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Sample records for brazilian rural settlement

  1. Dose forming in rural settlement: family analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study is the multifactor statistic families analysis of ingestion dose in rural settlement. The hypothesis of the determining role of a family as of social system in dose forming in rural settlement, has been approved. The most significant social-demographic features of a family influencing dose forming, were detected: the number of members of the family, number of children, average age, education and occupational orientation of the family. Despite their being linked with similar features of the family on the whole, age, education, occupation and gender of master of the family, influence most the dose forming. Young families with many children in which the master is a worker, having frequent contact with forest, have high doses. The knowledge of social structure of families will allow to predict the ingestion dose distribution in rural settlement. (Author)

  2. Koritnjak: Abandoned rural settlement in the beginning of 2002.

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    Martinović Marija

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Under non-adequate conditions of social relation to rural area after Second world war, modern development of rural settlements of Serbia has a lot of rural problems. A certain number of rural settlements, after negative general development at the end of XX and in the beginning of XXI century have been in demographical mean disappeared. With this paper, in the example of Koritnjak, is showed the genesis and evolution of settlement which is abandoned in the beginning of 2002, after continuous decrease of total population and non-positive demographical and total development.

  3. Dynamic mechanism and present situation of rural settlement evolution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Guohua; HE Yanhua; TANG Chengli; YU Tao; XIAO Guozhen; ZHONG Ting

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the factors influencing the evolution of rural settlements,including natural environmental constraints,infrastructure,regional cultural inheritance and integration,urbanization and rural industrial transformation,land use reformation and innovation,rural household behavior conversion,macro-control policy factors,and so on.Based on differences between the ways and degree of effect on rural settlement evolution,these factors are classified into basic factors,new-type factors and mutation factors.The drive of basic factors mainly focuses on the traditional inheritance of rural settlements,the new-type factors mainly affect rural settlement transition,and the mutation factors may bring about sudden changes.All these factors constitute a "three-wheel" driving mechanism for the evolution of rural settlements,and shape three typical driver paths:slow smooth path under the basic factors,new path to rapid development under the new-type factors,and the sudden change path under the mutation factors.The paper also investigates the overall situation of rural settlement evolution in the aspects of settlement system,settlement scale,settlement morphology,settlement function,settlement culture,settlement environment,etc.The general process of rural settlement evolution is divided into four stages:initial,transitional,developmental,and mature stages.

  4. Evaluation of the Rural Human Settlement in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; Shen Meiyu; Chen Xiangxiang

    2012-01-01

    Taking Shandong Province as the research object, this paper uses the principal component analysis method to evaluate the status of the rural human settlement in Shandong Province. It establishes the evaluation index system of the rural residential environment in Shandong Province, including living environment, economy, infrastructure, public service facilities, and ecological environment, in total five comprehensive index, and 20 second~ ary indexes. Through measurement and sorting of rural human environment development level of Shandong Province in 2010, the 17 cities are divided into-excellent, good, ordinary, poor-four development areas and are analyzed based on the restriction factor in the development of the region.

  5. A GIS-based research on the distribution of rural settlements in Yulin of northern Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The development and distribution pattern of rural settlements was greatly limited by their natural and social environment. Taking Yulin prefecture in northern Shaanxi's Loess Plateau area as an example, 1:250,000 map-scale national geographical database as a major information source, a GIS-based research was conducted to investigate the spatial distribution of the rural settlements. In this paper, many significant characteristics of the rural settlement distribution are reviewed by means of a series of GIS-based information processing methodology. The results obtained in this study should be helpful for the urban and rural settlements reconstruction planning in this area.

  6. SOCIAL WORK WITH MIGRANTS IN RURAL SETTLEMENTS: SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. CHEREVKO; G. I. PIGUL

    2015-01-01

    Peculiarities of migration processes development in the Russian Federation indicate that along with the gradual normalization of the migration situation there is an actual problem of foreign nationals connected with their adaptation and integration. Annually, a significant number of migrants arrive at the territory of Khabarovsk rural settlements. Most of them do not know Russian language and the basics of immigration law. In 2014, 43940 people arrived in Khabarovsk Krai; 131479 foreign citiz...

  7. Research on driving forces for rural settlement land changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Chun; FENG Chang-chun

    2010-01-01

    During the rapid urbanization period, the contradiction between demand for the construction land and the preservation of cultivated land for food security is getting more and more serious in China. With the urbanization the rural settlement land is increasing instead of decreasing. This paper aims at finding the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion. Based on land use change survey data (1996-2006) by the Ministry. of Land and Resources P. R. C., this paper finds that per capita area for rural settlement land is more than per capita area for city township and industrial land in each province except Tibet. Besides, rural settlement land area and per capita rural settlement land area are increasing while the rural population is decreasing in most provinces. The main problems of rural settlement land use are low efficiency, high vacancy rate, chaotic layout and illegal occupancy. Then the driving forces for rural settlement land expansion, including economic development family income, family scale, psychological factors, urbanization, transportation, lack of planning, limited circulation of dwelling-house land and imperfect social security, are explored based on above analysts. Finally, policy recommendations, in view of different influencing factors, are put forward to control the disorder expansion of rural settlement land.

  8. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970’s, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in ...

  9. Functional types of urban and rural settlements; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional types of urban and rural settlements were assessed from the data on 'pure economic structure' of the population of municipalities. The 'pure economic structure' means all population living and working in the particular settlement and the particular industry, plus the commuting population. Identification of the functions of urban and rural settlements was made on the basis of the prevailing share of population working in the particular industry. (authors)

  10. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maurício; Peres, Carlos A

    2015-01-01

    Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA) has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration. PMID:26247467

  11. Environmental Costs of Government-Sponsored Agrarian Settlements in Brazilian Amazonia.

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    Maurício Schneider

    Full Text Available Brazil has presided over the most comprehensive agrarian reform frontier colonization program on Earth, in which ~1.2 million settlers have been translocated by successive governments since the 1970's, mostly into forested hinterlands of Brazilian Amazonia. These settlements encompass 5.3% of this ~5 million km2 region, but have contributed with 13.5% of all land conversion into agropastoral land uses. The Brazilian Federal Agrarian Agency (INCRA has repeatedly claimed that deforestation in these areas largely predates the sanctioned arrival of new settlers. Here, we quantify rates of natural vegetation conversion across 1911 agrarian settlements allocated to 568 Amazonian counties and compare fire incidence and deforestation rates before and after the official occupation of settlements by migrant farmers. The timing and spatial distribution of deforestation and fires in our analysis provides irrefutable chronological and spatially explicit evidence of agropastoral conversion both inside and immediately outside agrarian settlements over the last decade. Deforestation rates are strongly related to local human population density and road access to regional markets. Agrarian settlements consistently accelerated rates of deforestation and fires, compared to neighboring areas outside settlements, but within the same counties. Relocated smallholders allocated to forest areas undoubtedly operate as pivotal agents of deforestation, and most of the forest clearance occurs in the aftermath of government-induced migration.

  12. Rural development in Istria - the case of implementation "Albergo diffuso" and renovation of rural settlement Padna

    OpenAIRE

    Črnigoj Marc, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Rural landscape in Slovenian Istria is highly attractive for tourism as a special cultural landscape offers exploring many natural and cultural heritage elements. Nevertheless, the majority of tourists and economic development are concentrated on the narrow coastline. Many traditional settlements in city outskirts are exposed to stagnation and degradation, mainly due to the aging population and emigration. Only few young people, who are generally not in touch with tradition and the environmen...

  13. SOCIAL WORK WITH MIGRANTS IN RURAL SETTLEMENTS: SOCIOLOGICAL ASPECT

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    M. A. CHEREVKO

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Peculiarities of migration processes development in the Russian Federation indicate that along with the gradual normalization of the migration situation there is an actual problem of foreign nationals connected with their adaptation and integration. Annually, a significant number of migrants arrive at the territory of Khabarovsk rural settlements. Most of them do not know Russian language and the basics of immigration law. In 2014, 43940 people arrived in Khabarovsk Krai; 131479 foreign citizens and persons without citizenship were registered in the migration office. As a result of changing climatic, socioeconomic, psychological-pedagogical conditions, foreign citizens, in most cases, show a low level of sociopsychological readiness to integrate into the local community in its actual borders. The fact of changing the place of residence is a destabilizing factor and entails certain disadvantages: the change of the social environment, the climate, the legal field. Under the new conditions of residence foreign citizens must adapt to the surrounding space - establish social relationships (friendship, business, relations with neighbors, study and know the laws of the community, receive (restore the social and legal status (employment, realization of the right to education and training children, decent livelihood. Solution of this problem is complicated by specific conditions of life in rural areas. At the same time, the few sociological studies of migration processes focus on the research of problems of migrants living in cities and do not consider the adaptation problems of this category of population living in rural areas.

  14. Rural settlements dynamics and the prospects of densification strategy in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, A F M Ashraful; Asad, Rumana; Enamul Kabir, Md

    2016-01-01

    Given the year on year decrease of rural farmland and various forms of land degradation through the intrusion of non-farm land uses, the government of Bangladesh has drafted the agrarian reform strategies, primarily to protect the agricultural land from encroachment, conversion, and indiscriminate use. The draft Agricultural Land Protection and Land Use Bill since its inception in 2011 is facing serious uncertainties of implementation due to its borrowed nature from the developed contexts and inadequacy to recognize the local complexities. With a particular focus on the densification component of the draft bill, a semester-long design studio was conducted in consultation with the existing villagers to explore the practicability of the draft bill in the villages of Tetultala and Chhoygharia in the south-western coastal Bangladesh. The findings from the two villages hint that in Bangladesh, the unique and evolving nature of rural settlements dynamics that are disintegrating the rural society from farming practices and the farmland, thereby, unsettling the traditional village-morphology. The settlements dynamics vary from those of the western context; hence, there is an emerging need to build locally situated knowledge towards a feasible rural land reform. PMID:27026946

  15. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-01-01

    This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to ...

  16. Some demographic changes and general morpho-physiognomy of rural settlements of the Jablanica basin

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    Popović Ivan B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, more stable socio-economic growth of the local municipalities of Jablanica has caused many changes and initiated numerous development trends in rural settlements of this spatial whole. This paper analyses the accommodation characteristics, some demographic changes and general morpho-physiognomical tendencies of Jablanica villages, which is of basic importance for representing the essential segments of the local rural settlements.

  17. Traffic Service Solution for Rural Settlements by Means of Tertiary Country Roads

    OpenAIRE

    Vochozka, Marek; Pártlová, Petra; Mayer, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the issue of traffic service for rural settlements and related production, tourist and recreation activities in rural areas in the conditions of the Czech Republic by means of rural tertiary roads. The article declares their critical importance for assurance of traffic service and penetrability of the Czech rural areas. Theoretical grounds have been specified for their designing, as well as basic criteria and parameters. A selected territorial segment is used to demo...

  18. Sobre cooperação e cooperativas em assentamentos rurais About cooperation and cooperativism in rural settlements

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    Rosemeire Aparecida Scopinho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo trata do significado da cooperação e do cooperativismo no processo organizativo de assentamentos rurais no estado de São Paulo. Compreendendo cooperação e cooperativismo como processos sociais distintos, discuto os motivos do movimento de institucionalização de cooperativas na sua relação com o declínio das formas de cooperação tradicionalmente desenvolvidas no mundo rural brasileiro. Analiso o significado da cooperação e os problemas decorrentes da sua institucionalização no interior dos assentamentos rurais organizados pelo Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, procurando identificar os elementos que indicam mudanças e permanências em relação ao tradicional cooperativismo rural. Procuro refletir sobre os motivos da atual tendência existente entre os assentados para refutar a cooperativa como modelo organizacional, mas valorizar a cooperação como modo de organização da vida econômica e societária.This article deals with the meaning of cooperation and cooperativism in the organizational process of rural settlements in the state of São Paulo considering cooperation and cooperativism as distinct social processes. I discuss the motive why the movement headed for cooperative institutionalization in relation to the decline of the traditional ways of cooperation developed in the Brazilian rural world. The meaning of cooperation was studied as well as subsequent problems due to its institutionalization within the rural settlements organized by MST - Landless Workers Movement, trying to identify the elements that show change and permanence related to traditional rural cooperativism. I seek to reflect upon the motives of the current trend among settlers to reject the cooperative as an organizational model, despite the fact they appraise cooperation as a way to organize their social and economic life.

  19. Rural education in brazilian education: contradictions and perspective

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    Adriana D'Agostini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on the rural education. It aimed to analyze and discuss the rural education in the Brazilian educational context, indicating its character and its importance from the 1990s in the perspective of building an education aimed at human emancipation and that contradictory it is also supported and guided by neoliberal educational policies. From the studies of production on rural education was found challenges, problems, difficulties and contradictions that permeate the attempt to create a perspective of rural education. The concept of rural education was initially developed within the Movement of Landless Workers (MST and other social movements from the political pressure and demands for the state to take over public education / field took dimension of public policy. This complex situation currently directs rural schools, a critical perspective that seeks an education beyond the capital.

  20. Dynamic Mechanisms for Evolution of Mountain Rural Settlements and Soil Conservation in Upper Yangtze River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; CHEN Yong

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the logic relationship between rural settlement reconstruction and soil conservation in the Upper Yangtze River. Firstly, by introducing the concepts of "flow" and "intercepted flow", we probe into the dynamic mechanism on interaction between ecological and environmental system, and then point out that the "intercepting sites" are physical conditions for establishment of human settlements in mountains. Secondly, by using ecological theories, "flow", "source", and "sink", material cycle and energy flow in mountains have been discussed. Thirdly, according to dissipative structure theory and thermodynamic laws, a hypothesis has been proposed that "entropy flow" is a dynamic force for settlement evolution. Finally, it is argued that a project for soil conservation is set to control and utilize flows so rural settlements can be supported and farmers' life improved.

  1. A Simulation Model for Developing Service Centers in a Rural Settlement Network

    OpenAIRE

    R Domanski; Wierzbicki, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The work of the Regional Development Task at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) focuses on problems of medium- and long-term regional development. In this context the restructuring of settlement networks forms an important part of the development of regions. A critical aspect of this restructuring is the development of service centers. This paper presents a dynamic simulation model for developing service centers in a rural settlement network, together with t...

  2. Test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements: results of the HEFA CORS project in 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Carenza

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the fifth year of the University of Cambridge Higher Education Field Academy (HEFA) project run by Access Cambridge Archaeology (ACA) which combines education and university outreach (particularly within the secondary school sector) with the archaeological investigation of currently occupied rural settlements (CORS) by the excavation of 1-metre square test pits in open spaces within existing rural villages and hamlets. The programme was directed b...

  3. Settlement

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    John Frow

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the idea of settlement in each of its three major senses: as a place of human habitation; as a fixed and stable order of habitation; and as a political consensus reconciling fractious groups. Arguing that traditional accounts of settlement depend, with a kind of pastoral nostalgia, upon a view of abstraction and social complexity as in themselves  harmful, it follows through the implications of the concept for ways of dealing with the stranger, and it uses a drawing by the nineteenth-century indigenous Australian artist Tommy McRae, done about 1890 and entitled Corroboree, or William Buckley and dancers from the Wathaurong people, to propose a counterfactual model through which a settlement with the stranger might be imagined.

  4. Test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements: results of the University of Cambridge CORS project in 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Carenza

    2012-01-01

    2011 saw the seventh year of test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements (CORS) in East Anglia carried out under the supervision of Access Cambridge Archaeology (ACA) directed by Dr Carenza Lewis at the University of Cambridge. As in previous years, this archaeological activity combines education and university outreach (particularly within the secondary school sector) with the archaeological investigation of currently occupied rural settlements (CO...

  5. INFLUENCE OF LOCAL AND LARGE SCALE HYDROMETEOROLOGICAL FACTORS ON INTERANNUAL GROWNDWATER NITRATE REGIME IN RURAL SETTLEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    PÁL Z.; BARTÓK BLANKA

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzes the spatial distribution of groundwater nitrate concentration in Siculeni, a rural settlement in Eastern Transylvania. The aim of the paper is to determine the factors influencing the inter-annual regime of groundwater nitrate concentration. In the analyze groundwater nitrate concentration and water table data are used from 23 sampling points and also precipitation data from Miercurea Ciuc meteorological station are processed. Based on combined cluster analyzes with geograp...

  6. Test pit excavation within currently occupied rural settlements: results of the HEFA CORS project 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Carenza

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the sixth year of the University of Cambridge Higher Education Field Academy (HEFA) project run by Access Cambridge Archaeology (ACA). As in previous years, this combines education and university outreach (particularly within the secondary school sector) with the archaeological investigation of currently occupied rural settlements (CORS). The main method used for this is the excavation of 1- metre square test pits in open spaces within exist...

  7. Methodology for Evaluating the Rural Tourism Potentials: A Tool to Ensure Sustainable Development of Rural Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Trukhachev

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses potentials, challenges and problems of the rural tourism from the point of view of its impact on sustainable rural development. It explores alternative sources of income for rural people by means of tourism and investigates effects of the rural tourism on agricultural production in local rural communities. The aim is to identify the existing and potential tourist attractions within the rural areas in Southern Russia and to provide solutions to be introduced in particular ru...

  8. Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon - Achievements and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT - light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2 million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region, and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.

  9. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY OF Ehrlichia SPECIES IN DOGS, HORSES AND HUMANS: ZOONOTIC SCENERY IN A RURAL SETTLEMENT FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL

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    Rafael Felipe da Costa Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and risk factors for exposure in a restricted population of dogs, horses, and humans highly exposed to tick bites in a Brazilian rural settlement using a commercial ELISA rapid test and two indirect immunofluorescent assays (IFA with E. canis and E. chaffeensis crude antigens. Serum samples from 132 dogs, 16 horses and 100 humans were used. Fifty-six out of 132 (42.4% dogs were seropositive for E. canis. Dogs > one year were more likely to be seropositive for E. canis than dogs ≤ one year (p = 0.0051. Ten/16 (62.5% and 8/16 (50% horses were seropositive by the commercial ELISA and IFA, respectively. Five out of 100 (5% humans were seropositive for E. canis and E. chaffeensis. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (n = 291, 97.98% on dogs and Amblyomma cajennense (n = 25, 96.15% on horses were the most common ticks found. In conclusion, anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies were found in horses; however, the lack of a molecular characterization precludes any conclusion regarding the agent involved. Additionally, the higher seroprevalence of E. canis in dogs and the evidence of anti-Ehrlichia spp. antibodies in humans suggest that human cases of ehrlichiosis in Brazil might be caused by E. canis, or other closely related species.

  10. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anjos, R.M., E-mail: meigikos@if.uff.b [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Macario, K.D. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Lima, T.A. [Departamento de Antropologia, Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no, Sao Cristovao, 20940-040 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Veiga, R.; Carvalho, C.; Fernandes, P.J.F.; Vezzone, M.; Bastos, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza, s/no, Gragoata, 24210-346 Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  11. Correlations between radiometric analysis of Quaternary deposits and the chronology of prehistoric settlements from the southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gamma radiation measurements of sand deposits were carried out in order to study the chronology of prehistoric colonization of the Brazilian coast during the Holocene. The method employs thorium, uranium and potassium as tracers of the geological provenance of Quaternary deposits, where artificial shellmounds are found. The so-called sambaquis are archaeological settlements, characteristic of fisher-gatherers, specialized in the exploitation of shellfish. Our results show a considerable positive correlation between the formation of coastal deposits, based on cross plots of eTh/eU and eTh/K, and the antiquity of its prehistoric human occupation.

  12. Function of Rural Settlement Complex Ecosystem in Mountain Area: A Case Study of Raosi Village of Zuogong County, Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shaoquan; CHEN Guojie

    2006-01-01

    Using energy analysis,the quantifying evaluation and study method on production,living and ecology functions and their sustainability of rural settlement ecosystem in mountain area is established with these energy index such as export of labor and products,export of water resource,internal energy reserve,energy consumption for human living,net energy of ecosystem function and net internal reserve.Taking rural settlement Raosi Village in Hengduan Mountains as a case study,and on the basis of the synthetic research into the ecological process of the complex ecosystem,the study shows that energy costs of production,human living and ecology functions are separately taking 1.36%,13.59% and 85.05% of the gross ecosystem functions,and the exertions of production and human living functions are close to a high-point state on the present using level of energy in the settlement.The study also shows that the most important function of a rural settlement in mountain area is its ecological rather productive function.

  13. Assessment of Groundwater Quality in a Typical Rural Settlement in Southwest Nigeria

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    O. B. Banjoko

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In most rural settlements in Nigeria, access to clean and potable water is a great challenge, resulting in water borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the levels of some physical, chemical, biochemical and microbial water quality parameters in twelve hand – dug wells in a typical rural area (Igbora of southwest region of the country. Seasonal variations and proximity to pollution sources (municipal waste dumps and defecation sites were also examined. Parameters were determined using standard procedures. All parameters were detected up to 200 m from pollution source and most of them increased in concentration during the rainy season over the dry periods, pointing to infiltrations from storm water. Coliform population, Pb, NO3- and Cd in most cases, exceeded the World Health Organization recommended thresholds for potable water. Effect of distance from pollution sources was more pronounced on fecal and total coliform counts, which decreased with increasing distance from waste dumps. The qualities of the well water samples were therefore not suitable for human consumption without adequate treatment. Regular monitoring of groundwater quality, abolishment of unhealthy waste disposal practices and introduction of modern techniques are recommended.

  14. Off-Farm Work among Rural Households: A Case Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWey, Leah; Vithayathil, Trina

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes off-farm work among subsistence-level farmers in the Santarem region of the Brazilian Amazon. We build on the literature on rural livelihoods in the Global South by exploring how the opportunity to work off the farm is embedded in social relationships. We additionally differentiate our analysis by type of off-farm work, and…

  15. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

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    Yaolin Liu

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS and cellular automata (CA. The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  16. Spatial Pattern of Rural Settlements in the Upper Reaches of the Minjiang River——a Case Study in Maoxian County, Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenlan; LI Ainong; ZHOU Wancun

    2007-01-01

    A quantitative analysis of the spatial pattern of rural settlements in the upper reaches of the Minjiang River was made with the major data sources being the relevant ETM image and the national geographical database of China (including contour line, river and road) at the scale of 1:250 000,and using image interpretation and field investigation to obtain spatial information on rural settlements.The results of the spatial analysis technique of GIS and correlation analysis showed that most settlements(78.2 %) were located in the mountain area at 1500 ~2700 m altitude, and almost half in the arid valley area. More than 80.0 % of settlements had their slopes above 15°. Most settlements had good access to water resources, roads and communications, and tended to cluster close to the road network rather than the river. About half of the rural settlements in the study area were relatively concentrated, while the others were decentralized. Those with higher altitude usually had land with steep slope, inconvenient water and road accesses, and were located far apart from each other. In view of such a situation, further research should be done to make reasonable countermeasures on these settlements for better living conditions and ecosystem stability.

  17. TOURISM AND SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN RURAL COUNTRYSIDE IN CASE OF THE SETTLEMENT DEVELOPMENT IN THE SLOVENIAN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Mrak, Alma Zavodnik Lamovšek, Alenka Fikfak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a form of the biggest peaceful migrations of people andat the same time a way of life, which affects their understandingand experiences about their journeys [Kovač, 2002: 4]. It isrelated with the consummation of goods and services, which areunnecessary in their essence. In recent years an increasinglyfrequent tourist trend has developed, the desire and demandfor untouched nature, cultural, historical and archaeologicalattractiveness, first hand experiences of practices and traditions oflocal communities, recreation and healthy living, etc. The purposeof the article is to show an overview of the development and modernforms of tourism in the rural area and the main direction for thedevelopment of ecotourism. We examined the Alpine region as aspecial case, which, owing to its characteristics, is a particularlysuitable area for the development of such forms of tourism. Aconscious conversion of abandoned dwellings and cheese dairiesin to tourist accommodation facilities or apartments, supplied orunsupplied shelters is a way of keeping them alive. They could beused either as starting points for hiking or climbing tours into themountains or as shelters during bad weather. With this in mindan idea of a dispersed hotel emerges. The main purpose of sucha hotel is to unite the characteristics of the area with the localcommunity with their activities. For the tourist this would meana brand new and interesting experience. We therefore concludethat the dispersed hotel is an innovative form of hospitality thatpromotes sustainable development, provides the possibility andthe opportunity for balancing the use of local resources and touristpotential.

  18. Smoke impacts from agricultural burning in a rural Brazilian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, T E; Ottmar, R D; Castilla, C

    2001-03-01

    Agricultural and silvicultural biomass burning is practiced in many undeveloped portions of the Amazon basin. In Rond nia, Brazil, such burning is restricted to a brief period in the dry season of August and September to minimize the duration of air quality impacts and to attempt to control escaped fires. During this period, much of the region and the communities within it experience significant exposure to smoke from agricultural and forest fires. In cooperation with Brazilian scientists of the University of Brasilia, the Brazilian Organization for Agricultural Research (EMBRAPA), and the Alternative to Slash and Burn Program coordinated by the International Center for Research in Agroforestry (ICRAF), ambient air quality was measured in Theobroma, a small town in Rond nia, during one week of the open burning period of 1995 to supplement available air quality data and to foster public awareness of the impacts of widespread fires. Personal sampling equipment was used to measure ambient levels of formaldehyde (HCHO), acrolein, CO, benzene, and respirable PM in outdoor air. The data obtained were compared with established Brazilian and U.S. ambient air quality guidelines. Ambient levels of respirable PM averaged 191 microg/m3, HCHO averaged 12.8 ppb, CO averaged 4.2 ppm, and benzene averaged 3.2 ppb. Almost all acrolein samples were less than the detection limit of 1 ppb. The results showed that the public can be exposed to relatively high levels of pollutants under the prescribed burning smoke management strategy of a two- to three-week prescription burning period, although this is an improvement over past years when burning was unregulated and continued through most of the dry season. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using personal exposure monitoring equipment for low-cost surveys of ambient air quality in polluted regions. PMID:11266107

  19. Important factors governing exposure of the population and countermeasure application in rural settlements of the Russian Federation in the long term after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rural settlements located in areas of the Russian Federation contaminated after the Chernobyl accident and exceeding an annual dose of 1 mSv a-1 have been classified according to 137Cs contamination density, internal dose and the neighbourhood of forests. It has been shown that, with the exception of the most contaminated areas, the internal doses decreased in accordance with a decline in 137Cs availability for plant root uptake. An inverse tendency was observed in areas with 137Cs contamination above 555 kBq m-2 which can be explained by a reduction or even termination of countermeasure application and by an increasing consumption of forest products in areas where restrictive countermeasures are still implemented. Twenty-seven settlements have been studied to estimate the effectiveness of countermeasures applied previously and to identify the most important factors governing the radiation exposure to the population and its change with time. It has been shown that the effectiveness of countermeasures which resulted in a decrease of up to 40% of doses has a tendency to decline in the long term. The need for continuation of remediation in rural settlements was evaluated both for selected settlements and extrapolated to the whole contaminated area and it has been shown that the application of countermeasures will be of importance at least up to the year 2045. Rather high effectiveness in terms of internal dose reduction (factor of 2-2.5) of radical improvement (disking, ploughing and reseeding) and administration of Cs binders to animals (Ferrocyn) was demonstrated for the selected settlements. It could be demonstrated that for forest-remote settlements there is a linear dependence between internal dose normalised to the density of contamination and the proportion of peat soils around settlements. For near-forest settlements, this dependence was less pronounced which can be explained by the high contribution of forest food products to the internal dose. Milk is still

  20. Sense of Place in the Prairie Environment: Settlement and Ecology in Rural Geary County, Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veregge, Nina

    1995-01-01

    Describes the historical development of the spatial order of human settlement in Geary County, Kansas. Geary County's sense of place derives from the integration of physical and human environments--patterns of association between daily human activities and natural environment that have produced a particular cultural landscape. (SV)

  1. Protected rural areas of Serbia - the possibility of sustainable development (Example: Special Nature Reserve “Uvac” and the settlement of Negbina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Community Protected rural areas of Serbia, that is, administrative territories of settlements belonging to their geospatial coverage, need the integration of a range of fundamental and applied problems and objectives for possible sustainable development. The necessity of proposing and adopting mechanisms for sustainable development, while maintaining the consistency principle - focuses based on specific values of individual protected territories, would represent a fundamental prerequisite. Rural settlements which areas (partially or totally belong to the Special Nature Reserve "Uvac", hereinafter referred to as SNR "Uvac", are characterized by disfunctional environmental protection. The establishment of appropriate management mechanisms would create the basis for not only environmental, but also demographic, and social development as well, which would allow finding a solution for the survival and revitalization of settlements and greater development opportunities. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176008

  2. Protected rural areas of Serbia - the possibility of sustainable development (Example: Special Nature Reserve “Uvac” and the settlement of Negbina)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihajlović Bojana

    2015-01-01

    Community Protected rural areas of Serbia, that is, administrative territories of settlements belonging to their geospatial coverage, need the integration of a range of fundamental and applied problems and objectives for possible sustainable development. The necessity of proposing and adopting mechanisms for sustainable development, while maintaining the consistency principle - focuses based on specific values of individual protected territories, would repr...

  3. 'Offensive' snakes: cultural beliefs and practices related to snakebites in a Brazilian rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiavetti Alexandre

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper records the meaning of the term 'offense' and the folk knowledge related to local beliefs and practices of folk medicine that prevent and treat snake bites, as well as the implications for the conservation of snakes in the county of Pedra Branca, Bahia State, Brazil. The data was recorded from September to November 2006 by means of open-ended interviews performed with 74 individuals of both genders, whose ages ranged from 4 to 89 years old. The results show that the local terms biting, stinging and pricking are synonymous and used as equivalent to offending. All these terms mean to attack. A total of 23 types of 'snakes' were recorded, based on their local names. Four of them are Viperidae, which were considered the most dangerous to humans, besides causing more aversion and fear in the population. In general, local people have strong negative behavior towards snakes, killing them whenever possible. Until the antivenom was present and available, the locals used only charms, prayers and homemade remedies to treat or protect themselves and others from snake bites. Nowadays, people do not pay attention to these things because, basically, the antivenom is now easily obtained at regional hospitals. It is understood that the ethnozoological knowledge, customs and popular practices of the Pedra Branca inhabitants result in a valuable cultural resource which should be considered in every discussion regarding public health, sanitation and practices of traditional medicine, as well as in faunistic studies and conservation strategies for local biological diversity.

