WorldWideScience

Sample records for brazilian soils estudo

  1. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils; Estudo dos processos de corrosao de acos API 5L X70 em contato com alguns dos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesus, Sergio Luis de

    2007-07-01

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  2. MAPRAD: mapping of radioactivity in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAPRAD Project main objective is to increase the knowledge of the distribution of natural radioactivity in soils of Brazilian national territory and to provide (among others) information which are essential for medical geology and environmental radiation safety researches and for decision-making process regarding soil contamination levels. It also aims to make available the generated information for researchers and for public, through an online database. Soil samples are collected by the Geological Survey of Brazil (CPRM) and are sent to the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry (IRD), National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), where they are processed and analyzed for determination of concentrations of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry. The results are inserted into a database containing the sample information as geographic coordinates of the samples and land use. After the sample analysis, results are made available for the scientific community access on Internet. (author)

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  4. Degradation of aldrin im samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    14C-aldrin degradation was studied in the laboratory, in samples of 'cerrado' Brazilian soils, during a period of 240 days. Recovery of radiocarbon decreased with time, although radiocarbon was not incorporated to the soil organic matter as show by soil combustion. In both soils 14C-aldrin degraded to dieldrin and another compound that showed caracteristics of a hydrosoluble derivative of aldrin 14C-aldrin was more persistent in sandy soil but amendment of this soil with nutrients or fertilizers did not enhanced aldrin degradation in this soil. (Author)

  5. The degradation of [14C] parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of [14C] parathion from two Brazilian soils was studied by measuring the parathion which could be extracted by a mixture of hexane and propanol and the 14CO2 evolved. Recovery of unchanged parathion decreased faster in the soil richer in organic matter (soil 1) from which more radiocarbon was evolved as CO2 than from the soil poorerin organic matter (soil 2). Evolution of CO2 from soil 1 decreased rapidly when the soil dried out but little effect of moisture content was observed in soil 2. Radiocarbon remaining in the soils was assayed by combustion after 234 days and the total recovered in soil 1 was 95.6% and, in soil 2,78.7%, sufficient to give almost complete recovery from both soils. (Author)

  6. Sorption and desorption of insecticides in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sorption from aqueous solution of ten Brazilian soil types of four organochlorine, two organophosphorus and one carbamate insecticide was determined in the laboratory using gas chromatographic and radiometric techniques. Measurements showed that soils richest in organic matter, sorbed all substances except aldrin more strongly than the other soils. DDT was the most and aldrin the least sorbed organochlorine pesticide, being dieldrin sorbed two to four times more strongly than aldrin. Sorption of lindane varied in different soils. The organophosphate insecticides malathion and parathion were strongly sorbed in the soils richest in organic matter and weakly sorbed in the poorest soils heing moderately sorbed by the other soils. Sorption of carbaryl by all soils is small. Lindane was desorbed from the soil richest in organic matter and the extent of desorption was dependent on the sorption time. (Author)

  7. Sorption and leaching potential of acidic herbicides in Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadotto, Claudio A; Hornsby, Arthur G; Gomes, Marco A F

    2005-01-01

    Leaching of acidic herbicides (2,4-D, flumetsulam, and sulfentrazone) in soils was estimated by comparing the original and modified AF (Attenuation Factor) models for multi-layered soils (AFi). The original AFi model was modified to include the concept of pH-dependence for Kd (sorption coefficient) based on pesticide dissociation and changes in the accessibility of soil organic functional groups able to interact with the pesticide. The original and modified models, considering soil and herbicide properties, were applied to assess the leaching potential of selected herbicides in three Brazilian soils. The pH-dependent Kd values estimated for all three herbicides were observed to be always higher than pH-independent Kd values calculated using average Koc data, and therefore the original AFi model overestimated the overall leaching potential for the soils studied. PMID:15656159

  8. Assessment and kinetics of soil phosphatase in Brazilian Savanna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Adão S; Espíndola, Suéllen P; Campos, Maria Rita C

    2016-05-31

    The activity and kinetics of soil phosphatases are important indicators to evaluate soil quality in specific sites such as the Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna). This study aimed to determine the activity and kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase in Cerrado systems. Soil phosphatase activity was assessed in samples of native Cerrado (NC), no-tillage (NT), conventional tillage (CT) and pasture with Brachiaria brizantha (PBb) and evaluated with acetate buffer (AB), tris-HCl buffer (TB), modified universal buffer (MUB) and low MUB. The Michaelis-Menten equation and Eadie-Hofstee model were applied to obtain the kinetic parameters of soil phosphatase using different concentrations of p-nitrophenol phosphate (p-NPP). MUB showed the lowest soil phosphatase activity in all soils whereas AB in NC and NT presented the highest. Low MUB decreased interferences in the assessment of soil phosphatase activity when compared to MUB, suggesting that organic acids interfere on the soil phosphatase activity. In NC and NT, soil phosphatase activity performed with TB was similar to AB and low MUB. Km values from the Michaels-Menten equation were higher in NC than in NT, which indicate a lower affinity of phosphatase activity for the substrate in NC. Vmax values were also higher in NC than in NT. The Eadie-Hofstee model suggests that NC had more phosphatase isoforms than NT. The study showed that buffer type is of fundamental importance when assessing soil phosphatase activity in Cerrado soils. PMID:27254453

  9. 3rd Brazilian consensus on Helicobacter pylori 3º Consenso Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.Os avanços significativos ocorridos desde o Segundo Consenso Brasileiro sobre H. pylori realizado em 2004, em São Paulo, justificam este terceiro consenso. O evento foi organizado pelo Núcleo Brasileiro para Estudo do Helicobacter, departamento da Federação Brasileira de Gastroenterologia, tendo sido realizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS, nos dias 12 a 15 de abril de 2011. Contou com a participação de 30 delegados provenientes das cinco regiões brasileiras e um convidado internacional, incluindo gastroenterologistas

  10. Sorption study of U+6 in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R2); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICC). The coefficient of determination (R2), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R2 values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  11. Sorption study of U{sup +6} in Brazilian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junior, Antonio P.; Wasserman, Maria A.V.; Mantovano, Jose L.; Carvalho, Leonel M., E-mail: apjunior@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mantovan@ien.gov.br, E-mail: leonel@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V., E-mail: daniel@cnps.embrapa.br [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisas Agropecuarias (Embrapa Solos-CNPS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The uranium mining is one of the main activities of the nuclear fuel cycle that can contribute to the increased exposure to radioactive materials and is one of the main routes of contamination of soil by natural radionuclides. This study investigated the sorption of uranium in brazilian soils, through sorption isotherms performed in batch. In this study, two types of soils were selected: Ferralsols Red and Nitosol. The adjustment of the experimental data to the kinetic models were evaluated by two approaches: the traditional, based on the coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}); and the theoretical and informative, based on Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AIC{sub C}). The coefficient of determination (R{sup 2}), revealed that, although empirical, both the kinetic model, Freundlich and Langmuir, describes satisfactorily the experimental data, showing R{sup 2} values higher than 0.9, while the partition constant model was not suitable for describe these sorption data. The AICC model analysis showed that the Langmuir model fit the U sorption curve well for Ferralsols Red, while the Freundlich model fits better to Nitosol. This study has highlighted the role of organic matter on the sorption of uranium in highly weathered soils, rich in oxyhydroxides and low activity clays. The Kd values reported in this study differ from those recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, therefore must be considered as reference values for highly weathered soils, since it refers to Brazilian pedoenvironmental conditions. The low Kd values obtained in this study allowed to evaluate the high vulnerability of highly weathered soils to uranium contamination. (author)

  12. Microbial degradation of sulfentrazone in a Brazilian rhodic hapludox soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila O. Martinez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sulfentrazone is amongst the most widely used herbicides for treating the main crops in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, but few studies are available on the biotransformation of this compound in Brazilian soils. Soil samples of Rhodic Hapludox soil were supplemented with sulfentrazone (0.7 µg active ingredient (a.i. g-1 soil and maintained at 27ºC. The soil moisture content was corrected to 30, 70 or 100 % water holding capacity (WHC and maintained constant until the end of the experimental period. Herbicide-free soil samples were used as controls. Another experiment was carried out using soil samples maintained at a constant moisture content of 70% WHC, supplemented or otherwise with the herbicide, and submitted to different temperatures of 15, 30 and 40º C. In both experiments, aliquots were removed after various incubation periods for the quantitative analysis of sulfentrazone residues by gas chromatography. Herbicide-degrading microorganisms were isolated and identified. After 120 days a significant effect on herbicide degradation was observed for the factor of temperature, degradation being higher at 30 and 40º C. A half-life of 91.6 days was estimated at 27º C and 70 % WHC. The soil moisture content did not significantly affect sulfentrazone degradation and the microorganisms identified as potential sulfentrazone degraders were Nocardia brasiliensis and Penicillium sp. The present study enhanced the prospects for future studies on the bio-prospecting for microbial populations related to the degradation of sulfentrazone, and may also contribute to the development of strategies for the bioremediation of sulfentrazone-polluted soils.

  13. Brazilian Soil Science Society: brief history, achievements and challenges for the near future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Oliveira Camargo, Flávio A.; Bezerra de Oliveira, Luiz; Signorelli de Farias, Gonçalo

    2013-04-01

    The Brazilian Soil Science Society (SBCS) is one of the oldest scientific societies in Brazil. It was created in October 1947 during the 1st Brazilian Meeting of Soil Science held at the headquarters of the Agricultural Chemistry Institute of Rio de Janeiro, at present the Soils Institute of the Brazilian Agricultural Research Centre. Its origin lies within the Interamerican Conference of Agriculture, Caracas, 1945, the 2nd Pan American Congress of Mining and Geology, Petropolis, Rio de Janeiro, 1946 and the 5th Brazilian Congress of Chemistry, Porto Alegre, 1947. Its first president was Álvaro Barcelos Fagundes, who was the only Brazilian participant at the 1st International Congress of Soil Science and Transcontinental Excursion held in United States of America, in 1927. At that time he was engaged in research work at the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, at the Rutgers University where he did a doctorate under the guidance of Professor Selman Waksman. The society started with 47 members and presently has nearly 900 members. In its first phase the Brazilian Soil Science Society was housed at the Agricultural Chemistry Institute in Rio de Janeiro and its main activity was the biannual Brazilian Congress of Soil Science. In 1975 its headquarters moved to the Agronomic Institute of Campinas with the creation of its executive board and the start of publication of the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science (1977) as well as the society bulletin (1976). In 1997 its executive office moved to the Soils Department at the Federal University of Viçosa. Nowadays it has a structure similar to the one from the IUSS: the society is organized in four divisions (Soil in space and time, Soils properties and processes, Soil use and management and Soil, environment and society) which encompass 14 technical commissions and eight State or Regional nuclei. The Brazilian Congresses of Soil Science happen without interruption since 1947. The first one had had 72 participants that

  14. The soil education technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: achievements and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggler, Cristine Carole; Aparecida de Mello, Nilvania

    2013-04-01

    The Soil Education and public awareness technical commission of the Brazilian Soil Science Society was created in 1987 as Soil Science teaching commission at that time. In the 90's of the last century the commission was very active and realized three national symposia in the years 1994 to 1996: in Viçosa, Minas Gerais; Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul and Pato Branco, Paraná. The following symposium scheduled to happen in Brasilia, 1997 could not be realized and was followed by a weakening and reduction of the involved group. Those three symposia were focused on the aspects of soil science taught at the university educational level, mainly in agrarian sciences. The concern about what was going on at basic education and perception by society was not much present. The commission was revitalized in 2005 and in 2007 realized its first meeting at the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science in Gramado, Rio Grande do Sul. At that meeting it was already an urge to assume the approach of soil education instead of soil science teaching, within a major concern how society consider soils. It was accepted and adequate under the structural reorganization undergone by the national society following the IUSS main lines. The commission was renamed and got two new mates at the newly created Division IV, Soils, Environment and Society, of the Brazilian Soil Science Society: Soils and Food Safety and History, Epistemology and Sociology of Soil Science. The national symposia were relaunched to happen biannually. An inventory of the soil education experiences around the country started and the geographic distribution of the future symposia intended to rescue and bring together experiences in different parts of the country that would not be known by other means. Three symposia were already realized: Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, 2008 (southeast); Curitiba, Paraná, 2010 (south) and Sobral, Ceará, 2012 (northeast). The next is planned to happen in Recife, Pernambuco in April 2014. The scope of the

  15. Uptake of radionuclides by plants growing on Brazilian soil: the effect of soil ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of radionuclides in soil is governed by several mechanisms that can vary significantly according to the specific reactivity of each element and soil properties. The 137Cs is one of radionuclides that generally reduces with time its mobility and phytoavailability due to irreversible fixation in high activity clay mineral such as illite, vermiculite and montmorilonite. A long-term experimental essay using Brazilian soils was done in order to determine the effect of ageing of contamination on 137Cs mobility in soils and transfer to plants. To perform this study, 4 different soils with different properties were contaminated with 137Cs at different period: The older contamination refers to an urban soil contaminated at the Goiania accident (1987). A similar type of Goiania's soil (Ferralsol rich in Gibbsite) was artificially contaminated with 137Cs in 1993. A subtropical class of soil (Nitisol) was contaminated in 1996 and two other tropical soils were contaminated in 2000 (Acrisol and Ferralsol rich in Goethite). The time's effect was studied by characterizing the evolution of soil properties and the changes in the distribution of radionuclides between phases till 2006. In addition, the phytoavailability was evaluated by carrying out experiments in lysimeters where radish was sowed at different periods:1996, 2000 and 2004. These results showed that the phytoavailability changed with time only in 2 situations: after changes in some soil properties such as pH or due to Cs fixation in high activity clay mineral when it was present in the soils even as trace mineral. The 137Cs distribution in soil showed that Fe oxides are the main sink for this element in all type of soil and 14 years after contamination, the 137Cs was still available for plants in the Ferralsol Gbbiste rich. In the Nitisol, 5 years after contamination, the 137Cs was not detected as in the slightly acidic phase of sequential extraction neither detectable in radish roots or leaves, indicating

  16. Avaliação de apoio social em estudos brasileiros: aspectos conceituais e instrumentos Social support assessment in Brazilian studies: conceptual aspects and measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonantzin Ribeiro Gonçalves

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou como o apoio social tem sido avaliado em estudos brasileiros. Foi realizado um levantamento das publicações científicas de 1987 a 2007, nos indexadores Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO e Lilacs, usando as palavras-chave apoio social, suporte social, rede social. Foram encontrados 59 estudos que contemplavam a avaliação de apoio social em amostras brasileiras. Os resultados apontaram um crescimento nos últimos anos no número de estudos brasileiros que incluem a avaliação do apoio social, com a predominância do uso de técnicas de entrevistas para investigar, em especial, o apoio recebido e o apoio percebido. Contudo, o construto foi utilizado, algumas vezes, sem uma fundamentação teórica sólida e associado a vários outros conceitos sem uma articulação clara. Fica também evidente a escassez de instrumentos fidedignos, válidos e padronizados para a realidade brasileira, apesar dos diversos instrumentos já utilizados e que são revisados no presente estudo.This study investigated the different ways of evaluating the social support in Brazilian studies. A surveying of scientific Brazilian publications from 1987 to 2007 was done in the Indexpsi, Pepsic, SciELO and Lilacs databases according to keywords social support and social network. Fifty-five studies included some type of assessing social support in Brazilian samples. The results indicated a rise in the number of studies about social support assessment in the last years using interviews to investigate received and perceived support, predominantly. However, the construction was applied without theoretical basis and was associated with many other concepts, sometimes without an appropriate articulation. Besides, there were evidences of lacking reliable, valid and standardized instruments to Brazilian population by considering the instruments currently used and revised by this study.

  17. BRAZILIAN BUSINESS REVIEW: UM ESTUDO SOB A ÓTICA DA BIBLIOMETRIA E DA REDE SOCIAL DE 2004 A 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investigou a produção científica do periódico Brazilian Business Review, no período de 2004 a 2011. O estudo assenta numa pesquisa bibliométrica e rede social, utilizando-se de estatística descritiva, nos 129 artigos publicados no período. Os principais resultados foram: predominância de artigos em parceria; os autores Valcemiro Nossa, Ariovaldo dos Santos e Otávio Ribeiro de Medeiros são os mais prolíferos; Lopes, A. B. e Porter, M. E. foram os pesquisadores mais citados; a Universidade de São Paulo foi a IES que mais publicou artigos. Constatou-se uma centralidade de rede tanto na coautoria como também nas IES. E as temáticas mais evidenciadas em 8 anos de análise foram: Finanças, Mercado de capitais, Marketing, Organização e Negócios e Contabilidade e Auditoria. Conclui-se de maneira macro, que mesmo sendo uma revista nova na academia, a Brazilian Business Review, por meio de seu acervo, já retrata o universo da produção cientifica. Isto evidencia o amadurecimento e importância deste periódico, servindo como fomentador e disseminador do conhecimento e do fluxo das informações científicas na literatura acadêmica nacional, mas especificamente nas áreas de administração, contabilidade e economia.

  18. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of iron concretions of some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical and physical analyses of concretionary materials were carried out, with the purpose of getting chemical and mineralogical characteristics of concretions found in some Brazilian soils in different ecosystems spectrophotometry was used for the chemical characterization, and x-ray diffraction and Moessbauer spectroscopy for the mineralogical characterization of the materials studied. (A.R.H.)

  19. Characterization of the core microbiota of the drainage and surrounding soil of a Brazilian copper mine

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Bianca Pereira; Renato Vicentini; Laura M. M. Ottoboni

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The core microbiota of a neutral mine drainage and the surrounding high heavy metal content soil at a Brazilian copper mine were characterized by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. The core microbiota of the drainage was dominated by the generalist genus Meiothermus. The soil samples contained a more heterogeneous bacterial community, with the presence of both generalist and specialist bacteria. Both environments supported mainly heterotrophic bacteria, including organisms resistant to heavy m...

  20. Adsorption, leaching and persistence of carbendazim in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorption, movement and degradation of carbendazin in gley humic, yellow red latosol and red latosol soils was studied in the laboratory using nuclear techniques. Soils rich in organic matter showed higher sorption and lower mobility. Carbendazin persisted in the three soils, higher degradation occuring in the humic gley soil, richest in organic matter. Recovery of carbendazin diminishes with time being lower in the soil richest in organic matter. After an incubation period of 150 days, 2-aminobenzimidazole a compound without fungitoxic activity was detected as the main degradation product of carbendazin. (Author)

  1. Evaluation of Sikora instead of SMP buffer to estimate the potential acidity of brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Santanna

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the efficiency of the Shoemaker, McLean, Pratt (SMP buffer method in estimating soil acidity, the presence of p-nitrophenol and potassium chromate in the solution, both hazardous substances, has caused increasing environmental concerns. The purpose of this study was to test Sikora method (Sikora, 2006 as an alternative to the adapted SMP buffer method, generally used to estimate potential acidity of Southern Brazilian soils. For the test, 21 soils in the South and Cerrado regions of Brazil were sampled. (1 The potential acidity values of these soils range from 35.95 to 4.02 cmol c kg-1 of soil, reflecting a wide acidity variation. The Sikora buffer does not mimic the adapted SMP buffer used in Southern Brazil, since the former has a low ability to distinguish soils with different acidity from each other, probably due to the higher buffer capacity than of the adapted SMP solution.

  2. Going Global: an organizational study of Brazilian foreign policy Tornando-se Global: um estudo organizacional da política externa brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rivarola Puntigliano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of globalisation on the organization and strategies outlined by the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The study intends to understand how countries from the periphery deal with new institutional challenges resulting from globalization, using the case of the Brazilian diplomatic service.Neste estudo se analisa o impacto da globalização sobre a organização e as estratégias desenvolvidas pelo Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil. No artigo se pretende esclarecer como os países da periferia lidam com os novos desafios institucionais que resultam da globalização, usando o caso do serviço diplomatico brasileiro.

  3. Availability of native and fertilizer P in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic forms of phosphorus were determined in two Red-Yellow Latosols, which were incubated with P fertilizers for a month, after equilibration with 32P for 60 hours. The methods used were soil P fractionation combined with the 32P isotopic dilution technique. The fertilizers applied were: H3PO4, 10-30-0 suspension, MAP and triple superphosphate, at the rate of 92 mg P kg-1 of soil. In both soils, the isotopically exchangeable inorganic phosphorus fractions decreased in the following order: water soluble P > Al bound P > Fe bound P > calcium bound P > occluded-P. The water- soluble and Al bound P were the main source of available P for the newly fertilized soil. The Fe bound phosphate was also an important source of available P in both soils when fertilizer was not applied. The soil P fixing capacity affected the availability of native and added phosphorus. (author)

  4. Loss of soil (macro)fauna due to the expansion of Brazilian sugarcane acreage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, André L C; Bartz, Marie L C; Cherubin, Maurício R; Baretta, Dilmar; Cerri, Carlos E P; Feigl, Brigitte J; Wall, Diana H; Davies, Christian A; Cerri, Carlos C

    2016-09-01

    Land use changes (LUC) from pasture to sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) crop are expected to add 6.4Mha of new sugarcane land by 2021 in the Brazilian Cerrado and Atlantic Forest biomes. We assessed the effects of these LUC on the abundance and community structure of animals that inhabit soils belowground through a field survey using chronosequences of land uses comprising native vegetation, pasture, and sugarcane along a 1000-km-long transect across these two major tropical biomes in Brazil. Macrofauna community composition differed among land uses. While most groups were associated with samples taken in native vegetation, high abundance of termites and earthworms appeared associated with pasture soils. Linear mixed effects analysis showed that LUC affected total abundance (X(2)(1)=6.79, p=0.03) and taxa richness (X(2)(1)=6.08, p=0.04) of soil macrofauna. Abundance increased from 411±70individualsm(-2) in native vegetation to 1111±202individualsm(-2) in pasture, but decreased sharply to 106±24individualsm(-2) in sugarcane soils. Diversity decreased 24% from native vegetation to pasture, and 39% from pasture to sugarcane. Thus, a reduction of ~90% in soil macrofauna abundance, besides a loss of ~40% in the diversity of macrofauna groups, can be expected when sugarcane crops replace pasture in Brazilian tropical soils. In general, higher abundances of major macrofauna groups (ants, coleopterans, earthworms, and termites) were associated with higher acidity and low contents of macronutrients and organic matter in soil. This study draws attention for a significant biodiversity loss belowground due to tropical LUC in sugarcane expansion areas. Given that many groups of soil macrofauna are recognized as key mediators of ecosystem processes such as soil aggregation, nutrients cycling and soil carbon storage, our results warrant further efforts to understand the impacts of altering belowground biodiversity and composition on soil functioning and agriculture performance

  5. Persistence, leaching and volatilization of 14C-aldrin in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence, leaching and volatilization of aldrin in two Brazilian soils, one rich (soil 1) the other poor (soil 2) in organic matter, was studied under field and laboratory conditions, by gas chromatography and radioisotope techniques. In the field, soils were packed into PVC tubes 30 cm long and 5.0 cm diameter, sunk in a bed of sand. After 1 year radioactivity was found in soil 1 only in the top 10 cm from which 36% of unchanged pesticide was extracted, in contrast with soil 2 where only 8% radioactivity remained and this was distributed to a depth of at least 20 cm. Laboratory tests were made in closed jars with plastic caps lined with a circle of polyurethane foam to absorb volatile materials. After 120 days 30,9% of radioactivity from soil 1 was found in the foam and 61,7% from soil 2. Increased soil moisture content increased the radioactivity found in foam above soil 2. Thin layer chromatography of soil extracts showed the presence of aldrin, dieldrin and a third non identified radioactive material. (Author)

  6. Aquisição de drogas: um estudo entre estudantes brasileiros Drug acquisition: a study among Brazilian students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Saldanha da Fonseca

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O crescente consumo de drogas no Brasil atinge uma população cada vez mais jovem, inclusive estudantes. Os levantamentos epidemiológicos realizados entre alunos brasileiros de educação básica concluíram que a grande maioria dos alunos nunca teve contato com drogas, exceto tabaco e álcool. Quanto aos usuários, é avaliado o modo como agem para que se possa adotar contramedidas. O presente estudo tem como objetivo investigar os canais que os estudantes usuários utilizam para adquirirem as drogas (forma e/ou local. Os resultados apontam em primeiro lugar os amigos, seguidos de traficantes, farmácias, outros e familiares. Conclui-se pela necessidade das escolas promoverem ações preventivas que reduzam os riscos do abuso de drogas entre os estudantes, adotando um conjunto de medidas que visem a uma educação para a saúde e para a qualidade de vida. Destaca-se a importância das contribuições do psicólogo da saúde, atuando na prevenção primária, secundária e terciária.The increase of drug consumption in Brazil is reaching young populations, including students. Epidemiological surveys carried out among basic education Brazilian students had concluded that the majority of students have never had contact with drugs (with the exception of tobacco and alcohol. The way drug users usually act has also been evaluated in order to counteract such behaviours. Accordingly, the objective of the present study is to investigate how drugs users obtain drugs. Results evinced that friends are ranked first followed by drug dealers, pharmacies and family. The study pinpoints the need that schools direct their efforts toward preventive actions to reduce the risk of drug abuse among students through the adoption of measures aimed at providing health education and the enhancement of quality of life. The important role of health psychology in all levels of prevention is acnowledged and discussed.

  7. Decomposition of 14C - malathion in three Brazilian soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degradation of 14C-malathion in soil was examined using gas chromatography and radiotracer techniques. About half of the malathion added was degraded within a day in soil from three regions of Brazil. Almost all the radiolabelled material extracted from the Red Latosol (Londrina, PR) was malathion, but metabolites were extracted from the 'Sandy' cerrado soil (Planaltina, DF) and Dark-Red Latosol (Passo Fundo, RS). The proportion of metabolites in the extracts increased until most of the malathion was degraded, after four days. Radiocarbon dioxide was liberated from all three soils at similar rates. When about half of the label had been recovered as carbon dioxide after eight weeks, the rate of evolution diminished. (Author)

  8. Cellulolytic ability of Penicillium strains isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic forest

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, R.; Lima, J. S.; Fonseca, J. C.; Ferreira, M. J. S.; Moreira, K. A.; Santos, C; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

    2012-01-01

    Penicillium spp. are capable of degrading plant wastes by producing large amounts of enzymes such as cellulases. These form a complex capable of acting on cellulosic materials and producing sugars with industrial interest (e.g., ethanol production). Cellulases are also used for (a) pulp and paper industry (b) in the textile industry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cellulolytic capability of 17 strains of Penicillium isolated from soil of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest...

  9. Soil Organic Matter Dynamics from Forest to Pasture Conversion in the Brazilian Amazon using Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, C. P.; Easter, M.; Paustian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, M.; Melillo, J.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and even global carbon cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to use a modelling approach to examine the dynamics of soil carbon when forest is converted to pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from eleven site- specific `forest to pasture' chronosequences with the Century Ecosystem Model and the Rothamsted Carbon Model. The Century and RothC models predicted that forest clearance and conversion to well managed pasture would cause an initial decline in soil C stocks (0-20 cm depth), followed by a slow rise to levels exceeding those under native forest. The only exception to this pattern was found for a chronosequence in Suia-Missu, which is under degraded pasture. Statistical tests were applied to determine levels of agreement between simulated soil organic carbon stocks and observed stocks for all the sites within the 11 chronosequences in the Brazilian Amazon. The models also provided reasonable estimates (coefficient of correlation = 0.8) of the microbial biomass C in the 0-10 cm soil layer for two chronosequences when compared with available measured data. The Century model adequately predicted the magnitude and the overall trend in 13C for the six chronosequences where measured 13C data were available. Our results suggest that modelling techniques can be successfully used for monitoring soil C stocks and changes, allowing both the identification of current patterns in the soil and the prediction of future conditions.

  10. Evaluation of mobility potential of 90Sr in Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of 90Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with 90Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FTcorn: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FTradish: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT cabbage: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great 90Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and nutrients content) improved the

  11. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiane da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field capacity and -1500 kPa (permanent wilting point for Yellow Argisol and Yellow Latosol from the Brazilian Coastal Plains region. The Coastal Plains soils are mostly developed from Barreiras formation (pre-weathered sediments and their main uses are sugarcane, livestock, forestry and fruticulture. The database to generate the PTFs was composed from the selection of information derived from scientific works and soil survey reports of the region. Specific PTFs were generated for each soil class, in their respective A and B horizons and for solum, through multiple regression by stepwise package of R language programming. Due to the small pedological variability (small number of soil classes containing great geographical expression and mineralogical uniformity, usually observed in this environment, non-stratification of soil classes to create general PTFs presented similar or superior results compared to equations for each soil class. The adjustment of data demonstrated that water retention values at -33 kPa and -1500 kPa potentials can be estimated with adequate accuracy for the main soils of the Brazilian Coastal Plains through PTFs mainly from particle size distribution and secondarily from organic matter data.

  12. The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. PhD thesis, Wageningen Univers

  13. Institutional landmarks in Brazilian research on soil erosion: a historical overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Santos Telles

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of soil erosion in Brazil has been a focus of agricultural scientific research since the 19th century. The aim of this study was to provide a historical overview of the institutional landmarks which gave rise to the first studies in soil erosion and established the foundations of agricultural research in Brazil. The 19th century and beginning of the 20th century saw the founding of a series of institutions in Brazil, such as Botanical Gardens, executive institutions, research institutes, experimental stations, educational institutions of agricultural sciences, as well as the creation and diversification of scientific journals. These entities, each in its own way, served to foster soil erosion research in Brazil. During the Imperial period (1808-1889, discussions focused on soil degradation and conserving the fertility of agricultural land. During the First Republic (1889-1930, with the founding of various educational institutions and consolidation of research on soil degradation conducted by the Agronomic Institute of Campinas in the State of São Paulo, studies focused on soil depletion, identification of the major factors causing soil erosion and the measures necessary to control it. During the New State period (1930-1945, many soil conservation practices were developed and disseminated to combat erosion and field trials were set up, mainly to measure soil and water losses induced by hydric erosion. During the Brazilian New Republic (1945-1964, experiments were conducted throughout Brazil, consolidating soil and water conservation as one of the main areas of Soil Science in Brazil. This was followed by scientific conferences on erosion and the institutionalization of post-graduate studies. During the Military Regime (1964-1985, many research and educational institutions were founded, experimental studies intensified, and coincidently, soil erosion reached alarming levels which led to the development of the no-tillage system.

  14. Land-Use Change, Soil Process and Trace Gas Fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Jerry M.; Steudler, Paul A.

    1997-01-01

    We measured changes in key soil processes and the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O associated with the conversion of tropical rainforest to pasture in Rondonia, a state in the southwest Amazon that has experienced rapid deforestation, primarily for cattle ranching, since the late 1970s. These measurements provide a comprehensive quantitative picture of the nature of surface soil element stocks, C and nutrient dynamics, and trace gas fluxes between soils and the atmosphere during the entire sequence of land-use change from the initial cutting and burning of native forest, through planting and establishment of pasture grass and ending with very old continuously-pastured land. All of our work is done in cooperation with Brazilian scientists at the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA) through an extant official bi-lateral agreement between the Marine Biological Laboratory and the University of Sao Paulo, CENA's parent institution.

  15. Runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Paulo Tarso S.; Nearing, Mark; Wendland, Edson

    2015-04-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is a large and important economic and environmental region that is experiencing major loss of its natural landscapes due to pressures of food and energy production, which has caused large increases in soil erosion. However the magnitude of the soil erosion increases in this region is not well understood, in part because scientific studies of surface runoff and soil erosion are scarce or nonexistent in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation. In this study we measured natural rainfall-driven rates of runoff and soil erosion for an undisturbed tropical woodland classified as "cerrado sensu stricto denso" and bare soil to compute the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cover and management factor (C-factor) to help evaluate the likely effects of land use change on soil erosion rates. Replicated data on precipitation, runoff, and soil loss on plots (5 x 20 m) under bare soil and cerrado were collected for 55 erosive storms occurring in 2012 and 2013. The measured annual precipitation was 1247.4 mm and 1113.0 mm for 2012 and 2013, resulting in a rainfall erosivity index of 4337.1 MJ mm ha-1 h-1 and 3546.2 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, for each year respectively. The erosive rainfall represented 80concentrated in the wet season, which generally runs from October through March. In the plots on bare soil, the runoff coefficient for individual rainfall events (total runoff divided by total rainfall) ranged from 0.003 to 0.860 with an average value and standard deviation of 0.212 ± 0.187. Moreover, the runoff coefficient found for the bare soil plots (~20infiltration capacity. In forest areas the leaf litter and the more porous soil tend to promote the increase of infiltration and water storage, rather than rapid overland flow. Indeed, runoff coefficients ranged from 0.001 to 0.030 with an average of less than 1under undisturbed cerrado. The soil losses measured under bare soil and cerrado were 15.68 t ha-1yr-1 and 0.24 t ha-1 yr-1 in 2012, and 14.82 t ha-1 yr-1, 0.11 t ha-1

  16. Accumulation of 137Cs in Brazilian soils and its transfer to plants under different climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spatial distribution and behaviour of the global fallout 137Cs in the tropical, subtropical and equatorial soil-plant systems were investigated at several upland sites in Brazil selected according to their climate characteristics, and to the agricultural importance. To determine the 137Cs deposition density, undisturbed soil profiles were taken from 23 environments situated between the latitudes of 02oN and 30oS. Sampling sites located along to the equator exhibited 137Cs deposition densities with an average value of 219 Bq m-2. Extremely low deposition densities of 1.3 Bq m-2 were found in the Amazon region. In contrast, the southern part of Brazil, located between latitudes of 20oS and 34oS, exhibited considerably higher deposition densities ranging from 140 Bq m-2 to 1620 Bq m-2. To examine the 137Cs soil-to-plant transfer in the Brazilian agricultural products, 29 mainly tropical plant species, and corresponding soil samples were collected at 43 sampling locations in nine federal states of Brazil. Values of the 137Cs concentration factor plant/soil exhibited a large range from 0.020 (beans) to 6.2 (cassava). Samples of some plant species originated from different collecting areas showed different concentration factors. The 137Cs content of some plants collected was not measurable due to a very low 137Cs concentration level found in the upper layers of the incremental soils. Globally, the soil-to-plant transfer of 137Cs can be described by a logarithmic normal distribution with a geometric mean of 0.3 and a geometric standard deviation of 3.9

  17. Inter-relation between soybean yield and soil compaction under degraded pasture in Brazilian Savannah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rienni de Paula Queiroz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah plays an important economic and financial role in the nation, since the pastures of this biome feed cattle for half of the domestic bovine meat productivity, and its agricultural fields produce a third of the country's grain. The variability and spatial dependence between the soil physical attributes and soybean yield were evaluated in a crop rotation planted on a degraded brachiaria pasture, on a dystroferric Red Latosol of an experimental farm of the State University of São Paulo (UNESP, in the 2005/2006 growing season. The linear and spatial correlations between these attributes were also studied, to determine conditions that would allow increased agricultural productivity. In the above pasture area, a grid was installed with 124 plots, spaced 10.0 x 10.0 m and 5.0 x 5.0 m apart, in a total area of 7,500 m². From the linear and spatial point of view, the high grain yield can be explained by the number of grains per plant and soil macroporosity. The high variability observed for most soil properties indicated that the crop - livestock integration system results in environmental heterogeneity of the soil.

  18. Acetamiprid, carbendazim, diuron and thiamethoxam sorption in two Brazilian tropical soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Leandro; Martins, Eucarlos L; Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Cláudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2007-01-01

    Sorption of acetamiprid ((E)-N1-[(6-chloro-3-pyridyl)methyl]-N2-cyano-N1-methylacetamidine), carbendazim (methyl benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamate), diuron (N-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-N, N-dimethyl urea) and thiamethoxam (3-(2-chloro-thiazol-5-ylmethyl)-5-methyl-[1,3,5]oxadiazinan-4-ylidene-N-nitroamine) was evaluated in two Brazilian tropical soils, Oxisol and Entisol, from Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. To describe the sorption process, batch experiments were carried out. Linear and Freundlich isotherm models were used to calculate the K(d) and K(f) coefficients from experimental data. The K(d) values were utilized to calculate the partition coefficient normalized to soil organic carbon (K(oc)). For the pesticides acetamiprid, carbendazim, diuron and thiamenthoxan the K(oc) (mL g(- 1)) values ranged in both soils from 98 - 3235, 1024 - 2644, 145 - 2631 and 104 - 2877, respectively. From the studied pesticides, only carbendazim presented correlation (r(2) = 0.82 and p < 0.01) with soil organic carbon (OC) content. Acetamiprid and thiamethoxam showed low sorption coefficients, representing a high risk of surface and ground water contamination. PMID:17562457

  19. Soil profile, relief features and their relation to structure and distribution of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest trees

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme; Tiago Osório Ferreira; Marco Antonio Assis; Pablo Vidal Torrado; Leonor Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato

    2012-01-01

    In tropical forests, the environmental heterogeneity can provide niche partitioning at local scales and determine the diversity and plant species distribution. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the variations of tree species structure and distribution in response to relief and soil profile features in a portion of the largest remnant of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. All trees ³ 5 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in two 0.99 ha plots. Topographic survey and a soil characterizat...

  20. Soils in the southern Brazilian highlands: genesis, soil organic matter composition, and relations to vegetation history

    OpenAIRE

    Dümig, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The soils in the highlands of north-eastern Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are distributed in a mosaic of grassland and deciduous forest with the conifer Araucaria angustifolia. The objectives of this study were (1) to identify the relationships between vegetation mosaic and soil properties, (2) to reconstruct the vegetation history, (3) to investigate if the composition of soil organic matter is associated with vegetation changes. Overall, the results of this investigation are important cont...

  1. Analyzing the mobility in granular forms of P fertilizer in Brazilians soils under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Robson C. de; Oliveira, Davi Ferreira de; Oliveira, Luis Fernando de; Anjos, Marcelino Jose dos, E-mail: prof.robinho@gmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares; Teixeira, Paulo Cesar; Benites, Vinicius Melo, E-mail: paulo.c.teixeira@embrapa.br [Embrapa Solos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for plant growth. Million of tones of P are applied to the soils annually. However, only a small fraction of the P applied with fertilizers is taken up by crops in the year of application, and the effectiveness of any residual P fertilizer declines with time. To improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying this response to P in the field, we have studied the mobility of P from 3 different fertilizes: monoammonium phosphate (MAP), polymer coated monoammonium phosphate (MAPp) and Organomineral phosphate (OMP) applied on high weathered soil samples in a Petri dish experiment. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to determine the P diffusive flux at different distances (0 - 7.5, 7.5 – 13.5, 13.5 – 25.5 and 25.5 – 43 mm) from granular fertilizer. TXRF analyses were performed at the X-Ray Fluorescence Beamline D09B at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, Sao Paulo, using a polychromatic beam with maximum energy of 20 keV for the excitation and an Ultra-LEGe detector with resolution of 148 eV at 5.9 keV. Besides that, the detections were performed in a high vacuum chamber (2.5 x 10-5 mbar) to avoid air absorption. After a period of five weeks, the total P concentration increased in the soil sampled 7.5 to 13.5 mm from the fertilizer showing a diffusive flux of P. About 20% (considering MAP and MAPp) of the total P applied diffused out of the central soil ring. Different sources showed differences in diffusive flux of P. Soil pH also influenced diffusive flux of P showing higher flux on lower pH soils. (author)

  2. BRAZILIAN BUSINESS REVIEW: UM ESTUDO SOB A ÓTICA DA BIBLIOMETRIA E DA REDE SOCIAL DE 2004 A 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique César Melo Ribeiro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the scientific journal of the Brazilian Business Review, from 2004 to 2011. The study is based on bibliometric and social network, using descriptive statistics, in 129 articles published. The main results were: predominance of papers in partnership; the authors Valcemiro Nossa, Ariovaldo dos Santos e Otávio Ribeiro de Medeiros are the most prolific; Lopes, A. B. and Porter, M. E. were the most cited researchers; the University of São Paulo was the IES had published more papers. There was a central network both in coauthorship but also in IES. And the themes most prevalent in eight years of study were: Finance, Capital Markets, Marketing, Organization and Business and Accounting and Auditing. It is so macro, even being a new journal at the academia, the Brazilian Business Review, through its collection, now portrays the world of scientific production. This shows the maturity and importance of this journal, serving as fomenter and disseminator of knowledge and the flow of scientific information in the academic literature nationally, but specifically in the áreas of administration, accounting and economics.

  3. Contribuições da psicologia Brasileira para o estudo da surdez Contributions of Brazilian psychology to the study of deafness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia A. Bisol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as contribuições da psicologia brasileira para o estudo da surdez. Realizou-se uma revisão em periódicos nacionais qualis A, B e C, sendo que um total de 34 artigos foi selecionado e analisado segundo o conceito de surdez, a temática central e o tipo de publicação. Os principais resultados, referentes a publicações entre 1995 e 2005, indicam que: (a o conceito socioantropológico de surdez prevalece entre os pesquisadores brasileiros; (b as temáticas de maior interesse são a linguagem e a língua, o desenvolvimento cognitivo e relações familiares; (c foram encontrados 15 artigos de revisão de literatura, 16 de relatos de pesquisa empírica e 3 de relato de experiência. Discute-se a necessidade de ampliar a produção científica na área.This article presents the contributions of Brazilian Psychology to the study of deafness. National journals, categories A, B, and C were reviewed and 34 articles were selected and analyzed considering the concept of deafness, the core issue and the kind of publication. The main results, concerning the publications made between 1995 and 2005 show that: (a the socio-anthropologic concept of deafness prevails among Brazilian researchers; (b the issues of main interest are language, cognitive development and family relations; (c 15 of the articles found were literature reviews, 16 were empirical research reports and 3 were reports of practical experiences. This article discusses the need of increasing the scientific production in this area of study.

  4. Custeio ABC no ambiente hospitalar: um estudo nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros ABC costing in hospital environment: a study in brazilian university hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto José Miranda

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O Custeio Baseado em Atividades tem se mostrado como uma alternativa promissora para fazer frente à complexidade que caracteriza os custos hospitalares. Nos últimos dez anos, somente na Plataforma Lattes, foram encontrados mais de uma centena de estudos dessa natureza. Este trabalho tem como objetivo, conhecer, empiricamente, a utilização do Custeio ABC nos hospitais universitários e de ensino brasileiros e comparar os resultados, conforme as possibilidades, com as pesquisas realizadas nas maiores empresas brasileiras pelos autores: Khoury (1999, Beuren e Roedel (2002 e Azevedo, Santos e Pamplona (2004. Dos 115 questionários enviados aos hospitais universitários, 34 foram respondidos. O estudo levou a conclusões importantes, como: Os sistemas de custos atuais dos hospitais têm poucas condições de fornecer informações úteis à gestão; o Custeio ABC é bastante conhecido no ambiente, mas o número de usuários ainda é relativamente pequeno: apenas 15% da amostra; mas existe expectativa por parte de 44% dos hospitais com relação ao uso futuro da abordagem. As principais causas apresentadas para a não-utilização do Sistema ABC foram: (a o sistema utilizado atende às necessidades da organização e (b o Custeio Baseado em Atividades é muito complexo.The Cost Based Activity has been a promising alternative to deal with the complexity that characterizes hospital costs. In the last ten years, only in the Plataforma Lattes, more than a hundred studies of this nature had been found. This work aims to find out, empirically, the use of ABC Costing in Brazilian university hospitals and to compare the results, according to the possibilities, with the researches that have been made in the biggest Brazilian companies by the authors: Khoury (1999, Beuren and Roedel (2002 and Azevedo, Santos and Pamplona (2004. A hundred and fifteen questionnaires were sent to the university hospitals, 34 had been answered. The study relates important

  5. Heavy-metal-contaminated industrial soil: Uptake assessment in native plant species from Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sylvia Therese; Castro, Samuel Rodrigues; Fernandes, Marcus Manoel; Soares, Aylton Carlos; de Souza Freitas, Guilherme Augusto; Ribeiro, Edvan

    2016-08-01

    Plants of the Cerrado have shown some potential for restoration and/or phytoremediation projects due to their ability to grow in and tolerate acidic soils rich in metals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the tolerance and accumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in five native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado (Copaifera langsdorffii, Eugenia dysenterica, Inga laurina, Cedrela fissilis, Handroanthus impetiginosus) subjected to three experiments with contaminated soils obtained from a zinc processing industry (S1, S2, S3) and control soil (S0). The experimental design was completely randomized (factorial 5 × 4 × 3) and conducted in a greenhouse environment during a 90-day experimentation time. The plant species behavior was assessed by visual symptoms of toxicity, tolerance index (TI), translocation factor (TF), and bioaccumulation factor (BF). C. fissilis has performed as a Zn accumulator by the higher BFs obtained in the experiments, equal to 3.72, 0.88, and 0.41 for S1, S2, and S3 respectively. This species had some ability of uptake control as a defense mechanism in high stress conditions with the best behavior for phytoremediation and high tolerance to contamination. With economical and technical benefits, this study may support a preliminary analysis necessary for using native tree species in environmental projects. PMID:26852633

  6. Study of the drivers of competitiveness of the Brazilian biodiesel; Estudo dos direcionadores de competitividade do biodiesel brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesar, Aldara da Silva; Batalha, Mario Otavio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao; Monteiro, Marcos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Centro de Caracterizacao e Desenvolvimento de Materiais

    2008-07-01

    In the increasingly important role that the biofuel market takes in the new dynamic global competition, biodiesel emerges as a real alternative of implantation. In Brazil, this interest is not different. However, despite of biodiesel's enormous potential, there is a number of uncertainties that need to be investigated in order to produce a biodiesel which has its unique specifications and international quality recognized. The aim of this article is twofold: first, the information systematization of the Brazilian biodiesel production chain; and second, the analysis of drivers of competitiveness that affect that same production chain. Through the theory of systemic approach, each driver of competitiveness is described and its competitive environment is analyzed. The range of different raw materials and possible technological routes present numerous challenges for the agents of this chain. What increases the relevance of studies such as this is the notion that investigating the drives of competitiveness is the first step in overcoming these challenges. (author)

  7. Erros de administração de antimicrobianos identificados em estudo multicêntrico brasileiro Antimicrobial drug administration errors identified in Brazilian multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Cristina Marques

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erros de administração de antimicrobianos são relevantes, pois podem interferir na segurança do paciente e no desenvolvimento de resistência microbiana. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar os antimicrobianos associados a erros de administração de medicamentos. Estudo multicêntrico, descritivo e exploratório, realizado em unidades de clínica médica de cinco hospitais por meio de técnica observacional, durante 30 dias. Os erros foram classificados em categorias: dose, medicamento não prescrito, via, paciente e horário. A classificação farmacológica dos antimicrobianos foi realizada segundo o Sistema Anatômico Terapêutico Químico (ATC. Os fármacos de intervalo terapêutico estreito foram identificados. A análise estatística descritiva foi realizada no software SPSS 11.5. Foram identificados 1500 erros, sendo 277 (18,5% com antimicrobianos. Os tipos de erros foram: de horário 87,7%; de dose 6,9%; de medicamento não autorizado 3,2%, de via 1,5% e de paciente 0,7%. Foram identificados 36 antimicrobianos e as classes ATC mais freqüentes foram: fluorquinolonas 13,9%, combinações de penicilinas 13,9%, macrolídeos 8,3% e cefalosporina de terceira geração 5,6%. Os fármacos de intervalo terapêutico estreito corresponderam a 16,7% dos antimicrobianos. Os erros com antimicrobianos analisados podem ser fontes de estudo e melhoria no processo de utilização racional de medicamentos e segurança do paciente.Medication administration errors (MAE are the most frequent kind of medication errors. Errors with antimicrobial drugs (AD are relevant because they may interfere in patient safety and in the development of microbial resistance. The aim of this study is to analyze the AD errors detected in a Brazilian multicentric study of MAE. It was a descriptive and exploratory study carried out in clinical units in five Brazilian teaching hospitals. The hospitals were investigated during 30 days. MAE were detected by observation

  8. Kinetic study of the gum decomposition from brazilian gasoline; Estudo cinetico da decomposicao da goma oriunda de gasolina brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pivesso, Paulo Roberto; Galvao, Luzia Patricia Fernandes de Carvalho; Fernandes Junior, Valter Jose; Coutinho, Ana Carla S.L.S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Gouveia de [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The modern gasoline contains in your composition insatured hydrocarbons that can be degraded by the action of the air, heat and substances presenting catalytic activity. The presence of air and heat promote oxidation reactions and polymerization, which promote the gum formation, that is a product with diverse characteristics. The petroleum and l the automobile industries have been investing in researches to lessen the gum undesirable effects. Nowadays, several products are added to the gasoline, for example, the surfactant additives, with the purpose to reduce the formation of deposits in the engine. This work evaluated the influence of a polyester amine addictive, used as the main active component in Brazilian gasoline. The gums were generated evaporating the gasolines according to the ASTM D 381 method. Two types of gum were obtained; the Common Washed Gum (White Sample) and the Additive based Washed Gum (Additive Sample). Both samples were characterized for thermal analysis and submitted for a kinetic study using the model-free method proposed by Vyazovkin. This approach was applied to the final stage of the gums decomposition, supplying the corresponding relative kinetic parameters, such as energy of activation and conversion (author)

  9. Laboratory Salinization of Brazilian Alluvial Soils and the Spectral Effects of Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Clenio J. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation-induced salinization is an important land degradation process that affects crop yield in the Brazilian semi-arid region, and gypsum has been used as a corrective measure for saline soils. Fluvent soil samples (180 were treated with increasing levels of salinization of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The salinity was gauged using electrical conductivity (EC. Gypsum was added to one split of these samples before they were treated by the saline solutions. Laboratory reflectance spectra were measured at nadir under a controlled environment using a FieldSpec spectrometer, a 250-W halogen lamp and a Spectralon panel. Variations in spectral reflectance and brightness were evaluated using principal component analysis, as well as the continuum-removed absorption depths of major features at 1450, 1950, 1750 and 2200 nm for both the gypsum-treated (TG and non-treated (NTG air-dried soil samples as a function of EC. Pearson’s correlation coefficients of reflectance and the band depth with EC were also obtained to establish the relationships with salinity. Results showed that NTG samples presented a decrease in reflectance and brightness with increasing CaCl2 and MgCl2 salinization. The reverse was observed for NaCl. Gypsum increased the spectral reflectance of the soil. The best negative correlations between reflectance and EC were observed in the 1500–2400 nm range for CaCl2 and MgCl2, probably because these wavelengths are most affected by water absorption, as Ca and Mg are much more hygroscopic than Na. These decreased after chemical treatment with gypsum. The most prominent features were observed at 1450, 1950 and 1750 nm in salinized-soil spectra. The 2200-nm clay mineral absorption band depth was inversely correlated with salt concentration. From these features, only the 1750 and 2200 nm ones are within atmospheric absorption windows and can be more easily measured using hyperspectral sensors.

  10. Interactions between soil moisture and Atmospheric Boundary Layer at the Brazilian savana-type vegetation Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, L. R.; Siqueira, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Before the large people influx and development of the central part of Brazil in the sixties, due to new capital Brasília, Cerrado, a typical Brazilian savanna-type vegetation, used to occupy about 2 million km2, going all the way from the Amazon tropical forest, in the north of the country, to the edges of what used to be of the Atlantic forest in the southeast. Today, somewhat 50% of this area has given place to agriculture, pasture and managed forests. It is forecasted that, at the current rate of this vegetation displacement, Cerrado will be gone by 2030. Understanding how Cerrado interacts with the atmosphere and how this interaction will be modified with this land-use change is a crucial step towards improving predictions of future climate-change scenarios. Cerrado is a vegetation adapted to a climate characterized by two very distinct seasons, a wet season (Nov-Mar) and dry season (May-Ago), with April and October being transitions between seasons. Typically, based on measurements in a weather station located in Brasilia, 75% of precipitation happens in the wet-season months and only 5% during dry-season. Under these circumstances, it is clear that the vegetation will have to cope with long periods of water stress. In this work we studied using numerical simulations, the interactions between soil-moisture, responsible for the water stress, with the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL). The numerical model comprises of a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere model where the biophysical processes are represented with a big-leaf approach. Soil water is estimated with a simple logistic model and with water-stress effects on stomatal conductance are parameterized from local measurements of simultaneous latent-heat fluxes and soil moisture. ABL evolution is calculate with a slab model that considers independently surface and entrainment fluxes of sensible- and latent- heat. Temperature tropospheric lapse-rate is taken from soundings at local airport. Simulations of 30-day dry

  11. The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Keywords: tropical Savannah, biochar, soil fertility, aerobic rice, grain yield, N2O emission Márcia Thaís de Melo Carvalho (2015). The impact of wood biochar as a soil amendment in aerobic rice systems of the Brazilian Savannah. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, with summaries in English, Dutch and Portuguese,  160 pp. Rice is a staple food for 3 billion people in the world. In Brazil, rice is a traditional staple food mostly cultivated by smallh...

  12. Zinc and Lead Content and Availability in Brazilian Soil Contaminated with Residue of a Secondary Smelting Lead Recycling Plant

    OpenAIRE

    CASTRO, Gustavo Rocha; SANTANA, André R.; Ferreira, Guilherme; HEIRAS, Barbara M.; Felipe A. Santos; CAETANO, Laercio; Pedro M. Padilha; MARTINES, Marco Antonio U.; Luciana C. de Oliveira; NEVES, Renato C.F.; Gustavo R. Castro

    2012-01-01

    The sequential extraction procedure of Zinc and lead performed in a Brazilian soil showed that it presents high pollution potential once over 90% of total lead is present in fractions where the metals can be easily mobilized. The fraction contents are as follow: F1 = 174 and 15 mg kg-1; F2 = 3155 and 9.7 mg kg-1; F3 = 99 and 1.6 mg kg-1; Residual fraction = 38 and 5.5 mg kg-1 for lead and zinc, respectively. The comparison with non contaminated soil only Pb2+ concentration is above its interv...

  13. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km2 of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant–microbe–soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical, and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the “BP legacy effect.” Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques in

  14. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km(2) of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant-microbe-soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical, and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the "BP legacy effect." Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques in advancing

  15. Emerging insights on Brazilian Pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius invasion : the potential role of soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim eDawkins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 km2 of terrestrial surface, fueled in part by the prevalence of the hybrid genotypes and environmental perturbations. It displays some of the well-established invasive mechanisms but there is a serious dearth of knowledge on the plant-microbe-soil interactions and whether the rhizobiome plays any roles in the displacement of native flora and the range expansion of BP. Several control measures, including chemical, mechanical and biological antagonism have been used with limited success while restoration of natives in soils from which BP was removed has proved problematic partly due to a poorly understood phenomenon described as the BP legacy effect. Emerging evidence suggests that allelopathy, selective recruitment of beneficial soil microbes, disruption of microbial community structure and alteration of nutrient cycling, exhibited by many other invasive plant species may also be involved in the case of BP. This brief review discusses the well-established BP invasion mechanisms and highlights the current understanding of the molecular, below-ground processes. It also points out the gaps in studies on the potential role of microbial interactions in the success of BP invasion. These hitherto poorly studied mechanisms could further explain the aggressive spread of BP and could potentially contribute significantly to effective control measures and enable appropriate strategies for restoring native plants. The review advocates for the use of cutting-edge techniques

  16. Identification of a new lipase family in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Helisson; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Souza, Emanuel M; Rigo, Liu U; Cruz, Leonardo M; Monteiro, Rose A; Pedrosa, Fábio O

    2011-12-01

    Lipases are the most investigated class of enzymes in metagenomics. Phylogenetic classification of bacterial lipases comprises eight families. Here we describe the construction and screening of three metagenomic libraries from Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil and identification of a new lipase family. The metagenomic libraries, MAF1, MAF2 and MAF3, contained 34 560, 29 280 and 36 288 clones respectively. Lipase screening on triolein-rhodamine B plates resulted in one positive clone, Lip018. The DNA insert of Lip018 was fully sequenced and 20 ORFs were identified by comparison against the GenBank. Transposon mutagenesis revealed that ORF15, similar to serine peptidases, and ORF16, a hypothetical protein, were both required for lipase activity. ORF16 has a typical lipase conserved pentapeptide G-X-S-X-G and the comparison against the Pfam database showed that ORF16 belongs to family 5 of αβ-hydrolase. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that ORF16, together with other related proteins, may be a member of a new lipase family, named LipAP, activated by a putative serine protease. Partial characterization of ORF16 lipase showed that the enzyme has activity against a broad range of p-nitrophenyl esters, but only after activation by the predicted peptidase ORF15. PMID:23761366

  17. SWEET SORGHUM PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY SOIL COMPACTION AND SOWING TIME AS A SECOND CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellingthon da Silva Guimarães Júnnyor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Increasing attention has recently been given to sweet sorghum as a renewable raw material for ethanol production, mainly because its cultivation can be fully mechanized. However, the intensive use of agricultural machinery causes soil structural degradation, especially when performed under inadequate conditions of soil moisture. The aims of this study were to evaluate the physical quality of aLatossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol under compaction and its components on sweet sorghum yield forsecond cropsowing in the Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian tropical savanna. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in a split plot arrangement, with four replications. Five levels of soil compaction were tested from the passing of a tractor at the following traffic intensities: 0 (absence of additional compaction, 1, 2, 7, and 15 passes over the same spot. The subplots consisted of three different sowing times of sweet sorghum during the off-season of 2013 (20/01, 17/02, and 16/03. Soil physical quality was measured through the least limiting water range (LLWR and soil water limitation; crop yield and technological parameters were also measured. Monitoring of soil water contents indicated a reduction in the frequency of water content in the soil within the limits of the LLWR (Fwithin as agricultural traffic increased (T0 = T1 = T2>T7>T15, and crop yield is directly associated with soil water content. The crop sown in January had higher industrial quality; however, there was stalk yield reduction when bulk density was greater than 1.26 Mg m-3, with a maximum yield of 50 Mg ha-1 in this sowing time. Cultivation of sweet sorghum as a second crop is a promising alternative, but care should be taken in cultivation under conditions of pronounced climatic risks, due to low stalk yield.

  18. Random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of effective Rhizobium sp. associated with beans cultivated in brazilian cerrado soils Caracterização, via RAPD, de estirpes efetivas de Rhizobium sp associadas ao feijoeiro cultivado em solos de cerrado no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnia Aparecida de Oliveira

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Efficient bean nodulating Rhizobium strains, isolated from different Brazilian cerrado soils, were characterized by RAPD. This study showed great genetic heterogeneity among R. tropici and R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains and allowed the constitution of genetic clusters, besides indicating the most suitable primers for this characterization. The groups of genetically distinct strains can be used in competitiveness studies to select appropriate Rhizobium strains for bean inoculation in cerrado soils.Estirpes de Rhizobium eficientes na nodulação do feijoeiro, isoladas de diferentes solos da região do cultivo dessa leguminosa nos cerrados brasileiros, foram caracterizadas via RAPD. Esse estudo mostrou grande heterogeneidade genética entre as estirpes de R. tropici e R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli testadas e permitiu a definição de grupos genéticos, além de indicar os "primers" mais adequados para essa caracterização. Os grupos de estirpes geneticamente distintas podem ser usados em estudos de competitividade, importantes para obtenção de resultados positivos na inoculação dessa leguminosa em solos de cerrado.

  19. Socialização organizacional: estudo comparativo entre servidores públicos brasileiros e noruegueses Organizational socialization: a comparative study among Brazilian and norwegian civil servants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgínia Donizete de Carvalho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi delineado com vistas a identificar os resultados de socialização organizacional de servidores atuantes em duas universidades públicas, de diferentes países (Brasil e Noruega, e compará-los numa perspectiva de análise transcultural. As amostras foram constituídas de professores e funcionários técnico-administrativos de uma universidade brasileira (N=72 e de uma universidade norueguesa (N=63. Na obtenção dos dados foi utilizado o Inventário de Socialização Organizacional (ISO e uma ficha sociodemográfica. Considerando que os respondentes são provenientes de diferentes culturas, os procedimentos de análise dos dados foram precedidos de testes para a verificação da ocorrência de diferentes estilos de resposta entre os mesmos. Para a identificação e comparação dos resultados de socialização organizacional foram estimadas as médias nos fatores do ISO, aplicados testes t para a comparação das médias e realizados testes ANOVA para verificar a ocorrência de diferenças significativas nos níveis de socialização organizacional em função da nacionalidade e da ocupação. Com base nos achados obtidos, observou-se que os servidores noruegueses, de modo geral, relataram maior integração às pessoas do que os servidores brasileiros e estes, por sua vez, tenderam a resultados mais satisfatórios de integração à organização. Notou-se, ainda, um efeito interativo entre nacionalidade e ocupação nos resultados de socialização organizacional, de forma que uma homogeneidade nos níveis de socialização de servidores docentes e técnico-administrativos foi verificada somente na universidade norueguesa, sendo expressivas as diferenças nos níveis de socialização dos servidores, em ocupações distintas, na universidade brasileira. Além disso, os funcionários técnico-administrativos noruegueses tenderam a se mostrar mais socializados do que os brasileiros, ao passo que, entre estes últimos, os docentes

  20. Partitioning and redistribution of exogenous Ra226 in farm soils from the vicinity of the First Brazilian Mine and Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sequential selective extration method was employed to assess the partitioning and redistribution of exogenous 226Ra into geochemical fractions of farm soils collected around the first Brazilian Uranium Mine and Mill. Six soil samples were contaminated in the laboratory by 226a solution, simulating an irrigation procedure. After selective extractions, 226Ra was analysed in six geochemical fractions: soluble (A); exchangeable (E); bound to carbonates (C); reducible (R); oxidizable (O); residual or matricial (M). The same method was also used in these soils before and after cultivation. The exogenous 226Ra was mainly associated to the (R) and (O) fractions followed by the (E) and (C) ones. Exchangeable 226Ra (fractions (A) + (E)) represents 21.8%. Statistically significant differences before and after cultivation were obtained only in the fractions (C) and (M). (Author)

  1. Soil profile, relief features and their relation to structure and distribution of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Augusto Guimarães Guilherme

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In tropical forests, the environmental heterogeneity can provide niche partitioning at local scales and determine the diversity and plant species distribution. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the variations of tree species structure and distribution in response to relief and soil profile features in a portion of the largest remnant of Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. All trees ³ 5 cm diameter at breast height were recorded in two 0.99 ha plots. Topographic survey and a soil characterization were accomplished in both plots. Topsoil samples (0-20 cm were taken from 88 quadrats and analyzed for chemical and particle size properties. Differences for both diversity and tree density were identified among three kinds of soils. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA indicated that the specific abundance varied among the three kinds of soils mapped: a shallow Udept - Orthent / Aquent gradient, probably due to differences in soil drainage. Nutrient content was less likely to affect tree species composition and distribution than relief, pH, Al3+, and soil texture. Some species were randomly distributed and did not show restriction to relief and soil properties. However, preferences in niche occupation detected in this study, derived from the catenary environments found, rise up as an important explanation for the high tree species diversity in tropical forests.

