipline, or to propose paradigms for that elusive field called ‘area studies’. It will, bring some reflections on epistemological and methodological issues realted to what it is been called Brazilian Studies.

  18. Study of brazilian market of advanvced ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, M.M.; Soares, P.S.M.; SIlva, A.P. da; Alvarinho, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    The brazilian actual market survey of advanced ceramics, divided in sectors according to their function is described. The electroelectronics, magnetics, optics, mechanics and nuclears ceramics are presented. A forecasting of the brazilian market in advanced ceramics are also mentioned. (C.G.C.) [pt

  19. The new Brazilian national forest inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joberto V. de Freitas; Yeda M. M. de Oliveira; Doadi A. Brena; Guilherme L.A. Gomide; Jose Arimatea Silva; < i> et al< /i>

    2009-01-01

    The new Brazilian national forest inventory (NFI) is being planned to be carried out through five components: (1) general coordination, led by the Brazilian Forest Service; (2) vegetation mapping, which will serve as the basis for sample plot location; (3) field data collection; (4) landscape data collection of 10 x 10-km sample plots, based on high-resolution...

  20. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  1. A preliminary study of the content and distribution of pesticide residues in soil samples from the Kathmandu valley, Nepal Estudio preliminar sobre el contenido y distribución de residuos de pesticidas en suelos del valle de Katmandú, Nepal Estudo preliminar sobre o teor e distribuição de resíduos de pesticidas em amostras de solos do vale de Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Sieghardt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of pesticides for agricultural production is causing soil pollution problems in different parts of Nepal. Uncontaminated agricultural soils are of great importance as they have a direct impact on food security and human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the quality and quantity of pesticides in soil samples from districts near the capital city of Kathmandu, from where fruit and vegetables are brought to the city for consumption. A questionnaire survey was carried out in four districts around Kathmandu city to investigate the types of pesticides that are most commonly used in these districts. A total of 15 soil samples were taken at a depth of 10 cm and four complete soil profiles were sampled at three different depths (10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm on the farms of those who were interviewed. A total of four replicates of each soil sample were extracted and analyzed. The pH, soil texture and organic carbon content of the soil samples were analyzed to understand the general soil characteristics. The QuEChERS method used for the analysis of food samples was modified and applied to the soil samples. An HPLC-MS/MS was used for the qualification and quantification of the pesticide residues in the soil samples. The questionnaire survey revealed that carbendazim, chlorpyrifos-methyl, parathion-methyl, imidacloprid, metalaxyl, dimethoate, omethoate and dichlorvos were the most commonly used pesticides in the area studied. The chemical analysis showed that soil samples from all the districts except Kathmandu city were contaminated with various pesticides. The soil samples collected at the depth of 10 cm were found to be contaminated with the fungicide carbendazim and the insecticide chlorpyrifos-methyl at rates of up to 0.038 mg kg-1 and the systemic insecticide imidacloprid was found at up to 0.016 mg kg-1. The study of soil samples taken at different depths (10 cm, 30 cm and 50 cm showed that pesticides were homogenously

  2. Ionospheric Effects of X-Ray Solar Bursts in the Brazilian Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Takahashi, H.; Costa, J. E.; Otsuka, Y.

    2011-12-01

    When the solar X-ray flux in the interplanetary medium reaches values above a certain threshold, some undesired effects affecting radio communications are expected. Basically, the magnitudes of these effects depend on the X-ray peak brightness and duration, which drive the intensity of the ionosphere response when the associated electromagnetic wave hit the sunlit side of the Earth atmosphere. An important aspect defining the severity of damages to HF radio communications and LF navigation signals in a certain area is the local time when each event takes place. In order to create more accurate warnings referred to possible radio signal loss or degradation in the Brazilian sector, we analyze TEC maps obtained by a GPS network, formed by dual-frequency receivers spread all over the country, to observe ionospheric local changes during several X-ray events in the 0.1-0.8 nm range measured by GOES satellite. Considering the duration, peak brightness, and local time of the events, the final purpose of this study is to understand and predict the degree of changes suffered by the ionosphere during these X-ray bursts. We intend using these results to create a radio blackout warning product to be offered by the Brazilian space weather program named EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial): Brazilian Monitoring and Study of Space Weather.

  3. Análise multivariada de Argissolos da faixa atlântica brasileira Multivariate analysis of Argisols of the Brazilian Atlantic coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir de Carvalho Junior

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A faixa atlântica brasileira possui extrema diversidade ambiental, onde é expressiva a ocorrência de Argissolos, descritos e identifcados em diversos estudos, sem que tenham sido exauridas as possibilidades de interpretações. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar, por meio da análise multivariada, as principais diferenças nos atributos físicos e químicos de Argissolos da faixa atlântica brasileira. Foram analisados 91 perfis de solos oriundos de levantamentos pedológicos realizados pelo Projeto RADAMBRASIL, agrupados em três domínios geomorfológicos distintos: Planaltos Soerguidos, Planaltos Rebaixados e Tabuleiros Costeiros, por meio da análise de componentes principais e análise de função discriminante. Para isso, foram selecionadas 14 variáveis para identificar as peculiaridades de cada grupo geomorfológico e suas principais diferenças. A análise dos componentes principais demonstrou que os cinco primeiros componentes respondem por aproximadamente 70 % da variação dos dados. A análise integrada confirmou que os Argissolos dos Planaltos Soerguidos são mais rasos, associando maiores taxas de erosão com menor espessura dos horizontes Bt, e são quimicamente pobres, embora mais rejuvenescidos e rasos. Já os Argissolos nos Planaltos Rebaixados, submetidos a um clima mais seco e, ou, sazonal que os situados nos Planaltos Soerguidos e Tabuleiros Costeiros, mostram-se menos intemperizados e com maior CTC. As análises realizadas (componentes principais e análise discriminante permitem melhor entender as relações geomorfopedológicas dos Argissolos nos diferentes domínios estudados.The Brazilian Atlantic coast have has extreme environmental diversity, where is expressive the occurrence of Argisols, described and identified in several studies, that do not have exhausted the possibilities of interpretations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the main differences in the physical and chemical properties of Argisols

  4. Publication in a Brazilian journal by Brazilian scientists whose papers have international impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, R

    2010-09-01

    Nine Brazilian scientists with an outstanding profile of international publications were invited to publish an original article in the same issue of a Brazilian Journal (Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências). The objective was to measure the impact of the papers on the number of citations to the articles, the assumption being that these authors would carry their international prestige to the Brazilian periodical. In a 2-year period there was a larger number of citations of these articles compared to others published in the same journal. Nevertheless, the number of citations in Brazilian journals did not equal the number of citations obtained by the other papers by the same authors in their international publications within the same 2-year period. The reasons for this difference in the number of citations could be either that less significant invited articles were submitted or that it was due to the intrinsic lack of visibility of the Brazilian journals, but this could not be fully determined with the present data. Also relevant was a comparison between the citations of Brazilian journals and the publication in Brazilian journals by these selected authors. A clear imbalance due to a remarkable under-citation of Brazilian authors by authors publishing in Brazilian journals raises the possibility that psychological factors may affect the decision of citing Brazilian journals.

  5. Micronutrient problems in Brazilian soils with special emphasis on zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.W.B.; Neptune, A.M.L.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1975-01-01

    Brazil, with approximately 50% of the total land area in South America, has areas in which different micronutrient deficiencies (zinc, boron, copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum) have been noted in specific crops. This paper reviews the published research on such deficiencies and puts special emphasis on zinc which appears to be the most widespread deficiency. The need for an integrated approach to determining the extent of micronutrient deficiencies is discussed. (author)