  4. Maintenance of agricultural diversity in rural settlements – a case study in Moji-Mirim, São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Christina de Mello Amorozo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated whether farmers, when established in rural settlements, keep some traditional features with regard to crops diversity and circulation of planting material. Its aims were to make an ethnobotanical survey of species and varieties and analyze the dinamics of seeds and propagules circulation. A total of 139 varieties of food crops (55 species/28 families were found, being 87% of them intended for self-consumption; 54% of varieties come from Minas Gerais, home state of most respondents. The number of varieties grown per household ranged from 17 to 54. The informal and free circulation of planting material is the most important way of acquisition. The circulation network is very active, showing a potential for the management of crops diversity, with emphasis on the contribution of settlers to the maintenance and valorization of traditional varieties.

  5. Layout optimization of rural settlements based on point-axis theory%基于点轴理论的农村居民点布局优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔雪松; 金璐璐; 郄昱; 张怡然; 徐媛

    2014-01-01

    为合理确定农村居民点整治范围和布局优化方向,揭示农村居民点布局的点-轴空间作用机制。该文系统分析了村镇增长极点(城镇、中心村和基层村)与发展轴(道路)对农村居民点规划布局的空间作用机制,引入空间引力修正模型,测算村镇之间的相互作用值,采用加权Voronoi图划分各增长极点空间作用范围,结合道路与地形对农村居民点的综合作用,构建面向点-轴空间作用的农村居民点布局优化体系。研究以大冶市大箕铺镇为例进行实证研究,通过点-轴空间综合作用分析与测算,将大箕铺镇农村居民点用地空间划分为城镇化型、内部改造型、迁村并点型(包括中心村建设、村中心建设)3种模式;通过不同优化模式的空间引导与整合,实现村镇层次农村居民点科学规划与合理布局。%A rural settlement, with the spatial characteristics of point distribution and axis development, is an important land-use type that refers to construction in rural areas in China. Growth points (including town, key village and basic-level village) and development axis (including roads and river systems) play an important role in spatial optimization of rural settlements. To study the effects of point-axis on arranging the spatial layout of rural settlements, this paper analyzed the spatial action of point-axis on rural settlements using an improved gravity model. Three indexes, including population, gross domestic product, and development index of enterprise, were selected to calculate the gravity values among villages. The weights for population, gross domestic product, and development index of enterprise in the gravity model are 0.297, 0.540, and 0.163, respectively. The spatial gravity matrix of the villages was acquired using the gravity model. Five village groups were constructed and a key town, four key villages, and nineteen basic-level villages were

  6. The Educational Process in Chico Bento's Stories: Representations About Education in the Brazilian Rural Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Weber Biazi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we use Cultural Studies to identify and understand the representations that are transmitted about the educational process in Chico Bento's stories - a character of a comic strip in Brazil. He is a personage who lives in the Brazilian rural zone and was created by Maurício de Sousa. The trajectory of this work included an ethnography of the magazines about Chico Bento, characterizing the rural universe where he lives, focusing on the educational practices and especially his school experiences. Since the delimitation of that universe, it was possible to analyze in which ways Chico Bento's creators articulate the relationship between scientific knowledge x popular knowledge, emphasizing the pedagogic practices of the teacher, Miss Marocas.

  7. MODELING, DEVELOPMENT AND DIFFUSION OF HYPERMEDIA-INTERNET APPLICATIONS FOR THE BRAZILIAN RURAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Zambalde

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing country in the midst of major social, economic, technological, cultural, and educational change. In the areas of technology and education, the transfer of information and knowledge, with the support of hypermedia applications, Internet, and distance learning have been a major concern of public and private entities, especially in regards to agriculture and animal production. In a country with approximately 195 million inhabitants and 8.5 million square kilometers, where the rural sector accounts for 25% of gross domestic product, 30.3% of exports, and 37% of jobs1, the use of information and communication technologies in education and inclusion is fundamental to promoting developmental strategies and citizenship. In this study, we sought to describe the process of modeling, development and dissemination of hypermedia applications for the Brazilian rural sector, taking as a case unit, the “Digital Citizen” Internet portal. A qualitative research, with exploratory-descriptive goals, and a case study based on documentary and observation is presented. In the current research and beyond, the practices related to modeling, development, and dissemination of hypermedia applications via distance learning (Moodle® and Flash®, as well as investigations and discussions involving government processes and practices related to digital inclusion and social development of rural citizen Brazil are specified. We conclude that Brazil is tackling the challenge of digital and social inclusion, based on a project whose main components included (a deploying an infrastructure for telephone and broadband across the rural areas, (b offering free internet in public schools and rural communities, (c promoting projects and companies that work with hypermedia applications, and (d supporting initiatives that involve the development and provision of services at a distance. The rural citizen has been able to maintain his residence in their midst with

  8. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in a rural community in the Brazilian state of Bahia

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    André Costa Matos

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of cardiovascular risk factors in the rural community of Cavunge, in the Brazilian state of Bahia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 160 individuals (age > 19 years randomly drawn from those listed in the population census of the Cavunge Project. The following parameters were studied: arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, obesity, smoking, waist-hip ratio (WHR, physical activity, and overall cardiovascular risk classified according to the Framingham score. The assessing parameters used were those established by the III Brazilian Consensus on Hypertension and the II Brazilian Consensus on Dyslipidemia. RESULTS: Of the randomly drawn individuals, 126 with a mean age of 46.6 + 19.7 years were included in the study, 43.7% of whom were males. The frequency of arterial hypertension was 36.5%; 20.4% of the individuals had cholesterol levels >240 mg/dL; 31.1% of the individuals had LDL-C levels > 130 mg/dL; 4% were diabetic; and 39.7% had a high-risk Framingham score. Abdominal obesity was observed in 41.3% of the population and in 57.7% of the females. High caloric-expenditure (HCE physical activities were performed by 56.5% of the individuals. The HCE group had a greater frequency of normal triglyceride levels (63% vs 44%; P=0.05, no diabetes, and WHR tending towards normal (46% vs 27%, P=0.08 as compared with those in the low caloric-expenditure group. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia, are frequently found in rural communities. The greatest frequency of normal triglyceride levels and normal WHR in the HCE group reinforces the association between greater caloric expenditure and a better risk profile.

  9. Urban-rural differences in Roman Dorset, England: A bioarchaeological perspective on Roman settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, Rebecca C; DeWitte, Sharon N; Pearce, John; Hamlin, Christine; Dinwiddy, Kirsten Egging

    2015-05-01

    In the Roman period, urban and rural ways of living were differentiated philosophically and legally, and this is the first regional study of these contrasting life-ways. Focusing on frailty and mortality risk, we investigated how these differed by age, sex, and status, using coffin type as a proxy for social status. We employed skeletal data from 344 individuals: 150 rural and 194 urban (1st-5th centuries A.D.) from Dorset, England. Frailty and mortality risk were examined using indicators of stress (cribra orbitalia, porotic hyperostosis, nonspecific periostitis, and enamel hypoplastic defects), specific metabolic and infectious diseases (rickets, scurvy, and tuberculosis), and dental health (carious lesions and calculus). These variables were studied using Chi-square, Siler model of mortality, Kaplan-Meier analysis, and the Gompertz model of adult mortality. Our study found that overall, mortality risk and survivorship did not differ between cemetery types but when the data were examined by age, mortality risk was only significantly higher for urban subadults. Demographic differences were found, with urban cemeteries having more 0-10 and >35 year olds, and for health, urban cemeteries had significantly higher frequencies of enamel hypoplastic defects, carious lesions, and rickets. Interestingly, no significant difference in status was observed between rural and urban cemeteries. The most significant finding was the influence of the skeletal and funerary data from the Poundbury sites, which had different demographic profiles, significantly higher frequencies of the indicators of stress and dental health variables. In conclusion, there are significant health, demographic, and mortality differences between rural and urban populations in Roman Britain. PMID:25613696

  10. Strategy for the restoration of rural settlements in Belarus contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. Problems and experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experience of the protective actions taken in Belarus in the wake of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident can provide useful insights for specialists who are considering strategies for restoring areas contaminated with radionuclides. Data on the protective actions performed in Belarus after this accident are presented briefly, and the efficiency assessment used for the resettlement of certain categories of population is discussed, The levels allowed by the state for radioactive contamination in food and the averted doses are reviewed. The current number of contaminated settlements and their population are given. Particulars concerning the nature of the doses and the differences in their formation for the urban and rural populations are examined. Existing criteria for decision making, radiological and non-radiological factors which affect the decision making processes are explained. The experience in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident shows that the decision making process for remediation actions must consider both radiological and non-radiological factors. Moreover, as the annual dose tends to approach established limits over time, non-radiological factors start to play a more important role in the decision making process. (author)

  11. Livelihood strategies in settlement projects in the Brazilian Amazon: Determining drivers and factors within the Agrarian Reform Program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diniz, F.H.; Hoogstra, M.A.; Kok, K.; Arts, B.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, hundreds of thousands of families have settled in the Brazilian Amazon within the framework of the Agrarian Reform Program (ARP). The rationale behind the program is to enable settlers to earn their living by small-scale farming and producing an agricultural surplus for the ma

  12. The phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae of Guaraí, state of Tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas

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    Maurício Luiz Vilela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of Guaraí in the state of Tocantins (TO, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. Forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as ACL vectors. Eleven species were recorded for the first time in TO. Nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Evandromyia bourrouli, Nyssomyia antunesi and Psychodopygus complexus. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index and the evenness index were higher in the rural settlement area than in the periurban area. The evaluation of different ecotopes within the rural area showed the highest frequencies of Ev. bourrouli and Ny. antunesi in chicken coops, whereas Ny. whitmani predominated in this ecotope in the periurban area. In the rural settlement area, Ev. bourrouli was the most frequently captured species in automatic light traps and Ps. complexus was the most prevalent in Shannon trap captures. The rural settlement environment exhibited greater phlebotomine biodiversity than the periurban area. Ps. complexus and Psychodopygus ayrozai naturally infected with Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis were identified. The data identified Ny. whitmani as a potential ACL vector in the periurban area, whereas Ps. complexus was more prevalent in the rural environment associated with settlements.

  13. 湖北省新型农村合作医疗"直补"问题及应对策略%Problems and Coping Strategies of "Instant Settlement" in Hubei Province New Rural Cooperative Medical Care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢菲莉; 李棻; 吴松; 陈亮; 杜蔚青; 余臻峥; 黄庆; 韩东; 夏宏杰

    2012-01-01

    New rural cooperative medical care "instant settlement" has become the new rural cooperative medical system and the whole medical insurance industry development trend. By the communication of the present of Hubei Province new rural cooperative medical care " instant settlement" the current situation, " instant settlement" policy advocacy is analyzed to implement system management and operation of norms, through the network settlement and other aspects of the problems, and to strengthen the propaganda and guide the implementation of "instant settlement" policy; to improve the new rural cooperative medical care "instant settlement" information management and the implementation of a personal one card system; to unify the implementation provincial platform "instant settlement" to improve efficiency and reduce disputes and other specific recommendations, for further improvement of the "instant settlement".%新型农村合作医疗"直补"已经成为新型农村合作医疗乃至整个医疗保险行业发展的必然趋势.通过交流湖北省新型农村合作医疗"直补"的现状,分析在"直补"政策的宣传落实、制度管理及操作规范、网络结算方式等方面出现的问题,针对性提出了加强宣传和指导落实"直补"政策;完善新型农村合作医疗"直补"信息管理及实行一人一卡制度;统一实现省级平台"直补"结算,提高效率,减少纠纷等具体建议,期望能对进一步完善新农合"直补"工作有所裨益.

  14. Perspectives for rural electrification in the new economic and institutional scenario of the brazilian electric sector; Perspectivas para a eletrificacao rural no novo cenario economico-institucional do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Correa de

    2001-03-15

    This thesis discusses the energy deficit in Brazilian rural areas, from the viewpoint of the ongoing reform, which is establishing a new economic and institutional model for the electric sector. The main objective of this inquiry is to reveal the perspectives for the solution of the rural energy problem, by means of a critical examination of the legal and executive initiatives related to the expansion of electric coverage, indicating the priority level of rural electrification within the reform. This analysis infers the need of an innovative reform approach, different from the solutions employed by developed countries, due to peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian case. (author)

  15. 基于扩展断裂点模型的农村居民点整理布局优化%Layout optimization for rural settlements consolidation based on extended break-point model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯电军; 沈陈华

    2014-01-01

    农村居民点迁移合并是土地整理实施过程遇到的实际问题,其研究结果可为土地利用总体规划及镇村布局规划的编制提供依据。该文基于中心地理论,选择农村居民点斑块为研究对象,分析了农村居民点斑块综合影响力的影响因素,构建了综合影响力的评价指标体系。由层次分析法确定了指标权重,单元总分加权法计算了单元的分值,Natural breaks法划分了农村居民点斑块等级,并提出了农村居民点斑块空间布局优化的策略。之后,基于加权Voronoi图扩展断裂点模型,计算了优势农村居民点斑块的空间影响范围,研究了被迁移的农村居民点斑块的迁移方向。研究结果表明:区位因素、居民点因素、资源因素和经济因素是朱林镇农村居民点斑块综合影响力的主要影响因素。中心村、核心村、自然村和零星村落4个等级的农村居民点斑块在规模和数量上等级结构明显。不同等级的农村居民点斑块其影响力不同,应采用重点发展、限制发展、迁移合并和政策保留等策略优化农村居民点空间布局。规模小、影响力低的农村居民点斑块应迁移到附近规模大、影响力高的农村居民点斑块,以保持农村居民点斑块结构稳定。该研究结果符合朱林镇的实际情况,为镇村布局规划的编制提供了依据。%The objective of the research was to optimize the combination of rural settlement along with land consolidation implementation. The result could be used for decision making associated with planning of land use and rural settlement spatial pattern. Based on central place theory, this study analyzed external and internal influencing factors of comprehensive influence (RSPCI) for rural settlement patch to build evaluation indicator system of comprehensive influence for rural settlement patches. The indicator system weights of RSPCI was evaluated by

  16. Quantitative and GIS-based archaeological analysis of the Late Roman rural settlement of Ács-Kovács-rétek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bence Vágvölgyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest problems archaeologists face during interpretation is the fragmented and incomplete nature of the datasets often produced by field work. In most cases, the excavation of a whole site is not possible, and even the find material is so fragmented as to make their interpretation quite problematic. Such is the case of Ács-Kovács-rétek, a small Late Roman rural settlement, a part of which was excavated in 2009–2010. These excavations provided a very deep insight into the life of the village, but due to their limited scope, they still left a number of questions unanswered. For a more thorough interpretation of the site, we have to look at the find material and its spatial and chronological context from as many different angles as possible. Such analyses have to rely heavily on very detailed quantitative and GIS-based methods that can not only hold large amounts of very diverse information, but can also recombine this information for statistical and spatial analyses that can deepen our understanding of the site. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the power of detailed quantitative databases and methods for site interpretation through the study of a Late Roman settlement, Ács-Kovács-rétek. During the course of this research a large number of attributes of the find material and the site itself were recorded in structured databases. Thanks to the rational structuring of this data, it could not only be statistically analyzed, but also compared to other sites as well, helping to solidify the timeframe in which the settlement was inhabited, and also uncovering several interesting patterns about its inhabitants. Furthermore, the combination of this data with spatial information even helped to recognize certain changes and spatial patterns within the settlement itself. By the end of my research, a clear picture emerged of this Late Roman village, showing a Romanized population living here from the end of the 3rd through the 4th

  17. Population-based incidence of typhoid fever in an urban informal settlement and a rural area in Kenya: implications for typhoid vaccine use in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert F Breiman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High rates of typhoid fever in children in urban settings in Asia have led to focus on childhood immunization in Asian cities, but not in Africa, where data, mostly from rural areas, have shown low disease incidence. We set out to compare incidence of typhoid fever in a densely populated urban slum and a rural community in Kenya, hypothesizing higher rates in the urban area, given crowding and suboptimal access to safe water, sanitation and hygiene. METHODS: During 2007-9, we conducted population-based surveillance in Kibera, an urban informal settlement in Nairobi, and in Lwak, a rural area in western Kenya. Participants had free access to study clinics; field workers visited their homes biweekly to collect information about acute illnesses. In clinic, blood cultures were processed from patients with fever or pneumonia. Crude and adjusted incidence rates were calculated. RESULTS: In the urban site, the overall crude incidence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi bacteremia was 247 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation (pyo with highest rates in children 5-9 years old (596 per 100,000 pyo and 2-4 years old (521 per 100,000 pyo. Crude overall incidence in Lwak was 29 cases per 100,000 pyo with low rates in children 2-4 and 5-9 years old (28 and 18 cases per 100,000 pyo, respectively. Adjusted incidence rates were highest in 2-4 year old urban children (2,243 per 100,000 pyo which were >15-fold higher than rates in the rural site for the same age group. Nearly 75% of S. Typhi isolates were multi-drug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic urban slum and rural comparison showed dramatically higher typhoid incidence among urban children <10 years old with rates similar to those from Asian urban slums. The findings have potential policy implications for use of typhoid vaccines in increasingly urban Africa.

  18. Diagnóstico ambiental e delimitação de Áreas de Preservação Permanente em um assentamento rural = Environmental diagnosis and delimitation of PPAs (Permanent Preservation Areas in a rural settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Alexandre Fagundes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Leia-se neste artigo a tentativa de diagnosticar, delimitar e situar as Áreas de Preservação Permanentes e de Reserva Legal dentro de um assentamento rural, do Incra; visando à experimentação de ferramentas de geoprocessamento para a restauração das matas ribeirinhas, pela delimitação destas áreas, respeitando a legislação ambiental vigente, e partindo de uma ampla avaliação ambiental descritiva da paisagem, encontrada no Projeto de Assentamento Federal Capela. Um diagnóstico da paisagem local é apresentado na forma de um memorial fotográfico. Neste trabalho, serão delimitadas e quantificadas somente asAPP’s de entorno de corpos d’água.This article aims to diagnose, demarcate and situate Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserves within an Incra Rural Settlement. This effort was conducted while testing the effective application of geoprocessing tools in the restoration of riparian forests and the delimitation of these areas, in accordance withexisting environmental legislation, and based on a broad descriptive environmental evaluation of the local landscape, located at the Capela Federal Settlement Project. A landscape diagnosis is shown in a photographic memorial as well. For this study, only the PPAs surrounding water bodies will be delimited and quantified.

  19. The phenomenon of distributed lifestyle and counter-urbanization processes as factors of rural and urban settlements development

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Molyarenko

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization processes in Russia are currently viewed as an exclusively unidirectional trend of a permanent growth of big cities, downshifting of towns and outmigration from rural areas.The object of research is households, whose members are distributed with only those for whom the primary exploration of space is a city and the secondary one is countryside. The subject of research is socio-economic aspects of the distributed way of life and its role in the development of rural and urban settl...

  20. 广东永汉传统农村的聚落生态观%Ecological view of traditional rural settlements:a case study in Yonghan of Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜雪婷; 严力蛟; 后德仟

    2011-01-01

    生态观作为人类对人与自然关系以及人类生态系统的基本看法,是一种综合了聚落生态、社会、文化、空间等多重属性的研究视角.采用田野调查法,走访了永汉300余个传统农村聚落中的98个,获得由68个聚落个体组成的样本."后龙山林地+建筑群+地堂+鱼塘+耕地"为这些聚落的基本构成模式.其生态观主要由社会、经济、文化三类因素构成,三者共同影响了聚落选址、规模和结构.社会因素主要包括同一聚落内部以及不同聚落之间的社会关系;经济因素主要包括饮食和居住的生存需求;文化因素的主要内容是风水.改革开放以来聚落发生演替,原因是生态观中经济因素地位大大提高,风水的影响降低,社会结构发生重大改变.演替过程中出现土地浪费等一系列问题,必须发展一种基于传统农村聚落保护及再生的新的生态观及可持续发展模式以修正演替过程中出现的问题.%Ecological view is a kind of research perspective combining multiple attributes of rural settlements including ecological, social, cultural, spatial attributes and so on. A sample consisted of 68 observations, including 37 Hakka settlements, 30 Local settlements and 1 new immigrant settlement was achieved from field research, which was conducted in 98 traditional rural settlements among the total 300 in Yonghan town, Longmen County, Huizhou City, Guangdong Province, China. All of these observations' landscape patches followed the basic mode of " Houlong hill + building complex + open land + fish pond + arable land" or its variants. Houlong hill was a patch located in the back of each settlement on which the trees were prohibited to be cut. Building complex was a place where all residents inhabited. Open land was a public open space between building complex and fish pond. Fish pond was situated in the front of a settlement, always with a shape of half-moon. Arable land was distributed

  1. 上海农村居民点整理权属调整及农民权益分析%Analysis of Land Ownership Adjustments and Farmers’ Rights Under Rural Settlement Planning in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福能

    2013-01-01

    农村居民点整理是土地整治的重要内容,对城镇化建设具有推动作用。针对上海农村居民点整理实践,分析了土地权属调整及农民权益保障问题,并提出了相关建议。%Rural settlement planning is an important component of land consolidation and rehabilitation, and it may promote the development of urbanization. In the context of rural settlement planning in Shanghai, this paper analyzes the adjustment of land ownership and the problems of protecting farmers’ rights and interests, and presents suggestions for overcoming these issues.

  2. Mobile and Home-based Vendors’ Contributions to the Retail Food Environment in Rural South Texas Mexican-origin Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Zulema; Dean, Wesley R.; Sharkey, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    A growing concern with high rates of obesity and overweight among immigrant minority populations in the U.S. has focused attention on the availability and accessibility to healthy foods in such communities. Small-scale vending in rural, impoverished and underserved areas, however, is generally overlooked; yet, this type of informal activity and source for food is particularly important in such environs, or “food desserts,” where traditional forms of work and mainstream food outlets are limite...

  3. Developing a Community Tradition of Migration: A Field Study in rural Zacatecas, Mexico, and California Settlement Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Mines, Richard

    1981-01-01

    This study sought to take a close-up look at cross-border Mexican migration by collecting detailed information about one binational migratory village-based community. five major findings have resulted from this investigation: 1. Migrants are generally poor rural or urban dwellers who depend on reciprocity networks of mutual exchange with their friends and relatives and not on public institutions for their survival. 2. Migratory networks undergo a maturation process over time. 3. Job and so...

  4. 基于人居环境视角的乡村旅游吸引力体系研究%Research on Rural Tourism Attraction System from the Perspective Human Settlement Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方法林; 张骏

    2012-01-01

    The development of human settlement in the rural tourism destination was required by the strategic guidance of "building a new socialist countryside", and ought to become one of the generalized tourism resources in view of the unique attraction to tourists from the rural tourism at the same time. As a result, the healthy and sustainable development of rural tourism could be boosted by taking the advantages of the rural human settlement, from the perspects of optimizing ecological environment, aboriginal education, agricultural landscape and upgrading agricultural products, and rural tourism cultural construction.%乡村旅游目的地人居环境的开发既是“建设社会主义新农村”战略方针的要求,同时鉴于其对旅游者的独特吸引力,又理应成为广义旅游资源的一种.因此可以从生态环境优化、原住民教育、农业景观及产品升级、乡村旅游文化建设的角度出发,利用乡村人居环境优势来促进乡村旅游业的健康持续发展.

  5. Anthropophytes in the flora of different spatial units within old rural settlements of the Lubuskie Lakeland, western Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Jasińska Katarzyna; Brzeg Andrzej; Wojterska Maria

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the flora of villages in a connection with the surrounding landscape are rare and mostly limited to the built-up area and its general location in a geographical region. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the diversity patterns of flora against the background of local landscape units in the rural areas and to analyse them in the context of village transformation. The study comprised 30 villages of medieval origin representing the oval-shape type, with differently preserved st...

  6. Proceedings of the 8. Brazilian congress on energy: energy policy, regulation and sustainable development. v. 3: technological innovation, renewable sources and rural energization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These proceedings cover the papers presented in the 8. Brazilian congress on energy held at Rio de Janeiro from November, 30 to December, 02, 1999, focusing energy policy, regulation and sustainable development, specifically the contribution of energy to a satisfactory quality of life for everyone. Within such a context, the congress technical programme has been structured around six different divisions: energy, environment and development; energy sector regulation; energy policy and planning; technology innovation; energy conservation; renewable energy sources and rural areas energy supply

  7. Anthropophytes in the flora of different spatial units within old rural settlements of the Lubuskie Lakeland, western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasińska Katarzyna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the flora of villages in a connection with the surrounding landscape are rare and mostly limited to the built-up area and its general location in a geographical region. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the diversity patterns of flora against the background of local landscape units in the rural areas and to analyse them in the context of village transformation. The study comprised 30 villages of medieval origin representing the oval-shape type, with differently preserved structure of built-up area and cultivated fields, located in the Lubuskie Lakeland. The terrain within a buffer zone of 200 m in width, located outside of the built-up area, was divided into spatial complexes. In each of these complexes, floristic lists were compiled. The structure of surrounding landscape within the buffer zone of 1 km in width, measuring from the village centroid, was analysed using ArcGIS.

  8. Rural electrification with multiple actors - the experience of the brazilian state of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lack of resources and the new scenery of private utilities turn necessary to look for the ways that allow to illuminate the rural zone. Several international papers show the involvement of different segments of the society as being a viable alternative to execute this goal. This paper analyses the experience of Sao Paulo in the practice of a program of rural electrification in which the society is involved. The model, the operational difficulties and the alternatives made to agile program are appraised. The main conclusion is that, in spite of the difficulties, the model in which the society is included is a viable alternative to solve the subject of the lack of energy in the countryside. (author)

  9. Environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. Eggs in a rural settlement in Brazil Contaminação ambiental por ovos de Toxocara spp. em assentamento rural no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs in a rural community from the Pontal do Paranapanema region, São Paulo State, Brazil, soil samples from 31 out of 121 plots were collected in eight different places on each house. The samples were submitted to flotation technique in sodium nitrate (d = 1.20g/cm³. Eggs of Toxocara spp. were recovered in nine (29.03% out of the 31 plots. At least one dog was registered in 27 of the 31 plots examined (87.1% and at least one cat in 17 (54.84%. The number of pets per plot ranged from one to six (mean of 2.3 for dogs and one to 14 (mean of 1.29 for cats. In 16 plots (51.61%, the presence of both dogs and cats was observed. There was no relation between the presence of pets in the plots and soil contamination (p > 0.05. However, the environmental contamination by Toxocara spp. eggs associated to the poor conditions of the inhabitants may be an important risk factor for the human population to ocular or visceral larva migrans.Com o objetivo de avaliar a contaminação ambiental por ovos de Toxocara spp. em assentamento rural da região do Pontal do Paranapanema, oeste do estado de São Paulo, Brasil, amostras de solo de oito diferentes pontos ao redor da casa de 31 dos 121 lotes do assentamento foram coletados. A recuperação de ovos foi realizada pela técnica de centrífugo-flutuação em solução de nitrato de sódio (d = 1,20g/cm³. Ovos de Toxocara spp. foram recuperados em nove (29,03% dos 31 lotes. Em 27 das 31 casas amostradas (87,1%, havia pelo menos um cão e em 17 (54,84% pelo menos um gato. O número de cães por lote variou de um a seis (media de 2,3. No caso dos gatos, o número variou de um a 14 (média de 1,29. Em 16 dos 31 lotes (51,61%, havia a presença de pelo menos um cão ou gato. Não houve relação entre a presença desses animais e a contaminação do solo (p > 0,05. Entretanto, a contaminação do solo por ovos de Toxocara spp. e as precárias condi

  10. Rational use of water: interdisciplinary actions in a rural school in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Taiusky Ferreira Santos Brito

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, terms such as "drought industry" and "drought polygon" are constantly used in reference to the semiarid region of the country. Besides climatic factors and political and infrastructural issues, there is a consensus that the best way to deal with water scarcity is its rational use. While offering to contribute to the development of farmers’ communities in this region, the project "Citizen Universities", in partnership with the project "Space of Water", developed strategies involving the interdisciplinary rational management and conservation of hydric resources, to include knowledge and specific technologies in cooperation with the faculty and students of a rural public school in the Community of Uruçu, Gurinhém, PB. Progress can be seen in the practical applications of the project in the community and surrounding areas, such as forming teams to collect trash and the cleaning up of springs, and the inclusion of issues related to water together with the mandatory curriculum, in the expectation that students can apply the academic issues to their everyday life.

  11. Excessive TV Viewing Time and Associated Factors in Brazilian Adolescents from a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fronza Fernanda Cerveira Abuana Osório

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Sedentary behavior has been identified as a risk factor for chronic non-communicable diseases. This study identified the prevalence of excessive TV viewing time during the week and weekend and associated factors in adolescents living in a small urban and rural area. Methods. A cross-sectional study involving 283 students (aged 10-19 years from Brazil was conducted in 2010. Data on TV viewing time and sociodemographic information were collected by questionnaires, cardiorespiratory fitness was evaluated by the 20-m shuttle run test, and anthropometric characteristics were obtained by measuring waist circumference and skinfold thickness. Statistical analysis involved binary logistic regression. Results. The prevalence of excessive TV viewing time ( 2 h was 76.7% during on weekdays and 78.4% on the weekend. Adolescents aged 10-12 years (OR = 6.20; 95% CI = 2.91, 13.19; p < 0.001 and 13-15 years (OR = 2.57; 95% CI = 1.28, 5.18; p = 0.008 were more exposed to excessive TV viewing time during the week. No associations were found for excessive TV viewing time on the weekend. Conclusions. Approximately 8 in 10 adolescents presented excessive TV viewing time; excessive TV viewing time during the week was associated with age.