  2. Estudo audiológico de uma população idosa brasileira Audiological study of an elderly brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Cláudio do Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A população idosa brasileira cresce e representa 8,6% do total populacional. Fatores ambientais, hábitos de vida, sexo e fatores genéticos interferem na evolução da presbiacusia que reduz a qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Investigar queixas audiológicas e vestibulares em idosos, executar audiometria tonal, verificar se há diferenças entre os sexos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 320 pacientes idosos (160 homens e 160 mulheres foram submetidos a anamnese audiológica e audiometria tonal. Análise estatística dos resultados pelos testes ANOVA, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. RESULTADO: As queixas audiológicas e vestibulares (perda auditiva, tinnitus, plenitude auricular, tontura foram similares entre os sexos (exceção, a tontura: pThe Brazilian elderly population is growing, and already represents 8,6% of our total population. Environmental factors, lifestyle, gender and genetics impact the development of presbycusis, which reduces quality of life. AIM: investigate audiologic and vestibular complaints in the elderly; perform tonal audiometry and check to see if there are differences between genders. STUDY: Cross-sectional clinical prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 320 elderly patients (160 men and 160 women were submitted to audiologic interview and tonal audiometry. The results were statistically analyzed by the following methods: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Squared. RESULTS: audiologic and vestibular complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus, ear fullness, dizziness were similar between the genders (except for dizziness: p<0,05; tonal audiometry showed a significant difference, with hearing loss in the high frequencies among men; and among women the curves were descending and flat. These results were statistically significant (P<0,001. CONCLUSION: our results lead us to conclude that, when the genders are compared, hearing loss in the elderly has similar symptoms; however, there are

  3. A prática do parto humanizado no SUS: estudo comparativo = The practice of humanized delivery in the Brazilian Health System (SUS: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciele de Lima Wrobel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descritivo foi realizado em maternidades que prestamatendimento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, nas cidades de Guarapuava e Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Dentro do programa de Humanização implantado na Maternidade de Londrina pretendeu-se analisar o atendimento a parturiente quanto à humanização ao partocomparando com a realidade de dois hospitais de Guarapuava onde não existe o programa implantado e assim verificar se os direitos destas parturientes quanto à humanização estão sendo respeitados. Foi aplicado um questionário a 40 primíparas no puerpério imediato comperguntas semi-estruturadas. Ao comparar duas realidades diferentes, concluiu-se que alguns dos direitos das parturientes preconizados pela OMS não estavam sendo respeitados, especialmente onde não havia a implantação do parto humanizado, pois não era permitida a entrada de acompanhante e nem utilizadas técnicas de relaxamento para a parturiente, evidenciando assim que algumas instituições necessitam intensificar esses cuidados para melhorar a qualidade do atendimento prestado.This descriptive study was conducted in maternities assisted by the Brazilian Health System (SUS, in the cities of Guarapuava and Londrina, State of Paraná. In the program implanted in Londrina, the aim was to analyze the assistance to the parturient regarding humanization to the child delivery. This context was then comparedwith the reality in the maternities of two hospitals in Guarapuava, where these practices are not applied. The comparison intended to verify if the rights of these women to humanized delivery are being respected. A half-structured questionnaire was applied to forty women in labor. While comparing these two different realities, it was observed that a few of these rights, advocated by the OMS, were not being respected, especially where the humanization delivery was not a practice. Data revealed that the partner’s entrance was not allowed,neither were

  4. Risk factors for recurrent falls among Brazilian women and men: the Brazilian Osteoporosis Study (BRAZOS Fatores de risco para quedas recorrentes entre mulheres e homens brasileiros: o Estudo Brasileiro sobre Osteoporose (BRAZOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to estimate the frequency of recurrent falls and identify the main associated risk factors. The BRAZOS is the first epidemiological study performed on a representative sample of the Brazilian population. Anthropometric data, living habits, previous fractures, falls, dietary intake, physical activity and quality of life were evaluated in 2,420 individuals aged 40 and older. Recurrent falls were reported by 15.5% of men and 25.6% of women. Among women, the risk factors significantly associated to recurrent falls were age, previous fracture, sedentary lifestyle, poor quality of life, diabetes mellitus and current use of benzodiazepine. In men, the risk factors were age, poor quality of life, intake of alcoholic beverages, diabetes mellitus, previous fracture and use of benzodiazepine. A greater intake of vitamin D had a protector effect on the risk of recurrent falls. These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of recurrent falls and emphasize that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary to minimize recurrent falls and their consequences, including osteoporotic fractures.Estimar a freqüência de quedas recorrentes e identificar os principais fatores de risco associados. O BRAZOS é o primeiro estudo epidemiológico realizado em amostragem representativa da população brasileira. Dados antropométricos, hábitos de vida, fratura prévia, quedas, dieta, atividade física e qualidade de vida foram avaliados em 2.420 indivíduos adultos. Quedas recorrentes foram referidas por 15,5% dos homens e 25,6% das mulheres. Nas mulheres, os fatores de risco associados com quedas recorrentes foram idade, fratura prévia, sedentarismo, pior qualidade de vida, diabete mellitus e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Nos homens, foram idade, pior qualidade de vida, consumo de bebidas alcoólicas, diabete mellitus, fratura prévia e uso atual de benzodiazepínicos. Maior ingestão de vitamina D desempenhou efeito protetor sobre o

  5. Homens e violência conjugal: uma análise de estudos brasileiros Men and conjugal violence: an analysis of Brazilian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Lenz Cesar de Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisou qualitativamente 54 textos brasileiros sobre homens e violência conjugal, relacionados a atividades de pesquisa ou de intervenção. Primeiramente caracterizou-se o material quanto aos temas abordados, ao foco principal e ao tipo de texto. A seguir fizeram-se sínteses e análises das principais considerações dos textos a partir dos eixos temáticos encontrados: diferentes inteligibilidades da problemática, magnitude da violência conjugal, sentidos de homens relacionados à violência e intervenções e/ou políticas junto a homens agressores. A análise teve como parâmetro o ramo de discussões nacionais e internacionais que se esforça por ultrapassar a polêmica em torno da definição do problema como "violência de gênero" ou "violência conjugal", cunhando sobretudo o pressuposto de que existem diversos estilos de conjugalidade violenta. Concluiu-se que a maior unanimidade dos estudos é pensar a problemática como questão relacional de gênero. Defendeu-se, por fim, a ideia de que a escolha da melhor abordagem articuladora entre os polos da polêmica ainda demanda mais investigações, com metodologias qualitativas junto a atores de diferentes camadas e grupos sociais. Quanto às intervenções, propõem-se investimentos no maior número possível de alternativas, valorizando a singularidade dos casos.This study consisted of a qualitative analysis of 54 Brazilian texts about men and conjugal violence related to research or intervention activities. Initially, the material was divided up according to the topics under scrutiny, the main focus and the type of text. Analysis and synthesis of the main considerations of the texts, based on the thematic points revealed, was then carried out. This included the different approaches to the problem, the magnitude of conjugal violence, the attitudes of men vis-à-vis violence and interventions and/or policies towards male aggressors. The parameter for the analysis was the

  6. The carbon isotope record in soils along a forest-cerrado ecosystem transect : implications for vegetation changes in the Rondonia state, Southwestern Brazilian Amazon region

    OpenAIRE

    Pessenda, L.C.R.; Gomes, B.M.; Aravena, R.; Ribeiro, A.S.; Boulet, René; Gouveia, S.E.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents carbon isotope data on soil organic matter (SOM) collected along an ecosystem transect that includes a wooded savanah (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The study area is located in the Rondonia state, southwestern Brazilian Amazon region. 14C data of total soil organic matter and charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is a least Holocene in age. The forest and forest transition sites are...

  7. Soil Acidobacterial 16S rRNA Gene Sequences Reveal Subgroup Level Differences between Savanna-Like Cerrado and Atlantic Forest Brazilian Biomes

    OpenAIRE

    Catão, Elisa C. P.; Lopes, Fabyano A. C.; Janaína F. Araújo; Alinne P. de Castro; Barreto, Cristine C.; Mercedes M.C. Bustamante; Betania F. Quirino; Krüger, Ricardo H.

    2014-01-01

    16S rRNA sequences from the phylum Acidobacteria have been commonly reported from soil microbial communities, including those from the Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) and the Atlantic Forest biomes, two biomes that present contrasting characteristics of soil and vegetation. Using 16S rRNA sequences, the present work aimed to study acidobacterial diversity and distribution in soils of Cerrado savanna and two Atlantic forest sites. PCA and phylogenetic reconstruction showed that the acidobacterial ...

  8. Study of API 5L X70 steel corrosion processes when in contact with some Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipelines, fuel storage tanks and other metallic structures are in permanent contact and exposed to different types of soils, of horizons or layers, or of soil aggressiveness. This interaction may cause expressive damages to the environment and to the planned work. Contamination may occur due to leakage of stored products, splitting during transportation, accidents caused by pipelines without extensive maintenance. The result of these accidents could be, among others, some financial losses. In order to recognize the dynamic interactions between metallic surfaces and the environment it is crucial to have preventive actions and to develop better-applied materials. API steel 5L X70 has been used in structures of low and high pressure with high mechanical strength and corrosion and, even so, it is susceptible to etching corrosion since it is in contact with different environments from mangrove regions to industrial environments. The present case evaluated the role of 5L X70 API steel in contact with different soil horizons representative of the Brazilian soil. This investigation correlated chemical species with solute ions in soil solution, secondary and primary phase minerals besides physical and chemical characteristics as pH, electric conductivity, total dissolved solids, among others, to the results of corrosion resistance and ways of corrosion. The evaluation was carried out using x-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, total reflection x-ray fluorescence, fuel injection flow besides texture and gravimetric analyses to soil characterization and mineralogy, identification of corrosion products, soil solution analyses, evaluation of tested materials and classification of ways and types of corrosion. This was an attempt to integrate the data to a better understanding of the process involving reagents and products. The results showed that different soil horizons such as different types of analyzed soils produce specific etching in metallic structures

  9. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F.S. Magnago

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m. Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes.O objetivo deste estudo foi o de determinar as mudanças na composição, abundância e riqueza de espécies ao longo de um gradiente de floresta com variações de solo e inundações. As florestas localizam-se na margem esquerda do Rio Jucu, no Parque Natural Municipal de Jacarenema, Espírito Santo. O levantamento das espécies arbustivo/arbóreas foi realizado em 80 parcelas de 5x25m, distribuídas equitativamente entre as florestas estudadas. Foram incluídos na amostragem todos os indivíduos com >3,2 cm diâmetro à altura do solo (1,30 m. Foram coletadas amostras de solo superficial (0-10 cm em cada parcela para análise química e física. Os resultados mostraram a existência de gradiente pedológico significativo, que

  10. Laboratory tests of the persistence of pesticides in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The persistence of 5 insecticides in two soils, one rich (soil 1), the other poor (soil 2) in organic matter was examined in the laboratory using gas chromatographyc and radiometric techniques. About half DDT and aldrin were lost in 256 days. The other pesticides, in order of decreasing persistence were lindane, parathion and malathion. Aldrin was converted to dieldrin faster in soil 1 than in soil 2. Parathion and lindane were both lost faster from soil 2 than from soil 1. In contrast, malathion was lost more slowly from soil 2 than soil 1, from which all disappeared in 4 days. (author)

  11. Disfunção erétil: resultados do estudo da vida sexual do brasileiro Erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian sexual life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da disfunção erétil (DE e fatores de risco associados em amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de 2.862 homens, maiores de 18 anos, por meio de questionário anônimo e auto-responsivo. A prevalência de DE na amostra foi obtida mediante questão global derivada diretamente da definição de DE. Os dados foram submetidos a testes Qui-quadrado e t de Student. Foram utilizadas análises de regressão logística para cálculos dos riscos. RESULTADOS: A prevalência encontrada de DE foi 45,1% (31,2% mínima, 12,2% moderada e 1,7% completa. Indivíduos com DE apresentaram comprometimento da auto-estima, dos relacionamentos interpessoais, menos relações sexuais por semana, mais relações extraconjugais, queixas de falta de desejo sexual e ejaculação rápida. Comparados aos homens com idades entre 18 e 39 anos, aqueles com 60 a 69 têm 2,2 (95% IC; 1,4-3,4; p OBJETIVE: To estimate the prevalence of ED and related risk factors in a sample of the Brazilian male population. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was carried out with a convenience sample of 2,862 men, 18 years of age or older, using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. ED prevalence in the sample was obtained by a general question which was directly derived from the ED definition. Data were submitted to chi-square or Student's t tests. Logistic regression analyses were used for risk factor calculations. RESULTS: The prevalence of ED was 45.1% (31.2% mild, 12.2% moderate and 1.7% complete. Subjects with ED presented lower self-esteem, hindered interpersonal relationships, fewer sexual intercourses per week, more extra-marital relationships, complaints of lack of libido and premature ejaculation. When compared with men aged 18-39 years, men aged 60-69 presented 2.2 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-3.4; p < 0.01, whereas men aged 70 or older presented 3.0 higher risk of ED (95% CI; 1.4-6.3; p < 0

  12. Structure and composition of bacterial and fungal community in soil under soybean monoculture in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D Bresolin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is the most important oilseed cultivated in the world and Brazil is the second major producer. Expansion of soybean cultivation has direct and indirect impacts on natural habitats of high conservation value, such as the Brazilian savannas (Cerrado. In addition to deforestation, land conversion includes the use of fertilizers and pesticides and can lead to changes in the soil microbial communities. This study evaluated the soil bacterial and fungal communities and the microbial biomass C in a native Cerrado and in a similar no-tillage soybean monoculture area using PCR-DGGE and sequencing of bands. Compared to the native area, microbial biomass C was lower in the soybean area and cluster analysis indicated that the structure of soil microbial communities differed. 16S and 18S rDNA dendrograms analysis did not show differences between row and inter-row samples, but microbial biomass C values were higher in inter-rows during soybean fructification and harvest. The study pointed to different responses and alterations in bacterial and fungal communities due to soil cover changes (fallow x growth period and crop development. These changes might be related to differences in the pattern of root exudates affecting the soil microbial community. Among the bands chosen for sequencing there was a predominance of actinobacteria, y-proteobacteria and ascomycetous divisions. Even under no-tillage management methods, the soil microbial community was affected due to changes in the soil cover and crop development, hence warning of the impacts caused by changes in land use.

  13. Técnica para o estudo da estabilidade de agregados do solo Technique for studies of stability of soil aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Grohmann

    1960-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam neste trabalho uma técnica para o estudo da estabilidade de agregados do solo. Vários tipos de solo sob diferentes condições de uso foram estudados. Amostras em triplicato, de 25 g de agregados entre 7 e 4 mm, foram agitados em agitador modêlo Wagner, com 40 r.p.m., durante 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 e 128 minutos e depois fracionadas pelo método da peneiragem lenta em água. Os agregados > 2 mm diminuíram em pêso com o aumento do tempo de agitação, aumentando por outro lodo os agregados 2 e This paper presents a technique for studies of stability of soil aggregates. The major soils of the State of São Paulo in different conditions of use have been examined. Triplicate samples of 25 g of soil aggregates of 7-4 mm size for each soil were shaken in a Model Wagner shaker at 40 rpm during 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64 and 128 minutes period and were later fractioned by the wet sieving method. In general soil aggregates greater than 2 mm decreased gradually in weight with increasing period of treatment: at the some time the small size particles ( 2 mm and < 0.2 mm gave the general information needed. In general the experimental error were homogeneous and of small magnitude in relation to the systematic differences existent. The functional relationship between the two variables (time and weight of size particles was calculated by orthogonal polynomials considering the log time scale. In general polynomials of second degree were sufficient for a good approach, but in some cases polynomials of third degree were necessary. The authors believe that for fertility studies the interval 1-32 minutes is sufficient to separate the differences in aggregabifity. In that interval for the soils considered a first degree polynomial is satisfactory. Intervals of confidence had been calculated for the polynomial Y = A + B'E'1. The values Ai, As, B'i, B's were respectively the inferior and superior limits of the respective interval. Separations

  14. Biochar improves fertility of a clay soil in the Brazilian Savannah: short term effects and impact on rice yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Thais de Melo Carvalho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to report single season effects of wood biochar (char application coupled with N fertilization on soil chemical properties, aerobic rice growth and grain yield in a clayey Rhodic Ferralsol in the Brazilian Savannah. Char application effected an increase in soil pH, K, Ca, Mg, CEC, Mn and nitrate while decreasing Al content and potential acidity of soils. No distinct effect of char application on grain yield of aerobic rice was observed. We believe that soil properties impacted by char application were inconsequential for rice yields because neither water, low pH, nor the availability of K or P were limiting factors for rice production. Rate of char above 16 Mg ha^(−1 reduced leaf area index and total shoot dry matter by 72 days after sowing. The number of panicles infected by rice blast decreased with increasing char rate. Increased dry matter beyond the remobilization capacity of the crop, and high number of panicles infected by rice blast were the likely cause of the lower grain yield observed when more than 60 kg N ha^(−1 was applied. The optimal rate of N was 46 kg ha^(−1 and resulted in a rice grain yield above 3 Mg ha^(−1.

  15. Bibliometria da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo: instituições, temas, espaço e cronologia Bibliometrics in Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion: institutions, topics, space and chronology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira Barretto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar do constante aumento na quantidade e diversidade de publicações acerca da erosão do solo no Brasil e no mundo, as grandes questões dessa ciência ainda não foram respondidas. Os possíveis motivos desse descompasso trazem à tona a necessidade de discutir o papel da pesquisa em erosão. A bibliometria permite uma visão abrangente da ciência, fornecendo perspectivas, contudo estudos que fazem uso dessas técnicas são escassos no mundo, bem como no Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram analisar as distribuições espacial, temporal, institucional e temática da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo a partir da divisão dos artigos em linhas temáticas e discutir a profundidade da abordagem das questões fundamentais em erosão. Para isso, 225 artigos de instituições brasileiras cujo tema central é a erosão do solo foram digitalizados, cadastrados em banco de dados e classificados em cinco linhas temáticas. Também foram produzidos mapas multitemporais a partir de ferramentas de geoprocessamento. A pesquisa brasileira em erosão, além de recente, está concentrada: (a em poucas instituições, localizadas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste; e (b em dois temas, centrados na Equação Universal de Perda de Solo e em comparações de manejos agrícolas quanto à perda de solo, com grande influência do nível de consolidação dos núcleos de pesquisa, que têm nesses dois temas centrais sua iniciação na pesquisa em erosão acelerada do solo.Despite the increasing number and diversity of publications related to soil erosion in Brazil and throughout the world, the central questions of this science remain unanswered. The possible reasons for this imbalance highlight the need to reconsider the role of research on soil erosion. Bibliometric studies can provide ample view of the research field, describing perspectives, but research using this approach is scarce in international as well as in Brazilian literature. The objective

  16. Fertility Evaluation of Limed Brazilian Soil Polluted with Scrap Metal Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia Almeida Gabos; Aline Reneé Coscione; Ronaldo Severiano Berton; Gláucia Cecília Gabrielli dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the main inorganic contaminants and evaluate the effect of lime addition, combined with soil dilution with uncontaminated soil, as a strategy for mitigation of these contaminants present in a soil polluted with auto scrap. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse at Campinas (São Paulo State, Brazil) in plastic pots (3 dm−3). Five soil mixtures, obtained by mixing an uncontaminated soil sample with contaminated soil (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contami...

  17. Topossequência de solos na ilha da trindade, atlântico sul Topossequence of soils on the trindade island in the brazilian south atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane de Paula Clemente

    2009-10-01

    Ilha da Trindade que os tornam difíceis de enquadramento no Sistema Brasileiro de Classificação de Solos, carecendo de adaptações em diversos níveis categóricos.The Brazilian Oceanic islands are unique environments which have received increasing attention from the scientific community due to their environmental importance. This study aimed to provide a first characterization of soils of the Trindade Island, considering mainly the chemical and physical properties in the different geoenvironments. Another objective was to contribute to a deeper undestanding of the pedogeomorphological relationships, allowing a preliminary identification of soils along a typical toposequence. A total of 10 soil profiles representing all geoenvironments were sampled. These soils were the result of lithological, topographical and vegetation influences, frequently in close association. Soil chemical, morphological and physical analyses were performed and the results indicate the ocurrence of unique features that suggest an endemic character. The pedodiversity on Trindade is primarily related to the parent material and topographical variations. Soils generally have high fertility, particularly in terms of Ca and P contents associated with bird excreta inputs. On the southern side of the island, with a cooler and wetter climate, narrow valleys and steep slopes shelter a more exuberant vegetation of giant ferns, with accumulation of fíbrous organic material even on steep slopes, forming atypical Histosols. Soils at an altitude of over 400 m are more acid and nutrient-poor, but P contents are still very high, which was attributed to bird activity. On the northern side of the island, semi-arid to tropical dry climates prevail, and soils are shallower, nutrient-rich and highly eroded, with dominance of Litholic or Regolitic Neosols. Some pedological features of Trindade soils prevent an appropriate fitting by the Brazilian Soil Classification System, calling for adaptations at various

  18. Emerging Insights on Brazilian Pepper Tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) Invasion: The Potential Role of Soil Microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Dawkins, Karim; Esiobu, Nwadiuto

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  19. Emerging insights on Brazilian Pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius) invasion : the potential role of soil microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Karim eDawkins; Nwadiuto eEsiobu

    2016-01-01

    Invasive plant species constitute a major ecological and economic problem worldwide, often distorting trophic levels and ecosystem balance. Numerous studies implicate factors ranging from environmental plasticity, competition for nutrient and space, and allelopathy in the success of invasive species in general. The Brazilian Pepper tree (BP) was introduced to the United States in the 1800s and has since become a category one invasive plant in Florida. It has aggressively spread to about 3000 ...

  20. Erros de administração de antimicrobianos identificados em estudo multicêntrico brasileiro Antimicrobial drug administration errors identified in Brazilian multicentric study

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiane Cristina Marques; Adriano Max Moreira Reis; Ana Elisa Bauer de Camargo Silva; Fernanda Raphael Escobar Gimenes; Simone Perufo Opitz; Thalyta Cardoso Alux Teixeira; Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima; Silvia Helena De Bortoli Cassiani

    2008-01-01

    Erros de administração de antimicrobianos são relevantes, pois podem interferir na segurança do paciente e no desenvolvimento de resistência microbiana. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar os antimicrobianos associados a erros de administração de medicamentos. Estudo multicêntrico, descritivo e exploratório, realizado em unidades de clínica médica de cinco hospitais por meio de técnica observacional, durante 30 dias. Os erros foram classificados em categorias: dose, medicamento não prescr...

  1. Early Hg mobility in cultivated tropical soils one year after slash-and-burn of the primary forest, in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béliveau, Annie; Lucotte, Marc; Davidson, Robert; Lopes, Luis Otávio do Canto; Paquet, Serge

    2009-07-15

    In the Brazilian Amazon, forest conversion to agricultural lands (slash-and-burn cultivation) contributes to soil mercury (Hg) release and to aquatic ecosystem contamination. Recent studies have shown that soil Hg loss occurs rapidly after deforestation, suggesting that Hg mobility could be related to the massive cation input resulting from biomass burning. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of the first year of slash-and-burn agriculture on soil Hg levels at the regional scale of the Tapajós River, in the state of Pará, Brazilian Amazon. A total of 429 soil samples were collected in 26 farms of five riparian communities of the Tapajós basin. In September 2004, soil samples were collected from primary forest sites planned for slash-and-burn cultivation. In August 2005, one year after the initial burning, a second campaign was held and the exact same sites were re-sampled. Our results showed that total Hg levels in soils did not change significantly during the first year following slash-and-burn, suggesting no immediate release of soil Hg at that point in time. However, an early Hg mobility was detected near the surface (0-5 cm), reflected by a significant shift in Hg distribution in soil fractions. Indeed, a transfer of Hg from fine to coarser soil particles was observed, indicating that chemical bonds between Hg and fine particles could have been altered. A correspondence analysis (CA) showed that this process could be linked to a chemical competition caused by cation enrichment. The regional dimension of the study highlighted the prevailing importance of soil types in Hg dynamics, as shown by differentiated soil responses following deforestation according to soil texture. Confirming an early Hg mobility and indicating an eventual Hg release out of the soil, our results reinforce the call for the development of more sustainable agricultural practices in the Amazon. PMID:19428050

  2. Tax influences on Brazilian and Argentine biodiesel exports: a comparative study; A interferencia da tributacao na competitividade da exportacao de biodiesel brasileiro e argentino: um estudo comparado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Evandro L. Heinzen da; Vieira, Diogo Guimaraes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The rules of taxation in Brazil favor the export of primary products, while in Argentina the taxation stimulates the export of products which aggregated value is bigger. In this study we will analyse the sceneries of taxation in Argentina and Brazil. The comparison is useful so that it is possible to analyse the competitive differentials from in the countries. We agree that the great problem of the Brazilian taxation is in the accumulated credits of VAT, which in fact are incorporated like cost in the result of a business. In case of Argentina, the problem is related to the macroeconomic scenery, that emerged after the economic crisis in 2001. The study demonstrates that Argentina is not the best example of taxation for Brazil, and the risk of the Argentinian biodiesel enter in Brazilian market was perceived in 2007, however, after the tax alterations this risk was reduced. (author)

  3. Dependência da prática de exercícios físicos: estudo com maratonistas brasileiros Exercise dependence: a study with Brazilian marathon runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alves Rosa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo testar, numa amostra de maratonistas brasileiros, a versão em português da adaptação da Escala de Dependência de Corrida proposta por Hailey e Bailey (1982. Métodos e resultados:59 maratonistas de uma equipe da cidade de São Paulo foram abordados e orientados a preencher a Escala de Dependência de Corrida (EDC. A amostra foi composta, na sua maior parte, por homens (72% com média de 34 ± 7 anos, sendo que 77% corriam habitualmente havia cerca de dois a oito anos; 42,5% corriam de quatro a cinco vezes/semana e 81% dedicavam-se de uma a duas horas/dia em média para seus treinos. A média na pontuação total da EDC foi de 5 ± 2,5 pontos (escala 0-14 pontos. A correlação entre a pontuação total da EDC com cada uma das 23 questões que compõem o instrumento revelou que 10 questões apresentaram níveis de correlação significativos. As respostas positivas que apresentaram maior sensibilidade foram: "Sinto que me falta algo quando não corro" (r = 0,61; "A corrida tem influenciado meu estilo de vida" (r = 0,58 e "Experimento grande prazer quando corro" (r = 0,56. Conclusão: Observamos na amostra brasileira níveis médios de pontuação na escala semelhantes aos descritos pelos autores do instrumento original, sugerindo que a tradução não alterou a sensibilidade da escala e que este instrumento possa ser útil no estudo da dependência da prática de corrida (ou exercícios físicos em desportistas brasileiros.This study aimed at testing, in a sample of Brazilian marathon runners, the Brazilian adaptation of the Negative Addiction Scale (Haley & Bailey, 1982. Methods: 59 marathon runners of a team from São Paulo were asked to fill out the Brazilian version of the Negative Addiction Scale. Most of the sample was made up by men (72% aged 34 ± 7; 77% of whom had been running four to five times a week (42.5% for two to eight years; 81% spent one to two hours a day training. The average score in

  4. Ecotoxicological effects of pig manure on Folsomia candida in subtropical Brazilian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Ana Paula; Baretta, Dilmar; Paiano, Diovani; Leston, Sara; Freitas, Andreia; Ramos, Fernando; Sousa, Jose Paulo; Klauberg-Filho, Osmar

    2016-08-15

    The effects of pig manure, from diets incorporating veterinary pharmaceuticals, on survival and reproduction of Folsomia candida were evaluated. Manures derived from the following diets: corn and soymeal (CS); 85% CS diet+15% wheat meal (TR); CS diet+100ppm doxycycline+50ppm colistin+2500ppm Zn oxide (CSa); TR diet+100ppm doxycycline+50ppm colistin+2500ppm Zn oxide (TRa). Manures were tested in two subtropical soils representative of southern (Oxisol and Entisol). Despite the antibiotics no significant differences were found between the four manures within each soil. However, strong differences were found on the toxicity between soils. In Oxisol, LC50 values were around 100m(3)ha(-1), and EC50 values around 80m(3)ha(-1). In Entisol these were much lower, with LC50 values oscillating around 20m(3)ha(-1) and EC50 values between 10-15m(3)ha(-1). The observed toxicity on both soils was attributed to excess of nitrogen, Cu and Zn in the highest doses. The strong difference between soils could be explained by soil properties, namely CEC, organic matter, and clay contents that were lower in Entisol, indicating a poor ability to retain contaminants increasing their availability in soil. Results suggest that the application of these residues should be regulated not only using a volume-based criterion, but should incorporate data on soil properties, complemented by an ecotoxicological assessment. PMID:27111424

  5. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scala jr, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies. PMID:23011303

  6. Ex-situ bioremediation of Brazilian soil contaminated with plasticizers process wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Ferreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the bioremediation of a soil contaminated with wastes from a plasticizers industry, located in São Paulo, Brazil. A 100-kg soil sample containing alcohols, adipates and phthalates was treated in an aerobic slurry-phase reactor using indigenous and acclimated microorganisms from the sludge of a wastewater treatment plant of the plasticizers industry (11gVSS kg-1 dry soil, during 120 days. The soil pH and temperature were not corrected during bioremediation; soil humidity was corrected weekly to maintain 40%. The biodegradation of the pollutants followed first-order kinetics; the removal efficiencies were above 61% and, among the analyzed plasticizers, adipate was removed to below the detection limit. Biological molecular analysis during bioremediation revealed a significant change in the dominant populations initially present in the reactor.

  7. O estudo cultural da música popular brasileira: dois problemas e uma contribuição The cultural study of Brazilian popular music: two problems and a contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Neder

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available No estágio em que se encontram os estudos de música popular no Brasil, é crucial discutir a definição de "música popular" e as abordagens teóricas usadas para fundamentar sua análise. Ambas as questões são tratadas aqui por meio de uma articulação crítica que envolve estruturas musicais, sociedade e cultura. Propõe-se, portanto, uma contribuição teórica aos estudos de música popular brasileira, e não uma análise do conteúdo de tais estudos. A partir de uma discussão das principais classes de definições de música popular empregadas usualmente, defende-se uma concepção dinâmica e relacional de música popular, inserida em sociedades contemporâneas complexas e contraditórias. Metodologicamente, discutem-se diferentes abordagens que vêm se propondo a estudar culturalmente as contribuições singulares da música popular, irredutíveis aos métodos analíticos desenvolvidos para as músicas erudita e tradicional. O ensaio conclui com a defesa de uma musicologia renovada pelas discussões travadas no âmbito dos estudos culturais, para uma adequada investigação da música popular em sua especificidade.At the current state of popular music studies in Brazil, it is crucial to discuss the definition of "popular music", and the theoretical approaches employed to ground its analysis. Both issues are examined here through a critical articulation involving musical structures, society and culture. Thus, what I propose is a theoretical contribution to Brazilian popular music studies, not an analysis of the content of such studies. Starting with a discussion of the principal classes of definitions of popular music usually employed, a defense is made of a dynamic, relational conception of popular music as currently practiced in complex, contemporary, contradictory societies. Methodologically, I discuss different approaches for the cultural study of the singular contributions of popular music, which are irreducible to the

  8. Assessing heavy metal sources in sugarcane Brazilian soils: an approach using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernando Bruno Vieira; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo; Araújo, Paula Renata Muniz; da Silva, Luiz Henrique Vieira; da Silva, Roberto Felipe

    2016-08-01

    Brazil is the world's largest sugarcane producer and soils in the northeastern part of the country have been cultivated with the crop for over 450 years. However, so far, there has been no study on the status of heavy metal accumulation in these long-history cultivated soils. To fill the gap, we collect soil samples from 60 sugarcane fields in order to determine the contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. We used multivariate analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic sources of these metals in soils. Analytical determinations were performed in ICP-OES after microwave acid solution digestion. Mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were 1.9, 18.8, 6.4, 4.9, 11.2, and 16.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The principal component one was associated with lithogenic origin and comprised the metals Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. Cluster analysis confirmed that 68 % of the evaluated sites have soil heavy metal concentrations close to the natural background. The Cd concentration (principal component two) was clearly associated with anthropogenic sources with P fertilization being the most likely source of Cd to soils. On the other hand, the third component (Pb concentration) indicates a mixed origin for this metal (natural and anthropogenic); hence, Pb concentrations are probably related not only to the soil parent material but also to industrial emissions and urbanization in the vicinity of the agricultural areas. PMID:27395358

  9. Soil and vegetation carbon stocks in Brazilian Western Amazonia: relationships and ecological implications for natural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, C E G R; do Amaral, E F; de Mendonça, B A F; Oliveira, H; Lani, J L; Costa, L M; Fernandes Filho, E I

    2008-05-01

    The relationships between soils attributes, soil carbon stocks and vegetation carbon stocks are poorly know in Amazonia, even at regional scale. In this paper, we used the large and reliable soil database from Western Amazonia obtained from the RADAMBRASIL project and recent estimates of vegetation biomass to investigate some environmental relationships, quantifying C stocks of intact ecosystem in Western Amazonia. The results allowed separating the western Amazonia into 6 sectors, called pedo-zones: Roraima, Rio Negro Basin, Tertiary Plateaux of the Amazon, Javari-Juruá-Purus lowland, Acre Basin and Rondonia uplands. The highest C stock for the whole soil is observed in the Acre and in the Rio Negro sectors. In the former, this is due to the high nutrient status and high clay activity, whereas in the latter, it is attributed to a downward carbon movement attributed to widespread podzolization and arenization, forming spodic horizons. The youthful nature of shallow soils of the Javari-Juruá-Purus lowlands, associated with high Al, results in a high phytomass C/soil C ratio. A similar trend was observed for the shallow soils from the Roraima and Rondonia highlands. A consistent east-west decline in biomass carbon in the Rio Negro Basin sector is associated with increasing rainfall and higher sand amounts. It is related to lesser C protection and greater C loss of sandy soils, subjected to active chemical leaching and widespread podzolization. Also, these soils possess lower cation exchangeable capacity and lower water retention capacity. Zones where deeply weathered Latosols dominate have a overall pattern of high C sequestration, and greater than the shallower soils from the upper Amazon, west of Madeira and Negro rivers. This was attributed to deeper incorporation of carbon in these clayey and highly pedo-bioturbated soils. The results highlight the urgent need for refining soil data at an appropriate scale for C stocks calculations purposes in Amazonia. There

  10. PEDOTRANSFER FUNCTIONS FOR WATER RETENTION IN THE MAIN SOILS FROM THE BRAZILIAN COASTAL PLAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Elidiane da Silva; Nilton Curi; Mozart Martins Ferreira; Margarete Marin Lordelo Volpato; Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva

    2015-01-01

    Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) are equations used to estimate soil characteristics difficult to determine from other easily obtained ones. Water retention in soil is used in several agronomic and environmental applications, but its direct determination is time consuming and onerous, therefore PTFs are alternatives to obtaining this information more quickly and economically. The aims of this study were to generate a database and develop PTFs for water retention at potentials of -33 kPa (field c...

  11. Dinheiro no Brasil: um estudo comparativo do significado do dinheiro entre as regiões geográficas brasileiras Money in Brazil: a comparative study about the meaning of money among Brazilian geographic regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice da Silva Moreira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou o significado do dinheiro predominante nas regiões brasileiras usando a Escala de Significado do Dinheiro (ESD, composta pelos componentes Desigualdade, Progresso, Cultura, Poder, Desapego, Conflito, Estabilidade, Sofrimento e Prazer. O estudo foi conduzido com amostra de 760 sujeitos, 60% mulheres, com idades, ocupações e renda variadas, e mais de cinco anos de residência no local. Os resultados indicaram diferenças significativas em todos os componentes, exceto Prazer e Sofrimento, e padrões diferenciados: maior Estabilidade no Norte, maior Conflito e Desapego no Nordeste, menor Estabilidade e Poder no Distrito Federal, menor Conflito e Poder no Sul, e no Sudeste, maior Poder, Desigualdade, Cultura, Prazer e Sofrimento e menor Desapego. Exame separado da região Sudeste indicou maior diversidade interna do que entre as regiões do país. Estes resultados são discutidos a partir de diferenças histórico-culturais e estereótipos, indicando a sensibilidade da ESD para discriminar perfis de significado do dinheiro.This study compared the meaning of money that prevail in Brazilian Regions using the Money Meaning Scale (MMS, composed by Inequality, Culture, Power, Progress, Detachment, Conflict, Stability, Pain and Pleasure Factors. The study was carried out with a sample of 760 subjects, 60% women, with varied ages, occupation and income, and more than five years living in the place. Results indicated significant differences in all components, except Pleasure and Pain, and differential patterns: higher Stability in the North, higher Conflict and Detachment in the Northeast, lower Stability and Power in the Federal District, lower Power and Conflict in the South, and in the Southeast higher Power, Inequality, Culture, Pleasure and Pain, and lower Detachment. A separated exam of the Southeast showed a higher internal diversity than among Brazilian Regions. These results are discussed considering historic-cultural aspects

  12. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Oliveira, Kerley A.; Menezes, Maria Angela de B., E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mello, Jaime de; Silva, David F. da, E-mail: jwvmello@ufv.b [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Siqueira, Maria C.; Taddei, Maria H.; Dias, Fabiana F., E-mail: mc_quimica@hotmail.co, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 210}Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and {sup 210}Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. {sup 22}'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg{sup -1}) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg{sup -1} for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10{sup -3} to 2.3 10{sup -2} for {sup 232}Th; 3.5 10{sup -}'2 to 4.1 10{sup -2} for {sup 226}Ra, 2.4 10{sup -1} to 3.2 10{sup -}'1 for {sup 228}Ra, and 3.5 10{sup -2} to 8.5 10{sup -2} for {sup 210}Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results

  13. Soil-to-plant transfer factors for natural radionuclides in the Brazilian cerrado region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amounts of phosphogypsum produced have been attracting attention of Radiological Protection institutions and Environmental Protection agencies worldwide, given its high potential for environmental contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for several decades, especially for agricultural purposes. Due to the presence of radionuclides in its composition, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms for natural radionuclide transfer in the soil/plant system and to evaluate if the use of phosphogypsum in soil contributes to increased exposition of humans to natural radioactivity. Experiments were accomplished in a greenhouse with lettuce cultivation in two types of soil (sandy and clayey) fertilized with four different amounts of phosphogypsum. Samples of phosphogypsum, soil, lettuce and drainage water were then analyzed for key radionuclides. 238U and 232Th analyses were carried out by Neutron Activation Analysis; 226Ra, 228Ra, and 210Pb by analyzed by Gamma Spectrometry; and 210Po by Alpha Spectrometry Technique. Finally, Transfer Factors of soil-plant were calculated as well as annual contribution to the effective dose due to the ingestion of lettuces. 22'6Ra average specific activity in phosphogypsum samples (252 Bq kg-1) was below the maximum level recommended by USEPA, which is 370 Bq.kg-1 for agricultural use. Although most of the results for mean specific activity of radionuclides in lettuce presented values below the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), Transfer Factors were estimated for those conditions in which the mean specific activity proved to be superior to MDA. Values ranged from 1.8 10-3 to 2.3 10-2 for 232Th; 3.5 10-'2 to 4.1 10-2 for 226Ra, 2.4 10-1 to 3.2 10-'1 for 228Ra, and 3.5 10-2 to 8.5 10-2 for 210Po, depending on the type of soil used for planting vegetables. In general, results obtained in the present study indicated that mobility of radionuclides was low in both soils studied. Calculated effective doses committed were well

  14. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecológicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanças globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.Este artigo resulta de discussões ocorridas durante o Simpósio de Ecologia de Riachos que aconteceu durante o XIII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Limnologia em setembro de 2011 em Natal, Brasil. Baseados em nossa experiência, propomos algumas perguntas sobre ecologia de riachos na perspectiva de mudanças globais e sugerimos alguns aspectos a serem abordados em futuros estudos no país. Esses estudos estão relacionados à necessidade de se conhecer a biologia das espécies; à elaboração de modelos para avaliar as mudanças (o que implica a necessidade de um grande volume de dados em larga escala temporal e espacial; a ecologia das zonas ribeirinhas e o intercâmbio de materiais e energia através das interfaces terra-água; as alterações na cobertura florestal e estratégias de amostragem e tratamento de dados padronizados para avaliar as mudanças globais.

  15. Efeitos de vizinhança ortográfica no português brasileiro: um estudo com a tarefa de identificação perceptual Orthographic neighborhood effects in brazilian portuguese: a study on perceptual identification tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Ricardo dos Reis Justi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Esse estudo investigou os efeitos do número de vizinhos ortográficos (N e do número de vizinhos ortográficos de maior frequência de ocorrência (NF na tarefa de identificação perceptual. Trinta e dois estudantes de psicologia falantes do português brasileiro participaram do estudo. Os estímulos experimentais consistiram em 64 palavras que atenderam a uma manipulação fatorial 2 x 2 de N e NF. Os participantes apresentaram uma maior porcentagem de erros nas palavras com vizinhos ortográficos de maior frequência e uma menor porcentagem de erros nas palavras com muitos vizinhos ortográficos. Argumentou-se que esses resultados refletem o efeito dessas variáveis no processo de acesso lexical e que os modelos de Dupla Rota e PPD têm dificuldades em acomodá-los.This study investigated the effects of Neighborhood Density (ND and Neighborhood Frequency (NF on visual word recognition in 32 Brazilian Portuguese speakers. Participants were given a standard perceptual identification task in which they had a 3-second time-limit for saying aloud what the target word was. Experimental stimuli consisted of 64 words according to an ND (2 x NF (2 factorial design. Higher percentages of errors were made for words with a higher frequency neighbor and lower percentages of errors were made for words with a high neighborhood density. It is argued that the results were due to ND and NF effects on lexical access and that they pose difficulties for Dual Route and PDP models of visual word recognition.

  16. Future ecological studies of Brazilian headwater streams under global-changes Estudos ecológicos futuros em riachos de cabeceira na perspectiva de mudanças globais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Callisto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper results from discussions triggered during the "Stream Ecology Symposium" that took place at the XIII Congress of the Brazilian Society of Limnology in September of 2011 in Natal, Brazil. Based on our experiences, we have raised several questions regarding ecological studies of headwater streams facing threats under global-changes and proposed numerous subjects to be addressed in future studies in Brazil. These studies deal with the necessity of knowing species biology and the elaboration of models to assess changes (which implies the availability of time-series or large-scale data sets; the ecology of riparian zones and the interchange of materials and energy across the land-water boundaries; forest conversions and standardized sampling strategies and data treatment to assess global change.Este artigo resulta de discussões ocorridas durante o Simpósio de Ecologia de Riachos que aconteceu durante o XIII Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Limnologia em setembro de 2011 em Natal, Brasil. Baseados em nossa experiência, propomos algumas perguntas sobre ecologia de riachos na perspectiva de mudanças globais e sugerimos alguns aspectos a serem abordados em futuros estudos no país. Esses estudos estão relacionados à necessidade de se conhecer a biologia das espécies; à elaboração de modelos para avaliar as mudanças (o que implica a necessidade de um grande volume de dados em larga escala temporal e espacial; a ecologia das zonas ribeirinhas e o intercâmbio de materiais e energia através das interfaces terra-água; as alterações na cobertura florestal e estratégias de amostragem e tratamento de dados padronizados para avaliar as mudanças globais.

  17. Phosphorus Sorption and Redistribution on Soil Solid Phase in a Brazilian Haplorthox Amended with Bio solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land application of bio solids (SS) can cause a buildup of phosphorus (P) in the top soil. The changes in the soil P characteristics may be assessed by the sorption isotherm and the sequential fractionation techniques. Samples of Haplorthox were collected from a field experiment where maize was cultivated for two years, after two applications of SS originated from two cities of San Paulo State, Brazil. SS applications added a total of 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 kg ha-1 of P in the area. To perform the sorption isotherms and obtain P maximum sorption capacity (Omax) and the binding energy, soil samples were submitted to increasing P concentration solutions until equilibrium was reached. Sequential fractionation was done by a sequential extraction with CaCl2, NaHCO3, NaOH, HCl, and HNO3 + HClO4 (residual). Addition of bio solids from both cities to the soil decreased Qmax and the binding energy obtained by the Langmuir equation. SS additions changed the P fractions distribution in the soil by increasing the labile fractions (P-CaCl2 and P-NaHCO3) and the moderately labile fraction (P-NaOH) by 11.2% and 20.3%, respectively, in detriment of the most resistant P fraction

  18. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz F.S. Magnago; Sebastião V. Martins; Carlos E. G. R. Schaefer; Andreza V. Neri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were...

  19. RELATIONSHIP OF MICROBIAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND CARBON DYNAMICS IN SOILS FROM BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertilization is a widespread management practice in savanna areas of central Brazil (Cerrado) that are undergoing rapid agricultural land use changes. We conducted field and laboratory studies in soils with added fertilizers to determine the effect that fertilization of native a...

  20. Restinga forests of the Brazilian coast: richness and abundance of tree species on different soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnago, Luiz F S; Martins, Sebastião V; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Neri, Andreza V

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine changes in composition, abundance and richness of species along a forest gradient with varying soils and flood regimes. The forests are located on the left bank of the lower Jucu River, in Jacarenema Natural Municipal Park, Espírito Santo. A survey of shrub/tree species was done in 80 plots, 5x25 m, equally distributed among the forests studied. We included in the sampling all individuals with >3.2 cm diameter at breast height (1.30 m). Soil samples were collected from the surface layer (0-10 cm) in each plot for chemical and physical analysis. The results indicate that a significant pedological gradient occurs, which is influenced by varying seasonal groundwater levels. Restinga forest formations showed significant differences in species richness, except for Non-flooded Forest and Non-flooded Forest Transition. The Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) showed that some species are distributed along the gradient under the combined influence of drainage, nutrient concentration and physical characteristics of the soil. Regarding the variables tested, flooding seems to be a more limiting factor for the establishment of plant species in Restinga forests than basic soil fertility attributes. PMID:22886165

  1. Phosphorus geochemistry in a Brazilian semiarid mangrove soil affected by shrimp farm effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, G N; Otero, X L; Macías, F; Ferreira, T O

    2014-09-01

    Wastewater discharge from shrimp farming is one of the main causes of eutrophication in mangrove ecosystems. We investigated the phosphorus (P) geochemistry in mangrove soils affected by shrimp farming effluents by carrying out a seasonal study of two mangrove forests (a control site (CS); a site affected by shrimp farm effluents (SF)). We determined the soil pH, redox potential (Eh), total organic carbon (TOC), total phosphorus (TP), and dissolved P. We also carried out sequential extraction of the P-solid phases. In SF, the effluents affected the soil physicochemical conditions, resulting in lower Eh and higher pH, as well as lower TOC and higher TP than in CS. Organic P forms were dominant in both sites and seasons, although to a lesser extent in SF. The lower TOC in SF was related to the increased microbial activity and organic matter decomposition caused by fertilization. The higher amounts of P oxides in SF suggest that the effluents alter the dominance of iron and sulfate reduction in mangrove soils, generating more reactive Fe that is available for bonding to phosphates. Strong TP losses were recorded in both sites during the dry season, in association with increased amounts of exchangeable and dissolved P. The higher bioavailability of P during the dry season may be attributed to increased mineralization of organic matter and dissolution of Ca-P in response to more oxidizing and acidic conditions. The P loss has significant environmental implications regarding eutrophication and marine productivity. PMID:24838803

  2. Adsorption, Persistence and Degradation of Pesticides in Brazilian Soils. Influence of Organic Matter and Microbial Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of repeated applications of parathion on a humic gley soil was studied. Results showed an increased rate of formation of 14CO2 indicating a more rapid breakdown of parathion after one, five and eleven months storage. The enhanced degradation was shown to occur as a function of the period of incubation, independent of the parathion treatments

  3. Characterization of a new Acidobacteria-derived moderately thermostable lipase from a Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil metagenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faoro, Helisson; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Couto, Gustavo Henrique; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; Rigo, Liu Un; Cruz, Leonardo Magalhães; Monteiro, Rose Adele; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira

    2012-08-01

    A clone (LP001) expressing a new lipase gene was isolated from a metagenomic library of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest soil. The DNA insert of LP001 was fully sequenced, and 38 ORFs were identified. Comparison of ORFs, %G + C content and gene organization with sequenced bacterial genomes suggested that the fosmid DNA insert belongs to an organism of the Acidobacteria phylum. Protein domain analysis and inactivation by transposon insertion showed that the protein encoded by ORF29 was responsible for the lipase activity and was named LipAAc. The purified LipAAc lipase was capable of hydrolyzing a broad range of substrates, showing the highest activity against p-nitrophenol (pNP) decanoate. The lipase was active over a pH range of 5.0-10.0 and was insensitive to divalent cations. LipAAc is moderately thermostable with optimum temperature between 50 and 60 °C and was thermally activated (80% activity increase) after 1 h incubation at 50 °C. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the LipAAc is a member of family I of bacterial lipases and clusters with other moderately thermostable lipases of this group. Comparisons of the DNA insert of fosmid LP001 with other acidobacterial genomes and sequence database suggest that lipAAc gene has a fungal origin and was acquired by horizontal transfer. PMID:22428990

  4. Mood changes in the course of preparation for the Brazilian university admission exam - a longitudinal study Alterações de humor ao longo da preparação para o vestibular - um estudo longitudinal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Monteiro Peluso

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Academic examinations are an important source of stress for students. This study is intended to assess senior high school students' mood changes during the preparation for a very important academic examination, the Brazilian university admission examination. METHOD: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form was used to assess the students three times in the course of the months preceding the examination. RESULTS: ANOVA for repeated measures showed that Negative Affect increased as the examination approached, and that this increment was already present months before the examinationtookplace. Asingle conditionallyindependent random effect model showed that time spent studying was associated with fluctuations in mood. CONCLUSION: Teenagers, in preparation for a very important examination, may present mood disturbances associated with both the proximity of the examination and their study load months before the examination actually takes place. Other stressing factors may play a role in these findings and should be further investigated.OBJETIVO: Exames acadêmicos são uma fonte importante de estresse para estudantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar alterações de humor em estudantes de terceiro ano do Ensino Médio ao longo da preparação para um exame acadêmico de grande importância, o vestibular. MÉTODO: Positive and Negative Affect Schedule - Expanded Form foi utilizado para avaliar os estudantes três vezes ao longo dos meses antecedendo o exame. RESULTADOS: ANOVA para medidas repetidas mostrou que o afeto negativo aumentou com a aproximação do exame e que esse aumento já estava presente meses antes dele acontecer. Um modelo de efeitos aleatórios com independência condicional mostrou que o tempo de estudo estava associado às flutuações de humor. CONCLUSÃO: Adolescentes em preparação para exames muito importantes podem apresentar um distúrbio de humor associado à proximidade do exame e à quantidade

  5. Dentição decídua: estudo da prevalência dos espaços interproximais em crianças brasileiras Deciduous dentition: prevalence study of interdental spaces in brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Mendes SOVIERO

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available No intuito de conhecer mais sobre as características da dentição decídua, apresentadas pelas crianças brasileiras, realizou-se um estudo de prevalência do qual participaram 400 crianças, com dentição decídua completa e idade variando de 2 a 6 anos, na cidade de Petrópolis - RJ. O arco tipo I foi o mais prevalente tanto no arco superior (93,2% como no inferior (90,5%, sendo que o superior tipo II foi mais comum no sexo feminino (p For the purpose of ascertaining more information about the characteristics of deciduous dentition presented by the Brazilian children, a prevalence study was performed. Four hundred children with complete deciduous dentitions and age ranging from 2 to 6 years, were examined in Petrópolis - RJ - Brazil. The type I arch was the most prevalent in the upper arch (93.2% and in the lower arch (90.5%. The type II upper arch was more common in the females (p < 0.01. The primate spaces were the most frequent spaces found in both arches. The association between the presence of interdental spaces and age was statistically significant (p < 0.05, suggesting that there is a tendency for the spaces to close with age.

  6. Impact of forested fallows on fertility and mercury content in soils of the Tapajós River region, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patry, Cynthia; Davidson, Robert; Lucotte, Marc; Béliveau, Annie

    2013-08-01

    Recent research on slash-and-burn agriculture conducted in the Amazonian basin has suggested that soils must be left under forested fallows for at least 10 to 15 years to regain fertility levels comparable to non-disturbed forests in order to allow for short cycle crop cultivation. However, small scale farmers tend nowadays to re-burn secondary forests as soon as after 3 to 5 years, thus could contribute to further reduce soil fertility and could enhance the transfer of mercury (Hg) naturally present in soils of the region towards water courses. The present research project sets out to characterize the impact of forested fallows of differing age and land-use history on soils properties (fertility and Hg contents) in the region of the Tapajós River, an active pioneer front of the Brazilian Amazon. To do this, soil samples in forested fallows of variable age and in control primary forests were retrieved. In general, soil fertility of grouped forested fallows of different ages was similar to that of the primary forests. But when discriminating soils according to their texture, forested fallows on coarse grained soils still had much higher NH4/NO3 ratios, NH4 and Ca contents than primary forests, this even 15 years after burning. The impact of repeated burnings was also assessed. Fallows on coarse grained soils showed an impoverishment for all variables related to fertility when the number of burnings was 5 or more. For fallows on fine grained soils that underwent 5 or more burnings, NO3 contents were low although a cation enrichment was observed. Total soil Hg content was also sensitive to repeated burnings, showing similar losses for forested fallows established on both types of soil. However, Hg linked to coarse particles appeared to migrate back towards fine particles at the surface of coarse grained soils in fallows older than 7 years. PMID:23651778

  7. Glomalin Production and Microbial Activity in Soils Impacted by Gypsum Mining in a Brazilian Semiarid Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalia C.E.S. Mergulhao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mining activities involve the removal of the vegetal cover and the soil organic layer, causing a severe environmental impact. In Northeast Brazil, 40% of the worlds crude gypsum is found in a semiarid area, making this region responsible for 95% of the gypsum demand in the national market. Although economically important, this activity is harmful to the environment. Studies of soil microbiological and biochemical attributes can help in the identification of the limitations of impacted ecosystems, providing data to define strategies for sustainability of such environments. Approach: To evaluate and compare the biological state of preserved and mining degraded semiarid soils, a native preserved area and areas impacted by gypsum mining were selected at the Araripina Experimental Station, located in the semiarid region of Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil. The four sampling areas included: (1 A native, preserved �caatinga� area with spine bearing trees and shrubs and some characteristic xerophytic plants (AN; (2 An area surrounding the mine, presenting the same type of vegetation although already degraded (AM; (3 A waste deposit area (AR; (4 Interface area between the waste deposit and a mining degraded area (AI. Samples were taken in each area (1000 m2 during two periods: wet (December/2003, Rainfall = 28.7 mm and dry (September/2004, Rainfall = 1.3 mm. Results: Fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis values, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were higher in the preserved caatinga than in the impacted areas. The gypsum mining activity reduced the concentration of easily extractable glomalin in relation to the native caatinga area in both sampling periods. Higher deposits of total glomalin also occurred in the native area, however, mainly during the wet period. Conclusion: The mining activity produced a negative impact on the soil microbiota, reducing the total enzymatic activity. The microbial

  8. Disfunção erétil: resultados do estudo da vida sexual do brasileiro Erectile dysfunction: results of the Brazilian sexual life study

    OpenAIRE

    Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo; Waldemar Mendes de Oliveira Jr; Marco de Tubino Scanavino; Fernando Gonini Martins

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência da disfunção erétil (DE) e fatores de risco associados em amostra da população brasileira. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com amostra de conveniência de 2.862 homens, maiores de 18 anos, por meio de questionário anônimo e auto-responsivo. A prevalência de DE na amostra foi obtida mediante questão global derivada diretamente da definição de DE. Os dados foram submetidos a testes Qui-quadrado e t de Student. Foram utilizadas análises de regressão logística para cálc...

  9. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Roberto Lorena de Barros; Spehar Carlos Roberto; Vivaldi Lucio

    2003-01-01

    The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and ...

  10. Sistema regional de inovação: estudo das regiões brasileiras Regional innovation system: a study of brazilian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana F. Rossi Casali

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisou o processo de formação regional do Brasil, os desequilíbrios existentes entre as regiões e as perspectivas futuras. Teve como proposta básica analisar o possível processo de convergência de renda das regiões brasileiras, utilizando o conceito de gap tecnológico. Segundo esse conceito, os desequilíbrios regionais são o resultado de diferentes taxas de desenvolvimento econômico, que, por sua vez, resultam de diferentes níveis de desenvolvimento tecnológico, os quais, por fim, são consequências de condições históricas, sociais e culturais específicas de cada região. Dessa forma, pressupôs-se a existência de relação positiva entre nível de desenvolvimento tecnológico, dependência tecnológica, dependência econômica, nível de desenvolvimento econômico e convergência de renda. Os resultados mostram que, em relação à possibilidade de as regiões e os estados menos desenvolvidos realizarem o catching up com aqueles mais desenvolvidos, as variáveis que representam tanto a geração quanto a apropriação de novas tecnologias são significativas e diretamente relacionadas com o produto. Dessa forma, pode-se afirmar que o catching up seria possível caso houvesse um maior investimento no processo de desenvolvimento e apropriação de novas tecnologias por parte dos governos regionais.This research developed an analysis on the regional imbalances at the Brazilian economy, the historic formation of the regions and perspectives. As a result of the distinctive courses followed by each region, an economical concentration process occurs in the Southeast. In this sense, this study intended to analyze the possible process of the Brazilian regional formation, using the concept of technological gap. The result show that, in relation to the possibilities of the regions and states that are less developed to accomplish the catching up with those that are more developed, the variables that represent generation

  11. Proposição de valores de referência para a concentração natural de metais pesados em solos brasileiros Proposition of reference values for natural concentration of heavy metals in Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de S. Fadigas

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a extensão da poluição de uma área, é comum se comparar os teores totais de metais pesados encontrados num dado solo com aqueles defrontados em condições naturais (não poluídos ou com valores de referência (padrões. Propuseram-se através deste estudo: 1 valores de referência (VR e limites de tolerância (LT para os mais representativos solos brasileiros, e 2 um modelo para obtenção das concentrações naturais de Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb e Zn em um solo, a partir dos teores de silte, argila, Mn, Fe e CTC. Reuniram-se 256 amostras de solo por similaridade, em sete grupos e se calcularam as concentrações correspondentes ao quartil superior dos dados. Essas concentrações são propostas como valores de referência (VR em solos brasileiros; além disso, obtiveram-se os limites de tolerância (LT para cada grupo a partir da expressão antilog (m + 2s, cujos m (média e s (desvio padrão dos dados foram transformados em log10. As funções de classificação da análise discriminante mostraram se apropriadas para alocar novas amostras nos grupos estabelecidos. Assim, é possível avaliar solos sob atividade antrópica e saber se há motivo para suspeitar de que a área esteja poluída.To evaluate the extension of soil pollution of a site it is common to compare the contents found in a specific soil with those in natural conditions (unpolluted or with reference values (patterns. The goal of this study was to propose: 1 reference values (VR and tolerance limits for the most representative Brazilian soils, and 2 a model for obtaining the levels of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in a soil under natural conditions from the silt, clay, Mn, Fe contents and CEC value. A set of 256 soil samples was formed by similarity in seven groups and the concentrations corresponding to the upper quartile of the data were calculated. These concentrations are proposed as the reference values (VR in Brazilian soils. Besides, tolerance limits

  12. Impact of Pinus Afforestation on Soil Chemical Attributes and Organic Matter in South Brazilian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Dick, D.; Benvenuti Leite, S.; Dalmolin, R.; Almeida, H.; Knicker, H.; Martinazzo, R.

    2009-04-01

    The region known as Campos de Cima da Serra, located at 800 to 1400 m above sea level in the northeas of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is covered by a mosaic of natural grassland and Araucaria forest. Cattle raising, introduced by the first European settlers about 200 years ago, is the traditional economic activity in the region, occurring extensively and continuously on the natural pasture. In the last 30 years, while seeking for higher profits, local farmers have introduced agricultural crops and Pinus Taeda plantations in the original pasture lands. Pinus plantations are established in this area as dense monocultures and not as a sylvipastoral system, representing, thus, a severe threaten to the Campos' biodiversity. The soils are shallow, though very acidic (pH 4.2) and rich in exchangeable Al (28 to 47% of Al saturation), and present high contents of SOM in the surface layer (in general, higher than 4 %), which shows a low decomposition degree, as indicated by its high proportion of C-O alkyl groups (51 to 59 %). Considering that the biome sustainability of this region is being progressively affected by the change of land use and that systematic studies about exotic trees afforestation in that region are very scarce, our main objective was to investigate the impact of the introduction of Pinus on the SOM composition and chemical attributes of highland soils in 8 (Pi8) and 30 (Pi30) years old plantations, using as reference the original condition under native pasture (NP). In each studied Leptosol, soil samples were collected from three layers down to 15 cm ( 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm). Contents of exchangeable cations and of micronutrients and soil pH were determined. The SOM composition was investigated by means of elemental analyses, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy (three replicates). Prior to the spectroscopic analyses, samples were demineralized with 10% HF solution and organic matter loss was monitored. From the FTIR spectra, an aromaticity index

  13. Episodic nitrous oxide soil emissions in Brazilian savanna (cerrado) fire-scars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, A. D.; Crill, P. M.; Harriss, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonally burned cerrados of Brazil are the largest savanna-type ecosystem of South America and their contribution to the global atmospheric nitrous oxide (N20) budget is unknown. Four types of fire-scarred cerrado along a vegetation gradient from grassland to forest were investigated during the wet season of 1992/93. The effect of fire and subsequent water additions on epiodic emissions of N2O and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O concentrations were studied for several months. Additionally, the effect on episodic emissions of N2O of nitrate and glucose additions to a cerrado soil after fire and the associated profile dynamic of soil/gas phase N2O mixing ratios were determined. Finally, N2O episodic emissions in cerrado converted to corn, soybean, and pasture fields were investigated during one growing/wet season. Results showed N2O consumption/emission for the four fire-scared savanna ecosystems, for nitrogen and carbon fertilization, and for agriculture/pasture ranging from -0.3 to +0.7, 1.8 to 9.1, and 0.5 to 3.7 g N2O-N ha(exp -1) d(exp -1), respectively. During the wet season the cerrado biome does not appear to be a major source of N2O to the troposphere, even following fire events. However, the results of this study suggest that conversion of the cerrado to high input agriculture, with liming and fertilization, can increase N2O emissions more than ten fold.

  14. Arsenic speciation in arsenic-rich Brazilian soils from gold mining sites under anaerobic incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mello, J. W. V.; Talbott, J.L.; Scott, J.; Roy, W.R.; Stucki, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Arsenic speciation in environmental samples is essential for studying toxicity, mobility and bio-transformation of As in aquatic and terrestrial environments. Although the inorganic species As(III) and As(V) have been considered dominant in soils and sediments, organisms are able to metabolize inorganic forms of arsenic into organo-arsenic compounds. Arsenosugars and methylated As compounds can be found in terrestrial organisms, but they generally occur only as minor constituents. We investigated the dynamics of arsenic species under anaerobic conditions in soils surrounding gold mining areas from Minas Gerais State, Brazil to elucidate the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and water contamination mechanisms. Methods. Surface soil samples were collected at those sites, namely Paracatu Formation, Banded Iron Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence, and incubated in CaCl2 2.5 mmol L-1 suspensions under anaerobic conditions for 1, 28, 56 and 112 days. After that, suspensions were centrifuged and supernatants analyzed for soluble As species by IC-ICPMS and HPLC-ICPMS. Results. Easily exchangeable As was mainly arsenite, except when reducible manganese was present. Arsenate was mainly responsible for the increase in soluble arsenic due to the reductive dissolution of either iron or manganese in samples from the Paracatu Formation and Riacho dos Machados Sequence. On the other hand, organic species of As dominated in samples from the Banded Iron Formation during anaerobic incubation. Discussion. Results are contrary to the expectation that, in anaerobic environments, As release due to the reductive dissolution of Fe is followed by As(V) reduction to As(III). The occurrence of organo-arsenic species was also found to be significant to the dynamics of soluble arsenic, mainly in soils from the Banded Iron Formation (BIF), under our experimental conditions. Conclusions. In general, As(V) and organic As were the dominant species in solution, which is surprising

  15. Compreendendo a educação popular em saúde: um estudo na literatura brasileira Understanding popular health education: a review of the brazilian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Bezerra Gomes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo revisa a produção acadêmica brasileira sobre a educação popular em saúde, matriz teórica que agrega um conjunto relevante de pesquisadores e militantes políticos na saúde coletiva brasileira. Caracteriza-se como uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa, de nível exploratório e de caráter analítico. Com base em pesquisa bibliográfica no SciELO e em livros e capítulos de livros, elaboramos uma sistematização da produção da educação popular em saúde, apresentando um resgate do processo histórico de constituição da educação popular em saúde como fruto da atuação de diversos movimentos sociais, uma descrição das características gerais da educação popular em saúde, suas grandes pautas, a maneira como os autores desta perspectiva compreendem a atuação educativa dos serviços de saúde junto à população, suas críticas e disputas com o modo hegemônico de se organizar a educação e a atenção à saúde, bem como algumas contribuições que agregam aos que se propõem a seguir suas bases e preceitos.This article reviews the Brazilian literature on popular health education, a theoretical area that includes a relevant group of the country's public health researchers and political activists. This was a qualitative, exploratory, analytical study. Based on a search in the SciELO database and books and book chapters, we systematized the academic output on popular health education in Brazil. The article discusses the historical process in which popular health education was constructed by various social movements. We further analyze the general characteristics of popular health education and its main agendas, the ways by which authors with this perspective view the educational work of health services for the population, and their critiques and disputes with the hegemonic approach to the organization of education and health care. Finally, we identify several additional contributions to popular health education

  16. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa Neto, E.; Carmo, J. B.; Keller, M.; Martins, S. C.; Alves, L. F.; Vieira, S. A.; Piccolo, M. C.; Camargo, P.; Couto, H. T. Z.; Joly, C. A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2011-03-01

    Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture). Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4), 1.0 (± 0.1), and 0.9 (± 0.2) ng N cm-2 h-1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of -1.0 (± 0.2), -1.8 (± 0.3), and -1.6 (± 0.1) mg m-2 d-1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m-2 s-1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  17. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo de natureza empírico-teórica foi entender os relacionamentos entre o Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial; o desenvolvimento de Competências Organizacionais e Desempenho usando o framework proposto por Henri 2006 . A dimensão Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial proposta por Simons 1995; 2000 em Uso Diagnóstico e Uso Interativo é pouco estudada no Brasil; contrariamente à literatura internacional; embora esta tenha mostrado alguns resultados que são contraditórios. A pesquisa foi realizada em 2008; por meio de um survey em uma amostra de 104 empresas constantes da relação das 1.000 Maiores Empresas da Revista Exame. Com a aplicação da Modelagem de Equação Estrutural; os principais resultados mostram que não existem evidências de relacionamento negativo entre o Uso Diagnóstico e o desenvolvimento de Competências Organizacionais; o que contradiz os resultados de Henri 2006 . Também se identificou que o Uso Interativo influencia positivamente as competências Aprendizagem Organizacional e Orientação para Mercado e estas influenciam positivamente o Desempenho medido por auto-avaliação . O estudo contribui para a literatura nacional ao abordar um tema que integra Contabilidade Gerencial e Estratégia; e também por operacionalizar o construto Tensões Dinâmicas. O resultado contribui para a prática ao mostrar que as empresas devem continuar usando diagnosticamente o Controle Gerencial; pois este auxilia a organização a corrigir desvios; ao mesmo tempo que recomenda a utilização da forma interativa para ativar as competências organizacionais.The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship among Management Control System Use, development of company's organizational competences and performance using Henri's framework (HENRI, 2006. The dimension Use of Management Control System, proposed by Simons (1995, 2000 in diagnostic use and interactive use is scarcely studied in Brazil, in spite

  18. Estudo epidemiológico da leptospirose bovina e humana na Amazônia oriental brasileira Epidemiologic study of bovine and human leptospirosis in eastern Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Stacchini Ferreira Homem

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o estudo da soroprevalência da leptospirose em bovinos e humanos especificamente em propriedades familiares na região de fronteira agrícola da rodovia Transamazônica, na Amazônia Oriental. A prevalência da leptospirose bovina foi 97% [90,9 - 99,5%] de propriedades com pelo menos um animal positivo na soroaglutinação microscópica para o diagnóstico da leptospirose. Em 61,2% dos rebanhos o sorotipo hardjo foi apontado como o mais provável, em 9% deles o sorotipo bratislava e em 4,5% o shermani. A prevalência sorológica da leptospirose humana foi 32,8% [23,4 - 43,5%] de núcleos familiares com pelo menos um indivíduo positivo na soroaglutinação microscópica para o diagnóstico da leptospirose. Em 9% dos núcleos familiares o sorotipo bratislava foi apontado como o mais provável, em 6% deles o sorotipo hardjo e em 4,5% o grippotyphosa. Foi discutido o impacto desses achados sobre a produção animal e saúde pública na região e feitas sugestões para minorar o problema.The seroprevalence study for leptospirosis in bovines and humans was realized in family holder farms along the Transamazon Highway. The prevalence of bovine leptospirosis was 97% [90.9 - 99.5%] of farms with at least one positive animal according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 61.2% of the tested herds, the serovar hardjo was the most common, followed by the serovar bratislava (9% and the serovar shermani (4.5%. The serologic prevalence of leptospirosis in humans was 32.8% [23.4 - 43.5%] in family groups with at least one positive individual according to microscopic agglutination test for the leptospirosis diagnostic. In 9% of family groups, the serovar bratislava was the most common, while serovar hardjo and grippotyphosa accounted for 6% and 4.5%, respectively. The impact of these results is discussed in relation to animal production and public health. Suggestions have been proposed in order to improve the

  19. The Brazilian smoker: a survey in the largest cities of Brazil Fatores associados ao hábito de fumar do brasileiro: um estudo nas maiores cidades do país

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emérita Sátiro Opaleye

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the sociodemographic factors associated with daily consumption of cigarettes and pattern of cigarette use among Brazilian smokers. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was performed in 2005 involving the 108 largest Brazilian cities. Data were collected through interviews with subjects aged 12 to 65 years in randomly selected households. Based on a questionnaire adapted to the Brazilian context, a logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the sociodemographic characteristics of the sample and smoking. RESULTS: Of the 7,921 subjects interviewed, 16.4% reported daily use of cigarettes. The smoking prevalence was similar between genders, although women reported to start smoking at a later age and smoke fewer cigarettes per day. Almost 65% of the smokers were interested in quitting or reducing their smoking habit. The main sociodemographic characteristics associated with smoking were as follows: adult age (30-59 years old, unemployment, low education level, and low socioeconomic level. Alcohol abuse was also shown to be associated with smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that adverse socioeconomic characteristics are implicated in increased susceptibility to smoking in Brazil. In our sample, a high proportion of smokers reported interest to quit or reduce smoking. These data suggest that sociodemographic factors should be considered in the elaboration of smoking prevention and treatment policies.OBJETIVO: Conhecer fatores sociodemográficos associados ao consumo diário de cigarros, bem como o padrão de uso de cigarros do tabagista brasileiro. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal realizado em 2005 nas 108 maiores cidades brasileiras através de entrevistas a indivíduos de 12 a 65 anos em domicílios sorteados por amostragem representativa. Com base em questionário adaptado para o contexto brasileiro, as características sociodemográficas foram investigadas em modelo de regressão logística para

  20. Outsourcing e geração de valor na indústria de computadores pessoais (PCs: estudo de múltiplos casos The disruption of the Brazilian Personal Computer (PC industry: a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando José Barbin Laurindo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar de o conceito de computador pessoal (personal computer - PC ter surgido nos anos 70, essa indústria realmente deslanchou somente após o lançamento do IBM PC, em 1981. Por meio de uma agressiva estratégia de outsourcing, a IBM rapidamente conquistou o mercado, mas esta estratégia também causou perda de competências internas para seus principais parceiros, Intel e Microsoft, bem como outros revendedores autônomos. No Brasil, atualmente, a indústria de PCs está relegada à montagem de kits importados e também à manufatura das etapas finais do processo de produção de componentes, com pouco valor agregado localmente. Após o término da reserva de mercado, marcado pela súbita abertura aos concorrentes externos, houve desmantelamento da indústria brasileira de PCs e de semicondutores, nos elos de maior valor agregado dessa cadeia. Para obter inserção nas cadeias globais, as empresas brasileiras precisam atingir qualificação nos critérios de desempenho, a fim de participar dos processos de outsourcing. Este artigo visa, por meio de um aparato teórico que relaciona aspectos de outsourcing, inovação, valor e evolução da indústria de PCs, a investigar os impactos desses aspectos na competitividade da indústria de PCs do Brasil e as repercussões para seu crescimento e inserção no mercado global. A abordagem metodológica adotada foi estudo de múltiplos casos, com os seguintes critérios de seleção: diferentes papéis na cadeia de valor, grau de verticalização, principal mercado visado e tamanho da empresa.Although the personal computer (PC appeared in the seventies, this industry really boomed only after IBM launched its PC, in 1981. Through an aggressive outsourcing strategy, IBM rapidly conquered the market, but this strategy also caused lost of internal competences to its main partners, Intel and Microsoft and also to autonomous vendors. Many PC manufacturers have appeared since then. In Brazil, nowadays, PC

  1. Racionalidade e métodos: estudo BREATHE - I registro brasileiro de insuficiência cardíaca Rationale and design: BREATHE registry - I brazilian registry of heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Diversos registros locais buscam de forma isolada retratar características clínicas de pacientes internados com Insuficiência Cardíaca (IC em hospitais e comunidades brasileiras. De forma geral, a análise desses dados sugere que existam diferenças importantes na etiologia, nos fatores de descompensação, no tratamento e no prognóstico de pacientes com IC nas diferentes regiões brasileiras. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as características demográficas, clínicas, prognósticas de 1.200 pacientes admitidos com diagnóstico clínico de insuficiência cardíaca descompensada em um grupo de 60 hospitais representativos das diferentes regiões brasileiras. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional transversal (registro com seguimento longitudinal de doze meses (visitas de admissão, alta hospitalar, três meses, seis meses e doze meses após inclusão, em que pacientes admitidos em hospitais da rede pública e privada com quadro clínico primariamente de IC definida serão estudados. RESULTADOS: Os resultados serão apresentados logo após o término da coleta, avaliação da qualidade e análise estatística dos dados. CONCLUSÕES: A análise dos resultados deste registro multicêntrico permitirá um planejamento mais adequado do aporte de recursos financeiros, pessoais e tecnológicos para a área da saúde, bem como o planejamento de medidas preventivas mais eficazes na IC descompensada.BACKGROUND: Several local registries have sought to individually depict clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF in Brazilian hospitals and communities. Overall, the analysis of these data suggests that there are important differences in etiology, decompensation factors, treatment and prognosis of patients with HF in different Brazilian regions. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the demographic, clinical and prognostic characteristics of 1,200 patients admitted with a clinical diagnosis of decompensated HF in a group of 60 hospitals

  2. Kaposi’s sarcoma in Brazilian AIDS patients: a study of 144 cases Sarcoma de Kaposi em pacientes com AIDS: estudo de 144 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther G. BIRMAN

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty-four Brazilian AIDS patients presenting with Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS were evaluated with respect to the frequency of oral neoplasms and their clinical features. The majority of the patients were young male adults (age range: 21-40 years old, from which 11.1 % presented with oral KS (OKS exclusively. Oral and skin lesions were associated in 25% of the cases, while only four patients showed association between oral and visceral KS; 49.3% of the cases were exclusively dermatological. The hard palate was the main site affected, followed by the oropharynx. The localization of KS was found to be similarly frequent in the tongue, gingiva and other sites of the oral mucosa. Candidosis was the prevailing fungal disease; in 20% of the cases it was restricted to the oral mucosa and in 80% it was systemic. No high frequency of paracoccidioidomicosis and cryptococcosis was detected. The prevailing bacterial disease was Tuberculosis and there was only one case of syphilis. Among the viral diseases, the most frequently detected was herpes simplex, followed by molusco contagiosum, condiloma acuminatum and cytomegaloviroses at lower frequencies. Pneumonia caused by Pneumocystes carinii and toxoplasmosis were also identified. The authors emphasise the importance of oral examination in HIV-infected patients bearing in mind several aspects related especially to KS, and stress the need for an interdisciplinary team in the management of these patients, in order to provide better quality of life as well as rapid diagnosis and treatment.Foram estudados pacientes brasileiros portadores de SIDA apresentando sarcoma de Kaposi (SK. O perfil de idade mostrou um grupo com média de idade entre 21 e 40 anos, sendo que 11,1% da amostra apresentava SK exclusivamente na cavidade bucal, observando-se em 25% da amostra uma associação de lesões bucais e na pele. Somente quatro pacientes apresentaram associação de lesões bucais e viscerais, enquanto 49

  3. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in a Brazilian hospital: a retrospective study of endoscopic records Sangramento digestivo alto em um hospital brasileiro: estudo retrospectivo de registros endoscópicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrla ZALTMAN

    2002-04-01

    attributed to a higher prevalence of variceal bleeding and underlying liver disease.Racional - A hemorragia digestiva alta é complicação comum e grave da maioria das doenças do trato gastrointestinal superior. A endoscopia tem papel fundamental no diagnóstico e no tratamento da hemorragia digestiva, mas os dados epidemiológicos a esse respeito ainda são precários em nosso meio. Objetivos - Determinar as características clínicas, a acurácia endoscópica, a eficácia do tratamento e a evolução clínica dos pacientes admitidos no setor de endoscopia digestiva do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, com sangramento digestivo alto. Pacientes e Métodos - Estudo retrospectivo de registros consecutivos de pacientes com hemorragia digestiva alta submetidos a endoscopia de urgência, em período de 2 anos. Resultados - A maioria dos pacientes era do sexo masculino (68.7% com idade média de 54,5 ± 17,5 anos. O sítio de sangramento foi identificado em 75.6% dos pacientes. A acurácia diagnóstica da endoscopia foi maior quando realizada nas primeiras 24 horas do início do sangramento e quando da presença de hematêmese. A úlcera péptica foi a principal causa de hemorragia digestiva alta (35%. A prevalência de sangramento varicoso (20,45% indica freqüência alta de hepatopatia subjacente. O tratamento endoscópico foi realizado em 23,86% dos pacientes. Hemostasia permanente foi alcançada em 86% dos pacientes após a primeira intervenção endoscópica e em 62,5% dos pacientes após ressangramento. Cirurgia de emergência foi raramente necessária. A quantidade de unidades de sangue utilizada foi em média 1,44 ± 1,99 por paciente. O tempo médio de internação hospitalar foi de 7,71 ± 12,2 dias. Ressangramento foi observado em 9,1% dos pacientes. A taxa de mortalidade de 15,34% foi significativamente relacionada com a presença de doença hepática prévia. Conclusões - A acurácia diagnóstica foi

  4. Espondiloartrites: análise de uma série Brasileira comparada a uma grande casuística Ibero-Americana (estudo RESPONDIA Spondyloarthritis: analysis of a Brazilian series compared with a large Ibero-American registry (RESPONDIA group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lopes Gallinaro

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudos recentes relatam as características clínicas e epidemiológicas das espondiloartrites nas populações de diversos países ibero-americanos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar os dados obtidos em um estudo epidemiológico brasileiro com os dados encontrados em diversos países ibero-americanos, que utilizaram um mesmo protocolo de investigação. A casuística brasileira apresentou maior frequência de pacientes com diagnóstico de espondilite anquilosante (72,3% brasileiros vs. 57,7% ibero-americanos, estando associada ao sexo masculino (73,6% vs. 66,0% e ao antígeno de histocompatibilidade HLA-B27 positivo (65,9% vs. 51,8%. Com relação ao tratamento, os pacientes brasileiros fizeram mais uso de anti-inflamatório não hormonal (AINH (77,0% vs. 71,2% e menor uso de esteroides (7,5% vs. 18,5%.Recent studies have outlined the clinical and epidemiological profile of the spondyloarthritides in Ibero-American countries. The objective of this study was to compare the data collected in a Brazilian epidemiological study with the data obtained from other Ibero-American countries that used the same protocol of investigation. The Brazilian series presented a higher frequency of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (72.3% Brazilian vs. 57.7% Ibero-American, being associated with the male gender (73.6% vs. 66.0% and histocompatibility antigen positive HLA-B27 (65.9% vs. 51.8%. Regarding the treatment, hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs - NSAIDS were more frequently prescribed to Brazilian patients (77.0% vs. 71.2% and less often, corticosteroids (7.5% vs. 18.5%.

  5. Spatial variation in vegetation structure coupled to plant available water determined by two-dimensional soil resistivity profiling in a Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joice N; Bustamante, Mercedes; Garcia-Montiel, Diana C; Caylor, Kelly K; Davidson, Eric A

    2007-08-01

    Tropical savannas commonly exhibit large spatial heterogeneity in vegetation structure. Fine-scale patterns of soil moisture, particularly in the deeper soil layers, have not been well investigated as factors possibly influencing vegetation patterns in savannas. Here we investigate the role of soil water availability and heterogeneity related to vegetation structure in an area of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). Our objective was to determine whether horizontal spatial variations of soil water are coupled with patterns of vegetation structure across tens of meters. We applied a novel methodological approach to convert soil electrical resistivity measurements along three 275-m transects to volumetric water content and then to estimates of plant available water (PAW). Structural attributes of the woody vegetation, including plant position, height, basal circumference, crown dimensions, and leaf area index, were surveyed within twenty-two 100-m(2) plots along the same transects, where no obvious vegetation gradients had been apparent. Spatial heterogeneity was evaluated through measurements of spatial autocorrelation in both PAW and vegetation structure. Comparisons with null models suggest that plants were randomly distributed over the transect with the greatest mean PAW and lowest PAW heterogeneity, and clustered in the driest and most heterogeneous transect. Plant density was positively related with PAW in the top 4 m of soil. The density-dependent vegetation attributes that are related to plot biomass, such as sum of tree heights per plot, exhibited spatial variation patterns that were remarkably similar to spatial variation of PAW in the top 4 m of soil. For PAW below 4 m depth, mean vegetation attributes, such as mean height, were negatively correlated with PAW, suggesting greater water uptake from the deep soil by plants of larger stature. These results are consistent with PAW heterogeneity being an important structuring factor in the plant distribution at the

  6. Bibliometria, história e geografia da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo Bibliometrics, history and geography of Brazilian research on accelerated soil erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giaroli de Oliveira Pereira Barretto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Há poucos estudos sobre a história da ciência do solo e, no Brasil, essa matéria ainda não recebeu maior atenção por parte de sua comunidade científica. Este trabalho focaliza a formação histórica da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo a partir de uma análise bibliométrica e geográfica, com base numa ampla compilação de artigos científicos publicados sobre o tema por autores vinculados a instituições brasileiras. A metodologia envolveu o armazenamento, em um banco de dados dimensional, estruturado especificamente para esse objetivo, de informações espaciais e bibliométricas. Indicadores quantitativos foram calculados, e a geografia da pesquisa foi mapeada por meio de consultas SQL e ferramentas de geoprocessamento. Os resultados apontaram para gênese recente da pesquisa brasileira em erosão acelerada do solo e centralização da produção científica e formação de linhas em instituições e autores do Sul e Sudeste do Brasil. Ainda, a análise dos dados temáticos indicou predominância do enfoque da erosão a partir de uma perspectiva agrícola e grande ênfase na pesquisa dos fatores do modelo USLE de estimativa de erosão.Soil science history studies are rare and the Brazilian scientific community has not given substantial attention to this subject yet. The present study focused on the formation of research on accelerated soil erosion in the Brazil from a bibliometric perspective. A comprehensive database of published scientific papers was organized in a relational database and analyzed by SQL queries and GIS tools. These data were used to calculate quantitative indicators and spatial distribution patterns. Results indicate a recent development of research on accelerated soil erosion in Brazil by few institutions and authors in the South and Southeast regions. Moreover, a thematic analysis indicated the agricultural perspective as the main focus of erosion studies, with a great emphasis on the USLE

  7. Estudo cefalométrico das alturas faciais anterior e posterior, em jovens brasileiros melanodermas, com "oclusão normal" Cephalometric study of anterior and posterior facial height in black young Brazilians with "normal occlusion"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Maria Andrade de Freitas Uchiyama

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: com o propósito de apresentar um padrão cefalométrico específico para os jovens brasileiros melanodermas, este estudo se propôs a obter os valores médios de normalidade para algumas das grandezas cefalométricas esqueléticas, no sentido vertical da face (alturas faciais anterior e posterior e verificar a presença de dimorfismo entre os gêneros. METODOLOGIA: a amostra constituiu-se de 56 telerradiografias, em norma lateral, sendo 28 do gênero masculino, com idade média de 13,93 anos (idade mínima de 12,08 anos e máxima de 15,75 anos e 28 do gênero feminino, com idade média de 13,79 anos (idade mínima de 12,58 anos e máxima de 15,67 anos, obtidas de amostras de jovens brasileiros, melanodermas, não submetidos a tratamento ortodôntico e que apresentavam "oclusão normal", pertencentes ao arquivo da Disciplina de Ortodontia da Faculdade de Odontologia de Bauru - Universidade de São Paulo. As medidas cefalométricas empregadas foram de acordo com as Análises de Wylie, Johnson, Siriwat, Jarabak, Gebeck, Merrifield e Horn. Os valores foram submetidos à análise estatística pelo teste t independente para comparar as variáveis entre os gêneros. RESULTADOS: com base nos resultados obtidos neste estudo, verificou-se que os jovens brasileiros melanodermas apresentaram valores médios específicos para as grandezas cefalométricas esqueléticas, no sentido vertical da face. Pôde-se observar a presença de dimorfismo, com os valores das grandezas das alturas faciais anterior e posterior total e superior (AFAT; AFAS; AFPT; AFPS e as proporções faciais superior e inferior, com a altura posterior total (AFPS/AFPT; AFPI/AFPT, apresentando um maior desenvolvimento vertical anterior da face no gênero masculino. Uma maior proporção AFPS/AFPT foi encontrada para o gênero masculino e o gênero feminino apresentou valor superior de AFPI. CONCLUSÃO: as normas cefalométricas guiam o clínico para o respeito com a morfologia e o

  8. Correlation between histocompatibility antigens and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in the brazilian population Estudo da associação entre antígenos de histocompatibilidade e estomatite aftoide recorrente em população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Salles Willo Wilhelmsen

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common oral mucosa disorder that affects 20% of the world's population, characterized by recurring painful ulcers in the mouth. The diagnosis is primarily based on the patient's clinical history. Inheritance may pose as a risk factor for the disease; however, the studies available are inconclusive as to the results attained, and they vary according to the population studied. AIM: to typify class I and class II HLA molecules and to assess how frequent these molecules are present in the Brazilian population with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis, compared to healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective, cross-sectional and investigative study, thirty one patients with diagnostic hypothesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis were seen from February of 2004 to May of 2006. We obtained the DNA from those patients who matched the inclusion criteria and typified their HLA by PCR. RESULTS: In those patients with Recurrent Minor Aphthous Stomatitis we found statistically significant occurrences of HLA-A33 and HLA-B35. CONCLUSION: HLA-A33 and HLA-B35 may be associated with recurrent minor aphthous stomatitis in the Brazilian's population.A Estomatite Aftoide Recorrente é uma doença oral com incidência em 20% da população mundial, caracterizada por úlceras mucosas de caráter recidivante. O diagnóstico baseiase principalmente na história clínica do paciente. Hereditariedade pode ser um fator de risco para doença, entretanto, os estudos disponíveis não são conclusivos quanto aos resultados obtidos, variando segundo a população estudada. OBJETIVO: Tipificar moléculas HLA de classe I e de classe II e avaliar a frequência destas moléculas em pacientes brasileiros, portadores de Estomatite Aftoide Recorrente, comparando com grupo controle. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Este trabalho possui um desenho prospectivo, transverso e investigativo. Foram estudados 31 pacientes com suspeita diagnóstica de Estomatite

  9. Management and conservation of acid soils in the savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. Considered as marginal lands, they are of low inherent productivity for agriculture, and susceptible to rapid degradation. The vast Brazilian 'cerrados' were opened up some 30 years ago, and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural commodities. Monocultures of grain crops and pastures are proving to be unsustainable under today's conditions, and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum tillage and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. However, there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability and its measurement. In this article we review the lessons learned from the cerrados experience. Future research should include the development of new crop options with tolerance of acid soils, a better understanding of water and nutrient cycles, the development of principles of soil organic matter and crop-residue management, and the biological management of soil fertility. (author)

  10. Mulheres na Força Aérea Brasileira: um estudo sobre as primeiras oficiais aviadoras Women in Brazilian Air Force: a study on the first women pilot officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Miranda Lery Santos

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta parte dos resultados de um estudo realizado com seis mulheres oficiais formadas na primeira turma do curso de aviação da Aeronáutica. Seu objetivo foi investigar como elas vivenciam a experiência de uma carreira até então vedada a mulheres, como percebem a hierarquia e as relações de poder típicas dessa carreira, e quais os seus projetos profissionais e pessoais para o futuro. Utilizamos entrevistas semiestruturadas, que foram gravadas e transcritas na íntegra; os textos resultantes foram submetidos à análise de discurso. Pudemos constatar nos relatos das entrevistadas a coexistência de padrões contemporâneos e arcaicos; ou seja, ao mesmo tempo em que, de forma pioneira, estão investindo em uma carreira profissional até então aberta apenas aos homens, continuam a sonhar com o casamento e a maternidade nos moldes tradicionais, reforçando a ideia de que a mulher é responsável pelos cuidados com a casa e a criação e educação dos filhos.This article presents part of the results of a study developed with the first Brazilian Air Force women pilots. Its objective was to investigate how they experience the career until then prohibited to women, how they perceive the hierarchy and power relations typical of that professional realm, and what they project for their future. We interviewed six women pilots, whose reports were audio recorded, transcribed, and submitted to discourse analysis. Such analysis pointed to the fact that contemporary and traditional patterns of behavior coexist. At the same time those women invest in a pioneering professional career and search for financial independence, they continue to dream about marriage and motherhood in traditional formats, reinforcing the idea that women are the main responsible for household care and for raising and educating the children.

  11. Cultura organizacional no setor público: um estudo junto a um departamento administrativo de uma universidade federal brasileira Organizational Culture In The Public Administration: A Study In Administrative Department Of Brazilian Federal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Dotto Dias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The organizacional culture is a complex subject and that constantly it comes being studied for specialists and researchers of the whole world, for the fact of its relevance in the understanding of the functioning of the organizations. However, this type of study not yet total was spread out in the Brazilian public organizations, mainly in federal universities. Therefore, the present work has as objective generality to identify to the organizacional culture under the personal and institucional points of view in an managemental department of the Federal University of Saint Maria, through a comparison with four deuses Greek (Zeus, Apolo, Atena and Dionísio that they reflect the form as the politics and strategies in an organization are lead, according to Handy study (1994. By means of a survey carried through with the employees of the related department, the gotten results had allowed the conclusion of that it has the predominance of the organizacional culture of the Apolo type in the institucional optics and of the Atena type in the personal optics, where a made comparative degree enter the predominant characteristics in each one of these cultures showed a divergence enter the yearnings of the collaborators and the form as the organization acts day-by-day in its, as the points boarded for the research and presented in the analysis of the results.A cultura organizacional é um tema complexo e constantemente em estudo por especialistas e pesquisadores de todo o mundo, pela sua relevância na compreensão do funcionamento das organizações. No entanto, esse tipo de estudo ainda não foi totalmente difundido nas organizações públicas brasileiras, principalmente em universidades federais. Por isso, este trabalho tem como objetivo geral identificar a cultura organizacional sob os pontos de vista pessoal e institucional em um departamento administrativo da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, através de uma relação com os quatro deuses gregos

  12. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O, carbon dioxide (CO2 and methane (CH4 fluxes along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 3.9 (± 0.4, 1.0 (± 0.1, and 0.9 (± 0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (± 0.2, −1.8 (± 0.3, and −1.6 (± 0.1 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Estimated mean annual fluxes of CO2 were 3.5, 3.6, and 3.4 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of CH4 responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climatic warming, our results suggest that an increase in air and soil temperatures may result in increases in decomposition rates and gross inorganic nitrogen fluxes that could support consequent increases in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  13. Landscape and soil regionalization in southern Brazilian Amazon and contiguous areas: methodology and relevance for ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Volkoff

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Soils of a large tropical area with differentiated landscapes cannot be treated uniformly for ecological applications. We intend to develop a framework based on physiography that can be used in regional applications. The study region occupies more than 1.1 million km² and is located at the junction of the savanna region of Central Brazil and the Amazon forest. It includes a portion of the high sedimentary Central Brazil plateau and large areas of mostly peneplained crystalline shield on the border of the wide inner-Amazon low sedimentary plain. A first broad subdivision was made into landscape regions followed by a more detailed subdivision into soil regions. Mapping information was extracted from soil survey maps at scales of 1:250000-1:500000. Soil units were integrated within a homogenized legend using a set of selected attributes such as taxonomic term, the texture of the B horizon and the associated vegetation. For each region, a detailed inventory of the soil units with their area distribution was elaborated. Ten landscape regions and twenty-four soil regions were recognized and delineated. Soil cover of a region is normally characterized by a cluster composed of many soil units. Soil diversity is comparable in the landscape and the soil regions. Composition of the soil cover is quantitatively expressed in terms of area extension of the soil units. Such geographic divisions characterized by grouping soil units and their spatial estimates must be used for regional ecological applications.

  14. O cargo público de livre provimento na organização da administração pública federal brasileira: uma introdução ao estudo da organização da direção pública na perspectiva de estudos organizacionais Public position filled by appointment in the Brazilian federal administration: an introduction to the study of public management organization from the organizational studies perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Moreira Câmara

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A organização da administração pública federal brasileira é raramente abordada na pesquisa no campo de estudos organizacionais (EOs. Privilegia-se a tomada de decisão, seguindo-se a tradição de pesquisa operacional de cunho funcionalista. Contudo, direção é mais complexa e inclui decisão. A direção na administração pública federal brasileira se dá exclusivamente por meio de cargos de livre provimento. Tal realidade permite entender a direção como ação eminentemente política, cristalizada na organização da administração pública. Este artigo possui caráter metodológico e demonstra que o cargo público de livre provimento possui centralidade na organização da administração pública federal brasileira. Identifica, ainda, práticas de operação e interações no exercício da direção pública.The organization of the Brazilian federal public administration is seldom addressed by organizational studies (OS research. The decision-making process is privileged, according to the tradition of functionalist operational research. However, managing is more complex than decision-making, which is included by it. Management level in Brazilian federal public administration is completely filled by appointment. This reality makes us understand management as an utterly political action, crystallized in the public administration organization. This article has a methodological perspective and demonstrates that public positions filled by appointment are central to the Brazilian federal public administration,. It also identifies practices and interactions of public management.

  15. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide in a gradient of elevation in the coastal Brazilian Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sousa Neto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soils of tropical forests are important to the global budgets of greenhouse gases. The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is the second largest tropical moist forest area of South America, after the vast Amazonian domain. This study aimed to investigate the emissions of Nitrous Oxide (N2O and Carbon Dioxide (CO2 as well as methane (CH4 emissions and consumptions along an altitudinal transect and the relation between these fluxes and other climatic, edaphic and biological variables (temperature, fine roots, litterfall, and soil moisture. Annual means of N2O flux were 2.6 (±0.5, 0.9 (±0.1, and 0.7 (±0.2 ng N cm−2 h−1 at altitudes 100, 400, and 1000 m, respectively. On an annual basis, soils consumed CH4 at all altitudes with annual means of −1.0 (±0.2, −1.8 (±0.1, and −1.6 (±0.3 mg m−2 d−1 at 100 m, 400 m and 1000 m, respectively. Although not sampled in the hottest and wettest portion of the year because of instrument malfunctions, mean fluxes of CO2 averaged 3.6 (±0.2, 3.5 (±0.3, and 3.1 (±0.3 μmol m−2 s−1 at altitudes 100, 400 and 1000 m, respectively. N2O fluxes were significantly influenced by soil moisture and temperature. Soil-atmosphere exchange of methane responded to changes in soil moisture. Carbon dioxide emissions were strongly influenced by soil temperature. While the temperature gradient observed at our sites is only an imperfect proxy for climate warming, our results suggest that increasing temperatures will result in increased in microbial activity with a consequent increase in soil N2O and CO2 emissions and soil CH4 consumption.

  16. Caracterização física e hidráulica de solos em bacias experimentais do semiárido brasileiro, sob manejo conservacionista Hydraulic and physical characterization of soils in experimental basins of the brazilian semiarid under conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto L. da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Para estudos de movimento da água no solo tornam-se imprescindíveis o conhecimento de suas propriedades físicas e hidráulicas e suas correlações. Ambas as propriedades têm importância fundamental no armazenamento e transporte de água, tal como, também, de nutrientes e no controle da infiltração, sendo influenciadas pelas condições de superfície do solo. Neste contexto buscou-se realizar, com o presente estudo, a caracterização físico-hídrica de solos de duas bacias experimentais (Jatobá e Mimoso/Pesqueira, PE do semiárido brasileiro, em diferentes profundidades e distintas coberturas vegetais (cobertura natural, solo descoberto, cultivo morro abaixo, palma em curva de nível e barramento de pedra com cobertura morta. Observou-se alta variabilidade da condutividade hidráulica nas camadas até 50 cm além de decaimento dos teores de areia, de matéria orgânica e da condutividade hidráulica com a profundidade, no perfil dos solos, nas bacias estudadas. Já com relação às diferentes coberturas vegetais constatou-se que não houve diferença significativa entre médias da condutividade hidráulica entre os diferentes tratamentos conservacionistas avaliados, para as profundidades estudadas.For the study involving the water movement in soil, it becomes imperative to know their physical and hydraulic properties and their correlations. Both are of fundamental importance in the storage and transport of water and nutrients and in controlling infiltration, being influenced by the conditions of the soil surface. In this context, this study aimed to perform physical and hydraulic characterization of the soil in two experimental basins (Jatoba and Mimoso/Pesqueira, PE, in the brazilian semiarid, at different depths and vegetation cover conditions (natural vegetation, bare soil, cultivation downhill, palm contour and stone micro walls with mulching. High variability of hydraulic conductivity was observed in layers up to 50 cm. Besides

  17. Brazilian study on substance misuse in adolescents: associated factors and adherence to treatment Estudo brasileiro sobre abuso de substâncias por adolescentes: fatores associados e adesão ao tratamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma A da Silva

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate developmental and environmental factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents seen at a university day-hospital in Brazil and to verify the correlations between those factors and adherence to treatment. To compare factors associated to substance misuse in adolescents with the available scientific literature and to suggest specific preventive interventions for a national policy in Brazil. METHODS: Eighty-six adolescent's guardians were evaluated at admission to the service by using a semistructured interview including sociodemographic data, family relationship, perinatal and pregnancy histories, psychomotor and educational development, social relations, history of previous illnesses and family diseases, including drug abuse. RESULTS: The sample was predominantly male (90%. Adolescents referred from the criminal justice were older than those originating from other sources (16.4 x 15.4 years old p=.00. Forty-four percent of adolescents reported school failure, a level which is two times higher than Brazilian statistics. Forty percent of the sample had criminal involvement, mainly drug dealing. Cannabis was the most prevalent reported drug. Living with both parents was protective, delaying the age of initiation by one year. Domestic violence was more frequent among parents with illicit drugs abuse (38.1% x 12.5%, pOBJETIVOS: Investigar fatores relacionados ao desenvolvimento e ambiente associados ao abuso de substâncias por adolescentes atendidos em hospital universitário brasileiro. Comparar esses fatores com a literatura científica disponível e sugerir intervenções preventivas para uma política nacional no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 86 adolescentes na admissão ao serviço através de uma entrevista semiestruturada, aplicada ao guardião do adolescente e incluindo dados sociodemográficos, relacionamento familiar, história da gravidez e perinatal, desenvolvimento psicomotor, educacional

  18. Processo de produção rural e saúde na serra gaúcha: um estudo descritivo The rural labor process and health in the Southern Brazilian mountains: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal entre trabalhadores rurais na região serrana do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estudar o perfil sócio-demográfico da população, conhecer as características do trabalho rural e descrever a prevalência de algumas patologias na população referida. A amostra foi de 1.479 trabalhadores, em 495 estabelecimentos agrícolas. Nesta amostra, a idade média foi de 41 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, com escolaridade média de cinco anos, sendo 87% da família proprietária. Os estabelecimentos tinham área média de 37 ha, 50% tinham pelo menos um tipo de máquina agrícola e a principal produção era a fruticultura. Cerca 75% dos trabalhadores lidavam com agrotóxicos de vários tipos e 12% referiram intoxicação por estes produtos em algum momento da vida. A prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos menores foi de 36%, a freqüência anual de acidentes de trabalho foi 10%. Os dados revelam a diversidade de atividades e de riscos ocupacionais. As altas prevalências dos problemas de saúde avaliados alertam para a necessidade de se priorizar ações de proteção para a saúde do trabalhador rural.This cross-sectional study among rural workers in the mountainous region of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul was designed to identify the characteristics of work performed on family farms. The research focused on the socio-demographic profiles of rural workers, identifying the characteristics of rural labor and describing the prevalence of some disease entities in such populations. Some 1479 rural workers from 495 farms were interviewed. In this sample, 87% of the individuals were members of the farm-owning family, mean age was 41 years, 56% were males, and mean schooling was 5 years. Farms had a mean area of 37 hectares, 50% had at least one type of farm machinery, and fruits constituted the main crop. About 75% of workers handled several types of pesticides, while 12% reported at least one

  19. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    OpenAIRE

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos; Nilton Curi; Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva; Sebastião da Fonseca; Elidiane da Silva; João José Marques

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size) and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion). The soil map was made using the geographic informatio...

  20. Soil aggregation, organic carbon and CO2 emission in different land uses in Brazilian Savanna, Triangulo Mineiro region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Borges

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil aggregation and carbon distribution are important indicators of soil quality. Moreover, these attributes are closely related to CO2 fluxes in the soil-atmosphere interface. We sought to evaluate soil aggregation, organic carbon distribution and CO2 evolution in different land uses of Minas Gerais Triangle. Four different land uses were selected: (1 Panicum maximum, (2 Panicum maximum Jacqvr. (Tanzânia, (3 sugarcane, and (4 native Cerrado (control. In each land-use type, soil samples from a 0-10 cm layer were collected. The samples were air-dried and sieved in order to obtain aggregates sized 4-2 mm. The samples were submitted to wet-sieving to evaluate stability and also to obtain aggregates of different sizes: 4-2 mm; 2-1 mm; 1-0.5 mm; and 0.5-0.25 mm. Total organic carbon, humic substances and texture were determined for each aggregate size fraction. The CO2 emission was measured in field and lab conditions, both by the capture in NaOH solution method. The native Cerrado and Panicum maximum Jacqvr. (Tanzânia areas (mostly clay showed the highest soil aggregation. The conventional soil tillage adopted in sugarcane areas contributed significantly to aggregate disruption. In all of the areas, the largest aggregates had higher organic carbon and humic substances. Organic carbon content and soil texture seem to be closely associated with CO2 emissions in the areas studied.

  1. Management and conservation of acid soils in the Savannahs of Latin America: Lessons from the agricultural development of the Brazilian cerrados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Acid-soil savannahs represent most of the remaining land suitable for agricultural development in the world. They are considered to be marginal lands as they have low inherent productivity for agriculture and are susceptible to rapid degradation. In Latin America the majority of these lands are found in the Brazilian 'cerrados' or savannahs. They were opened up for agriculture some 30 years ago and today they supply a considerable portion of the country's agricultural produce. The development pathway in the cerrados has shifted from extensive grazing on native grasslands to improved pastures and annual monocrops. More recently no-tillage systems have been introduced along with perennial crops and integrated crop-pasture systems. Monocultures of either grain crops or pastures have proved to be unsustainable under today's conditions and alternative production systems are being developed and implemented that incorporate improved production technologies and conservation of the natural resources. No-till, minimum till and integrated crop-livestock systems are proving to be successful in terms of farmer adoption. A number of variations in no-till systems have been developed mainly by farmers in response to climate and/or soil conditions. No-till systems are more productive and economical and are perceived to be more sustainable. However there is a need to elucidate the principles and functioning of these systems in order to assess their suitability for long-term sustainability of the marginal savannah lands. The challenges that remain to ensure that these lands are developed in a more sustainable manner include social, cultural and economic aspects, a favourable policy environment and a clearer understanding of sustainability, its measurement and how farmers perceive this concept. In this article we review the lessons learned from the 'cerrados' experience including the scientific breakthroughs made. The relevance of these lessons to other tropical acid soil

  2. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  3. Carbon sequestration in clay and silt fractions of Brazilian soils under conventional and no-tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Estima Sacramento dos Reis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of soils to sequestrate carbon (C is mainly related to the formation of organo-mineral complexes. In this study, we investigated the influence of soil management systems on the C retention capacity of soil with an emphasis on the silt and clay fractions of two subtropical soils with different mineralogy and climate. Samples from a Humic Hapludox and a Rhodic Hapludox, clayey soils cultivated for approximately 30 years under no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage (CT were collected from six layers distributed within 100-cm soil depth from each site and from an adjacent native forest. After the removal of particulate organic matter (POM, the suspension (<53 µm was sonicated, the silt and clay fractions were separated in accordance with Stokes' law and the carbon content of whole soil and physical fractions was determined. In the Humic Hapludox, the clay and silt fractions under NT showed a higher maximum C retention (72 and 52 g kg-1, respectively in comparison to those under CT (54 and 38 g kg-1, respectively. Moreover, the C concentration increase in both fractions under NT occurred mainly in the topsoil (up to 5 cm. The C retention in physical fractions of Rhodic Hapludox varied from 25 to 32 g kg-1, and no difference was observed whether under an NT or a CT management system. The predominance of goethite and gibbsite in the Humic Hapludox, as well as its exposure to a colder climate, may have contributed to its greater C retention capacity. In addition to the organo-mineral interaction, a mechanism of organic matter self-assemblage, enhanced by longer periods of soil non-disturbance, seems to have contributed to the carbon stabilization in both soils.

  4. SWEET SORGHUM PERFORMANCE AFFECTED BY SOIL COMPACTION AND SOWING TIME AS A SECOND CROP IN THE BRAZILIAN CERRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Wellingthon da Silva Guimarães Júnnyor; Eduardo da Costa Severiano; Alessandro Guerra da Silva; Wainer Gomes Gonçalves; Renata Andrade; Brendow Roberto Rodrigues Martins; Guilherme Dias Custódio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increasing attention has recently been given to sweet sorghum as a renewable raw material for ethanol production, mainly because its cultivation can be fully mechanized. However, the intensive use of agricultural machinery causes soil structural degradation, especially when performed under inadequate conditions of soil moisture. The aims of this study were to evaluate the physical quality of aLatossolo Vermelho Distroférrico (Oxisol) under compaction and its components on sweet sorgh...

  5. Soil organic matter in fire-affected pastures and in an Araucaria forest in South-Brazilian Leptosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana da Luz Potes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the distribution pattern and composition of soil organic matter (SOM and its physical pools of Leptosols periodically affected by fire over the last 100 years in South Brazil. Soil samples at 0-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths were collected from the following environments: native pasture without burning in the last year and grazed with 0.5 livestock per hectare per year (1NB; native pasture without burning in the last 23 years and grazed with 2.0 livestock per hectare per year (23NB; and an Araucaria forest (AF. Physical fractionation was performed with the 0-5 and 5-10 cm soil layers. Soil C and N stocks were determined in the three depths and in the physical pools, and organic matter was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The largest C stocks in all depths and physical pools were found under the AF. The 23NB environment showed the lowest soil C and N stocks at the 5-15 cm depth, which was related to the end of burning and to the higher grazing intensity. The SOM of the occluded light fraction showed a greater chemical recalcitrance in 1NB than in 23NB. Annual pasture burning does not affect soil C stocks up to 15 cm of depth.

  6. Cross- cultural validation of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: study of the items and internal consistency Validação transcultural da versão para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN: estudo dos itens e da consistência interna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Lima Osório

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to carry out the cross- cultural validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Social Phobia Inventory, an instrument for the evaluation of fear, avoidance and physiological symptoms associated with social anxiety disorder. METHOD: The process of translation and adaptation involved four bilingual professionals, appreciation and approval of the back- translation by the authors of the original scale, a pilot study with 30 Brazilian university students, and appreciation by raters who confirmed the face validity of the Portuguese version, which was named " Inventário de Fobia Social" . As part of the psychometric study of the Social Phobia Inventory, analysis of the items and evaluation of the internal consistency of the instrument were performed in a study conducted on 2314 university students. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that item 11, related to the fear of public speaking, was the most frequently scored item. The correlation of the items with the total score was quite adequate, ranging from 0.44 to 0.71, as was the internal consistency, which ranged from 0.71 to 0.90. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: The authors conclude that the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social Phobia Inventory proved to be adequate regarding the psychometric properties initially studied, with qualities quite close to those of the original study. Studies that will evaluate the remaining indicators of validity of the Social Phobia Inventory in clinical and non-clinical samples are considered to be opportune and necessary.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a validação transcultural para o português do Brasil do Social Phobia Inventory, um instrumento para avaliação e mensuração dos sintomas de medo, evitação e sintomas fisiológicos associados ao transtorno de ansiedade social. MÉTODO: O processo de tradução e adaptação envolveu quatro profissionais bilingües, apreciação e aprovação da back

  7. O STF e a construção institucional das autoridades reguladoras do financeiro: um estudo de caso das ADIns The Brazilian Supreme Court and the institutional design of the public authorities of the National Financial System: an ADIns' empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Duran-Ferreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende avaliar a atuação da corte constitucional brasileira, o Supremo Tribunal Federal, como verdadeiro ator no desenho institucional das autoridades reguladoras do sistema financeiro nacional, o Conselho Monetário Nacional (CMN e o Banco Central do Brasil (BCB. Sua interação com os poderes políticos, por meio do julgamento de Ações Diretas de Inconstitucionalidade (ADIns, ao longo dos últimos 20 anos, forneceu balizas jurídicas para a construção dessas autoridades. Esta pesquisa, que parte de uma análise qualitativa das decisões do Tribunal como estudo de caso, mapeou os temas e atores interessados na regulação do sistema financeiro e na estrutura dessas entidades, assim como procurou demonstrar como a atuação da corte reforçou a competência normativa desses órgãos. Ao final, este artigo delineia parâmetros para eventual edição de futura legislação, que vise regular o sistema financeiro, revogando a Lei 4594 de 1964, e conceder eventual autonomia ao Banco Central do Brasil.The purpose of this study is to analyse the manner the Brazilian Supreme Court's (Supremo Tribunal Federal - STF decisions have influenced the institutional design of the national monetary council and the Brazilian Central Bank. During the last 20 years, STF provided limits to the power of these public authorities, by judging Direct Actions of Unconstitutionality (ADIns. This research is based on empirical study that intends to identify the actors and the issues submitted to the court and how its decision enforced their power of regulating the financial system. As a result, it is possible to perceive directions to enact the law that intends to regulate the financial system and eventually to attribute the independence to the Brazilian Central Bank.

  8. Brazilian norms for the International Affective Picture System (IAPS): comparison of the affective ratings for new stimuli between Brazilian and North-American subjects Normas Brasileiras para o International Affective Picture System (IAPS): estudo comparativo dos novos estímulos para avaliações afetivas entre sujeitos brasileiros e norte-americanos

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Lasaitis; Rafaela Larsen Ribeiro; Orlando Francisco Amodeo Bueno

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study presents the Brazilian norms for 240 new stimuli from International Affective Picture System (IAPS), a database of affective images widely used in research, compared to the North-American normative ratings. METHODS: The participants were 448 Brazilian university students from several courses (269 women and 179 men) with mean age of 24.2 (SD = 7.8), that evaluated the IAPS pictures in the valence, arousal and dominance dimensions by the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM) scales...

  9. Tipos de delineamento de pesquisa de estudos publicados em periódicos odontológicos brasileiros = Survey of study design of papers published in brazilian dental journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Geraldo José de

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os estudos científicos têm diferentes potenciais de influenciar práticas clínicas devido aos aspectos metodológicos do seu delineamento. A escolha do tipo de estudo mais adequado deve ser baseada no objetivo da pesquisa e em fatores práticos como questões éticas, amostra, tempo, custos e recursos disponíveis. O presente estudo tem o objetivo de avaliar a prevalência dos diferentes tipos de estudos na literatura odontológica brasileira. Foram avaliados 28 títulos de periódicos nacionais cujos fascículos compreendiam, total ou parcialmente, o período entre 1993 e 2003. Todos os 5. 453 artigos publicados nos 564 fascículos selecionados foram referenciados e submetidos à classificação do tipo de delineamento empregado, a partir de critérios predefinidos e formulário próprio para a avaliação. Os resultados mostraram as seguintes freqüências: 1. 341 (24,6% pesquisas laboratoriais in vitro; 1. 302 (23,9% revisões narrativas da literatura; 1. 064 (19,5% relatos de caso; 862 (15,8% estudos descritivos (transversal ou de prevalência; 351 (6,4% ensaios clínicos; 242 (4,4% séries de casos; 188 (3,4% pesquisas em animais; 36 (0,7% estudos coorte ou caso-controle; 4 (0,1% revisões sistemáticas ou metanálise; e 63 (1,2% não foram classificáveis. O resultado mostrou que a maioria dos artigos publicados refere-se a estudo de baixo potencial de estabelecer evidências diretamente aplicáveis à prática clínica (pesquisa laboratorial in vitro, revisões narrativas e relatos de caso. O baixo número de estudos com maior força de evidência ressalta a necessidade de ampliação do conhecimento de métodos baseados em evidências entre os pesquisadores brasileiros.

  10. Estudo retrospectivo do tratamento de leucemia mielóide aguda com o transplante de medula óssea: a experiência brasileira Retrospective study of stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML: the Brazilian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Dados do Registro Internacional de Transplante de Medula Óssea, International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribuem para o progresso do transplante de medula óssea (TMO em todo o mundo. Neste artigo relatamos a experiência brasileira em leucemia mielóide aguda e comparamos os resultados do TMO com os dados internacionais. Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo com dados de tratamento de LMA com o TMO de 16 instituições brasileiras. A análise estatística dos transplantes da modalidade autogênica (TMO auto e alogênica (TMO alo foi realizada com o método de Kaplan-Meier e log-rank. Todos os valores de p foram bicaudados. Foram avaliados os dados de 731 pacientes (205 TMO auto e 526 TMO alo. A mediana de sobrevida global dos pacientes submetidos ao TMO auto foi superior à dos submetidos ao TMO alo (1.035 vs 466 dias, p=0,0012. A origem das células-tronco (OCT no TMO alo em 73% dos pacientes foi de medula óssea (CTMO, em 23% de sangue periférico (CTSP e em 4% de cordão umbilical. No TMO auto, a OCT foi 63% de CTSP, 22% CTMO e 15% de ambas as fontes. A OCT não teve impacto na sobrevida global (SG. Não houve diferença na SG também entre os pacientes segundo a classificação FAB no TMO alo, mas os pacientes com LMA M3 com o TMO auto tiveram SG longa. Como esperado, a principal causa de óbito entre os pacientes do TMO auto foi relacionada à recidiva de doença (60%, enquanto no TMO alo as principais causas foram a doença enxerto versus hospedeiro e infecções (38%. Em ambos os grupos foi observada SG mais longa nos pacientes tratados em primeira remissão completa (1RC quando comparados aos de segunda remissão (2RC e outras fases (pData from the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry (IBMTR contribute for the improvement of Bone Marrow Transplant (BMT worldwide. We studied the Brazilian experience in BMT for AML to compare this with international data. We performed a retrospective study by sending

  11. Manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose: estudo de trinta casos procedentes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão Skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis: a study of thirty cases in the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio de Deus Filho

    2010-02-01

    involving 30 patients from the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão with coccidioidomycosis diagnosed by direct microscopy, sputum culture or screening serology using agar gel double immunodiffusion, in association with anamnesis and physical examination. RESULTS: Extrapulmonary lesions were found in 13 cases (43.3%, consisting predominantly of dermatological manifestations of hypersensitivity: erythema nodosum (26.6%, exanthema with erythematosquamous lesions (26.6% and erythema multiforme (23.3%, as well as ulcerations of the tongue (13.3%, lip ulcers (6.6% and subcutaneous abscess (3.3%. These manifestations were seen during the acute phase of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Skin manifestations associated with an acute respiratory infection reinforce the hypothesis of a diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, particularly in individuals who hunt armadillos or in those exposed to soil excavation.

  12. Palaeovegetation dynamics of an ecotone forest-savanna in southern Brazilian Amazon during the late Pleistocene and Holocene based on carbon isotopes of soil organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out in the Brazilian southern Amazon region (Rondonia state and Humaita, southern Amazon state). Carbon isotope data on soil organic matter have been collected along an ecosystem transect of about 750 km that includes a savanna, a wooded savanna (cerrado), a tropical semideciduous forest (cerradao), a forest transition type and a tropical forest. The main objective is to evaluate the expansion-regression dynamics of these vegetation units in relation to climate changes during the Late Pleistocene (Late Glacial) and Holocene. Large ranges in δ13 values were observed in soil organic matter collected from profiles in the savanna (-27 to -14 per mille and forest regions (-26 to -19 per mille) reflecting changing distribution of 13C-depleted C3 forest and 13C enriched C4 savanna vegetation in response to climate change. 14C data of humin fraction and buried charcoal indicate that the organic matter in these soils is at least 17,000 years BP at 300-cm depth. In this period, the entire ecosystem transect are characterized by δ13C soil depth profiles, generated typically by C3 plants (forest), inferring a humid climate in the southern Amazon region after the end of last glaciation. 13C data also indicate that C4 plants (grasses) have influenced significantly the vegetation at the transitional forest and the cerrado sites of southern Rondonia state and two distinct points in the forest ecosystem in the southern Amazon state. These typical C4 type isotopic signatures probably reflect a drier climate during about 9000-8000 yr BP to 3000 yr BP and the savanna and wooded savanna expansion in distinct points of the transect. The 13C records representing the 3000 yr show an expansion of the forest, due to a climatic improvement, in areas previously occupied by savanna vegetation. This study adds to the mounting evidence that extensive forested areas existed in the Amazon during the last glacial and that savanna vegetation expanded in response to warm and

  13. Variáveis relacionadas à estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais em solos tropicais e subtropicais brasileiros Selected soil-variables related to the stability of organo-minerals complexes in tropical and subtropical brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Vasconcellos Inda Junior

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais é uma característica importante quanto à química e física de solos tropicais e subtropicais. O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar variáveis relacionadas à estabilidade de complexos organo-minerais, avaliada pela energia de ultra-som necessária para a dispersão total do solo em partículas primárias, em seis solos das regiões Sul e Centro-Oeste do Brasil com textura e mineralogia distintas. A energia de ultra-som necessária para dispersão total dos solos variou de 239 a 2.389J mL-1, sendo diretamente relacionada aos teores de carbono orgânico (R²=0,799, PThe stability of organo-mineral complexes is an important characteristic related to the soil chemistry and physics of tropical and subtropical soils. This study was aimed at identifing the variables related to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, evaluated by ultrasonic energy necessary to complete soil dispersion, of six soils from South and West-Center regions of Brazil with distint texture and mineralogy. The ultrasonic energy to complete soil dispersion varied from 239 a 2389J mL-1, and was positively related to the soil organic carbon concentrations (R²=0.799, P<0.05. The clay mineralogy had an important role to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, which were related to the content of low cristalinity iron oxides (R²=0.586, P<0.10, but did not had relationship with the total pedogenic iron oxides. The qualitative analysis of the clay mineralogy, by X-ray diffraction, evidenced that gibbsite and goethite are the main clay minerals related to the stability of organo-mineral complexes, reinforcing the importance of these minerals on the physical protection and coloidal stability of the soil organic matter in the tropical and subtropical soils.

  14. Bacterial diversity assessment in soil of an active Brazilian copper mine using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Viviane D; Torres, Tatiana T; Ottoboni, Laura M M

    2014-11-01

    Mining activities pose severe environmental risks worldwide, generating extreme pH conditions and high concentrations of heavy metals, which can have major impacts on the survival of organisms. In this work, pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S rDNA was used to analyze the bacterial communities in soil samples from a Brazilian copper mine. For the analysis, soil samples were collected from the slopes (geotechnical structures) and the surrounding drainage of the Sossego mine (comprising the Sossego and Sequeirinho deposits). The results revealed complex bacterial diversity, and there was no influence of deposit geographic location on the composition of the communities. However, the environment type played an important role in bacterial community divergence; the composition and frequency of OTUs in the slope samples were different from those of the surrounding drainage samples, and Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, and Gammaproteobacteria were responsible for the observed difference. Chemical analysis indicated that both types of sample presented a high metal content, while the amounts of organic matter and water were higher in the surrounding drainage samples. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (N-MDS) analysis identified organic matter and water as important distinguishing factors between the bacterial communities from the two types of mine environment. Although habitat-specific OTUs were found in both environments, they were more abundant in the surrounding drainage samples (around 50 %), and contributed to the higher bacterial diversity found in this habitat. The slope samples were dominated by a smaller number of phyla, especially Firmicutes. The bacterial communities from the slope and surrounding drainage samples were different in structure and composition, and the organic matter and water present in these environments contributed to the observed differences. PMID:25129578

  15. Study of the precision and trueness of the Brazilian method for ethanol and gasoline determination; Estudo da precisao e exatidao do metodo brasileiro para determinacao de etanol e gasolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchini, Ricardo R.; Hinata, Patricia [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gioseffi, Carla S.; Franco, Joao B.S. [Instituto Brasileiro de Petroleo, Gas e Biocombustiveis (IBP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nascimento, Cristina R.; Torres, Eduardo S. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The determination of repeatability and reproducibility standard deviations of an analytical method, s{sub r} and s{sub R}, obtained by Interlaboratory program, makes it possible to calculate many kinds of precision limits of the method, which are needed in every laboratory's routine result comparisons and also in between-laboratories comparisons. This paper presents the results of the first interlaboratory trial, accomplished in the Brazilian petroleum sector, performed to define the trueness and precision of the Brazilian standard method for the determination of fuel anhydrous ethylic alcohol content in gasoline, that was performed by 34 experienced laboratories. The r and R values were 0,7 and 2,3 and main factors that would improve and optimize the method are presented. (author)

  16. Impacts of anthropic pressures on soil phosphorus availability, concentration, and phosphorus forms in sediments in a Southern Brazilian watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, Joao Batista Rossetto; Rheinheimer dos Santos, Danilo; Goncalves, Celso Santos; Copetti, Andre Carlos Cruz [Dept. de Solos, Univ. Federal de Santa Maria, Centro de Ciencias Rurais, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bortoluzzi, Edson Campanhola [Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinaria da Univ. de Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Tessier, Daniel [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Versailles (France)

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: The transfer of soil sediments and phosphorus from terrestrial to aquatic systems is a common process in agricultural lands. The aims of this paper are to quantify the soil phosphorus availability and to characterize phosphorus forms in soil sediments as contaminant agents of waters as a function of anthropic pressures. Materials and methods On three subwatersheds with different anthropic pressure, water and sediment samples were collected automatically in upstream and downstream discharge points in six rainfall events during the tobacco growing season. Phosphorus desorption capacity from soil sediments was estimated by successive extractions with anion exchange resins. First-order kinetic models were adjusted to desorption curves for estimating potentially bioavailable particulate phosphorus, desorption rate constant, and bioavailable particulate phosphorus. Results and discussion The amount of bioavailable particulate phosphorus was directly correlated with the iron oxide content. The value of desorption rate constant was directly related with the total organic carbon and inversely with the iron oxide contents. Phosphate ions were released to solution, on average, twice as rapidly from sediments collected in subwatersheds with low anthropic activity than from those ones of highly anthropic subwatersheds. Anthropic pressure on watershed can engender high sediment discharge, but these solid particles seem to present low phosphorus-releasing capacity to water during transport due to the evidenced high affinity between phosphorus and iron oxide from sediments. Conclusions Anthropic pressure was related with sediment concentration and phosphorus release to aquatic systems. While natural vegetation along streams plays a role on soil and water depuration, it is unable to eliminate the phosphorus inputs intrinsic to the agricultural-intensive systems. Recommendations and perspectives The contamination of water in watershed by phosphates is facilitated by the

  17. Estudo químico de alguns pontos do solo superficial do aterro controlado do Botuquara / Chemestry study of some points of soil surface the Botuquara controlled garbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nascimento

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ResumoAtualmente, a produção e armazenamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU, têm gerado uma gama de discussões acerca de aspectos ligados à veiculação de doenças e danos ambientais, principalmente, se sua disposição for realizada de maneira inadequada, pois isto pode acarretar a infiltração do lixiviado no solo, causando a sua contaminação e, possivelmente, do lençol freático e cursos d’água. Na cidade de Ponta Grossa (PR, a coleta dos RSU teve início em 1969 e a disposição final desses resíduos era em um lixão, que foi transformado em aterro controlado no ano de 2001. Este estudo tem por objetivo, avaliar as características de alguns pontos da camada superficial do solo localizado na base do agora aterro controlado do Botuquara, para verificar possíveis tendências à contaminação da área. Foram determinados pH, carbono orgânico, matéria orgânica, nitrogênio total, relação C:N, capacidade de troca catiônica, saturação de bases e teores de areia, argila e silte, além da verificação das concentrações de Ag, Cr, Cd, Cu Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn na forma de metais biodisponíveis e pseudototais. Os resultados mostraram que o solo apresenta altas concentrações de Cr e Pb biodisponíveis e Pb, Cu e Ag pseudototais. Já a saturação dos colóides, indica que o solo atingiu sua capacidade máxima de retenção.AbstractCurrently, the production and storage of urban solid residues (USR have generated a discussion range about aspects close to the diseases propagation and environment damage especially in the boundaries in which it is done improperly. Since, this may lead to the leached into the soil, causing its contamination as well as the groundwater contamination going deep in the groundwater. In Ponta Grossa, a city in the state of Paraná the final disposition place of the USR started out in 1969 and the final disposition of such waste was in a big dump, which become into a controlled landfill in 2001. The

  18. SOYBEAN YIELD AND MECHANICAL RESISTANCE TO SOIL PENETRATION UNDER NO-TILLAGE IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNAH PRODUTIVIDADE DA SOJA E RESISTÊNCIA MECÂNICA À PENETRAÇÃO DO SOLO SOB SISTEMA PLANTIO DIRETO NO CERRADO BRASILEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Teodora de Assis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The mechanical resistance to soil penetration can be a negative influence to soybean root growth, greatly affecting its yield. In the agricultural year 2008/2009, in Selvíria, Mato Grosso do Sul State, in the Brazilian Savannah, the soybean yield was analyzed in relation to the mechanical resistance to soil penetration, in a Dystropherric Red Latosol (Typic Acrustox under no-tillage. The main purpose was to select, among the soil attributes, the one that best presented spatial and linear correlation to explain the soybean yield variability. A geostatistical grid was installed to collect the soil and plant data, with 120 sampling points, in an area of 8.34 ha and homogeneous slope of 0.055 m m-1. Thus, in order to support future researches concerning precision agriculture, based on the same soil’s attributes used for this study, the values for spatial dependence range should be placed between 38.1 m and 114.7 m. From the linear point of view, the mechanical resistance to soil penetration, when evaluated in the 0.10-0.20 m layer, showed good inverse exponential correlation with the soybean yield. However, from the spatial point of view, the number of pods per plant showed to be a good indicator for soybean yield.