  12. Os direitos da mulher à terra e os movimentos sociais rurais na reforma agrária brasileira Women's land rights and rural social movements in the Brazilian agrarian reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Diana Deere

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo examina a evolução da reivindicação dos direitos da mulher à terra na reforma agrária brasileira sob o prisma dos três principais movimentos sociais rurais: o Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST, os sindicatos rurais e o movimento autônomo de mulheres rurais. O mérito maior por levantar a questão dos direitos da mulher à terra é das mulheres dentro dos sindicatos rurais. Os direitos formais das mulheres à terra foram conseguidos na reforma constitucional de 1988, e em grande medida isso foi um subproduto do esforço para acabar com a discriminação contra as mulheres em todos as suas dimensões. A conquista das igualdades formais, contudo, não levou a um aumento na parcela de mulheres beneficiárias da reforma, a qual permaneceu baixa até a metade da década de 1990. Isso aconteceu principalmente porque garantir na prática os direitos da mulher à terra não estava entre as prioridades dos movimentos sociais rurais. Além disso, o principal movimento social a determinar o passo da reforma agrária, o (MST, considerava classe e gênero questões incompatíveis. Próximo ao final da década de 1990, entretanto, havia uma consciência crescente de que deixar de reconhecer os direitos da mulher à terra era prejudicial ao desenvolvimento e à consolidação dos assentamentos da reforma agrária e, portanto, para o movimento. O crescente consenso, entre todos os movimentos sociais rurais, sobre a importância em assegurar o direito da mulher à terra, junto com um lobby efetivo, encorajou o Estado em 2001 a adotar mecanismos específicos para a inclusão de mulheres na reforma agrária.This article examines the evolution of the demand for women's land rights in the Brazilian agrarian reform through the prism of the three main rural social movements: the landless movement, the rural unions and the autonomous rural women's movement. Most of the credit for raising the issue of women's land rights rests with

  13. Indicadores sócio-econômicos, demográficos e estado nutricional de crianças e adolescentes residentes em um assentamento rural do Rio de Janeiro Socioeconomic and demographic indicators and nutritional status of children in a rural land settlement in Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Valeria da Veiga

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se indicadores sócio-econômicos e perfil nutricional de 201 crianças e adolescentes do assentamento rural de São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Considerou-se déficit nutricional valores abaixo de -2 escore z da mediana da referência National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS para os índices peso para idade (P/I e estatura para idade (E/I para os menores de 5 anos e peso para estatura (P/E e E/I entre 5,0 a 9,9 anos. Para os adolescentes utilizou-se os cortes inferiores ao percentil 5 (magreza e superiores ao percentil 85 (sobrepeso da distribuição de índice de massa corporal (IMC da população brasileira. Encontrou-se: 53,8% dos domicílios com 4 a 6 moradores, 34,5% com fossa rudimentar, 31,2% sem água canalizada, 11,0% sem banheiro, 58,2% queimavam ou enterravam o lixo e 13,6% das mães eram analfabetas. A faixa de 0 a 4,9 anos não apresentou nenhum tipo de déficit nutricional e entre 5 a 9,9 anos apenas um apresentou baixo peso e três sobrepeso. Concluiu-se que a baixa prevalência de déficits nutricionais no grupo estudado, apesar da exposição a fatores de risco, pode relacionar-se com a presença de fatores de proteção como o acesso a serviços de saúde e que o sobrepeso em adolescentes (13,3% foi relevante.This study evaluated socioeconomic indicators and nutritional status in 201 children and adolescents in a rural land settlement in São José da Boa Morte, Rio de Janeiro. Nutritional deficit was defined as a value below -2 z score for the reference median from the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS for weight-for-age (W/A and stature-for-age (S/A for children under five years of age and weight-for-stature (W/S and S/A for children from 5.0 to 9.9 years. For adolescents, the study used cut-off points at the 5th percentile (thin and 85th percentile (overweight from the distribution of body mass index (BMI in the Brazilian population. According to the study, 53.8% of the households had 4 to 6

  14. Dynamic modeling of forest conversion: Simulation of past and future scenarios of rural activities expansion in the fringes of the Xingu National Park, Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Eduardo E.; de Almeida, Cláudia Maria; de Carvalho Ximenes, Arimatéa; Formaggio, Antonio R.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.; Pellikka, Petri

    2011-06-01

    The present work is committed to simulate the expansion of agricultural and cattle raising activities within a watershed located in the fringes of the Xingu National Park, Brazilian Amazon. A spatially explicit dynamic model of land cover and land use change was used to provide both past and future scenarios of forest conversion into such rural activities, aiming to identify the role of driving forces of change in the study area. The employed modeling platform - Dinamica EGO - consists in a cellular automata environment that embodies neighborhood-based transition algorithms and spatial feedback approaches in a stochastic multi-step simulation framework. Biophysical variables and legal restrictions drove this simulation model, and statistical validation tests were then conducted for the generated past simulations (from 2000 to 2005), by means of multiple resolution fitting methods. Based on optimal calibration of past simulations, future scenarios were conceived, so as to figure out trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion in the study area for the year 2015. In all simulated scenarios, pasturelands remained nearly stable throughout the analyzed period, while a large expansion in croplands took place. The most optimistic scenario indicates that more than 50% of the natural forest will be replaced by either cropland or pastureland by 2015. This modeling experiment revealed the suitability of the adopted model to simulate processes of forest conversion. It also indicates its possible further applicability in generating simulations of deforestation for areas with expanding rural activities in the Amazon and in tropical forests worldwide.

  15. Determinants of the performance of business associations in rural settlements in the United Kingdom: an analysis of members’ satisfaction and willingness-to-pay for association survival

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Newbery; Johannes Sauer; Matthew Gorton; Jeremy Phillipson; Jane Atterton

    2013-01-01

    Research into business associations indicates that many associations suffer from very high levels of inactive members and fail to deliver significant benefits to members. In order to improve provision, the objective of this paper is to understand the determinants that drive or limit performance of rural business associations. Previous research has focused on the ratio of perceived costs to benefits as informing the decision to remain a member. However, in small associations, membership may be...

  16. 景区边缘型乡村旅游地人居环境演变特征及影响机制研究--以大南岳旅游圈为例%Evolution Characteristics and Influence Mechanism of Human Settlements in Rural Tourism Destinations of Edge Type of Scenic Spot:A Case Study of“Great Nanyue Tourism Circle”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯华; 刘沛林; 窦银娣; 王鹏

    2014-01-01

    以系统论和人地关系理论为基础,从自组织性、周期性和波动性等3个方面总结了景区边缘型乡村旅游地人居环境的演变特征。以大南岳旅游圈为例,将旅游要素流的时空变换作为主要驱动因子,构建了景区边缘型乡村旅游地人居环境演变的动力模型,其演变过程经历了入侵、竞争、反应和调控4个阶段,每一个阶段的驱动力量和作用方式不同,所产生的人居效应有差异。其中,入侵过程可看做是旅游要素流的空间集聚对乡村旅游地人居环境的影响;竞争过程实质上是分化过程和共生过程的统一;反映过程是乡村旅游地人居环境系统对外界干扰的适应与调整;调控过程是厘清乡村人居环境时空格局与旅游发展过程之间的内在联系,寻求景区边缘型乡村旅游地人居环境建设路径。%Human settlement of rural tourism destinations of edge type is a relatively independent and complex giant system. Its evolution characteristics and influence mechanism have distinct uniqueness, so new research idea and theoretical framework are required to carry on creative exploration. Based on systems science and man-land relationship theory, this article summarizes the evolution characteristics of human settlements in ru-ral tourism destinations of edge type of scenic spot from 3 aspects such as self-organization, periodicity and volatility. The human settlement evolution of rural tourism destinations is the result of the interaction of self-or-ganization and heter-organization. Under the influence of spatial-temporal transformation of tourism elements flow, the system evolution state presents a cyclical dynamic evolution. Because of the influence of uncertainty factors, this cyclical change shows a great uncertainty and diversity in evolution path and rate. Taking spa-tial-temporal transformation of tourism elements flow as main driving factor, using"Great Nanyue tourism cir

  17. Processo de produção rural e saúde na serra gaúcha: um estudo descritivo The rural labor process and health in the Southern Brazilian mountains: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neice Müller Xavier Faria

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um estudo transversal entre trabalhadores rurais na região serrana do Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo foi estudar o perfil sócio-demográfico da população, conhecer as características do trabalho rural e descrever a prevalência de algumas patologias na população referida. A amostra foi de 1.479 trabalhadores, em 495 estabelecimentos agrícolas. Nesta amostra, a idade média foi de 41 anos, 56% eram do sexo masculino, com escolaridade média de cinco anos, sendo 87% da família proprietária. Os estabelecimentos tinham área média de 37 ha, 50% tinham pelo menos um tipo de máquina agrícola e a principal produção era a fruticultura. Cerca 75% dos trabalhadores lidavam com agrotóxicos de vários tipos e 12% referiram intoxicação por estes produtos em algum momento da vida. A prevalência de transtornos psiquiátricos menores foi de 36%, a freqüência anual de acidentes de trabalho foi 10%. Os dados revelam a diversidade de atividades e de riscos ocupacionais. As altas prevalências dos problemas de saúde avaliados alertam para a necessidade de se priorizar ações de proteção para a saúde do trabalhador rural.This cross-sectional study among rural workers in the mountainous region of the southernmost Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul was designed to identify the characteristics of work performed on family farms. The research focused on the socio-demographic profiles of rural workers, identifying the characteristics of rural labor and describing the prevalence of some disease entities in such populations. Some 1479 rural workers from 495 farms were interviewed. In this sample, 87% of the individuals were members of the farm-owning family, mean age was 41 years, 56% were males, and mean schooling was 5 years. Farms had a mean area of 37 hectares, 50% had at least one type of farm machinery, and fruits constituted the main crop. About 75% of workers handled several types of pesticides, while 12% reported at least one

  18. Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana de Oliveira Figueiredo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV. We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132 with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protection of smallpox vaccine years after vaccination and reinforces the need for surveillance of Orthopoxvirus in Brazilian populations without evidence of previous outbreaks.

  19. Analysis of the Pattern of Rural Settlement Integration Based on Farmers' Behavior Response: A case study in Xingba village, Hechuan District of Chongqing%基于农户行为响应的农村居民点整合模式探析——以重庆市合川区兴坝村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵帅华; 王成; 李晓庆; 王利平; 蒋福霞

    2012-01-01

    The study about integration of rural settlement has important practical meaning and theoretical value for rural development because the integration of rural settlement is a reasonable and effective way to organize and allocate the rural land resources, and can improve the rural settlement environment, promote agricultural scale management and improve the land value. Based on the theory of relevant behavioral science,, this paper first constructed a model of rural settlement on the response of farmers' integration decision-making process. After that, it used participatory rural assessment to research farmers in a small village in Chongqing, and analyzed the responsiveness of different types of farmers considering their living situation, housing situation and the future development of livelihood. At last, the paper summarized different patterns of integrations based on the rural settlement response degree of different types of farmers. Xingba village is located in ErLang town, Hechuan district of Chongqing city; it is in the middle of hilly basin and has subtropical moist monsoon climate and an elevation of 290m to 430m. Many farmers in this village prefer to work in cities rather than stay at home, and we name these farmers farmer workers. We divide our team into seven groups and then have a deep interview with the farmers to get the 939 investigations, after that we put the survey data into the computer in our laboratory, and finally get the farmers' response data through the construction of peasant household behavior response model. In addition, with the help of the difference degree of response, the living situation, housing situation and the will of different types of farmers, we have deduced four integration modes on the integration of rural settlement in xingba village: agricultural development-oriented integration mode, household integration mode, non-agricultural development-oriented integration mode and retaining integration mode.%农村居民点整合作

  20. Development Tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In reviewing the scientific explorations in human settlements in the past century, as well as the new accomplishments in the study on Chinese human settlements, the author proposes that the Sciences of Human Settlements should respond to a series of new situations and chal-lenges of world development, such as global climate change and development mode transformation, in order to embody the ideal of "a Greater Science, a Greater Humanism, and a Greater Art". It is argued that the development tendencies of Sciences of Human Settlements in China should include: the concern for people’s livelihood based on the principle of people-oriented, the enhancement of strategic spatial planning for the new modes of spatial growth, the rising of ecological awareness for the Green Revolution, the balance of urban and rural development for rational urbanization, the exploration for the Third System from the perspectives of both Eastern and Western cultures, the innovations on the education of human settlements and the creation of both a better environment and a harmonious society.

  1. Making Heritage in Brazilian Quilombos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lorena Kenny

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Palmares Cultural Foundation has recognized 1,624 communities as remanescentes de quilombos, or remnants, of traditional Black settlements. Since 1988, the constitution has guaranteed these groups collective land titles, generating heated debate and conflict concerning authenticity, assimilation, and land rights. Heritage has become an important vehicle for legitimizing identity and securing territory rights. I examine quilombola heritage in the sertão, an area not popularly acknowledged as having a history of slavery or Afro Brazilian cultural traditions.

  2. TO THE ISSUE OF SOCIAL AND SETTLEMENT ASSIMILATION OF RURAL YOUTH IN URAL CITIES / К ВОПРОСУ О СОЦИАЛЬНО-ПОСЕЛЕНЧЕСКОЙ АССИМИЛЯЦИИ СЕЛЬСКОЙ МОЛОДЕЖИ В УРАЛЬСКИХ ГОРОДАХ

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov B. S. / Павлов Борис Сергеевич

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the current problems of migration of rural youth to urban areas in the context of socio-settlement assimilation, implying convergence of lifestyle of different large and small social groups living in different types of settlements. The author analyzes the place and the importance of the social environment in the development of generational culture of young villagers, the formation of their value orientations in the sphere of self-determination. The author primarily conne...

  3. Poverty dynamics, ecological endowments, and land use among smallholders in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Gilvan R; VanWey, Leah K; Hull, James R; Antigo, Mariangela; Barbieri, Alisson F

    2014-01-01

    Rural settlement in previously sparsely occupied areas of the Brazilian Amazon has been associated with high levels of forest loss and unclear long-term social outcomes. We focus here on the micro-level processes in one settlement area to answer the question of how settler and farm endowments affect household poverty. We analyze the extent to which poverty is sensitive to changes in natural capital, land use strategies, and biophysical characteristics of properties (particularly soil quality). Cumulative time spent in poverty is simulated using Markovian processes, which show that accessibility to markets and land use system are especially important for decreasing poverty among households in our sample. Wealtheir households are selected into commercial production of perennials before our initial observation, and are therefore in poverty a lower proportion of the time. Land in pasture, in contrast, has an independent effect on reducing the proportion of time spent in poverty. Taken together, these results show that investments in roads and the institutional structures needed to make commercial agriculture or ranching viable in existing and new settlement areas can improve human well-being in frontiers. PMID:24267754

  4. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  5. Stability of settlement space

    OpenAIRE

    Fikfak, Alenka

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of settlements patterns and forms are encompassed between stability and instability. We evaluate them according to their historical value, but their image, as perceived today after centuries of changing, adapting and transformation, cannot be recognised in its original form. Time is the "super-factor" that balances, determines and transforms internal forces of settlement structures, and is decisively conditioned by social links. Instability can change to stability and vice ver...

  6. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Linard

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions.

  7. Population distribution, settlement patterns and accessibility across Africa in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Catherine; Gilbert, Marius; Snow, Robert W; Noor, Abdisalan M; Tatem, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    The spatial distribution of populations and settlements across a country and their interconnectivity and accessibility from urban areas are important for delivering healthcare, distributing resources and economic development. However, existing spatially explicit population data across Africa are generally based on outdated, low resolution input demographic data, and provide insufficient detail to quantify rural settlement patterns and, thus, accurately measure population concentration and accessibility. Here we outline approaches to developing a new high resolution population distribution dataset for Africa and analyse rural accessibility to population centers. Contemporary population count data were combined with detailed satellite-derived settlement extents to map population distributions across Africa at a finer spatial resolution than ever before. Substantial heterogeneity in settlement patterns, population concentration and spatial accessibility to major population centres is exhibited across the continent. In Africa, 90% of the population is concentrated in less than 21% of the land surface and the average per-person travel time to settlements of more than 50,000 inhabitants is around 3.5 hours, with Central and East Africa displaying the longest average travel times. The analyses highlight large inequities in access, the isolation of many rural populations and the challenges that exist between countries and regions in providing access to services. The datasets presented are freely available as part of the AfriPop project, providing an evidence base for guiding strategic decisions. PMID:22363717

  8. Comparative Analysis of Conditions Life in Settlements the Municipality of Berane and Settlements the Municipality of Andrijevica: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Rajović; Mr Jelisavka Bulatović

    2016-01-01

    The focus of work is the conception quality of life issues that in lately, it becomes increasingly important socio-economic issue. The work tends to argue how and which the context of the quality of rural life provides an opportunity to resolve the paradox of development interpreted by many researchers. The study was designed and conducted in the geographical and social space, as a case study. Geographic space research included is urban settlements: Berane and Andrijevica as well as the rural...

  9. Prediction for relocation scale of rural settlements based on farming radius in reclamation area of open-pit coal mine%基于耕作半径的采矿复垦区农村居民点安置规模预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡兴定; 白中科

    2016-01-01

    耕作半径对农村居民点的规模具有重要影响,而地形则是耕作半径的决定因素之一。该文采用耕聚比和缓冲区分析的方法,对比采矿前后农村居民点的耕作半径变化。考虑研究区地形起伏的影响,计算耕作半径地形修正系数,确定最优耕作半径。在此基础上预测矿区复垦后可安置农村居民点的面积、数量及人口。研究结果表明:平朔复垦区农村居民点耕作半径地形修正系数为1.6836,复垦区规划农村居民点最优耕作半径为1500 m;复垦区预测回迁安置农村居民点总规模约651.24 hm2,共67个农村居民点;预测单个农村居民点面积9.72 hm2,控制耕地面积约109.68 hm2;预测回迁安置总人口约29521人,共7380户,该研究结果可为露天采矿复垦区农村居民点回迁安置规模与布局提供决策支持。%Mine reclamation has become a worldwide problem recently and has similar research directions both in China and abroad, including ecological restoration, mining technology, bioremediation technology, soil reconstruction techniques, soil quality testing, plant species selecting. The key target is to restore the ecological system and improve the environment. One of the main purposes of reclamation is to restore farmland, which is scarce in China. In addition, resettlement of residents and their living environment need to be taken into account. In this paper, the study area is the Pingshuo open-pit mine, which is located in Shuozhou City, Shanxi Province, China, and belongs to super-large open-pit mine with modern production. Mining activities began in 1987, and have lasted for 28 years until now. Fourteen rural settlements have moved, and resettlement population has reached 8400 by 2013.From the perspective of farming radius, buffer analysis of rural settlements was used to contrast the difference of farming radius before and after the open-pit mining by geographic information system

  10. Rural perception to the effects of climate change in Otukpo, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Clement Abah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study has further examined rural perception to the effects of climate change. The study used rural settlements in Otukpo, Nigeria as a case study. Primary and secondary data were utilised for the study. Data collection was done through the use of a questionnaire with open-ended questions and questions with multiple answers. A total of 100 questionnaires were randomly distributed among household heads in 10 settlements selected from 58 rural settlements for the study. Spatial distribution of the rural settlements were analysed using the nearest neighbour statistical analysis while descriptive statistics such as graphs and tables were used to present data. Rural settlements in Otukpo are randomly distributed and may be tending towards clustering. This is indicated by an Rn index value of 0.96 from the nearest neighbour analysis. Most of the settlements (59% have a distance of two to three kilometres between them. There is an inadequacy of functional facilities and poor access to services in the rural settlements in Otukpo. Respondents in rural settlements in Otukpo are faced with the risk of agricultural occupational loss (22%, water shortages (42%, flooding (29%, land based conflicts (16%, health hazards (12%, erosion (26%, and migration (57%. With evidence of climate change ascertained globally including Nigeria, the study concludes that rural settlements in Otukpo and elsewhere are vulnerable to the effects of climate change which is evident in literature. Government should plan appropriately to optimize standard of living and provide basic functional facilities and services for rural settlements.

  11. THE CULTURE OF SETTLEMENT AREAS IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urša Suhadolnik Vovko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study and grasp the contemporary rural areas in Slovenia, the students of the Faculty of Architecture carried out a public opinion survey on the subject of the culture of settlement areas, with a particular reference to the visual image of the experiential space of the settlements. Today, human needs and living values are an integral part of all documents, as they represent the starting-point of designing new concepts of living. Personal quality of living is explained by Mandič [1999] through the use of Allard's classification of human needs; however, Mercer's Quality of Living ranking is often used to measure the quality of the living environmentThe paper represents the results of the study, which included two target groups: The experts in spatial management and planning employed at municipal administrative offices; and the senior years’ students at the Faculty of Architecture of the University of Ljubljana. The study represented here addressed the values of the living environment. The study was triggered by the 'colourfulness' that knows no limits in Slovenia. Putting the everyday indignation over the variety of all possible shades aside, it has become evident that the tiny elements that are also destroying the image of our settlements are all too often neglected: billboards, log cabins complementing garages and decorative elements, stalls during celebrations and fairs, fountains, monuments, mix of exotic plants, the Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs etc. The study included a survey to obtain a more objective approach to the studying of the quality from the viewpoints of the changing living culture and the use of communal external space in Slovenian settlements. The key question that resonated in most of other questions was: What would improve the quality of life in the settlement?

  12. Model for mapping settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vatsavai, Ranga Raju; Graesser, Jordan B.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2016-07-05

    A programmable media includes a graphical processing unit in communication with a memory element. The graphical processing unit is configured to detect one or more settlement regions from a high resolution remote sensed image based on the execution of programming code. The graphical processing unit identifies one or more settlements through the execution of the programming code that executes a multi-instance learning algorithm that models portions of the high resolution remote sensed image. The identification is based on spectral bands transmitted by a satellite and on selected designations of the image patches.

  13. Relações de saúde e trabalho em assentamento rural do MST na região de fronteira Brasil-Paraguai Health and work relations in a rural settlement of the MST in the Brazil-Paraguay border region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Espíndola Fontoura Júnior

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o presente artigo, busca-se relatar e analisar as relações entre saúde e trabalho de pequenos produtores rurais do Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem Terra (MST. Quanto à metodologia, adotou-se o aporte da investigação participativa e as bases da educação popular. O estudo realizado tornou possível uma compreensão de saúde e de trabalho mediante as narrativas dos trabalhadores e histórias relativas às lutas coletivas contra a exclusão e a violência no campo. Constataram-se importantes aspectos próprios a esse grupo populacional, como o sentido de conquista da propriedade da terra, os conflitos advindos da 'militância' e as diferenças de gênero e geração. Com base nos relatos, analisaram-se também os acidentes e os riscos relacionados à atividade de trabalho no assentamento rural, principalmente a exposição ao agrotóxico. Confirmaram-se, ainda, a solidariedade e a cooperação como valores importantes e como base de novas relações, um modo distinto de organização social coletiva do trabalho.In this article, we aim to report on and analyze the relationship between health and work of small farmers of the Landless Workers Movement (MST. So far as the methodology is concerned, we used participatory research and the basics of popular education. The study allowed for an understanding of health and work based on the workers' narratives, stories relating to collective struggles against exclusion and violence in the countryside. Important aspects related to this population group as were discovered, such as, for example, the sense of conquest of land ownership, the conflicts arising from 'activism,' and the differences of gender and generations. From the reports that were provided, we also examined the accidents and risks related to work in the rural settlement, particularly exposure to pesticides. It was also found that solidarity and cooperation are important values, basic elements for new relations and a distinctive

  14. Liquidity risk in securities settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Devriese; Janet Mitchell

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the potential impact on securities settlement systems (SSSs) of a major market disruption, caused by the default of the largest player. A multi-period, multi-security model with intraday credit is used to simulate direct and second round settlement failures triggered by the default, as well as the dynamics of settlement failures, arising from a lag in settlement relative to the date of trades. The effects of the defaulter's net trade position, the numbers of securities and ...

  15. 秦岭山区路网空间格局及其对乡村聚落破碎化的影响分析%Spatial Network of Road and Its Impact on Fragmentation of Rural Settlement in Qinling Mountain Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 杨海娟; 王子侨; 杨庆会

    2014-01-01

    Taking Shangzhou district as the study area, the article was to explore the county's road network and its impact on landscape fragmentation of the rural settlements by employing kernel density estimation (KDE), combining with landscape index method and GIS spatial analysis techniques. The study had the following results: 1) kernel density estimation(KDE) can effectively identify and extract the hot region of high density road network, the density centers of the road network can be clearly identified by 2 km bandwidth;2) the road network in Shangzhou District represents imbalanced in the spatial distribution, and was branched in general, it also presented a“core”and more“extreme”spatial development tendency;3) with the weakening of the road radiation, landscape fragmentation of rural settlements gradually increased;4) with the elevation of the road network density grades, landscape fragmentation of rural settlements gradually decreased.%以地处秦岭山区的商州区为例,采用核密度估算法(KDE),并结合景观指数方法及GIS空间分析技术,探讨了县域路网空间格局及其对乡村聚落景观破碎化的影响。结果表明:(1)KDE 法能有效识别和提取高密度路网热点区域,2 km的带宽能清晰辨别出路网的密度中心;(2)商州区的路网在空间分布上具有不均衡性,总体上呈分支状分布,呈现一“核”多“极”的发展态势;(3)随着道路辐射能力的减弱,乡村聚落的景观破碎度逐渐加剧;(4)随着路网密度等级的提高,乡村聚落的景观破碎度逐渐下降。

  16. 西北台塬人居环境城乡统筹空间规划研究——以宝鸡市高新区为例%STUDY ON INTEGRATED URBAN-RURAL SPATIAL PLANNING OF HUMAN SETTLEMENTS IN NORTHWEST TABLELAND:A CASE STUDY ON HI-TECH DEVELOPMENT ZONE OF BAOJI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵万民; 史靖塬; 黄勇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the theory of Sciences of Human Settlements, this article discusses on major problems of High-tech Demonstration Zone of integrated urban-rural development in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. It introduces the integral development strategy of "clarifying planning terms, restructuring spatial layout, defining compilation hierarchy," as well as the theoretical study on integrated urban-rural spatial planning mode with comprehensive economic, ecological and social development, and finally explores the integrated modular design method for rural community spaces.%基于人居环境科学理论背景,聚焦陕西省宝鸡市高新区城乡统筹发展示范区主要问题,介绍了“明确规划时序、重塑空间结构、界定编制层级”的时空统筹战略;阐述“经济-生态-社会”三位一体下的城乡统筹空间规划模式理论研究;并进一步探索人居环境科学实践论指导下的农村社区空间统筹模块化设计方法.

  17. The Settlement Utopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    The Settlement movement, which originated in late nineteenth-century England, was a pioneer in bettering the conditions of the working poor. It pursued the utopian project of locating ‘settlements’ within poverty-ridden neighbourhoods where respectable students should meet slum dwellers on equal ...

  18. Arbitration versus settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Dari-Mattiacci

    2007-01-01

    Incomplete contracts and laws often lead to disputes. Before a dispute arises, parties can commit to arbitration. If they choose to do so, future disputes are resolved before an arbiter. Otherwise, parties will choose between settlement and litigation after a dispute has arisen. We analyze variables

  19. Categories of settlement discard

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuna, Martin

    Oxford: Oxbow Books, 2015 - (Kristiansen, K.; Šmejda, L.; Turek, J.), s. 278-292 ISBN 978-1-78297-770-4 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/10/2289 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : deposition * formation processes * settlement discard Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  20. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  1. A Comparison of Social and Spatial Determinants of Health Between Formal and Informal Settlements in a Large Metropolitan Setting in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, Robert E.; Jaimes, Guillermo; Lee W Riley; Faerstein, Eduardo; Corburn, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Urban informal settlements are often under-recognized in national and regional surveys. A lack of quality intra-urban data frequently contributes to a one-size-fits-all public health intervention and clinical strategies that rarely address the variegated socioeconomic disparities across and within different informal settlements in a city. The 2010 Brazilian census gathered detailed population and place-based data across the country's informal settlements. Here, we examined key socio-demograph...

  2. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T. A. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Museu Nacional. Dept. de Antropologia; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Coimbra, M.M. [Universidade Estadual de Londrina, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Elmore, D. [Purdue Univ., IN (United States). Purdue Rare Isotopes Measurement Lab.

    2003-06-01

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by {sup 14} C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  3. AMS dating of early shellmounds of the Southeastern Brazilian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the chronology of prehistoric settlements of the central-south Brazilian coast. A charcoal sample from a coastal shell mound of Rio de Janeiro State was dated by 14 C-AMS to 7, 860+- 80 years B P as part of an interdisciplinary project between physicists and archaeologists. This is an unexpected result that reinforces two similar previous early dates for the same region, which were questioned by Brazilian archaeologists because they implied in pulling back by some two thousand years the antiquity consensually accepted for the settlement of that region. (author)

  4. Company–Community Logging Contracts in Amazonian Settlements: Impacts on Livelihoods and NTFP Harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Brown

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of government-sponsored colonization, more than 500 000 km2 of the Brazilian Amazon is managed by settlement households. By law, 80% of this land must remain as standing forest. In this study, we examine the potential for timber harvesting through company–community partnerships (CCPs as a means to increase forest-based revenue without compromising household use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs. Using participatory rural appraisal, resource diaries, and household questionnaires, we study the impacts of CCP logging contracts on livelihoods, including household income and NTFP harvests. Our results show that annual household income from the CCP logging is equivalent to more than 8 years of household gross income from agricultural production. We also found that there were no significant differences in NTFP harvests between households with CCP logging and those without. In CCP-logging communities, households caught 11.9 ± 13.6 game animals, totaling 74 ± 88 kg of game meat. In the communities without CCP, households caught 9.5 ± 13.0 game animals, totaling 73 ± 172 kg of game meat. Annual forest fruit harvests averaged 9.8 ± 13.2 kg in CCP-logging communities and 13.5 ± 15.9 kg in non-CCP communities. Overall, the CCPs brought improvements in household income without compromising NTFP harvests.

  5. Settlement patterns and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    This paper discusses settlement patterns and sustainability. Generally urbanization is recognised as an inevitable development driven by job opportunities, better service supply, education, and health services, and it is argued that this is the main driver for centralisation. Research based on...... utilization of local resources and trade opportunities. Furthermore the growing towns are struggling with an un-sustainable economic situation manly based on public financed jobs or welfare payments and with limited export oriented value creation....