    KEY-WORDS: Glycine max, soybean production components; precision agriculture; soil management; cone index.

  19. Análise crítica de estudos brasileiros sobre deficiência de vitamina A no grupo materno-infantil Critical analysis of Brazilian studies about vitamin A deficiency in maternal-child group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Ramalho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma análise crítica de estudos da literatura sobre a deficiência de vitamina A (DVA no Brasil, segundo o indicador bioquímico retinol sérico, considerando-se o impacto negativo da DVA na saúde reprodutiva e no desenvolvimento infantil. FONTES DE DADOS: os bancos de dados Medline e BVS, no período de 1994 a 2007, foram rastreados com a combinação de descritores: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" e "retinol serum level". A inclusão dos artigos foi realizada com base em critérios de elegibilidade referentes à população, desenho do estudo e idioma, enfatizando-se estudos com gestantes, puérperas, nutrizes, lactentes e pré-escolares que não apresentassem doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis ou infecciosas. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: dos 27 artigos selecionados, 25 eram estudos transversais, um era caso-controle e um estudo longitudinal. Identificou-se que 71% e 25% dos trabalhos com gestantes e crianças, respectivamente, adotaram valores de retinol sérico OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature regarding vitamin A deficiency (VAD in Brazil, according to biochemical indicators, considering that VAD has a negative impact upon reproductive health and child development. DATA SOURCE: Medline and BVS databases were searched from 1994 to 2007, using the combination of the following terms: "vitamin A deficiency", "Brazil", "pregnant", "children" and "retinol serum level". Inclusion criteria were based on characteristics of the studied population, study design and language, with emphasis on studies with the following subjects: pregnant, postpartum and nursing women, infants and preschool children without chronic or infectious diseases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Among the 27 selected studies, 25 were cross-sectional, one was a case-control, and one was a cohort study. 71% and 25% of the studies with pregnant women and with children, respectively, adopted retinol serum level <1.05µmol/L as the cut

  20. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari; Fábio Frezatti; Octávio Ribeiro de Mendonça Neto; Ricardo Lopes Cardoso; Diógenes de Souza Bido

    2011-01-01

    O propósito deste estudo de natureza empírico-teórica foi entender os relacionamentos entre o Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial; o desenvolvimento de Competências Organizacionais e Desempenho usando o framework proposto por Henri 2006 . A dimensão Uso do Sistema de Controle Gerencial proposta por Simons 1995; 2000 em Uso Diagnóstico e Uso Interativo é pouco estudada no Brasil; contrariamente à literatura internacional; embora esta tenha mostrado alguns resultados que são contraditórios. A ...

  1. Acetone extract from Streptoverticillium sp., a bacterium isolated from Brazilian Cerrado soil, induces anti-inflammatory activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cruz, Rodrigo B; Galdino, Pablinny M; Penna, Karlla G B D; Hoffmann, Karen; Costa, Elson A; Bataus, Luiz A M

    2013-01-01

    The Streptoverticillium sp. Z1 is an actinomycete isolated from the soil under Cerrado vegetation, the extract of this strain was investigated in nociceptive and inflammatory models. The Streptoverticillium extract (ExS) 50 and 100 mg/kg (s.c.) produced a significant inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhings thereby demonstrating an anti-nociceptive effect. In the tail flick test the ExS (s.c.) was inactive. This result implited that ExS does not contain opioid-like compounds with central analgesic properties. In the inflammatory models, ExS 100 and 200 mg/kg (s.c.) were able to inhibit the croton oil-induced ear edema and, ExS 200 and 500 mg/kg (s.c.) inhibited the leukocyte migration on the carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The phospholipase A2 enzymatic assay showed that the anti-inflammatory activity of ExS was not due to direct effect on phospholipase A2 activity. These data suggest that Streptoverticillium sp. produces metabolites with anti-inflammatory effect and that these metabolites are unable to directly inhibit phospholipase A2 enzyme. PMID:23828355

  2. Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in brazilian sedimentary basins (Updated); Estudo preliminar de integracao do Pre-Cambriano com os eventos tectonicos das bacias sedimentares brasileiras (Atualizacao)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordani, Umberto G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas], Email: ucordani@usp.br; Neves, Benjamim Bley de Brito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], Email: bbleybn@usp.br; Thomaz Filho, Antonio [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Geologia. Dept. de Estratigrafia e Paleontologia], Email: antoniothomaz@globo.com

    2008-11-15

    The article 'Preliminary study of Precambrian integration with tectonic events in Brazilian sedimentary basins,' by U. G. Cordani, B. B. Brito-Neves, R. A. Fuck, R. Porto, A. Thomaz-Filho and F. M. B. da Cunha, was published in PETROBRAS Petroleum Technical Science Series (Serie Ciencia Tecnica Petroleo da PETROBRAS) in 1984 and is being reissued by PETROBRAS Geosciences Bulletin. Naturally, the work requires many updates in the light of geosciences' progress in Brazil over the past 26 years. In these comments, numerous reflections have been addressed at short notice, but nevertheless considered appropriate, to occupy space conceded by the publishers for an assessment of the original work. In principle, only the latest summaries and newer published items on the topic have been consulted and commented. For this reason, it was decided to 'overlook' a number of important references on this issue, apologizing to the authors of omitted relevant works. The study, conducted in the early '80s, was based on the knowledge at the time regarding the tectonic evolution of the South American basement; an examination of PETROBRAS subsurface data in Brazilian sedimentary basins and the study of the Company's core samples obtained from perforations which reached the basement. Since then, great advances have been made in understanding the Brazilian territory tectonic evolution and important geophysical data collected regarding its sedimentary basins. On the other hand, there are virtually no recent perforations of the interior Cratonic basins. Moreover, in the marginal and offshore basins, many wells have not reached the basement. Therefore, in these comments, we sought to review the original study's interpretations and confirm the relevant geological knowledge added in recent decades, in the range of the original work. In this article, we try to follow the same structural sequence of the original text, giving the reader a better understanding

  3. Estudo comparativo do acesso semântico no processamento visual de palavras entre brasileiros monolíngues e chineses multilíngues falantes do português do Brasil como língua estrangeira Comparative study of the semantic access in the visual processing of words between monolinguistic Brazilians and multilinguistic Chinese who speak portuguese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerusa Fumagalli de Salles

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O priming semântico é uma forma de avaliar o processamento semântico de palavras. Se a semântica é um importante fator contribuinte no reconhecimento visual de palavras, surge a questão de se chineses multilíngues (mandarin como L1 e inglês como L2, que estão aprendendo o português como L3, podem se beneficiar do contexto semântico em tarefa de decisão lexical na Língua Portuguesa, comparado aos controles (brasileiros universitários e crianças. Além de comparar a magnitude do efeito de priming semântico entre a amostra de chineses e de brasileiros, objetivou-se investigar nos chineses a relação entre o desempenho no experimento de priming semântico e na tarefa de consciência fonológica, ambos na língua portuguesa. Participaram do estudo 40 universitários chineses multilíngues, 31 universitários brasileiros e 26 crianças de 3ª série. Houve efeito de priming semântico nos chineses e nos brasileiros, universitários e crianças, ou seja, respostas mais rápidas na condição com prime relacionado do que na condição com prime não relacionado. Não houve diferenças significativas na magnitude do efeito entre os grupos de adultos, mas as crianças apresentaram maior magnitude de efeito do que os chineses. Considerando apenas o grupo de chineses, não houve correlação entre os escores na tarefa de decisão lexical no paradigma de priming semântico e a avaliação da consciência fonológica. Chineses parecem ter acessado o significado dos primes apresentados visualmente na Língua Portuguesa, não se diferenciando dos brasileiros adultos e crianças.The semantic priming paradigm can be used to evaluate word semantic processing. Considering that semantic is an important factor in visual word recognition, an experiment was conducted to verify if multilingual Chinese (L1 and L2 being respectively Mandarin and English that are learning Portuguese as L3 would benefit from the semantic context during a lexical decision

  4. Study on the mechanical properties of a HMS-PP nanocomposite with a Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas de um nanocomposito de HMS-PP com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, D.M.; Parra, D.F.; Lugao, A.B.; Oliani, W.L., E-mail: mfermino@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Valenzuela-Diaz, F.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba (PB), known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  5. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  6. A crise dos mísseis soviéticos em Cuba (1962: um estudo das iniciativas brasileiras The Cuban Missile Crisis (1962: a study of the Brazilian initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto explora a crise dos mísseis soviéticos em Cuba, de outubro de 1962, geralmente considerada como o acontecimento mais dramático de toda a época da Guerra Fria. O trabalho de pesquisa utiliza documentação primária resgatada do Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores do Brasil (AHMRE. Também é utilizada literatura especializada publicada no Brasil e no exterior. Particular interesse tem para os fins do artigo as iniciativas especificamente brasileiras no contexto da crise, principalmente as seguintes: (i a desnuclearização da América Latina, (ii a mensagem de moderação junto às lideranças cubanas, (iii o acompanhamento político-diplomático da crise nos foros hemisférico (OEA e global (ONU, e (iv a eventual "finlandização" de Cuba.The text explores the so called Cuban Missile Crisis, of October of 1962, generally considered as the most serious confrontation of the Cold War. The paper uses primary sources from the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Archives. Also literature published in Brazil and the exterior is used. The Brazilian initiatives at the time are very important in this paper, particularly the followings: (i denuclearization of Latin American continent, (ii the call for moderation to Cuban leadership, (iii the permanent preoccupation with the crisis evolution, and (iv the possibility of a neutralization of Cuban revolutionary process inside the borders of that island.

  7. Programa Saúde da Família: supervisão ou "convisão"? Estudo de caso em município de médio porte The Family Health Program: supervision or "shared vision"? A case study in a medium-sized Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia da Costa Leite Reis

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O estudo, de natureza qualitativa, utiliza como estratégia metodológica o estudo de caso para discutir a supervisão no Programa Saúde da Família (PSF do Município de Teresópolis, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. A supervisão é um instrumento de gestão de programas de saúde, motivo pelo qual objetivou-se analisá-la com base nos seguintes objetivos: descrever as características e o padrão de funcionamento da supervisão, identificar fatores subjetivos intrínsecos à dinâmica do processo, delinear o perfil do supervisor do PSF e refletir sobre a supervisão como fator essencial de implantação e implementação do programa. Foram pesquisados documentos, feita observação livre e entrevistados supervisores e membros das equipes que compõem o PSF de Teresópolis, para identificar percepções, atitudes, valores e tendências destes em relação à supervisão. O estudo permitiu discutir a supervisão participativa, baseada nas relações horizontais entre os participantes. Esta deve refletir sobre as práticas de saúde, estimular a autonomia dos atores envolvidos e contribuir para a sustentação de programas compatíveis com a mudança do modelo de atenção brasileiro.This study discusses supervision of the Family Health Program (FHP in Teresópolis Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, based on a qualitative case study approach. Considering that supervision is an important tool in health programs management, five main objectives were achieved: analysis of supervisory activities, description of characteristics and working patterns, outlining of FHP supervisor profiles, and identification of subjective factors that could interfere in the supervision process. Finally, supervision was considered as an essential step in program organization and implementation. Information sources were interviews with program supervisors and staff members, observation, and document search. The aim was to identify perceptions, attitudes, values, and tendencies

  8. A contabilidade da gestão ambiental e sua dimensão para a transparência empresarial: estudo de caso de quatro empresas brasileiras com atuação global Environmental management accounting and its dimension in business transparency: case study of four Brazilian firms with global activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Eduardo Prudêncio Tinoco

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, com base nos casos de quatro empresas brasileiras com atuação global, aborda a contabilidade da gestão ambiental, em estudo exploratório que permitiu identificar a preocupação com a sustentabilidade econômica e o desenvolvimento social, bem como a importância do tema para a pesquisa acadêmica e para o apoio às decisões gerenciais e seu papel efetivo na comunicação das ações empresariais, em um passo à frente dos ditames legais.This article, based on four Brazilian firms with global action, addresses environmental management accounting. An exploratory study identifies the firms' concerns with economic sustainability and social development, as well as the subject's relevancy not only for further academic research, but also in supporting managerial decisions. The study shows effective role of environmental management accounting in communicating the firms' actions, a step ahead of legal constraints.

  9. www.portalfeminista.org.br: uma biblioteca virtual dos estudos feministas e de gênero no Brasil www.portalfeminista.org.br: Brazilian feminist and gender studies virtual library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia de Lima Costa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Nesse artigo fazemos uma breve exploração sobre os portais de periódicos acadêmicos e discutimos sua importância para a circulação do conhecimento. Nesse contexto, analisamos a construção de uma biblioteca virtual dos estudos feministas e de gênero. Relatamos as várias etapas do projeto Portal Feminista, tecendo reflexões sobre os desafios que cercam as publicações eletrônicasThis article provides a brief foray into the world of academic journal databanks and its importance for the circulation of knowledge. In this context, we discuss the need to construct a databank in the area of feminist and gender studies. We explain the different stages in the construction of the Portal Feminista, reflecting on the challenges of electronic publications.

  10. Exportadores brasileiros: estudo exploratório das percepções sobre a qualidade da infraestrutura logística Brazilian exporters: exploratory study on the perceptions about logistics infrastructure quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa é avaliar as percepções de diferentes segmentos de exportadores sobre a qualidade da infraestrutura logística de exportação. Para isto, foram definidas e operacionalizadas, com base na revisão de literatura, as principais dimensões de segmentação de exportadores: tipo de carga (contêiner ou granel e criticidade da operação portuária. Foram enviados questionários para os 250 maiores exportadores brasileiros do ranking da AEB (Associação de Exportadores Brasileiros. A partir dos 101 questionários recebidos foi possível identificar que exportadores de carga a granel tendem a considerar o escoamento e o acesso aos portos uma dificuldade logística mais crítica que os exportadores de cargas em contêineres. Já com relação à criticidade da operação porto-a-porto, os exportadores do setor de insumos industriais percebem a piora da qualidade da infraestrutura física do modal marítimo e da burocracia para exportação como reflexo de limitações na sua capacidade de produção.The objective of this research is to evaluate the perceptions of different trading firms about the quality of the logistics infrastructure for the foreign trade. Based on the literature review, the major dimensions regarding these firms were defined and operationalized: type of load (container or bulk and criticality of port operation. A survey was conducted with the 250 largest Brazilian firms ranked at the AEB list (Brazilian Foreign Trade Firms Association. Based on the 101 questionnaires returned, it was identified that the bulk traders tend to consider the access to ports a bigger logistical shortcoming than the container traders. With regard to the criticality of port operation, firms of the intermediate goods industry perceive the decay of the physical infrastructure and the foreign trade bureaucracy as a consequence of their limited production capacity

  11. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  12. Custos operacionais eficientes das distribuidoras de energia elétrica: um estudo comparativo dos modelos DEA e SFA The cost efficiency of the Brazilian electricity distribution utilities: a comparative study with DEA and SFA models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Pereira de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta medidas de eficiência para 40 distribuidoras de energia elétrica que operam no setor elétrico brasileiro. As medidas foram obtidas por modelos de análise envoltória de dados (DEA e modelos de fronteira estocástica (SFA, duas técnicas que podem mitigar a assimetria de informação e aprimorar a habilidade do agente regulador comparar os desempenhos das distribuidoras, requisitos fundamentais em esquemas de regulação incentivada. As duas abordagens são apresentadas e os resultados obtidos pelos diferentes modelos são comparados.This paper shows the efficiency measurements of 40 Brazilian electricity distribution companies. The efficiency scores are obtained using the data envelopment analysis (DEA and stochastic frontier analysis (SFA models, techniques that can reduce the information asymmetry and improve the regulator skills to compare the performance of the electricity companies, which are fundamental aspects of regulatory regimes. The two approaches are described, and the main results obtained from the different models are compared.

  13. Study of mechanical, rheological and thermal properties of nanocomposite HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene) with Brazilian bentonite; Estudo das propriedades mecanicas, reologicas e termicas de nanocomposito de HMSPP (polipropileno com alta resistencia do fundido) com uma bentonita brasileira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fermino, Danilo Marin

    2011-07-01

    This work concerns to the study of the mechanical, thermal and rheological behavior of the nano composite HMSPP - Polypropylene High Melt Strength (obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a bentonite clay Brazilian Paraiba, known as 'Chocolate' in concentrations of 5 and 10% by weight, comparison of to one American Clay, Cloisite 20A nanocomposite was done. Agent compatibilizer polypropylene-graft, known as maleic anhydride (PP-g-AM) was addict 3% concentration thought technique melt intercalation using a twin-screw extruder and the specimens were prepared by injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The thermal behavior was evaluated by the techniques of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGM). The rheological behavior was evaluated in rheometer. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied by the technique of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The organophilic bentonite and the nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared (FTIR). (author)

  14. Perdas dentárias em adolescentes brasileiros e fatores associados: estudo de base populacional Perdidas dentarias en adolescentes brasileros y factores asociados: estudio de base poblacional Tooth loss and associated factors in adolescents: a Brazilian population-based oral health survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbato

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência das perdas dentárias em adolescentes brasileiros e os fatores a elas associados. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados dados de 16.833 participantes do estudo epidemiológico nacional de saúde bucal, realizado em 2002/2003. O desfecho investigado foi a ocorrência de perda de pelo menos um dente. As variáveis independentes incluíram localização geográfica de residência, sexo, cor de pele, idade, renda per capita, atraso escolar, tipo de serviço e residência em município com fluoretação das águas de abastecimento. Foram estimadas razões de prevalência brutas e ajustadas por meio da regressão de Poisson para cada macrorregião e para o País como um todo. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de pelo menos uma perda dentária foi de 38,9% (IC 95%: 38,2%; 39,7%. Os adolescentes residentes em locais não servidos por água fluoretada apresentaram prevalência de perdas dentárias 40% maior do que os residentes em áreas com disponibilidade dessa medida. Houve forte associação (pOBJETIVO: Estimar la prevalencia de las perdidas dentarias en adolescentes brasileros y los factores asociados a ellas. MÉTODOS: Fueron analizados datos de 16.833 participantes del estudio epidemiológico nacional de salud bucal, realizado en 2002/2003. El hecho investigado fue la ocurrencia de pérdida de por lo menos un diente. Las variables independientes incluyeron localización geográfica de residencia, sexo, color de piel, edad, renta per capita, atraso escolar, tipo de servicio y residencia en municipio con fluorificación de las aguas de abastecimiento. Fueron estimadas las tasas de prevalencia brutas y ajustadas por medio de la regresión de Poisson para cada macro región y para Brasil como un todo. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de por lo menos una pérdida dentaria fue de 38,9% (IC 95%: 38,2%; 39,7%. Los adolescentes residentes en locales no servidos por agua fluorificada presentaron prevalencia de pérdida dentaria 40% mayor que los

  15. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  16. Fósforo extraído pela solução de Mehlich-1 determinado por colorimetria e ICP em solos do Sul do Brasil Phosphorus extracted with Mehlich-1 determined by colorimetric and ICP methods in South Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Bortolon

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A adoção do ICP para análise de fósforo tem apresentado controvérsias, pois o valor determinado por essa técnica, muitas vezes, não é comparável com o obtido por colorimetria. Nos EUA, alguns laboratórios apresentam restrições à adoção dessa técnica, pelas seguintes razões: as recomendações de adubação em uso foram desenvolvidas empregando-se o método colorimétrico para a determinação do P; e as diferenças significativas têm sido obtidas entre os teores determinados por colorimetria e por ICP, pois, devido à alta temperatura do plasma, o ICP mede outras formas de P além do ortofosfato, atribuída ao P orgânico na solução. Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar os teores de P extraído do solo pela solução de Mehlich-1, determinado por colorimetria (COL e por ICP, em 595 amostras de solos do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, com amplas variações nas características físicas, químicas e mineralógicas. Os teores de P extraído, determinado por ICP e por COL, não diferiram estatisticamente (r = 0,94; p The adoption of ICP technique to determine P in soil testing has been questioned, due the values determined with this technique is not comparable that those determined with colorimetric method. In the USA, some laboratories are restricted to adopt the ICP technique due the follow reasons: the nutrient recommendations to plants were developed for colorimetric method for P determination; significantly differences have been obtained between P determined with colorimetric and ICP techniques, because the high plasma temperature can measure other P forms besides orthophosphate, attributed to organic P in solution. This study compared the P amounts extracted by Mehlich-1 solution and determined by COL and ICP techniques, in 595 soil samples from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil with s wide range of soil physic, chemistry and mineralogic properties. The P amounts determined by ICP and COL did not differ statistically

  17. Estudo quantitativo da lágrima pelo teste de fenol vermelho na população brasileira Quantitative tear study using the red phenol test in the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Yudi Hida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar parâmetros normais do teste de fenol vermelho na população brasileira, e comparar entre diferentes raças, idade e sexo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, com o teste de fenol vermelho, 280 indivíduos (560 olhos da raça branca e 280 indivíduos (560 olhos da raça não branca, que foram divididos de acordo com a idade e o sexo. Foram excluídos indivíduos com qualquer doença ocular, usuários de lente de contato e que usavam medicação ocular. RESULTADOS: Dos 1.120 olhos avaliados, o resultado médio foi de 19,77±7,90 mm. CONCLUSÃO: O resultado médio encontrado foi um valor intermediário entre as duas populações previamente estudadas (japonesa e norte-americana.PURPOSE: To detect normal values of red phenol thread test in the Brazilian population and compare it between different races, age and sex. METHODS: 280 white individuals (560 eyes and 280 non-white individuals (560 eyes were analyzed regarding sex and age, and analyzed using the Phenol Red test. Individuals with ocular diseases, contact lens or ocular drug users were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 1,120 evaluated eyes, the mean ± standard deviation result was 19,77±7,90 mm. CONCLUSIONS: The mean result found in this study was an intermediate value compared to the previously studied populations (Japanese and American.

  18. Concentrações de vitamina A no leite humano e características socioeconômicas e nutricionais maternas: resultados de estudos brasileiros Vitamin A in human milk and socioeconomic and maternal nutritional factors: some results of Brazilian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julicristie Machado de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: agregar e discutir os resultados de estudos realizados no Brasil que avaliaram a concentração de vitamina A no leite materno. FONTES DOS DADOS: foram pesquisadas as bases LILACS, Banco de Teses da Capes, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library, e Plataforma Lattes -seção de produção científica. As palavras-chaves utilizadas foram: gestantes, lactante, concentração de vitamina A no leite humano, Brasil. As buscas foram realizadas em 2006 e atualizadas em março de 2008. Foram incluídos todos os estudos localizados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: foram localizados 14 estudos, publicados entre 1988 e 2008, heterogêneos quanto ao tamanho da amostra, fase do leite, período do dia da coleta e método de determinação das concentrações de vitamina A. Foram descritas concentrações médias de vitamina A no leite humano entre 0,62 e 4,50 µmol/L. CONCLUSÕES: não houve consenso sobre a relação entre concentração de vitamina A no leite humano e vitamina A dietética, estado nutricional materno, características obstétricas e demográficas e duração da gestação. Sugere-se que estudos futuros utilizem, amostras de leite maduro, coletadas aleatoriamente ao longo dos diferentes períodos do dia, e a utilização do high performance liquid chromatography - HPLC - como método de determinação de vitamina A.OBJECTIVES: to compile the results of Brazilian studies that investigated the vitamin A content of human milk. SOURCES: the searches were performed at LILACS, Banco de Teses da Capes, SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library, and Plataforma Lattes databases. The search strategy was: pregnant, lactating, human milk vitamin A concentration, Brazil. The searches were done in 2006 and updated in March 2008. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: fourteen studies published between 1988 and 2008 were located. These studies were heterogeneous in terms of sample size, milk phase, time of collection and method for determining vitamin A concentrations. The

  19. Should body mass index be adjusted for relative sitting height in cross-sectional studies of chronic diseases in Japanese-Brazilians? Deve-se corrigir o valor do Índice de Massa Corporal pelo comprimento relativo do tronco em estudos de prevalência de doenças crônicas em nipo-brasileiros?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bouças Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The current article aimed to verify the degree of agreement in classification of nutritional status according to body mass index (BMI and corrected body mass index (BMIc. Data were used from a cross-sectional study of Japanese-Brazilians. Statistical analysis provided prevalence rates for chronic diseases, kappa statistic, and Pearson's linear correlation coefficient. Some 5.9% of Japanese-Brazilians were discordant according to the BMI and BMIc classifications. The weighted kappa statistic (0.94; p = 0.000 indicated good agreement between the classifications. Similar prevalence rates for chronic diseases were obtained for individuals with excess weight classified by these two indices. Similar Pearson's linear correlation coefficients were obtained for these indices and waist circumference and body fat measurements. The results suggest that BMI correction for relative sitting height is probably unnecessary for these individuals.O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o grau de concordância entre as classificações do estado nutricional segundo os valores do índice de massa corporal (IMC e o IMC corrigido (IMCc. Utilizou-se dados de estudo transversal realizado entre nipo-brasileiros. Na análise estatística dos dados foram obtidas as prevalências de doenças crônicas, a estatística kappa e o coeficiente de correlação linear de Pearson. Observou-se que 5,9% dos nipo-brasileiros foram discordantes quanto às classificações pelo IMC e IMCc. O valor da estatística kappa ponderado (0,94; p = 0,000 indicou boa concordância entre as classificações. Prevalências semelhantes de doenças crônicas foram obtidas para os indivíduos com excesso de peso classificados segundo estes dois índices. Valores semelhantes para os coeficientes de correlação linear de Pearson foram obtidos entre esses índices e as medidas de circunferência de cintura e as medidas de gordura corporal. Estes resultados sugerem que, provavelmente, a corre

  20. The effectiveness of parent management training in a Brazilian sample of patients with oppositional-defiant disorder A eficácia de treinamento de pais em grupo para pacientes com transtorno desafiador de oposição: um estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Antonia Serra-Pinheiro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD is considered a hard to treat condition. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of parent management training (PMT on the symptoms of ODD and conduct disorder (CD in Brazilian children with ODD. METHODS: We conducted a clinical evaluation in which data was analyzed from parents of five patients with ODD who participated in a PMT group. The ODD and CD symptoms were assessed before and at least a month after they started participating in the group. The outcome measures were rating scales based on the DSM-IV criteria for ODD and CD. RESULTS: Most patients continued to fulfill criteria for ODD, but the severity of their ODD symptoms was reduced 48,75%. The difference between the means on the severity scale of ODD symptoms was statistically significant (p= 0,031 The fulfillment of criteria for CD was largely diminished. CONCLUSIONS: PMT was effective for the reduction of ODD and CD symptoms in patients with ODD. PMT may represent a valuable therapeutic option for patients with ODD in different cultures.INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno desafiador de oposição (TDO é considerado uma condição de difícil tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a eficácia de um programa em grupo de treinamento de pais (TP na redução dos sintomas de TDO e transtorno de conduta (TC em crianças brasileiras com TDO. MÉTODO: conduziu-se um estudo naturalístico em que se analisou dados dos pais de cinco pacientes com TDO que participaram de um grupo de TP. Os sintomas de TDO e TC foram avaliados antes e pelo menos um mês depois de iniciarem a participação no grupo. As medidas utilizadas foram escalas baseadas nos critérios da DSM-IV para TDO e TC. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes continuou preenchendo critérios para TDO, mas a gravidade dos seus sintomas de TDO diminuiu 48,75%. A diferença entre as médias na escala de gravidade de sintomas desafiadores-opositivo foi estatisticamente significativa (p

  1. Qualidade da notificação de anomalias congênitas pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC: estudo comparativo nos anos 2004 e 2007 Quality of birth defect reporting in the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC: a comparative study of 2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Varela Luquetti

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo comparou a validade dos diagnósticos de anomalias congênitas do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC, em oito hospitais distribuídos em sete municípios do Brasil, totalizando 27.945 nascidos vivos em 2004 e 25.905 em 2007. Além disso, descreveu ações específicas realizadas para o aprimoramento da qualidade dos dados desse campo. Para a análise da validade, foi utilizado o Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas (ECLAMC como padrão-ouro. Em 2004, pelo menos 40% dos casos de anomalias congênitas eram subnotificados, situação que não foi modificada em 2007. Observou-se aumento significativo na sensibilidade somente em um hospital, de 56,9% para 96,8%. Em dois hospitais, houve diminuição significativa na sensibilidade, de 62,7% para 41,7% e de 66,5% para 32,2%. Os valores preditivos positivo e negativo e especificidade permaneceram acima de 80%. Apenas duas secretarias municipais de saúde e quatro hospitais fizeram algum tipo de ação específica para a melhoria do campo 34. Os resultados apontam para a necessidade de se investir na qualidade da informação sobre anomalias congênitas no SINASC.This study compared the validity of birth defect cases reported in the Brazilian Information System on Live Births in 2004 and 2007 in seven municipalities, out of a total of 27,945 live births in 2004 and 25,905 in 2007. The study also describes quality improvement measures in this area. The Latin American Collaborative Study on Congenital Malformations was used as the gold standard for analyzing the validity of birth defect diagnoses. In 2004, at least 40% of birth defects went unreported, and this situation persisted in 2007. Only one hospital showed a significant increase in reporting sensitivity, from 56.9% to 96.8%. Sensitivity decreased significantly in two hospitals (from 62.7% to 41.75% and from 66.5% to 32.2%, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values and

  2. Estudo de adulteração em méis brasileiros através de razão isotópica do carbono A study of adulteration in brazilian honeys by carbon isotope ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Regina de Souza-Kruliski

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar isotopicamente méis comercializados nas regiões Sul e Sudeste do Brasil, para a detecção de fraude. Foram colhidas amostras comerciais com registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal, Estadual ou Municipal. As amostras foram submetidas à combustão no Analisador Elementar EA 1108 CHN e analisadas no espectrômetro de massas de razão isotópica DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. Os valores isotópicos (δ13C dos méis in natura foram comparados aos de suas respectivas proteínas (padrão interno. Foram consideradas adulteradas as amostras cuja diferença entre o valor isotópico da proteína e do mel foi igual ou inferior a -1‰. As amostras consideradas adulteradas pela análise isotópica foram submetidas a testes químicos qualitativos que não foram capazes de indicar adulteração para algumas delas. Das 61 amostras analisadas, 18,0% encontram-se adulteradas, sendo 11,5% na Região Sudeste e 6,5% na Região Sul. Ao contrário dos testes químicos, a análise isotópica mostrou-se eficaz em identificar e quantificar a adulteração de méis comerciais.The aim of this study was the isotopic evaluation of honey traded in the Southern and Southeastern Brazilian regions, to detect fraud. Commercial samples, registered in the municipal, State or Federal Inspection Service, were collected and submitted to combustion in the EA 1108 CHN Elemental Analyzer and analyzed in the DELTA-S (Finningan Mat. isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The isotopic values (δ13C of in natura honey were compared to their respective proteins (internal standard. Samples whose difference between the isotopic value of protein and honey was equal or inferior to -1‰ were considered adulterated. The samples considered adulterated were submitted to qualitative chemical tests which were unable to show adulteration for some of them. Among the 61 samples analyzed, 18.0% were adulterated; 11.5% in the Southeastern and 6.5% in the Southern region

  3. Estudo da prescritividade das normas técnicas Brasileiras de segurança contra incêndio Study on the prescriptivity of Brazilian technical standards for fire safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Maria Claret

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A gestão da mudança do ambiente de projeto de segurança contra incêndio de normas prescritivas para o de projeto baseado em desempenho é um desafio atual das entidades envolvidas com a normalização técnica no País. O processo de mudança demanda a adesão de diversas categorias de profissionais e se constitui em um autêntico processo de educação. O trabalho descreve uma avaliação da prescritividade do conjunto de normas técnicas brasileiras com o objetivo de verificar o grau de dificuldade na implantação de normas baseadas em desempenho. A análise de prescritividade foi realizada empregando um método de análise discursiva, tendo como base a atribuição de pesos de prescritividade a categorias de comandos ou ações de projeto determinadas pelos textos normativos. Os resultados indicam que a maioria das normas tem grau de prescritividade mediano (grau II, menos de 10% entre as normas ABNT e 30% das instruções técnicas têm grau de prescritividade alto (grau III, sugerindo que a implantação futura de um ambiente de normalização baseado em desempenho deve ser feita de forma gradual e acompanhada de atividades de formação técnica dos profissionais.Managing fire safety design so that it is according to prescriptive standards and accompanies ambient performance is the current challenge for entities dealing with the civil construction industry's standardization. It requires the adhesion of various professional categories and is, in itself, a constant educational process. This work presents an evaluation of the prescriptivity of a set of Brazilian technical standards for fire safety, aiming to measure their likely grade of implementation difficulty for performance in the ambient's design. The prescriptivity analysis was implemented using a discourse analysis technique based on weighing some categories of prescriptive commands against the standard's text. The results indicate that most of the rules have an average degree of

  4. Perdas dentárias e fatores sociais, demográficos e de serviços associados em adultos brasileiros: uma análise dos dados do Estudo Epidemiológico Nacional (Projeto SB Brasil 2002-2003 Tooth loss and associated socioeconomic, demographic, and dental-care factors in Brazilian adults: an analysis of the Brazilian Oral Health Survey, 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Barbato

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi estimar a prevalência de perdas dentárias em adultos de 35 a 44 anos de idade. Além disso, foram testadas associações entre as perdas dentárias e condições demográficas, sócio-econômicas e com utilização de serviços odontológicos. Foram analisados os dados de 13.431 participantes do estudo epidemiológico nacional de saúde bucal realizado em 2002-2003. O número de perdas dentárias (£ 12 e > 12 foi o desfecho investigado. As variáveis independentes incluíram localização geográfica, gênero, cor da pele, idade, renda per capita, escolaridade, tempo decorrido desde a última consulta odontológica e tipo de serviço utilizado. Foram estimadas as razões de prevalência bruta e ajustada através de regressão de Poisson. Edentulismo atingiu 9% da amostra; a mediana de dentes perdidos foi igual a 11. Perdas dentárias foram fortemente associadas com indivíduos residentes em zona rural, com as mulheres, com os mais pobres, com os de menor escolaridade e com aqueles de idade mais avançada. Usuários do serviço público e aqueles que consultaram dentista há mais tempo também apresentaram maior prevalência do agravo mesmo após o ajuste por variáveis sócio-econômicas e demográficas.The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of tooth loss among Brazilian adults aged 35 to 44 years. The study also tested the association between tooth loss and demographic, socioeconomic, and dental-care utilization variables. Data were analyzed from 13,431 individuals submitted to dental examination and interviewed in the National Oral Health Survey in 2002-2003. The number of lost teeth (£ 12 and > 12 was the outcome. Exploratory variables included geographic area, gender, skin color, age, per capita income, schooling, time since last dental appointment, and type of dental service used. Crude and adjusted prevalence ratios were estimated using a Poisson regression model. The prevalence of edentulism

  5. CHEK2 1100DELC germline mutation: a frequency study in hereditary breast and colon cancer Brazilian families Mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2: estudo da frequência em famílias brasileiras com câncer de mama e cólon hereditários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamile Abud

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: CHEK2 encodes a cell cycle checkpoint kinase that plays an important role in the DNA damage repair pathway, activated mainly by ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated in response to double-stranded DNA breaks. A germline mutation in CHEK2, 1100delC, has been described as a low penetrance allele in a significant number of families with breast and colorectal cancer in certain countries and is also associated with increased risk of contralateral breast cancer in women previously affected by the disease. About 5%-10% of all breast and colorectal cancers are associated with hereditary predisposition and its recognition is of great importance for genetic counseling and cancer risk management. OBJECTIVES: Here, we have assessed the frequency of the CHEK2 1100delC mutation in the germline of 59 unrelated Brazilian individuals with clinical criteria for the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer syndrome. METHODS: A long-range PCR strategy followed by gene sequencing was used. RESULTS: The 1100delC mutation was encountered in the germline of one (1.7% individual in this high risk cohort. This indicates that the CHEK2 1100delC is not commonly encountered in Brazilian families with multiple diagnoses of breast and colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: These results should be confirmed in a larger series of families and further testing should be undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the hereditary breast and colorectal cancer phenotype.INTRODUÇÃO: CHEK2 codifica uma proteína quinase envolvida em um ponto de checagem do ciclo celular que desempenha um papel importante na via de reparação do DNA, danos ativados principalmente por ATM (Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutado em resposta a danos na dupla hélice do DNA. A mutação germinativa 1100delC no gene CHEK2 tem sido descrita como um alelo de baixa penetrância em um número significativo de famílias com câncer de mama e cólon em certos países e também está associada com risco

  6. Resistindo à reforma psiquiátrica brasileira: um estudo de caso de uma clínica psiquiátrica privada/ES = Resisting the Brazilian psychiatric reform: a case study of a private psychiatric clinic/ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza, Jackeline da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Pretende-se analisar a atenção em saúde mental no Estado do Espírito Santo, tendo por locus uma clínica psiquiátrica conveniada ao Sistema Único de Saúde, localizada no município de Cachoeiro de Itapemirim/ES. Para o estudo de caso dessa clínica, utilizamos pesquisa documental, observação simples e entrevista com o gestor da instituição e com o ex-técnico. Na análise feita, consideramos as características das demandas recebidas, a estrutura de funcionamento da Clínica e o Projeto Terapêutico. Os resultados apontaram a existência de porta de entrada para internação na própria instituição, a presença da cultura hospitalocêntrica e a ausência da prática ressocializadora. Concluímos que a Clínica constitui-se no reverso do processo de implementação da Política de Saúde Mental, ao colocar-se como pólo de resistência à operacionalização das propostas da Política de Saúde Mental, da não-redução do número de leitos psiquiátricos, assim como a inexistência de um sistema de porta de entrada para internação fora dos domínios da instituição. Desse modo, foi possível evidenciar que os atores sociais que perderam o status até então alcançado com o processo de formulação dessa política (nesse caso, os donos de hospitais privados, posteriormente, retornam à cena política no momento de sua implementação, retomando estratégias e táticas de resistência à sua efetiva concretização.

  7. Estudo do relacionamento ântero-posterior entre os arcos dentários decíduos, de crianças nipo-brasileiras, dos dois aos seis anos de idade Study of the anteroposterior relationship between deciduous dental arches of Japanese-Brazilian children, from 2 to 6 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirce Yamada Kataoka

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar as prevalências dos diferentes tipos de relacionamentos ântero-posteriores entre os arcos dentários decíduos, bem como o possível dimorfismo sexual, em crianças nipo-brasileiras na faixa etária dos dois aos seis anos de idade. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliadas por inspeção visual 310 crianças nipo-brasileiras, matriculadas em 19 escolas do estado de São Paulo, sendo 154 do gênero masculino e 156 do feminino. Os resultados foram submetidos ao teste do qui-quadrado e revelaram ausência de dimorfismo sexual para a maioria dos relacionamentos analisados, permitindo apresentar os resultados conjuntamente para ambos os gêneros. RESULTADOS: as prevalências dos relacionamentos entre os segundos molares decíduos foram: 47,4% para o degrau mesial, 41,3% para o plano terminal reto, 5,5% para o degrau distal e 5,8% para os casos com assimetrias. Para os relacionamentos entre os caninos decíduos, conforme Foster e Hamilton, constataram-se prevalências de 77,4% para a Classe 1, 6,8% para a Classe 2, 6,8% para a Classe 3 e 9% para as relações assimétricas. Apenas a Classe 2 apresentou dimorfismo sexual, sendo de 3,9% para o feminino e de 9,7% para o masculino. Quanto à sobressaliência verificaram-se prevalências de 71,3% para a normal, 14,2% para a aumentada, 7,4% para a mordida cruzada anterior e 7,1% para a mordida topo-a-topo. RESULTADOS: concluiu-se que a maioria das crianças nipo-brasileiras avaliadas neste estudo, apresentaram um relacionamento ântero-posterior normal entre os arcos decíduos, merecendo atenção uma ligeira tendência para o desenvolvimento da Classe 3.AIM: the purpose of this cross-sectional study was to verify the prevalences of different types of anteroposterior relationships between deciduous dental arches and its possible sexual dimorphism, in Japanese-Brazilian children from 2 to 6 years of age. METHODS: a total of 310 Japanese-Brazilian children from 19 schools in São Paulo, Brazil

  8. Inter-rater reliability and factor analysis of the Brazilian version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight: Expanded Version (SAI-E Estudo de confiabilidade entre avaliadores e análise fatorial da versão brasileira do Schedule for the Assessment of Insight: Expanded Version (SAI-E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa de Rosalmeida Dantas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version consists of 11 items that encompass: awareness of having a mental illness, ability to rename psychotic phenomena as abnormal, and compliance with treatment. The objective of the study was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability and to study the factorial structure of the Brazilian version of the instrument. METHOD: The Brazilian version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version was used for the assessment of insight of 109 psychotic inpatients, 60 of whom had the interview tape-recorded in order to be scored by an independent evaluator. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was adopted as the inter-rater reliability coefficient. In the factor analysis, principal components analysis and Varimax rotation were adopted. RESULTS: Inter-rater reliability coefficients from good to excellent were found for the individual items of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version with ICC values ranging from 0.54 to 0.82. Regarding the total score, inter-rater reliability was excellent, with ICC = 0.90. A factorial structure similar to the one obtained by the original version of the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version was found, with 3 factors accounting for 71.72% of variance. CONCLUSION: In the Brazilian context, the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version presented good inter-rater reliability and factorial structure compatible to the insight dimensions that are intended to be evaluated.OBJETIVOS: O Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded Version é constituído por 11 itens que abordam: reconhecimento de se ter um transtorno mental, capacidade de renomear fenômenos psicóticos como anormais e adesão ao tratamento. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade entre avaliadores e estudar a estrutura fatorial da versão brasileira do Schedule for the Assessment of Insight - Expanded

  9. Aplicação do earned value em projetos complexos - um estudo de caso na EMBRAER On the use of the earned value management system approach for complex projects in the brazilian aircraft industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Abdala Giacometti

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O gerenciamento do Earned Value vem obtendo aceitação crescente nas empresas e entre profissionais tais como gerentes de projetos e funcionais, devido à sua efetividade no controle dos resultados do projeto. Earned Value é definido como uma ferramenta de controle que permite avaliar simultaneamente de maneira quantitativa como se encontram os custos e prazos em uma data de controle, permitindo também prever a data de término e o valor gasto (VARGAS, 2005. Este artigo avalia a aplicabilidade do earned value como ferramenta de controle de projetos aeronáuticos na EMBRAER. Contribui também para a aplicação do earned value no controle de projetos complexos. Utilizam-se como técnicas de coleta de dados: entrevistas, observações e análise documental. Conclui-se que o earned value é utilizado apenas nos projetos da área de aviação de defesa, por ser uma exigência contratual. O uso do earned value nas áreas de programas executivos e comerciais restringe-se às fases de definição conjunta, projeto detalhado e certificação, pois o escopo do projeto é bem definido, o cronograma é detalhado e os custos são previstos e obtidos com maior acuidade. Nas demais fases de desenvolvimento do produto, o uso do earned value é restrito, devido principalmente às constantes alterações de escopo do produto e do projeto.Earned value management has been increasingly used by companies as well as by functional and project managers due to its effectiveness in controlling project results. It is defined as a control tool that enables a quantitative and simultaneous evaluation of the costs and process time within a pre-scheduled date as well as predicting the deadline and the total value spent (VARGAS, 2005.This study evaluates the earned value applicability as a tool to control aeronautical projects at EMBRAER, A Brazilian Aeronautical Company. It is also concerned with the application of earned value in the control of complex projects. The data

  10. Reestruturação produtiva no setor bancário brasileiro e sofrimento dos caixas executivos: um estudo de caso Restructuring in the work of Brazilian banks and the consequences on the psyche of their workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Roberto Crespo Merlo

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available este artigo tem por objetivo apresentar uma análise das repercussões das mudanças no psiquismo em trabalhadores que desempenham a função de caixas de um grande banco estatal brasileiro em processo de reestruturação produtiva, com uma atenção particular às formas de mobilização da inteligência, da personalidade no trabalho e na utilização de estratégias coletivas de defesa para enfrentar o sofrimento. Foi utilizada para a pesquisa e a análise dos dados, a metodologia da Psicodinâmica do Trabalho, disciplina que estuda em que situações as condições organizacionais determinam o sentido e a mobilização subjetiva no trabalho, e também as repercussões dessas condições sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores. Foi constatado que a mobilização psíquica provocada pelas mudanças é intensa, a partir de sentimentos de insegurança, estranhamento, desorientação e impotência diante das incertezas das propostas da empresa, sendo a perda do contato com o cliente uma das maiores fontes de sofrimento para o grupo. Há um sentimento de desvalorização, manifestado nas queixas sobre o achatamento salarial, na perda do status que a função proporcionava e na desestruturação de um saber acumulado ao longo dos anos de exercício da função. O sofrimento psíquico dos caixas, provocados pelas reestruturações no trabalho, atingem níveis preocupantes, pois as novas formas de organização do trabalho estão destruindo a imagem do caixa como um profissional e reduzindo a possibilidade de serem reconhecidos pelo exercício da atividade.The objective of this article is to study the consequences in the work in Brazilian banks after the deep changes, mainly after the implementation of the economical plan from 1994 - "Plano Real". In their efforts to adapt themselves to the new economical contingency of the country and to the increase in competition in this sector, the banks have restructured their organisations, downsized their staff

  11. Entre o biológico e o social: um estudo sobre os Congressos Brasileiros de Epidemiologia, 1990-2002 Between biological and social factors: a study of Brazilian epidemiology congresses, 1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Maria Zöllner Ianni

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A discussão sobre os conceitos de biológico e social na determinação do processo saúde-doença é estruturante na Saúde Coletiva no Brasil, e no campo epidemiológico. Este artigo apresenta os resultados da pesquisa qualitativa dos Anais dos Congressos Brasileiros de Epidemiologia, no período de 1990 a 2002. Tem como objetivo identificar as noções de biológico e social, neles contidos, com vistas à identificação dos pressupostos teóricos que os norteiam. Os resultados demonstraram que o conceito de social refere-se, principalmente, à esfera do 'societário', ancorado na dissociação disciplinar das ciências naturais e sociais. O biológico é atribuído à esfera individual e clínica do processo saúde-doença, raramente à esfera do coletivo, bem como um conceito portador de objetividade. Entre o biológico e o social, o ambiente aparece como categoria autônoma; o biológico aparece ainda, porém de forma embrionária, como complexo, histórico e intrinsecamente social. A análise dos resultados apontou para uma necessária redefinição de marcos teóricos que possibilitem o avanço dos conhecimentos na área e, conseqüentemente, das práticas em saúde que a Epidemiologia subsidia. O projeto de pesquisa passou pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa do Instituto de Saúde SESSP, tendo sido aprovado.The discussion on the concepts of biological and social factors in the determination of the health-illness process is a basic theme in Public Health in Brazil, and in the epidemiological field. This article presents the results of a qualitative research on the records of Brazilian Epidemiology Congresses in the period between 1990 and 2002. Its objective is to identify the notions of biological and social factors, seeking to recognize the theoretical assumptions underlying them. Results demonstrated that the concept of social factor is mentioned mainly in the sphere of 'societary', anchored in the dissociation between natural and

  12. Índice de informação contábil pública: um estudo nos municípios brasileiros = Public Accounting Information Index: a study in the brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabia Jaiany Viana de Souza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa tem o objetivo de avaliar os índices de divulgação de informação contábil pública dos municípios brasileiros. A pesquisa pode ser classificada como qualitativa, descritiva e documental. Os resultados revelaram que São Paulo foi aquele com maior pontuação para o índice analisado, com 67,86% dos itens divulgados em seu sitio, seguido por Vitória (64,29%, Londrina e Porto Alegre com (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá e Curitiba com (50% das práticas observadas nos sítios. Além disso, identificou-se Belford Roxo como o município com o menor índice (7,14% de divulgação de informações contábeis, seguido por Juazeiro do Norte (10,71% e Boa Vista (14,30%. Conclui-se que os municípios não estão evidenciando em seus portais eletrônicos informações que permitam aos cidadãos conhecer a gestão financeira de seus municípios, uma vez que foi observada a existência de entes municipais que não divulgam nenhum dos demonstrativos contábeis exigidos pela legislação vigente e que não foi possível perceber nos sítios um estímulo a sociedade participar da gestão municipal.This research aimed at evaluating the levels of disclosure of public financial information from Brazilian municipalities. The methodology consisted qualitative, descriptive and documentary research. The sample selection technique was performed by convenience and corresponded to the 100 most populous municipalities in Brazil, because these municipalities concentrate the largest share of the population (approximately 45% of the total population. The results revealed that São Paulo was the one with the highest score for the analyzed index, with 67,86% of the items published in its site, followed by Victoria (64,29%, Londrina and Porto Alegre (60,71%, Rio de Janeiro (53,57%, Cuiabá and Curitiba (50% of the practices observed on their sites. In addition, it was identified Belford Roxo as the municipality with the lowest index (7,14% to

  13. Estudo das características cefalométricas em adolescentes brasileiros portadores de Padrão Face Longa Study of the cephalometric features of Brazilian long face adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Gabriel da Silva Filho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: definir valores cefalométricos esqueléticos e dentários para adolescentes brasileiros com Padrão Face Longa. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi constituída de telerradiografias em norma lateral de 30 pacientes com Face Longa, sendo 17 do sexo feminino e 13 do masculino; e 30 pacientes face Padrão I, 15 do sexo masculino e 15 do feminino, no estágio de dentadura permanente durante a adolescência. As características do Padrão Face Longa foram definidas clinicamente, pela análise facial. As seguintes grandezas cefalométricas foram avaliadas: (1 Comportamento sagital das bases apicais (SNA, SNB, ANB, NAP, Co-A, Co-Gn; (2 Comportamento vertical das bases apicais (SN.PP, SN.PM, ângulo goníaco, AFAT, AFAI, AFAM, AFP, AFATperp, AFAIperp; (3 Comportamento dentoalveolar (1-PP, 6-PP, 1-PM, 6-PM, 1.PP, IMPA; e (4 Proporção entre as alturas faciais (AFAIPerp/AFATPerp, AFAI/AFAT, AFAM/AFAI. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: o erro vertical na Face Longa concentra-se no terço inferior. A maxila apresenta uma maior altura dentoalveolar e a mandíbula, com morfologia mais vertical, mostra maior rotação no sentido horário. Essas características morfológicas e espaciais acarretam alterações sagitais e verticais no esqueleto e alterações verticais dentoalveolares. No sentido sagital, os ângulos de convexidade facial estão aumentados. No sentido vertical, as alturas faciais anteriores total e inferior estão aumentadas. O componente dentoalveolar está mais longo.OBJECTIVE: To determine skeletal and dental cephalometric values for Brazilian long-faced adolescents. METHODS: The sample compr0l cephalograms of 30 long-faced patients, 17 females and 13 males, and 30 Pattern I adolescent patients, 15 males and 15 females, with permanent dentition, during adolescence. The features that characterized the long face pattern were defined clinically by facial analysis. The following cephalometric landmarks were assessed: 1 Sagittal behavior of the apical

  14. Prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes: um estudo de base populacional em uma cidade no Sul do Brasil Prevalence of overweight in adolescents: a population-based study in a southern Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmem L. Dutra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes e sua distribuição segundo varíaveis demográficas, sócio-econômicas, comportamentais e biológicas. Foram entrevistados 810 adolescentes entre 10 e 19 anos, residentes na zona urbana de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. O sobrepeso foi definido de acordo com a OMS (IMC > ou = Percentil 85, segundo idade e sexo conforme a população de referência do I National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. O processo amostral foi por conglomerados e as análises bruta e ajustada (Regressão de Poisson levaram em conta o efeito de delineamento. A prevalência de sobrepeso em adolescentes foi de 19,3% (IC95%: 16,6-22,0 e não houve diferença entre os sexos. Adolescentes pertencentes aos níveis econômicos mais elevados, que realizaram dieta para emagrecer nos três meses anteriores à entrevista, que assistiam quatro horas ou mais de televisão por dia e que realizavam apenas uma ou duas refeições diárias apresentaram maior proporção de sobrepeso. Na análise ajustada, o sobrepeso nos meninos esteve diretamente associado com nível econômico e, nas meninas, com as variáveis dieta para emagrecer, número de horas diárias assistindo à televisão e inversamente associado com o número de refeições.The prevalence of overweight and its association with demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and biological variables were evaluated. The sample included 810 adolescents (10-19 years of age living in the urban area of Pelotas, a southern Brazilian city. Overweight was defined as a body mass index > or = the 85th percentile, according to sex and age, and compared to the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, following the WHO recommendation for adolescents. A clustering sampling strategy was used, and both the crude and adjusted analyses (Poisson Regression took this strategy into account. The prevalence of overweight was 19.3% (95%CI: 16.6-22.0 and there was no

  15. Associação entre presença de oclusopatias e insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas: estudo com adolescentes brasileiros Association between malocclusion and dissatisfaction with dental and gingival appearance: study with brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Marques Borges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Apesar da alta prevalência de oclusopatias em adolescentes ser mundialmente relatada, poucos estudos investigaram a associação entre oclusopatias definidas por critérios clínicos e a auto-avaliação da aparência dentária e das gengivas em adolescentes. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a associação entre oclusopatias e auto-avaliação da aparência dentária e gengival em adolescentes brasileiros. Foram utilizados os dados de um estudo transversal realizado com adolescentes de 15 a 19 anos de idade (n = 16.126 de 250 cidades localizadas nas cinco macrorregiões do Brasil. O desfecho foi a insatisfação com a aparência dentária e gengival, sendo a principal variável exploratória as oclusopatias, medidas através do Índice de Estética Dental - DAI. As demais variáveis exploratórias, potenciais fatores de confusão e mediação, foram renda familiar per capita, atraso escolar, condição de estudo, sexo, idade, cor da pele, agravos bucais (cárie não tratada, perda dentária devido à cárie, cálculo, fluorose e dor nos dentes e gengivas e a utilização dos serviços odontológicos. Realizaram-se análises de regressão de Poisson simples e multiva-riável. A prevalência de insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas foi de 11,4% (IC 95%: 10,4-12,5. Todos os graus de oclusopatias foram associados à insatisfação com a aparência dos dentes e gengivas. A análise multivariável ajustada mostrou que a auto-avaliação negativa da aparência em adolescentes com oclusopatias graves ou muito graves foi 40% e 80% maior quando comparados àqueles com oclusão normal, respectivamente. Os resultados contribuem para a inclusão do critério de auto-avaliação da aparência dental durante as decisões de tratamento ortodôntico, principalmente no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde.In spite of the high prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents reported worldwide, there are few studies that have investigated the

  16. Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption; Materia organica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composicao quimica e sorcao de atrazina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, Deborah Pinheiro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Fisico-quimica; Martinazzo, Rosane [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Agronomia. Dept. de Solos; Knicker, Heike [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Freising (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Bodenkunde; Almeida, Paulo Sergio Gois [Centro de Ensino Superior de Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83%) than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter capacity in retaining the herbicide was favoured by a higher decomposition degree and a smaller carboxylic substitution of the aliphatic chains. (author)

  17. Microbiologic profile of flexible endoscope disinfection in two Brazilian hospitals Estudo microbiológico da desinfecção de endoscópios flexíveis em dois hospitais brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUD: Endoscopes are routinely used in hospitals and clinics of the world and they can be potential sources of cross-infection when the decontamination process is unsuitable AIM: The routines of flexible endoscope (bronchoscopes, esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes disinfection procedures used in two Brazilian university hospitals were evaluated during a 3-year period METHODS: Aleatory samples from internal channels of endoscopes were collected after patient examination and after cleaning/disinfection procedures RESULTS: A contamination >3 log10 was achieved in samples recovered from endoscopes after patient examination. These samples yielded gram-negative bacilli (n = 142: 56%, gram-positive cocci (n = 43: 17%, yeast cells (n = 43: 17%, and gram-positive bacilli (n = 26: 10%. Approximately, 72 out of 149 samples (48.32% collected after undergoing the cleaning and disinfection procedures disclosed gram-negative bacilli (n = 55: 61%, gram-positive cocci (n = 21: 23%, gram-positive bacilli (n = 8: 9% and yeast cells (n = 6: 7%. Esophagogastroduodenoscopes and colonoscopes were the most frequently contaminated devices. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter spp, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundii, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus coagulase negative, Micrococcus luteus, Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, Bacillus spp and Corynebacterium spp were predominantly identified CONCLUSION: Inappropriate cleaning and low times of disinfection were respectively the major factors associated with the presence of microorganisms in colonoscopes and esophagogastroduodenoscopes. By analyzing the identified germs, hospital disinfection was considered of either intermediate or poor level. After this investigation, both university centers improved their previous protocols for disinfection and conditions for reprocessing endoscopes.RACIONAL: Endoscópios s

  18. A pharmacoepidemiologic study of drug interactions in a Brazilian teaching hospital Um estudo farmacoepidemiológico de interações medicamentosas em um hospital universitário brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mara Cruciol-Souza

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although drug-drug interactions constitute only a small proportion of adverse drug reactions, they are often predictable and therefore avoidable or manageable. There are few studies on drug-drug interactions from Brazil. This study aimed to assess the frequency of drug-drug interactions in prescriptions and their potential clinical significance in patients of a Brazilian teaching hospital. METHODS: From January to April 2004, a sample of 1785 drug prescriptions was drawn from a total of 11,250. Drug-drug interactions were identified by using Micromedex® DrugReax® System. Patients'records with major drug-drug interactions were reviewed by a pharmacist and a medical doctor looking for signs, symptoms, and lab tests that could indicate adverse drug reactions due to such interactions. RESULTS: From the 1785 prescriptions examined, 1089 (61% were from the male adult ward. Patients' average age was 52.7 years (SD = 18.9; range, 12-98. The median number of drugs in each prescription was 7 (range, 2-26. At least 1 drug-drug interactions was present in 887 (49.7% prescriptions. Regarding the severity of the clinical result, the interactions were classified as minor (20; 2.3%, moderate (184; 20.7%, major (30; 3.4%, and undetermined because of an incidence of more than 1 interaction in a single patient (653; 73.6%. From the 30 patients with major interactions, 17 (56.7% presented adverse drug reactions induced by exposure to a major drug-drug interaction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients did suffer adverse drug reactions from major drug-drug interactions. Many physicians may be unaware of drug-drug interactions. Education, computerized prescribing systems and drug information, collaborative drug selection, and pharmaceutical care are strongly encouraged for physicians and pharmacists.INTRODUÇÃO: Embora as interações medicamentosas constituam uma pequena parcela das reações adversas a medicamentos, elas geralmente são previsíveis e às vezes podem

  19. Estudo brasileiro de validação para localização e lista de qualidade formal do Rorschach-SC: não-pacientes psiquiátricos Estudio brasileño de validación para localización y lista de calidad formal del Rorschach-SC: no-pacientes psiquiátricos Brazilian validation study to locate and list of formal quality of the Rorschach-CS: non-psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Cassia Leonel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se refere à validação do Atlas de Localização de respostas e da Lista de Qualidade Formal de respostas e conteúdos, FQ, do Rorschach-SC de uma amostra brasileira. Foram selecionados, 46 adultos não-pacientes psiquiátricos, de ambos os sexos, níveis sociais e escolaridade diversos. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o SRQ-20 e o Método de Rorschach. As respostas ao Rorschach foram codificadas segundo as áreas e a lista de qualidade formal norte-americanas e brasileiras. As análises comparativas realizadas por meio da ANOVA não encontraram diferenças entre os dois grupos, no que diz respeito às áreas de localização, W, D, Dd nas áreas brasileiras e norte-americanas, comprovando-se a validade das áreas brasileiras. Não foram também encontradas diferenças quanto à qualidade formal FQo e X+%, nas listas brasileiras e norte-americanas, comprovando-se a validade da lista brasileira para essas duas variáveis. Os resultados indicam validade para o atlas brasileiro.Este estudio se refiere a la validación del Atlas de Localización de respuestas y de la Lista de Calidad Formal de respuestas y contenidos, FQ, del Rorschach-SC de una muestra brasileña. Fueron seleccionados, 46 adultos no-pacientes psiquiátricos, de ambos sexos, niveles sociales y de escolaridad diversos. Los instrumentos utilizados fueron el SRQ-20 y el Método de Rorschach. Las respuestas al Rorschach fueron codificadas según las áreas y la lista de calidad formal norteamericanas y brasileñas. Los análisis comparativos realizados, por medio de la ANOVA, no encontraron diferencias entre los dos grupos en lo que respecta a las áreas de localización, W, D, Dd en las áreas brasileñas y norteamericanas, comprobando la validez de las áreas brasileñas. No fueron también encontradas diferencias cuanto a la calidad formal FQo y X+%, en las listas brasileñas y norteamericanas, comprobando la validez de la lista brasileña para esas dos variables. Los

  20. Neural network and state-space models for studying relationships among soil properties Redes neurais e modelos de espaço de estados para o estudo da relação entre propriedades do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Timm

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of soil property relationships is of great importance in agronomy aiming for a rational management of environmental resources and an improvement of agricultural productivity. Studies of this kind are traditionally performed using static regression models, which do not take into account the involved spatial structure. This work has the objective of evaluating the relation between a time-consuming and "expensive" variable (like soil total nitrogen and other simple, easier to measure variables (as for instance, soil organic carbon, pH, etc.. Two important classes of models (linear state-space and neural networks are used for prediction and compared with standard uni- and multivariate regression models, used as reference. For an oat crop cultivated area, situated in Jaguariuna, SP, Brazil (22º41' S, 47º00' W soil samples of a Typic Haplustox were collected from the plow layer at points spaced 2 m apart along a 194 m spatial transect. Recurrent neural networks and standard state-space models had a better predictive performance of soil total nitrogen as compared to the standard regression models. Among the standard regression models the Vector Auto-Regression model had a better predictive performance for soil total nitrogen.O estudo da relação entre as propriedades do solo é de grande importância na área agronômica objetivando um manejo racional dos recursos naturais do meio ambiente e um aumento na produtividade agrícola. Tradicionalmente este estudo tem sido realizado usando modelos de regressão estática os quais não levam em consideração a estrutura espacial envolvida. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar a relação entre uma variável de determinação mais cara e demorada (por exemplo, nitrogênio total do solo e outras de mais barata e rápida determinação (p.e., carbono orgânico do solo, pH, etc.. Duas importantes classes de modelos (espaço de estados linear e redes neurais são usadas para predição e

  1. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  2. Relação entre montadoras e fornecedores: modelos teóricos e estudos de caso na indústria automobilística Brasileira Relationship between assemblers and suppliers: theoretical models and case studies in the Brazilian auto industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela Maria Vanalle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novas formas de relacionamento e de operação entre empresas participantes de uma mesma cadeia de suprimentos vêm sendo praticadas com o intuito de melhorar as condições competitivas da cadeia. A indústria automobilística é um exemplo marcante de uma indústria na qual as relações entre as empresas têm se renovado profundamente, motivadas principalmente pela influência das montadoras nos fornecedores primários, que por sua vez atuam junto a seus próprios fornecedores, formando uma aliança competitiva a partir das visões de negócio das montadoras. Este artigo tem como objetivo estudar as relações entre montadoras e fornecedores do parque industrial automobilístico brasileiro, por meio de estudos de caso, com a finalidade de se constatar a possibilidade de haver uma tendência à formação de uma nova tipologia relacional entre esses atores. Foram realizadas visitas técnicas em 14 empresas fornecedoras de montadoras, para levantamento de informações acerca das principais características estruturais e da relação entre montadora e fornecedor na indústria automobilística brasileira. As entrevistas foram realizadas com profissionais em nível gerencial ou de diretoria das áreas de produção, logística e suprimentos, desenvolvimento de produto e processo, compras e recursos humanos. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as relações dependem de características institucionais do fornecedor, da complexidade da tecnologia dos componentes, da capacidade produtiva e da história das relações entre cliente e fornecedor. Foi possível concluir também que as relações entre cliente e fornecedor nas empresas pesquisadas estão mais próximas das características de um modelo associativo, com relações contratuais de longo prazo e grande interdependência, mas o preço ainda é utilizado como o principal critério ganhador de pedido na seleção de fornecedores pelas montadoras.New forms of relationship and transaction between

  3. A regionalização intramunicipal do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS: um estudo de caso do município de São Paulo-SP, Brasil The intramunicipal regionalization of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS: a case study in the city of São Paulo (SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Spedo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A regionalização tem sido apontada como um dos principais desafios para viabilizar a equidade e a integralidade do SUS. Este artigo tem como objetivo avaliar o processo de implementação de um projeto de organização de regiões de saúde no município de São Paulo. Para tanto, foi realizado um estudo de caso em uma região selecionada desse município, a partir do referencial da análise de implantação, utilizando-se como fonte de dados documentos da gestão e entrevistas semiestruturadas com informantes-chave da gestão municipal 2005-2008. A análise temática evidenciou que o projeto de regionalização idealizado no início da gestão não foi efetivamente implementado. Dentre os fatores que interferiram nesse insucesso, destacam-se: a a Secretaria Municipal de Saúde (SMS, além de seu caráter centralizador, manteve estruturas político-administrativas independentes para a gestão da atenção básica e da assistência hospitalar; b a SMS não assumiu a gestão, de fato, de ambulatórios e hospitais estaduais; c o poder institucional e a resistência dos hospitais em se integrar ao sistema de saúde. Discute-se, ainda, a necessidade de avançar na descentralização intramunicipal do SUS e buscar novas estratégias para a construção de pactos que consigam superar as resistências e articular instituições historicamente consolidadas, visando uma regionalização cooperativa e solidária.Regionalization has been pointed out as one of the most important challenges concerning the achievement of integrality and equity in the Brazilian National Health System (SUS. This study aims to evaluate the implementation process of a regional health project in the city of São Paulo. A case study was carried out in a selected region in the city based on the implementation assessment methodology. The data sources were management reports and interviews with key informants, and the period of analysis was 2005-2008. The thematic analysis showed

  4. A prática do parto humanizado no SUS: estudo comparativo - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1108 The practice of humanized delivery in the Brazilian Health System (SUS: a comparative study - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v28i1.1108

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Terezinha Martins Ribeiro

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo descritivo foi realizado em maternidades que prestam atendimento pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS, nas cidades de Guarapuava e Londrina, Estado do Paraná. Dentro do programa de Humanização implantado na Maternidade de Londrina pretendeu-se analisar o atendimento a parturiente quanto à humanização ao parto comparando com a realidade de dois hospitais de Guarapuava onde não existe o programa implantado e assim verificar se os direitos destas parturientes quanto à humanização estão sendo respeitados. Foi aplicado um questionário a 40 primíparas no puerpério imediato com perguntas semi-estruturadas. Ao comparar duas realidades diferentes, concluiu-se que alguns dos direitos das parturientes preconizados pela OMS não estavam sendo respeitados, especialmente onde não havia a implantação do parto humanizado, pois não era permitida a entrada de acompanhante e nem utilizadas técnicas de relaxamento para a parturiente, evidenciando assim que algumas instituições necessitam intensificar esses cuidados para melhorar a qualidade do atendimento prestadoThis descriptive study was conducted in maternities assisted by the Brazilian Health System (SUS, in the cities of Guarapuava and Londrina, State of Paraná. In the program implanted in Londrina, the aim was to analyze the assistance to the parturient regarding humanization to the child delivery. This context was then compared with the reality in the maternities of two hospitals in Guarapuava, where these practices are not applied. The comparison intended to verify if the rights of these women to humanized delivery are being respected. A half-structured questionnaire was applied to forty women in labor. While comparing these two different realities, it was observed that a few of these rights, advocated by the OMS, were not being respected, especially where the humanization delivery was not a practice. Data revealed that the partner’s entrance was not allowed, neither

  5. Frequency of the deltaF508 mutation in 108 cystic fibrosis patients in São Paulo: comparison with reported Brazilian data Freqüência da mutação deltaF508 em 108 pacientes com fibrose cística de São Paulo: comparação com dados de estudos brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Suely Okay

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To analyze the frequency of the delta F508 (deltaF508 deletion mutation in 108 unrelated cystic fibrosis patients and compare the results with the previously reported data for Brazilian patients. Cystic fibrosis is the leading cause of genetic disease in Caucasians, and the deltaF508 deletion is the most common mutation associated with the disease. METHOD: The frequency of the deltaF508 mutation was assessed by means of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by detection in 8% silver-stained polyacrylamide gels. RESULTS: Twenty-three of 108 patients (21.3% were homozygous for the deltaF508 deletion, 50 were heterozygous (46.3%, and the remaining 35 (32.4% were non-carriers. In terms of alleles, there were 96 mutated (96/216 or 44.45% and 120 wild-type ones (120/216 or 55.5%. CONCLUSION: The 44.45% of affected alleles that were found is higher than the 33% first described in 1993, but slightly lower than the 48% recently reported. Moreover, our data corroborated the idea that the frequency of the deltaF508 mutation is lower in Brazil in comparison to that found in studies carried out in Europe and North American (circa 70.0%, probably due to increased racial miscegenation. These findings must be taken into account before any genetic screening of the population is proposed in Brazil.OBJETIVO: Analisar a freqüência da mutação delta F508 (deltaF508 em 108 pacientes não aparentados, com fibrose cística e comparou os resultados com os dados de outros estudos brasileiros. A fibrose cística (CF constitui a doença genética mais comum em populações caucasianas, sendo a deltaF508 a mais freqüente dentre as mutações relacionadas à doença. MÉTODO: A freqüência da deltaF508 foi analisada por meio da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR seguida de detecção em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%. RESULTADOS: Vinte e três dos 108 pacientes foram homozigotos para a mutação (21,3%, 50 foram heterozigotos (46,3% e os 35 restantes n

  6. Estudos de prevalência da brucelose bovina no âmbito do Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação de Brucelose e Tuberculose: Introdução Prevalence studies on bovine brucelosis according to Brazilian National Program for the Control and Eradication of Bovine Brucellosis and Tuberculosis: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poester

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available As estratégias de combate à brucelose bovina são bastante conhecidas e, até o momento, os resultados são divergentes. No Brasil, o Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA implementou, em 2001, o Programa Nacional de Controle e Erradicação da Brucelose e Tuberculose. Conhecer a situação epidemiológica da brucelose no início de um programa de controle permite: 1 - escolher as melhores estratégias de controle em função da frequência e padrão de distribuição da doença na população e 2 - acompanhar o programa com a finalidade de promover correções e evitar o desperdício de tempo e de recursos. Em razão disso, é necessário realizar estudos para dar suporte à escolha das melhores estratégias para os vários estados e regiões brasileiras e criar um mecanismo racional de verificação da efetividade das ações implementadas. Para tanto, o MAPA estabeleceu um Termo de Cooperação Técnica com a Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária da Universidade de São Paulo e envolveu também a Faculdade de Agronomia e Veterinária da Universidade de Brasília. Até o momento, foram concluídos os estudos de 15 unidades federativas, cujos resultados são apresentados nos artigos subsequentes. Além disso, há um 16º artigo que explora o impacto da vacinação de bezerras com a B19 na redução da prevalência da brucelose.Although strategies for controlling and eradicating of bovine brucellosis are well known, the achievements vary widely. In 2001, the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food Supply (MAPA started a new National Program for the Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis (NPCEBT. In the beginning of a brucellosis control program, it is of utmost importance to gain insights into the epidemiological status of the disease in order to: (1 determine the sanitary measures according to the frequency and distribution patterns of the disease in the population; (2 monitor the development

  7. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  8. Disponibilidade de nitrato em solos brasileiros sob efeito da calagem e de fontes e doses de nitrogênio Nitrate availability in Brazilian soils under effect of liming and sources and amounts of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS ALBERTO SILVA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos da calagem e de fontes e doses de N sobre a disponibilidade de nitrato, em amostras (020 cm de solos brasileiros. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos: um com cinco solos da Bahia e o outro com cinco solos de Minas Gerais. Os materiais de solo foram previamente umedecidos e incubados por sete dias, a 26°C, visando ativar a flora microbiana. Nas amostras de solo da Bahia, aplicou-se a uréia ou o sulfato de amônio nas concentrações de 50, 100, 150 e 200 mg de N por kg de solo e nas de Minas Gerais, foi avaliado o efeito da calagem sobre a nitrificação. Os materiais de solo foram incubados a 26°C por 15 dias. Independentemente da dose de N aplicada, auréia nitrificou mais rapidamente do que o sulfato de amônio. Na Areia Quartzosa não foi observada nitrificação líquida do Nsulfato de amônio, sendo constatada, porém, a oxidação do Nuréia. A calagem afetou a nitrificação, notando-se nos solos que receberam calcário maior disponibilidade de nitrato. A saturação por bases e o teor de matéria orgânica apresentaram, respectivamente, a melhor correlação com o nitrato formado e os teores de uréia presentes no solo ao término da incubação.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of liming and sources and doses of nitrogen on nitrate availability in Brazilian soils. Two experiments were carried out: one with five soils from Bahia State and the other with five soils from Minas Gerais State. Soil samples were previously moistened and incubated at 26°C in order to activate the microorganism population. Soil samples from Bahia State were incubated with50, 100, 150 e 200 mg of N per kg of soil as ammonium sulfate or urea and in the Minas Gerais soils it was evaluated the effect of liming on nitrification. Soil samples were incubated at 26°C during 15 days. Urea nitrified faster than ammonium sulfate. The sandy soil did not exhibit net nitrification following ammonium application, but

  9. Feasibility study of the immunogenicity and safety of a novel DTPw/Hib (PRP-T Brazilian combination compared to a licensed vaccine in healthy children at 2, 4, and 6 months of age Estudo de viabilidade de imunogenicidade e segurança de uma nova vacina brasileira combinada DTPw/Hib (PRP-T, comparada com uma vacina registrada, em crianças de 2, 4 e 6 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SueAnn Costa Clemens

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination of infants with conjugated Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines has been proven to reduce Hib meningitis by 95% and pneumoniae by 20%. The routine use of Hib vaccine is facilitated by the introduction of combination vaccines into the EPI (Expanded Plan of Immunization. The objective of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of an extemporaneously mixed DTPw/Hib (diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis combination, using the technology of two Brazilian manufacturers, against a licensed DTPw/Hib European combination in 108 infants vaccinated at 2, 4 and 6 months according to the local national schedule. The Brazilian combination was highly immunogenic with Hib seroprotection rates (anti-PRP > 0.15 mg /ml of 98% after 2 doses and 100% after 3. Also for tetanus and pertussis the new Brazilian combination was as immunogenic as the European counterpart, except the diphtheria seroprotection rates and titers were lower. There was also no clinically relevant difference in reactogenicity. If these feasibility results are confirmed, the Brazilian DTPw/Hib combination should help to boost the uptake of Hib vaccination in Brazil.A vacinação contra (Haemophilus influenzae tipo b (Hib, utilizando vacinas conjugadas, provou reduzir em 95% os casos de meningite e em 20% as pneumonias por Hib. O uso rotineiro da vacina Hib foi facilitado pela introdução das vacinas combinadas no Programa Ampliado de Imunização (PAI. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a imunogenicidade e reatogenicidade da mistura extemporânea da vacina combinada contra difteria-tétano-pertussis de células inteiras/Haemophilus influenzae (DTPw/Hib, de tecnologia e produção de 2 fabricantes brasileiros, à vacina européia registrada DTPw/Hib. Estudo realizado em 108 crianças em idade de 2, 4 e 6 meses, seguindo o esquema nacional de imunização. A vacina combinada brasileira foi altamente imunogênica, apresentando taxas de soroprote

  10. Study of oil diesel degradation in soil using oxidative advanced processes; Estudo da degradacao do oleo diesel em solo utilizando processos oxidativos avancados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Suenia S.; Silva, Valdinete L. da; Motta, Mauricio da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Silva, Paula Tereza de S. e; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2004-07-01

    Recently it comes if observing several accidents during the exploration, refinement, transport and operation of storage of petroleum and yours derived, such as the diesel oil and the gasoline. In this paper We do a study of the degradation of the diesel oil in a characteristic soil of the state of Pernambuco using peroxide of hydrogen and Fenton reagent. Those two processes are based on the generation of the radical hydroxyl (OH.) that has to can oxidizer loud capable to promote the destruction of recalcitrant organic compositions. The studied soil has about 16,5{+-}0,3 g/kg of total organic carbon. A factorial planning was accomplished 2{sup 3} with 2 repetitions in the central point with the objective of finding the best conditions of degradation of the pollutant. The variables and the studied levels were: FeSO{sub 4} - 0,18 M (0, 4 and 8 Ml); pH (3; without adjustment and without adjustment) and Time of exhibition in the sun (8; 12 and 16:00). The volumes of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used in the rehearsals were constant, being 80 mL. Soon afterwards it accomplished a fractional experimental planning 2{sup 3-1}, repeating the variables of the first planning, they put using a smaller volume of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, 40 mL, to evaluate the influence of the amount of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} used about the degradation of the diesel oil. The mass of the soil used in each experiment was of 5 g. It was observed that there were not significant differences in the degradation in relation to the peroxide volume. The best found degradation was around 87% in the following conditions (4 mL of Faith, without pH adjustment, Time of exhibition in the sun of 12:00 and 80 ml of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). That found degradation was quite satisfactory being still due to study more economical conditions. (author)

  11. Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For Austria there exists a comprehensive soil data collection, integrated in a GIS (geographical information system). The content values of pollutants (cadmium, mercury, lead, copper, mercury, radio-cesium) are given in geographical charts and in tables by regions and by type of soil (forests, agriculture, greenland, others) for the whole area of Austria. Erosion effects are studied for the Austrian region. Legal regulations and measures for an effective soil protection, reduction of soil degradation and sustainable development in Austria and the European Union are discussed. (a.n.)

  12. The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders: recruitment, assessment instruments, methods for the development of multicenter collaborative studies and preliminary results Consórcio Brasileiro de Pesquisa em Transtornos do Espectro Obsessivo-Compulsivo: recrutamento, instrumentos de avaliação, métodos para o desenvolvimento de estudos colaborativos multicêntricos e resultados preliminares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euripedes Constantino Miguel

    2008-09-01

    of 35 years, onset of obsessive-compulsive symptoms at 13 years of age, mild to moderate severity, mostly of symmetry, contamination/cleaning and comorbidity with depressive disorders. The Brazilian Research Consortium on Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorders has established an important network for standardized collaborative clinical research in obsessive-compulsive disorder and may pave the way to similar projects aimed at integrating other research groups in Brazil and throughout the world.OBJETIVO: Descrever o recrutamento de pacientes, instrumentos de avaliação, métodos para o desenvolvimento de estudos colaborativos multicêntricos e os resultados preliminares do Consórcio Brasileiro de Pesquisa em Transtornos do Espectro Obsessivo-Compulsivo, que inclui sete centros universitários. MÉTODO: Este estudo transversal incluiu entrevistas semi-estruturadas (dados sociodemográficos, histórico médico e psiquiátrico, curso da doença e diagnósticos psiquiátricos comórbidos e instrumentos que avaliam os sintomas do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (Escala para Sintomas Obsessivo-Compulsivos de Yale-Brown e Escala Dimensional para Sintomas Obsessivo-Compulsivos de Yale-Brown, sintomas depressivos (Inventário de Depressão de Beck, sintomas ansiosos (Inventário de Ansiedade de Beck, fenômenos sensoriais (Escala de Fenômenos Sensoriais da Universidade de São Paulo, juízo crítico (Escala de Avaliação de Crenças de Brown, tiques (Escala de Gravidade Global de Tiques de Yale e qualidade de vida (questionário genérico de avaliação de qualidade de vida, Medical Outcome Quality of Life Scale Short-form-36 e Escala de Avaliação Social. O treinamento dos avaliadores consistiu em assistir cinco entrevistas filmadas e entrevistar cinco pacientes junto com um pesquisador mais experiente, antes de entrevistar pacientes sozinhos. A confiabilidade entre todos os líderes de grupo para os instrumentos mais importantes (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM

  13. Attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain: a cross-sectional study Atitudes e crenças de fisioterapeutas brasileiros em relação à dor lombar crônica: um estudo transversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício O. Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To measure the attitudes and beliefs of Brazilian physical therapists about chronic low back pain and to identify the sociodemographic characteristics that are more likely to influence these attitudes and beliefs. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study with 100 Brazilian physical therapists who routinely work with chronic low back pain patients. The attitudes and beliefs were measured by the Pain Attitudes and Beliefs Scale for Physiotherapists (PABS.PT and the Health Care Providers' Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS. Multivariate linear regression models were built to identify sociodemographic characteristics that could be associated with physical therapists' attitudes and beliefs. RESULTS: Mean scores on the biomedical and biopsychosocial factors of PABS.PT were 27.06 (SD 7.19 and 24.34 (SD 6.31, respectively, and the mean score on HC-PAIRS was 45.45 (SD 10.45. The score on PABS.PTbiomedical was associated with gender and years of professional experience. No variable was associated with the score on PABS.PTbiopsychosocial. The score on HC-PAIRS was significantly associated with the number of back pain patients seen by the physical therapist each month. These results indicate that male and less experienced physical therapists tend to follow a biomedical approach to the treatment of chronic low back pain patients, and that the lower the professional experience the stronger the belief in the relationship between pain and disability. CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian physical therapists are uncertain of the factors involved in the development and maintenance of chronic low back pain and about the relationship between pain and disability in these patients.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as atitudes e crenças de fisioterapeutas brasileiros sobre a dor lombar crônica e identificar características sociodemográficas que as influenciam. MÉTODOS: Este estudo transversal incluiu 100 fisioterapeutas brasileiros que atendem pacientes com dor

  14. Evaluation of mobility potential of {sup 90}Sr in Brazilian soils; Avaliacao do potencial de mobilidade do {sup 90}Sr em solos brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez

    2007-07-01

    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of {sup 90}Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with {sup 90}Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT{sub corn}: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT{sub radish}: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT {sub cabbage}: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great {sup 90}Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and

  15. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  16. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  17. Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e equidade no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005 Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y equidad en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005 Longitudinal study of quality and equity in the Brazilian elementary education: GERES 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Creso Franco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta o relato do desenho metodológico do "Estudo longitudinal sobre qualidade e eficácia no ensino fundamental brasileiro: GERES 2005". O GERES ainda está em desenvolvimento e sua principal característica é o acompanhamento de uma mesma amostra de alunos dos anos iniciais do ensino fundamental ao longo de quatro anos. Cinco cidades participam do estudo, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. O estudo começou em 2005 e envolve a aplicação de testes cognitivos em Leitura e em Matemática, bem como questionários contextuais para alunos, professores e diretores das escolas participantes. A Teoria de Resposta ao Item Paramétrica tem sido utilizada com o propósito de equalização das escalas para os diferentes níveis de escolarização (anos ou seus equivalentes, de modo que seja possível obter uma curva de crescimento da proficiência ao longo do tempo para cada aluno observado. O GERES tem como objetivo central investigar quais práticas pedagógicas e condições escolares contribuem para a promoção da eficácia e da eqüidade escolar, tendo como principal abordagem analítica a utilização de modelos multiníveis.Este artículo presenta relato del diseño metodológico del "Estudio longitudinal sobre cualidad y eficacia en la enseñanza fundamental brasileña: GERES 2005". El GERES aún está en desenvolvimiento y su principal característica es el acompañamiento de una misma muestra de alumnos de los años iniciales de la enseñanza fundamental al longo de cuatro años. Cinco ciudades participan del estudio, a saber: Belo Horizonte (MG, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Salvador (BA, Campinas (SP e Campo Grande (MS. El estudio comenzó en 2005 y envuelve la aplicación de testes cognitivos en Lectura y en Matemática, bien como cuestionarios contextuales para alumnos, profesores y directores de las escuelas participantes. La Teoría de Respuesta al Ítem Param

  18. Desnutrição e excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes: uma revisão de estudos brasileiros Desnutrición y exceso de peso en niños y adolescentes: una revisión de estudios brasileños Malnutrition and excess weight in children and adolescents: a review of Brazilian studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sá Leal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura brasileira sobre a prevalência e os fatores associados ao déficit de estatura e ao excesso de peso em crianças e adolescentes de cinco a 19 anos. FONTES DE DADOS: A pesquisa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed e Bireme, utilizando-se os seguintes descritores: "desnutrição", "déficit estatural", "obesidade", "sobrepeso", "IMC", "criança", "escolar", "adolescente" e "Brasil". Foram considerados os seguintes critérios de seleção: artigo original de base populacional, avaliação dos fatores associados por meio de análise estatística de regressão, e artigos publicados entre 2000 e 2010. SINTESE DOS DADOS: No que se refere ao déficit estatural, apenas dois estudos atenderam aos critérios estabelecidos, apresentando variações de 3,5 a 16,7%, com indicação da condição social e da escolaridade dos jovens como fatores associados. Dos 12 estudos que investigaram o excesso de peso, 67% foram realizados na região Sul do Brasil e nenhum incluiu o Norte do país. A maioria apresentou delineamento transversal. As prevalências variaram de 13,9 a 38,9%, sendo os principais fatores associados: padrões socioeconômicos, influência familiar e estilo de vida sedentário. CONCLUSÕES: As associações das variáveis renda e nível de escolaridade com o déficit de estatura e com o sobrepeso, embora com tendências opostas, chamam a atenção. Sugere-se a realização de mais estudos, em especial nas regiões Norte e Nordeste do Brasil.OBJETIVO: Revisar la literatura brasileña de 2001 a 2010 sobre las prevalencias y los factores asociados al déficit de estatura y al exceso de peso en niños y adolescentes de cinco a 19 años. FUENTES DE DATOS: La investigación fue realizada en las bases de datos Pubmed y Bireme, utilizándose los descriptores a continuación: «desnutrición», «déficit estatural», «obesidad», «sobrepeso», «IMC», «niño», «escolar», «adolescente», «Brasil» y

  19. Formation and bio release of bound residues of [14 C]-lindane and [14 C]-parathion in two Brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work studied the extractable and bound residues formation of 14 C-lindane and 14 C-parathion immediately after application and after 3 months of interaction of the pesticides with the soils. Metabolism, bio release, and the possible bioavailability of bound residues were studied by employing bio meter flasks which allowed a relative comparison of the behaviour of the two different 14 C-pesticides, by a balance of the applied or present radiocarbon in the soils after the bio tests. (author)

  20. SOIL EMISSIONS OF N2O, NO AND CO2 IN BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS: EFFECTS OF VEGETATION TYPE, SEASONALITY, AND PRESCRIBED FIRES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using closed chamber techniques, soil fluxes of NO, N20 and C02 were measured from September 1999 through October 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) subjected to prescribed fires. Our studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto sensu (20-50% canopy cov...

  1. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Pinto Mariano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments. In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was carried out through biostimulation (addition of nitrogen and phosphorus solutions or Tween 80 surfactant and bioaugmentation (bacterial consortium isolated from a landfarming system. To investigate interactions between optimizing factors, and to find the right combination of these agents, the study was based on full factorial experimental design. Efficiency of biodegradation was simultaneously measured by two methods: respirometric (microbial CO2 production and gas chromatography. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia similis were applied for examination of the efficiency of the processes in terms of the generation of less toxic products. Results showed that all bioremediation strategies enhanced the natural bioremediation of the contaminated soil and the best results were obtained when treatments had nutritional amendment. Respirometric data indicated a maximum hydrocarbon mineralization of 19.8%, obtained through the combination of the three agents, with a total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH removal of 45.5% in 55 days of treatment. At the end of the experiments, two predominant bacteria species were isolated and identified (Staphylococcus hominis and Kocuria palustris.O objetivo do presente estudo foi investigar possíveis métodos para aumentar a taxa de biodegradação aeróbia de hidrocarbonetos (tratamentos ex-situ. Neste trabalho, processos de biorremediação foram aplicados a um solo arenoso com alto nível de contaminação ocasionada por um vazamento de

  2. Estudo da erosão na microbacia do Ceveiro (Piracicaba, SP: II - Interpretação da tolerância de perda de solo utilizando o método do Índice de Tempo de Vida Erosion study in the Ceveiro watershed (Piracicaba, SP: II - Interpreting soil loss tolerance using the Soil Useful Life Index methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara de Andrade Marinho Weill

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A erosão acelerada do solo, um processo basicamente induzido pela ação antrópica, muito contribui para a degradação da qualidade das terras aráveis em todo o mundo, além de constituir a principal fonte não pontual de poluição dos recursos hídricos superficiais. Considerando a demanda efetiva pelo desenvolvimento de indicadores para avaliação do impacto da erosão na qualidade do solo em sistemas de produção agrícola, este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver um índice, com valor prognóstico, para ser aplicado como uma ferramenta de planejamento na interpretação da tolerância de perda de solo em áreas agrícolas. Foi desenvolvido o método designado "Índice de Tempo de Vida do Solo", para se proceder ao diagnóstico da erosão em uma área predominantemente utilizada com a cultura da cana-de-açúcar no município de Piracicaba (SP. Na realização do trabalho, foram empregados geotécnicas e métodos de análise geoestatística, sendo o processamento e a análise dos dados efetivados em ambiente de sistema de informação geográfica do tipo matricial. As taxas anuais médias de perda de solo foram estimadas em trabalho anterior, empregando a equação universal de perda de solo (EUPS, com ajuste dos fatores do modelo às condições locais da área de estudo. Nos cálculos do índice de tempo de vida do solo, foi presumida uma taxa de renovação de 0,2 mm ano-1 e foram analisadas duas profundidades, de 50 e de 100 cm, consideradas mínimas para o uso agrícola. A avaliação da espessura do solum revelou que, na área de estudo, predominam solos pouco profundos, com médias ponderadas pelas áreas de ocorrência de 78 cm, solos ocupados com cana-de-açúcar, e de 72 cm, solos ocupados com outros usos. A aplicação do índice de tempo de vida revelou que, adotando a profundidade crítica de 50 cm, o tempo de vida médio do solo nas áreas ocupadas com cana-de-açúcar é de 178 anos, e que, mantida a expectativa atual

  3. Estudo epidemiológico da febre purpúrica brasileira: epidemia em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil, 1986 Brazilian purpuric fever: an epidemiological study of an outbreak in the locality of the S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia R.S. Kerr-Pontes

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se um surto de febre purpúrica brasileira ocorrido em Serrana, SP (Brasil em 1986 e sua associação com conjuntivite purulenta, aglomeração e sintomas respiratórios. Foi adotado o modelo de estudo, caso-controle. Chamou-se caso confirmado o paciente que satisfizesse um conjunto de critérios tendo "score" maior ou igual a 12 pontos, e caso suspeito "score" entre 8 e 12 (o "score" foi efetuado usando-se o seguinte critério: ocorrência de febre, igual a 5 pontos; diarréia e/ou vômitos igual a 1; fenômenos hemorrágicos igual a 3; plaquetopenia e/ou leucopenia igual a 3; hemocultura e/ou líquor e/ou cultura de orofaringe positiva para Haemophylus aegyptius igual a 7; síndrome de Waterhouse Friedrichsen igual a 7. Tomou-se como controle crianças com "score" menor do que 5. O controle foi pareado com o caso segundo as variáveis idade, sexo e condição sócio-econômica. Levantaram-se informações sobre 14 casos confirmados, 38 suspeitos e 78 controles. Concluiu-se que a febre purpúrica brasileira apresentou forte associação com conjuntivite purulenta pregressa e/ou atual; parece haver associação entre aglomeração e febre purpúrica e que os sintomas respiratórios como tosse e/ou coriza não estão a ela associados, pelo menos na população estudada.A case control model was used in the study of an outbreak of Brazilian purpuric fever BPF which occurred in Serrana, S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1986. Three hypotheses were raised: 1 - purulent conjunctivitis is associated with BPF; 2 - a cluster effect accurs in BPF; 3 - respiratory symptoms may be a variation of the clinical picture of the disease. Numerical values were attributed to different findings, as follows: fever = 5; diarrhea and/or vomiting = 1; haemorrhagic findings = 3; thrombocytopenia and/or leukopenia = 3; Haemophilus aegyptius positive hemoculture and/or Haemophilus aegyptius positive cerebrospinal fluid culture and/or H. a. oropharynx culture = 7

  4. Um estudo dos relatos afetivos subjetivos a estímulos do International Affective Picture System em uma amostra geriátrica brasileira Subjective affective ratings to photographic stimuli of the International Affective Picture System in a Brazilian elderly sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyler Galvão Porto

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A literatura científica indica a possibilidade de a percepção da emoção e a formação da memória emocional serem discordantes entre jovens e idosos. A mesma é pobre ao explorar essa possibilidade. Neste estudo, relatamos os resultados obtidos em um experimento-piloto com uma amostra de idosos brasileiros, que classificaram subjetivamente, através da escala Self Assessment Manikin, imagens oriundas do International Affective Picture System. MÉTODO: Quarenta e oito idosos voluntários da Universidade Aberta da Terceira Idade, saudáveis clínica e cognitivamente, avaliaram o caráter alertante e a valência afetiva de 71 imagens do International Affective Picture System, aleatoriamente escolhidas. RESULTADOS: O grau de alerta reportado por idosos diante de um estímulo emocional é tanto maior quanto menor o prazer provocado por essa imagem-estímulo, resultando na existência de uma forte correlação negativa (r = 0,93 entre o grau de alerta e o estímulo desprazeroso. Em uma comparação do acima obtido com outro experimento normativo semelhante feito com jovens brasileiros e americanos, apontou-se para uma possível diferença cultural na forma de relatar subjetivamente um estímulo emocional. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados obtidos com esta amostra estudada sugerem que pode existir uma diferença nos relatos afetivos entre os jovens e idosos, onde uma normatização do International Affective Picture System para uma amostra maior, representativa da população de idosos, seria útil para responder esta questão.INTRODUCTION: The scientific literature points to a possible bias in the form perception and emotional memory are constructed when elderly and young individuals are compared. However, this possibility is underexplored. This paper presents the results obtained from a pilot study based on an elderly emotional subjective report after evaluation using the International Affective Picture System images and Self Assessment

  5. Interferência do tipo de má oclusão nas medidas dos movimentos mandibulares: um estudo realizado com o apoio do exército brasileiro Interference of malocclusion types in mandibular movements measures: a study supported by the Brazilian army

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Luiza Taumaturgo Metzger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: correlacionar os diferentes tipos de má oclusões dentais com as medidas de lateralidade e protrusão mandibular e amplitude de abertura bucal de indivíduos adultos normais. MÉTODOS: neste estudo participaram 127 militares do sexo masculino que serviam no 21º Depósito de Suprimento do Exército Brasileiro em São Paulo, no ano de 2005, com idades entre 18 e 32 anos. Do total de militares, 47 (39,16% foram excluídos. Desse modo, a amostra final foi de 80 indivíduos os quais foram divididos em grupo controle (31 - 38,75% e grupo experimental (49 - 61,25%. Na avaliação, foi realizada uma breve anamnese e inspeção oral, com posterior medição dos movimentos mandibulares de abertura bucal, protrusão e lateralidade para direita e para esquerda. RESULTADOS: 69,38% de indivíduos portadores da má oclusão Classe I de Angle; 16,32% de Classe II-1; 6,12% de Classe II-2; 8,16% de Classe III. A medida de abertura de boca, relacionada com os tipos de má oclusão, não foi estatisticamente significante, apesar de terem sido obtidas as maiores medidas nos indivíduos portadores de Classe III. Já nas medidas de protrusão e lateralidade mandibular existiu uma diferença estatisticamente significante nos grupos de uma maneira em geral. 40,42% dos indivíduos apresentavam ausência de algum dente molar. CONCLUSãO: não houve relação entre a medida de abertura de boca com a presença de má oclusões. Entretanto, houve relação entre as medidas de protrusão e de lateralidade mandibular para a direita e para a esquerda com má oclusões.PURPOSE: to establish the relationship between different types of dental malocclusions and lateralization and protrusion measures and mouth opening in normal adult subjects. METHODS: it was made with 127 military men who served at the 21st Supply Deposit of Brazilian Army, in Sao Paulo, in 2005, with ages between 18 and 32 years. 47 subjects were excluded. Because of that, the final sample counted with

  6. Estudo cefalométrico das alturas faciais anterior e posterior, em crianças brasileiras, portadoras de má oclusão Classe I de Angle, na fase de dentadura mista Cephalometric study of the anterior and posterior facial heights in brazilian children, presenting Angle Class I malocclusion, in the mixed dentition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Locks

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo das alturas faciais anterior e posterior em 79 crianças brasileiras, sendo 46 do gênero feminino e 33 do masculino, com idades de 8 a 11 anos, portadoras de má oclusão Classe I de Angle, na fase de dentadura mista, não submetidas a tratamento ortodôntico. Esta investigação utilizou duas radiografias cefalométricas em norma lateral, de cada criança, com intervalo de 8 a 16 meses entre uma radiografia e outra, para comparação dos dados cefalométricos. Foram estudadas as proporções faciais anteriores, ou seja, a relação entre as dimensões N-Me (AFT, N-ENA (AFS, ENA-Me (AFI e o relacionamento entre as dimensões Ar-GO (AFP e a distância entre o plano palatino ao mento (AFA , isto é, o Índice da Altura Facial (IAF. Os resultados obtidos, possibilitaram constatar que as tendências de crescimento foram equilibradas em todas as situações estudadas; a dimensão altura facial inferior, contribuiu de forma mais significativa, nas alterações observadas na altura facial total; as proporções faciais anteriores se mantiveram em torno de 42% para a altura facial superior e 58% para a altura facial inferior; o índice da altura facial ou se manteve constante em torno de 0,66 ou apresentou uma tendência a aumentar com a idade; não ocorreu dimorfismo sexual com relação às proporções faciais e índice da altura facial.The objective of this study was to evaluate the anterior and posterior facial heights in 79 non orthodontic brazilian children, 46 females and 33 males, from 8 to 11 years old, presenting Angle Class I malocclusion, in the mixed dentition. Two lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken, with a time interval ranging from 8 to 16 months between radiographs in order to compare the cephalometric data. The anterior facial proportions were studied, based in following dimensions: N-Me (AFT, N-ENA (AFS e ENA-Me (AFI. The Facial Height Index (IAF was also evaluated taking in account the relationship

  7. Evolução das desigualdades sociais em saúde entre idosos e adultos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (PNAD 1998, 2003 Health inequality trends among Brazilian adults and old-aged: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD 1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se as desigualdades sociais em saúde de adultos (20-64 anos e idosos (> 65 anos brasileiros se alteraram entre 1998 e 2003. O estudo foi realizado em uma amostra de 203.455 e 239.700 participantes da PNAD 1998 e 2003, respectivamente. As condições de saúde e função física, uso de serviços de saúde e filiação a plano de saúde daqueles pertencentes ao quintil inferior da distribuição da renda domiciliar per capita foram comparadas às daqueles com renda mais alta, utilizando-se métodos multivariados de análise. Os resultados mostraram que nos dois anos considerados, os indivíduos no estrato mais baixo de renda apresentavam piores condições de saúde, pior função física e menor uso de serviços de saúde, tanto na faixa etária de 20-64 quanto na de > 65 anos de idade. As forças das associações entre renda domiciliar per capita, condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde não se modificaram entre 1998 e 2003, indicando que não houve alterações nas desigualdades sociais em saúde no período estudado. A persistência dessas desigualdades aponta para a ineficiência de políticas, nos últimos cinco anos, que as reduzissem.The aim of this study was to verify whether health inequalities among Brazilian adults (20-64 years and old-aged (> 65 years have changed from 1998 to 2003. The study was conducted in samples of 203.455 and 239.700 participants of the National Household Sample Survey in 1998 and 2003 respectively. The health characteristics of those in the lower quintile of the per capita family income were compared to those with higher income by means of multivariate analysis methods. The characteristics considered in this study were health conditions and physical functioning, use of medical and dental services and health plan affiliation. The results from both years showed poorer health conditions, poorer physical functioning and less use of medical and dental services

  8. Governança e a lógica das associações de interesse privado: um estudo de caso da Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Massas Alimentícias (ABIMA Governance and strategy of Private Interest Associations: a case study of the Brazilian Pasta Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Antonio Pinheiro Machado Filho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo analisa as características e objetivos das associações de interesse privado (AIP, destacando o papel coordenador deste tipo de organização no sentido de buscar criar e defender margens para seus associados. São destacadas as mudanças no papel do Estado e das empresas e, como decorrência, a necessidade de repensar a estrutura e a própria missão das associações, visando sua adequação a um novo ambiente institucional. Outro aspecto central relaciona-se com os mecanismos de governança em associações de interesse privado. O artigo destaca desafios no alinhamento de interesses entre os componentes das associações. A dificuldade em avaliar a eficiência dos gestores é devida à falta de informações claras e de conhecimento específico, já que a avaliação dos resultados é em grande parte intangível e são raros os indicadores que possibilitam a comparação com outras organizações. As associações de interesse privado possuem características idiossincráticas, sendo difícil a parametrização de indicadores de eficiência, em razão das especificidades próprias de cada organização. O trabalho destaca um estudo de caso de uma associação ligada ao sistema agroindustrial brasileiro, a Associação Brasileira das Indústrias de Massas Alimentícias (ABIMA, analisando um processo de gestão estratégica implementado na organização com o objetivo de um alinhamento de interesses em torno de um conjunto específico de projetos estratégicos priorizados.Characteristics and objectives of Private Interest Associations, PIA, were analyzed to highlight their coordination in creating and defending actions of benefit to associates. Changes in public and private organization roles were identified in view of the need to examine the structure and mission of these associations for better adaptation to the new institutional environment. PIA governance was then addressed as were the challenges of aligning member

  9. Tendências nas condições de saúde e uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998, 2003 Trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly: a study based on the National Household Sample Survey (1998, 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo verificar as tendências das condições de saúde e do uso de serviços de saúde entre idosos brasileiros, utilizando dados da Pesquisa Nacional por Amostras de Domicílios (PNAD. Foram incluídos no estudo 28.943 e 35.042 participantes das PNAD 1998 e 2003 com idade > 60 anos, respectivamente. Os resultados mostraram que houve melhora nas condições de saúde dos idosos nesse período, considerando-se indicadores como percepção da saúde, ter estado recentemente acamado, capacidade para realizar atividades da vida diária e número de doenças crônicas. Os resultados também monstraram que houve aumento do número de consultas médicas e odontológicas entre 1998 e 2003. Tais tendências foram consistentemente observadas em ambos os sexos. Os autores chamam a atenção para a importância do suplemento de saúde da PNAD como fonte de informação para o monitoramento e/ou vigilância das condições de saúde da população idosa brasileira.This study examined trends in health conditions and use of health services by the Brazilian elderly, based on health data from the National Household Sample Surveys (PNAD conducted in 1998 and 2003. 28,943 and 35,042 individuals aged > 60 years were included in the study, respectively. The results showed an improvement in health conditions in the study population during this period, as measured by self-rated health, having remained bedridden in the previous two weeks, ability to perform selected activities of daily living, number of chronic conditions, and self-reported arthritis. There was also an increase in the number of doctor and dentist visits from 1998 to 2003. The trends were consistent for both men and women. The results emphasize the importance of the PNAD health supplement as a source of information for the surveillance or monitoring of health and health-related conditions in the Brazilian elderly population.

  10. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  11. Qualidade da notificação de anomalias congênitas pelo Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC): estudo comparativo nos anos 2004 e 2007 Quality of birth defect reporting in the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC): a comparative study of 2004 and 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Varela Luquetti; Rosalina Jorge Koifman

    2010-01-01

    Este estudo comparou a validade dos diagnósticos de anomalias congênitas do Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos (SINASC), em oito hospitais distribuídos em sete municípios do Brasil, totalizando 27.945 nascidos vivos em 2004 e 25.905 em 2007. Além disso, descreveu ações específicas realizadas para o aprimoramento da qualidade dos dados desse campo. Para a análise da validade, foi utilizado o Estudo Colaborativo Latino-Americano de Malformações Congênitas (ECLAMC) como padrão-ouro. Em ...

  12. Parasite survey in mouse and rat colonies of Brazilian laboratory animal houses kept under differents sanitary barrier conditions Estudo de parasitos em colônias de ratos e de camundongos em biotérios brasileiros mantidos sob diferentes condições de barreiras sanitárias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gilioli

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A parasitological study was undertaken to determine the health status of 15 mouse and 10 rat colonies bred in 18 Brazilian laboratory animal houses maintained under different sanitary barrier conditions which supply animals for teaching, research purposes and manufacture of biological products for medical or veterinary use. Parasitological methods were used for diagnosis of mites, lices, helminthes and protozoan parasites. A questionnaire was answered by institutions with the intention to obtain information about the existence of barriers against infections and of regular sanitary monitoring program of their colonies. The questionnaire data show that the majority of the animal houses investigated do not possess an efficient sanitary barrier system able to keep animals under controlled health sanitary conditions. Ecto and endoparasite infections are widespread in the colonies and multiple infections were common in animals from most facilities investigated. The prevalences of parasites detected among the mouse and rat colonies of the laboratory animal houses investigated were: Myocoptes musculinus (46.6%, Myobia musculi (26.6%, Radfordia ensifera (13.3%, Syphacia obvelata (86.6%, Aspiculuris tetraptera (60.0%, Hymenolepis nana (53.3%, Spironucleus muris (80.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (66.0%, Entamoeba muris (20.0%, Eimeria sp. (13.3%, Hexamastix muris (26.6%, Poliplax spinulosa (30.0%, Poliplax serrata (10.0%, Radfordia ensifera (30.0%, Syphacia muris (80.0%, Hymenolepis nana (40.0%, Trichosomoides crassicauda (55.5%, Spironucleus muris (90.0%, Tritrichomonas muris (80.0%, Giardia muris (60.0%, Entamoeba muris (80.0%, Eimeria sp. (60.0% and Hexamastix muris (60.0%.Um estudo parasitológico foi realizado para verificar as condições de saúde de 15 colônias de camundongos e 10 colônias de ratos produzidos em 18 biotérios de instituições brasileiras que fornecem animais para ensino, pesquisa e produção de imunobiol

  13. Systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia in relation to body mass index: evaluation of a Brazilian population Hipertensão arterial, diabetes melito e dislipidemia de acordo com o índice de massa corpórea: estudo em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Cercato

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in a Brazilian population in relation to body mass index. METHOD: Retrospective evaluation of 1213 adults (mean age: 45.2 ± 12.8; 80.6% females divided into groups according to body mass index [normal (18.5 - 24.4 kg/m²; overweight (25 - 29.9 kg/m²; grade 1 obesity (30 - 34.9 kg/m²; grade 2 obesity (35 - 39.9 kg/m², and grade 3 obesity (> 40 kg/m²]. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were analyzed in each group. The severity of cardiovascular risk was determined. High-risk patients were considered those reporting 2 or more of the following factors: systemic hypertension, HDL 240 mg/dL, triglycerides > 200 mg/dL when HDL 126 mg/dL. Moderate-risk patients were those reporting 2 or more of the following factors: systemic hypertension, HDL 200 mg/dL, and total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL. RESULTS: The prevalence of systemic hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, and low HDL-cholesterol levels increased along with weight, but the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia did not. The odds ratio adjusted for gender and age, according to grade of obesity compared with patients with normal weight were respectively 5.9, 8.6, and 14.8 for systemic hypertension, 3.8, 5.8, and 9.2 for diabetes mellitus and 1.2, 1.3, and 2.6 for hypertriglyceridemia. We also verified that body mass index was positively related to cardiovascular high risk (P OBJETIVO: Determinar prevalência de hipertensão arterial, diabete melito, hipercolesterolemia e hipertrigliceridemia em uma população brasileira de acordo com grau de obesidade. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo em 1213 adultos (média de idade: 45,2 ± 12,8 anos; 80,6 % sexo feminino em grupos de acordo com índice de massa corpórea (normal:18,5-24,4 Kg/m2; sobrepeso 25-29,9 Kg/m2; obesidade classe1: 30-34,9 Kg/m2

  14. Atividade antimicrobiana in vitro de quinupristina/dalfopristina para cocos gram-positivos isolados de cinco centros brasileiros: resultado do estudo de vigilância L-SMART Antimicrobial in vitro activity of quinupristin/dalfopristin against gram-positive cocci isolated from 5 Brazilian centers: results from the local smart (L-SMART surveillance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Mendes

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Há alguns anos tem-se verificado um aumento progressivo da resistência de alguns cocos gram-positivos a determinados antimicrobianos. Este aumento da resistência tem sido observado principalmente no ambiente hospitalar, e as bactérias mais comumente envolvidas são os Staphylococcus spp. e os Enterococcus spp. Devido a este fato, novos antimicrobianos são avaliados para o tratamento de infecções causadas por estas cepas multirresistentes. A associação quinupristina/dalfopristina (Q/D, também conhecida como Synercid®, é um antibacteriano da classe das estreptograminas, de uso endovenoso, composto por dois derivados semi-sintéticos da pristinamicina. A combinação das estreptograminas B e A na razão de 30:70 tem atividade antimicrobiana voltada para cocos gram--positivos, como Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., incluindo S. pneumoniae e Enterococcus faecium, sendo o E. faecalis habitualmente resistente. Neste estudo foi avaliada a atividade in vitro de Q/D e outros oito antimicrobianos frente a 631 amostras de cocos gram-positivos isoladas de cinco centros brasileiros, complementadas com outras 20 cepas de E. faecium resistentes à vancomicina, provenientes dos Estados Unidos. Para a avaliação da sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos foi determinada a concentração inibitória mínima (MIC pelo método do Etest (AB Biodisk, Solna, Suécia e as cepas testadas foram: Staphylococcus aureus (n = 267, Staphylococcus coagulase negativo (n = 131, Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 130, Streptococcus beta-hemolíticos (n = 28, Enterococcus faecalis (n = 44 e E. faecium (n = 51. A Q/D demonstrou excelente atividade contra Staphylococcus spp., independente de serem sensíveis ou resistentes à oxacilina. Para S. pneumoniae, a Q/D apresentou igualmente uma ótima atividade, inclusive para as cepas com resistência intermediária ou total para penicilina. Entre as cepas de E. faecium sensíveis à vancomicina, o MIC90 de Q/D obtido foi de 3µg

  15. Lesões desportivas na elite do atletismo brasileiro: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Lesiones deportivas en la elite del atletismo brasileño: estudio a partir de morbilidad informada Sports injuries in Brazilian elite of the athletics: study based on referred morbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os processos de quantificação e associação das lesões do esporte aos seus possíveis fatores causais são importantes para melhor entendimento sobre assunto. Assim constituiu-se como objetivo do presente estudo a observação das lesões desportivas (LD em atletas da elite brasileira do atletismo, associando-as aos seus mecanismos de instalação e características da modalidade. Foram entrevistados 86 atletas (47 homens e 39 mulheres convocados para representar o Brasil durante o ano de 2003. Utilizou-se um inquérito de morbidade referida, validado anteriormente, para obtenção dos dados referentes aos atletas e suas lesões. Para a análise dos resultados adotou-se o teste de Goodman para contrastes entre e dentro de proporções binomiais, sendo todas as conclusões discutidas para 5% de significância estatística. Os resultados mostraram que há maior taxa de lesão por atleta (l/a, nas provas combinadas (3,5 l/a, seguidas por eventos de velocidade (2,6 l/a, resistência (1,9 l/a e saltos (1,9 l/a respectivamente. O principal mecanismo causal é a alta intensidade acometendo preferencialmente velocistas e fundistas. Outra forte associação foi observada entre lesões musculares e provas de velocidade, que também apresentam preferência para ocorrência de lesão na região da coxa. As atividades com elevada intensidade foram o principal responsável por lesões musculares, enquanto as osteoarticulares e tendinopatias ocorrem com excesso de repetições. Concluiu-se, a partir dos achados, que existem associações entre lesões e fatores causais, como entre provas e lesões, mecanismos de lesão e local anatômico.Los procesos de cuantificación y de asociación de las lesiones del deporte y sus posibles factores causales son importantes para un mejor entendimiento sobre el asunto. De esta manera se estarán contribuyendo como objetivo del presente estudio a la observación de las lesiones deportivas (LD en atletas de la elite

  16. Brazilian NORM Industries: Lessons and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several industries operating in Brazil are dealing with NORM, especially those related to the mining and beneficiation of tin, niobium and phosphate, and to oil exploration. The Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission has been investigating the larger industries in order to assess the extent of exposure of workers and members of the public from NORM. The paper presents the characteristics of Brazil’s larger NORM industries, as well as the methodologies used to evaluate the radiological impact associated with their operation. The results of radionuclide analyses of environmental samples collected on site at these facilities demonstrate the importance of developing guidelines, especially for soil remediation. Finally, the Brazilian regulations, the main advances, and the challenges facing NORM industries are briefly discussed. (author)

  17. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  18. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Guion-Almeida

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor. Estudo cromossômico mostrou cariótipo normal, 46,XY. Os achados são compatíveis com a síndrome de Say.

  19. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  20. um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Cátia Filipa Pereira da

    2011-01-01

    Dissertação apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Psicologia Jurídica As situações de abuso sexual de crianças nas quais o perpetrador pertence ao sexo feminino obtiveram ao longo dos últimos anos um acrescido reconhecimento por parte da comunidade científica, evidenciado pelo significativo incremento das investigações no âmbito desta temática consistindo na sua maioria estudos de caso. Um conjunto de particularidades encont...

  1. Estudo da relação pedomorfogeológica na distribuição de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico na paisagem de Lavras (MG Study of the relationship pedo-geomorphological in the soil distribution with argillic horizons in the landscape of Lavras (MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilusa Pinto Coelho Lacerda

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O entendimento das relações entre geologia, geomorfologia e pedologia auxilia nas atividades de classificação dos solos e na avaliação da distribuição pedológica de uma área. Este trabalho foi motivado pela escassez de estudos dessa natureza na região de Lavras (MG, onde ocorrem várias classes de solos, relacionados com a grande variedade petrológica do material de origem e com a ocorrência de domínios geomorfológicos distintos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as relações entre material de origem (relação pedogeológica, classes de relevo (relação pedogeomorfológica e solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico, visando propor um modelo da distribuição desses solos na paisagem de Lavras. Os solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico de ocorrência regional foram selecionados de acordo com o estádio de evolução, que permite preservar características das rochas parentais. Esses solos são desenvolvidos nessa região em relevos ondulados a forte ondulados, originando diferentes classes de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico relacionados ao material de origem. Para desenvolvimento deste estudo, foram realizadas a interpretação petrológica do substrato rochoso e a individualização do relevo, por meio de classes de declividade. Mediante campanhas de campo, foram selecionados e caracterizados perfis representativos das principais classes dos solos em estudo e foram avaliadas as relações pedogeológicas associadas às relações pedogeomorfológicas, permitindo a proposição de um modelo preditivo de distribuição de solos com horizontes B textural e B nítico na paisagem de Lavras (MG.The understanding of the relationships between geology, geomorphology and pedology underlies activities of soil classification and the evaluation of the pedological distribution of an area. This study was motivated by the lack of reports of this nature for the region of Lavras (MG, where several soil classes occur

  2. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND SILVICULTURAL ASPECTS OF BRAZILIAN PALMHEART (Euterpe edulis Martius PLANTED IN DIFFERENT TIPES OF CONSORTIUM IN LAVRAS – MINAS GERAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ramalho de Morais

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the initial growth of the Brazilian palmheart in agroforestry systems. Four treatments were selected: t1: Brazilian palmheart x hondurean pine; t2: Brazilian palmheart x eucalipto; t3: Brazilian palmheart x secondary forest; t4: Brazilian palmheart in full open conditions. Mensurations of the total height (H, “bold diameter” (DAC and number of leaves were done. The following evaluations have been made: luminosity, dry matter of the litter, density, moisture content and water avaibility in the soil. The results showed that treatment t1 was the most promising due to low relative luminosity index and soil water avaibility found in that treatment. The low values of H and DAC made unviable the introduction of the Brazilian palmheart in the treatments t2, t3 and t4. Luminosity and water deficit were the main factors limiting Brazilian palmheart growth.

  3. Dynamic of epigeous macrofauna under organic soil management in the Brazilian semi-arid regionDinâmica da macrofauna epígea sob manejo orgânico do solo no semi-árido brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Sampaio Pimentel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil macrofauna is responsible for soil fertility through cycling of nutrients, tillage and fragmentation of organic matter, as well as through the association between groups of fauna with conserved and/or degraded pedoenvironments. Nevertheless, under the conditions of the Brazilian semi-arid region, there is little information about this resource. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epigeous macrofauna in successive cropping using previous green manure and subsequent planting of melon (Cucumis melo L. in Juazeiro county, Bahia, Brazil. Sampling dates were undertaken in November 2007 and February, April and July 2008, using traps containing 4 % formaldehyde for seven days in plots of 64 m2. Results obtained indicate that there is no difference among the treatments with mixed cover crops, and epigeous macrofauna is influenced by the time of collection. Diversity and uniformity are inversely correlated with total density of epigeous macrofauna. Diversification of plant species favors the increase of diversity and uniformity of epigeous macrofauna. Formicidae, followed by Isopoda, Coleoptera and Oligochaeta are the groups of fauna most numerous in the areas. A macrofauna do solo é responsável pela melhoria da fertilidade do solo através da ciclagem de nutrientes, revolvimento e fragmentação da matéria orgânica, como também, pela associação entre grupos de fauna com pedoambientes conservados e/ou degradados. No entanto, nas condições de semi-árido brasileiro pouca informação se tem a respeito deste recurso. Neste sentido, na região do sub-médio do Rio São Francisco, pólo de desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada objetivou-se avaliar a macrofauna epígea em sucessão cultural utilizando prévia adubação verde e subseqüente plantio de melão (Cucumis melo L.. As coletas foram realizadas em novembro de 2007 e fevereiro, abril e julho de 2008 no município de Juazeiro, BA, utilizando armadilhas contendo formol 4

  4. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  5. Metodologia e perfil sociodemográfico, cognitivo e de fragilidade de idosos comunitários de sete cidades brasileiras: Estudo FIBRA Metodología y perfil sociodemográfico, cognitivo y de fragilidad de ancianos en comunidades desfavorecidas de siete ciudades brasileñas: Estudio FIBRA Methodology and social, demographic, cognitive, and frailty profiles of community-dwelling elderly from seven Brazilian cities: the FIBRA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eliane Catunda de Siqueira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Um estudo foi planejado para identificar condições de fragilidade em relação a variáveis sociodemográficas, de saúde, cognição, funcionalidade e psicossociais em idosos comunitários. Metodologia e dados preliminares são apresentados. Foram selecionados 3.478 idosos (65 anos e mais, integrantes de amostras probabilísticas de sete cidades brasileiras escolhidas por conveniência, participaram de sessão de coleta de dados, em ambiente comunitário. Predominaram as seguintes características: mulheres (67,7%, casados (48% ou viúvos (36,4%, vivendo com a família de filho/a (52,6%, chefes de família (64,5% e 1-4 anos de escolaridade (49%; 28,8% eram analfabetos e 24,8% tinham déficit cognitivo; 9,1% eram frágeis, 51,8% pré-frágeis e 39,1% não-frágeis. Houve mais frágeis entre as mulheres, os de 80 anos e mais, os viúvos, os analfabetos, os que nunca foram à escola e os com déficit cognitivo. Em geral, os dados sociodemográficos replicam os de estudos epidemiológicos brasileiros, e os de fragilidade, estado cognitivo e escolaridade, os da literatura internacional.Se planificó un estudio para identificar condiciones de fragilidad en relación con las variables sociodemográficas, de salud, cognición, funcionalidad y psicosociales en ancianos de comunidades desfavorecidas. En el estudio se presenta la metodología y datos preliminares. Fueron seleccionados 3.478 ancianos (65 años y más, integrantes de muestras probabilísticas de siete ciudades brasileñas, escogidas por conveniencia. En la sesión de recogida de datos participaron dentro de un ambiente de comunidades desfavorecidas. Predominaron las siguientes características: mujeres (67,7%, casados (48% o viudos (36,4%, viviendo con la familia de hijo/a (52,6%, jefes de familia (64,5% y 1-4 años de escolaridad (49%; un 28,8% eran analfabetos y un 24,8% tenían déficit cognitivo; un 9,1% eran enfermizos; un 51,8% pre-enfermizos y un 39,1% no enfermizos. Hubo m

  6. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  7. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  8. Manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose: estudo de trinta casos procedentes dos estados do Piauí e Maranhão Skin and mucous membrane manifestations of coccidioidomycosis: a study of thirty cases in the Brazilian states of Piauí and Maranhão

    OpenAIRE

    Antônio de Deus Filho; Antônio Castelo Branco de Deus; Alisson de Oliveira Meneses; Andressa Sobral Soares; Aécio Lopes de Araújo Lira

    2010-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: A coccidioidomicose é micose sistêmica usualmente manifesta como infecção benigna de resolução espontânea; porém, uma pequena proporção dos infectados desenvolve quadros progressivos potencialmente fatais, podendo atingir a pele com lesões pleomórficas disseminadas. OBJETIVOS: Identificar e descrever as manifestações cutâneo-mucosas da coccidioidomicose, as ocupações de risco relacionadas à doença e o quadro clínico associado. MÉTODOS: Estudo realizado entre os anos 2003 e 2006 e...

  9. Lesões desportivas na elite do atletismo brasileiro: estudo a partir de morbidade referida Lesiones deportivas en la elite del atletismo brasileño: estudio a partir de morbilidad informada Sports injuries in Brazilian elite of the athletics: study based on referred morbidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marcelo Pastre; Guaracy Carvalho Filho; Henrique Luiz Monteiro; Jayme Netto Júnior; Carlos Roberto Padovani

    2005-01-01

    Os processos de quantificação e associação das lesões do esporte aos seus possíveis fatores causais são importantes para melhor entendimento sobre assunto. Assim constituiu-se como objetivo do presente estudo a observação das lesões desportivas (LD) em atletas da elite brasileira do atletismo, associando-as aos seus mecanismos de instalação e características da modalidade. Foram entrevistados 86 atletas (47 homens e 39 mulheres) convocados para representar o Brasil durante o ano de 2003. Util...