  6. Immigrant Settlement Services Literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Mambo Tabu Masinda

    2014-01-01

    The global migration is transforming the social fabric of modern societies around the world. As a result, countries hosting large number of immigrants have developed a range of services to help immigrants adjust to their new countries. Many studies have investigated immigrant services, however, there is no discussion looking at immigrant services under what I call ¡°Immigrant settlement services literacy¡± (ISSL). This paper aims to close this gap. The discussion proposes some implications fo...

  7. Lifestyle, Dwelling Conditions and Daily Routine as Qualitative Indicators of Infant Development: A Study of 0-3 Years Old Children from Rural Brazilian Northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Elaine Pedreira

    The developing child and his/her eco-social-cultural context is the focus of study of 28 children ages 0-3 years in the rural area of Cocal, Piaui in Northeast Brazil. Ethnographic methods, naturalistic observations and semi-structured interviews were used to ascertain the physical context (the house and its surroundings), as well as maternal…

  8. Human Settlements, Energy, and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Gupta, Sujata; Jauregui, Ernesto; Nwafor, James; Satterthwaite, David; Wanasinghe, Yapa; Wilbanks, Thomas; Yoshino, Masatoshi; Kelkar, Ulka

    2001-01-15

    Human settlements are integrators of many of the climate impacts initially felt in other sectors, and differ from each other in geographic location, size, economic circumstances, and political and social capacity. The most wide-spread serious potential impact is flooding and landslides, followed by tropical cyclones. A growing literature suggests that a very wide variety of settlements in nearly every climate zone may be affected, although the specific evidence is still very limited. Settlements with little economic diversification and where a high percentage of incomes derive from climate sensitive primary resource industries (agriculture, forestry and fisheries) are more sensitive than more diversified settlements

  9. Assentamentos rurais na Amazônia: contradições entre a política agrária e a política ambiental Rural settlements in the Amazon: contradictions between the agrarian policy and environmental policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Michel Le Tourneau

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A ação do INCRA na Amazônia revela um paradoxo: por mais que a ocupação humana daquela região fosse uma estratégia dos governos militares, é na fase democrática recente que a reforma agrária brasileira intensifica a instalação de agricultores em assentamentos. A institucionalização de políticas de proteção do meio ambiente se revela contraditória com as práticas de proteção social que têm, na Amazônia, um foco de destaque num modelo de reforma agrária que provoca inevitáveis consequências ambientais.The action of INCRA in the Amazon region shows a paradox: on the one hand the human occupation of that region was a strategy of the military regime, but on the other hand it is after the democratization that the agrarian reform policy intensifies the settlement of peasants in the Brazilian Amazon. The institutionalization of policies aiming at protecting the environment is contradictory with the social protection, as in the Amazon it is very much based on a model of agrarian reform that provokes deforestation.

  10. Poverty and wellbeing among older people in Nairobi slum settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Baird, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Levels of poverty and wellbeing among older people in poor, urban settings in Africa have been under-researched, yet absolute numbers of older people are set to increase in this continent in the coming decades. The urban experience of wellbeing for older people is relatively unknown as research tends to focus on older people residing in rural places. This study addresses this research gap and investigates patterns of poverty and wellbeing among older people in two slum settlements in Nairobi....

  11. Sistemas territoriais de financiamento rural: para pensar o caso brasileiro (Territorial Systems for Rural Financing: considering the Brazilian case Doi: 10.5212/Emancipacao.v.13i2.0009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Antonio Cazella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 No Brasil, a construção de sistemas territoriais de financiamento em zonas rurais passa pela inclusão de segmentos sociais pobres nas políticas de desenvolvimento rural. Neste artigo, parte-se da contextualização do perfil elitista do Sistema Financeiro Nacional (SFN e de sua baixa capacidade de operar com microfinanças, pré-condição para se gestar projetos inovadores, inclusivos e territorializados. Na sequência, discutem-se experiências que aportam ensinamentos para a concepção de sistemas territoriais de financiamento, a exemplo do Desenvolvimento Regional Sustentável do Banco do Brasil e do cooperativismo de crédito rural solidário. Por fi m, elaboram-se sugestões depossíveis parcerias interinstitucionais, visando reduzir a exclusão de segmentos sociais empobrecidos dos mercados financeiros formais. Palavras-chave: Microfinanças. Inclusão financeira. Territórios.  Abstract: In Brazil, the construction of territorial systems of financing in rural zones involves the inclusion of poor segments of society in public rural developmentpolicies. This article begins describing the elitist nature of the National Financial System and its limited capacity to operate with microfinance, which is considered here as a pre-condition for managing innovative, inclusionary and territorializedprojects. Then it discusses experiences that can help guiding the conception of territorial finance systems, such as the Sustainable Regional Development program of the Banco do Brasil and solidarity-oriented rural credit cooperatives. In conclusion, it suggests possible inter-institutional partnerships, seeking to reduce exclusion of poor social segments from the formal financial markets.  Keywords: Microfinance. Financial inclusion. Territories.

  12. Settlement network of Novi Pazar municipality: Present state and development tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošić Dragutin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are given adapted morphological, demographical and functional determinants of the Novi Pazar municipality development settlement network on the basis of relevant theoretical and methodological assumptions and qualitative and quantitative indicators. Municipality settlement network is observed as a subsystem in the settlement system of Novi Pazar functional area. Specifically are emphasized interdependency and conditionality of settlement functional transformation process, which caused differentiation of community area into an urban core-Novi Pazar, periurban ring- more or less suburban villages and rural surrounding. Suggested is a model of microdeveloping nucleuses as an instrument for community decentralization. On the ground of spatial and functional level of settlement integration some micro functional - micro regional structure of the municipality territory, has been identified.

  13. Rural migration and health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Jensen, Marit Vatn

    This literature study focuses on possible links between access to health services and migration in rural areas. Why do people move to or from rural areas or why do they stay? What determines where people settle? And, in this context, do local health care services play an important or minor role......, or no role at all? First, the paper reports on key findings from rural migration studies, in order to shed light on two migration trends: urbanization and counter-urbanization. Then we take a closer look on settlement preferences in rural areas, including the impact of health care facilities. Finally, we end...... up with a more deepgoing review of the relatively small number of studies, which explicitly deal with settlement preferences related to access to health care....

  14. Payment system settlement and bank incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Charles M. Kahn; Roberds, William

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relative merits of net versus gross settlement of interbank payments. Net settlement economizes on the costs of holding non-interest-bearing reserves, but increases moral hazard problems. The "put option" value of default under net settlement can also distort banks' investment incentives. Absent these distortions, net settlement dominates gross, although the optimal net settlement scheme may involve a positive probability of default. Net settlement becomes more a...

  15. Viabilidade técnica e econômica da substituição de fontes convencionais de energia por biogás em assentamento rural do Estado de São Paulo Economical and technical feasibility of the conventional energy source substitution by biogas in rural settlement of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura S. T. Esperancini

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade econômica da implantação de dois biodigestores com uso de dejetos animais em área do Assentamento de Trabalhadores Rurais no município de Itaberá - SP, no ano de 2005; um deles para o fornecimento de energia para os domicílios e outro para as atividades produtivas. Foram avaliados os benefícios referentes ao fornecimento de energia elétrica e térmica, a partir do biogás, para cinco domicílios da agrovila do assentamento e para as atividades produtivas, comparativamente aos custos de construção e operação para produção de biogás. Os resultados mostraram a viabilidade econômica da produção de gás em ambos os biodigestores. Foram gerados benefícios no valor de R$ 3.698,00 por ano e R$ 9.080,57 por ano, nos biodigestores para os domicílios e produção, respectivamente; bem como o equivalente a R$ 1.478,28 por ano referentes à produção de biofertilizante. O custo anual do processo é de R$ 1.218,50 em cada biodigestor. O prazo de recuperação do investimento é de 2,5 anos e 11 meses, para a produção de biogás nos domicílios e na produção, respectivamente. Os resultados podem ser utilizados para subsidiar políticas públicas direcionadas ao aproveitamento de biomassa para a produção de energia a baixos custos no segmento da agricultura familiar.The aim of this work was to evaluate the economic feasibility of two biodigestion systems using animal excrements in a rural settlement, in Itaberá - SP, Brazil, in the year of 2005. One of them was constructed to supply biogas for five residences. The other one was constructed to supply biogas for production activities. The generated benefits related to the supply of electric and thermal energy were evaluated, using biogas for five residences and for production activities, in comparison to the annual costs of the biodigestion system construction and operation. The results showed economic feasibility of the biogas

  16. South-Moravian Rural Borderland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaishar, A.; Šťastná, M.; Trnka, P.; Dvořák, Petr; Zapletalová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2013), s. 115-132. ISSN 1803-8417 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : borderland * landscape * rural settlement * economy * Moravia Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/euco.2013.5.issue-2/euco-2013-0008/euco-2013-0008.xml?format=INT

  17. Deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study deposited sediment settlement and consolidation mechanisms, sediment settlement experiments were conducted using a settlement column. Based on the experimental results, sediment settlement stage definition, excessive pore pressure (EPP dissipation, and consolidation constitutive equations are discussed. Three stages, including the free settlement, hindered settlement, and self-weight consolidation settlement stages, are defined. The results of this study show that sediment settlement is mainly affected by the initial sediment concentration and initial settlement height, and the interface settlement rate is attenuated linearly with time on bilogarithmic scales during the hindered settlement and self-weight consolidation settlement stages. Moreover, the deposited sediment layer in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage experiences large strains, and the settlement amount in this stage is about 32% to 59% of the initial height of deposited sediment. EPP is nonlinearly distributed in the settlement direction, and consolidation settlement is faster than EPP dissipation in the self-weight consolidation settlement stage. Consolidation constitutive equations for the hydraulic conductivity and effective stress, applicable to large-strain consolidation calculation, were also determined and fitted in the power function form.

  18. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2

    OpenAIRE

    Josué Laguardia; Mônica Rodrigues Campos; Claudia Travassos; Alberto Lopes Najar; Luiz Antonio dos Anjos; Miguel Murat Vasconcellos

    2013-01-01

    METHODS: The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD) (Social Dimensions of Inequalities) involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. RESULTS: Brazilian men scored substa...

  19. Managerial Strategies for the Conservation of Rurality in Rural Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available If we admit that rurality designates small densities, open areas, small settlements below 1,000 inhabitants, and land reserved mainly to agricultural and forestry practices, and as natural area, if we admit that society tends to be traditional and that government al policies tend to conserve rather than to make rapid or radical changes, then we should admit that rural tourism should be an activity generating new incomes in the area. Rurality also means preserving a continuum in the approach of different types of areas with different characteristics, a concept that can also be of use in the identification of activities specific to rural tourism. Be they activities specific to the rural environment or activities common to the rural area, they need to aim at the conservation of rurality as a main tourism resource. Managerial strategies in rural tourism contribute effectively to rural development, provided they are sustainable and that rural tourism be not the only solution for rural development.

  20. IDENTIFICAREA AŞEZĂRILOR RURALE DIN PODIŞUL SOMEŞAN ÎN VEDEREA EVALUĂRII VULNERABILITĂŢII LOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor SOROCOVSCHI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Identification of Someşean Plateau rural settlements to evaluate their vulnerability. In the identification process of the rural settlements, from the Someşan Plateau, we used those criteria which mostly highlight the degree of their vulnerability towards natural and anthropologic hazards (position, morphometry, morphology, demography. According to the mentioned criteria we analyzed the rural settlements distribution on the Someşan Plateau’s geographical subunits. This approach will allow us to assess the rural settlements vulnerability degree towards natural and anthropologic hazards and how they are spatially differenced in the studied area.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Assessment and Compensation on Brazilian Low Volume Rural Roads Using CarbonROAD—The Santa Rosa de Lima Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reus Salini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Santa Catarina Rural” is a Program co-funded by The World Bank for improvements on 1300 km of low volume rural roads on Southern Brazil. The pioneer project under the program was on the municipality of Santa Rosa de Lima, where the greenhouse gas (GHG emissions resulting from the road improvement activities as well as the regular traffic were assessed on an experimental basis using the CarbonROAD software application. Here, we show details of the CarbonROAD software application and the construction emissions assessment procedure as well as the mitigating effect of the plants used for compensation. It was found that most of the emissions come from the road improvement work. This includes earthworks, fuel for motor graders, bulldozers and other machines, and materials and gravel extraction, industrialization and transportation, etc. Only a smaller portion comprises regular road traffic. The accumulated emission balance shows that the carbon absorption is larger than construction emissions after just 15 months. The potential for price appraisal of the generated carbon credits is explored.

  2. Brazilian energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil's natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  3. Weekend settlements: The case of Sićevačka gorge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Marija

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of the impact of an intensive process of building rest and recreation houses and the establishment of settlements in the Sićevačka gorge, Serbia, from the 1960s to the beginning of the 20th, century. The analysis is based on field research conducted in 2001/2002nd, as well as official statistical data. In this paper, settlements are defined by their spatial distribution, characteristics of the local position within the existing territory (Atari, and basic trends in development and advanced geospatial changes. Special attention is devoted to the consideration of how the density of temporary settlements (weekend has impacted the permanent (continuous population as well as the territorial and population development of existing rural settlements. .

  4. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, X.; Yan, X. X.; Wang, H. M.

    2015-11-01

    Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  5. Brazilian gemstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rui Ribeiro

    1981-04-01

    Brazil counts as a gemmological province because of the variety of gem minerals present in the country. Most Brazilian states and territories produce gemstones, the State of Minas Gerais being the most important producer both in volume and in number of species. Diamonds are chiefly derived by panning from alluvial deposits in Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso and Goiás. Among other gemstones, the most important are aquamarines, beryls, chrysoberyls, topazes, amethysts, tourmalines, emeralds and agates, and their respective varieties. The occurrences of these gemstones, as well as of a great number of others, are described for each state in which they are found.

  6. The Rural Settlement Landscape and Its Evolution in Hani Rice Terrace Culture Landscape Areas:A Case Study of the Quanfuzhuang Middle Village,Yuanyang County,Yunnan%哈尼梯田遗产区乡村聚落景观及其演变--以云南元阳全福庄中寨为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗路平; 角媛梅; 李石华; 张洪康; 张红榛; 何云燕; 牛乐德

    2014-01-01

    以2013年6月列入世界文化景观遗产的红河哈尼梯田文化景观区内的乡村聚落景观--云南省红河州元阳县全福庄中寨为研究对象,通过实地调查、访谈和GIS制图分析等方法,分析了哈尼聚落景观的组成要素与内部结构、景观空间格局及其演变。结果表明:1)哈尼聚落景观的边界以实际存在的树带和树门来分离精神世界里人和鬼魂的地域空间;聚落内部受地形和血缘关系影响形成组团式结构,传统民居以蘑菇房为代表;2)聚落具有独特的文化景观要素--用于祭祀和祈福的寨神林、用于娱乐和晾晒粮食的磨秋场以及用于生活取水和祭祀的水井,它们体现了哈尼族崇拜自然的宗教文化体系;3)哈尼聚落景观的空间格局具有森林在上、村落居中、梯田在下、水系贯穿其中的特点,聚落的选址正是基于景观空间格局与适宜人居和便于到达梯田耕作的特点选定;4)哈尼聚落景观在空间演变方面具有独特的分寨和“地名连名”制特点,聚落用地在50 a间扩大了近10倍,而蘑菇房的周边和内部结构则出现了多向演变的趋势,其中现代砖混房屋的比例正呈急剧增加趋势;5)哈尼聚落景观作为哈尼梯田文化景观遗产的组成要素之一,在维系遗产稳定性方面具有重要作用。因此,如何传承与保护哈尼聚落景观成为当务之急,未来应注重聚落空心化等的研究。%This paper takes the rural settlement landscape of Hani rice terrace culture landscape areas as the research object, and makes a case study on Quanfuzhuang Middle village, Yuanyang County, which was inscribed on the World Cultural Landscape in June of 2013. Through field surveys, interviews, and GIS mapping analysis method, the paper analyzes the elements, the internal structure, landscape spatial structure and evolution of Hani village landscape. The results are as follows:1

  7. Development Path of Urban-rural Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The urban and rural areas are regarded as two major components of the regional economic system. Only through joint balanced development of the two can we achieve overall economic optimization and social welfare maximization. But the great social division of labor has separated urban areas from rural areas,which casts the shadow of city-oriented theory on cooperative relations between urban and rural areas. Mutual separation between urban and rural settlements and independent development trigger off a range of social problems. We must undertake guidance through rational development path of urban-rural integration,to eliminate the phenomenon of urban-rural dual structure,and promote the sustainable development of population,resources and environment in urban and rural areas as soon as possible.

  8. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.;

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities but...

  9. Settlement, Transnational Communities and Citizenship

    OpenAIRE

    Kastoryano, Riva

    2002-01-01

    The settlement of immigrants has given rise to transnational communities based on economic interests, cultural exchanges, social relations, and political affiliations. There are increased interactions between individuals and groups settled in different countries within a global space; the cultural and political specificities of host and home countries are combined with multilevel and multinational activities, creating an institutionalisation of multiple belonging.

  10. Gentrification and Neo-Rural Populations in the Quebec Countryside: Representations of Various Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimond, Laurie; Simard, Myriam

    2010-01-01

    Rural gentrification, which is linked in particular to the migration and permanent settlement in the countryside of middle-class or affluent urbanites, is increasingly affecting contemporary rural communities. Despite the significance of this trend, the complex and many-sided phenomenon of rural gentrification has hardly been explored in scholarly…

  11. SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE COUNTRYSIDE – SETTLEMENT PATTERNS IN THE SLOVENIAN ALPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašper Mrak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available he paper aims to show the idea of intertwining of various existing accommodation entities within space, originating in the past and standing for an apparent novelty in modern times. In recent years, under the influence of globalisation, with social and demographic change, the needs and wishes of inhabitants and visitors of the Alpine Space have been changing unpredictably. We need to offer new forms of spending leisure time and adapt to the constantly changing demands. The traditional organization of settlement structure in rural space is being abandoned and adapted to a new way of living, different settlement patterns, social and demographic shift etc. These new interventions are in a different relationship with nature than they were in the past. New forms of leisure activities have been implemented, such as alternative, green, rural tourism etc. More and more the concept of sustainable, more ethical and responsible spatial interventions is prevailing, which does not only include the issues of preserving the environment but cultural, economic and political ones as well.The key issues in studying the development of settlement in the Slovenian Alps were: How to enable the coexistence of traditional settlement patterns in the untouched protected landscape? How to ensure the coexistence of traditional rural architecture and modern architecture intended for a larger number of visitors? And how can these elements be connected in the »story about attractiveness«? In the area of the Alpine Space, the diversity of dispersed settlement patterns is important for further development of sustainability-oriented housing and human settlement while offering different and diverse leisure activities.

  12. The Evolution Of "Rural Culture"-- The Design Research Of Spatial Form Regeneration About Traditional Rural Settlement Based On Self-Organization Theory%演进的“乡土”--基于自组织理论的传统乡土聚落空间更新设计研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱莹; 张向宁

    2016-01-01

    The paper take traditional rural setlements as the research object, take the self - organization theory as study angle, and take mining the evolution mechanism as research goal.Though parsing the past to reveal the leading role of three parameters and understood the spatial construction of three structures order, which can extract the evolution order of the traditional rural setlement.Through examining reality to purify the evolution mechanism about traditional rural setlements,and to mining self-similarity, symbiotic, catalytic growth mechanism based on Fractal theory,Synergetics theory, Hypercycle theory.Through regulating the future,mining traditional rural settlements’ level nested, paralel colaborative, Low impact cycling mechanism to improve regeneration of traditional rural setlements.%本文以传统乡土聚落为研究对象,以自组织理论为研究视角,以挖掘更新机制为目标。通过解析过去,揭示三个参变量的主导作用、三种结构秩序的空间建构,以此提取传统乡土聚落的演变秩序。通过诊视现在,提纯分形理论下空间自相似生长机能、协同学理论下空间共生性生长机能、超循环理论下空间催化性生长机能。通过调控未来,挖掘传统乡土聚落等级嵌套、并置协同以及低冲击循环演进机制。

  13. Implications of rural tourism and agritourism in sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia-Lorena Cut-Lupulescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Romania shows: a variety of historical cultural values ​​- folk art, ethnography, folklore, traditions, historical artifacts - a natural harmoniously combined with a varied and picturesque landscape background. All these are facets of Romanian rural tourism in particular. Occurred and developed by the various forms of relief since the time of the Thracian-Dacian, Romanian rural settlements kept and still keeps in good measure ancient customs and traditions, a rich and varied folklore, ethnography and folk original elements that can be travel exploited in a strategy for the organization and development of rural tourism. Rural tourism in our country always practical, but spontaneous, sporadic, random, and mostly unorganized form of manifestation is the beginning of the '20s and '30s, the casual visitor accommodation citizens of rural settlements. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;}

  14. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with o...

  15. The Density of Sustainable Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Lauring, Michael; Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Heiselberg, Per

    2010-01-01

    This paper is the initial result of a cross-disciplinary attempt to encircle an answer to the question of optimal densities of sustainable settlements. Urban density is an important component in the framework of sustainable development and influences not only the character and design of cities but also the architectural and technical strategies of buildings. The paper is based on literature studies in the fields of urban mobility, urban ecology, urban design, architecture and civil engineerin...

  16. Analyzing spatial-social patterns of rural housing in Qom province and social factors affecting it

    OpenAIRE

    S.E. Seydaei; A. Shapoorabady

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1- Introduction Rural settlements can be studied based on their shape and type, the natural factors such as climate, soil and water, social and cultural factors influencing the texture and morphology and the spatial-social patterns originating from them and even based on the degree of their development. Therefore, in order to plan for sustainable development of rural settlements and for realization of national development goals, it is important to identify and analyze the spa...

  17. Distribuição geográfica e características epidemiológicas da leishmaniose tegumentar americana em áreas de colonização antiga do Estado do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Geographic distribution and epidemiological features of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in old rural settlements in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2008-06-01

    numbers of men and women were infected, with cases in minors as young as five years of age, with the latter not occurring in the 794 allochthonous cases. Conditions favoring American tegumentary leishmaniasis were created in the processes involved in occupying the rural areas of these mesoregions, particularly in the agricultural settlement model and the crisis in coffee monoculture.

  18. Why the Google Books Settlement is Procompetitive

    OpenAIRE

    Elhauge, Einer Richard

    2010-01-01

    Although the Google Books Settlement has been criticized as anticompetitive, I conclude that this critique is mistaken. For out-of-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying which books are in the public domain and making them digitally available for free. For claimed in-copyright books, the settlement procompetitively expands output by clarifying who holds their rights, making them digitally searchable, allowing individual digital display and sales at compe...

  19. Carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A growing body of literature discusses the CO2 emissions of cities. Still, little is known about emission patterns across density gradients from remote rural places to highly urbanized areas, the drivers behind those emission patterns and the global emissions triggered by consumption in human settlements—referred to here as the carbon footprint. In this letter we use a hybrid method for estimating the carbon footprints of cities and other human settlements in the UK explicitly linking global supply chains to local consumption activities and associated lifestyles. This analysis comprises all areas in the UK, whether rural or urban. We compare our consumption-based results with extended territorial CO2 emission estimates and analyse the driving forces that determine the carbon footprint of human settlements in the UK. Our results show that 90% of the human settlements in the UK are net importers of CO2 emissions. Consumption-based CO2 emissions are much more homogeneous than extended territorial emissions. Both the highest and lowest carbon footprints can be found in urban areas, but the carbon footprint is consistently higher relative to extended territorial CO2 emissions in urban as opposed to rural settlement types. The impact of high or low density living remains limited; instead, carbon footprints can be comparatively high or low across density gradients depending on the location-specific socio-demographic, infrastructural and geographic characteristics of the area under consideration. We show that the carbon footprint of cities and other human settlements in the UK is mainly determined by socio-economic rather than geographic and infrastructural drivers at the spatial aggregation of our analysis. It increases with growing income, education and car ownership as well as decreasing household size. Income is not more important than most other socio-economic determinants of the carbon footprint. Possibly, the relationship between lifestyles and infrastructure only

  20. O Internato Rural na formação do profissional farmacêutico para a atuação no Sistema Único de Saúde Rural Internship in the professional training of pharmacists to serve in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Tarbes Mattana Saturnino

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Para contemplar o exposto nas Diretrizes Curriculares, algumas faculdades de Farmácia têm implantado a disciplina de Internato Rural (IR como forma de inserção do ensino para o Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS e de viabilizar a interação do aluno com a prática farmacêutica. Este trabalho analisa o conhecimento dos alunos do IR do Curso de Farmácia da UFMG sobre o SUS e sobre a atividade farmacêutica. A coleta das informações foi feita por meio de Grupos Focais (GF, um antes e outro imediatamente após a experiência de campo. Oito alunos participaram dos dois momentos. O roteiro do GF contemplou: concepção do SUS, as atividades do profissional no sistema público de saúde e a expectativa com o IR. O processamento das informações foi feito pela análise de conteúdo. Observou-se que em ambos os momentos os alunos desconheciam os conceitos e princípios do SUS. Entretanto, após o retorno do município foram observadas palavras como acesso, direito universal e promoção da saúde. Os alunos desconheciam as atividades do farmacêutico no Serviço, e o termo assistência farmacêutica não foi mencionado em nenhum momento. As análises apontaram para o baixo conhecimento dos alunos sobre o SUS e sobre o papel do profissional. No entanto, eles consideraram o IR uma disciplina motivadora para a atuação nele.In order to comply with Brazilian Syllabus requirements, some schools of Pharmacy included Rural Internships (RI in the curriculum as a way of familiarizing students with the Unified Health System (SUS, thereby permitting the interaction of the students with pharmaceutical practices. This work assesses the knowledge about SUS and pharmaceutical activities of students who have taken the RI subject at the schools of Pharmacy of the UFMG. The information gathered was acquired by means of Focus Groups (FG, one before and another immediately after the field experience. Eight students participated in the FG at both stages. The

  1. Settlement, territory and notarial formulas: a verification (Verona, IX-XII century)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2011-01-01

    The organization of rural areas in early Middle Ages and its observability through techniques of location taken by notaries is a classic italian subject in the historiography in the second half of the 20th century. The documentation produced in Verona lend to a verify of the ipothesis and to the formulation of guidelines for the interpretation of this formulas as concerning settlement and village territory. The number of documents produced and preserved in Verona between 9th and 12th century,...

  2. 45 CFR 96.32 - Financial settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financial settlement. 96.32 Section 96.32 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Financial Management § 96.32 Financial settlement. The State must repay to the Department amounts found after...

  3. Internalization, Clearing and Settlement, and Liquidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; van Achter, M.; Wuyts, G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We study the relation between liquidity in financial markets and post-trading fees (i.e. clearing and settlement fees). The clearing and settlement agent (CSD) faces different marginal costs for different types of transactions. Costs are lower for an internalized transaction, i.e. when buy

  4. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Randall Haas

    Full Text Available Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation.

  5. Dispute Settlement through Banking Mediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ROSU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The systems through which cross-border financial transactions are being accomplished are much more complex than domestic funds transfer systems, because it involves one or more intermediate institutions, networks using different compensation from countries that have different currencies and even performed, including operations exchange. The European Community is constantly concerned about efficient cross-border payments but also about the consumer protection of these services, so as to ensure the same conditions for cross-border services, but also for national services and to stimulate cross-border investment was adopted Directive 97/5/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 1997 on cross-border credit transfers, repealed by Directive 2007/64/EC. Article 10 of Directive 97/5/EC established a series of minimum requirements and measures relating to cross-border credit transfers. Thus Member States shall ensure that there are adequate and effective complaints and redress procedures for the settlement of disputes between an originator and his institution or between a beneficiary and his institution in case of failure transfers. In Romania, the provisions of Directive 2007/64/EC were transposed by the adoption of Emergency Ordinance no. 113/2009 which repeals the Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004 on cross-border transfers. This document provides that each institution must have appropriate procedures for resolving customer complaints in connection with the execution of a cross border institution or commitments in connection with such transfer. In the legal doctrine prior to the adoption of Government Ordinance no. 6 / 2004, it was proposed that the National Bank of Romania, as banking supervisory authority, in some specialized structures, ensure procedures to enforce the settlement of disputes between consumers and financial service providers of banking and insurance. The solution was acquired by the Romanian legislature, so the

  6. National Rural Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Overview State Rural Health Associations Rural Medical Education Rural Health Fellows Rural Health Fellows Program Application Volunteer Options NRHA Social Media Rural Health Students Education Liason Program National Rural Task Force NRHA Internships Government Affairs Save Rural ...

  7. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1976 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, governments incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  8. Brazilian minerals annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistics of Brazilian mineral resources and production in 1977 are presented. Data included refer also to economic aspects, market, taxes, government incentives, manpower, exportation, importation, etc

  9. Ferme gauloise et établissements ruraux gallo-romains du Bois de l’Homme Mort, Saint-Pathus (Seine-et-Marne milieu iie s. av.-début ve ap. J.-C. Gallic and gallo-roman Rural settlements at Le Bois de l’Homme Mort in Saint-Pathus (Seine-et-Marne, Paris Area middle of the 2nd c. B.C.-beginning of 5th c. A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Desrayaud

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Les fouilles conduites sur la Zone d’Activités du Bois de l’Homme Mort à Saint-Pathus, au nord de la Seine-et-Marne, donnent un aperçu de plus de cinq siècles sur une portion de terroir rural antique.Une ferme gauloise et trois établissements gallo-romains, dont l’un intègre peut-être un édifice cultuel, ont été mis au jour sur une cinquantaine d’hectares. Même si les zones encloses et les installations sont d’ampleur modeste, elles témoignent néanmoins du dynamisme des terroirs du nord du pays meldois durant l’Antiquité. Les études paléo-environnementales dessinent un paysage très ouvert, de prairies et de champs, où dominent les cultures céréalières diversifiées.Aucun vestige d’occupation antérieure à l’implantation de La Tène finale n’a été observé. Après l’abandon définitif des sites gallo-romains, aux environs du début du ve s. ap. J.-C., la disparition des installations rurales s’accompagne d’une probable reprise forestière.Excavations at the Bois de l’Homme Mort locality, near the French village of Saint-Pathus, in northern Seine-et-Marne, have unveiled more than five centuries of rural antiquityA Gallic farm and three Gallo-Roman rural settlements, one of which could include a sacred edifice, were brought to light on a 130 acre area. Even though the enclosures and facilities are of modest size, they nonetheless bear witness to the dynamism of the territory between the ancient cities of Meaux (IANTINUM and Senlis (AUGUSTOMACUS, north-east of the Paris area, The paleo-environmental studies outline a largely open countryside, made up of fields and meadows, where diversified cereal crops predominate.No stratigraphic settlement traces antedating the Latenian period have been detected. After the final desertion of the Gallo-Roman sites, around the beginning of the 5th c. AD, the disappearance of any substantial rural activity seems to be associated with forest recovery.