  10. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  11. Superficial soil erosion assessment in agricultural land and bare land using {sup 7}Be fallout; Estudo da redistribuicao de solo superficial em areas cultivadas e nao cultivadas utilizando o fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marestoni, Luiz Diego

    2007-02-15

    Geologic and hydrologic phenomenon monitoring presents great environmental and financial interest and several radioisotopes, natural and artificial, have been used for this purpose. The more used are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb not supported and {sup 7}Be. In the present work, {sup 7}Be was used to determine the soil erosion in three areas: one with soy ploughed at the direction of the slope, one with it perpendicular to the slope and one in an area with bare soil. {sup 7}Be is a cosmogenic radionuclide, with half-life of 53.3 days, produced by spallation of oxygen and nitrogen by cosmic rays in the troposphere and stratosphere. {sup 7}Be deposition occurs by dry and wet deposition, although wet deposition contributed by 95%. This can be verified through the measures of the {sup 7}Be inventory correlated with the precipitation, which resulted in a good linear adjustment. The experimental set up consisted of two HPGe detectors: one with 66% of relative efficiency and one with 10% of relative efficiency, both detectors coupled to standard gamma ray spectrometry nuclear electronic chain. Soil samples were packed in 1 liter Marinelli beckers. Sampling was accomplished until the depth where {sup 7}Be was present and it was possible to verify that its penetration in the soils could be very well adjusted by an exponential type function. The maximum beryllium-7 penetration in the bare soil without sign of soil erosion was 3 cm, that is, beryllium-7 is a useful tool as tracer for superficial soil erosion determination. The constant of mass relaxation h{sub 0} was determined as 4.71 {+-} 0.36, result that is in agreement with other works in the international literature. It was verified that when the soy is ploughed perpendicular to the slope, the soil redistribution rate is smaller, resulting in economic advantage. The bare soil is very exposed to the erosion, because does not exist any barrier to contain the soil that flows at the direction of the slope, such fact was verified

  12. Sistemas de mensuração e avaliação de desempenho organizacional: estudo de casos no setor químico no Brasil Organizational performance measurement and evaluation systems: multiple case study in the Brazilian chemical sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamilton Luiz Corrêa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende apresentar os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada junto a quatro grandes empresas brasileiras do setor químico, descrevendo os seus respectivos sistemas de mensuração e avaliação de desempenho organizacional. O presente trabalho é um estudo exploratório e descritivo e baseia-se no uso de estudos de casos múltiplos, tendo sido realizada a respectiva revisão da literatura que aborda o assunto. São propostas, ao final, as conclusões e recomendações que se fazem pertinentes ao tema do trabalho, guardadas as restrições próprias da metodologia empregada.The objectives of this paper are to present some results of a research carried out in four large chemical companies operating in Brazil and to describe these companies' organizational performance measurement and evaluation systems. This is an exploratory and descriptive research based on multiple case studies, in accordance with a literature review on this subject. At the end, some conclusions and recommendations are presented, despite the limitations characteristic of the applied methodology.

  13. Neural network and state-space models for studying relationships among soil properties Redes neurais e modelos de espaço de estados para o estudo da relação entre propriedades do solo

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Carlos Timm; Daniel Takata Gomes; Emanuel Pimentel Barbosa; Klaus Reichardt; Manoel Dornelas de Souza; José Flávio Dynia

    2006-01-01

    The study of soil property relationships is of great importance in agronomy aiming for a rational management of environmental resources and an improvement of agricultural productivity. Studies of this kind are traditionally performed using static regression models, which do not take into account the involved spatial structure. This work has the objective of evaluating the relation between a time-consuming and "expensive" variable (like soil total nitrogen) and other simple, easier to measure ...

  14. Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy form Sarney to Lula

    OpenAIRE

    Danielly Silva Ramos Becard

    2010-01-01

    Resenha do Livro "Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy", de autoria de Tullo Vigevani e Gabriel Cepaluni. O tema central do livro é a busca brasileira por autonomia, desde a segunda metade dos anos 1980 até 2009. São apresentadas as grandes linhas da política externa brasileira dos pontos de vista teórico e empírico, a partir do estudo de literatura latino-americana sobre o tema.

  15. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  16. Estudo epidemiológico da febre purpúrica brasileira: epidemia em localidade do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil), 1986 Brazilian purpuric fever: an epidemiological study of an outbreak in the locality of the S. Paulo State, Brazil, in 1986

    OpenAIRE

    Ligia R. S. Kerr-Pontes; Antonio Ruffino-Netto

    1991-01-01

    Estudou-se um surto de febre purpúrica brasileira ocorrido em Serrana, SP (Brasil) em 1986 e sua associação com conjuntivite purulenta, aglomeração e sintomas respiratórios. Foi adotado o modelo de estudo, caso-controle. Chamou-se caso confirmado o paciente que satisfizesse um conjunto de critérios tendo "score" maior ou igual a 12 pontos, e caso suspeito "score" entre 8 e 12 (o "score" foi efetuado usando-se o seguinte critério: ocorrência de febre, igual a 5 pontos; diarréia e/ou vômitos ig...

  17. A transferência de tecnologia universidade-empresa no contexto brasileiro: uma revisão de estudos científicos publicados entre os anos 2005 e 2009 University-industry technology transfer in the brazilian context: a review of scientific studies published from 2005 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Quadrado Closs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O tema da gestão da inovação e transferência de tecnologia (TT no contexto de interação universidade-empresa é relativamente novo no Brasil e emergente em âmbito internacional (REISMAN, 2005, assim, seus dados e teorias ainda se apresentam de modo fragmentado. Considerando essa fragilidade, este estudo objetivou identificar e analisar pesquisas recentes publicadas no Brasil sobre o tema, buscando contribuir para a consolidação desse corpo teórico. O trabalho, de cunho exploratório, revisou as pesquisas publicadas em periódicos nacionais entre 2005 e 2009, sob uma abordagem qualitativa. Os objetivos, métodos e principais resultados desses estudos foram sintetizados e discutidos. A análise coletiva desses trabalhos sugere que a cooperação universidade-empresa (U-E gera inovações, aprendizados e benefícios mútuos. Esta aponta ainda existir muito espaço para ampliar a transferência de tecnologia U-E. O estudo identificou os métodos usados nas pesquisas; motivadores, facilitadores e obstáculos ao processo; elementos das estruturas universitárias, bem como políticas das IES e do governo intervenientes no processo; características de empresas geradas a partir de spillovers acadêmicos; o papel social exercido pelas IES; diferentes formas de TT na interação U-E; lacunas de pesquisas e sugestões para a realização de estudos futuros.Innovation management and technology transfer (TT in the context of university-industry interaction is a relatively new topic in Brazil and an emerging field internationally (REISMAN, 2005; thus, the data and theories related to it are still presented in a fragmented way. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify and analyze recent studies published in Brazil on the subject seeking to contribute to the consolidation of this theoretical framework. This exploratory study reviewed articles published in national journals between 2005 and 2009 using a qualitative approach. The goals, methods

  18. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  19. Are there priority competencies for preparation of accountants?: A study about Brazilian accountants ¿Existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador?: Un estudio sobre los contadores Existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador?: Um estudo sobre os contadores brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lopes Cardoso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the need for priority of competencies in preparation of accountants as well as variations between men and women. This question is motivated by Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997, Moramed and Lashine (2003and IFAC (2003 with a theoretical foundation of competencies related to McClelland (1973, 1998 and Boyatzis (1982. Professional references are Hardern (1995, AICPA (1999 and IFAC (2003. It was based on 18 competencies that were collected from 24 articles for questions submitted to 159 accountants and the data collection instrument showed a 0.8774 Cronbach alpha. Replies were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test which showed a significance level of El objetivo principal de este estudio es verificar si existen competencias que deben ser prioridad en el desarrollo del contador, como también analizar si esa prioridad se altera entre hombres y mujeres. Ese cuestionamiento tiene como motivación las observaciones de Hardern (1995, Morgan (1997 y IFAC (2003. El fundamento teórico sobre competencias está relacionado al estudio de McClelland (1973,1998, Boyatzis (1982 y Spencer y Spencer (1993. Los estudios relacionados a las competencias del contador no están basados en fundamentos de la Psicología y de Recursos Humanos, y ni siquiera en el análisis de estructuras genéricas de competencias o en la determinación de prioridades en el desarrollo de competencias de los contadores, esta última es el objetivo de este trabajo. La investigación está basada en el estudio de 18 competencias del contador y fue submetida a 159 contadores. El instrumento de recolección de los datos presentó un Alfa de Cronbach de 0,8774. A partir de las respuestas se realizó el test de Kruskal-Wallis, que demostró un nivel de significancia O objetivo principal deste estudo é verificar se existem competências a serem priorizadas no desenvolvimento do contador, bem como analisar se essa prioridade se altera entre homens e mulheres. Esse

  20. Relações entre o conhecimento de agricultores e de pedólogos sobre solos: estudo de caso em Rio Pardo de Minas, MG Relationships between local farmers' and pedologists' knowledge on soil science: A case study in Rio Pardo de Minas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Correia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Um dos desafios para construção de modelos agrícolas que se referenciam pela sustentabilidade é a utilização de conhecimentos científicos adequados a singulares situações sociais. Para isso, é necessário considerar saberes acumulados por agricultores no espaço e no tempo. No caso do recurso 'solos', pouco desse saber é considerado no ensino em ciência do solo e nos trabalhos de pedologia. Por isso, a aplicação de tecnologias geradas com base no conhecimento científico é limitada quando destinada a grupos tradicionais, principalmente pela não-adequação às necessidades por eles reconhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi apresentar uma abordagem integrada entre os saberes de pedólogos e de agricultores, utilizando-se a hierarquização de ambientes no Cerrado pelos agricultores como ferramenta para compreender as bases sob as quais essa relação pode ocorrer. O estudo baseou-se em características ambientais e sociais da Comunidade Água Boa 2, em Rio Pardo de Minas (MG, onde, por trabalho de campo, foi possível analisar a terminologia local e, assim, descrever os ambientes, classificar as terras e constituir diálogos acerca do ambiente do Cerrado e dos solos.One of the challenges of constructing agricultural systems that aim to be sustainable, is the usage of scientific knowledge adapted to the peculiar social situation. For this purpose it is necessary to consider the knowledge that farmers accumulated over time and space. In the case of the soil resources, a modest amount of the local knowledge is considered in classrooms and in soil research. This is a constraint to the application of technologies based on local scientific knowledge involving traditional farmer groups, mainly because of the lack of adaptation to the needs they are aware of. The objective of this study is to show a new methodology that integrates the pedologists' and local farmers' knowledge. The traditional local hierarchy of environments in the Cerrado

  1. Eficiência técnica das companhias aéreas brasileiras: um estudo com análise envoltória de dados e conjuntos nebulosos Assessment of Brazilian airlines technical efficiency: a study using data envelopment analysis and fuzzy sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Vilardo Domingues Correia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a desregulamentação do transporte aéreo brasileiro, iniciada na década de 90, uma nova perspectiva de competição se desenvolveu, obrigando as empresas existentes a uma grande mudança em sua forma de posicionamento nesse tipo de mercado. Surge assim um novo conceito de voar com as companhias de baixo custo (Low Cost Carriers - LCCs no mercado antes monopolizado pelas companhias tradicionais ou de serviço completo (Full Service Carriers - FSCs. Para garantir sua competitividade, as empresas viram-se obrigadas a buscar um melhor aproveitamento dos seus recursos. Este trabalho analisa, através do modelo DEA nebuloso, que leva em conta a má qualidade dos dados disponíveis, o desempenho das companhias aéreas brasileiras no período de 2001 a 2005. Além disso, dado que esse enfoque apresenta muitas unidades tomadoras de decisão (Decision Making Units - DMUs empatadas, é sugerido um modelo de aumento de discriminação da análise envoltória de dados nebulosa (Fuzzy-DEA. É feita uma análise temporal dos dados de forma a avaliar a evolução das companhias aéreas frente ao novo cenário de competitividade no mercado.The deregulation of the Brazilian aviation industry started in the early 1990s. It created a new scenario of competition for the existing carriers, forcing them to change their way of dealing with this type of market. This led to a new flying concept - the Low Cost Carriers (LCCs. Before the beginning of the LCCs operation, there were only Full Service Carriers (FSCs. In order to ensure their competitiveness, other companies were forced to seek a better use of its resources. This paper analyses - through the Fuzzy DEA model, which takes into account the poor quality of the available data - the performance of the Brazilian airlines from 2001 to 2005. Moreover, since there are many DMUs tied in this approach, a model to increase discrimination for Fuzzy DEA models was suggested. The temporal data to assess the evolution

  2. Reliability study of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome adapted for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients Um estudo de confiabilidade da Bateria de Avaliação da Síndrome Disexecutiva adaptada para uma amostra brasileira de idosos controles e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabíola Canali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Ecological tests are useful in assessing executive function deficits and may be of value in appraising response to treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients. Our aims were to examine executive function using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients, and verify the applicability of this test battery. METHOD: Forty-one older-adult controls were matched with mild Alzheimer's disease patients by age, education, and gender. RESULTS: There significant inter-group differences in overall profile and almost all subtests except temporal judgment, time spent on planning the first and second Zoo Map visit, number of errors when copying drawings, naming pictures and Six Modified Elements arithmetic, and dysexecutive questionnaire self-rating. The Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome item that best discriminated controls from patients was the Modified Six Elements - adapted (general index, with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 90%, (AUC = 0.91, p OBJETIVO: Testes ecológicos são os mais indicados para a avaliação dos déficits nas funções executivas, sendo importante também na avaliação da resposta ao tratamento de pacientes com doença de Alzheimer. O objetivo deste estudo é verificar o desempenho nas funções executivas usando a Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome em uma amostra brasileira de idosos controles e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial e a aplicabilidade desta bateria ecológica em nosso meio. MÉTODO: Avaliamos com a Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome 41 idosos controles e 41 pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial, sem diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação à idade, escolaridade e sexo. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos no escore total e em quase todos os

  3. Study of calibration equations of {sup 137}Cs methodology for soil erosion determination; Estudo de equacoes de calibracao para metodologia do {sup 137}Cs de determinacao da erosao de solos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Elias Antunes dos

    2001-02-01

    Using the method of {sup 137} Cs and gamma-ray spectrometry, soil samples of two plots erosion were studied at Londrina city. the soil class studied was a dystrophic dark red soil (LRd), with erosion indexes measured by Agronomic Institute of Parana State (IAPAR) using a conventional method, since 1976. Through the percentage reduction of {sup 137} Cs related to the reference site, the soil losses were calculated using the proportional, mass balance and profile distribution models. Making the correlation between the {sup 137} Cs concentrations and the erosion measured by IAPAR, two calibration equations were obtained and applied to the data set measured in the basin of the Unda river and compared to those models in the literature. As reference region, was chosen a natural forest located close to the plots. The average inventory of {sup 137} Cs was 555{+-} 16 Bq.m{sup -2}. The inventories of the erosion plots varied from 112 to 136 Bq.m{sup -2} for samples collected until 30 cm depth. The erosion rates estimated by the models varied from 64 to 85 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} for the proportional and profile distribution models, respectively, and 137 to 165 ton.ha{sup -1} for the mass balance model, while the measured erosion obtained by IAPAR was 86 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}. From the two calibration equations obtained, the one that take into account the {sup 137} Cs distribution with the soil profile was that showed the best consistence with the erosion rated for the basin of the Unda river (same soil class) in the range from 4 to 48 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, while the proportional and profile distribution models applied rates from 7 to 45 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1} and 6 to 69 ton.ha{sup -1}.yr{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  4. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  5. Viability study of a construction of invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI; Estudo da viabilidade de construcao de um medidor de alta tensao invasivo para o Laboratorio de Referencia Nacional da Rede Brasileira de Calibracao em Radiologia Diagnostica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mails: dansq@ird.gov.br; guilherm@ird.gov.br; Pereira, M.A.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: guedes@iee.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    This work has studied the parameters for the construction of an invasive high voltage meter for the National Reference Laboratory of the Brazilian Net Calibration in Diagnostic Radiology, the National Laboratory of Metrology of the Ionizing Radiation - LNMRI. This study took into consideration the necessity of quality control of the of X-rays equipment required by Ministry of Health - MS, through the regulation N.453. To satisfy the demands of the MS, the recommendation of the norm IEC 61676 was analyzed by using the quantity of Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) in the measurements of the voltage discharge applied to the X-rays tubes, the infra structures of metrology available in the country to offer tracking the components of the high voltage meter through INMETRO and the difficulty of adaptation of the high voltage meter analyser III U in relation to the Pan tak HF160 equipment in which respect the connection of the high voltage cable and the voltage limitations due to the electric configuration of the high voltage generator of the constant potential Pantak HF160 equipment. (author)

  6. Study of the effect of gamma radiation on some physical-mechanical properties of wood used in Brazilian cultural and artistic heritage; Estudo do efeito da radiacao gama sobre algumas propriedades fisico-mecanicas de madeiras usadas em patrimonios artisticos e culturais brasileiros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severiano, Lucio Cesar

    2010-07-01

    Wood is considered a natural composite of extreme complexity, basically composed by cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose (polyosis) and extractives. Its composition favors biological attacks from different species. In this context, several techniques have been studied and applied for disinfecting and decontaminating wood-made works of art and cultural heritage, which have been damaged by fungi, bacteria and insects. Gamma radiation emitted by unstable isotopes, such as 60- cobalt, has also been studied as an alternative to the conventional wood preservatives. So, gamma rays treatment has been shown to be efficient to the removal of infestations by insects and microorganisms in wood-made artifacts, to be fast and not to require quarantine because it does not generate toxic waste. Similar to other techniques, this process does not prevent the irradiated material of re-infestation or recontamination. In this context, the effects of relatively high disinfestation gamma radiation doses (up to 100 kGy) on cedro rosa and imbuia, two typical Brazilian wood species, are accompanied by the changes on the following attributes: apparent density, retracting, parallel compression to fibers, bending in the modulus of elasticity, hardness, shear and thermal stability. Results have shown that gamma radiation, in the studied dose range, does not promote alterations on properties of investigated wood species. In case of a re-infestation, these observations indicate that the wood species can be submitted to repeatedly irradiation processes without causing damage to their structure up to the studied dose range, in despite of radiation effects be always cumulative. (author)

  7. PERCEPÇÕES E CONSUMO DE JOVENS UNIVERSITÁRIAS BRASILEIRAS EM RELAÇÃO AO LEITE FLUIDO INDUSTRIALIZADO: UM ESTUDO DE CASO Perceptions and consumption among Brazilian young female university students in relation to industrialized fluid milk: the case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. L. SAMPAIO

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available

    O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar, entre jovens universitárias, as crenças, atitudes e hábitos de consumo de leites fluidos (pasteurizados tipo A, B e C e leite longa vida comercializados no Brasil. Para o estudo de crenças e atitudes, utilizou-se escala Likert de atitude. Avaliou-se também, através da aplicação do inquérito recordatório 24 horas, o consumo de cálcio, fósforo, protéico e calórico. Participaram da pesquisa 291 universitárias da Universidade Estadual de Campinas. O leite consumido pela maioria das jovens (79% foi o longa vida, percebido por elas como microbiologicamente seguro, de bom sabor e qualidade. O leite pasteurizado tipo C foi percebido como sendo de baixa qualidade tanto em termos sensoriais como microbiológicos e nutricionais; sendo consumido por 2% das entrevistadas. O consumo de leite revelou-se baixo frente às recomendações, sendo que somente 20% das entrevistadas informaram consumir a desejável quantidade de um copo de leite (230ml de duas a três vezes ao dia. O consumo médio de cálcio encontrado foi de 737,2 mg/dia, o de fósforo 954,5 mg/dia, o protéico 83,4 g/dia e o calórico 1752,2 Kcal/dia. O estudo revelou a necessidade de um trabalho de educação nutricional para a aquisição de conhecimentos e mudança de hábitos cotidianos.

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the attitudes (beliefs and opinions and consumption habits in relation to the fluid milks marketed in Brazil among young female university students. The consumption of calcium, phosphorus, protein and calorie was also evaluated using the 24- hour recall. As for beliefs and attitudes, the Likert scale of attitude was used. A panel of 291 female university students from the State University of Campinas took part in

  8. Advanced oxidation treatment of Abreu e Lima/PE Refinery soil contaminated by oil products; Estudo do tratamento por oxidacao avancada de solos da Refinaria de Abreu e Lima/PE contaminados por derivados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Daniella Fartes dos Santos e [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio Alves da [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa, Celmy Maria B. de Menezes; Cavalcanti, Jorge Vinicius Fernandes Lima [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    Soil contamination by toxic organic compounds derived from petroleum is a serious environmental problem. Diesel is a petroleum derivative that being used in many transportation is subject to potential accidents and spills. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) which are present in diesel are biorefractory, hydrophobic and recalcitrant, being known to be toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic. The soil is a combination of fragments of rocks, minerals, water, air and living things and is responsible for maintaining the cycle of water and nutrients and protection of groundwater. The advanced oxidation processes (POA) show good results with regard to the decontamination of polluted by oil derivatives. This work used as POA Fenton's reagent (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}) and photo-Fenton (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Fe{sup +2}/ UV) via the sodium percarbonate to decontaminate a soil sample contaminated with diesel oil. This work aimed to study the degradation of organic matter contained in the soil, carrying out 10 different experiments in duplicate, following an experimental design. The degradation of total organic carbon obtained exceeded 60% and degradation of some HPA's exceeded 80%. (author)

  9. Unconventional sexual behaviors and their associations with physical, mental and sexual health parameters: a study in 18 large Brazilian cities Comportamentos sexuais não convencionais e associações com parâmetros de saúde física, mental e sexual: um estudo em 18 grandes cidades brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Mendes de Oliveira Júnior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There have been many studies investigating paraphilias and sexual compulsion, but thus far little data about prevalence of unusual sexual practices that are subthreshold for these diagnoses. The associations between unconventional sexual behavior and sociodemographic and health parameters were investigated. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of 7,022 individuals (45.4% of women was carried out using a selfadministered questionnaire that compared individuals carrying at least one reference of unconventional sexual behavior (group 1 with individuals without such reference (group 2. RESULTS: Women's mean age was 35.0 vs. 35.9 years (p OBJETIVO: Pesquisadores têm conduzido vários estudos relacionados a parafilias e compulsão sexual, mas há poucos dados sobre a prevalência de práticas sexuais não usuais que são subliminares para estes diagnósticos. Foi investigada a associação entre comportamento sexual não convencional e parâmetros sociodemográficos e de saúde. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal, de 7.022 indivíduos (54,6% de homens, realizado por meio de questionário autorresponsivo, comparou indivíduos com pelo menos um comportamento sexual não convencional (grupo 1 e indivíduos sem esta refer��ncia (grupo 2. RESULTADOS: A idade média das mulheres (35,0 vs. 35,9 anos; p < 0,05 e dos homens (36,5 vs. 37,8 anos; p < 0,05 foi menor no grupo 1 do que no grupo 2, respectivamente. Mais homens (52,3% que mulheres (30,4% (p < 0,001 apresentaram comportamento sexual não convencional. Comportamentofetichista (13,4% evoyeurista(13,0% foramosmaisfrequentes. Comportamento sexual não convencional foi associado com: gênero masculino; estado civil solteiro e separado; raça negra e parda; nível educacional médio e fundamental; histórico de tratamento para transtorno do estresse pós-traumático; dependência por álcool; contracepção de emergência; dificuldade no início da vida sexual; violência sexual sofrida; bissexualidade

  10. Dyslipidemia and the risk of incident hypertension in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging Dislipidemia e risco de incidência de hipertensão em uma população de idosos Brasileiros vivendo em comunidade: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Polo Dias Freitas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the prognostic value of lipid parameters for incident hypertension in elderly living in a community. The study included 306 (81% from total persons aged > 60 years who were free of hypertension and of cardiovascular diseases at the baseline survey of the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging. The cumulative incidence of hypertension over three years was 37.3%. The relative risk (RR of incident hypertension decreased 0.92 for each unit of HDL-cholesterol (95%CI: 0.86-0.99 independent of several potential confounding factors. Individuals with HDL-cholesterol in the top tercile (> 55mg/dL had a risk of hypertension halve that those in the bottom tercile (RR = 0.54; 95%CI: 0.33-0.90. Other lipid parameters had no significant effect on the outcome. High HDL-cholesterol showed an independent protective effect on subsequent development of hypertension in the elderly.O objetivo do estudo foi examinar o valor prognóstico de parâmetros lipídicos para a incidência de hipertensão arterial em idosos vivendo na comunidade. A pesquisa incluiu 306 (81% do total pessoas com idade > 60 anos que estavam livres de hipertensão e de doenças cardiovasculares na linha de base do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí. A incidência acumulada em três anos da hipertensão arterial foi de 37.3%. O risco relativo (RR para a incidência da hipertensão diminuiu 0,92 para cada unidade de colesterol HDL (IC95%: 0,86-0,99, independente de vários potenciais fatores de confusão. Indivíduos com colesterol HDL no tercil superior (> 55mg/dL apresentaram metade do risco de hipertensão que aqueles no tercil inferior (RR = 0,54; IC95%: 0,33-0,90. Os outros parâmetros lipídicos não apresentaram efeitos estatisticamente significantes sobre o evento. Valores mais altos de colesterol HDL apresentaram efeito protetor para o desenvolvimento da hipertensão em idosos.

  11. Performance of a Brazilian population in the EC 301 calculation and number processing battery: a pilot study Desempenho da população brasileira no processamento numérico e de cálculo através da bateria EC 301: estudo piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela De Luccia

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From a neuropsychological point of view calculation is a very complex function. A simple arithmetic operation demands many neurocognitive mechanisms that involve verbal, spatial and graphical processing, memory and attention. OBJECTIVE: To verify the calculation and number processing of healthy subjects and the effect of gender, age and schooling on their performance. METHOD: Forty-four normal subjects without complaints or neurological changes were evaluated. RESULTS: The educational level was significantly linked to performance in the majority of tests of the EC 301 battery, whereas no differences were noted regarding age and gender. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the data of the healthy population shown in this study indicated that educational level can affect calculation and number processing, It is possible to note that battery EC 301 demonstrated sensitivity for appraisal of these abilities and therefore can be employed for clinical assessment in calculation and number disorders.INTRODUÇÃO: O cálculo do ponto de vista neuropsicológico é uma função muito complexa. Em uma simples operação aritmética estão envolvidos diversos processos neurocognitivos que envolvem os processamentos verbais, espaciais, gráficos, atenção e memória. OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar o desempenho de indivíduos saudáveis, no processamento numérico e de cálculo, através da bateria EC 301 e verificar as interferências do sexo, da idade e da escolaridade no desempenho destes indivíduos. MÉTODO: Foram avaliados 44 sujeitos normais sem queixas e/ou alterações neurológicas. RESULTADOS: O nível educacional mostrou-se fortemente relacionado ao desempenho obtido na maioria das provas da bateria EC 301, enquanto em relação ao sexo e idade não foram encontradas diferenças. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados encontrados na população avaliada neste estudo mostraram que o nível educacional pode influenciar o desempenho do processamento

  12. Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a randomized double-blind trial in a Brazilian sample Hypericum perforatum versus fluoxetina no tratamento da depressão leve a moderada: estudo duplo-cego randomizado em uma amostra brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alberto Moreno

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: Hypericum perforatum has demonstrated antidepressant efficacy when compared to placebo, but comparisons with other antidepressants remain controversial. We assessed the efficacy and safety of Hypericum perforatum in comparison with fluoxetine, in a 8-week double-blind trial in patients with mild to moderate depression. METHOD: Seventy-two outpatients were randomly assigned to receive Hypericum perforatum 900 mg/day, fluoxetine 20 mg/day or placebo. Efficacy measures included the HAM-D21 scale, the Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impression. Safety was assessed with the UKU Side Effect Rating Scale. RESULTS: Intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences between the mean scores of the three groups. In the analyses of observed cases, patients receiving Hypericum perforatum had the lowest remission rates (12%, p = 0.016 compared to fluoxetine (34.6% and placebo (45%. CONCLUSIONS: Hypericum perforatum was less efficacious than both fluoxetine and placebo. Both drugs were safe and well-tolerated. Larger trials are needed for definite conclusions.OBJETIVO: Hypericum perforatum demonstrou eficácia antidepressiva em comparação ao placebo, mas comparações com outros antidepressivos permanecem controversas. Avaliamos a eficácia e a tolerabilidade do Hypericum perforatum em comparação com fluoxetina e placebo, em um estudo duplo-cego de oito semanas em pacientes com depressão leve a moderada. MÉTODO: Setenta e dois pacientes ambulatoriais receberam aleatoriamente doses fixas de Hypericum perforatum 900 mg/dia, fluoxetina 20 mg/dia ou placebo. Medidas de eficácia incluíram a HAM-D21, Escala de Montgomery-Asberg e Impressão Clínica Global. A segurança foi avaliada por meio da Escala UKU de Efeitos Colaterais. RESULTADOS: A análise por intenção de tratar não demonstrou diferenças entre os três grupos. Na análise por casos observados, os pacientes que receberam Hypericum perforatum tiveram as menores

  13. Teologia e estudo das escrituras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabuske, Irineu J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A revalorização da sagrada escritura, no âmbito da Igreja Católica, enseja uma reflexão sobre a relação entre a teologia e o estudo das sagradas escrituras. Ponto de partida para esta reflexão é o nº 24 do documento Dei Verbum, no Concílio Ecumênico Vaticano II: ". . . o estudo das Sagradas Escrituras seja como que a alma da Sagrada Teologia".

  14. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  15. The Brazilian Pampa: A Fragile Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Marcos Stefenon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity is one of the most fundamental properties of Nature. It underpins the stability of ecosystems, provides vast bioresources for economic use, and has important cultural significance for many people. The Pampa biome, located in the southernmost state of Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul, illustrates the direct and indirect interdependence of humans and biodiversity. The Brazilian Pampa lies within the South Temperate Zone where grasslands scattered with shrubs and trees are the dominant vegetation. The soil, originating from sedimentary rocks, often has an extremely sandy texture that makes them fragile—highly prone to water and wind erosion. Human activities have converted or degraded many areas of this biome. In this review we discuss our state-of-the-art knowledge of the diversity and the major biological features of this regions and the cultural factors that have shaped it. Our aim is to contribute toward a better understanding of the current status of this special biome and to describe how the interaction between human activities and environment affects the region, highlighting the fragility of the Brazilian Pampa.

  16. Uso de geoprocessamento na estimativa da perda de solo em microbacia hidrográfica do semiárido brasileiro.= Applied geoprocessing for soil loss estimation in a Brazilian semiarid watershed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Guerreiro Chaves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays soil loss by erosion is one of the most serious environmental problems which has caused the degradation of various resources, especially soil and water. The aim of this study was to predict the soil loss due to erosion at a small watershed sited in Semiarid region of Ceara State, Brazil, through an arrangement of Geographic Information System tools with a quantitative model of soil loss, by the Universal Soil Loss Equation, USLE. The watershed delimitation was performed using the Digital Elevation Model. The density of drainage network was estimated using the extension ArcHydro/ArcMap 9.1. The soil loss in 74% of the studied small watershed presents a value smaller than 11 t ha-1 year-1 in more plain and vegetated areas. It was observe that more than 90% of the area presented a soil loss below 37 t ha-1 year-1, being this characteristic very influenced by the local geography, which is smooth and low sloped in more than 83% of the area of the small watershed. 66% of the area presents a low vulnerability to erosion (<10 t ha-1 year-1, being associated to this region cover vegetation and low values of slope factors. The integrated use of GIS and USLE has allowed a fast and dynamic analysis of the study area, beyond identifying most vulnerable areas to the soil loss process within the basin.

  17. Laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil from a petrol station Estudo laboratorial da biorremediação de solo de posto de combustíveis contaminado com óleo diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano Pinto Mariano; Ana Paula Arruda Geraldes Kataoka; Dejanira de Franceschi de Angelis; Daniel Marcos Bonotto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate possible methods to enhance the rate of aerobic biodegradation of hydrocarbons (ex-situ treatments). In this work, the bioremediation processes were applied to a sandy soil with a high level of contamination originated from the leakage of a diesel oil underground storage tank at a petrol station. Laboratory scale experiments (Bartha biometer flasks) were used to evaluate the biodegradation of the diesel oil. Enhancement of biodegradation was...

  18. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  19. Study of stability of humic acids from soil and peat irradiated by gamma rays; Estudo da estabilidade de acidos humicos extraidos de solo e turfa, frente a radiacao ionizante gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Wilson Tadeu Lopes da

    1995-07-01

    Humic acids samples (one deriving from a sedimentary soil and other from a peat), in aqueous media, were irradiated with gamma rays, in doses of 10, 50 and 100 kGy, in order to understand their chemical behavior after the irradiation. The material, before and after irradiation, was analyzed by Elemental Analysis, Functional Groups (carboxylic acids and phenols), UV/Vis Spectroscopy (E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio), IR spectroscopy, CO{sub 2} content and Gel permeation Chromatography (GPC) ). The Elemental Analysis showed the humic acid derived from a peat had a most percentage quantity of Carbon and Hydrogen than the material from a sedimentary soil. From the UV/Vis Spectroscopy, it was observed a decrease of E{sub 4}/E{sub 6} ratio with an increase of the applied dose. The data from GPC are in agreement with this. The results showed that the molecular weight of the material increased by exposing it to a larger radiolitical dose. The peat material was less affected by the gamma radiation than the soil material. The carboxylic groups were responsible by radiochemical behavior of the material. (author)

  20. The new Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 15, 1990, when Fernando Collor's Government was inaugurated, the Brazilian President has been pursuing a nuclear policy aimed at ensuring compliance with the constitutional principles and rules that determine the utilization of nuclear energy solely for peaceful uses and purposes. The development of Brazilian nuclear policy has followed several stages, which are reported in this paper from a legal and institutional point of view. (author)

  1. Remote Sensing for Mapping Soybean Crop in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabaquini, K.; Bernardes, T.; Mello, M. P.; Formaggio, A.; Rosa, V. G.

    2011-12-01

    The soybean expansion in the Brazilian Cerrado has been strongly affected by internal and external markets. The main factors driving that expansion are the climatic conditions, the development of technologies and genetic improvement. Recent studies have shown that the soybean expansion has become a major cause of reduction of native vegetation in Mato Grosso State - Brazil, responding for 17% of deforestation from 2000 to 2004. This work aims to map soybean areas in the Brazilian Cerrado in Mato Grosso State, using MODIS data. Thirteen MODIS images (MOD13 - 16 days composition), acquired from September, 2005 to March, 2006, were used to run principal component analysis (PCA) in order to reduce the dimensionality of the data. The first three components (PC1, PC2 and PC3), which contained about 90% of data variability were segmented and utilized as input for an unsupervised classification using the ISOSEG classifier, implemented in the SPRING software. Eighty field work points were randomly selected for the accuracy assessment. An intersection between the soybean map and a map generated by the "Project Monitoring Deforestation of Brazilian Biomes Satellite - PMDBBS", which aimed at identifying anthropic areas, was conducted in order to evaluate the distribution of soybeans within those areas. Moreover a soil map was used in order to evaluate the soybean distribution over the classes of soil. The classification result presented overall index of 83% and the kappa coefficient of 0.64 for the soybean map, which presented a total soybean area of about 42,317 square kilometers. Furthermore, it was verified that 27% of anthropic area was covered by soybean. In relation to the soil analysis, 87% of the total soybean area was planted in Oxisoils. Despite the economic gain related to the soybean production, an adequate management is needed to avoid soil acidification, soil erosion and pollution, aiming at providing a sustainable environment.

  2. Representações sociais e hanseníase em São Domingos do Capim: um estudo de caso na Amazônia Social representations and hansen's disease in São Domingos do Capim, state of Pará: a study in brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anete Umbelina Ferreira de Almeida Lins

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa as representações sociais da hanseníase em São Domingos do Capim-PA, a partir da perspectiva da antropologia da doença. As representações são compreendidas como estruturas dinâmicas socialmente construídas que fundamentam as ações dos sujeitos e dos grupos na resolução dos episódios de doença e na produção de sentido para as experiências de adoecimento. Para compreender a lógica das interpretações da doença, foram reconstituídos os itinerários terapêuticos dos doentes, a partir de dados coletados na observação de campo, realizada ao longo de quatro anos, e entrevistas narrativas com doentes, familiares e agentes comunitários de saúde. Foram deduzidas quatro categorias nosológicas êmicas referentes aos sintomas da hanseníase - "manchas", "lepra", "feitiço" e "hanseníase" -, que constituem o repertório a partir do qual as interpretações e práticas são formuladas. O uso das diferentes categorias ocorre segundo esquemas locais que permitem a avaliação dos contextos pessoal e social de irrupção da doença numa dinâmica que articula as percepções do doente e de seus familiares, as interpretações e diagnósticos de curadores tradicionais e a abordagem dos profissionais da Biomedicina. O estudo mostra que o repertório interpretativo e os meios terapêuticos da Biomedicina são reinterpretados, pelos doentes, segundo a lógica das representações e das práticas locais de saúde, e que o controle da endemia hansênica pressupõe a compreensão das dinâmicas sociais implicadas nas interpretações e práticas da doença, de forma a possibilitar o estabelecimento de uma relação dialógica entre os profissionais de saúde e os atores locais.This study analyzes the social representations of Hansen's disease in São Domingos do Capim-PA, from the perspective of the anthropology of disease. The representations are understood as socially constructed dynamic structures that underlie the

  3. Progress in animal experimentation ethics: a case study from a Brazilian medical school and from the international medical literature Progresso na ética em experimentação animal: o estudo de caso de uma escola médica brasileira e da literatura médica internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Luiz Ramalli Jr.

    2012-09-01

    do banco de dados Medline foram avaliadas para identificação do uso de animais em pesquisa e da aderência às regulamentações de ética. RESULTADOS: O CE/FMRP-USP avaliou 979 projetos até 2009, sendo a maioria das solicitações do Departamento de Fisiologia e o rato a espécie mais utilizada. Em 2004, as agências nacionais de incentivo a pesquisa começaram a exigir a aprovação prévia de comitês de ética e este requerimento se tornou Lei Federal no Brasil em 2008. A análise de publicações internacionais revelou uma redução no número de estudo envolvendo pesquisa com animais (18% em 1968 to 7,5% em 2008. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou que, nas últimas décadas, importantes mudanças na regulamentação do uso de animais em pesquisa e estão sendo assimiladas nos países em desenvolvimento. A preocupação com bem estar animal pela comunidade científica precedeu a introdução de regras pelas revistas e, no Brasil, antecipou a regulamentação federal.

  4. Análise da complexidade, estratégias e aprendizagem em projetos de melhoria contínua: estudos de caso em empresas brasileiras Analysis of complexity, strategies, and learning organization in continuous improvement processes: case studies in brazilian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Carlos Oprime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é analisar projetos de melhoria contínua desenvolvidos por empresas industriais brasileiras com base na abordagem/programa da Manutenção Produtiva Total (Total Productive Maintenance, TPM e da Qualidade Total (Total Quality Management, TQM. As variáveis estudadas nas análises dos projetos foram as seguintes: i complexidade dos projetos; ii seus objetivos específicos; iii as estratégias competitivas relacionadas; iv o aprendizado organizacional obtido; e v as ferramentas e os principais pilares do TPM implementados. Selecionou-se para estudo projetos considerados de sucesso por suas empresas. Ao todo, analisaram-se 42 projetos de 12 diferentes empresas que representaram diversos segmentos industriais do Brasil. Os resultados indicaram correspondência entre a natureza do projeto, em termos da sua complexidade e estrutura organizacional, com a estratégia competitiva adotada.This paper analyses the major goals and results of TPM and TQM processes in companies that adopt these approaches. The main variables considered in this study were: i complexity of the projects developed by the companies; ii projects´ specific goals iii relationship between the projects and the company's strategy; iv relationship between projects and continuous improvement and organizational learning; v tools and TPM concepts that support the projects. A descriptive research was carried out using field research strategies. Forty-two processes adopted by 12 companies were analyzed in this study. The processes implemented were considered successful by the companies that adopt them and by outside specialists. The results indicated close relationship between the project`s nature (its complexity and team structure and the company`s strategy, project goals and organizational learning.

  5. Redução da prevalência de úlcera duodenal: um estudo brasileiro (análise retrospectiva na última década: 1996-2005 Prevalence reduction of duodenal ulcer: a Brazilian study. (retrospective analysis in tha last decade: 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Saul

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A úlcera duodenal sempre representou uma doença muito prevalente entre as enfermidades digestivas, em qualquer parte do mundo. A prevalência média era de aproximadamente 10% da população mundial. A partir do início dos anos 90, a literatura, tanto européia como norte-americana, passou a demonstrar sua redução gradativa entre seus países. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar, através de análise retrospectiva, a prevalência anual da úlcera duodenal nos últimos 10 anos em um Serviço de Endoscopia Digestiva que é referência para o sistema público de saúde da cidade de Porto Alegre, municípios da Grande Porto Alegre e outras cidades vizinhas da mesma. Os dados analisados são de março de 1996 até dezembro de 2005. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo transversal, com análise documental de diagnósticos endoscópicos efetuados em endoscopia digestiva alta, no referido Serviço. Foi feita a análise retrospectiva de diagnósticos endoscópicos efetuados em 13.130 pacientes submetidos a endoscopia digestiva alta no período de março de 1996 a dezembro de 2005. A classificação de Sakita foi utilizada para o estádio do grau evolutivo da úlcera duodenal e foi considerado por ela acometido o paciente com a lesão no estágio A1, até o estágio S1, inclusive. Observou-se também a prevalência nos dois sexos, na raça, o percentual médio total nos 10 anos, além da prevalência anual. Para verificar se houve significância estatística dos resultados observados nos diferentes períodos, foi aplicado um teste de regressão linear ("linear regression model". RESULTADOS: Observou-se decréscimo gradativo dos percentuais de prevalência da úlcera duodenal, ano após ano, iniciando-se em 1996 com 8,6% e se encerrando no final de 2005, com 3,3%. A exceção do período foi observada no ano de 2003 quando houve um acréscimo, comparando-se com o decréscimo gradativo dos 6 anos anteriores. Mas já, a partir do período seguinte (2004, a queda

  6. Significados das hierarquias no trabalho em hospitais públicos brasileiros a partir de estudos empíricos Significados de las jerarquías en el trabajo en hospitales públicos brasileños a partir de estúdios empíricos Meanings of hierarchies in hospital work in Brazilian public hospitals from empirical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Heidtmann Vaghetti

    2011-01-01

    hospital work, of hierarchical structures present in the organizational culture of Brazilian public hospitals. METHODS: The corpus of research was originated in four theses and six dissertations, and was organized, analyzed and interpreted from the perspective of symbolic anthropology interpretation. RESULTS: Hospitals copied the professional mechanistic bureaucracy and hierarchies, from these structures, produce meanings that indicate a fragmentation of relationships, professional disputes and separations, as well as conflicts and subversive behavior at work. CONCLUSION: The hierarchies in each of the bureaucracies created several clashes that disrupt the workers and their work processes. Reorientation strategies and awareness of the hierarchical boundaries should be studied so that the work is optimized.

  7. Educação do corpo feminino: um estudo na Revista Brasileira de Educação Física (1944-1950 Education of female body: a study in the Brazilian magazine of physical education (1944-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Moraes e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo analisar os discursos especializados sobre o corpo feminino vinculados a um importante periódico da Educação Física brasileira da década de 40: "A Revista Brasileira de Educação Física". As práticas corporais e desportivas eram vistas como conquistas para as mulheres, mas ao mesmo tempo podiam colocar em risco o projeto de "ordem" e "progresso" e a própria representação de feminilidade vigente. Então, foram colocadas em ação várias retóricas discursivas que apontavam restrições à inserção feminina neste universo. A principal justificativa apresentada nas páginas da revista era o fator biológico, baseado principalmente nas diferenças anatômicas e fisiológicas, bem como em um excessivo medo da virilização da mulher. A título de conclusão, o trabalho aponta que, apesar das enormes limitações impostas às mulheres dentro das práticas corporais e desportivas, o seu ingresso neste universo representou uma conquista devido ao fato da sua saída do espaço privado do lar e entrada na esfera pública.This study aims to analyze the specialized discourses about the female body coupled to an important magazine for the Brazilian Physical Education in the 1940's: "A Revista Brasileira de Educação Física". The body and sporting practices used to be seen as achievements for women, but at the same time they could endanger the project of "order" and "progress" and also the femininity representation in force. Thus, several rhetorical discourses were put into action, which showed restrictions on the female participation in this universe. The main justification presented in the pages of the magazine was the biological factor, based on anatomical and physiological differences, and on an excessive fear of the virilization of women. In conclusion, this work shows that, despite the limitations imposed on women within the corporal and sporting practices, their entrance in this universe represented

  8. Análise de desempenho econômico da produção orgânica de leite: estudo de caso no Distrito Federal Assessment of economic performance of organic milk production: case study in the brazilian federal district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Amaral Alves

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se analisar economicamente a produção orgânica de leite. Para esta avaliação foram utilizados os dados obtidos em uma propriedade certificada como orgânica, localizada no Distrito Federal, durante os períodos de 2002 e 2003. A Renda Líquida (RL por litro de leite foi positiva no ano de 2002 e negativa no de 2003, considerando-se o preço do leite a R$ 0,40/ L, (preço histórico pago ao produtor de leite convencional na região, apresentando resultados positivos com o preço simulado de R$ 0,80/L (preço pago aos produtores orgânicos nas Regiões Sul e Sudeste do país. Os índices de produtividade foram semelhantes aos observados nas propriedades convencionais. A produção orgânica de leite pode ser uma alternativa economicamente viável para a pecuária, desde que haja uma remuneração superior à praticada para o leite convencional.The objective of the present work is the economical analysis of the organic milk production. For this evaluation, statistics from a farm with organic certificate located in the Brazilian Federal District were appraised, during the period of 2002 and 2003. The Net Operating Revenue (NOR displayed a positive general average per liter of milk for 2002 and a negative average for 2003, considering the milk price at R$ 0.40/l (this being the historical price of the conventional milk in that region, presenting positive results at the simulated price of R$ 0.80/l (this being the common price of organic milk marketed at Southeast and South regions. The productivity indicators were similar to those observed for traditional properties. The organic milk production may become an economically practicable alternative for the national cattle farming, as long as the remuneration stays higher than that practiced for the conventional milk.

  9. Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: estudo farmacobotânico de uma planta medicinal da Farmacopeia brasileira 1ª edição Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson, Apocynaceae: morpho-anatomical study of a medicinal plant described in the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia 1st edition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo C. Baratto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson é um arbusto nativo do Brasil, latescente, popularmente conhecido como agoniada e utilizado principalmente para distúrbios menstruais. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar morfoanatomicamente a folha, o caule e a casca caulinar dessa planta medicinal, a fim de contribuir para o controle de qualidade e a autenticidade dessa espécie. O material vegetal foi fixado e submetido às microtécnicas usuais. A folha é simples, glabra e obovado-lanceolada. A epiderme é uniestratificada, revestida por cutícula estriada e possui estômatos anisocíticos na face abaxial. O mesofilo é dorsiventral. A nervura central é biconvexa e o pecíolo é circular, ambos apresentando feixes vasculares bicolaterais. Laticíferos, amiloplastos e idioblastos fenólicos estão presentes no parênquima fundamental da nervura central e do pecíolo. O sistema vascular do caule é tipicamente bicolateral. Laticíferos e idioblastos fenólicos ocorrem no córtex, no floema e na medula. Esses caracteres morfoanatômicos, em conjunto, podem ser utilizados como parâmetros para o controle de qualidade dessa espécie.Himatanthus lancifolius (Müll. Arg. Woodson is a Brazilian native shrub, laticiferous, popularly known as "agoniada" and it is mainly used for uterine disorders. The present work aimed to study the leaf, stem and stem bark morpho-anatomy of this medicinal plant, in order to contribute to its quality control and identification. The plant material was fixed and submitted to standard microtechniques. The leaf is simple, glabrous and obovate-lanceolate. The epidermis is uniseriate, coated with striated cuticle and it has anysocitic stomata on the abaxial surface. The mesophyll is dorsiventral. The midrib is biconvex and the petiole is circular, both presenting bicollateral vascular bundles. Laticiferous ducts, amyloplasts and phenolic idioblasts are found in ground parenchyma of the midrib and petiole. The

  10. Predictors of 10-year mortality in a population of community-dwelling Brazilian elderly: the Bambuí cohort study of aging Determinantes da mortalidade em 10 anos de idosos Brasileiros residentes na comunidade: estudo de coorte de idosos de Bambuí

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We used data on 1,399 participants aged 60 and over from the Bambuí Cohort Study of Aging to examine predictors of mortality in a socioeconomically disadvantaged population. From 1997 to 2007, 599 participants died and 6.2% were lost to follow-up, leading to 12,415 person-years (pyrs of observation. The death rate was 48.3 per 1,000 pyrs. Age (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.40, male gender (HR = 1.80, never married (HR = 1.78 or a widow (HR = 1.26, poor self-rated health (HR = 1.31, inability to perform four or more activities of daily living (HR = 3.29, number of cardiovascular risk factors (HR = 1.51 for two and HR = 1.91 for three or more, Trypanosoma cruzi infection (HR = 1.27, and number of medications (HR = 1.06 were each significantly (p Foram utilizadas informações de 1.399 participantes (> 60 anos do Estudo de Coorte de Idosos de Bambuí, para examinar os determinantes da mortalidade em uma população com nível socioeconômico baixo. Entre 1997 e 2007, 599 participantes faleceram e 6,2% foram perdidos para acompanhamento, resultando em 12.415 pessoas-ano de observação. A taxa de mortalidade foi de 48,3 por mil pessoas-ano. Idade (hazard ratio ajustada [HR] = 1,40, sexo masculino (HR = 1,80, ser solteiro (HR = 1,78 ou viúvo (HR = 1,26, pior autoavaliação da saúde (HR = 1,31, incapacidade para realizar quatro ou mais atividades da vida diária (HR = 3,29, número de fatores de risco cardiovascular (HR = 1,51 para dois e HR = 1,91 para três ou mais, infecção pelo Trypanosoma cruzi (HR = 1,27 e número de medicamentos (HR = 1,06 apresentaram associações significantes (p < 0,05 e independentes com o evento. O escore do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental mostrou efeito protetor (HR = 0,96. Exceto a infecção pelo T. cruzi, os outros preditores da mortalidade foram consistentes com o observado em populações idosas com melhor situação socioeconômica.

  11. Um Estudo Exploratório sobre o Estágio da Governança Corporativa nas Empresas BrasileirasAn Exploratory Study on Corporate Governance Development in Brazilian EnterprisesUn Estudio Exploratorio sobre la Fase de la Gobernanza Corporativa en las Empresas Brasileñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINELLI, Marcos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO presente artigo apresenta a geração e sistematização de conhecimentos, levando a reflexões conceituais, teóricas e aplicadas da governança corporativa, bem como sua contribuição ao desenvolvimento organizacional. Está estruturado em quatro partes: a primeira é constituída pela introdução; a segunda parte diz respeito ao referencial teórico; a terceira, retrata a governança corporativa no mundo e no Brasil; a quarta parte retrata pesquisas secundárias sobre a aplicação da governança corporativa, comprovando que há influências positivas nos resultados das organizações objeto dos estudos de caso.ABSTRACTThis article presents the generation and systematization of knowledge, leading to conceptual, theoretical and applied reflexions about corporate governance as well as its contribution to organizational development. It is structured in four parts: the first one contains the introduction; the second is related to the theoretical support; the third refers to corporate This article presents the generation and systematization of knowledge, leading to conceptual, theoretical and applied reflections about corporate governance as well as its contribution to organizational development. It is structured in four parts: the first one contains the introduction; the second is related to the theoretical support; the third refers to corporate governance in Brazil and in the world. In the fourth part portrays secondary researches about the application of governance proving that there are positive influences in the results of the organizations which are object of the case studies.RESUMENEl presente artículo expone la generación y sistematización de conocimientos que llevan a reflexiones conceptuales, teóricas y aplicadas de la gobernanza corporativa, como también su contribución al desarrollo organizacional. Está estructurado en cuatro partes: la primera está formada por la introducción; la segunda parte trata del referencial

  12. Substituição dos parâmetros do modelo de Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson para estimativa da infiltração em alguns solos do Brasil Adjustment of Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson parameters to predict infiltration in some Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Avelino Cecílio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma análise detalhada do processo de infiltração de água no solo, foram propostas alternativas para adequação dos parâmetros de entrada do modelo de Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML, na tentativa de melhorar a eficiência da estimativa da infiltração em alguns solos brasileiros. As adequações consistiram em substituir a condutividade hidráulica do solo saturado (K0 pela taxa de infiltração estável (Tie e o teor de água do solo saturado (q s pelo teor de água na zona de transmissão (q w, além de estabelecer uma equação para estimativa do potencial matricial na frente de umedecimento (y f com base nos parâmetros do modelo de curva de retenção de água de Brooks & Corey. Avaliou-se o desempenho do conjunto de adequações propostas (GAML-t para estimativa da infiltração de água em três solos: Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, Latossolo Vermelho e Argissolo Vermelho. O desempenho do GAML-t foi comparado com o obtido pelo GAML aplicado em sua forma original e adequado segundo cinco diferentes formas, evidenciando-se que o primeiro obteve melhor desempenho nos três solos estudados.Based on a detailed analysis of the process of water infiltration into the soil, an alternative is proposed to adjust the input parameters of the Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson (GAML model to optimize infiltration estimates of some Brazilian soils. The adjustments consisted of the replacement of the parameters saturated hydraulic conductivity (K0 by stable infiltration rate (Tie and soil moisture saturation (q s by water content in the transmission zone (q w. Moreover, an equation was established to estimate the matric potencial at the wetting front (y f, based on the parameters of the water retention curve of Brooks and Corey. The performance of the set of proposed adjustments (GAML-t was evaluated for the estimation of water infiltration in three soil types. The performance of GAML-t was compared with the original GAML and adjusted to five different

  13. Gestão e estratégia ambiental: um estudo bibliométrico sobre o interesse do tema nos periódicos acadêmicos brasileiros Gestión ambiental y estrategia: un estudio bibliométrico sobre el tema de interés en revistas académica brasileña Environmental management and strategy: a bibliometric study on the theme of interest in Brazilian academic journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Sehnem

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou identificar a evolução do interesse de publicação da administração nas questões da gestão ambiental, estratégia ambiental, desempenho ambiental e avaliação estratégica ambiental (em português, inglês ou espanhol, através da verificação de artigos com estas temáticas em periódicos da área. Realizou-se um estudo bibliométrico, com abordagem quantitativa, em 44 periódicos brasileiros classificados em 2008 pelo sistema Qualis/CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, como A1, A2, B1 e B2, para a área de Administração, Ciências Contábeis e Turismo. Foram pesquisadas 1.203 edições disponibilizadas eletronicamente, entre 2000 e 2009, com a identificação de 113 artigos, de 22 periódicos, que citaram algum dos termos de busca no corpo de texto. Os artigos foram analisados com base nos seguintes parâmetros: identificação do periódico; ocorrência dos termos-chave; ano de publicação; e autoria. Identificou-se que apenas cinco periódicos publicaram 54,86% dos artigos selecionados: REAd - Rev. Eletrônica de Administração (15,04%, G&P - Gestão & Produção (11,50%, RAP - Rev. de Administração Pública (11,50%, CAD - Cadernos EBAPE.BR (9,74% e PROD - Produção (7,08%. O termo chave 'Gestão Ambiental' foi encontrado no título de 38 dos artigos, é citado como palavra-chave em 64 e está presente no corpo de texto de 111. Já 'Avaliação Ambiental Estratégica' somente foi citado em 2 artigos da amostra. Os anos de maior publicação dos artigos foram 2006 (20 e 2009 (24. Os autores que mais publicaram tiveram participação em 7 artigos diferentes da amostra. Observou-se que de 2000 a 2009 houve bom crescimento de periódicos brasileiros e número de artigos publicados que citaram os termos pesquisados, inclusive com edições especiais sobre a questão ambiental, porém com difusão pouco significativa nas publicações brasileiras, haja vista que somente

  14. Chlorambucil and cyclosporine A in Brazilian patients with Behçet's disease uveitis: a retrospective study Clorambucil e ciclosporina A em pacientes brasileiros com doença de Behçet e uveíte: estudo retrospectivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Marques Zaghetto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and side effects of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with Behçet's disease uveitis. METHODS: A nonrandomized retrospective case-series study analyzed data from 22 patients with Behçet's disease uveitis, from a single Uveitis Service, São Paulo, Brazil (period 1978-2007, under systemic chlorambucil and/or cyclosporine A, for at least 6 months with a minimum one-year follow-up. Drug efficacy was measured by reduction in relapse rate and reduction of prednisone dose. RESULTS: Patients (10M/12F mean age was 29 (range 10-43 years-old at the onset of uveitis. The median duration of followup was 11 (range 1-29 years-old. Chlorambucil (2-6 mg/day was used in 13 patients and cyclosporine A (3-5 mg/kg/day in 9 patients at initiation. Drugs were switched because of no effectiveness or side-effects. Chlorambucil was effective in 78.5% (11/14 and induced disease remission in 43% (6/14 of patients, whereas cyclosporine A was effective in 57% (8/14 of patients. Chlorambucil and cyclosporine A were discontinued due to side effects in 21% (leucopenia and in 57% of patients (nephrotoxicity, 36% and gastrointestinal complications, 21%, respectively. No case of late malignancy was observed. 36% (16/44 of eyes had final visual acuity OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a eficácia e efeitos colaterais da terapia imunossupressora em pacientes com uveíte associada à doença de Behçet. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo não randomizado no qual são analisados dados de 22 pacientes com uveíte associada à doença de Behçet que utilizaram clorambucil e/ou ciclosporina A sistêmica por período mínimo de 6 meses, acompanhados pelo período mínimo de 1 ano, num único Serviço de Uveíte, São Paulo, Brasil (período 1978-2007. A eficácia do tratamento foi avaliada pela redução no número de recidivas da inflamação e pela redução na dose diária de prednisona. RESULTADOS: Vinte e dois pacientes (10 M/12 F, com idade média de 29 (varia

  15. Estudo comparativo entre o manejo da asma em uma unidade de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS e as proposições do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma Asthma management in a public referral center in Porto Alegre in comparison with the guidelines established in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldo Mattos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar se as diretrizes do III Consenso Brasileiro no Manejo da Asma estão sendo aplicadas em uma população de asmáticos em um hospital de referência da rede pública de Porto Alegre (RS. MÉTODOS: Todos os pacientes adultos que iniciaram tratamento entre 1999 e 2002 foram avaliados. O tratamento recebido foi classificado em concordante ou discordante do Consenso. As características clínicas da asma e a freqüência do tratamento por especialista foram comparadas entre os grupos. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliados os prontuários de 357 pacientes, com média de idade de 41 anos, sendo 106 homens (29,7% e 251 mulheres (70,3%, 33 tabagistas (9,2%. O tratamento foi considerado discordante em 246 pacientes (70%, sendo que, neste grupo, houve ausência de tratamento com corticóide inalatório em pacientes com asma persistente em 174 deles (71%. Volume expiratório forçado no primeiro segundo normal, idade entre doze e dezoito anos e asma intermitente foram observados com maior freqüência entre os pacientes com tratamento concordante (p OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the guidelines put forth in the III Brazilian Consensus on Asthma Management are being applied in a population of asthma patients treated at a public hospital that is a referral center for asthma in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. METHODS: All adult asthma patients who began their treatment between 1999 and 2002 were evaluated. The treatment given was classified as consistent or inconsistent with the Consensus guidelines. The clinical features of asthma and the frequency of treatment provided by a specialist were compared between the two groups (those receiving guideline-consistent treatment and those receiving guideline-inconsistent treatment. RESULTS: The charts of 357 patients were evaluated. The study sample consisted of 106 males (29.9% and 251 females (70.3%. The mean age was 41 years, and 33 (9.2% of the patients were smokers. The treatment was considered

  16. Mensuração e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis em demonstrações contábeis: o estudo de caso em um clube de futebol brasileiro = Measurement and disclosure of intangible assets in financial statements: a case study in a brazilian football club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline dos Santos Alves

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda práticas de reconhecimento e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis em um time de futebol brasileiro. Para tanto, apresenta os ativos intangíveis e sua importância no contexto atual; evidencia técnicas de reconhecimento de ativos intangíveis; identifica práticas de reconhecimento, mensuração e evidenciação de ativos intangíveis passíveis de contabilização de um time de futebol do Brasil, comparando-as com os Procedimentos Contábeis vigentes, e faz uma análise sobre o impacto dessas práticas nas demonstrações contábeis da entidade. É conduzido por uma pesquisa qualitativa, mediada por análise documental e entrevista, trazendo aspectos da mensuração e da alocação de custos no caso estudado. Predomina nos resultados a carência de informações aos interessados e a mesma segue apenas em parte a norma vigente. Na elaboração das demonstrações contábeis da entidade são utilizados critérios bastante subjetivos, dando margem à disparidade existente entre as entidades deste segmento. Como principal implicação há a necessidade de que os sócios do clube exijam de seus gestores que evidenciem as práticas que estão sendo adotadas, para que se tenha maior transparência na gestão e maior atratividade no investimento. Considerando os resultados obtidos, entende-se que este artigo tem na temática escolhida seu principal valor, uma vez que estuda um ramo de negócio bastante explorado no cenário nacional e que, apesar disso, ainda é carente em legislação e padronização de condutas por parte da contabilidade. This article discusses practices of recognition and disclosure of intangible assets in a Brazilian football team. For that, it displays its intangible assets and their importance in the current context; it also shows recognition techniques of intangible assets; it identifies practices of recognition, measurement and disclosure of intangible assets, which are accounted for a soccer team in

  17. A ação externa dos governos subnacionais no Brasil: os casos do Rio Grande do Sul e de Porto Alegre. Um estudo comparativo de dois tipos de atores mistos The foreign actions of Brazilian governments: the cases of Rio Grande do Sul and Porto Alegre. A comparative study of two kinds of mixed actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Salomón

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available No artigo são descritas e comparadas as atividades externas de dois atores subnacionais de níveis de governo diferentes: a prefeitura de Porto Alegre (nível local e o governo estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (nível regional. Os dois atores considerados têm desenvolvido uma atividade externa destacável e pioneira no contexto brasileiro. O núcleo do artigo é a descrição e a comparação das dimensões institucional (estrutura paradiplomática e substancial (agenda e instrumentos dos dois governos subnacionais. Nosso principal objetivo é contribuir, a partir da análise desses casos concretos, para a conceituação diferenciada dos governos locais e dos regionais como atores internacionais. Tanto uns como outros podem ser considerados atores internacionais mistos, em parte condicionados pela soberania que compartilham com os outros níveis de governo no território que administram, mas também mais livres que os governos centrais no que diz respeito a suas opções de política exterior, com alguns pontos de atuação semelhantes às dos atores não estatais. Nossas perguntas de partida são como os dois tipos de atores conjugam as características próprias dos atores condicionados pela soberania e as dos livres e se há diferenças significativas entre a ação encaminhada nesse sentido pelos governos locais e pelos regionais.In this article we compare the external activities carried out by two subnational actors of different governmental levels: the Municipality of Porto Alegre (local government and the State of Rio Grande do Sul (regional government. These two actors have developed external activities that are both relevant and pioneering in the Brazilian context. A description and a comparison of the institutional dimension (paradiplomatic structure and the substantial dimension (agenda and instruments of these two subnational governments form the core of this article. Based on the analysis of these two cases, our aim is to contribute

  18. Estudo comparativo das dimensões transversais dos arcos dentários entre jovens com oclusão normal e má oclusão de Classe II, 1ª divisão A comparative study of arch widths of white Brazilians with normal occlusion and Class II, Division 1, malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejman Roberto

    2006-08-01

    on 170 pairs of dental casts of white Brazilian youths, with permanent dentition, 76 with normal occlusion (41 females and 35 males at the mean age of 13 years and 6 months and 94 with Class II, division 1, malocclusion (58 females and 36 males at the mean age of 13 years and 9 months. The group with malocclusion was divided into two categories: Class II without dental crowding and Class II with dental crowding. A comparison was made between the intercanine, inter first premolar and intermolar widths of both dental arches. RESULTS: with regard to normal occlusion group and statistically significant differences, male subjects presented: 1 larger intercanine lower width in the group with Class II without crowding; 2 smaller upper inter first premolar width in the group with Class II without crowding and 3 smaller upper and lower inter first premolar and intermolar widths in the group with Class II with crowding. In turn, the females have revealed: 1 smaller upper inter first premolar and intermolar widths in the group with Class II without crowding and 2 smaller upper and lower inter first premolar and intermolar widths in the group with Class II with crowding. CONCLUSION: generally, the subjects with Class II, Division 1 malocclusion have presented a tendency to a posterior deficiency of dental arches widths, especially in the group with crowding.