  10. Paradise in a Brazil nut cemetery : sustainability discourses and social action in Pará, the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otsuki, K.

    2007-01-01

    This book is about sustainable development and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It explores how Amazonian settlers construct their life in a settlement project and how this process accompanies the landscape change in the southeast of Pará State. The book critically examines discourses of susta

  11. An adaptive paradigm for human space settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2016-02-01

    Because permanent space settlement will be multigenerational it will have to be viable on ecological timescales so far unfamiliar to those planning space exploration. Long-term viability will require evolutionary and adaptive planning. Adaptations in the natural world provide many lessons for such planning, but implementing these lessons will require a new, evolutionary paradigm for envisioning and carrying out Earth-independent space settlement. I describe some of these adaptive lessons and propose some cognitive shifts required to implement them in a genuinely evolutionary approach to human space settlement.

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa betwixt and between : rural livelihood practices and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy

    1999-01-01

    Drawing on research findings emanating from the De-Agrarianisation and Rural Employment (DARE) Research Programme, coordinated by the African Studies Centre, Leiden, this paper compares changing economic and social patterns in a wide variety of rural settlements in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently emerg

  13. The Politics of the MST Autonomous Rural Communities, the State, and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergara-Camus, Leandro

    2009-01-01

    Examination of the politicization of landless people in the encampments and settlements of the Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra (Landless Rural Workers' Movement-MST) in Brazil suggests that the movement's success rest on the fact that it generates relatively autonomous rural communities

  14. 27 CFR 71.38 - Limitation on informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitation on informal settlement. 71.38 Section 71.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... PROCEEDINGS Compliance and Settlement Informal Settlement § 71.38 Limitation on informal settlement. Where...

  15. Allowable Differential Settlement of Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Faeli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The allowable settlement of pipelines has been mentioned rarely in design references and codes. The present paper studies the effects of differential settlement of pipeline bed on resulted forces and deformations and then determines the allowable differential settlement of pipelines in two conditions as follows: (i heterogeneous soil bed and (ii adjacent to steel tanks. To accomplish the studies, numerical simulation of pipeline is used. The pipeline bed is idealized by Winkler springs and four-element standard viscoelastic Burger model. Also, the use of geosynthetic reinforcement is studied in heterogeneous soil beds and the effect of geosynthetics on decreasing the settlement is investigated. The pipeline-tank joints in two cases of fixed and flexible joints are investigated and the results for two kinds of joints are compared.

  16. Measurement of Narora reactor building relative settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The civil construction of the reactor building of Narora Atomic Power Project has a special problem. The stability of the structure is liable to settlement as this location falls in seismic zone. To obviate the possibility of large scale unequal settlements, the reactor building is founded on a 4 meter thick rigid raft concreted in three layers, at a depth of 13 meters below ground. Stainless steel tanks will be embedded at 17 locations to measure relative settlements. The relative elevation difference will be detected by electrical probes when the water level in any one of the tanks touches the tip of the probes. The design envisages a maximum permissible unequal settlements of about 10 mm. over a period of 20 years. (K.B.)

  17. Possibilities of rural development in the Republic of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Spalević Aleksandra

    2009-01-01

    Rural territories are specific and complex economic, social, ecological and spatial areas which in the most of the countries occupy over 70 % of national territory and on which live near 50% of the population. Characteristics of the major part of the rural space in our country are: rare settlement, depopulation with distinct trend of demographic extinction, as well as high old age of the population, considerable presence of daily migrations of non-agricultural and young population, and also s...

  18. Governance of securities clearing and settlement systems

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Russo; Terry L. Hart; Chryssa Papathanassiou

    2004-01-01

    In the context of securities clearing and settlement systems, the nature of governance arrangements acquires a dimension that goes beyond their traditional function in corporate law. They constitute a tool for regulators and central banks to achieve their respective policy goals relating to market operation, market integrity, and systemic stability. In the light of the analysis of this paper, and pending a further evolution in the regulation of securities clearing and settlement in the Commun...

  19. Ways of Settlement in International Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    DUMITRU TROANCĂ

    2009-01-01

    The ways of settlement used within international commercial relations have evolved continuously, as an effect of the evolution of the world economy, as a whole, but also as an effect of the evolution of information technology and message transmitting techniques. In the same manner, the ways of settlement which are used in tourism, have also evolved due to the necessity to meet the high volume of international payments for tourism services. Cash payments, traveller’s cheques, bank card payment...

  20. Rural Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Health > Topics & States > Topics View more Rural Aging The nation's population is aging, and with that change comes increased healthcare needs. ... Disease Control and Prevention report, The State of Aging and Health in America 2013 , the population 65 ...

  1. Characterizing Urban Heat Islands of Global Settlements Using MODIS and Nighttime Lights Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Imhoff, Marc L.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Bounoua, Lahouari

    2010-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and land surface temperature (LST) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) averaged over three annual cycles (2003-2005) are used in a spatial analysis to assess the urban heat island (UHI) signature on LST amplitude and its relationship with development intensity, size, and ecological setting for more than 3000 urban settlements globally. Development intensity zones based on fractional ISA are defined for each urban area emanating outward from the urban core to the nearby nonurban rural areas and used to stratify sampling for LST. Sampling is further constrained by biome type and elevation data to ensure objective intercomparisons between zones and between cities in different biomes. We find that the ecological context and settlement size significantly influence the amplitude of summer daytime UHI. Globally, an average of 3.8 C UHI is found in cities built in biomes dominated by forests; 1.9 C UHI in cities embedded in grass shrubs biomes; and only a weak UHI or sometimes an urban heat sink (UHS) in cities in arid and semi-arid biomes. Overall, the amplitude of the UHI is negatively correlated (R = -0.66) with the difference in vegetation density between urban and rural zones represented by the MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Globally averaged, the daytime UHI amplitude for all settlements is 2.6 C in summer and 1.4 C in winter. Globally, the average summer daytime UHI is 4.7 C for settlements larger than 500 square kilometers compared with 2.5 C for settlements smaller than 50 square kilometers and larger than 10 square kilometers. The stratification of cities by size indicates that the aggregated amount of ISA is the primary driver of UHI amplitude, with variations between ecological contexts and latitudinal zones. More than 60% of the total LST variance is explained by ISA for urban settlements within forests at mid to high latitudes. This

  2. The challenge of energy poverty: Brazilian case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years successive Brazilian governments have actively pursued economic and social policies aimed at reducing poverty and promoting social equality and inclusion. In the field of energy, this has meant introducing and implementing programs aimed at expanding the supply of safe and reliable energy to the poorest sectors of Brazilian society, including those living in remote rural areas. This paper draws attention on the findings of extensive field research to evaluate the impact of rural electrification on energy poverty in the context of government policies aimed at promoting energy equity. The authors re-examine the concept of an energy poverty line, seeking to fine tune its application to Brazilian social and economic realities, and then apply an analytical framework (Lorenz Curve, Gap Poverty, Gap Quadratic, Gini Coefficient and Sen Index) to evaluate the effectiveness of recent efforts in Brazil to expand access to electricity. One of the main conclusions of this study is that is that rural electrification leads to a significant reduction of the energy poverty level and a consequent improvement in energy equity. -Research highlights: → The access to electricity led to a marked change in the reality of the researched population. → Energy poverty and energy inequality were reduced significantly. → The strategy of combating energy poverty through programs of rural electrification is efficient.

  3. Dispersed and decentralised settlement system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Černe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the process of reintegration of the urban system new settlements are emerging on theurban rim, transitional zones are reurbanised, derelict areas within the cities are being developedand degraded urban areas of derelict industrial complexes are being renaturalised. Inthe periphery combined research and production parks are being set up, in the open landscapeintegrated business, trade and recreational centres are springing up. Decentralisationand recentralisation of focal points of development accompany the contemporary processesof reurbanisation and suburbanisation – they are simultaneous and move in two-direction i.e. to and from the city. We understand them as manifestation of a dynamic balance amongcontradiction existing between the centre and the rim. Deindustrialisation and relocation ofproduction and distribution from the centres of gravity to the periphery generate extensivedegraded urban areas within cities and between the city and suburbs. The periphery is beingurbanised with the creation of new, dispersed and nonhierachical poles of development, andthe city and inner city is undergoing reurbanization. The general environmental conditionsin the city and in the countryside are being equalised, the potentials of development arebeing sought in the comparative advantages of local conditions: be it attractive urban districts,be it suburban entities or countryside areas.

  4. Where you can dream of something! : landless Brazilians of Goiás, Central East creating a place to live and make a living

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The focal area of the current work is a pre-settlement in the Brazilian land-reform program. The status of pre-settlement implies that the area is not anymore an encampment of persons occupying the fazenda, (big farm), where it is located but also yet not a recognized settlement with the rights it implies according to national standards. Negotiations about the status of the area were still going on when the fieldwork on which the current text is based was carried out in 2001. Canudos, as it i...

  5. Attitudes to telehealth use among rural residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Fyhn Lykke

    2008-01-01

    higher among older people and people with no education beyond primary school. Conclusions: As the rural population in Denmark, as well as in other countries, tends to be older and less educated than the national average, the introduction of telehealth services faces special challenges in rural areas.......Context: Rural communities tend to be underserved by medical services. Low access to medical services affects quality of life and may also affect settlement decisions. The use of telehealth has often been mentioned as an alternative way to provide health care services in remote, underserved areas...... rural area. Method: A representative sample from the island of Ærø (n=1000) was selected and attitudes toward two telehealth applications were examined by structured telephone interviews regarding: 1) video consultation between patient and specialist, and 2) transfer of work tasks from local hospital to...

  6. The impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural areas in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Velvin, Jan; Kvikstad, Tor Martin; Drag, Eivind; Krogh, Erling

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Over recent decades, rural–urban migration and a decrease in wealth have been major challenges faced by European rural areas. Maintaining urban and rural settlements throughout the country has been an important aim of Norwegian regional politics. This paper assesses the impact of second home tourism on local economic development in rural municipalities in Norway. The study is based on data collected as part of an ongoing research project initiated in 2002. Havin...

  7. Transport corridors and settlements in a region. Linking settlements to public transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the article is conditioning settlement to public transport on the regional and urban level. Similar to occurrences in Western Europe even in Slovenia strong settlement pressures and issues tied to development of suburbanisation are emerging in wider hinterlands of larger cities. In regional centres, where strong transport flows with frequent congestion happen, public transport should be the backbone of the transport system. It is important for consolidation of larger gravitation areas, especially conurbations. We can nevertheless establish that parallel to increasing use of private cars, the use of public transport is decreasing. Thus the present condition demands improvements of transport systems and suitable settlement density in conjunction with development of public transport. This can be achieved only by synergetic linking of public transport development and physical planning in a sustainable settlement system. In the Ljubljana functional region we specifically dealt with links between settlement and the regional public transport system, above all the proposed regional light-railway and tram system in the strict urban area. The decentralised denser settlement model is presented. Based on the study concerning settlement development in the railway corridors we proposed potential possibilities for denser settlement in the immediate areas of suburban railway stations in the northern part of the region, from Črnuče to Kamnik.

  8. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.)

  9. Demographic and settlement transformations in peripheral regions (based on the example of eastern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miszczuk, Andrzej; Wesołowska, Monika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show specific demographic processes and accompanied transformations of settlement structure in eastern Poland at the turn of the 21st cent. Eastern Poland, covering Lubelskie, Podkarpackie, Podlaskie, Świętokrzyskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeships, acquired the features of peripheral area in terms of communication and socio-economic aspects as a result of long-lasting historical processes. Unfavourable demographic processes can be observed in eastern Poland. They are accompanied by changes in settlement structure. Depopulation has significant social and economic consequences. The process increases social polarization between different regions in the country and between rural and urban areas. Moreover, the outflow of young and most active population to other regions or abroad is an important barrier for economic revival in peripheral regions. Consequently, unfavourable socio-economic structure in these areas is consolidated or even strengthened. This primarily concerns Lubelskie and Podlaskie voivodeships.

  10. Small-scale farms in the western Brazilian Amazon: can they benefit from carbon trade?

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, Chantal Line; Vosti, Steve; Witcover, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Recently scientists have started to examine how land-uses and land-use technologies can help mitigate carbon emissions. The half million small-scale farmers inhabiting the Amazon frontier sequester large stocks of carbon in their forests and other land uses that they might be persuaded to maintain or even increase through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. On average, small-scale farmers in the Pedro Peixoto settlement project of Acre (Western Brazilian Amazon), had ...

  11. Agricultural intensification by smallholders in the Western Brazilian Amazon: From deforestation to sustainable land use

    OpenAIRE

    Vosti, S.A.; Witcover, J.; Carpentier, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    "Despite the importance of tropical moist forests for conserving biodiversity and storing carbon, forests continue to fall, because the private benefits of clearing land for agriculture far outweigh tangible economic gains from retaining forests. This report measures the financial disparity between forested and cleared land for small-scale farmers in two settlements in the western Brazilian Amazon where pastures are expanding and forests receding. Considering smallholder land use decisions—wh...

  12. A previdência social rural na Constituição de 1988: a perspectiva dualista da Contag - DOI: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v30i2.3192 Rural social security in the Brazilian Constitution of 1988: the dualistic perspective of Contag - DOI: 10.4025/actascihumansoc.v30i2.3192

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Soares Barbosa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A temática da previdência social rural tem sido amplamente discutida nos dias atuais, especialmente em razão do protagonismo econômico do(as aposentado(as e pensionistas no campo, como segurados especiais. O presente artigo procura analisar, por meio de pesquisa documental, a visão dualista de previdência social rural que a Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura – Contag apresentou à Constituinte de 1987/1988. Esta dualidade se expressava na reivindicação de, por um lado, um sistema contributivo compulsório para os assalariados rurais, compreendidos na legislação previdenciária como Empregados Rurais; por outro, um subsistema especial para os Segurados Especiais, aqueles categorizados como agricultores em regime de economia familiar.The theme of rural social security has been widely discussed in recent days, especially as a consequence of the economic protagonism of rural retirees and pensioners as having special entitlements. The present article seeks to analyze, by means of a document research, the dualist view of rural social security that the National Confederation of Agricultural Workers – Contag (Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores na Agricultura brought to the Constitution of 1987/1988. This duality was expressed in the claim for, on the one hand, a compulsory contributive system for rural wage earners, classified in the social security legislation as rural workers; on the other hand, a special sub-system for the special policyholders, who were classified as agriculturists in a family economy system.

  13. Investigating Mechanisms of Marginal Settlement Life Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid M. Mohammadi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to investigate mechanisms to improve marginal settlement life in Koohdasht County in Lorestan province. This research was a sort of the survey studies and a questionnaire was compiled for collection of data. Statistical population of this study was included 1560 households; also sampling method was a sort of random sampling. Number of sample size was estimated 85 households. Questionnaire's reliability was confirmed through computing Cronbach's alpha coefficient which was 0.85. Face validity of questionnaire was confirmed by some Tehran university agricultural extension and education department scientific board members. Also data analyzed by WINspss 11.5. The results of research revealed that marginal area residents had not good financial situation but they undertook great supporting burden and in point of view access to services and life conditions had not good situation. Therefore improvement of life conditions of marginal settlement life such as fundamental infrastructure include communication systems and sanitation offloading system recognized as the most important mechanisms of marginal settlement improvement according to results of priority setting of marginal settlement situation mechanisms. Also the results of factor analysis showed that 7 main mechanisms were be effective in term of marginal settlement life improvement that in order to importance were included servicing and life condition improvement, credit-economic, civil and legal, control and prevention, population and migration control, infrastructures improvement and hygiene situation.

  14. Simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Nielsen, Jens C. O.; Pålsson, Björn A.

    2014-05-01

    A methodology for the simulation of track settlement in railway turnouts (switches and crossings, S&C) is presented. The methodology predicts accumulated settlement for a given set of traffic loads using an iterative and cross-disciplinary procedure. The different modules of the procedure include (I) simulation of dynamic vehicle-track interaction in a turnout applying a validated software for multibody vehicle dynamics considering space-dependent track properties, (II) calculation of load distribution and sleeper-ballast contact pressure using a detailed finite element model of a turnout that includes all of the rails (stock rails, switch rails, closure rails, crossing nose, wing rails and check rails), rail pads, baseplates and sleepers on ballast, (III) prediction of track settlement for a given number of load cycles and (IV) calculation of accumulated track settlement at each sleeper and the resulting vertical track irregularity along the turnout which is used as input in the next step of the iteration. The iteration scheme is demonstrated by calculating the track settlement at the crossing when the studied turnout is exposed to freight traffic in the facing move of the through route.

  15. The meaning of 'rural' in rural health: a review and case study from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana Eliza Port

    2012-01-01

    Health disparities between rural and urban populations are an important global health concern, although ascertaining what constitutes a rural context is a complicated undertaking. This article summarises theoretical contributions that help to explain how uncritical use of rural classifications may interfere with epidemiological data and health policies. Bonfim, a community located in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, illustrates the discussion. Bonfim is classified as urban by the Brazilian census, although the community contains farmland, parkland and rural social groups such as family farmers and ecotourism employees. The (mis)classification of Bonfim as urban further complicates the meaning of rural, and thus also what is meant by rural health. Researchers have developed some new rurality indexes to overcome the rural-urban dichotomy and to help understand local scale health determinants. But the obstacles for large-scale studies and government decision-making are still many. 'Rural' is an epidemiological variable that unites in a single indicator diverse life aspects relevant for health purposes. Therefore, to facilitate allocation of health resources based on objective criteria, governments and policy makers must acknowledge the difficulty of defining what rural is and work to improve the definitions they use. PMID:21390962

  16. Políticas de Assentamento e Localidade. Os desáfios da reconstituicão do trabalho rural no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello Norder, L.A.

    2004-01-01

    The consolidation of the democratic institutions inBrazilin the last twenty years has been followed by the empowerment of the popular organisations that started to demand the implementation of projects of land reform and rural settlements by means of the installation of camps [ acampamentos ] in the vicinity of the areas in dispute. The effectiveness of these strategies led to the creation of rural settlements for nearly 500 thousand families. This book evaluates the main aspects of the Braz...

  17. A Simulation Framework for Exploring Socioecological Dynamics and Sustainability of Settlement Systems Under Stress in Ancient Mesopotamia and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, J. H.; Altaweel, M. R.

    2007-12-01

    The presentation will describe an object-oriented, agent-based simulation framework being used to help answer longstanding questions regarding the development trajectories and sustainability of ancient Mesopotamian settlement systems. This multidisciplinary, multi-model framework supports explicit, fine-scale representations of the dynamics of key natural processes such as crop growth, hydrology, and weather, operating concurrently with social processes such as kinship-driven behaviors, farming and herding practices, social stratification, and economic and political activities carried out by social agents that represent individual persons, households, and larger-scale organizations. The framework has allowed us to explore the inherently coupled dynamics of modeled settlements and landscapes that are undergoing diverse social and environmental stresses, both acute and chronic, across multi-generational time spans. The simulation framework was originally used to address single-settlement scenarios, but has recently been extended to begin to address settlement system sustainability issues at sub-regional to regional scale, by introducing a number of new dynamic mechanisms, such as the activities of nomadic communities, that manifest themselves at these larger spatial scales. The framework is flexible and scalable and has broad applicability. It has, for example, recently been adapted to address agroeconomic sustainability of settlement systems in modern rural Thailand, testing the resilience and vulnerability of settled landscapes in the face of such perturbations as large-scale political interventions, global economic shifts, and climate change.

  18. Brazilian savanna forest : conservation, medicinal reservoir and bioprospecting

    OpenAIRE

    Bessa, Nélita Gonçalves Faria de

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse the Brazilian savanna forest from a Legal Reserve (LR) area from a perspective of conservation, reservoir of organic carbon and medicinal biomass for a prospective use of native medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological survey was carried out close to a community settled in the rural area in the south of Tocantins, being selected 9 of the most cited species (cajuí- Anacardium othonianum; inharé-Brosimum gaudichaudii; jatobá-Hymenaeae courbaril; j...

  19. Does Land Tenure Insecurity Drive Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon?

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio ARAUJO; Araujo Bonjean, Catherine; Combes, Jean-Louis; Combes Motel, Pascale; Eustaquio J. REIS

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight the detrimental impact of land tenure insecurity on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. It is related to recent controversies about the detrimental impact of land laws on deforestation, which seem to legitimize land encroachments. The latter is mainly the result of land tenure insecurity which is a key characteristic of this region and results from a long history of interactions between rural social unrest and land reforms or land laws. A simple mo...

  20. Modern Settlements in Special Needs Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene

    2016-01-01

    . Settlements of this controversy govern whether the pupil or the educational institution becomes the main point of intervention. In Denmark, the particularities of settlements can be identified by juxtaposing the introduction of intelligence testing in the 1930s with the contemporary policy agenda of inclusion....... With intelligence testing, special needs education was to service children whose needs were seen as part of their human nature. Inclusion, in turn, assumes special needs to be stigmatizing cultural labels that need to be abandoned by changing school cultures. Drawing on actor-network theory we can approach...

  1. Settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, David; Kho, Adrian; Daley, Andrew [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Queensland (Australia)

    2011-07-01

    The paper discusses the settlement and strength of clay-rich coal mine spoil material, which was sourced from Jeebropilly coal mine in south-east Queensland, Australia. The settlement consists of three components: self-weight, collapse on wetting up, and weathering-induced settlements; 80% of the self-weight settlement of initially dry spoil occurs during placement. Due to corrosion cracking at highly stressed particle contacts, collapse settlement of spoil occurs on wetting up. Weathering-induced spoil settlement occurs over a variable timeframe that depends on durability of the spoil. Laboratory tests included material characterization and geotechnical parameter testing. The characterization of testing methodologies is presented. The results of the tests have implications on the shear strength and settlement of clay-rich spoil materials such as the weathered clayrock found in the upper part of the Jeebropilly coal mine. These implications are detailed and they shed some light on the settlement and strength behavior of these materials.

  2. Climate Change and the Science of Human Settlements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; Hack

    2011-01-01

    <正>1.Endeavors for constructing a comprehensive science of human settlements A new science of human settlements is emerging as a result of the threats we all face as a result of excessive greenhouse gases in the atmosphere,

  3. Design and Construction of Manually Operated Biogas Plant for a Farm and Village Settlement in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bitrus Auta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The biogas generating method involves filling the digester with cow dung, and is left to ferment for days; the result of the fermentation produces biogas in the digester. The gas is then passed through a rubber pipe to the gas holding cylinder. The compositions of the gases are mainly methane and carbon dioxide. The plant is manually operated and does not require high skilled manpower .It is basically expected to be use in farm houses in village settlements. This will cut down on environmental pollution, global warming and reduce the rate of cutting down trees in rural areas.

  4. Development of a Common Nordic Balance Settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NordREG finds it essential for the customers that a common integrated end-user electricity market is developed and that all end-users are able to take part in the Nordic market. A common Nordic balance settlement is one important part of such a change. However, attention has to be paid to the comments that a badly designed common system is worse than well-designed national systems. It is thus important that the change to a common balance settlement is so thoroughly investigated that the common system gives a basis for a well-functioning market. An important basis for such a change is an agreed vision for the process: The present different systems for balance settlement shall by the year 2010 be replaced by a common Nordic balance settlement. This means that: It will be possible for a supplier to sell to the whole Nordic market from one legal entity and using only one system for customer management and reporting. The common Nordic balance settlement will be designed in such a way that it contributes to a well functioning market. This means for example that it will be attractive even for small suppliers and some end-users to be balance responsible parties. It is feasible that the first phase is focused on those present differences that are most decisive for fulfilment of the vision. NordREG recommends that the following issues shall be discussed and agreed in co-operation between NordREG, Nordel and relevant stakeholders in the first phase: The definition shall include how the common Nordic balance settlement shall interact with the balance control and the balance regulation of the interconnected power system and the balance settlement between countries performed by the TSOs. The definition should include the cost-base for common Nordic balance settlement in relation to other system responsibility costs. The core activities of system responsibility have also been analyzed by NordREG. It is important to find a balance between inter alia the need for simplicity and the

  5. Medicare and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this facility type. Rural Referral Center (RRC) Rural tertiary hospitals that receive referrals from surrounding rural acute ... rural beneficiaries. Where can I get data and statistics regarding the Medicare program in rural America? MedPAC ...

  6. Quality Change in Brazilian Automobiles

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Fonseca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I investigate the quality evolution of Brazilian autos. To measure the quality evolution of Brazilian autos, I have assembled a data set for Brazilian passenger cars for the period 1960/94, to which I have applied the hedonic pricing methodology. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first time an index of quality change has been constructed for the Brazilian automobile industry. The results presented here have two major implications. They allow a better understanding of prod...

  7. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey is initially of the international-and national situation regarding energetic resources. The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Policy and the Brazilian Nuclear Program are dealt with, as well as the Nuclear Cooperation agreement signed with the Federal Republic of Germany. The situation of Brazil regarding Uranium and the main activities of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission are also discussed

  8. 7 CFR 1940.406 - Real estate settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Real estate settlement procedures. 1940.406 Section... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Truth in Lending-Real Estate Settlement Procedures § 1940.406 Real estate settlement procedures. (a) General. This section provides the...

  9. 24 CFR 3500.9 - Reproduction of settlement statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reproduction of settlement... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT REAL ESTATE SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT § 3500.9 Reproduction of settlement... in sections F and H, respectively. (3) Reproduction of the HUD-1 must conform to the...

  10. Marie Russo: An Oral History of the Italian Settlement House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Kathryn H.

    2010-01-01

    The Settlement House Movement in the United States was a response by progressive reformers to meet the needs of urban poor and immigrant families in the early years of the 20th century. Some settlements were outreach services of churches. There are limited accounts of the experiences of the individuals who used the settlement houses. This study…

  11. Analysis of long-term settlement of municipal solid waste landfills as determined by various settlement estimation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Il; Park, Borinara; Lee, Seung Rae

    2007-02-01

    In this study, several existing municipal solid waste (MSW) settlement estimation methods are reviewed and applied to analyze the settlement data of nine MSW landfills. Because a biodegradation-related settlement contributes differently to a long-term total settlement depending on the age of landfills, the actual MSW landfill sites are classified into three groups to specifically address the validity of each method in its prediction of a long-term settlement for each age category. Results demonstrate that there are considerable decreases in predicted settlement potentials as fill age increases. Comparisons indicate that the individual estimation methods display a considerable variation in predicting settlements in the fresh MSW landfills. On the other hand, for the old refuse landfills, all of the estimation methods, except the extended soil model, predict low settlement potentials. PMID:17355085

  12. Going Rural

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Foreign banks are beginning to invest in China's rural financial system, helping to meet a strong need for capital As Chinese commercial banks retreat from the rural market, foreign banks appear ready to jump into a sector with a strong thirst for capital. In July, Rabobank Group, the International Finance Corp. and the United

  13. The economic impacts of the tobacco settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, David M; Gruber, Jonathan; Hartman, Raymond S; Landrum, Mary Beth; Newhouse, Joseph P; Rosenthal, Meredith B

    2002-01-01

    Recent litigation against the major tobacco companies culminated in a master settlement agreement (MSA) under which the participating companies agreed to compensate most states for Medicaid expenses. Here the terms of the settlement are outlined and its economic implications analyzed using data from Massachusetts. The financial compensation to Massachusetts (and other states) under the MSA is substantial. However, this compensation is dwarfed by the value of the health impacts induced by the settlement. Specifically, Medicaid spending will fall, but only by a modest amount. More importantly, the value of health benefits ($65 billion through 2025 in 1999 dollars) from increased longevity is an order of magnitude greater than any other impacts or payments. The net efficiency implications of the settlement turn mainly on a comparison of the value of these health benefits relative to a valuation of the foregone pleasure of smoking. To the extent that the value of the health benefits is not offset by the value of the pleasure foregone, the economic impacts of the MSA will include a share of these health benefits. PMID:11887906

  14. Directional layouts in central lowland Maya settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bevan, Andrew; Jobbová, Eva; Helmke, Christophe;

    2013-01-01

    based on nearest neighbour bearings and successive grid offsets e in order to explore possible rectilinear organisation in settlement layouts despite the presence of uneven and irregular patterns of archaeological dating and recovery. The results suggest a grid-like distribution of houseplots and, by...

  15. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.;

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  16. Between archaeology and anthropology: imagining Neolithic settlements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Květina, Petr; Hrnčíř, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 323-347. ISSN 0323-1119. [Theory and method in the prehistoric archaeology of Central Europe. Mikulov, 24.10.2012-26.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV032 Keywords : Neolithic longhouse * ethnographic analogy * settlement patterns Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  17. RURAL TOURISM AS AN IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INCOME FOR RURAL PLACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca ZORZOLIU

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is the most important economic branch, worldwide, owning 12% of all areas of activity and revenue of approximately 530 billion dollars per year. In the past 10 years we could see an increasing demand for rural tourism and ecotourism, many of the international travel agencies offering ecotourism packages. Our country is attractive from the perspective of international travel agencies, because of unpolluted nature, the authenticity of traditions, the Danube Delta, old forests and not least, because the Romanian hospitality.Rural tourism had been practiced for a long time in Romania but for the past 15-20 years, it was casual and without any form of organization. Tourism activities in rural areas are carried out when agricultural activities takeplace and contribute to the welfare of rural communities that practice it.The development of tourism activities requires attention to the quality of the environment by preserving and developing the quality in the areas that have entered the tourist circuit, controlling the activity quality for a rational use of tourism resources.Our country benefits from EU funding through several programs including SAPARD, taking one of the measures, Measure 3.4, which is called the development and diversification of economic activities that generate multiple activities and alternative incomes.A deciding role in the development of rural tourism is held by the general infrastructure, requiring subsidies from the budget for tourism attraction areas for sustaining, by public administrations, programs to support tourism in rural areas.Rural tourism contributes to the sustainable development of the Romanian rural environment by proper use of local resources, establishing youth in rural areas, reducing the number of unemployed, women's involvement in economic and social life of rural settlements, raising living standards, growth in household rural areas, increasing the industry's contribution to the formation of gross

  18. Brazilian librarians and Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Moreno

    2011-01-01

    Brazil leads the world in social networks. This essay focuses on the results of a two-year experience of Brazilian librarians using Twitter in their work field. Two types of presence on Twitter are identified. A new approach is proposed to answers the critical questions librarians are facing regarding service provision based on Twitter.

  19. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic ...... limitations of informal organization and community adaptive capacities, and finally, it discusses the issues of vulnerability and adaptation to climatic and environmental change from a household perspective.......Based on a comprehensive survey and subsequent fieldwork, this chapter introduces the socio-economic characteristics and common livelihood strategies of rural households in Quang Nam, Central Vietnam. It demonstrates the basic premise of self-reliance in rural society and the decreasing economic...

  20. Rural Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As the Chinese economy soars ahead in the wake of the international financial crisis, more attention is being given to the country’s indus-trial, financial, investment and trade figures. But the Central Rural Work

  1. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  2. Indonesian immigrant settlements in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizah Kassim

    2000-04-01

    For over 2 decades, until the economic crisis in mid-1997, Malaysia's rapid economic growth attracted an influx of foreign labor, mostly from Indonesia, Bangladesh, and the Philippines. In 1997 the number of registered workers was estimated at 1.2 million and undocumented ones at approximately 800,000. The influx created various problems, of which housing is one of the most serious, especially in the Kelang Valley. This paper examines the ways and means by which Indonesian workers, the largest group among foreigners, overcame their accommodation problem. Two types of settlements are identified, that is, illegal ones in the squatter areas and legal ones, which are largely in Malay Reservation Areas. The settlements, which signify Indonesians' success in finding a foothold in Malaysia, today have become a base for more in-migration. PMID:12349650

  3. Guidelines and criteria for planning Slovenian settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Andrej Pogačnik

    2001-01-01

    The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, divid...

  4. Asian immigrant settlement and adjustment in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, S; Kee, P; Dang, T; Shu, J

    1994-01-01

    "This article provides a broad assessment of the settlement and adjustment of people born in the many countries of Asia who are resident in Australia, based on recently available data from the 1991 Census of Population and Housing. It examines some indicators of economic adjustment such as performance in the labor market, and some indicators of social adjustment, such as acquisition of English language proficiency." PMID:12289777

  5. Financial-Accounting Settlements Applying in 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Antonescu, Mihai; Ligia ANTONESCU

    2008-01-01

    As a result of the adhesion of our country to the European Union, the adaptation of the EC financial-accounting legislation has emerged as a necessity, new settlements starting to apply with the beginning of the financial exercise 2006. The improvement of the Romanian accounting system has as a main objective the harmonization of the national legislation with the European directives in the domain, in order to accomplish and answer the requests of the European Union, as well as to align its...

  6. Strategic Challenges for Exchanges and Securities Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Malkamäki, Markku; Topi, Jukka

    1999-01-01

    A common feature of major trends in securities and derivative markets is that they facilitate cross-border competition between financial institutions and markets. These trends include financial deregulation, technological developments that increase network externalities and the introduction of the single currency in Europe. This paper discusses future prospects for stock and derivative exchanges and securities settlement systems globally in the light of this analytical framework. The increase...

  7. Immigrants#180; settlement patterns: a methodological assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Emília Malcata Rebelo

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the definition and application of a methodology to support municipal decisions concerning attraction, location and distribution of immigrants in metropolitan areas. This methodology is aimed at identifying settlement patterns of specific groups of immigrants, and respective intensity, according to territorial characteristics and their own ethnic features, in relation to correspondent patterns of the whole population. It is applied, as a case study, to Oporto...

  8. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  9. Brazilian Trichoptera Checklist II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Paprocki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A second assessment of Brazilian Trichoptera species records is presented here. A total of 625 species were recorded for Brazil. This represents an increase of 65.34% new species recorded during the last decade. The Hydropsychidae (124 spp., followed by the Hydroptilidae (102 spp. and Polycentropodidae (97 spp., are the families with the greatest richness recorded for Brazil. The knowledge on Trichoptera biodiversity in Brazil is geographically unequal. The majority of the species is recorded for the southeastern region.

  10. Brazilian Synchrotron Radiation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proposal for a Brazilian national laboratory for synchrotron radiation is presented. The first design study led to a system consisting of a LINAC, an injection ring and a low emittance storage ring. The main ring is designed to be upgraded to 3GeV with an emittance of 4 x 10-8 rad.m. The design study also indicated the possibility of using the injection ring as a soft x-Rays/VUV source

  11. Differences in the Socio-Economic Development of the Rural Space in the South-West Oltenia Development Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIANA VÎLCEA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to analyze the socio-economic differences from the rural space of the South-West Oltenia Development Region, and, in the same time, to make a correlation between the level of development and the natural background (the relief where the rural settlements have developed along the history. In the same time, the long-term development potential of the region is analysed, depending on the natural and human resources available and depending on the outputs and inputs that take place between the urban settlements and the rural space from the nearby area. The proximity to the urban influence area can be a major factor with impact on the access of the rural population to certain services, determining a higher level of development. Also, an analysis of the poverty level was made, which characterizes most part of the rural settlements (especially the isolated areas or with aged population, by using statistical data from the National Institute of Statistics and a series of indicators characteristic for the level of development, correlated with the activity profile of the respective settlements. This analysis was performed for a better identification of the problems existent in the rural area of the South-West Oltenia Development Region in order to offer some viable development solutions that are concentrated especially on the natural resources and the local possibilities of the region.

  12. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  13. Internet and broadband adoption in indigenous communities: An analysis of rural Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Heather E.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska is the largest state in the U.S., but with the nation's lowest population density of only 1.2 persons per square mile. About 15 percent of the population are Alaska Natives. Approximately two-thirds of this indigenous population live in more than 200 villages, most of which are remote settlements without road access. A current broadband infrastructure project in rural southwest Alaska provides an opportunity to gather reliable data on rural broadband adoption and use, and perceived bar...

  14. ACTIVE MEASURES AS PART OF DIALOGUE MARKETING PROMOTING THE USE OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    KLEMENTSCHITZ, Roman; Oliver ROIDER

    2015-01-01

    The SmartMove project is working to advance innovative marketing and mobility solutions in eight rural and peripheral European regions and is co-funded by the Intelligent Energy Europe Programme of the European Union. Through tailor-made strategies, it aims to provide information and encourage people to use public transport in their region. Sparsely populated rural areas in Europe are facing tremendous social changes due to shrinking and ageing populations. Because of the scattered settlement...

  15. Prediction of final settlements of buildings constructed on expansive soils

    OpenAIRE

    María-de-la-Luz Pérez-Rea; Tania Ayala; Victor Castano

    2015-01-01

    Because the action of the swelling pressure, the settlements caused by the transmitted load from the structure on expansive soils, and the settlements calculated by classic theories of soils mechanics are different. This swelling pressure acts in opposite direction to the weight of the building. In this paper, the authors propose the use of a volumetric strain coefficient by settlements exp, in a soil-structure interaction algorithm taking into account the expansive soil behavior in the reduc...

  16. Reputation costs in investor-state dispute settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Edes, İdil; Edes, Idil

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on World Trade Organization (WTO) dispute settlement suggest different aspects as to how developing countries tend to fail in executing their bargaining power in dispute settlement. One aspect that has yet to be analyzed is developing country bargaining power with respect to likelihood of settlement in such international disputes. A further analysis on the topic sheds light on another dimension on how international dispute mechanisms do not necessarily bring forth ''right'' o...

  17. Práticas de higiene bucal, uso de serviço odontológico e autopercepção de saúde bucal de escolares da zona rural de Caruaru, PE, Brasil =: Oral hygiene practices, dental service use and oral health self-perception of schoolchildren from a rural zone in the Brazilian Northeast region

    OpenAIRE

    Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida de

    2010-01-01

    Objetivo: Avaliar as práticas de higiene bucal, o uso de serviços odontológico e a autopercepção de saúde bucal de escolares da zona rural de Caruaru, PE, Brasil. Metodologia: Através de estudo transversal exploratório usando entrevistas com formulário estruturado dirigidas a escolares na faixa etária de seis a 12 anos (n=150), foram coletados dados demográficos e sócio-econômicos relativos as práticas de higiene bucal, uso de serviços odontológico e autopercepção de saúde bucal, analisados p...

  18. Dispercity - new development approach for Estonian rural peripheries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahas, Rein; Albre, Neve; Link, Liina; Mark, Ülar

    2001-01-01

    Increasing number of people with flexible jobs and mobility and with more free time and resources, would like to spend more time in environment that combines the advantages of urban and rural life. They prefer urban qualities in clean and beautiful environment with full access to information networks, high mobility and advanced social and cultural services. We call this type of new settlement with term "dispersed city". This change in European real estate market is creating new problems how t...

  19. Malariometric Indices among Nigerian Children in a Rural Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Udoh, Ekong E.; Angela E. Oyo-ita; Odey, Friday A.; Eyong, Komomo I.; Chioma M. Oringanje; Oduwole, Olabisi A.; Okebe, Joseph U.; Ekpereonne B. Esu; Meremikwu, Martin M; Asindi A. Asindi

    2013-01-01

    Malaria contributes to high childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. To determine its endemicity in a rural farming community in the south-south of Nigeria, the following malariometric indices, namely, malaria parasitaemia, spleen rates, and anaemia were evaluated in children aged 2–10 years. This was a descriptive cross-sectional survey among school-age children residing in a rubber plantation settlement. The children were selected from six primary schools using a multistaged stratified...

  20. Guidelines and criteria for planning Slovenian settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Pogačnik

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with proposals for directing settlement development and management in Slovenia on the national level. They should be integrated in the spatial order, a part of the national spatial plan. First a short chronology of research with similar topics and simultaneous critical analysis is presented. The methodology and possible models for structuring directives is elaborated. Based on recent research by domestic authors, European guidelines and own ideas, a manual was devised, dividing guidelines hierarchically between the national, regional and local level. The second part or rather different type of text attached to the manual is a glossary. It also includes an index for further research of various sources.

  1. Political Settlements and Productive Sector Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    between ruling elites and the relevant industry actors is important for building and/or maintaining the ruling coalition. This was the case in the Ugandan dairy sector but not in the fisheries sector and with regard to advisory services reform where the original initiatives ran against the interests of......This article uses a political settlement framework to better understand why ruling elites support some productive sectors and not others. I focus on how ruling elites build and maintain their ruling coalition. I argue that promoting particular productive activities is favored when the relationship...... powerful factions. These findings help to improve our knowledge about the political sources of sector differences....

  2. Settlement and bearingcapacity of long pile

    OpenAIRE

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich; Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich; Trinh Tuan Viet; Luzin Ivan Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    When a long pile is interacting with the soil, the combined force applied to the pile head is distributed among the side face and the pile toe inhomogeneously. The toe gets not more than 30 % from the general force, which doesn’t let using the reserves of the bearing capacity of relatively firm soil under the fifth pile. Account for the depth of the pile toe and the dead load of the soil allows increasing the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile toe and decrease the pile settlement in ...

  3. A historical settlement in Konya: Sille

    OpenAIRE

    Tapur, Tahsin

    2015-01-01

    Sille, that is located in 8 km. northwest of the city centre, draws attention being differentwith geographical structure, culture, manner of life, belief and traditions. Because after Greeks, Orthodox Turks and Seljuk, Muslims and non-Muslims lived here together. Sille, was a developed settlement in aspect of socio-economy and especially for  rade, rug business, pottery, viticulture, stonework and chandler until the first half of the 19th century. However, with the Lausanne Treaty, while the ...

  4. Public Service Provision in Clientelistic Political Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Hirvi, Marja

    2015-01-01

    The politics of public-service delivery continues to be neglected under the supposedly more context-sensitive post-Washington Consensus. Using interviews and documentary evidence from Ghana, this article provides an account of the networks of political interference and informal practices in Ghana......-specific political settlement in which public-service provision operates.......'s public water utility. It argues that, in order to understand why private-sector participation succeeds or fails and why similar arrangements have different outcomes across developing countries, we need to examine the effects of the informal institutional context, particularly the country...

  5. Researching Entrepreneurship in Low-income Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gough, Katherine V.; Langevang, Thilde; Namatovu, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Despite an increased focus on entrepreneurship as a means of promoting development, there has been limited discussion of the conceptual and methodological issues related to researching entrepreneurship in low-income countries. Drawing on experiences from Uganda, this paper presents a study of...... entrepreneurship conducted in a low-income settlement, which combined participatory quantitative and qualitative approaches, highlighting the strengths and challenges of using participatory methods. The paper demonstrates how drawing on a range of participatory methods can contribute to creating more engaging...

  6. Stabilization, Extraversion and Political Settlements in Somalia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias

    -central Somalia. Existing analyses have focused predominantly on local actors and internal dynamics to account for the continuous political disorder in the former Somali Democratic Republic since 1991. In contrast, this study highlights the role of external aid in dysfunctional statebuilding efforts in Somalia....... Rather than assuming that foreign actors are outside the local and national political settlements, such actors should rather be seen as an integral part of these processes. Consequently, the power and interests of both Somali and international actors must be taken into consideration in order to...

  7. Sudanese Young People of Refugee Background in Rural and Regional Australia: Social Capital and Education Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jae; Wilkinson, Jane; Langat, Kip; Santoro, Ninetta

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses literature pertaining to the settlement of African refugees in regional and rural Australia, particularly focusing on the specific challenges and opportunities faced by Sudanese young people of refugee background in education. Drawing on a pilot study of the out-of-school resources of regionally located young Sudanese…

  8. Motives for moving to rural, peripheral areas - work, “rural idyll” or “income transfer”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Nørgaard, Helle

    2012-01-01

    Much interest is given to attracting new settlement in rural, peripheral areas due to long-term population loss. The ideal type of settler is identified as families with young children. However, various studies on rural migration show that migrants are a mixed group of young, middle aged and older...... couples and individuals as well as families with children. A large part of the migrants have jobs while other are unemployed or on other types of social welfare. In a Danish context a key hypothesis is that especially welfare recipients and those outside the labor market settle in the countryside due to...

  9. Managing Migration: The Brazilian Case

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo L. G. Rios-Neto

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian migration experience and its relationship with migration management. The article is divided into three parts. First, it reviews some basic facts regarding Brazilian immigration and emigration processes. Second, it focuses on some policy and legal issues related to migration. Finally, it addresses five issues regarding migration management in Brazil.

  10. 78 FR 24227 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Real Estate Settlement... information: Title of Proposal: Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Disclosures. OMB Control Number... 24 CFR part 3500, require real estate settlement service providers to give homebuyers...

  11. 77 FR 44593 - Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement... accepted Settlement Agreement with Burlington Coat Factory Warehouse Corporation, containing a civil... Factory Warehouse Corporation CPSC Docket No. 12-C0008 Settlement Agreement 1. In accordance with...

  12. 76 FR 76437 - Notice of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... of Lodging of a Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Notice is hereby given that a proposed Bankruptcy Settlement Agreement between the debtors and the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter ``Bankruptcy Settlement...

  13. Implicações do turismo no espaço rural e em estabelecimentos da agricultura familiar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Zanetti Pessôa Candiotto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering the expansion of rural tourism in the world and in Brazil and the incentive of public and private sectors to family farms open their properties to tourism, we wrote this article to presents and discuss the implications of rural tourism and to emphasize their consequences in family farms. So, we worked with brazilian and foreigners literature that analyses the spatial implications and changes of this activity and try to present our impressions about rural tourism, which may grow in rural spaces and modify its social and spatial dynamics. Keywords: tourism; rural space; social and spatial implications; family farm; family unity of production and life (UPVF.

  14. Brazilian energy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Brazilian energy overview compared with the rest of the world is presented, as well as the current situation and prospects for the future. In a first part, the evalution from the past through the present time is considered, and in a second part, attention is given on the future prospects for Brazil and the different countries in connection with the energy field. It is expected that the current per capita energy consumption in Brazil, in all of its various forms, now totalling 6 million kcal/inh, will reach at least 22 million kcal/inh toward the end of this century

  15. Settlement and bearingcapacity of long pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available When a long pile is interacting with the soil, the combined force applied to the pile head is distributed among the side face and the pile toe inhomogeneously. The toe gets not more than 30 % from the general force, which doesn’t let using the reserves of the bearing capacity of relatively firm soil under the fifth pile. Account for the depth of the pile toe and the dead load of the soil allows increasing the bearing capacity of the soil under the pile toe and decrease the pile settlement in general. For the quantitative estimation of these factors it is necessary to solve the task on the interaction of the rigid long pile with the surrounding soil, which includes under the pile toe, which is absolutely rigid round stamp.The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of the settlement of a circular foundation with the due account for its depth, basing on the development of P. Mindlin’s studies as well as the interactions between a long rigid pile and surrounding soils, including under pile toe.It is proposed to compare the estimated value of stresses under the heel of pile with the initial critical load for the round foundation to check the condition that the estinated value is less than the intial critical one.

  16. Mercado de trabalho e rendimento no meio rural brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilnei C. Santos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho analisa a entrada de homens e mulheres no mercado de trabalho rural e gera equações de rendimento para o meio rural brasileiro em 2007 com os microdados da PNAD. O procedimento de Heckman é adotado para se evitar viés de seletividade. Os resultados mostraram gaps ou diferenciais na seleção e rendimentos por gênero e raça. Apesar das mulheres apresentarem um nível de qualificação maior que o dos homens, observa-se que o rendimento destes tende a ser mais elevado do que o feminino. Adicionalmente, mulheres contempladas com o Bolsa Família tendem a reduzir a oferta de trabalho.This paper analyzes the entrance of men and women into the rural labor market and generates earning equations for the Brazilian rural areas in 2007 with the PNAD microdata. The Heckman procedure is adopted to avoid selectivity bias. Results had also shown the Brazilian rural labor market. Besides the fact that female workers on average have a higher level of qualification than male workers, male's earnings are higher than the female's. Women that receive the governmental transfer program Bolsa Família , tend to offer less work in the rural labor market.

  17. 26 CFR 1.468B-1 - Qualified settlement funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer identification number; (C) The qualified settlement fund's name, address, and employer...) In general. A qualified settlement fund is a fund, account, or trust that satisfies the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Coordination with other entity classifications. If a...

  18. United States v. Microsoft: The Benefits of Settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.

    2002-01-01

    Like every other turn in this long case, the tentative settlement to United States v. Microsoft Corporation has generated controversy. Some critics have argued that the proposed accord does not go far enough in punishing Microsoft. In this essay, I reach a different conclusion: this settlement is preferable to the alternative of additional litigation.

  19. 5 CFR 180.108 - Settlement of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement of claims. 180.108 Section 180.108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYEES' PERSONAL PROPERTY CLAIMS § 180.108 Settlement of claims. (a) Authority. Associate Directors and...

  20. 5 CFR 185.146 - Compromise or settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compromise or settlement. 185.146 Section 185.146 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.146 Compromise or settlement. (a) Parties may make offers of compromise...

  1. 29 CFR 1603.108 - Settlement and alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. 1603.108... Settlement and alternative dispute resolution. (a) The parties are at all times free to settle all or part of... a neutral mediator or to any other alternative dispute resolution process authorized by...

  2. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support...

  3. Engineering approach to model and compute electric power markets settlements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Back-office accounting settlement activities are an important part of market operations in Independent System Operator (ISO) organizations. A potential way to measure ISO market design correctness is to analyze how well market price signals create incentives or penalties for creating an efficient market to achieve market design goals. Market settlement rules are an important tool for implementing price signals which are fed back to participants via the settlement activities of the ISO. ISO's are currently faced with the challenge of high volumes of data resulting from the increasing size of markets and ever-changing market designs, as well as the growing complexity of wholesale energy settlement business rules. This paper analyzed the problem and presented a practical engineering solution using an approach based on mathematical formulation and modeling of large scale calculations. The paper also presented critical comments on various differences in settlement design approaches to electrical power market design, as well as further areas of development. The paper provided a brief introduction to the wholesale energy market settlement systems and discussed problem formulation. An actual settlement implementation framework and discussion of the results and conclusions were also presented. It was concluded that a proper engineering approach to this domain can yield satisfying results by formalizing wholesale energy settlements. Significant improvements were observed in the initial preparation phase, scoping and effort estimation, implementation and testing. 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... December 20, 2011 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 Real Estate Settlement... RIN 3170-AA06 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... Department of Housing and Urban Development's (HUD's) rulemaking authority for the Real Estate...

  5. Conciliation as the traditional method of disputes settlement in PRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana F. Litvinova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The author of the article researches one of the peculiarities of civil disputes settlement in China. This peculiarity is the conciliatory method that is used during disputes settlement. The using of the method is based on Confucianism. The content of the method has been viewed in the article.

  6. 37 CFR 251.63 - Consideration of petition; settlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES OF... the case of a settlement among the parties to a proceeding, the Librarian may, upon the request of the... adopt the rate embodied in the proposed settlement without convening an arbitration panel, provided...

  7. 36 CFR Appendix A to Part 1275 - Settlement Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... no longer apply. This change is reflected in 36 CFR 1275.64. Settlement Agreement This Settlement... 14 below, plaintiff Kutler will withdraw his request under the Freedom of Information Act, 5 U.S.C... House staff members dictating memoranda, correspondence and speech drafts, that are included in...

  8. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland)

    OpenAIRE

    Kirpluk Izabella; Bomanowska Anna

    2015-01-01

    Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP) and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS), and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa ...

  9. Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzio, Adalberto

    2015-03-01

    In Brazil there is intense research activity in nanotechnology, most of these developed in universities and research institutes. The Brazilian Nanotechnology Initiative (BNI) aims to integrate government actions to promote the competitiveness of the Brazilian industry. This initiative is founded on support for research and development in the laboratories of the National Laboratories for Nanotechnology (SisNANO), starting from an improvement in infrastructure and opening of laboratories for users of academia and business, promoting interaction and transfer knowledge between academia and business. Country currently has 26 thematic networks of nanotechnology, 16 -Virtual-National Institutes of Technology, seven National- Laboratories and 18 Associate Laboratories, which comprise the SisNANO. Seeking to expand and share governance with other government actors, the Interministries Committee for Nanotechnology was set up, composed of 10 ministries, and has the task of coordinating the entire program of the Federal Government Nanotechnology.Cooperation activities are an important part of BNI. Currently Brazil has cooperation programs with U.S., China, Canada and European Union among others. Recently, Brazil decided to join the European NanoReg program where 60 research groups are joining efforts to provide protocols and standards that can help regulatory agencies and governments.

  10. Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.

  11. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  12. Rising CO2 concentrations affect settlement behaviour of larval damselfishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, B. M.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2012-03-01

    Reef fish larvae actively select preferred benthic habitat, relying on olfactory, visual and acoustic cues to discriminate between microhabitats at settlement. Recent studies show exposure to elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) impairs olfactory cue recognition in larval reef fishes. However, whether this alters the behaviour of settling fish or disrupts habitat selection is unknown. Here, the effect of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour and habitat selection at settlement was tested in three species of damselfishes (family Pomacentridae) that differ in their pattern of habitat use: Pomacentrus amboinensis (a habitat generalist), Pomacentrus chrysurus (a rubble specialist) and Pomacentrus moluccensis (a live coral specialist). Settlement-stage larvae were exposed to current-day CO2 levels or CO2 concentrations that could occur by 2100 (700 and 850 ppm) based on IPCC emission scenarios. First, pair-wise choice tests were performed using a two-channel flume chamber to test olfactory discrimination between hard coral, soft coral and coral rubble habitats. The habitat selected by settling fish was then compared among treatments using a multi-choice settlement experiment conducted overnight. Finally, settlement timing between treatments was compared across two lunar cycles for one of the species, P. chrysurus. Exposure to elevated CO2 disrupted the ability of larvae to discriminate between habitat odours in olfactory trials. However, this had no effect on the habitats selected at settlement when all sensory cues were available. The timing of settlement was dramatically altered by CO2 exposure, with control fish exhibiting peak settlement around the new moon, whereas fish exposed to 850 ppm CO2 displaying highest settlement rates around the full moon. These results suggest larvae can rely on other sensory information, such as visual cues, to compensate for impaired olfactory ability when selecting settlement habitat at small spatial scales. However, rising CO2 could cause larvae

  13. 村庄聚落空间形态发展模式研究%Study on Development Pattern of Village Settlement Space Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静; 徐峰

    2012-01-01

    With the development of the new rural construction and the urban-rural integration, the village settlement space form has changed violently. This article analyzes the village settlement space optimization impact factors by Delphi method and yaahp software. The conclusion is that among these 5 factors, the economic factor has the most influence and the cultural factors has the least influence, and the other 3 ones' influence decrease in turn of policy factors , social factors and natural factors. The article also sums up the village settlement space optimization as renovation-model, extension-model, reconstruction-model and disappearance- model. The space plane forms and characteristics of ribbon extensions settlement and massive gathering settlement are analysed. The article summarizes the village settlement space form elements and comes up with the general method of building the courtyard space, street space, leisure space and production space. The study forms the village settlement space research system, promotes the sustaining and the maintaining of the village settle's space form, and provides the scientific basis of the village settlement space form's maintained and sustainable development.%从宏观层面,采用Delphi法结合yaahp软件,分析村庄聚落空间形态优化影响因子的影响力强度.结论表明:经济因子>政策因子>社会因子>自然因子>文化因子,并归纳形成改建、扩建、重建、消失4种村庄聚落空间优化模式;从中观层面,研究村庄聚落空间优化后形成的带状延伸聚落和块状集聚聚落的空间布局特征;从微观层面,总结村庄聚落空间形态的构成要素,提出从庭院、街巷、休闲、生产空间4个角度营造村庄聚落空间的一般方法.通过对3个不同层面的研究,构建起村庄聚落空间研究体系,促进村庄聚落空间形态特色的保持与延续.

  14. Dispersed settlement in detached houses: Attitudes over the residential space consumption in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hočevar Marjan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion surveys investigating the levels of environmental awareness target the most diverse aspects of environment pollution, but they rarely examine people's attitudes to the ways and forms in which space itself is used or consumed, especially in the context of residential or settlement patterns. This article analyses the connection between the prevailing long-term value orientations about residential preferences in Slovenia, which we associate with an ideology of “anti-urbanism”, and the resulting “schizophrenic” environmental perception, which expresses itself as relatively high declared environmental awareness of people who do not live in a town. Extensive and dispersed use of the physical space (defined as a sprawl is in general one of the issues of environmental degradation. Dispersion and low settlement density, as well as the connected consumption of physical space in detached houses, is even more rarely addressed as the key issue of the environment problem. The absence of comprehensive “ecologisation” of the ways in which space is consumed for residential purposes in Slovenia is of a structural nature. Its structural captivity is identified on ideological, institutional, planning, and individual levels. Dispersed individualised settlement is critically addressed, but usually seen from the angle of pollution and not as an immanent ecological problem, i.e. the consumption of space as a rare commodity. In surveys on spatial values, we come across the phenomenon that parochial ruralism is equated with environmentalism, something we explain with a schizophrenic environmental perception, when respondents consider living in individual family houses environmentally more acceptable than living in multi-dwelling houses in an urban environment.

  15. Práticas de higiene bucal, uso de serviço odontológico e autopercepção de saúde bucal de escolares da zona rural de Caruaru, PE, Brasil =: Oral hygiene practices, dental service use and oral health self-perception of schoolchildren from a rural zone in the Brazilian Northeast region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes, Valdenice Aparecida de

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar as práticas de higiene bucal, o uso de serviços odontológico e a autopercepção de saúde bucal de escolares da zona rural de Caruaru, PE, Brasil. Metodologia: Através de estudo transversal exploratório usando entrevistas com formulário estruturado dirigidas a escolares na faixa etária de seis a 12 anos (n=150, foram coletados dados demográficos e sócio-econômicos relativos as práticas de higiene bucal, uso de serviços odontológico e autopercepção de saúde bucal, analisados por meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial (Qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Resultados: A maioria dos escolares limpava os dentes (82,0% com dentifrício (98,0%, escova dentária disponível no mercado (93,2% e fio dental (26,4%. Todos os escolares (150 tinham escova, a maioria (86,7% de uso individual, e realizavam três ou mais escovações diárias (56,4%. Uma parcela significativa visitou o dentista (72,7% devido à necessidade de tratamento (57,8% e de dor de dente (33,0%. Dentre os que nunca foram ao dentista, o medo (36,6% foi o principal motivo. A maioria (56,0% avaliou que os seus dentes estão em bom estado. Conclusão: A maior parte dos escolares possuía boas práticas de higiene bucal, já fez uso do serviço odontológico para necessidades curativas e relatou boa percepção sobre sua saúde bucal

  16. Brazilian normative data for the Short Form 36 questionnaire, version 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Laguardia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available METHODS: The study Pesquisa Dimensões Sociais das Desigualdades (PDSD (Social Dimensions of Inequalities involves 12,423 randomly selected Brazilian men and women aged 18 years old or more from urban and rural areas of the five Brazilian regions, and the information collected included the SF-36 as a measure of health-related quality of life. This provided a unique opportunity to develop age and gender-adjusted normative data for the Brazilian population. RESULTS: Brazilian men scored substantially higher than women on all eight domains and the two summary component scales of the SF-36. Brazilians scored less than their international counterparts on almost all of SF-36 domains and both summary component scales, except on general health status (US, pain (UK and vitality (Australia, US and Canada. CONCLUSION: The differences in the SF-36 scores between age groups, genders and countries confirm that these Brazilian norms are necessary for comparative purposes. The data will be useful for assessing the health status of the general population and of patient populations, and the effect of interventions on health-related quality of life.