  19. Brazilian chicken meat production chain:a 10-year overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world's largest broiler meat exporter. Health control, knowledge and technology, as well as the natural aspects of the country are pointed out as the keys for the success of that product in the market. Brazilian broiler production grew significantly in the last decade; it creates jobs and has a significant social role in Brazilian economy. This study aimed at evaluating the Brazilian broiler meat supply chain from 2000 to 2010 using the social network analysis (SNA. Data from governmental and private sources were organized and analyzed. The focus of this study was the broiler production supply chain segment involving the hatchery, the broiler farm, the feed mill, the processing plant, and the government. The inputs considered were one-day-old chicks, pullet, feedstuff, and the infrastructure; and the outputs were broiler meat and taxes paid. The software UCINET was applied for calculating the structural attributes and indicators of the network. Results showed a relatively disorganized network in 2000 with the strongest tie between the farmer and the processing plant. The structural organization of the network improved until 2010. The density of the ties in the broiler meat production network increased steadily from 2000 to 2010 within a vertical cohesive supply chain structure. The success of Brazilian broiler meat production is attributed to the abundance of land, fertile soil, favorable climate, and the effort and investments in research and development by innovative companies in the last few years. The results of the present study showed that Brazilian broiler production evolved positively in the last ten years, and it was weakly influenced by international challenges.

  20. Tendência na utilização de serviços odontológicos entre idosos brasileiros e fatores associados: um estudo baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (1998 e 2003) Trends in the use of dental services by elderly Brazilians and related socio-demographic factors based on the National Household Survey (1998 and 2003)

    OpenAIRE

    Divane Leite Matos; Maria Fernanda Lima-Costa

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao uso de serviços odontológicos entre idosos brasileiros em 1998 e 2003. O modelo de Andersen & Newman foi utilizado como base conceitual da pesquisa. Participaram do estudo 28.943 e 35.040 idosos participantes da PNAD 1998 e 2003, respectivamente. As características daqueles que haviam visitado o dentista há < 1 ano foram comparadas às daqueles que visitaram o dentista há mais tempo (

  1. Strategy and competitive advantages in Brazilian telecommunications: a multiple case study from 1999 to 2007 Estrategia y ventaja competitiva en el mercado brasileño de telecomunicaciones: un estudio de casos múltiples para el periodo de 1999 a 2007 Estratégia e vantagem competitiva no mercado brasileiro de telecomunicações: um estudo de casos múltiplos para o período de 1999 a 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes Brazilian telecommunications companies after privatization, from 1999-2007, to compare reasons for best and worst economic performances. Main indexes showed sector growth after privatization in 1998. Profitability rankings based on criteria by Matarazzo (1997 were studied as well as a subsequent review of selected multiple cases of best and worst performances. Reasons for best performance were a strategy to reduce costs and control intangible assets, implemented in a strong organizational culture with a focus on improving financial results. Worst performance was due to mistaken strategies related to the market technological standard and investment in indexes of questionable profitability, such as market share. Telefonica and Vivo were to be the best and worst, respectively.Este artículo analiza el mercado brasileño de telecomunicaciones en el periodo post-privatización (1999 a 2007, con el objetivo de establecer una comparación entre las razones que llevaron al mejor y al peor desempeño económico registrado entre los competidores de ese mercado. Público hasta 1998, el sector registró crecimiento en sus principales índices después de la privatización. Esta investigación contó con dos procedimientos metodológicos: el establecimiento de un ranking de rentabilidad de las empresas del mercado, basado en el criterio de rentabilidad definido por Matarazzo (1997, y un posterior estudio de casos múltiples, en el cual los casos seleccionados fueron aquellos que presentaron el mejor y el peor desempeño económico durante el periodo de análisis. Los resultados sugieren que las principales razones para el desempeño superior fueron una estrategia de reducción de costos y la pose de recursos inalcanzables, materializados en una fuerte cultura organizacional de generación de resultados financieros. Por otro lado, los motivos que llevaron una empresa al peor desempeño registrado en el período fueron estrategias

  2. Relevância epidemiológica da desnutrição e da obesidade em distintas classes sociais: métodos de estudo e aplicação à população brasileira Relevance of under and overnutrition in different social classes: methods and application to the Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise Mondini

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se construir critérios de mesma especificidade no diagnóstico da desnutrição e da obesidade, de modo a produzir estimativas comparáveis para a prevalência desses eventos em distintos estratos socioeconômicos da população brasileira infantil e adulta. A fonte primária de dados é a Pesquisa Nacional sobre Saúde e Nutrição - PNSN, estudo do tipo transversal de base domiciliar, realizado no país em 1989. Foram considerados o conjunto das mulheres adultas estudadas pela PNSN, com idades entre 18 e 64 anos (n=15.669, o conjunto dos homens adultos com idades entre 20 e 64 anos (n=14.235 e o conjunto das crianças com idade entre 6 e 35 meses (n=3.641. Na avaliação do estado nutricional dos adultos empregou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal (kg/m² e, na avaliação infantil, os índices peso/idade e peso/altura. Os percentis 5 e 95 da distribuição desses índices em uma população de referência foram utilizados como níveis críticos para o diagnóstico, respectivamente, da desnutrição e da obesidade. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam, entre outros aspectos, que a desnutrição infantil mostra-se controlada (prevalências muito baixas mesmo em estratos da população com níveis muito modestos de renda familiar, enquanto a obesidade em mulheres adultas constitui problema de Saúde Pública (altas prevalências, mesmo para famílias situadas abaixo da linha da pobreza extrema. Tais evidências indicam a necessidade de se rever os modelos de causalidade tradicionalmente admitidos no país para a desnutrição e para a obesidade, ao mesmo tempo em que apontam a urgência de uma ampla revisão das prioridades e das estratégias de intervenção da Saúde Pública brasileira, no campo da nutrição.The search for criteria of the same specificity in the diagnosis of both undernutrition and obesity is the main objective of this study. The selected criteria are applied to data collected by a nation-wide cross-sectional anthropometric

  3. Images of the third age: a study of the representation of the elderly aired television advertisements in two Brazilian Imagens da terceira idade: um estudo sobre a representação do idoso veiculada em duas propagandas da televisão brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Beatriz da Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the speech in two commercials aired by broadcast television, one of the 1990s, and another, from the 2000s, in which the characters are elderly. This study used the references of Discourse Analysis of French Line, which has its precursor Michel Pêcheux. From linguistics seeks to show the changes that occurred in the focus given to the people of the Third Age who were protagonists of the following commercial: Copercap Bamerindus, 1997, Banco Real Talent Contest and Maturity, 2007. Furthermore, it was possible to investigate how the advertising text contributes to changing the way of presenting the aged and also provide insight to what is reflected on the need to educate these people for conscious consumption. Assuming that an advertisement is much more than it appears, concepts of discourse, ideology, production conditions, discursive subject, among others, were seized and applied in an attempt to understand it in its scope and breadth. This analysis found that the elderly in 1997 was presented as weak and passive, and in 2007, as active, capable and with great potential, which should be shown.O presente trabalho se propõe a analisar o discurso em duas propagandas veiculadas pela televisão aberta, sendo uma da década de 1990 e, outra, da década de 2000, nas quais os personagens são pessoas idosas. Tal estudo utilizou as referências da Análise do Discurso de Linha Francesa, que teve como precursor Michel Pechêux. A partir da lingüística procuramos evidenciar as mudanças que ocorreram no enfoque dado às pessoas da Terceira Idade que foram protagonistas dos seguintes comerciais: Copercap Bamerindus, de 1997, e Concurso Banco Real Talentos da Maturidade, de 2007. Além disso, foi possível investigar de que forma o texto publicitário contribui para a mudança da forma de se apresentar o idoso e, também, oferecer subsídios para que se reflita acerca da necessidade de se educar essas pessoas para o consumo

  4. Nova abordagem sobre o modelo Brasileiro de serviços ambientais New approach to the Brazilian model of environmental services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Buchala Bicca Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O programa brasileiro de serviços ambientais, denominado "Produtor de Água", apoia-se em incentivos financeiros proporcionais à redução da erosão advinda da implantação voluntária de projetos de conservação do solo por parte de produtores rurais. No entanto, esse programa não constitui restrições preestabelecidas de elegibilidade de áreas de aplicação ou de propostas de conservação. Assim, no sentido de contribuir para a evolução metodológica desse programa, propõe-se uma nova abordagem deste, analisando-se, essencialmente, duas adaptações: introdução de critério de elegibilidade; e utilização da aptidão agrícola para indicação de propostas de uso intensivo e conservação do solo. Para isso, tomou-se por base uma bacia hidrográfica rural próxima ao Pantanal brasileiro, em Terenos, MS. O novo critério de elegibilidade foi baseado no Risco Natural de Erosão (razão entre o potencial natural de erosão e a tolerância à perda de solo. As propostas de ocupação do solo, por sua vez, foram definidas a partir de mapa de aptidão agrícola predefinido. O estudo revela que o novo critério de elegibilidade foi capaz de contemplar somente cerca de 40 % da área de estudo. A aplicação da classificação de aptidão agrícola nessa parcela reduziu drasticamente as alternativas de uso intensivo do solo, direcionando-as, em grande parte, para a atividade pecuária. A análise das duas propostas de inovação do programa "Produtor de Água" permite inferir quanto à potencialidade delas na formação de estratégias de aplicação do programa, além de promover uso mais eficiente dos recursos financeiros destinados ao pagamento por serviços ambientais no contexto brasileiro.The Brazilian program of environmental services, called "Water Supplier", is based on financial incentives relative to the erosion reduction by the implementation of voluntary soil conservation projects by farmers. However, this program has no

  5. Offshoring de serviços de call center: um estudo comparativo entre Brasil, Índia e África do Sul Offshoring de servicios de call center: un estudio comparativo entre Brasil, India y África del Sur Offshoring of call center services: a comparison of brazilian, indian and south african options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Gião

    2009-06-01

    centers en tres países emergentes: India, África del Sur y Brasil. El segundo es entender los motivos que llevaron India a ocupar un rol de destaque mundial en offshoring de servicios de call center. El tercer objetivo es entender lo que distingue los call centers brasileños de los indianos, cuanto a las variables relevantes para el offshoring. Para eso fueron analizados datos primarios de 235 empresas de call center colectados a partir de la aplicación de un survey en los tres países analizados. Esos datos son oriundos de una investigación internacional intitulada The Global Call Center Industry Project (GCCIP, que está siendo realizada de manera simultánea en veinte países de todos los continentes.The call center sector has made great progress worldwide, driven by advances in telecommunications and information technology as well as the need to provide customer service, often as required by regulating agencies. A strong international trend has been observed to offshore these services from developed to emergent countries. This trend was discussed with three objectives. The call center industry was first compared in developing countries, Brazil, India and South Africa based on critical variables. Then the prominent world role of India for offshoring of these services was investigated. Finally a search was made for reasons that distinguish Brazilian and Indian call centers based on relevant variables for offshoring. Primary data were collected by a survey and analyzed regarding 235 call center organizations in the three countries in question. These data are from the international survey, The Global Call Center Industry Project, conducted simultaneously in twenty countries on all continents.

  6. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  7. Urease activity and its relation to soil organic matter, microbial biomass nitrogen and urea-nitrogen assimilation by maize in a Brazilian oxisol under no-tillage and tillage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscoe, R.; Vasconcellos, C.A.; Furtini Neto, A.E.; Guedes, G.A.A.; Fernandes, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We studied the relationship between urease activity (UA) and soil organic matter (SOM), microbial biomass N (Nbiom) content, and urea-N fertilizer assimilation by maize in a Dark Red Latosol (Typic Haplustox) cultivated for 9 years under no-tillage (NT), tillage with a disc plough (DP), and tillage

  8. Death study of Spartina alteniflora in a phyto remediation process with landfarming soil; Estudo da mortalidade da Spartina alteniflora no processo de fitorremediacao em solo 'landfarming'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Thayna M. Brandao; Viana, Francine; Machado, Maria Isabel; Baisch, Paulo; Costa, Cesar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil pollution and its products is, nowadays, the major preoccupation of modern society, the environmentalists and, predominantly, the companies, because, beside loose money, the pollute companies can be pressed by the society and damage their image. Therefore, many techniques to repair oil impacted environments have being studied and improved. Into the most utilized techniques, phyto remediation, technique that uses vegetable species to make the process of degradation of oil organic and inorganic components faster, is a good alternative, because it's cheaper and the risk of second contamination is lower. In an acclimatized greenhouse, were transplanted in a landfarming soil, samples of a salt marsh specie, Spartina alteniflora, a very common specie in South of Brazil. The experiment had duration of 90 days and for about 20% of the samples died, three times the value of the control experiment. The conclusion of this paper is that even with high values of mortality, this salt marsh specie is very strong and can be use in remediation processes. (author)

  9. Making Heritage in Brazilian Quilombos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lorena Kenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Palmares Cultural Foundation has recognized 1,624 communities as remanescentes de quilombos, or remnants, of traditional Black settlements. Since 1988, the constitution has guaranteed these groups collective land titles, generating heated debate and conflict concerning authenticity, assimilation, and land rights. Heritage has become an important vehicle for legitimizing identity and securing territory rights. I examine quilombola heritage in the sertão, an area not popularly acknowledged as having a history of slavery or Afro Brazilian cultural traditions.

  10. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  11. Reliability study of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome adapted for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients Um estudo de confiabilidade da Bateria de Avaliação da Síndrome Disexecutiva adaptada para uma amostra brasileira de idosos controles e pacientes com doença de Alzheimer provável em fase inicial

    OpenAIRE

    Fabíola Canali; SONIA M. D. BRUCKI; Paulo H. F. Bertolucci; Bueno, Orlando F.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ecological tests are useful in assessing executive function deficits and may be of value in appraising response to treatment in Alzheimer's disease patients. Our aims were to examine executive function using the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome for a Brazilian sample of older-adult controls and probable early Alzheimer's disease patients, and verify the applicability of this test battery. METHOD: Forty-one older-adult controls were matched with mild Alzheimer's di...

  12. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  13. Fracionamento químico da matéria orgânica e características de ácidos húmicos de solos com horizonte a antrópico da amazônia (Terra Preta Chemical fractionation of organic matter and humic acid characteristic in anthropogenic dark earth soils of brazilian amazonic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Jarbas Ferreira Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Os solos da Amazônia que possuem horizonte A antrópico (Au apresentam elevada fertilidade natural geralmente atribuída ao teor elevado de matéria orgânica e à sua elevada reatividade. Neste estudo foram quantificadas as substâncias húmicas e caracterizados os ácidos húmicos (AH extraídos da camada 0-20 cm de solos com horizonte Au do estado do Amazonas (Terra Preta de Índio sob floresta e cultivo agrícola. Também foram investigadas amostras de solos adjacentes sem o horizonte antrópico. A caracterização dos AH foi realizada através de análise termogravimétrica, análise da composição elementar e quantificação dos grupos funcionais (total, carboxílica e fenólica. Os horizontes A de solos antropogênicos apresentaram maior teor de carbono total, comparados aos de solos adjacentes. Entre as frações húmicas, a mais abundante foi a humina. A fração de ácidos húmicos (AH foi a dominante das frações alcalino-solúveis nos solos estudados. Os AH dos solos antropogênicos tanto sob floresta como sob cultivo agrícola apresentaram maior grau de humificação quando comparados aos AH dos solos sem o horizonte Au. O cultivo agrícola também teve efeito na estabilidade e reatividade dos AH nos solos antropogênicos.Amazonian dark earth soils that have anthropogenic A horizon (Au present high natural fertility usually attributed to their high organic matter content and to their higher reactivity. In this study humic substances were quantified and the humic acids (HA extracted from the 0-20 cm layer of Amazonian dark earth soils (Terra Preta do Índio under forest and agricultural use were characterized. Adjacent soils with no Au horizon were also investigated. The HA were characterized through the thermogravimetric analysis, elemental composition analysis and characterization of functional groups (total, carboxylic, and phenolic. The A horizon of the anthropogenic soils presented higher total carbon level compared to

  14. Development of method for quantification of {sup 222}Rn exhalation ratio at radioactive waste dam and soil study as mitigator material; Desenvolvimento de metodo para quantificacao de taxa de exalacao de {sup 222}Rn em bacia de rejeitos radioativos e estudo de solo como material mitigador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macacini, Jose Flavio

    2008-07-01

    The Brazilian uranium mining company (INB) processed 2.32 10{sup 6} tons of uranium ore in its ore treatment unit (UTM - Caldas), located in the Pocos de Caldas plateau. During 16 years of operation, this unit discarded 2.39 10{sup 6} tons of solid waste in a tailing dam, with an average activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra of 7311 {+-} 184 Bq kg{sup -1}. Most of the atoms of {sup 222}Rn generated from the radioactive waste of the tailing dam remain bounded to the mineral structure. However, a fraction of these atoms can be released from the mineral structure and then emanate. Reaching the porous space of the waste piles, the {sup 222}Rn moves towards the interface waste-atmosphere, exhaling into the atmosphere. The featuring properties of the {sup 222}Rn transport and the biological damage caused by its progeny transform this small chain of radionuclides into a scourge of nature. Because of that, the dry area of the tailing dam was the scope of this work. A methodology was developed for quantifying the exhalation rate of {sup 222}Rn. Moreover, the soil from its surroundings was experimentally evaluated as a cover material to reduce the exhalation of {sup 222}Rn. A collector of {sup 222}Rn was developed, being denominated 607. This collector was proved to be exact and precise after laboratory tests, when a standard for {sup 222}Rn exhalation was prepared with caldasite, an uranium ore with high concentration of {sup 226}Ra (26611 {+-} 581 Bq kg{sup -1}), crushed to the granulometric interval from 1.168 mm to 0.589 mm. The results of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate using the collector 607 were not influenced by the adsorption of water steam, considering sampling periods lower than 5 days and mass of water steam lower than 7 g. Sampling for measuring {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in the dry area of the tailing dam was carried out using the collector 607, following the experimental design established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The

  15. Soil macrofauna under integrated crop-livestock systems in a Brazilian Cerrado Ferralsol Macrofauna edáfica em sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária num Latossolo Vermelho do Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robélio Leandro Marchão

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effects of integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with two tillage and two fertilization regimes, on the abundance and diversity of the soil macrofauna. Four different management systems were studied: continuous pasture (mixed grass; continuous crop; two crop-livestock rotations (crop/pasture and pasture/crop; and native Cerrado as a control. Macrofauna was sampled using a modified Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility method, and all individuals were counted and identified at the morphospecies level for each plot. A total of 194 morphospecies were found, distributed among 30 groups, and the most representative in decreasing order of density were: Isoptera, Coleoptera larvae, Formicidae, Oligochaeta, Coleoptera adult, Diplopoda, Hemiptera, Diptera larvae, Arachnida, Chilopoda, Lepidoptera, Gasteropoda, Blattodea and Orthoptera. Soil management systems and tillage regimes affected the structure of soil macrofauna, and integrated crop-livestock systems, associated with no-tillage, especially with grass/legume species associations, had more favorable conditions for the development of "soil engineers" compared with continuous pasture or arable crops. Soil macrofauna density and diversity, assessed at morphospecies level, are effective data to measure the impact of land use in Cerrado soils.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de sistemas de integração lavoura-pecuária, associados a dois tipos de preparo e de fertilização do solo, sobre a abundância e a diversidade da macrofauna edáfica. Quatro sistemas de manejo foram estudados: pastagem contínua de gramíneas; lavoura contínua de culturas anuais; dois sistemas integrados lavoura-pecuária (lavoura/pastagem e pastagem/lavoura; e Cerrado nativo (controle. A macrofauna foi avaliada pelo método "Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility" modificado e todos os indivíduos coletados nas parcelas foram contados e identificados ao nível de

  16. Fracionamento densimétrico com politungstato de sódio no estudo da proteção física da matéria orgânica em solos Densimetric fractionation with sodium polytungstate to investigate physical protection of soil organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Conceição

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento físico densimétrico é uma técnica que permite estudar a proteção física da matéria orgânica (MO no solo, sendo utilizadas, de forma indistinta, soluções densas de iodeto de sódio (NaI e de politungstato de sódio (PTS. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar (a o efeito de soluções de NaI (1,8 g cm-3 e de PTS (1,8, 2,0 e 2,2 g cm-3 no rendimento de carbono (C nas frações leve-livre (FLL e leve-oclusa (FLO da MO na camada de 0-5 cm de um Argissolo Vermelho [PVd, Eldorado do Sul (RS] e de um Latossolo Vermelho [LVdf, Dourados (MS] e (b a magnitude da proteção física da MO em agregados no acúmulo de C orgânico nesses solos submetidos, respectivamente, ao sistema plantio direto por 18 anos (PD e pastagem (Brachiaria decumbens por nove anos, em comparação à sua condição em preparo convencional (PC. Em ambos os locais, blocos indeformados de solo foram coletados em experimentos de longa duração; os agregados foram separados nos planos de fraqueza e passados em peneira de 9,51 mm; esse material foi submetido ao fracionamento densimétrico da MO do solo. O uso da solução de PTS 1,8 g cm-3 aumentou de 176 a 727 % o rendimento de C na FLO em comparação à solução de NaI na mesma densidade, mas não teve efeito no rendimento de C da FLL da MO do solo. O aumento da densidade da solução de PTS de 1,8 g cm-3 para 2,0 g cm-3 incrementou de 30 a 99 % o rendimento de C da FLO; contudo, o aumento da densidade para 2,2 g cm-3 resultou em aumento pouco expressivo (Through the densimetric fractionation it is possible to study the physical protection of soil organic matter (SOM. High density solutions of sodium iodide (NaI or sodium polytungstate (SPT have been indistinctively used for this purpose. This study aimed to assess: (a the capacity of these two solutions at a density of 1.8 g cm-3 (NaI-1.8 and SPT-1.8 and of SPT at densities of 2.0 (SPT-2.0 and 2.2 g cm-3 (SPT-2.2 to increase C recovery in the free light

  17. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos; Carlos Roberto Spehar; Lucio Vivaldi

    2003-01-01

    The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox). Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and ...

  18. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  19. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  20. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  1. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  2. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  3. Attitudes of Brazilian citizens towards pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Saab, Maria Stella Melo;

    in southern and central-western states of Brazil. The experiment was based on the following pig farming characteristics: farm size, floor type, efforts to protect soil, air and water, fat content, and pork quality. The results of the conjoint analysis were used for a subsequent cluster analysis in order......The objective of this study is to map Brazilian citizen attitudes towards pig meat production systems and to investigate whether these attitudes associate with pork and pork product consumption. A conjoint experiment was carried out with empirical data collected from 475 respondents interviewed...

  4. Propriedades químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico sob diferentes sistemas de manejo no Cerrado mato-grossense Soil chemical properties in a Typic Quartzipisamment under different management systems in Brazilian savanna in Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidivan Almeida Frazão

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes usos da terra e sistemas de manejo do solo, nas características químicas de um Neossolo Quartzarênico, no Cerrado de Mato Grosso. Os tratamentos estudados foram: cerrado nativo; uma pastagem de baixa produtividade com 22 anos de implantação; plantio convencional com 1 e 4 anos de uso e diferentes sucessões de culturas; e plantio direto com 5 anos de implantação. Foram determinados os teores de carbono e nitrogênio, pH, acidez potencial, capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC, fósforo disponível, bases trocáveis e saturação por bases do solo. Os valores mais baixos de pH, fósforo disponível, potássio, cálcio e magnésio foram observados nas áreas sob cerrado e pastagem, e a menor concentração de carbono no solo sob pastagem refletiu menor CTC do solo. A aplicação do calcário nos tratamentos com plantio convencional e direto favorece o aumento das concentrações de cálcio e magnésio no solo. Nesses sistemas, a saturação por bases (V% do solo é mais elevada nas áreas com maior tempo de implantação (4 e 5 anos. Embora o Neossolo Quartzarênico possua limitações para o cultivo, em razão de sua baixa fertilidade natural, se adequadamente manejado, este solo apresenta potencial para o cultivo agrícola.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different land uses and soil management systems, on chemical characteristics of a Typic Quartzipisamment in the savanna (Cerrado of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The treatments studied were: native cerrado; pasture with low productivity for 22 years; conventional tillage with one and four years and different crop successions; and no-tillage for five years. Soil carbon and nitrogen, pH, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity (CEC, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases and base saturation were determined. The cerrado and pasture treatments had the lowest pH, available phosphorus, calcium and magnesium

  5. Estudo multicasos sobre atividades inovativas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Regina Hierro Parolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Em estudos sobre competitividade argumenta-se que as empresas necessitam de estratégias baseadas em inovações e de capacidades internas em constantes e intensas transformações, não somente nos padrões tecnológicos, mas também no encadeamento do processo de gestão das atividades inovativas, como processos dinâmicos, não lineares e diversificados, em função de múltiplos fatores dos ambientes interno e externo. Para contribuir com essas discussões, neste artigo apresenta-se um estudo multicasos em quatro indústrias de médio e grande portes, de segmentos, densidades tecnológicas e históricos com inovações diferentes entre si. Como principais resultados, salientam-se o encadeamento das atividades inovativas como parte de uma estratégia organizacional para obter resultados com inovação e a afluência de todas as pessoas, e não somente as alocadas em pesquisa e desenvolvimento, para o cumprimento dessa estratégia.

  6. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  7. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luiz da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world. The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultural research, has attempted to develop environmental technologies in order to minimize the impact caused by the scarcity and pollution of water resources. This paper describes the technologies this institution offers to different regions. For this purpose, a descriptive and exploratory study was conducted in various Embrapa research units. The results showed that research on the rational use of water in agriculture has intensified since the early 2000s. However, the pace of growth in agricultural activities and their impact is much greater than that of the generated technologies, demonstrating the difficulty in striking a balance in this relationship. Furthermore, it is clear that that water scarcity and the increasing pollution of shallow and deep waters are complex issues with no short-term solution.

  8. Frações de carbono e nitrogênio de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico sob diferentes usos na Amazônia brasileira Carbon and nitrogen fractions in a dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol (Oxisol soil under different uses in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Cristiani Gonçalves Matoso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar indicadores de qualidade de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico sob vegetação nativa de floresta, pastagem (Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu, plantio convencional, cultivo mínimo e sistema de plantio direto. Foram determinados o carbono e o nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana do solo, o carbono orgânico e o nitrogênio total do solo, quocientes microbianos para carbono e nitrogênio e relações entre carbono orgânico e nitrogênio total do solo (C/N tot e entre carbono e nitrogênio da biomassa microbiana (C/N mic. As amostras foram coletadas em Cerejeiras/RO, em duas profundidades (0-10 e 10-20 cm nos cinco tratamentos, com cinco repetições. A análise estatística consistiu na análise de dados discrepantes, pelo método de Chauvenet, e dos pressupostos das variâncias, pelo teste de Bartlett e de Shapiro-Wilk, seguidos do teste de Kruskal-Wallis, entre os tratamentos, e comparação das variáveis entre as profundidades, pelo teste de Mann-Whitney, e ainda da análise de agrupamentos utilizando o método de Ward, todos ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os diferentes usos do solo influenciam as variáveis avaliadas, com exceção da relação C/N tot, sendo que as variáveis microbiológicas demonstram-se mais sensíveis às mudanças do uso e manejo do solo. O sistema de plantio convencional é o tratamento que apresenta maior homogeneidade entre as profundidades. A análise de agrupamentos evidencia que o solo sob plantio direto, sistema de cultivo mínimo e plantio convencional apresenta semelhanças entre si, assim como, o solo sob vegetação nativa de floresta e pastagem também se assemelham.The aim of this study was to assess quality indicators of a dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol (Oxisol soil under native forest, pasture (Brachiaria brizantha cv. marandu, conventional tillage, minimum tillage system and no till system. It was determined the soil carbon and soil nitrogen in the microbial

  9. Amizades internacionais: panorama da literatura empírica e um estudo descritivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Karine de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A amizade está entre os relacionamentos interpessoais mais importantes para o desenvolvimento humano. No entanto, estudos que abordem a percepção de brasileiros em relação à amizade e realizem comparações com participantes de outras culturas ainda são escassos. Nesse sentido, este trabalho tem dois objetivos: 1 apresentar um panorama de estudos empíricos sobre a percepção das amizades em diferentes países, e 2 apresentar um estudo descritivo sobre a percepção da amizade em adultos de nacionalidade estrangeira residentes no Brasil e compará-las com brasileiros. Participaram da coleta de dados 14 estudantes brasileiros e 14 estudantes de diferentes nacionalidades, todos regularmente matriculados na Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. As variáveis analisadas foram presença, sexo, origem, duração, reciprocidade e proximidade geográfica da melhor amizade. Os principais resultados indicam a prevalência de amizades do mesmo sexo em todos os participantes. Também observou-se uma média maior de amizades residentes na mesma cidade para os participantes brasileiros. Discute-se a presença de laços fortes por parte dos participantes estrangeiros com suas amizades no país de origem. Abstract Friendship is one of the most important interpersonal relationships to human development. However studies that analyze Brazilian´s perceptions of friendship in comparison to participants from other cultures are scarce. This study is twofold: 1 present an overview of empirical studies about the friendship perceptions in different countries, and 2 present a descriptive study about the perception of friendship in adults with foreign nationality that live in Brazil and compare it to Brazilian´s. Data collection resulted in 14 Brazilian students and 14 students from different nationalities, all regular students from Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul. The variables about best friendships analyzed were frequency, gender, origin

  10. Economic analysis of soilless and soil-based greenhouse cucumber production in Turkey Estudo econômico da produção de pepino em cultivos com e sem solo em casas de vegetação na Turquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Engindeniz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the onset of the commercial application of soilless culture, this production approach has evoluted at a fast pace, gaining popularity among growers throughout the world. As a result, a lot of information has been developed by growers, advisors, researchers, and suppliers of equipment and substrate. This study aimed to determine the cost and return of soilless greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. production and to prepare a sample budget for growers. Soilless cultivation is an alternative production method for Turkish growers and it is being practised on a commercial basis on 180 ha. Cost and return budgets can be useful for growers because they allows growers to compare total production cost and revenue varying grower type, production time, geographical location, operation size, and cost structure. Growers can identify items in their budget that have a greater effect on profitability, and make adjustments. In this study, economic aspects of soilless and soil-based greenhouse cucumber production was analysed as comparative. Total costs were subtracted from total gross revenue to calculate the net return of soilless and soil-based greenhouse cucumber production. The cost items of soilless and soil-based greenhouse cucumber production were initial investment costs, variable costs, and fixed costs. Net return obtained from cucumbers grown in a mixture of perlite and zeolite was determined as € 1.84 m-2, whereas it was € 1.48 m-2 in conventional soil-based production. Production and market risks both affect profitability and economic viability of soilless grown vegetables.Desde o início da implantação de cultivos comerciais sem solo suas técnicas de produção tem evoluido em ritmo acelerado, ganhando popularidade entre agricultores de todo o mundo. Como resultado, uma grande quantidade de informação tem sido desenvolvida pelos produtores, consultores, pesquisadores e fornecedores de equipamentos e substratos. Determinaram-se o

  11. Sorção, dessorção e potencial de lixiviação de dimethenamid em solos brasileiros Sorption, desorption, and leaching potential of dimethenamid in Brazilian soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Archangelo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Determinar a sorção, a dessorção e o potencial de lixiviação do dimethenamid em diferentes solos foi o objetivo deste trabalho. As amostras dos solos foram agitadas por 24 horas e centrifugadas, sendo o sobrenadante filtrado e analisado por HPLC. As etapas da dessorção foram conduzidas por meio da reposição do sobrenadante removido com o mesmo volume de solução de 0,01 M de CaCl2 com agitação por 24 h e posterior centrifugação, repetindo-se o processo por três vezes consecutivas (24, 48 e 72 h sendo o sobrenadante filtrado e analisado por HPLC. A sorção do dimethenamid, descrita pela isoterma de Freundlich, foi calculada pela diferença entre as concentrações adicionadas e aquelas quantificadas no HPLC. Foram calculadas as percentagens de dessorção a 24, 48 e 72 horas, pela diferença entre as quantidades sorvidas e aquelas quantificadas no HPLC. Correlações de Pearson foram feitas entre kf, kfoc e dessorção e as principais propriedades dos solos. O coeficiente GUS foi utilizado para estimar o potencial de lixiviação. Os baixos valores encontrados para o kf do dimethenamid indicam que este herbicida é pouco sorvido pelos solos estudados. No perfil LVd-a, a sorção se correlacionou significativa e positivamente com o teor de carbono orgânico, quando analisado isoladamente. Os valores de kfoc variaram de 37,66 a 138,24 nas amostras superficiais dos solos estudados e apresentaram correlação significativa com o teor de carbono orgânico quando analisado somente o perfil do LVd-a. A avaliação do potencial de lixiviação demonstrou que o dimethenamid pode ser classificado como herbicida lixiviador apenas no solo LVdf. O processo de dessorção foi menor que o processo de sorção, até 72 horas após a aplicação. A dessorção é maior em camadas mais profundas no perfil do solo LVd-a, onde o teor de carbono orgânico é menor.Dimethenamid was applied on soil samples to determine the sorption, desorption, and

  12. Background levels of some trace elements in weathered soils from the Brazilian Northern region Valores de referência de alguns elementos-traço em solos intemperizados da região Norte brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Souza Fadigas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Soils formed from the Barreiras Group sediments, located mainly along the coast of Brazil Northern and Northeastern regions, generally present low concentrations of iron oxides and total organic carbon, high quantities of quartz in the sand fraction, and kaolinitic clay mineralogy. The objective of the present study was to quantify the pseudo total concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn and Fe in Xhantic Udox and Xhantic Udult soils derived from these sediments. The reference sites were covered by native vegetation and located in the States of Pará and Amapá, Brazil. Multiple linear regression analysis was applied to determine correlations between soil parameters and the levels of these metals. The best correlation was obtained between Fe, Mn, clay, and silt contents, and Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni. A correlation between pH and these metal levels was not found. Clay and sand contents showed a negative inverse correlation with the metal levels,of same magnitude but with a different sign; this was the reason for excluding one of the parameters in the regression model. In general, the contents of the elements were lower than those found in soils formed from other parent materials. The Mn content was included in the model of multiple linear regression for Cd and Co, due to its association with these last metals. Silt level showed to have a significant influence in the equations for Cr and Co, which is attributed to the presence of clay minerals and Fe and Mn oxides in ferruginous and clay aggregates of silt size. The equations obtained in this paper, are useful to predict, in general terms, the amounts of those heavy metals in an unknown soil sample, if the soil material were not contaminated or affected by land usage. Thus, they may be applied to evaluate soil contamination by the studied heavy metals.Solos formados a partir de sedimentos do Grupo Barreiras apresentam, em geral, baixos teores de ferro, mineralogia caulinítica, elevadas

  13. Balanço hídrico no solo para porta-enchertos de citros em ecossistema de tabuleiro costeiro Water balance in soil for citrus rootstocks in the brazilian coastal tableland ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luis Dultra Cintra

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available A má distribuição das chuvas e a existência de camadas coesas em muitos solos dos tabuleiros promovem, muitas vezes, alterações importantes no regime hídrico do solo e nas taxas de evapotranspiração das culturas exploradas nesse ecossistema. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, conhecer, através do balanço hídrico, como esses processos ocorrem e, também, contribuir para o estabelecimento de práticas de manejo visando ao melhor uso das reservas de água no solo. Todos os componentes do balanço foram medidos, à exceção da evapotranspiração, que foi calculada. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que a maior demanda hídrica da laranjeira aconteceu nos meses de outubro e novembro e que, com base na taxa de evapotranspiração, a Tangerina Cleópatra (Citrus reshni Hort. ex Tan. foi o porta-enxerto menos adaptado e o Limão Cravo (Citrus limonia Osbeck o que apresentou as melhores características de adaptação à área estudada.The irregular rain distribution and the existence of hardened layers in several soils of the tablelands promote, sometimes, important changes in the soil water regime and in the rates of evapotranspiration of the crops utilized in that ecosystem. The objective of this work was to know, by means of the water balance, how these processes occur in the studied area and to contribute to the establishment of management practices in order to make better use of the soil water. All components of the equations were measured, with exception of the evapotranspiration which was calculated. According to the results, it could be concluded that the orange tree had the maximum water consumption during the months of October and November and that, in terms of the rootstocks during these periods of great water consumption, the "Tangerina Cleópatra" (Citrus reshni Hort. former Tan. was the less adapted and the "Limão Cravo" (Citrus limonia Osbeck presented the best adaptation characteristics to the studied area.

  14. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  15. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications. PMID:24068084

  16. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  17. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  18. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  19. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  20. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  1. Instrumentos de Avaliação de Desempenho e Risco no Mercado Acionário Brasileiro: um estudo de anomalias de mercado na Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPAInstruments for the Evaluation Analysis of Performance and Risk in the Brazilian Stock Market: a study of the market anomalies at (BOVESPA Sao PauloInstrumentos de Evaluación del Desempeño y Riesgo en el Mercado de Acciones Brasileño: un estudio de anomalías de mercado en la Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo (BOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIERI, Francisco José

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOÀ partir da formulação das hipótese dos Mercados Eficientes e da descoberta do sentido das relações entre os ativos negociados no mercado bursátil , e um determinado padrão de conduta racional , eleito (representativo na tomada de decisão dos investidores, este estudo buscou desenvolver à partir do modelo CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model , de precificação em port-fólios , cujas relações entre seus componentes são traduzidas pelo Beta , os questionamentos advindos com o modelo APT (Arbitrage Pricing Theory. Dedica-se pois, à evolução das teorias da avaliação e à quantificação do risco e, formação de preços (retornos esperados dos ativos, que em estudos mais atualizados verificam que o comportamento dos investidores muitas vezes , não confirma a propagada eficiência dos mercados. O trabalho se fundamentou em determinadas áreas tratadas na teoria de investimentos, enfatizando a abordagem do risco como fator de tomada de decisões, além dos modelos de precificação de ativos, de avaliação de carteiras. Fundamentou-se em pesquisa documental e de dados junto à Bolsa de Valores de São Paulo, Instituições gestoras de Fundos de Investimentos e Banco Central do Brasil ( período de 1997 a 2.001, de tal sorte que pudessem ser testadas as diversas teorias acerca da eficiência de mercado, e finalmente, análise das informações obtidas a partir da modelagem de dados, buscando identificar a consistência dos resultados, à luz dos diferentes modelos estudados, relacionado-os aos conceitos de anomalias de mercado. Como resultado, possibilitou definir a Linha de Mercado de Títulos (Security Market Line para o mercado brasileiro, baseando-se nos modelos de precificação de ativos; coeficientes Beta e Fatores do APT.ABSTRACTAs from the assumption of efficient markets, the discovery of the meaning of the relations among the assets negotiated in the Stock Exchange market and a certain standard of rational conduct

  2. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a Brazilian Savannah soil Reação de quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa a resíduos de herbicida em um solo de cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Lorena de Barros Santos

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. cultivation, one of the most promising in double cropping with soybeans or maize, depends on weed control. The objective of this work was to evaluate quinoa reaction to herbicide residue in a savannah soil. Six herbicide treatments, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin and control, were applied, prior to summer cultivation of soybean, in a Dark-Red Latosol (typic Haplustox. Soybean cultivar BR 9 Savana was grown and soil samples were collected at 15, 38, 100, 145 and 206 days after treatment and stored at -5ºC. Bioassays were conducted in greenhouse, using quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin was the most harmful to quinoa seedlings, up to 206 days after application, followed by clomazone 15-38 days after application; trifluralin and pendimethalin had no residual effect. These results suggest that a broad-base screening should be conducted.O cultivo da quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., um dos mais promissores em sucessão à soja ou ao milho, depende do controle de plantas daninhas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a reação da quinoa a resíduos de herbicidas num solo de cerrado. Seis tratamentos com herbicidas, trifluralin, pendimethalin, clomazone, imazaquin, trifluralin + imazaquin e testemunha, foram aplicados, antes da semeadura de soja, cultivar BR 9 Savana, em um Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro. Amostras de solo foram coletadas aos 15, 38, 100, 145 e 206 dias após a aplicação e armazenadas sob temperatura de -5ºC. Bioensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação, usando a quinoa, cultivar Q18. Imazaquin mostrou-se o mais prejudicial à quinoa até os 206 dias, seguido por clomazone entre 15 e 38 dias após a aplicação; trifluralin e pendimethalin não mostraram efeito residual. Estes resultados sugerem ampliar a triagem, com a inclusão de novos produtos.

  3. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  4. Toxic metabolities of disulfoton: behavior in bean-seedlings, in soil, and in nutrient solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absorption, translocation and degradation in bean-seedlings of three toxic metabolites of the pesticide 14C- disulfoton from nutrient solution or three different types of Brazilian soils is studied. (M.A.C.)

  5. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  6. Exchangeable aluminum evaluation in acid soils

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu Jr. Cassio Hamilton; Muraoka Takashi; Lavorante André Fernando

    2003-01-01

    One of the main factors limiting agricultural production in tropical climate regions is mainly related to the presence of exchangeable aluminum (Al3+) in highly weathered acid soils. Four methods of Al3+ determination extracted with neutral 1 mol L¹ KCl solution were evaluated: three colorimetric methods (aluminon plus ascorbic acid, and eriochrome cyanine R by FIA) and the usual titrimetric method with back-titration. Surface samples from 20 soils of different Brazilian regions, with active ...

  7. Distribution of potentially toxic elements in the Brazilian phosphogypsum and phosphate fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saueia C. H. R.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian phosphate fertilizer is obtained by wet reaction of the igneous phosphate rock with concentrated sulphuric acid, giving as final product phosphoric acid and dehydrated calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum as by-product. Phosphoric acid is the raw material for the production of phosphate fertilizers (SSP, TSP, MAP and DAP. Phosphogypsum waste is stored in stacks, since its level of impurities (metals and radionuclides among others prevent its safe reutilization. However, part of this waste is used to improve fertility of agricultural soils. The main aim of this paper is to determine the levels of potentially toxic elements in phosphate fertilizers and phosphogypsum produced in Brazil. The elements Co and Cr were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis and As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were analyzed by ICP-OES. The results obtained are lower than the limits established by the Brazilian regulatory agency for metals in fertilizers and soil conditioner.

  8. A new allele of acid soil tolerance gene from a malting barley variety

    OpenAIRE

    Bian, Miao; Jin, Xiaoli; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhou, Gaofeng; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping; Sun, Dongfa; Li, Chengdao

    2015-01-01

    Background Acid soil is a serious limitation to crop production all over the world. Toxic aluminium (Al) cations in acid soil inhibit root growth and reduce yield. Although a gene tolerant to acid soil has been identified, it has not been used in malting barley breeding, which is partly due to the acid soil tolerance gene being linked to unfavorable malting quality traits. Results A Brazilian malting barley variety Br2 was identified as tolerant to acid soil. A doubled haploid (DH) population...

  9. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  10. Production of nitrous oxide and consumption of methane by forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, M.; Wofsy, S. C.; Kaplan, W. A.; Mcelroy, M. B.; Goreau, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Soils in an Amazonian rainforest are observed to release N2O at a rate larger than the global mean by about a factor of 20. Emissions from a New England hardwood forest are approximately 30 times smaller then Brazilian values. Atmospheric methane is consumed by soils in both systems. Tropical forests would provide a major source of atmospheric N2O if the Brazilian results are representative.

  11. Gestão e estratégia ambiental: um estudo bibliométrico sobre o interesse do tema nos periódicos acadêmicos brasileiros Gestión ambiental y estrategia: un estudio bibliométrico sobre el tema de interés en revistas académica brasileña Environmental management and strategy: a bibliometric study on the theme of interest in Brazilian academic journals

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Sehnem; Murilo de Alencar Souza Oliveira; Elaine Ferreira; Adriana Marques Rossetto

    2012-01-01

    Este trabalho objetivou identificar a evolução do interesse de publicação da administração nas questões da gestão ambiental, estratégia ambiental, desempenho ambiental e avaliação estratégica ambiental (em português, inglês ou espanhol), através da verificação de artigos com estas temáticas em periódicos da área. Realizou-se um estudo bibliométrico, com abordagem quantitativa, em 44 periódicos brasileiros classificados em 2008 pelo sistema Qualis/CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pess...

  12. Mercury Bioaccumulation in the Brazilian Amazonian Tucunares (Cichla sp., Cichlidae, Perciformes)

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Josefina Reyna Kurtz; Zuleica Carmen Castilhos; Ysrael Marrero Vera; Roberto José de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    There are emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, soil and rivers of the Brazilian Amazon stem from many sources. Once in the atmosphere, the metal is oxidized and immediately deposited. In the water, the transformation to methylmercury takes place mostly by the action of microorganisms. The formation of methylmercury increases the dispersion and bioavailability of the element in the aquatic environment. Methylmercury can be assimilated by plankton and enters the food chain. The concentration...

  13. Cyclodextrin glycosyltransferase production by new Bacillus sp. strains isolated from brazilian soil Produção de ciclodextrina glicosiltransferase por novas cepas de Bacillus sp. isoladas de solo brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Menocci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Three strains of Bacillus sp. (BACRP, BACNC-1 and BACAR were isolated from soil adhered to cassava husk. CGTase specific activity for the three isolated strains was higher when cultivated at 40ºC. Potato starch, cassava starch, maltodextrin and glucose were used as carbon source and growth temperatures varied from 25 to 55ºC. The three isolates presented higher CGTase specific activity when cultivated with potato starch at 40ºC. Isolated BACRP and BACAR presented specific activity of 4.0x10-3 and 2.2x10-3 U/mg prot at pH 7.0, respectively, when cultivated in mediums added with NaCl 2%; at pH 10,0 their activities were of 3.4x10-3 and 3.0x10-3 U/mg prot, respectively, in the same concentration of NaCl. On the other hand, the isolated BACNC-1 presented activity specific of 2.4x10-3 U/mg prot when cultivated at pH 7.0 added of NaCl 1%, and at pH 10.0 the specific activity was of 3.4x10-3 U/mg prot without NaCl addition. This work also showed the presence of cyclodextrins formed during fermentation process and that precipitation with acetone or lyophilization followed by dialysis was efficient at removing CDs (cyclodextrins, thus, eliminating interference in the activity assays. The enzyme produced by the BACAR strain was partially purified and β-CD was liberated as a reaction product.Três linhagens de Bacillus sp (BACRP, BACNC- 1 e BACAR foram isoladas a partir de solo aderido em casca de mandioca. Foram utilizados amido de batata, amido de mandioca, maltodextrina e glicose como fonte de carbono, e temperaturas de crescimento de 25-55ºC, sendo que os três isolados apresentaram maior atividade específica de CGTase quando cultivados com amido de batata a 40ºC. Em pH 7,0 os isolados BACRP e BACAR apresentaram atividade específica de 4,0x 10-3 e 2,2x10-3 U/mg prot, respectivamente, quando cultivados em meios acrescidos de 2% de NaCl; em pH 10,0 suas atividades foram de 3,4x10-3 e 3,0x10-3 U/mg prot na mesma concentração de NaCl. Por outro

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  15. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão C. Gamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to internationalize the existing Brazilian journals. With regard to the latter possibility, a metric analysis of scientometrics databases suggests that the reasons for the low impact of articles published in Brazilian journals are manifold, but the low performance is mainly explained by the scarce employment of the lingua franca-English language-in the articles. This article discusses the role that SciELO, a Brazilian scientific publisher, has played in indexing and assisting the best Brazilian psychology journals in raising their horizons, in terms of internationalizing their output, while at the same time serving as an instrument of promotion for national studies of psychology within the country of Brazil.

  16. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  17. O cerrado brasileiro: notas para estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro Augusto dos Santos; Alisson Flávio Barbieri; José Alberto Magno de Carvalho; Carla Jorge Machado

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a short literature review on the Brazilian Cerrado, with emphasis on the following aspects: (1) characterization of the area, (2) environmental degradation and population occupation, (3) history of regional occupation (4) role of immigration; the use of technology; and the land market.

  18. Simulating SOC changes in 11 land use change chronosequences from the Brazilian Amazon with RothC and Century models

    OpenAIRE

    Cerri, C. E. P.,; Easter, M.; K. Paustian; Killian, K.; Coleman, K.; Bernoux, MARTIAL,; P. Falloon; D. S. Powlson; Batjes, N.; Milne, E.; Cerri, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Land use and land cover changes in the Brazilian Amazon have major implications for regional and global carbon (C) cycling. Cattle pasture represents the largest single use (about 70%) of this once-forested land in most of the region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the RothC and Century models at estimating soil organic C (SOC) changes under forest-to-pasture conditions in the Brazilian Amazon. We used data from 11 site-specific 'forest to pasture' chronosequ...

  19. Modeling distribution of Schinus molle L. in the Brazilian Pampa: insights on vegetation dynamics and conservation of the biome

    OpenAIRE

    R.P.M. Lemos; C.B. D’Oliveira; C.R. RODRIGUES; Roesch, L.F.W.; Stefenon, V. M.

    2014-01-01

    Natural establishment of forests in the Brazilian Pampa biome should occur due to soil, hydrology and climate conditions, although no significant forest expansion over grassland has been noticed, precluded mainly by human interference and lack of environmental management. In this study, we used niche-modeling distribution of the tree species Schinus molle L. based on climatic variables to access the vegetation dynamics of the Brazilian Pampa and to develop strategies that assure the conservat...

  20. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  1. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R. M. S. P.; Tomasella, J.; Alvalá, R. C. S.; Sestini, M. F.; Affonso, A. G.; Rodriguez, D. A.; Barbosa, A. A.; Cunha, A. P. M. A.; Valles, G. F.; Crepani, E.; de Oliveira, S. B. P.; de Souza, M. S. B.; Calil, P. M.; de Carvalho, M. A.; Valeriano, D. M.; Campello, F. C. B.; Santana, M. O.

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 57% of the Brazilian northeast region is recognized as semi-arid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the 11 influencing factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index, conservation units) which were simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions), representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The results indicate that 94% of the Brazilian northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.4 km2) from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provides the technical basis for decision-making that involves mitigating actions and the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  2. ASSESSMENT OF EROSION VULNERABILITY IN THE JACARÉ PEPIRA RIVER BASIN BASED ON THE UNIVERSAL SOIL LOSS MODEL = ESTUDO DA VULNERABILIDADE À EROSÃO NA ALTA BACIA DO RIO JACARÉ PEPIRA UTILIZANDO MODELO BASEADO NA EQUAÇÃO UNIVERSAL DE PERDA DE SOLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Carneiro da Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the upper Jacaré Pepira River Basin, in the state of São Paulo, territorial expansion of agrobusiness has caused the acceleration of the erosion process, leading to impacts on natural resources and the landscape in the region. In the present study, an analysis of erosion vulnerability was attempted in an area defined by sub-basins in an Environmental Protection Area (APA Corumbataí. The appropriateness of current land use in light of this vulnerability analysis was also evaluated. The analysis attempted was based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE model. Operational procedures were carried out with the aid of satellite images and GIS/Spring. The erosion vulnerability map was obtained for the relation of Anthropic Erosion Potential, which considers only anthropic erosion factors, and Tolerable Anthropic Erosion Potential. This depends on tolerable soil loss capacity, pre-defined for different types of soil in the area, and on Natural Erosion Potential, considering natural erosion factors. The vulnerability analysis was done in 1988 and 2004 for land use evolution comparison. The results indicated that sugar cane was the type of land use that had expanded the most, and showed 18.8% of the area with high erosion vulnerability. It is therefore necessary to monitor the evolution of land use evolution and seek ways to make existing activities compatible with the preservation of natural resources and the environmental vocation of the area. = Na alta porção da Bacia Hidrográfica do rio Jacaré Pepira, no Estado de São Paulo, a expansão territorial dos agronegócios tem proporcionado a aceleração dos processos erosivos, o que acarreta impactos à preservação dos recursos naturais e paisagísticos da região. No presente trabalho, realizou-se estudo sobre a vulnerabilidade à erosão em área definida por sub-bacias situadas em uma Área de Proteção Ambiental (APA Corumbataí, avaliando-se ainda a adequação das atuais formas de

  3. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  4. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  5. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  6. UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity data for magnetic soils/rocks from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Coey, J. M. D.

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to obtain UV, visible, and near-IR reflectivity spectra for several magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks and compare them to corresponding data for Mars to see if these materials satisfy both magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars. Selected physical properties of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks are presented. In general, the spectral features resulting from ferric crystal-field transitions are much better defined in the spectra of the magnetic Brazilian soils/rocks than in Martian spectral data. Presumably, this results from a relatively higher proportion of crystalline ferric oxides for the former. The apparent masking of the spectral signature of maghemite by hematite or goethite for the Brazilian samples implies the magnetic and spectral constraints for Mars can be decoupled. That is, maghemite may be present in magnetically-significant but optically-insignificant amounts compared to crystalline hematite.

  7. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal: estudo de oito casos

    OpenAIRE

    Amico Enio Campos; Coimbra Cesar Wilson Bastos; Bugalho Luiz Antônio; Nai Gisele Alborghetti; Matos Ricardo Marcondes; Machado Cibele Chuery; Silva Fabrício Colacino

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: O diagnóstico e tratamento dos tumores estromais gastrointestinais (TEGI) têm evoluído a partir de estudos recentes de genética e biologia molecular. Tais avanços têm refletido em melhor sobrevivência dos doentes. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo retrospectivo no período de novembro/1998 a julho/2004, em instituição universitária e em clínica privada dos autores, que identificou portadores de TEGI a partir de positividade para c-kit (CD 117), ao exame imunoistoquímico. RESULTADOS: Dos ...

  8. Do buzz ao marketing viral : um estudo

    OpenAIRE

    Viveiros, Nuno Filipe Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão de Empresas/MBA. Com o crescente ênfase do marketing viral e das redes sociais na divulgação de produtos, serviços e marcas, o seu estudo torna-se pertinente para o desenvolvimento de campanhas mais eficazes e eficientes. Esta tese apresenta um estudo centralizado sobre o impacto que um país tem na criação de buzz de modo a tornar as campanhas de marketing, virais. Estudando e analisando três países (dois desenvolvidos e um em desenvolvimento), com o objet...

  9. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  10. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  11. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  12. Legacy phosphorus and no tillage agriculture in tropical oxisols of the Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Marcos; Pavinato, Paulo Sergio; Withers, Paul John Anthony; Teles, Ana Paula Bettoni; Herrera, Wilfrand Ferney Bejarano

    2016-01-15

    Crop production in the Brazilian Cerrado is limited by soil phosphorus (P) supply without large inputs of inorganic P fertilizer, which may become more costly and scarce in the future. Reducing dependency on fertilizer P requires a greater understanding of soil P supply in the highly weathered soils in this important agricultural region. We investigated the impact of no tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT) agriculture on accumulated (legacy) soil P and P forms in four long-term sites. Compared to the native savanna soils, tilled soils receiving regular annual P fertilizer inputs (30-50 kg P ha(-1)) increased all forms of inorganic and organic P, except highly recalcitrant P associated with the background lithology. However, 70-85% of the net added P was bound in moderately labile and non-labile forms associated with Fe/Al oxyhydroxides rather than in plant available forms. Under NT agriculture, organic P forms and labile and non-labile inorganic P forms were all significantly (PCerrado soils that could be better exploited to reduce dependency on imports of finite phosphate rock. No tillage agriculture confers a positive albeit relatively small benefit for soil P availability and overall soil function. PMID:26351200

  13. Demography and Religion in the Last Thirty Years: a Content Analysis of Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Miranda-Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to do a content analysis of the scientific production regarding demography and religion, published by Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População - Rebep (Brazilian Journal of Population Studies, a periodical that belongs to Associação Brasileira de Estudos Populacionais (Brazilian Population Studies Association. The period under study goes from January 1984 to July 2014. Out of 567 texts (articles, research notes, points of view, and book reviews published in the last 30 years, 47 were more closely related to religion/religiosity, either as the main topic, variable of interest, control variable, or relevant for the analysis. Written by 70 authors who belong to 42 different institutions, the 47 selected texts were grouped into nine themes (families, adolescents/youth, migration, indigenous people, sexual and reproductive health, mortality and health, politics, vital registration, and religion.  The first two were the most frequent.  In eleven of the texts, religion/religiosity was in the title.  Twenty two of them used only quantitative data, eight used qualitative data, and only four combined both.  Despite the fact that Brazilian censuses offer information about religious affiliation since 1940, it would be crucial to collect data on frequency of attendance to religious service as well.

  14. Soils - Soil Data Viewer

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soil Data Viewer is a tool built as an extension to ArcMap that allows a user to create soil-based thematic maps. The application can also be run independent of...

  15. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  16. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  17. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  18. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-01-01

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe. PMID:27323193

  19. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  20. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  1. Micronutrient problems in Brazilian soils with special emphasis on zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil, with approximately 50% of the total land area in South America, has areas in which different micronutrient deficiencies (zinc, boron, copper, iron, manganese and molybdenum) have been noted in specific crops. This paper reviews the published research on such deficiencies and puts special emphasis on zinc which appears to be the most widespread deficiency. The need for an integrated approach to determining the extent of micronutrient deficiencies is discussed. (author)

  2. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  3. Matéria orgânica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composição química e sorção de atrazina Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick; Rosane Martinazzo; Heike Knicker; Paulo Sergio Gois Almeida

    2010-01-01

    Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83%) than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter cap...

  4. Brazilian offshore wave climate based on NWW3 reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Pianca

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of the wave climate off the Brazilian coast based on an eleven-year time series (Jan/1997-Dec/2007 obtained from the NWW3 operational model hindcast reanalysis. Information about wave climate in Brazilian waters is very scarce and mainly based on occasional short-term observations, the present analysis being the first covering such temporal and spatial scales. To define the wave climate, six sectors were defined and analyzed along the Brazilian shelf-break: South (W1, Southeast (W2, Central (W3, East (W4, Northeast (W5 and North (W6. W1, W2 and W3 wave regimes are determined by the South Atlantic High (SAH and the passage of synoptic cold fronts; W4, W5 and W6 are controlled by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ and its meridional oscillation. The most energetic waves are from the S, generated by the strong winds associated to the passage of cold fronts, which mainly affect the southern region. Wave power presents a decrease in energy levels from south to north, with its annual variation showing that the winter months are the most energetic in W1 to W4, while in W5 and W6 the most energetic conditions occur during the austral summer. The information presented here provides boundary conditions for studies related to coastal processes, fundamental for a better understanding of the Brazilian coastal zone.O presente trabalho apresenta o clima de ondas da região ao largo da costa brasileira com base em uma série temporal de onze anos (Jan/1997-Dez/2007 obtida através de dados de reanálise do modelo operacional NWW3. Informações sobre o regime de ondas no Brasil são escassas e baseadas em observações ocasionais de curto período, sendo a presente análise inédita na escala espaço-temporal apresentada. Para a definição do clima de ondas foram definidos e analisados seis setores ao longo da quebra da plataforma continental brasileira: Sul (W1, Sudeste (W2, Central (W3, Leste (W4, Nordeste (W5 e Norte

  5. Estudo da adsorção/dessorção do ácido 2,4 diclorofenoxiacético (2,4d) em solo na ausência e presença de matéria orgânica Study of adsorption/desorption of herbicide 2,4D in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Eny Maria Vieira; Alexandre Gustavo Soares do Prado; Maria Diva Landgraf; Maria Olímpia Oliveira Rezende

    1999-01-01

    The herbicides are being used in huge quantities for various porpouses. Once the herbicide finds its way into the environment, a major part of it comes in contact with soil. Humic substances are major organic constituents of soil. These substances may interact with herbicides in different modes and adsorption is probably the most important one. Adsorption will control the quantity of herbicide in the soil solution, and determines its persistence, leaching, mobility and bioavailability. In thi...

  6. PERSPECTIVE: Learning from the Brazilian biofuel experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael

    2006-11-01

    In the article `The ethanol program in Brazil' [1] José Goldemberg summarizes the key features of Brazil's sugarcane ethanol program—the most successful biofuel program in the world so far. In fact, as of 2005, Brazil was the world's largest producer of fuel ethanol. In addition to providing 40% of its gasoline market with ethanol, Brazil exports a significant amount of ethanol to Europe, Japan, and the United States. The success of the program is attributed to a variety of factors, including supportive governmental policies and favorable natural conditions (such as a tropical climate with abundant rainfall and high temperatures). As the article points out, in the early stages of the Brazilian ethanol program, the Brazilian government provided loans to sugarcane growers and ethanol producers (in most cases, they are the same people) to encourage sugarcane and ethanol production. Thereafter, ethanol prices were regulated to ensure that producers can economically sustain production and consumers can benefit from using ethanol. Over time, Brazil was able to achieve a price for ethanol that is lower than that for gasoline, on the basis of energy content. This lower cost is largely driving the widespread use of ethanol instead of gasoline by consumers in Brazil. In the United States, if owners of E85 flexible-fuel vehicles (FFVs) are expected to use E85 instead of gasoline in their FFVs, E85 will have to be priced competitively against gasoline on an energy-content basis. Compared with corn-based or sugar beet-based ethanol, Brazil's sugarcane-based ethanol yields considerably more favorable results in terms of energy balance and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. These results are primarily due to (i) the dramatic increase of sugarcane yield in Brazil in the past 25 years and (ii) the use of bagasse instead of fossil fuels in ethanol plants to provide the heat needed for ethanol plant operations and to generate electricity for export to electric grids

  7. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Rogério da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as the liquid phase permeability. No radial permeability was observed for either wood. The permeability of air and water through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was greater than that through the sapwood of Eucalyptus citriodora. The permeability of neen oil preservative through the sapwood of Eucalyptus grandis was also greater than through the sapwood of E. Citradora, but the difference was not statistically significant. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed that the distribution and obstruction in the vessels could be correlated with observed permeability properties. Irrespective of the causes of differences in permeability between the species, the fluid phase flux through the sapwood of both species was significant, indicating that both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora could be successfully treated with wood preservative.

  8. The Brazilian electrical system reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the Brazilian electrical system has been a public monopoly, the threat of electricity shortages from a lack of investment triggered a comprehensive reform. In 1993 the government began a series of laws, decrees and regulations reforming the tariff policy, allowing privatization of utilities, foreign investments and independent power producers, and creating an independent transmission grid and a new electricity regulatory agency (ANEEL). The new regulatory framework is not completely defined but the proposed model intends to transform bulk electricity supply into a competitive market similar to that adopted in England. Our objective is to evaluate whether the proposed reform will succeed in attracting the required private capital, will allow an unregulated wholesale electricity market and will require a strict regulatory framework. The reform has been quite successful in privatizing the distribution companies but is allowing monopolistic rents, and has failed until now to attract private investments to expand generation capacity. The risk of blackouts has increased, and the proposed wholesale electricity market may not be appropriate because of barriers to constructing new hydroelectric units, now 90% of the system. Therefore, a new regulatory framework and a strong regulatory agency with a well-defined tariff policy should have preceded the privatization. (author)

  9. Implementation of the Brazilian national repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, Cledola Cassia Oliveira de, E-mail: tellocc@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ionizing radiation in Brazil is used in electricity generation, medicine, industry, agriculture and for research and development purposes. All these activities can generate radioactive waste. At this point, in Brazil, the use of nuclear energy and radioisotopes justifies the construction of a national repository for radioactive wastes of low and intermediate-level. According to Federal Law No. 10308, Brazilian National Commission for Nuclear Energy (CNEN) is responsible for designing and constructing the intermediate and final storages for radioactive wastes. Additionally, a restriction on the construction of Angra 3 is that the repository is under construction until its operation start, attaining some requirements of the Brazilian Environmental Regulator (IBAMA). The RBMN Project (Repository for Low and Intermediate-Level Radioactive Wastes) aims at the implantation of a National Repository for disposal of low and intermediate-level of radiation wastes. This Project has some aspects that are unique in the Brazilian context, especially referring to the time between its construction and the end of its institutional period. This time is about 360 years, when the area will be released for unrestricted uses. It means that the Repository must be safe and secure for more than three hundred years, which is longer than half of the whole of Brazilian history. This aspect is very new for the Brazilian people, bringing a new dimension to public acceptance. Another point is this will be the first repository in South America, bringing a real challenge for the continent. The current status of the Project is summarized. (author)

  10. Citizenship and decoloniality in Brazilian education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Conceição Antunes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reflecting on the importance of multiculturalism in teaching process and observing the otherness are primarily a challenge. This enables us to rethink what we have within ourselves, also to reconstitute memories involving discriminatory and unethical attitudes, which takes place in social fellowship. Based on the studies of Walsh (2007, 2009, Gomes (2007 and Tavares (2011, this work relies on decoloniality studies, mainly on the relevance of the history of Africa and Africanness in Brazilian education. Our corpus of analysis is found in the "Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a Educação Básica" (DCN, 2013, the Brazilian Legislative Syllabus for Basic Education. Our focus is on the chapters concerning the Native-Brazilian and Quilomboa Education and ethnic-racial relations. Our most important aims are: to show the intercultural theoretical framework in which they are based on; to understand the immediate link established between the Native-Brazilian education and intercultural perspective; to clarify how the African diaspora was carried out in this particular case. Based on some Excel resources we were able to: 1 stablish the predominance of functional framework of interculturalism throughout these chapters, along with some critical features of interculturalism, as the issue of curricular decoloniality; 2 observe the established relationship between bilingualism and multiculturalism in the guidelines of Native-Brazilian education; and 3 identify a search for an effective inclusion of Africanness in curricula supported by the historical recognition and visibility of their sociocultural contribution.

  11. Brazilian Review of Finance 2013 Editorial Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pereira Câmara Leal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available RBFin is the main Brazilian publication outlet of academic papers about finance. The contents of the Review are open and online with a printed version distributed to members of the Brazilian Finance Society. Using the Open Journals System to manage the editorial process, publication of RBFin adheres to a strict publication schedule. The Review is indexed by EconLit, RedALyC, Google Scholar, Gale, Proquest and Ebsco and is listed in the JEL, DOAJ, Latindex, OpenJGate, and Cabell's directories. RBFin is rated B1 in the business area of the Brazilian classification system and B2 in Economics. The editorial board undergoes partial turnover every year and comprises 19 individuals from four countries, the Brazilian members being affiliated with universities in five different Brazilian states. The acceptance rate was 27% for papers submitted in 2012, the most recent year in which all submissions have already received a final decision. The average number of days between receipt and acceptance for articles submitted in 2013 was 203. The worst case was 361 days. The average number of days between receipt and publication was 294. The worst case was 575 days. Fifty-three individuals served as reviewers in 2013.

  12. The Corporate Governance of Privately Controlled Brazilian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Érica C. R. Gorga; Antonio Gledson de Carvalho; Bernard S. Black

    2009-01-01

    We provide an overview of the corporate governance practices of Brazilian public companies, based primarily on an extensive 2005 survey of 116 companies. We focus on the 88 responding Brazilian private firms which are not majority owned by the state or a foreign company. We identify areas where Brazilian corporate governance is relatively strong and weak. Board independence is an area of weakness: The boards of most Brazilian private firms are comprised entirely or almost entirely of insiders...

  13. Trends in water balance components across the Brazilian Cerrado

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brazilian Cerrado (Savanna) is considered one of the most important biomes for Brazilian water resources; however, little is known about the components of the water balance in this biome. In this study, we reviewed the available literature on the water balance components in the Brazilian Cerrado...

  14. Directions and deviations in the Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergence of the Brazilian nuclear policy as a subject of interest to the Brazilian society, the conflicts characterizing its formulation and implementation between 1945 and 1958 and the political criteria for executing a Brazilian nuclear program are presented. (M.C.K.)

  15. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASKIN SALMO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repeats was seen. Major increase of repeat size through paternal inheritance than through maternal inheritance was observed. Data generated from this study may have significant implications for the etiology, knowledge of the incidence, diagnosis, prognosis, genetic counseling and treatment of HD Brazilian patients.

  16. Brazilian energy balance 2006: calendar year 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report shows the energy flows of different primary and secondary sources, from the production to the final consumption in all the sectors of the Brazilian economy, for the calendar year 2006. It is divided into nine chapters: energy analysis and aggregated data; energy supply and consumption by source 1990/2005; energy consumption by sector 1990/2005; energy import and export 1990/2005; transformation center balances 1990/2005; Brazilian energy resources and reserves 1974/2005; energy and socio-economic 1990/2005; federal states data and appendices including installed capacity; world energy data; general structure of the Brazilian Energy Balance; treatment of information; conversion units and consolidated Energy Balance 1970-2005

  17. Trends on Brazilian book market – fiction best sellers by Brazilian writers (2000-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Reimão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this paper describes Brazilian general book market quantitative data on the period from 2000 to 2009; the second part analyzes the list of best sellers in Brazil on that period, focusing on the presence of Brazilian fiction writers on it. Our analysis points to the conclusion that there is an undeniable quantitative increase on such market but it is not accompanied by innovation. Most titles are world wide best sellers from Anglo-Saxon culture that receive massive publishing campaign and issuing, and represent very little risk to the publishing industry. As for Brazilian writers, they were already well known, especially from TV.

  18. Soil compaction in forest soils

    OpenAIRE

    TURGUT, Bülent

    2012-01-01

    Soil compaction is a widespread degradation process in forest sites. Soil degradation occurring on the structural formation of a natural soil system by rainfall or mechanical outer forces generally results in soil particles to be rearranged tighter than its previous status. In this case, soil compaction -defined as the increase in bulk density of soil- develops with negative effects on soil-plant-water relations. With the compaction, the density of soil increases while the porosity rate decre...

  19. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyamoto S.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  20. Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.T. Miyamoto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to translate and adapt the Berg balance scale, an instrument for functional balance assessment, to Brazilian-Portuguese and to determine the reliability of scores obtained with the Brazilian adaptation. Two persons proficient in English independently translated the original scale into Brazilian-Portuguese and a consensus version was generated. Two translators performed a back translation. Discrepancies were discussed and solved by a panel. Forty patients older than 65 years and 40 therapists were included in the cultural adaptation phase. If more than 15% of therapists or patients reported difficulty in understanding an item, that item was reformulated and reapplied. The final Brazilian version was then tested on 36 elderly patients (over age 65. The average age was 72 years. Reliability of the measure was assessed twice by one physical therapist (1-week interval between assessments and once by one independent physical therapist. Descriptive analysis was used to characterize the patients. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Pearson's correlation coefficient were computed to assess intra- and interobserver reliability. Six questions were modified during the translation stage and cultural adaptation phase. The ICC for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.99 (P < 0.001 and 0.98 (P < 0.001, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficient for intra- and interobserver reliability was 0.98 (P < 0.001 and 0.97 (P < 0.001, respectively. We conclude that the Brazilian version of the Berg balance scale is a reliable instrument to be used in balance assessment of elderly Brazilian patients.

  1. Climate change in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Regina R.; Haarsma, Reindert J.; Hoelzemann, Judith J.

    2012-10-01

    Climate Change, Impacts and Vulnerabilities in Brazil: Preparing the Brazilian Northeast for the Future; Natal, Brazil, 27 May to 01 June 2012 The variability of the semiarid climate of the Brazilian northeast has enormous environmental and social implications. Because most of the population in this area depends on subsistence agriculture, periods of severe drought in the past have caused extreme poverty and subsequent migration to urban centers. From the ecological point of view, frequent and prolonged droughts can lead to the desertification of large areas. Understanding the causes of rainfall variability, in particular periods of severe drought, is crucial for accurate forecasting, mitigation, and adaptation in this important region of Brazil.

  2. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pinheiro-Machado R.; de Oliveira P.L.

    2001-01-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a gre...

  3. THE INDIGENOUS GROUPS AND THE BRAZILIAN SWEETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mártin César Tempass

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the books of Gilberto Freyre and Câmara Cascudo, that influencied so much the literature about brazilian alimentation, the participation of indigenous groups in the national sweets formation process is negligencied. However, is possible to find in book´s “interlineations” of these two authors valuables informations about indigenous contributions to this process. Starting from these two authors and based in the culinary system notion, this paper quests to situate the role of indigenous groups in the brazilian sweets formation and numbers the possibles causes to invisibility of sweets by indigenous at the culinary formation process.

  4. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Édison Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection and only 40% of the waste collected in this country is treated. The shortage of sewage disposal affects all of us.

  5. Matéria orgânica em quatro tipos de solos brasileiros: composição química e sorção de atrazina Organic matter in four Brazilian soil types: chemical composition and atrazine sorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Pinheiro Dick

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil organic matter is the main sorptive soil compartment for atrazine in soils, followed in a minor scale by the inorganic fraction. In this study, the soil organic matter quality and atrazine sorption were investigated in four different soil types. The pedogenic environment affected the humification and therefore the chemical composition of the organic matter. The organic matter contribution to atrazine sorption was larger (60-83% than that of the inorganic fraction. The organic matter capacity in retaining the herbicide was favoured by a higher decomposition degree and a smaller carboxylic substitution of the aliphatic chains.

  6. First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno K. C. Filgueiras

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. This is the first record of Oxysternon silenus in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Specimens were collected in the Serra Grande landscape, municipality of Ibateguara, in Alagoas State. The samples were done from August 17 to 19, 2007 with pitfall traps. Before the present study, Oxysternon silenus had been reported predominantly in Amazonian region. The finding of this species corroborates the hypothesis of the biogeographical relationships between the Amazon Rainforest and the Atlantic Forest.Primeiro relato de Oxysternon silenus Castelnau (Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae, Phanaeini na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Esse é o primeiro registro de Oxysternon silenus na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Os espécimes foram coletados em Serra Grande, município de Ibateguara, Alagoas. As coletas foram realizadas de 17 a 19 de agosto de 2007 com a utilização de armadilhas do tipo pitfall. Antes do presente estudo, Oxysternon silenus tinha sido reportada apenas na região Amazônica. O encontro dessa espécie reforça a hipótese das relações biogeográficas entre a Amazônia e a Mata Atlântica.

  7. Estudos quantitativos em educação Quantitative studies in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardete A. Gatti

    2004-04-01

    Realidade (UFRS, Educação e Sociedade (Cedes/Unicamp, Revista Brasileira de Educação (ANPEd, Estudos em Avaliação Educacional (Fundação Carlos Chagas, and Ensaio (Fundação Cesgranrio. Some bibliographical sources were consulted in the search for other studies. The text highlights the importance of theoretical perspectives for the outlining and development of the studies, which should be put in the context of a reflection on education and of problematization. It also points to the need for adjusting the choices of types of analyses used. The work discusses the weak Brazilian tradition of carrying out quantitative studies in education, and the possible role of quantification in educational research. It shows some contributions from quantitative studies to the reflection in the field of education, and also for the basis of some critical perspectives. Those contributions were treated according to some themes, namely: illiteracy, schooling path and school failure; school flux/cutoff analysis; literacy; policies and basic education; financing of education/municipalization; social factors and education; youth and education; educational evaluation; assorted themes.

  8. Plant and soil modifications by continuous surface effluent application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedesco, M.J.; Levien, R. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Solos; Mohrdieck, F.G.; Rodrigues, N.R. [CORSAN-SITEL, Triunfo, RS (Brazil). Polo Petroquimico do Sul. Dept. de Operacao e Manutencao; Flores, A.I.P.

    1993-12-31

    In order to study the effects on soil and plants of the liquid effluent generated by a the Integrated Liquid Effluent Treatment System of a large Brazilian petrochemical complex, a field study was conducted in four areas which received the effluent and compared to control sites. This work presents some results of this study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  9. Proceedings of the 12. Brazilian congress on energy. Challenges of the Brazilian energy sector. V. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical and experimental papers are approaching by these proceedings covering the following subjects: distributed generation, co-generation, fuel cells, hybrid solar systems, natural gas, small hydroelectric power plants, renewable sources, biogas, and the Brazilian Biofuels Program

  10. Joint ventures e a política antitruste brasileira Joint ventures and Brazilian antitrust policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Avellar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As políticas de defesa da concorrência integram atualmente o conjunto fundamental de instituições necessárias à promoção do crescimento e a busca das sociedades por arranjos mais eficientes. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo realizar uma análise da política antitruste brasileira concentrando-se no tratamento dado pelas autoridades à constituição de joint ventures. Na realização dessa tarefa, foram feitas revisões teóricas, constatações acerca dos procedimentos de autoridades internacionais sobre o assunto e um estudo empírico abordando casos julgados no Brasil entre os anos de 2002 e 2010. O resultado encontrado revela a inexistência de normatização específica para o tratamento das joint ventures no Brasil, culminando, assim, em uma relativa discricionariedade por parte dos órgãos do SBDC na análise desses atos.The antitrust policy is an essential part of the required institutions that support economic growth and the seeking for more efficient arrangements. This paper aims to examine the Brazilian antitrust policy, paying special attention to way that the authorities deal with the joint ventures. In order to reach this goal, we review the theoretical contributions, discuss the procedures adopted by international antitrust authorities and, more importantly, scrutinize the cases of joint ventures judged by the Brazilian watchdog along period 2002-2010. We conclude that there are not specific norms to be applied by the Brazilian antitrust commissionaires when they are judging joint ventures, allowing them to act with a relatively degree of discretion.

  11. Earnings management: estudo de caso do Banco Nacional Earnings management: Central Bank's case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Medeiros Cupertino

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo promove um estudo de caso de uma das maiores instituições financeiras brasileiras da década de 90: o Banco Nacional S.A. (BNSA. O BNSA teve sua intervenção decretada pelo Banco Central do Brasil em 1995, após ser identificada a existência de ativos insolventes, originados por gerenciamento fraudulento dos lucros da entidade. O estudo visa investigar a gestão fraudulenta de lucros do Banco Nacional S.A., tanto nos seus aspectos motivadores, quanto em relação aos seus efeitos na composição patrimonial da entidade. A abordagem metodológica contempla: (i pesquisa explicativa, quanto aos objetivos do estudo; (ii estudo de caso, quanto aos procedimentos aplicados e (iii pesquisa qualitativa, quanto à abordagem do problema. Constatou-se que pode haver interesses inconciliáveis entre o agente e o principal, conforme disciplinado pela teoria da agência. O artigo, ainda, ressalta a importância do conhecimento dos dados financeiros na identificação dos fatos de interesse, dos ajustes pertinentes e da correta evidenciação da situação patrimonial da entidade.This paper features a case study of one of the main Brazilian banks of the 90's: Banco Nacional S/A (BNSA. The bank had its intervention decreed by Central Bank of Brazil in 1995, after the existence of insolvent assets, originated by fraudulent earnings management, were identified. The study aims to investigate the fraudulent earnings management of BNSA, both in motivational aspects and in relation of the effects in its balance sheet structure. The methodological approach of the study encompasses: (i an explanatory research, regarding the intended aim of the study; (ii case study, regarding the applied procedures; and (iii a qualitative research, regarding the approach to the problem. It was concluded that irreconcilable conflicts of interest might occur between the agent and the principal, according to the Agency Theory. The paper also emphasizes the importance of

  12. Soil organic matter dynamics in a cerrado oxisol

    OpenAIRE

    Roscoe, R

    2002-01-01

    The Brazilian Cerrado is the second largest biome in the country, spreading over 23 % of the national territory. In the last three decades, it has increasingly contributed to the national production, being responsible in 1995 for 25% of the national agricultural production and sheltering 40% of the cattle flock. Development strategies have stimulated strongly mechanised and intensive agricultural practices, which has raised concerns about soil organic matter (SOM) losses and soil degradation....

  13. 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology and 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy - Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunology, virology, bacteriology, genetics and protozoology are some of the subjects treated in the 2. Brazilian Congress on Cell Biology. Studies using radioisotopic techniques and ultrastructural cytological studies are presented. Use of optical - and electron microscopy in some of these studies is discussed. In the 7. Brazilian Colloquium on Electron Microscopy, the application of this technique to materials science is discussed (failure analysis in metallurgy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, etc). (I.C.R.)

  14. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    OpenAIRE

    Maciel Maria; Nishimoto Ines; Hamada Gerson; Kusama Ritsu; Nishimura Hideki; Onuma Hiroshi; Yokoyama Shiro; Kasuga Yoshio; Iwasaki Motoki; Motola Juvenal; Laginha Fábio; Anzai Roberto; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Bra...

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir from Brazilian semi-arid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Tancredo Augusto Feitosa; Rodriguez-Echeverría, Susana; de Andrade, Leonaldo Alves; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Many plant species from Brazilian semi-arid present arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in their rhizosphere. These microorganisms play a key role in the establishment, growth, survival of plants and protection against drought, pathogenic fungi and nematodes. This study presents a quantitative analysis of the AMF species associated with Mimosa tenuiflora, an important native plant of the Caatinga flora. AMF diversity, spore abundance and root colonization were estimated in seven sampling locations in the Ceará and Paraíba States, during September of 2012. There were significant differences in soil properties, spore abundance, percentage of root colonization, and AMF diversity among sites. Altogether, 18 AMF species were identified, and spores of the genera Acaulospora, Claroideoglomus, Dentiscutata, Entrophospora, Funneliformis, Gigaspora, Glomus, Racocetra, Rhizoglomus and Scutellospora were observed. AMF species diversity and their spore abundance found in M. tenuiflora rhizosphere shown that this native plant species is an important host plant to AMF communities from Brazilian semi-arid region. We concluded that: (a) during the dry period and in semi-arid conditions, there is a high spore production in M. tenuiflora root zone; and (b) soil properties, as soil pH and available phosphorous, affect AMF species diversity, thus constituting key factors for the similarity/dissimilarity of AMF communities in the M. tenuiflora root zone among sites. PMID:26991277

  16. Sociocultural factors in Brazilian neuropsycholinguistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice de Mattos Pimenta Parente

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of Brazilian neuropsychology is traced at different neuropsycholinguistic stages with a focus on the importance of sociocultural factors. We first focus on language disorders, the sequelae of injuries in the left hemisphere, and neuropsychology restricted to the medical field in Europe, the United States, and Brazil. In the middle of the last century, attention to the interdisciplinary importance of studies on the right hemisphere began. Studies consequently emerged on the individual variability of brain function with both biological and cultural origins. Based on this approach, Brazilian studies on aphasic children and illiterate aphasic persons were disseminated internationally. In the 1970s, cognitive neuropsychology began in England, highlighting dysfunctions in reading and writing processes. The characteristics of writing systems within each language became relevant for the manifestations of acquired dyslexia. Brazilian studies showed deficits in Portuguese and Japanese writing caused by brain lesions. During this scientific journey, scientific societies and postgraduate programs in Brazil were created to facilitate exchanges and communication among young researchers. By the end of the last century and in the early 2000s, the growth of the neuropsychology of aging raised awareness of the complexity of sociocultural factors, not only on language research but also according to the level of education, frequency of reading and writing habits, school type, and interactions among these factors and biological factors, especially between the level of education and age. From this historical standpoint, we outline future directions and perspectives in the field of Brazilian neuropsychology.

  17. Evaluating Legal Compliance in Brazilian Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Lilia da Rocha; And Others

    1980-01-01

    By 1976, compliance of 13 Brazilian teacher education institutions in Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo with the Educational Reform Law of 1971 was judged as poor. The law demanded radical institutional change and created a teacher profile which was too comprehensive and complex. (CP)

  18. Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Margulis, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    The worldwide concern with deforestation of Brazilian Amazonia is motivated not only by the irreversible loss of this natural wealth, but also by the perception that it is a destructive process in which the social and economic gains are smaller than the environmental losses. This perception also underlies the diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of public policies proposed by government a...

  19. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Plan of Action on Science, Technology and Innovation (PACT 2007-2010) of the Ministry of Science Technology and Innovation (MCTI), aligned to the governmental strategies for the Brazilian Nuclear Program, established as a goal the study and definition of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB). The RMB research reactor is designed to perform three main functions: radioisotope production for medicine, industry, agriculture and environmental applications; fuel and material irradiation testing in support to the Brazilian nuclear energy program; and to provide neutron beams for scientific and applied research. The main project facilities are: nuclear pool type reactor with a flux level compatible to the multipurpose uses; hot cells laboratory for Mo-99 and I-131 processing; hot cells laboratory for radioisotope processing; hot cells laboratory for irradiated material post irradiation analysis; neutron beams laboratory building with scientific equipment and instrumentation for researching; radiochemistry laboratory; radioactive waste treatment facility; support laboratories for operation and researching; and buildings for researchers and operators. This speech presents the RMB project status, giving some technical and management details on its development and its future perspectives for new jobs in research activities for the Brazilian technical and scientific community. (author)

  1. Human Rights and Black Brazilian Health

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel CF da Cruz

    2009-01-01

     The purpose of this discussion paper is to explore the relationships between inequity and health in Brazil, particularly to Blacks Brazilians. Health as a human right is the focus to help the comprehension the pathways between inequity, racism and disease.

  2. The new Brazilian legislation on nuclear protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the new system on nuclear protection in Brazil which was established to integrate all government agencies and private bodies involved in nuclear activities. The role of each organisation is analysed in relation to the Brazilian political and administrative structure, in particular that of the Nuclear Energy Commission. (NEA)

  3. Motor Acquisition Rate in Brazilian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Virlaine Bardella; de Lima, Carolina Daniel; Tudella, Eloisa

    2009-01-01

    This study used the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) with the aim of characterizing motor acquisition rate in 70 healthy 0-6-month-old Brazilian infants, as well as comparing both emergence (initial age) and establishment (final age) of each skill between the study sample and the AIMS normative data. New motor skills were continuously acquired…

  4. Virus infections in Brazilian honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazilian honey bees are famously resistant to disease, perhaps because of long-term introgression from Apis mellifera subsp. scutellata. Recently, colony losses were observed in the Altinópolis region of southeastern Brazil. We sampled 200 colonies from this region for Israeli acute paralysis vir...

  5. Effects of Brazilian Schools on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, José Francisco; Alves, Maria Teresa Gonzaga; Xavier, Flavia Pereira

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of Brazilian elementary schools on the chances of their students achieving at different levels of mathematics proficiency. Since student proficiency is classified at three levels--Insufficient, Basic and Proficient--the chosen model of analysis was the hierarchical multinomial model. The…

  6. Transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm: Brazilian Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide, especially in the developing nations of South America. Brazil has experienced an exponential increase in the prevalence of these chronic non-communicable diseases. The rising prevalence is probably due to changing eating patterns, sedentary living, and a progressive aging of the population. These trends and their underlying causes carry untoward consequences for all Brazilians and the future of Brazilian public health and the healthcare system. Lifestyle changes that include healthy eating (nutrition therapy and regular physical activity (structured exercise represent efficient inexpensive measures to prevent and/or treat the aforementioned disorders and are recommended for all afflicted patients. Regrettably, the implementation of lifestyle changes is fraught with clinical and personal challenges in real life. The transcultural Diabetes Nutrition Algorithm (tDNA is a therapeutic tool intended to foster implementation of lifestyle recommendations and to improve disease-related outcomes in common clinical settings. It is evidence-based and amenable to cultural adaptation. The Brazilian Diabetes Association, Society of Cardiology and Ministry of Health guidelines for nutrition therapy and physical exercise were considered for the Brazilian adaptation. The resultant tDNA-Brazil and its underlying recommendations are presented and explained.

  7. Earning management in Brazilian financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Bruscato Bortoluzzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study aims to study earnings management in a significant sample of 123 banks in the Brazilian market between 2001 and 2012. Given the important role that banks play in a country's economy, it is important to understand that there are discretionary factors involved in the reporting of a financial institution's profitability. Credit provisioning guidelines for Brazilian financial institutions are described in Resolution 2682/99 of the National Monetary Council (Conselho Monetário Nacional. Because of the discretion allowed in this resolution, loan loss provision is used as instrument of earnings management, which is not an illegal practice, but this behavior does affect the risk perception of agents and analysts, and they should be aware of it and understand it. We found that credit provisioning is used as an earnings management mechanism to smooth the net income of Brazilian financial institutions. Brazilian banks tend to avoid not only negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes, but also negative net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes in relation to the previous period. Contrary to the previous studies, it is not clear if banks avoid lower net income pre-loan loss provisions and taxes than a given peer group.

  8. Analogies in high school Brazilian chemistry textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosária Justi

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an analysis of the analogies presented by Brazilian chemistry textbooks for the medium level. The main aim of the analysis is to discuss whether such analogies can be said good teaching models. From the results, some aspects concerning with teachers' role are discussed. Finally, some new research questions are emphasised.

  9. The Brazilian investment in science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro-Machado, R; De Oliveira, P L

    2001-12-01

    An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq) responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999). In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997) or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications) to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications). Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development. PMID:11717704

  10. The Brazilian investment in science and technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinheiro-Machado R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Brazilian federal expenditures in science and technology is presented is this study. The 1990-1999 data were compiled from records provided by two federal agencies (MCT and CNPq responsible for managing most of the national budget related to these activities. The results indicate that the federal investments in Brazilian science and technology stagnated during the last decade (US$ 2.32 billion in 1990, US$ 2.39 billion in 1996, and US$ 2.36 billion in 1999. In contrast, a great increase in private investments in research was acknowledged both by industry and by the government during the same period, from US$ 2.12 to US$ 4.64 billion. However, this investment did not result in an increase in invention patents granted to residents (492 in 1990 and only 232 in 1997 or in a reduction of patent costs. Despite this unfavorable scenario, the number of graduate programs in the country has increased two-fold in the last decade and the contribution of Brazilians to the database of the Institute for Scientific Information has increased 4.7-fold from 1990 (2,725 scientific publications to 2000 (12,686 scientific publications. Unstable federal resources for science, together with the poor returns of private resources in terms of developing new technologies, may jeopardize the future of Brazilian technological development.

  11. Uranium enrichment : global view and Brazilian perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global view of isotope enrichment involving a general description of process (technical-economical aspects and policy) and status in developing countries is done. An enrichment demand in function of the Brazilian Nuclear Program is evaluated, analyzing a probable market and a low market. The perspectives to attend this demand, are studied. (E.G.)

  12. Impacts of Climate Change on Brazilian Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Assad, Eduardo; Pinto, Hilton S.; Nassar, Andre; Harfuch, Leila; Freitas, Saulo; Farinelli, Barbara; Lundell, Mark; Erick C.M. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    This report evaluates the requirements for an assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture to guide policy makers on investment priorities and phasing. Because agriculture is vital for national food security and is a strong contributor to Brazil's GDP growth, there is growing concern that Brazilian agriculture is increasingly vulnerable to climate variability and change. To meet nat...

  13. Brazilian cuts put projects in peril

    Science.gov (United States)

    José Lopes, Reinaldo

    2015-10-01

    The soap opera surrounding Brazil's participation in the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has taken another twist after the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation said that the government is still “considering” what to do, even though physicist Sérgio Rezende - a former science minister - was behind the push for Brazilian membership.

  14. Bullying in Brazilian Schools and Restorative Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Patricia Krieger; dos Santos, Andreia Mendes

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a widespread phenomenon that affects many children and adolescents in Brazilian schools. A pilot research study was carried out in four schools (one private and three public) located in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. A combination of self-administered questionnaires and focus groups with students as well as interviews with teachers were…

  15. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also presents the

  16. RMB. The new Brazilian multipurpose research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Soares, Adalberto Jose [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Brazil has four research reactors (RR) in operation: IEA-R1, a 5 MW pool type RR; IPR-R1, a 100 kW TRIGA type RR; ARGONAUTA, a 500 W Argonaut type RR, and IPEN/MB-01, a 100 W critical facility. The first three were constructed in the 50's and 60's, for teaching, training, and nuclear research, and for many years they were the basic infrastructure for the Brazilian nuclear developing program. The last, IPEN/MB-01, is the result of a national project developed specifically for qualification of reactor physics codes. Considering the relative low power of Brazilian research reactors, with exception of IEAR1, none of the other reactors are feasible for radioisotope production, and even IEA-R1 has a limited capacity. As a consequence, since long ago, 100% of the Mo-99 needed to attend Brazilian nuclear medicine services has been imported. Because of the high dependence on external supply, the international Moly-99 supply crisis that occurred in 2008/2009 affected significantly Brazilian nuclear medicine services, and as presented in previous IAEA events, in 2010 Brazilian government formalized the decision to build a new research reactor. The new reactor named RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) will be a 30 MW open pool type reactor, using low enriched uranium fuel. The facility will be part of a new nuclear research centre, to be built about 100 kilometres from Sao Paulo city, in the southern part of Brazil. The new nuclear research centre will have several facilities, to use thermal and cold neutron beams; to produce radioisotopes; to perform neutron activation analysis; and to perform irradiations tests of materials and fuels of interest for the Brazilian nuclear program. An additional facility will be used to store, for at least 100 years, all the fuel used in the reactor. The paper describes the main characteristics of the new centre, emphasising the research reactor and giving a brief description of the laboratories that will be constructed, It also

  17. Estudo retrospectivo de latrodectismo na Bahia, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Rejâne Maria Lira-da-Silva; Graciela Brige Matos; Roney Orismar Sampaio; Tania Brazil Nunes

    1995-01-01

    O trabalho apresenta um estudo retrospectivo de setenta e sete casos de latrodectismo no Estado da Bahia, Brasil, de agosto de 1980 a julho de 1990. Os dados foram levantados nos livros de registro e arquivo de fichas do CIAVE. O agente etiológico em 28% dos acidentes aracnídeos foi a espécie L. curacaviensis e a maior incidência foi registrada no meio urbano (57%), em indivíduos do sexo masculino (70%) e faixa etária de 10 a 29 anos (58%). Os principais sinais locais foram dor (56%), pápula ...

  18. Estudo comparativo de sistemas em aquecimento

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Inês Marques Costa Borges de

    2013-01-01

    O presente estudo pretende avaliar o desempenho energético e rentabilidade do uso de equipamento de climatização para o aquecimento ambiente de uma casa sénior, através de sistemas tradicionais de produção de água aquecida, como a caldeira e a tradicional bomba de calor, e um sistema apoiado num equipamento de produção solar térmico. Perante uma determinada arquitectura, foram calculados os caudais de ar novo, de forma a garantir a qualidade do ar interior, cumprindo os requisitos da actua...

  19. Diversity of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in a Brazilian Atlantic Forest Toposequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Joice Andrade; Vasconcellos, Rafael Leandro Figueiredo; Gumiere, Thiago; de Lourdes Colombo Mescolotti, Denise; Oehl, Fritz; Nogueira Cardoso, Elke Jurandy Bran

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was studied in the Atlantic Forest in Serra do Mar Park (SE Brazil), based on seven host plants in relationship to their soil environment, altitude and seasonality. The studied plots along an elevation gradient are located at 80, 600, and 1,000 m. Soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected in four seasons from SE Brazilian winter 2012 to autumn 2013. AMF spores in rhizosperic soils were morphologically classified and chemical, physical and microbiological soil caracteristics were determined. AMF diversity in roots was evaluated using the NS31/AM1 primer pair, with subsequent cloning and sequencing. In the rhizosphere, 58 AMF species were identified. The genera Acaulospora and Glomus were predominant. However, in the roots, only 14 AMF sequencing groups were found and all had high similarity to Glomeraceae. AMF species identities varied between altitudes and seasons. There were species that contributed the most to this variation. Some soil characteristics (pH, organic matter, microbial activity and microbial biomass carbon) showed a strong relationship with the occurrence of certain species. The highest AMF species diversity, based on Shannon's diversity index, was found for the highest altitude. Seasonality did not affect the diversity. Our results show a high AMF diversity, higher than commonly found in the Atlantic Forest. The AMF detected in roots were not identical to those detected in rhizosperic soil and differences in AMF communities were found in different altitudes even in geographically close-lying sites. PMID:26304552

  20. Discrimination And Biophysical Characterization Of Brazilian Cerrado Physiognomies With Eo-1 Hyperspectral Hyperion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Tomoaki; Huete, Alfredo R.; Ferreira, Laerte G.; Sano, Edson E.

    2004-01-01

    The savanna, typically found in the sub-tropics and seasonal tropics, are the dominant vegetation biome type in the southern hemisphere, covering approximately 45% of the South America. In Brazil, the savanna, locally known as "cerrado," is the most intensely stressed biome with both natural environmental pressures (e.g., the strong seasonality in weather, extreme soil nutrient impoverishment, and widespread fire occurrences) and rapid/aggressive land conversions (Skole et al., 1994; Ratter et al., 1997). Better characterization and discrimination of cerrado physiognomies are needed in order to improve understanding of cerrado dynamics and its impact on carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Brazilian cerrado biome. Satellite remote sensing have been known to be a useful tool for land cover and land use mapping (Rougharden et al., 1991; Hansen et al., 2000). However, attempts to discriminate and classify Brazilian cerrado using multi-spectral sensors (e.g., Landsat TM) and/or moderate resolution sensors (e.g., NOAA AVHRR NDVI) have often resulted in a limited success due partly to small contrasts depicted in their multiband, spectral reflectance or vegetation index values among cerrado classes (Seyler et al., 2002; Fran a and Setzer, 1998). In this study, we aimed to improve discrimination as well as biophysical characterization of the Brazilian cerrado physiognomies with hyperspectral remote sensing. We used Hyperion, the first satellite-based hyperspectral imager, onboard the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) platform.

  1. Estudo da durabilidade de misturas solo-RBI grade 81 com vistas à aplicação em estradas florestais e camadas de pavimentos convencionais Study of durability of soil-RBI grade 81 mixtures for application in forest roads and convencional pavement layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pinto da Trindade

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo foi dirigido à caracterização, para fins rodoviários, do parâmetro durabilidade de três misturas solo-RBI Grade 81, a partir dos resultados dos ensaios de durabilidade por molhagem e secagem. Trabalhou-se com um solo residual maduro (solo 1 e dois solos residuais jovens (solos 2 e 3 de gnaisse da Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, Brasil. O programa de ensaios de laboratório envolveu: (i teor de RBI Grade 81: 6% em relação ao peso de solo seco; (ii energias de compactação: Proctor Normal, Intermediário e Modificado; e (iii período de cura: 7 dias em câmara úmida. Os resultados do programa de ensaios apontaram que: (i apenas as misturas dos solos 1 e 3 compactadas na energia do ensaio Proctor Intermediário e dos solos 2 e 3 compactadas na energia do ensaio Proctor Modificado resistiram a todos os ciclos do ensaio de durabilidade por secagem e molhagem; (ii as misturas do solo 3 compactadas na energia do ensaio Proctor Modificado apresentaram as menores perdas de massa (inferiores a 13%; e (iii quanto ao aspecto durabilidade, as misturas solo-RBI Grade 81 exibem bom potencial para emprego como material de construção rodoviária.This paper addresses the characterization of three soil-RBI Grade 81 mixtures for road engineering applications using laboratory testing data from wetting and drying durability tests. One mature (soil 1 and two young (soils 2 and 3 gneiss residual soils from the Zona da Mata Norte de Minas Gerais, Brazil, were used throughout the study. The laboratory testing program comprised the following steps: (i RBI Grade 81 content: 6% regarding soil dry mass; (ii compaction efforts: Standard, Intermediate and Modified Proctor; (iii mixture specimens curing time: 7 days in acclimatized room. The testing program data supported that: (i only tested mixtures of soils 1 and 3 compacted at the Intermediate compaction effort, and of soils 2 and 3 compacted at the Modified compaction effort endured all

  2. Fracionamento densimétrico com politungstato de sódio no estudo da proteção física da matéria orgânica em solos Densimetric fractionation with sodium polytungstate to investigate physical protection of soil organic matter

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Cesar Conceição; Madalena Boeni; Jeferson Dieckow; Cimélio Bayer; João Mielniczuk

    2008-01-01

    O fracionamento físico densimétrico é uma técnica que permite estudar a proteção física da matéria orgânica (MO) no solo, sendo utilizadas, de forma indistinta, soluções densas de iodeto de sódio (NaI) e de politungstato de sódio (PTS). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar (a) o efeito de soluções de NaI (1,8 g cm-3) e de PTS (1,8, 2,0 e 2,2 g cm-3) no rendimento de carbono (C) nas frações leve-livre (FLL) e leve-oclusa (FLO) da MO na camada de 0-5 cm de um Argissolo Vermelho [PVd, Eldorado do...

  3. Tratamento de epilepsia: consenso dos especialistas brasileiros Treatment of epilepsy: consensus of the Brazilian specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Betting

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsia é uma condição muito freqüente em todo o mundo. Na última década, várias opções terapêuticas surgiram ou foram aprimoradas. O principal método utilizado para decisão terapêutica baseia-se nos estudos randomizados, que representam o maior nível de evidência. Entretanto, mesmo estes estudos são passíveis de críticas e em alguns casos o tratamento de escolha permanece controverso. Nestas situações, a opinião dos especialistas, na área da epileptologia, com maior experiência clínica, passa a ter grande valor. O presente estudo tem como principal objetivo elaborar um consenso de tratamento das epilepsias, através da opinião de experts brasileiros no assunto. Este consenso poderá auxiliar na criação de manuais e estratégias para o tratamento de determinadas síndromes epilépticas, de acordo com os padrões socioeconômicos brasileiros.Epilepsy is a frequent condition in the world. Recently a study in Brazil showed prevalence of 18/1000 inhabitants in São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo State. In the last decade, new therapeutic options were discovered or developed. The main therapeutic decision method is based on randomized clinical trials. This method represents the higher level of evidence. However, even these studies have limitations and in some cases the treatment of choice remains controversial. In these instances, the epilepsy experts' opinions become helpful. In 2001 a similar study had been conducted in USA. The aim of this study is to create guidelines for epilepsy treatment based on the opinion of the Brazilian experts. These guidelines can be used to create manuals and strategies for the treatment of some epileptic syndromes according to Brazilian experts. As compared to the North-American guidelines our study better reflects the resources available in our country.

  4. Coping e saúde mental de adolescentes vestibulandos Coping and mental health in adolescents preparing for the Brazilian university entrance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Soares Dias e Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar o uso de estratégias de enfrentamento de problemas (coping por adolescentes vestibulandos e sua possível repercussão na saúde mental desses indivíduos. Participaram deste estudo 292 estudantes, sendo 59,6% mulheres e 38,0% homens com idades entre 16 e 19 anos (M = 17,09; DP = 0,71, contatados em escolas públicas, particulares e conveniadas, que declararam intenção de realizar o processo seletivo vestibular. Foram utilizados o Coping Response Inventory Youth Form (CRI-Y para avaliar as estratégias de coping e o Youth Self Report (YSR para avaliar as psicopatologias. O estudo demonstrou que os adolescentes avaliaram o vestibular como evento estressante, e aqueles que utilizaram mais estratégias de coping de aproximação para enfrentá-lo relataram menos psicopatologias. Os resultados deste estudo põem em evidência a relação entre vestibular como evento estressante e saúde mental dos adolescentes.This study aimed to investigate the use of coping strategies by adolescents preparing to take the Brazilian university entrance exam and its possible repercussion on their mental health. A total of 292 students participated in the study, 59.6% women and 38.0% men, aged between 16 and 19 years (M = 17.09; SD = 0.71, contacted in public, private, and private schools with state government covenant, who declared the intention to take the Brazilian university entrance exam. The Coping Response Inventory Youth Form (CRI-Y was used to assess coping strategies and the Youth Self Report (YSR to evaluate psychopathologies. The study demonstrated that the adolescents' appraise the Brazilian university entrance exam as a stressful event, and those who used more approach coping strategies reported less psychopathologies. The results of this study highlighted the relationship between the Brazilian university entrance exam as a stressful event and the adolescents' mental health.

  5. Tensile behaviour of unsaturated compacted clay soils — A direct assessment method.

    OpenAIRE

    Stirling, R.A.; Hughes, P N; Davie, C. T.; Glendinning, S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for testing the behaviour of soils placed under tensile load and demonstrates its suitability for testing a number of soil types under various conditions including saturation, compaction and stabilisation. Validation of the results obtained for the soils at relatively low saturation has been conducted using the established Brazilian (indirect) test for measuring the tensile strength of brittle materials. A fair comparison has been found and the results highlig...

  6. Estudo da demanda energética e desagregação do solo em diferentes sequências operacionais de preparo periódico Energetic demand and disaggregation of the soil in different operational sequencies of periodic tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Salvador

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A correta seleção da sequência operacional do preparo do solo é fundamental para diminuir os custos da mecanização agrícola nas regiões que mobilizam intensamente o solo. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a demanda energética e a desagregação do solo em diferentes sequências operacionais de subsolagem e sistemas de preparo periódico do solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em esquema fatorial 5x2 com 5 repetições, com blocos dispostos ao acaso, sendo 5 sistemas de preparo do solo (D - Arado de discos, Dn - arado de discos seguido de uma grade niveladora, G - Grade pesada, Gn - grade pesada seguida de uma grade niveladora e E - escarificador e duas sequências de subsolagem (SP - Subsolagem - preparo e PS - Preparo - Subsolagem. Foram avaliados a demanda energética, o consumo de combustível por área e a desagregação do solo. Os resultados evidenciaram que a sequência operacional preparo do solo - subsolagem (PS teve menor requerimento energético, com exceção do escarificador. A seqüência preparo do solo - subsolagem consumiu menos combustível e a desagregação do solo não apresentou variação estatística.The correct selection of the operational sequence of soil tillage is essential to reduce the cost of agricultural mechanization in the regions that mobilize intensively the soil. The objective of this work was to evaluate the energetic demand and disaggregation of the soil in different operational sequences of subsoiling and systems of periodic soil tillage. The experimental design was blocks at random, in a factorial model 5 x 2 with 5 replications, being 5 tillage systems (D - Disc plow, Dn - disc plow followed at leveler rail, G - weight rail, Gn - weight rail followed of leveler rail and E - Stirrer. and two sequencies of subsoiling (SP - Subsoiling - tillage and PS - Tillage - subsoiling. There were evaluated the energetic demand, fuel consumption by area and the soil disaggregation. The

  7. Produtividade agrícola de cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em diferentes solos e épocas de colheita Productivity of sugarcane cultivars in different soils and harvesting periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fernando Maule

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da cana-de-açúcar é destaque no cenário agrícola do Brasil, sendo cultivada em vários tipos de ambiente (associação de clima e solo. O estudo das respostas dos diferentes cultivares em cada ambiente de produção auxilia a maximizar a exploração econômica da cultura. Neste contexto, três experimentos em blocos completos casualizados com quatro repetições foram delineados para determinar as produtividades de colmos e a pol % cana de nove cultivares de cana-de-açúcar em dois solos: Planossolo mesotrófico textura arenosa/média (PL e Podzólico Vermelho Amarelo mesotrófico textura arenosa/média (PV. Os cultivares foram colhidas em três épocas: maio, agosto e outubro de 1997. As produtividades de colmos foram superiores (PSugarcane is of prime importance in Brazilian agriculture, being cultivated over a range of environments (climate and soil. Studying cultivars responses in different environments helps to improve and maximize the crop economic output. In this context, three experiments were performed in a 9x2 randomized block design with four replicates to assess differences in stalk and the percentage of sucrose of nine sugarcane cultivars growing in two soils, Tipic Kandiaqult (PL and Arenic Kandiudult (PV. The cultivars were harvested during three months (May, August and October/1997. Overall the PV soil permitted higher stalk productivities (P<0.01. The sugarcane cultivars studied in this work showed different stalk produtivities and ripening degrees in the studied environments, which related to the water holding capacities in the two soils, emphasizing the role of environment on stalk and potential sugar productivities.

  8. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  9. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  10. Estudo, em lisimetros monolíticos, de perdas de água e evapotranspiração em três tipos de solos sob diferentes condições de uso Study of some characteristics of soil water with monolith lysimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bertoni

    1976-01-01

    superficial e por percolação variam com os diferentes usos do solo e também com as diferentes práticas de manejo utilizadas em cafezal. A evapotranspiração foi maior nos evaporímetros cultivados com café quando comparados com o solo descoberto ou com cobertura morta.In this paper the authors present the data obtained in podzolic Lins and Marilia v. Marilia soil, ortho-red yellow podzolic soil, and latosolic roxo in the monolith lysimeters located at Campinas Experiment Station of Instituto Agronômico, São Paulo, Brazil. The lysimeter and evaporimeter set up measures the water losses by percolation, surface runoff and evapotranspiration. It has been determined the surface runoff and percolation losses from three soil profile depths (0.45 m; 0.90 m, and 1.80 m in soils with different soil cover: crop rotation (cotton, soybeans, corn, meadow, meadow; no cover, bare soil; straw mulch; coffee tree; coffee tree + straw mulch; coffee tree + dust mulch; coffee tree + irrigation. In the podzolic Lins and Marilia var. Marilia no difference in percolation and surface runoff was found from the influence of the soil depth profile. The soil surface runoff and the percolation losses varied from the different soil use; no difference in percolation was found from the influence of different coffee practices. The evapotranspiration was greater at the evaporimeters with coffee tree when compared with the ones with bare soil or with straw mulch. In the ortho-red yellow podzolic soil with the increase of the profile depth the percolation decreases and the surface runoff increases; there is a close relationship between precipitation and amount of percolation. The soil surface runoff and the percolation losses varied from the different soil use and with the different coffee practices. The evapotranspiration was greater at the evaporimeters with coffee tree when compared with the ones with bare soil or with straw mulch. In the latosolic roxo with the increase of the profile depth the

  11. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand in international operations can be strategic for certain Brazilian franchise chains; this seems to be, however, a scarce resource for many franchises and it could be developed through international operations. With regard to the fees charged, the outcomes demonstrate that Brazilian franchises with international operations tend to charge lower fees from its franchisees to install new units. Regarding the monitoring and control of franchises, there is evidence that the monitoring capability is one of the determining factors in the development of Brazilian franchises international operations.

  12. Genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson de Oliveira Rabelo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars released in the period from 1965 to 2012. The genealogies of the cultivars were obtained based on information from marketing folders, websites, crossings records, and scientific articles. The following factors were calculated: relative genetic contribution (RGC, accumulated genetic contribution (AGC, frequency (in percentage of each ancestor in the genealogy (FAG, number of ancestors that constitute each cultivar (NAC,number of ancestors responsible for 60%, 70%, 80% and 90% of the genetic base (NAGB, and average number of ancestor per cultivar (ANAC. The cultivars were also grouped based on the period of release (1965-1980, 1981-1990, 1991-2000 and 2001-2012. For each grouping, the previously described factors were also estimated. A total of 110 cultivars were studied and it was concluded that the genetic base of Brazilian irrigated rice cultivars is narrow.

  13. Brazilian Society of Dermatology against leprosy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastória, Joel Carlos; de Abreu, Marilda Aparecida Milanez Morgado

    2016-01-01

    The Brazilian Society of Dermatology promoted a national campaign against leprosy in 2012, involving their State Regional, Accredited Services of Dermatology and Referral Services in Leprosy. Consisted of clarification to the population about the disease and a day of medical voluntary service. Ninety services (57 Accredited Services and 33 Reference Services) participated, distributed in 23 states. The campaign examined 3,223 people and 421 new cases were diagnosed, 54,4% female, 74,3% between 19 and 64 years and 8,3% in children under 15 years. Of the 217 classified cases, 58,5% was paucibacillary and 41,5% was multibacillary. The results were posted on the Brazilian Society of Dermatology website.

  14. USABILITY ANALYSIS IN BRAZILIAN COMMERCE WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Marques Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to evaluate the usability in Brazilian e-commerce sites through usability recommendation analysis. Literature review showed ten recommendations in order to have usage quality by users. It is a qualitative and quantitative study with descriptive characteristic. Heuristic evaluation analysis technique was conducted after surveying twentyone Brazilian e-commerce sites, grouped into four major areas such as general retail, banks, bookstores and airlines. It was observed that usability recommendations were present in the analyzed sites but none of them showed to follow the entire guidelines. Retail sites showed higher evidences on usability recommendations. Regarding the impact of failures in usage, it was found that there is increased difficulty in sites that do not clearly show usability recommendations. Thus frequent errors and usage difficulties are increased when users do not realize usability guidelines in websites

  15. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show funding and grants determined by Brazilian government, as the big question of the wind energy industry marketing, allowing the economic viability of wind energy projects. Further, it appears that the wind energy industry is eager to investments and has great potential for new business, but there are problems within the producing companies which that have to be assessed, such as the competitiveness capability, the high equipment costs, the installation locations limitations and lack of specialized employees with specific skills and capacities.

  16. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Elías Cisneros; Sophie Lian Zhou; Jan Börner

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by spe...

  17. News or noise? an analysis of Brazilian GDP announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca de la Rocque Palis; Roberto Luis Olinto Ramos; Patrice Robitaille

    2004-01-01

    Revisions to GDP announcements in many countries are often large, and Faust, Rogers, and Wright (2003) have found that G-7 GDP revisions are predictable to varying degrees. In this paper, we extend FRW to study revisions to Brazilian GDP announcements. We document that revisions to Brazilian GDP are large relative to those of G-7 countries. Brazilian GDP revisions are also predictable, which is consistent with the view that GDP revisions correct errors in preliminary GDP rather than reflect n...

  18. The Taint of Violence: insurgent voices in Brazilian Black Theatre

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Antônio Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    – Ethnology studies report issues related to theatricality and spectacularity both in the scenic and ritual fields. Thus, theatre is one of the supports in ethnoscenological research, and this work focuses on Black Theater. Among the forms of representation of Blacks in Brazilian society, violence is one of the symbolic traits that has been re-signified in Afro-Brazilian texts. This essay aims at portraying some echoes of violence in dramatic/spectacular texts in Brazilian Black Theatre. We i...

  19. INTERNATIONALIZATION OF BRAZILIAN FRANCHISE CHAINS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Lucas de Resende Melo; Felipe Mendes Borini; Moacir de Miranda Oliveira Junior; Ronaldo Couto Parente

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of this paper is to comprehend the fundamental organizational differences between Brazilian franchise chains that only operate in the home market and Brazilian franchise chains that operate internationally. The sample chosen for this study comprehends 96 Brazilian franchises operating in the home market and 67 franchises with international operations; logistic regression was used to analyze data obtained from these sources. Our findings suggest that the development of a brand...

  20. The nuclear importation and exportation - The Brazilian situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The panorama of Brazilian economy emphasizing the measurements adopted by Brazilian government referring to importation and exportation policy is presented. The Brazilian Nuclear Program knows the nuclear trade gives good economic perspective. In the context of importation and exportation policy the laws concerned to nuclear trade transactions, taxes, national organizations responsible by the external trade policy and their attributions are presented. (M.C.K.)

  1. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres; José Luis Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is...

  2. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Andrea Nastri de Luca; Batista Junior, Joao Marcos; Lopez, Silvia Noeli; Furlan, Maysa; Cavalheiro, Alberto Jose; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Nunomura, Sergio Massayoshi [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazonia (INPA), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Dept. de Produtos Naturais; Yoshida, Massayoshi [Centro de Biotecnologia da Amazonia, Manaus, AM (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  3. Say syndrome: A new Brazilian case

    OpenAIRE

    Guion-Almeida M.L.; Kokitsu-Nakata N.M.; Zechi R.M.

    1998-01-01

    We report on a Brazilian boy, born to nonconsanguineous parents, who presented short stature, microcephaly, large ears, Robin sequence, hand anomalies, delayed bone age, and developmental delay. Major signs found in this patient are related to the Say syndrome.Os autores descrevem um menino, filho de pais normais e não-consanguíneos, apresentando baixa estatura, microcefalia, orelhas grandes, seqüência de Robin, anomalias digitais, atraso na idade óssea e atraso no desenvolvimento neuropsicom...

  4. Aromatic compounds from three Brazilian Lauraceae species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytochemical investigations on three Brazilian Lauraceae species from the Cerrado region of Sao Paulo State, Ocotea corymbosa (Meins) Mez., O. elegans Mez. and Persea pyrifolia Nees and Mart. ex Nees resulted in the isolation of flavonoids, an ester of the 4-O-E-caffeoylquinic acid, an aromatic sesquiterpene besides furofuran lignans. This is the first chemical study on the leaves of Ocotea elegans and O. corymbosa as well as the first report of non-volatile compounds from Persea pyrifolia. (author)

  5. Brazilian, Japanese, and American Business Negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    John L. Graham

    1983-01-01

    The determinants of the outcomes of business negotiations in 3 cultures are investigated in a laboratory experiment. The outcomes of negotiations between Japanese businessmen result primarily from situational constraint—the role of the negotiator (buyer or seller). Representational (problem-solving oriented) bargaining strategies, a measure of the process of the interaction, is the most important variable in American negotiations. In negotiations between Brazilian business people, deceptive b...

  6. Unions and the Economic Performanceof Brazilian Establishments

    OpenAIRE

    Naercio Menezes-Filho; Helio Zylberstajn; Jose Paulo Chahad; Elaine Pazello

    2002-01-01

    Using a pooled sample, this paper indicates that unions seem to affect the economic performance of Brazilian establishments, especially in terms of profitability, employment and productivity. Unions tend to reduce profitability, whereas the relationship between union density and productivity, employment and average wages seems to be concave. These performance indicators first rise with union density up to a certain density level (usually about 50 percent) and then start to decline. These resu...

  7. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira Carla; Werneck Marcos Azeredo; Lucas Simone; Abreu Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the profess...

  8. Exploring professionalization among Brazilian oral health technicians

    OpenAIRE

    Sanglard-Oliveira, Carla Aparecida; Werneck, Marcos Azeredo Furquim; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2012-01-01

    Professional dental auxiliaries emerged in the early 20th century in the United States of America and quickly spread to Europe and other regions of the world. In Brazil, however, oral health technicians (OHTs), who occupy a similar role as dental hygienists, had a long journey before the occupation achieved legal recognition: Brazilian Law 11.889, which regulates this occupation in the country, was only enacted in 2008. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the professionalizat...

  9. Brazilian sawn wood price and income elasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Rommel Noce; José Luiz Pereira de Rezende; Agostinho Lopes de Souza; Lourival Marin Mendes; Márcio Lopes; Rosa Maria Miranda Armond Carvalho; Juliana Mendes de Oliveira; Juliana Lorensi do Canto

    2010-01-01

    This study estimated the sawn wood demand price and income elasticity. Specifically it was estimated the priceelasticity of sawn wood, the cross price elasticity of wood panels and the income elasticity of Brazilian GDP. A log-log model withcorrection through outline of the mobile average (MA(1)) was used, adjusted for the period of 1971 to 2006, which showed to bestable, with satisfactory significance levels. It was observed that sawn wood demand is inelastic in relation to price and elastic...

  10. On the Brazilian energetic situation 1970 - 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we report, first, the Brazilian energy situation from the major oil crisis in the 1970s.Next, we discuss the period from the 1980s until 2005.Finally, it is projected scenarios from recent past (2005-2013), to the future that begins today and runs until 2030.This is a work for educational purposes, in which we provide compiled data for school research in all levels. (author)

  11. BRAZILIAN EDUCATION AND SURVIVAL STRATEGIES OF CAPITALISM

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Almeida Sales de Melo

    2012-01-01

    In discussing the theme Imperialism, Crisis and education, the essay points out aspects of our historical totality in relation to recent crises through which it passed capitalism, and its relationship to changes in Brazilian educational policies. Education remains at the heart of development projects, as a producer of knowledge, as well as guiding the processes of social conformation. They also discussed the aftermath of the crisis: the rise of social inequality and the increase of labor expl...

  12. Marketing Approach of Brazilian Wind Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Henrique Silva de Souza; Nilton César Lima; Jamerson Viegas Queiroz; Antonio Sergio Torres Penedo; Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho; Antonio Carlos Silva Costa

    2013-01-01

    Prospects for the wind energy market have proposed changes of focus to managerial issues. The objective of this article is to map the specific market factors from Brazilian wind energy industry, in order to develop reflections and considerations on the subject, towards to the managerial, strategic and commercial development of the sector. Through an exploratory methodology in empirical format, and by a SWOT analysis of Telescopic Observations Strategic Framework, were found results that show ...

  13. Diagnosis of the Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has the objective to present the diagnosis of the existing structure in the Brazilian Government to ensure the radioprotection and nuclear safety in the country, being compared the current situation with the conclusions presented in another studies, carried through in last 30 years, with special attention in the existence of the necessary available to support and independence of the national regulatory body for the development of the regulatory inspections activities in the radioprotection and nuclear safety. (author)

  14. OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN BRAZILIAN SMALL COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tonny Kerley de Alencar Rodrigues; Átila de Melo Lira; Irenilza de Alencar Naas

    2014-01-01

    This research has the objective was to characterize the small Brazilian companies about the knowledge of operations management tools that help in improving the administrative process for these organizations. For that we chose a more positivist strand which values quantitative aspects. The research can be descriptive and explanatory, applied and/or intervention. As for media, research can be classified as documentary, bibliographic and/or participant. The population for this study is composed ...

  15. Brazilian automotive industry in the nineties

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Kerlyng; Guilhoto, Joaquim José Martins; GEOFFREY J.D. HEWINGS; Chokri, Dridi

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to carry out an analysis of fuzzy clusters in the Brazilian automotive industry to contribute to the analysis of the relative importance of these economic activities in the national productive structure and in their regional contexts. The intention is to assess whether, once they have been established in the structure of a determined region, the economic activities of the industry establish productive relationships similar to other industries to the point of leading an indust...

  16. The current misunderstood Brazilian foreign policy

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Rezende

    2011-01-01

    Instead of taking advantage of increasing Brazilian international projection and involve the country in matters that are relevant for the group of actors in the international system, it seems that the country´s insertion goes confusedly in the opposite direction. Since the beginning of the current decade, Brazil has maintained evident cordiality for the governments of Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia and more recently Iran. As a consequence, Brazil is increasing dialogue with countries and involving ...

  17. Segmentation in the Brazilian Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Botelho; Vladimir Ponczek

    2011-01-01

    This paper measures the degree of segmentation in the brazilian labor market. Controlling for observable and unobservable characteristics, workers earn more in the formal sector, which supports the segmentation hypothesis. We break down the degree of segmentation by socio-economic attributes to identify the groups where this phenomenon is more prevalent. We investigate the robustness of our findings to the inclusion of self-employed individuals, and apply a two-stage panel probit model using ...

  18. DEVELOPMENTS IN BRAZILIAN FOOD SAFETY POLICY