  17. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  18. Reserve price: Lessons learned from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auctions have been used in several formats in the electric energy industry. In general, regulators may be uncomfortable initiating a reverse auction at a higher-than-expected final price, fearing that participants may sell their energy at an excess profitability. Nevertheless, evidence from electricity procurement auctions conducted in Brazil supports the findings that these types of auctions have the opposite effect. By attracting a larger number of agents, these auctions can trigger stronger competition and lead to lower settlement pricing. Accordingly, the Brazilian cases examined in this article present significant evidence to support this directional theory. In fact, there are some cases of electricity procurement auctions that show that inadequate auction reserve pricing leads to inefficient outcomes and may also cause the auction to fail. On the other hand, auctions with adequate price caps have led to lower final clearing prices, thus contributing to reasonable final energy pricing. - Highlights: • Outcomes from Brazilian electricity procurement auctions were analyzed. • Cases of success and frustration after adopting (in)adequate reserve prices. • Setting different price caps per source is inefficient. • Higher-than-normal price cap is more effective than fine-tuning reserve prices

  19. Analysis of Secondary Separation of China’s Rural Land Rights from the Perspective of Analytical Jurisprudence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jicheng; SU; Hongjuan; LI

    2015-01-01

    China’s rural land rights are incomplete in structure of land rights and functions due to status restriction. Settling dispute and problem of status in rural land right and function structure is of great significance for determining and guaranteeing subjects of rural land rights. The point connecting and solving rural land circulation issue is demonstration and settlement of status. Separating the status right from rural land property right,namely the secondary separation of right,is to realize such purpose. Currently,China’s rural land right is a bundle of rights,not the right described in property pedigree in strict sense. Using theory of rights of Hohfeld,this paper discussed and analyzed legal relationship of secondary separation of China’s rural land rights,in the hope of realizing real return from practice to theory and to practice again.

  20. Antidumping settlement rumors push prices up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NUKEM price range jumped sharply last month, ending up at $8.05-$8.70. The market took off amidst reports that price and volume quotas would be part of the antidumping settlement being negotiated by certain CIS republics and the US Department of Commerce. And the republics got no relief from the US Court of International Trade. In an opinion issues September 25, Judge Jane Restani upheld the validity of Commerce's investigation, reinforcing the rising trend in prices. The lower end of the range was established by offers of CIS origin uranium to those utilities that will not be affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. Ten deals were completed on the spot market in September. In all but one, the sellers were intermediaries

  1. Phlebotomine fauna in a rural area of the Brazilian Pantanal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga-Miranda Lourdislene Costa

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify among the phlebotomine fauna potential leishmaniasis vectors. The study was carried out in Corumbá county, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Mid-West Brazil (18º59'S, 56º39'W. Sand fly captures were undertaken fortnightly with automatic light traps at 11 sites in forested environments and anthropic areas from April 2001 to July 2003. A total of only 41 specimens were captured. Thirty-one percent of the specimens were captured in forests and 68.3% in anthropic areas. The predominance of non-anthropophilic groups and the low density of N. whitmani, a known cutaneous leishmaniasis vector, does not seem to indicate any actual risk of the transmission of this disease in the study area.

  2. Brazilian Eratosthenes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhi, R.; Vilaça, J.

    2014-10-01

    The objective of Brazilian Eratosthenes Project is the development and application of teaching training actions according the ``docent autonomy" concept to basic Astronomy Education. Argentina coordinates the project in South America, but Brazil works in this project since 2010 with the theme ``Projeto Eratóstenes Brasil" in the homepage: http://sites.google.com/site/projetoerato. Two schools measure a sticks shadow and communicate their results. After, they calculate an average radius of Earth. The stick (gnomon) should stay in vertical position in the leveled ground. Since 2010, the project received hundreds of Brazilian schools with different experiments that were constructed with autonomy, because our site doesn't show some itinerary pre-ready to elaborate the experiments. To collect data for our research, we will use interviews via Skype with the teachers. These data are useful to researches about Science Education area and the Teaching Formation. Teaching professional practice could change and we see modifications in the teachers work, what depends of their realities and context. This project intents to respect the docent autonomy. This autonomy to responsible modifications during continued formation is called ``activist formative model" according Langhi & Nardi (Educação em Astronomia: repensando a formação de professores. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora, 2012). This project discusses about researches in Astronomy Education - still extreme rare in Brazil, when we compare with other areas in Science Education. We believe that actions like this could motivate the students to learn more Astronomy. Furthermore, this national action can be a rich source of data to investigations about teaching formation and scientific divulgation.

  3. The new Brazilian nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since March 15, 1990, when Fernando Collor's Government was inaugurated, the Brazilian President has been pursuing a nuclear policy aimed at ensuring compliance with the constitutional principles and rules that determine the utilization of nuclear energy solely for peaceful uses and purposes. The development of Brazilian nuclear policy has followed several stages, which are reported in this paper from a legal and institutional point of view. (author)

  4. Stratification and analysis of housing indicators of rural areas of Isfahan province using factor and cluster analyses

    OpenAIRE

    S. E. Seidaiy; Z. Hedayati Moghaddam; E. Fathi; M. Jamshidi; A. Jamshidi

    2013-01-01

    Extended abstract1-IntroductionNowadays housing and its related issues are considered as a global issue and planners and policy makers in different countries are trying to solve its problems (Buckley, et al., 2005:237). Among different factors involved in rural settlement structures housing is one of the most important ones (Sartipipor, 2010:125). In Iran, the issue of rural housing, on different aspects, has been affected by urban housing. Despite the efforts made to improve it, and giving p...

  5. Randomness and order in the topology of settlement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, W J; Maclean, L C; Goodchild, M F

    1982-01-01

    "The frequency distribution of settlement links forms the basis of a linear programming methodology which can be utilized to analyze the structure of settlement systems. The resulting index of system topology is compared to a more conventional measure, Geary's contiguity coefficient, which may be applied when the problem is conceptualized as one of spatial autocorrelation on a k-color map. The index of linkage similarity that is introduced appears to have a useful advantage over the Geary measure. The Geary and linkage similarity indices are used to examine the topology of four Canadian and two hypothetical settlement systems." PMID:12265156

  6. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad;

    2013-01-01

    , the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness.......Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper...

  7. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Cisneros

    Full Text Available Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation. We first use spatial matching techniques using a set of covariates that includes official blacklisting criteria to identify control districts. We then explore the effect of blacklisting on change in deforestation in double difference regressions with panel data covering the period from 2002 to 2012. Multiple robustness checks are conducted including an analysis of potential causal mechanisms behind the success of the blacklist. We find that the blacklist has considerably reduced deforestation in the affected districts even after controlling for the potential mechanism effects of field-based enforcement, environmental registration campaigns, and rural credit.

  8. Naming and Shaming for Conservation: Evidence from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Elías; Zhou, Sophie Lian; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has dropped substantially after a peak of over 27 thousand square kilometers in 2004. Starting in 2008, the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment has regularly published blacklists of critical districts with high annual forest loss. Farms in blacklisted districts face additional administrative hurdles to obtain authorization for clearing forests. In this paper we add to the existing literature on evaluating the Brazilian anti-deforestation policies by specifically quantifying the impact of blacklisting on deforestation. We first use spatial matching techniques using a set of covariates that includes official blacklisting criteria to identify control districts. We then explore the effect of blacklisting on change in deforestation in double difference regressions with panel data covering the period from 2002 to 2012. Multiple robustness checks are conducted including an analysis of potential causal mechanisms behind the success of the blacklist. We find that the blacklist has considerably reduced deforestation in the affected districts even after controlling for the potential mechanism effects of field-based enforcement, environmental registration campaigns, and rural credit. PMID:26398096

  9. Sobre regimes demográficos restritos: comportamento reprodutivo e cultura familiar entre os ucranianos no meio rural paranaense (1895-1980 Sobre regímenes demográficos restringidos: comportamiento reproductivo y cultura familiar entre los ucranianos en el medio rural paranaense (1895-1980 On restricted demographic regimes: reproductive behavior and ukrainian family culture in rural areas of the Brazilian state of Paraná (1895-1980

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Andreazza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo acompanha a dinâmica familiar de imigrantes originários da área da atual Ucrânia, chegados ao Brasil em 1895 e estabelecidos em área rural do Paraná, na colônia Antonio Olyntho. Dada a alta fecundidade legítima do grupo, nas coortes estabelecidas para o estudo (1895-1949/1950-1980, procurou-se compreender as razões da manutenção de uma descendência final alta ao longo de todo o período analisado (entre 8 e 9 filhos, na primeira coorte, e entre 7 e 8, na segunda e o que isso implicou em termos de organização social, familiar e doméstica. Disso restou considerar que o comportamento reprodutivo é fruto de um complexo sistema de representações, no qual interagem modos de conceber as relações de gênero e as intergeracionais, bem como o papel do casamento e da constituição domiciliar. Se assim for, as práticas concernentes à fecundidade correspondem, sobremaneira, ao exercício social de uma determinada visão de mundo. Em especial nos grupos que vivem em certo isolamento social, as chances de reproduzir modelos ancestrais de reposição geracional são favorecidas. Entre os imigrantes estudados, quase um século no Brasil foi insuficiente para mudar o sistema familiar que veio em sua bagagem: aqui continuaram a produzir prole extensa, mesmo que para isso tenham ativado uma continuada migração dos filhos excedentes.El estudio hace un seguimiento de la dinámica familiar de inmigrantes originarios del área de la actual Ucrania, llegados a Brasil en 1895 y establecidos en el área rural de Paraná, en la colonia Antonio Olyntho. Dada la alta fecundidad legítima del grupo, en las cohortes establecidas para el estudio (1895-1949/1950-1980, se procuró comprender las razones del mantenimiento de una descendencia final alta a lo largo de todo el período analizado (entre 8 y 9 hijos, en la primera cohorte, y entre 7 y 8 en la segunda y lo que eso implicó en términos de organización social, familiar y doméstica. De

  10. Rural electrification in Santarem: contribution of micro hydroelectric power plants; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van; Diniz, Janaina Deane De Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de [Universidade de Barsilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA. The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  11. Rural electrification in Santarem: the contribution of micro hydropower; Eletrificacao rural em Santarem: contribuicao das micro centrais hidreletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Els, Rudi Henri Van [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Lab. de Energia e Ambiente; Diniz, Janaina Deane de Abreu Sa; Souza, Josiane do Socorro Aguiar de; Brasil Junior, Antonio Cesar Pinho; Sousa, Antonio Nazareno Almada de; Kroetz, Jaemir Grasiel [Indalma Industria e Comercio, Santarem, PA (Brazil)

    2011-04-15

    The municipality of Santarem in the lower Amazon river is the main center in the western region of the state of Para with a population of 274.285 inhabitants, with 31.633 of them living in the rural zone, where only 1.060 rural costumers have access to regular electricity service from the utility provider. This incipient coverage of electricity service in the rural zone urged the local population to look for alternatives. This was found in the use of the hydraulic potential of creeks and rivers with rapids and waterfalls to implement pico and micro hydroelectric plants. So since 2001, 44 pico and 12 micro hydropower plants were installed in the municipalities of Santarem, Belterra and Uruara in the state of Para by local entrepreneurs and communities to attend their basic electricity needs. These systems attend approximately 580 families with a total installed capacity of more than 700 kVA . The consolidation of this technological alternative induced the Regional Superintendent of the Institute for Colonization and Land Reform (INCRA ) and the Municipality of Santarem to elaborate a project to attend the land reform settlements in the region. This led to the installation of 6 micro hydropower (MHP) with a total installed capacity of 820kVA and a 252 km distribution network to attend 1.630 families in the settlements of Moju and Corta Corda. The purpose of this paper is to present the MHP's installed in the region and to show the contribution of these units in the rural electrification of rural settlements in Santarem. The paper discusses also the management model of these units. The survey's methodology consisted in the systematization of project data from the plant builder, INCRA and the municipality. The information was obtained from the official bibliography from the local actors and complemented by field surveys with interviews and observation. Despite the fact that the MHP's are in operation, they are not yet registered in the data base of the

  12. Coastal environments around Thule settlements in Northeast Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroon, Aart; Jakobsen, Bjarne Holm; Pedersen, Jørn Bjarke Torp

    2010-01-01

    Inuit have travelled to and settled in the coastal landscapes of Northeast Greenland for several longer periods during the latest ca. 4500 years. Most recently the Thule culture Inuit lived in the region from around 1400 until 1850 AD. The access to partly and periodically ice covered near coastal...... waters has been crucial to the primarily marine based subsistence strategy of the Thule Inuit culture, and their settlements are therefore found immediately at the coast. Changing geological and geomorphologic settings strongly influence the coastal morphodynamics, and only specific locations offer...... stable and protected conditions needed for proper winter settlements. The comprehensive study of coastal environments and Thule culture winter settlements in the Young Sound region show an accumulation of winter settlements, nearly all located either in protected pocket beaches or on stable basalt capes...

  13. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems, in general, and on biobarriers, in particular. 16 references, 7 figures, 5 tables

  14. FEATURES OF WTO DISPUTE SETTLEMENT. THE STANDING OF THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Horia Rogoveanu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The WTO has an innovative system of dispute settlement, with the following features: sui-generis, integrated, resolving the disputes according to the WTO agreements, excluding unilateral solutions, interstate system. These features are detailed in the present article. Another level of analysis concerns the standing of the EU in the WTO, in general, and in the Geneva proceedings for dispute settlement, in particular. Generated by the quality of the European Communities statute as an original member of the Organisation, the EU has become one of the main users of the WTO dispute settlement system. One of the main challenges of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism is the implementation of decisions. In view of the cases assessed, while the execution record of the EU is a quite satisfactory one, it is apparent that implementation of decisions in more intricate cases creates difficulties at the Union level.

  15. Prediction of final settlements of buildings constructed on expansive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-de-la-Luz Pérez-Rea

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Because the action of the swelling pressure, the settlements caused by the transmitted load from the structure on expansive soils, and the settlements calculated by classic theories of soils mechanics are different. This swelling pressure acts in opposite direction to the weight of the building. In this paper, the authors propose the use of a volumetric strain coefficient by settlements exp, in a soil-structure interaction algorithm taking into account the expansive soil behavior in the reduction of the settlement magnitude when a building is placed above soil. It’s necessary to know the initial properties of the expansive unsaturated soil and the load building conditions. A laboratory process is described for determining the aexpcoefficient.

  16. Subsidence and settlement and their effect on shallow land burial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsidence and settlement are phenomena that are much more destructive than generally thought. In shallow land burials they may lead to cracking of the overburden and eventual exposure and escape of waste material. The primary causes are consolidation and cave-ins. Laboratory studies performed at Los Alamos permit us to predict settlement caused by consolidation or natural compaction of the crushed tuff overburden. Examples of expected settlement and subsidence are calculated based on the known geotechnical characteristics of crushed tuff. The same thing is done for bentonite/tuff mixes because some field experiments were performed using this additive (bentonite) to reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the crushed tuff. Remedial actions, i.e., means to limit the amount of settlement, are discussed. Finally, we briefly comment on our current field experiment, which studies the influence of subsidence on layered systems in general and on biobarriers in particular

  17. Foundation Settlement Prediction Based on a Novel NGM Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Yu Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of foundation or subgrade settlement is very important during engineering construction. According to the fact that there are lots of settlement-time sequences with a nonhomogeneous index trend, a novel grey forecasting model called NGM (1,1,k,c model is proposed in this paper. With an optimized whitenization differential equation, the proposed NGM (1,1,k,c model has the property of white exponential law coincidence and can predict a pure nonhomogeneous index sequence precisely. We used two case studies to verify the predictive effect of NGM (1,1,k,c model for settlement prediction. The results show that this model can achieve excellent prediction accuracy; thus, the model is quite suitable for simulation and prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous index sequence and has excellent application value in settlement prediction.

  18. 48 CFR 49.206-1 - Submission of settlement proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... accounting data. Actual, standard (appropriately adjusted), or average costs may be used in preparing settlement proposals if they are determined under generally recognized accounting principles consistently... not be required to maintain unduly elaborate cost accounting systems merely because their...

  19. Stigmergy in Comparative Settlement Choice and Palaeoenvironment Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ch'ng, Eugene; Hakvoort, Gido

    2015-01-01

    Decisions on settlement location in the face of climate change and coastal inundation may have resulted in success, survival or even catastrophic failure for early settlers in many parts of the world. In this study we investigate various questions related to how individuals respond to a palaeoenvironmental simulation, on an interactive tabletop device where participants have the opportunity to build a settlement on a coastal landscape, balancing safety and access to resources, including sea and terrestrial foodstuffs, whilst taking into consideration the threat of rising sea levels. The results of the study were analysed to consider whether decisions on settlement were predicated to be near to locations where previous structures were located, stigmergically, and whether later settler choice would fare better, and score higher, as time progressed. The proximity of settlements was investigated and the reasons for clustering were considered. The interactive simulation was exhibited to thousands of visitors at th...

  20. Assessing Brazilian educational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lorel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of schooling inequality in Brazil using different indicators such as the Education Gini coefficient, the Education Standard Deviation and the Average number of Years of Schooling. We draw up a statistical description of Brazilian human capital dispersion in time over the last half century, across regions and states. Our analysis suggests several conclusions: 1 Strong reduction of educational inequalities measured by Education Gini index. 2 A three parts picture of Brazil seems to emerge, reflecting initial conditions. 3 High increase of the Average number of Years of Schooling. 4 A significant link between Education Gini and the average education length. 5 Education Standard Deviation leads to inverted results compared to Education Gini. 6 Brazilian data are consistent with an Education Kuznets curve if we consider Education Standard Deviation.Esse trababalho busca avaliar o grau de desigualdade educacional no Brasil baseado-se em diferentes indicatores tais como: o índice de Gini educacional, os anos médios de escolaridade e no desvio padrão educacional. Tenta-se colocar uma descrição estatistica da distribuição do capital humano no Brasil, incluindo as diferenças estaduais e regionais observadas durante a ultima metade do século. As conclusões da nossa análise são as seguintes: 1 Forte reduç ão das desigualdades educativas calculadas com o Gini educacional. 2 Um retrato tripartido do Brasil parece se formar refletindo as condições iniciais. 3 Um forte aumento dos níveis de escolarização. 4 Uma relação significativa entre o Gini educacional e os anos médios de estudos. 5 O desvio padrão educacional leva aos resultados inversos do Gini educacional. 6 Os dados brasileiros admitem uma curva de Kuznets educacional se considerarmos o desvio padrão educacional.

  1. What does debt relief do for development ? evidence from India's bailout program for highly-indebted rural households

    OpenAIRE

    Kanz, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of a large debt relief program, intended to attenuate investment constraints among highly-indebted households in rural India. It isolates the causal effect of bankruptcy-like debt relief settlements using a natural experiment arising from India's Debt Relief Program for Small and Marginal Farmers -- one of the largest debt relief initiatives in history. The an...

  2. TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF MUNICIPALITY DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF UST-MUNINSKOYE RURAL VILLAGE, MAIMINSKY REGION, REPUBLIC OF ALTAI)

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaeva O. P.

    2014-01-01

    Tourism as a factor of municipality self-development is considered through the example of Ust-Muninskoye rural settlement, one of the most popular tourist sites in the Republic of Altai. Based on the economic and geographical analysis, the main features and problems of tourism development in the municipality are specified, and the ways for its improvement are proposed

  3. TOURISM AS A FACTOR OF MUNICIPALITY DEVELOPMENT (THE CASE OF UST-MUNINSKOYE RURAL VILLAGE, MAIMINSKY REGION, REPUBLIC OF ALTAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaeva O. P.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism as a factor of municipality self-development is considered through the example of Ust-Muninskoye rural settlement, one of the most popular tourist sites in the Republic of Altai. Based on the economic and geographical analysis, the main features and problems of tourism development in the municipality are specified, and the ways for its improvement are proposed

  4. The Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement: Enforcement of Marketing Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Eckhart, Dennis

    2004-01-01

    Abstract On November 23, 1998, forty-six states and six other U.S. jurisdictions entered into the largest civil litigation settlement in the nation’s history. The tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) resolved litigation brought by over forty states in the mid-1990s against the major U.S. cigarette manufacturers, including Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds, Brown & Williamson, and Lorillard, along with the tobacco industry’s trade associations and public relations firms. By signing the MSA, ...

  5. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Kirch, P V; A. S. Hartshorn; O. A. Chadwick; Vitousek, P. M.; Sherrod, D. R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L; Sharp, W. D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the...

  6. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  7. Geothermal energy : settlement and water chemistry in Cork, Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmingway, Phil; Long, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Detailed analysis of potential water chemistry and settlement issues associated with the installation of open-loop geothermal systems is infrequently carried out. This has led to the failure of several previously installed systems. Chemical analysis of water extracted from beneath the Cork docklands, Ireland has been performed by the authors in order to assess the suitability of the area for the exploitation of open-loop geothermal energy. The possibility of settlement induced by pum...

  8. Mayaro Fever Virus, Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Raimunda S. S.; Silva, Eliana V. P.; Carvalho, Valéria L.; Rodrigues, Sueli G.; Neto, Joaquim P. Nunes; Monteiro, Hamilton A. de O.; Peixoto, Victor S.; Chiang, Jannifer O.; Nunes, Márcio R. T.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F.C.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2008, a Mayaro fever virus (MAYV) outbreak occurred in a settlement in Santa Barbara municipality, northern Brazil. Patients had rash, fever, and severe arthralgia lasting up to 7 days. Immunoglobulin M against MAYV was detected by ELISA in 36 persons; 3 MAYV isolates sequenced were characterized as genotype D.

  9. Investigating the Sensitivity of Household Food Security to Agriculture-related Shocks and the Implication of Informal Social Capital and Natural Resource Capital: The Case of Rural Households in Mpumalanga, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Byela Tibesigwa, Martine Visser and Wayne Twine

    2014-01-01

    Resource-poor rural South Africa is characterised by high human densities due to the historic settlement patterns imposed by apartheid, high levels of poverty, under-developed markets and substantially high food insecurity. This chronic food insecurity combined with climate and weather variability has led to the adoption of less conventional adaptation methods in resource-poor rural settings. This paper examines the impact of agriculture-related shocks on the consumption patterns of rural hou...

  10. What Is Rural? Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Many people have definitions for the term rural, but seldom are these rural definitions in agreement. For some, rural is a subjective state of mind. For others, rural is an objective quantitative measure. In this brief report the United States Department of Agriculture presents the following information along with helpful links for the reader: (1)…

  11. Biomass Change of the Landless Peasants' Settlements in Lower Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Ishimaru, K.

    2014-12-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in Legal Amazon due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. Around the same time, movements which poor peoples or landless peasants settle into abandoned land have been very active in Brazil. In many cases, these people lack agricultural experiences to yield sufficient production for livelihoods. Thus, it leads to abandon the land and repeat forest clearance. In recent year, education by NGOs to these people encourage spreading of agroforestry which is a land use management system in which trees are grown around or among crops or pasture land. In this study, we specifically aimed at clarifying changes in LULC and these biomass using ground observation data, remotely-sensed LANDSAT data and GIS techniques. We focus on four different settlements: old-established settlement (around 30 years), established settlement (around 20 years), productive settlement (7 year) and unproductive settlement (7 years). These four settelements were located at Santa Barbará province, about 40 km northeast from the center of Belém, the Pará state capital, in the northern part of Brazil. We clarify that the biomass change varied according to whether the settlement are productive or not.

  12. The structure of settlement space in a Polynesian chiefdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major settlement pattern study of a late prehistoric archaeological landscape on Molokaii Island, Hawaii, is summarised. The study focusses on the structure of settlement space within a 7.7 sq. km area situated along the south-central coast of Molokaii, and encompassing two traditional land units (ahupua'a), Kawela and Makakupaia Iki. Intensive survey resulted in the discovery of 499 architectural features. These features were recorded using a standardised data-base system (designed for computerised analysis using SPSS) with 37 discrete and continuous variable, including environmental data, architectural attributes, metrical data, and the presence and density of surface cultural materials. Seventy-two structural features (14 percent of the total sample) were excavated; the total excavated area of 442.5 sq. m provides the largest subsurface data base associated with an intensive settlement pattern survey in the Hawaiian Islands. The late prehistoric and largely contemporaneous nature of this sample is indicated by 13 radiocarbon age determinations, ranging from A.D. 1650-1820. The possibilities for directly applying ethnohistoric models in the analysis and interpretation of this settlement pattern are enhanced by the protohistoric age of the archaeological landscape. The structure of settlement space at Kawela and Makakupaia Iki is examined from the perspectives of several paradigms, including environmental, social, economic and semiotic. No single paradigm provides an adequate account of the variation and complexity of the settlement landscape; in consort, however, these varied perspectives contribute to an enhanced understanding of the structure of late prehistoric Hawaiian society

  13. Studio dell’evoluzione del popolamento rurale nelle curatorie di Trexenta e Siurgus in età medievale e postmedievale: abbandoni e continuità di vita

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Maily

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate medieval and post-medieval settlements in a central area of Sardinia (Italy). The Middle Ages were the principal formative period for many current rural settlements and yet too little effort has so far been made to analyse and understand the sources, structures, and archaeology of these places and to see them in their landscape context. Core also is the aim to analyse how people lived in these rural areas in period AD 1200-1700 and how th...

  14. SETTLEMENT OF BANKING DISPUTE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denico Doly

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article talks about dispute between costumer and the bank. Settlement of disputes should be resolved by the principle of fast, accurate and cheap. Issues raised in this paper is how an ideal dispute resolution process to resolve dispute banking. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages in any dispute resolution process both through litigation and non litigation. Based in the principles of fast, accurate and cheap it is explained that banks in Indonesia must resolve their disputes through non litigation or ADR. Tulisan ini membicarakan mengenai penyelesaian sengketa antara nasabah dengan bank. Penyelesaian sengketa harusnya diselesaikan dengan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah. Permasalahan yang diangkat dalam tulisan ini yaitu bagaimana proses penyelesaian sengketa yang ideal dalam menyelesaikan sengketa perbankan. Tulisan ini menggambarkan mengenai kelebihan dan kekurangan dalam setiap proses penyelesaian sengketa baik melalui jalur litigasi maupun non litigasi. Berdasarkan prinsip cepat, tepat dan murah maka dipaparkan bahwa perbankan di Indonesia harus menyelesaikan sengketanya melalui jalur non litigasi atau ADR.

  15. How Do We Rebuild a Disaster damaged Heritage Settlement: A study of the Post- Earthquake Reconstruction of the Village of Taoping. A Traditional Qiang Settlement in Sichuan China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    This research is about post-disaster reconstruction of culture heritage settlements, not as an activity but conceptually, by addressing the question of how do we preserve a heritage settlement damaged by disaster? Underpinning that issue is a case study of Taoping Qiang Village. Taoping is a Qiang Minority’s traditional settlement which went through a post-earthquake reconstruction from 2008 to 2011 in Sichuan, China. In my thesis heritage settlement is understood as “lived-in ...

  16. Creating a model in community based disaster risk management for informal settlements : a case of Kanyama Settlement, Lusaka - Zambia / Adrian Phiri

    OpenAIRE

    Phiri, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Informal settlements provide residence to over fifty percent of the urban settlers in many developing nations. These settlements have gained notoriety as hotspots for exposing citizens to a variety of environmental hazards and disasters. Informal settlements are commonly neglected by governments that do not provide them with basic services safe water, adequate sanitation and efficient waste management systems. Furthermore, settlements are often located on fragile lands that are...

  17. Continuity of settlement in counties Limerick and Clare: the role of "ecclesiastical sites" in the formation of settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    There has been a recent surge in research regarding the evolution of Irish settlement. Due to the fact that much of this work focuses on larger towns and cities, the investigation of smaller, less influential settlements has consequently been greatly neglected. One of the themes which has been identified in larger towns in ecclesiastical influence on their development. It can be seen that in the case of large and influential ecclesiastical sites have been the basis for subsequent development....

  18. Romska naselja kot poseben del naselbinskega sistema v Sloveniji = Roma settlements as a specific part of settlement system in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Jernej Zupančič

    2007-01-01

    The paper analyse the Roma-settlements as a specific phenomenon of slovene settlementsystem. Roma people changed their way of life from nomadism to stabile settlement very late(in aftewar period) and remain some specifics in living-standard and have poor opportunitiesfor social integration. That΄s why they have a lot of social problems, as well as confrontationsand conflicts with local neighbours. But the situation is not perspectiveless: helped by localand national factors, some of Roma peop...

  19. SOME ECONOMIC-GEOGRAPHIC FACTORS DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXAMPLE RURAL AREAS NORTHEASTERN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Rajovic

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes some of the economic and geographical factors of rural settlements northeastern Montenegro. Isolated traffic and geographical position adversely affects their economic and social development. Natural characteristics of space indicate that rural economy is not in compliance with all the natural conditions. Incompatibility between the available natural and current conditions of the rural economy is determined by the overall socio-economic factors of development. The percentage decrease in rural population in the municipality of Berane period 1948-2003 amounted to - 0.22%. However, the municipalities of Andrijevica and Plav, show significant deviations from these population dynamics. Thus the percentage decrease in population rural the same period was in the municipality Andrijevica - 49.44%, and the municipality of Plav - 26.8%.The main characteristic of the modern development of rural settlements give industrialization and urbanization processes. Age groups, due to migration and the reduction of fertility change and take on unfavorable characteristics, reduces the proportion of younger and older increases the proportion of the population. . In both cases, the disturbed age structure has a reverse effect on the movement of the population (the size of reproductive contingent, but also to all other structures of the population (the size of contingent employment, population, compulsory school contingent, contingent dependent population ratio. Rating natural conditions aimed at separation of homogenous territorial units with some degree of benefits and limitations for certain types of economic development.

  20. 中国地理学界人居环境研究回顾与展望%Overview and Prospect of Research on Human Settlement of Chinese Geographers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马仁锋; 张文忠; 余建辉; 王岱; 谌丽

    2014-01-01

    settlement demand based on humanism, so as to reflect the different people′s demand dif-ference for a biological suitable settlement in urban environment, the corresponding valuation indicator and sys-tem, and its evolution, and the impact from the residents′socioeconomic attributes. 2)"Space and time"dimen-sion evaluation and sustainable research on urban/rural human settlement in various scales, focusing on the evo-lution and spatial differentiation from the perspective of various scales as city cluster, between cities, within the cities and communities. 3) Expolration and establishing theory and technology route for human settlement evolu-tion research, including detection technology and methods , and data mining measures, and forecasting and emu-lation of regional/urban human settlement evolution process, mechanism and pattern. 4) Research on the con-trol of the human settlement, which will focus on the optimism route, pattern and policy for a sound manage-ment and development on the basis of its evolution′s effect factor, dynamic mechanism and pattern. 5) Estimate the human settlement system service value and establishing suitable human settlement system, including the so-cial economic and cultural value and ecology service value,which are inevitable an important field of human settlement regulating and evaluating system expolration and man-earth law revelation.%人居环境作为人地关系研究的古老而又全新领域,伴随着中国城市化与工业化进程中的环境问题备受地理、建筑、城市规划等学科关注。利用文献计量方法梳理国内地理学16种期刊刊发的180篇有关人居环境研究论文,发现国内研究:①起步晚、发展缓慢,高层次研究成果少且增长慢,以城市内部实证研究为主、理论研究较少;②研究领域主要集中在人居环境的内涵与外延、城市或乡村人居环境评价指标体系与模型、宏观尺度地理环境的宜居性与中观层面城市人

  1. [Evaluation of Brazilian online pharmacies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, Ana Paula Soares; Falcão, Cláudio Borges

    2007-04-01

    The growing number of Internet users brought forth an increase in the search for Brazilian online pharmacy services. Aiming at evaluating the validity of information disseminated in these websites, a descriptive study was carried out in 18 virtual pharmacies concerning legal aspects, accessibility, sources of information and drug advertising. It was found 15 pharmacies did not have authorization of the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency; the manager pharmaceutical officer's name could not be found in 17 of them; 17 pharmacies marketed drugs with no registration, especially herbal medicines, and did not show either information on adverse drug reactions or this agency's alerts and health recommendations. Since health control and drug commerce in Brazilian online pharmacies have not been yet regulated by proper government agencies, these gaps found in the sites can pose risk to the users' health. PMID:17384808

  2. Settlement and stabilization processes in municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text.Landfills remain in the vast majority of cases the most economic form of municipal solid waste disposal. historically, landfill sites have been constructed on large area of land adjacent to urban communities. The continuous growth of these communities pushes urban boundaries towards landfill areas. The development of such areas becomes a necessity particularly near land-limited locations. Such is the case of the city of Beirut. However, the development of completed landfill sites is invariably hindered by settlements due primarily to biodegradation of organic materials within the landfill. The rate and magnitude of landfill settlements are often no-uniform, resulting in differential settlements which can have a devastating effect on the integrity of any structure erected on the landfill. The biodegradation-settlement process is relatively slow and can continue in excess of several decades after landfill closure unless appropriate management practices are implemented in order to enhance biodegradation processes and achieve rapid waste stabilization. Laboratory studies and mathematical modeling are proposed as a means to correlate settlement rates with stabilization processes. Small cells were designed and constructed to evaluate selected managements practices that may enhance biodegradation of typical municipal solid wastes from the Beirut area, and to investigate the effect of seawater intrusion on stabilization processes in coastal landfills such as the Normandy landfill. The laboratory results were used as the basis for the calibration of mathematical models to predict the rate and magnitude of landfill settlements during operation and more importantly after site closure. The combined experimental program and mathematical model allow the evaluation of settlement stabilization processes and the identification of control measures towards safe and rapid development of completed landfills

  3. Brazilian Congress structural balance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Levorato, Mario

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the behavior of Brazilian politicians and political parties with the help of clustering algorithms for signed social networks. For this purpose, we extract and analyze a collection of signed networks representing voting sessions of the lower house of Brazilian National Congress. We process all available voting data for the period between 2011 and 2016, by considering voting similarities between members of the Congress to define weighted signed links. The solutions obtained by solving Correlation Clustering (CC) problems are the basis for investigating deputies voting networks as well as questions about loyalty, leadership, coalitions, political crisis, and social phenomena such as mediation and polarization.

  4. Estado nutricional de crianças menores de dez anos residentes em invasão do "Movimento dos Sem-Terra", Porto Calvo, Alagoas Nutritional status of children ten years of age or under in a settlement organized by the "Landless Peasants' Movement" in Porto Calvo, Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se o perfil nutricional de 357 crianças (1 a 10 anos residentes na Fazenda Conceição, área invadida pelo "Movimento dos Sem-Terra" e recentemente desapropriada pelo INCRA para fins de reforma agrária. As prevalências de déficits nutricionais (Z This study describes the nutritional status of 357 children (0-10 years living in Fazenda Conceição, an area occupied by the "Landless Peasants' Movement" and recently expropriated for land reform purposes by the Brazilian National Institute for Land Settlement and Agrarian Reform. The prevalence of nutritional deficits (Z < -2 standard deviations from the NCHS median anthropometric standard relating to body- weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body-weight-for-height were the following, respectively: 19.6%, 39.8%, and 2%, thus higher than the figures published recently for the rural areas of the State of Alagoas as a whole (8.4%, 22.7%, and 1.3%. These findings suggest that children are these affected by dwarfism. Despite this condition being widely acknowledged as one of the most visible manifestations of malnutrtion in developing countries, it is important to stress that the concentration of land tenure, an integral part of the income-concentrating development model adopted by Brazil, is also a major factor in determining such a health profile. There is thus an urgent need for policy-makers to reallocate resources for immediate intervention in such farm communities, in order to reduce the dire consequences of a situation of this magnitude.

  5. Brazilian Mothers' Socialization Goals: Intracultural Differences in Seven Brazilian Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl-de-Moura, Maria Lucia; Lordelo, Eulina; Vieira, Mauro Luis; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto; Siqueira, Jose de Oliveira; Magalhaes, Celina Maria Colino; Pontes, Fernando Augusto Ramos; Salomao, Nadia Maria; Rimoli, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate Brazilian mothers' socialization goals. The participants in the study were 349 primiparous mothers, whose ages ranged from 17 to 47 years (mean = 26.6 years), who had children aged between 1 and 48 months (mean = 16.4 months). The families were living in seven different cities representing each of the five…

  6. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place......” and “space” from human geography are applied to develop a nuanced understanding of rural entrepreneurship as a spatial phenomenon. Space consists of processes of movement and mobility, while places consist of localized material, social and economic relations. Findings: Two ideal types are developed, namely...... (i) entrepreneurship in the rural and (ii) rural entrepreneurship. The former represents entrepreneurial activities that have limited embeddedness and enact a profit-oriented and mobile logic of space. The latter represents entrepreneurial activities that leverage local resources to re-connect place...

  7. Geospatial and Remote Sensing-based Indicators of Settlement Type---Differentiating Informal and Formal Settlements in Guatemala City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Karen K.

    This research addresses the need for reliable, repeatable, quantitative measures to differentiate informal (slum) from formal (planned) settlements using commercial very high resolution imagery and elevation data. Measuring the physical, spatial and spectral qualities of informal settlements is an important precursor for evaluating success toward improving the lives of 100 million slum dwellers worldwide, as pledged by the United Nations Millennium Development Goal Target 7D. A variety of measures were tested based on surface material spectral properties, texture, built-up structure, road network accessibility, and geomorphology from twelve communities in Guatemala City to reveal statistically significant differences between informal and formal settlements that could be applied to other parts of the world without the need for costly or dangerous field surveys. When information from satellite imagery is constrained to roads and residential boundaries, a more precise understanding of human habitation is produced. A classification and regression tree (CART) approach and linear discriminant function analysis enabled a variable dimensionality reduction from the original 23 to 6 variables that are sufficient to differentiate a settlement as informal or formal. The results demonstrate that the entropy texture of roads, the degree of asphalt road surface, the vegetation patch compactness and patch size, the percent of bare soil land cover, the geomorphic profile convexity of the terrain, and the road density distinguish informal from formal settlements with 87--92% accuracy when results are cross-validated. The variables with highest contribution to model outcome that are common to both approaches are entropy texture of roads, vegetation patch size, and vegetation compactness suggesting that road texture, surface materials and vegetation provide the necessary characteristics to distinguish the level of informality of a settlement. The results will assist urban planners and

  8. Demographics and the Rural Ethos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the meaning of "rural" and identifies 31 states having a significant rural character. Discusses certain generalizations about rural America. Provides a demographic analysis with school finance implications. Draws implications for rural school finance policy. (Contains 3 tables.)(PKP)

  9. Transition from weekly to daily settlement of regulating power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system of regulating electrical power market is explained. The Norwegian regulating power market has a yearly turnover of 8 TWh worth 2 billion NOK. The settlement in the regulating power market is presently conducted on a weekly basis. Most other types of settlements in the current power market are settled daily. In total there are 256 parties involved in the (Norwegian) regulating power market, of which 137 are balance responsible and 139 companies responsible for the hour-value reports. An analysis of positive and negative effects is made through interviews with a selection of representatives from the power market, including Statnett, trade companies, network companies and IT system suppliers. Positive and negative aspects are illuminated, and the conclusion drawn that the current system of weekly settlements is preferred with today's technology. Four different models of daily settlement are compared, including the Swedish model of preliminary settlement. NVE is encouraged to conduct further investigations on improvements in the area of swift, exact and equal access to meter data

  10. Abandoned pastoral settlements provide concentrations of resources for savanna birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderström, Bo; Reid, Robin S.

    2010-03-01

    Knowledge is poor of how fertilization affects birds in grasslands. We investigated the impact on birds of abandoned pastoral settlements that historically received very high levels of livestock dung. A total of 28 abandoned settlements and 74 landscape controls - in Koyake Group Ranch and Maasai Mara National Reserve in Kenya - were surveyed for birds during the wet and/or dry season. Our results showed that bird species richness and total abundance increased within 200 m of abandoned pastoral settlements, particularly during the dry season when foraging resources on the savanna are limited. The high concentrations of nutrients inside abandoned settlements favoured the abundance of Diptera and Coleoptera, as shown by invertebrate surveys performed during the dry season on a subset of 32 sites. Both total numbers and dry biomass of these two invertebrate orders were higher on abandoned settlements in comparison with the surrounding landscape. We conclude that higher fertilization levels cause a temporal and spatial redistribution of birds on the savanna. Livestock fertilization and bird abundance are probably linked through an increase in abundance of invertebrate food upon which birds feed in an opportunistic fashion.

  11. Rural Logistics System Based on Rural Informatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Current status of rural informatization construction in China,including the relatively weak rural informatization,asymmetric market information,low level of information sharing,dispersedly allocated resources and no cross point among each other are analyzed.The importance of informatization in rural logistic system is introduced:firstly,decision making of logistics system plan is based on information.Secondly,improvement of the overall efficiency of logistics system is based on information.Thirdly,logistics transmission takes the Internet as the carrier.Necessity of rural logistics system is discussed from five aspects of increasing the employment of farmers,enhancing the income of farmers,reducing the blindness of agricultural production and circulation,sharing the risks of agricultural management,and promoting the rural economic restructuring.According to the above five steps,five countermeasures are posed in order to improve the rural logistics system.The countermeasures cover the aspects of deepening the information awareness of government,establishing a rural informatization system suited to the national condition of China,strengthening the information infrastructure in rural areas,promoting the integration of rural information resources and establishing the training system for agricultural information talents.

  12. The Brazilian nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The booklet contains survey articles on the nuclear power problems of Brazil, the German-Brazilian nuclear power agreement, the application of international safety measures, and 'Brazil and the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons'. The agreement is given in full wording. (HP)

  13. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  14. Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhout van Solinge, T.

    2015-01-01

    This essay takes a (green) criminological and multidisciplinary perspective on deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon, by focusing on the crimes and damages that are associated with Amazonian deforestation. The analysis and results are partly based on longer ethnographic stays in North Brazil (Amazon

  15. Gramscian Thought and Brazilian Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    In the history of Brazilian education, it is only since the 1980s, during the redemocratization of Brazil, that proposals for public education in a socialist perspective have been presented. The past two decades have been marked by a growing interest in Gramscian thought, mainly in the educational field, making possible the elaboration of…

  16. The Brazilian sugarcane innovation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethanol has recently been of great interest worldwide because it is a viable economic alternative to petroleum products and it is a renewable source of energy that mitigates the emission of greenhouse gases. Brazilian bioethanol from sugarcane is the most successful case at the world level because of its low cost and low level of greenhouse gas emissions. Brazil's success with sugarcane cannot be understood as based solely on a natural comparative advantage, but as a result of efforts that culminated in a positive trajectory of technological learning, relying mostly on incremental innovations. The purpose of this article is to analyze the key aspects of the innovation system built around the Brazilian sugarcane industry. It is based on the national innovation systems approach according to which innovation results from the interaction of different institutional actors. Institutional arrangements are analyzed as the basis for the innovative process, in particular R and D and the innovation policies and strategies of the main players in the sugarcane sector, including sugar and ethanol mills, industrial goods suppliers, public and private research institutions, and governmental agencies. - Research Highlights: → The Brazilian success in bioethanol is due to the sugarcane innovation system. → Private funds for R and D became central after IAA closure. → Nowadays Brazilian innovation system is transforming to keep its leadership. → Public funds for research in the second generation bioethanol.

  17. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Rossy de Brito

    Full Text Available This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i with computers and Internet access, (ii with mobile phones, and (iii with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources.

  18. Concentration of Access to Information and Communication Technologies in the Municipalities of the Brazilian Legal Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Silvana Rossy; da Silva, Aleksandra do Socorro; Cruz, Adejard Gaia; Monteiro, Maurílio de Abreu; Vijaykumar, Nandamudi Lankalapalli; da Silva, Marcelino Silva; Costa, João Crisóstomo Weyl Albuquerque; Francês, Carlos Renato Lisboa

    2016-01-01

    This study fills demand for data on access and use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the Brazilian legal Amazon, a region of localities with identical economic, political, and social problems. We use the 2010 Brazilian Demographic Census to compile data on urban and rural households (i) with computers and Internet access, (ii) with mobile phones, and (iii) with fixed phones. To compare the concentration of access to ICT in the municipalities of the Brazilian Amazon with other regions of Brazil, we use a concentration index to quantify the concentration of households in the following classes: with computers and Internet access, with mobile phones, with fixed phones, and no access. These data are analyzed along with municipal indicators on income, education, electricity, and population size. The results show that for urban households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access and for fixed phones is lower than in other regions of the country; meanwhile, that for no access and mobile phones is higher than in any other region. For rural households, the average concentration in the municipalities of the Amazon for computers and Internet access, mobile phones, and fixed phones is lower than in any other region of the country; meanwhile, that for no access is higher than in any other region. In addition, the study shows that education and income are determinants of inequality in accessing ICT in Brazilian municipalities and that the existence of electricity in rural households is directly associated with the ownership of ICT resources. PMID:27035577

  19. Landscape planning for Ukrainian rural communities: challenges, outputs, prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant number of economic, social and environmental problems have accumulated in all areas of Ukraine and pose a serious obstacle to sustainable development. Those problems are particularly acute in the rural areas. The local rural communities in Ukraine have the lowest indicators of economic development, significant social problems, including particularly acute demographic and employment problems, and an unfavorable ecological situation caused by poor municipal infrastructure, land degradation, etc. The vast majority of the rural communities in Ukraine have no plans for their own territories’ development. In such circumstances, the introduction of landscape planning tools is an effective means of identifying the existing development problems and environmental management issues, as well as of defining the best ways for the integrated development of the local rural communities. A number of reasons prevents introduction of such planning in Ukraine, including the flaws in the legislation, lack of interest among managers of rural communities and low activity of local people on the issues which determine the future of their settlements. However, there are examples of successful implementation of landscape planning tools in designing of the plans of rural communities’ development. The authors were a part of the team which, for the first time in Ukraine, undertook this research in the Stepanetsky rural council in Cherkassy region. The results of the research have been welcomed by the management, the residence and the members of the village council and they are being practically implemented. The foregoing demonstrates the relevance and feasibility of landscape planning tools implementation in Ukraine directed at addressing and resolving the problems of the rural communities.

  20. Study on influence of ground settlement in bored metro tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jiang-hua; ZHANG Zhi-hong

    2006-01-01

    At present the bored construction method is one of the main construction methods of metro and tunnel construction in China. The empirical estimated formulas of tunnel ground surface settlement using the bored construction method were obtained,combining the mechanical stimulant calculated result of tunnel model of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method and the actual measurement data of Beijing metro construction. According to the regressed analysis of calculated data, the calculated equations of ground surface settlement value and settlement range of tunnel section under the condition of different embedded depth, different cross section and different construction method were gained. Among them there are some empirical formulas can apply to the construction design ofmetro tunnel directly.

  1. Global Human Settlement Analysis for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, M.; Ehrlich, D.; Ferri, S.; Florczyk, A.; Freire, S.; Haag, F.; Halkia, M.; Julea, A. M.; Kemper, T.; Soille, P.

    2015-04-01

    The Global Human Settlement Layer (GHSL) is supported by the European Commission, Joint Research Center (JRC) in the frame of his institutional research activities. Scope of GHSL is developing, testing and applying the technologies and analysis methods integrated in the JRC Global Human Settlement analysis platform for applications in support to global disaster risk reduction initiatives (DRR) and regional analysis in the frame of the European Cohesion policy. GHSL analysis platform uses geo-spatial data, primarily remotely sensed and population. GHSL also cooperates with the Group on Earth Observation on SB-04-Global Urban Observation and Information, and various international partners andWorld Bank and United Nations agencies. Some preliminary results integrating global human settlement information extracted from Landsat data records of the last 40 years and population data are presented.

  2. Probabilistic Modeling of Settlement Risk at Land Disposal Facilities - 12304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term reliability of land disposal facility final cover systems - and therefore the overall waste containment - depends on the distortions imposed on these systems by differential settlement/subsidence. The evaluation of differential settlement is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the waste mass (caused by inconsistent compaction, void space distribution, debris-soil mix ratio, waste material stiffness, time-dependent primary compression of the fine-grained soil matrix, long-term creep settlement of the soil matrix and the debris, etc.) at most land disposal facilities. Deterministic approaches to long-term final cover settlement prediction are not able to capture the spatial variability in the waste mass and sub-grade properties which control differential settlement. An alternative, probabilistic solution is to use random fields to model the waste and sub-grade properties. The modeling effort informs the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of land disposal facilities. A probabilistic method to establish design criteria for waste placement and compaction is introduced using the model. Random fields are ideally suited to problems of differential settlement modeling of highly heterogeneous foundations, such as waste. Random fields model the seemingly random spatial distribution of a design parameter, such as compressibility. When used for design, the use of these models prompts the need for probabilistic design criteria. It also allows for a statistical approach to waste placement acceptance criteria. An example design evaluation was performed, illustrating the use of the probabilistic differential settlement simulation methodology to assemble a design guidance chart. The purpose of this design evaluation is to enable the designer to select optimal initial combinations of design slopes and quality control acceptance criteria that yield an acceptable proportion of post-settlement slopes meeting some design minimum. For this specific

  3. A Multi-Scale Settlement Matching Algorithm Based on ARG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Han; Zhu, Xinyan; Chen, Di; Liu, Lingjia

    2016-06-01

    Homonymous entity matching is an important part of multi-source spatial data integration, automatic updating and change detection. Considering the low accuracy of existing matching methods in dealing with matching multi-scale settlement data, an algorithm based on Attributed Relational Graph (ARG) is proposed. The algorithm firstly divides two settlement scenes at different scales into blocks by small-scale road network and constructs local ARGs in each block. Then, ascertains candidate sets by merging procedures and obtains the optimal matching pairs by comparing the similarity of ARGs iteratively. Finally, the corresponding relations between settlements at large and small scales are identified. At the end of this article, a demonstration is presented and the results indicate that the proposed algorithm is capable of handling sophisticated cases.

  4. Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien Beguy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures migration flows and determinants in two slum settlements in Nairobi City between 2003 and 2007. The results confirm the high intensity of migration with a quarter of the total slum population and a third of those aged 15-30 being renewed annually. A circular migration system is at play whereby the majority of slum dwellers are short-term migrants spending on average less than 3 years in the area. Migration is more intense during early adulthood (20-24, and despite very similar determinants across gender, mobility is more intense among women compared to men. The increasing feminization of migration is likely to change the face of slum settlements, resulting in more balanced sex ratios, in line with city-wide trends in Nairobi over the past half century. The high population turnover is due to the insecurity of livelihoods, tenure, and poor basic amenities and social services in slum settlements.

  5. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  6. Rural People with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Rural Rental Housing Program, which provides direct mortgage loans for the development of congregate housing or ... Copyright@ 2002–2016 Rural Health Information Hub. All rights reserved. About RHIhub | Contact Us Accessibility | Disclaimer | Privacy ...

  7. Rural Health Information Hub

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical health. Talking Rural Opioid Use at the United Nations: Q&A with Holly Andrilla Rural health researcher ... issues based on her experience presenting to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime in Vienna, Austria. ...

  8. SUICIDE IN RURAL COMMUNITY

    OpenAIRE

    Hedge, R. S.

    1980-01-01

    SUMMARY 51 suicides in a rural community of Northern Karnataka were studied for incidence, age and sex distribution, methods adopted for suicides, and causes of suicides. Suicides in rural area did not show any difference from urban suicide pattern.

  9. Seroprevalence of Orthopoxvirus in rural Brazil: insights into anti-OPV immunity status and its implications for emergent zoonotic OPV

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Galileu Barbosa; Augusto, Lídia Teodoro Santos; Leite, Juliana Almeida; Ferreira, Paulo César Peregrino; Bonjardim, Cláudio Antônio; Abrahão, Jônatas Santos; Kroon, Erna Geessien; Moreno, Elizabeth Castro; Trindade, Giliane de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Background Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus, a virus from Orthopoxvirus genus (OPV) that affects mainly cattle herds and humans in rural areas in Brazil. Because most studies have focused on outbreaks situations, data on BV epidemiology is limited. A cross sectional study in Brazilian rural areas during 2012–2013 was conducted to determine the neutralizing antibodies seroprevalence and risk factors for BV. Methods A structured questionnaire was applied to elicit dem...

  10. Seasonal thaw settlement at drained thermokarst lake basins, Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Schaefer, K.; Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Zhang, T.; Parsekian, A. D.; Zebker, H. A.

    2014-05-01

    Drained thermokarst lake basins (DTLBs) are ubiquitous landforms on Arctic tundra lowland. Their dynamic states are seldom investigated, despite their importance for landscape stability, hydrology, nutrient fluxes, and carbon cycling. Here we report results based on high-resolution Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) measurements using space-borne data for a study area located on the North Slope of Alaska near Prudhoe Bay, where we focus on the seasonal thaw settlement within DTLBs, averaged between 2006 and 2010. The majority (14) of the 18 DTLBs in the study area exhibited seasonal thaw settlement of 3-4 cm. However, four of the DTLBs examined exceeded 4 cm of thaw settlement, with one basin experiencing up to 12 cm. Combining the InSAR observations with the in situ active layer thickness measured using ground penetrating radar and mechanical probing, we calculated thaw strain, an index of thaw settlement strength along a transect across the basin that underwent large thaw settlement. We found thaw strains of 10-35% at the basin center, suggesting the seasonal melting of ground ice as a possible mechanism for the large settlement. These findings emphasize the dynamic nature of permafrost landforms, demonstrate the capability of the InSAR technique to remotely monitor surface deformation of individual DTLBs, and illustrate the combination of ground-based and remote sensing observations to estimate thaw strain. Our study highlights the need for better description of the spatial heterogeneity of landscape-scale processes for regional assessment of surface dynamics on Arctic coastal lowlands.

  11. Value chain dynamics, settlement trajectories and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fold, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Global value chain (GVC) analysis has little to say about the interaction between regions and global chain dynamics. However, recent calls to address broader development issues have resulted in efforts to incorporate a spatial dimension in GVC analysis. Addressing this issue, the paper argues that...... GVC analysis needs to be combined with the examination of livelihoods at settlement level. Livelihood diversification – or lack thereof – indicates particular settlement trajectories that constitute regional development pathways. It is also suggested that the understanding of how regions are shaped by...

  12. Initial settlements of rock fills on soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Truls Martens

    2012-01-01

    Rock fills that hit the seabed will remold the underlying material. If this material is a clay with sufficiently low shear strength, it will adopt rheological properties, causing flow through the rock fill, and contributing to the initial settlements of the rock fill in addition to conventional consolidation theory. The settlements of the rocks depend upon the height of the rock fill and how the rocks have been laid out. This is due to the viscosity of the clay, and the fact that clay is thix...

  13. Rural Education Issues: Rural Administrators Speak Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julia; Nierengarten, Gerry

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the issues that most affect Minnesota's rural public school administrators as they attempt to fulfill the mandates required from state legislation and communities. A second purpose was to identify exemplary practices valued by individual Minnesota rural schools and districts. Electronic surveys were sent…

  14. America's Rural Information Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Caille John, Patricia

    The Rural Information Center (RIC), a project of two agencies of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has served rural information needs since 1988. The targeted audience for the RIC is local officials and citizens, rather than scientists and federal officials, and the thrust of its information is rural development rather than production…

  15. THE CYCLE OF ANTHROPIC RURAL LANDSCAPE IN GIURGEU DEPRESSION. SPATIAL-TEMPORAL EVOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Apostol

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic and cultural development as well as communications led to expansion of relations between individuals and social groups, strengthening the consciousness of unity and common destiny, without diminishing the zonal/ local differences, peculiarities that are kept in time. Types and territorial distribution of rural and ethnographic landscapes are governed by natural resources, demographics and the economic factors. The evolution of the human factor over time, changes in structure and swarming of human settlements, general management for economic purposes, gave rise to a variety of rural / ethnographic landscapes in Giurgeu Depression.

  16. An Outline of the Evolution of Rural Cultural Landscapes in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KRZYSZTOF KORELESKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines the evolution of rural cultural landscapes in Poland against the background of landscape classification. It defines cultural landscape types and subtypes, based on several criteria of landscape classification, such as: genetic, morphological, functional, and economic. A review of rural landscapes, based on genetic criteria, considers the following historical periods: the primeval community, the feudalism, the manorial system, the industrial revolution, the interwar period of 1918 – 1939, the period of socialist economy, and market economy. The processes that most significantly influenced the contemporary shape of the rural landscape occurred just after the Second World War: urbanization and industrialization, settlement in western and northern territories, as well as structural and spatial transformations that took place after the year 1989 related to the promotion of sustainable and multifunctional development of rural areas.

  17. 77 FR 23278 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    .... Grace & Co., Case No. 01-01139 (JFK). The proposed Settlement Agreement would resolve the United States... (JFK), and D.J. Ref. No. 90-11-2-07106/5. During the public comment period, the settlement...

  18. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund...

  19. Spatial analysis of radiocesium food contamination in rural settlements of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of 53207 records of cesium 137 contents in 83 types of food products obtained in 1993 in Belarus was carried out. Internal exposure from intake of eight selected food components has been estimated. To map the non-uniformly distributed data, different geostatistical approaches are used. The results of spatial analysis of long term internal dose loads on populations under high radiation risk can be used in decision making. (authors). 9 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  20. Bedbug infestation and its control practices in Gbajimba: a rural settlement in Benue state, Nigeri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Omudu , C.N. Kus

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The common bedbug Cimex lectularius Linnaeus 1758 (Hemiptera:Cimicidae is a globally re-emerging pest of serious public health concern. We investigated bedbuginfestation in randomly selected apartments in Gbajimba community in Guma Local Governmentarea in Benue state, Nigeria.Methods: Beddings and furniture (bed frames, pillows, mattresses, cushion chairs, mats, mosquitonets and bamboo beds were thoroughly inspected for bedbug infestation using the hand-pickingtechnique. Data were analysed using chi-square analysis for differences in the infestation levels inharbourages and sampling locations.Results: Only 16% of the apartments investigated showed no evidence of bedbug infestation asegg cases and faecal marks were sighted in 62.2% of apartments surveyed. The highest infestationrate was observed in Angwan Jukun area and infestation here was higher compared to other studylocations within the town though the difference was not statistically significant (2 = 7.92, df = 6,p >0.05. Bamboo beds harboured the highest number of bedbugs collected, accounting for 35.8%,while other harbourages like iron bed frames and sleeping mats had 23 and 22.7% infestationrates respectively. The infestation rates in these household items were significantly higher thanother items inspected (2 = 11.8, df = 4, p > 0.05.Interpretation & conclusion: This study demonstrates the urgent need for identification of evidencesof infestation and bedbug management involving community participation in inspection, detectionand education, including physical removal and exclusion as well as pesticide application.

  1. Focusing on dissociated motor development in Brazilian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minami Maria Avanise Yumi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissociated motor development (DMD is considered when the baby starts independent walking late, with normality of the other fields of development. There is evidence that babies with DMD present an atypical crawling pattern and hypotonia. To investigate the frequency and characteristics of DMD, neurological examination was performed monthly in 177 healthy full-term babies from 6 months age, in urban and rural zone samples in Brazil. Among 20 children with atypical crawling, none presented hypotonia neither did they start independent walking late. The means of the ages at the begining of atypical crawling and independent walking acquisitions, 7.40mo (SD 1.4 and 12.76mo (SD 2.5 respectively, did not differ from the group with crossed crawling pattern. Thus, in this sample of Brazilian healthy children we did not find cases with DMD.

  2. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  3. Settlement, territory and notarial formulas: a verification (Verona, IX-XII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brugnoli

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The organization of rural areas in early Middle Ages and its observability through techniques of location taken by notaries is a classic italian subject in the historiography in the second half of the 20th century. The documentation produced in Verona lend to a verify of the ipothesis and to the formulation of guidelines for the interpretation of this formulas as concerning settlement and village territory. The number of documents produced and preserved in Verona between 9th and 12th century, and its homogeneity as institutions which produced and trasmitted them, allows to deal with a complex analysis that must consider several others variables. On the hand of documentation it deals with the possible variety, up to personal practice, of notary’s formulas and uses; these are then linked on to differences on geographic patterns, ownership relations, landlords presence and agrarian practices. The variety of geographical context, equally divided between a hill of significant size, a dry and irrigated high plain and the lowlands subject to flood, is proposed as a positive element to identify different factors in the building of rural settlement, its organization and rapresentations. It is assumed that these formulas are developed into patterns resulting by a dialectic between notary’s culture and perception of the space organization, which should be the resulting in the relationship between human communities and the territory where these act. The aim is highlighting factors which were found to underlie the formation of village territories. This is the level more elusive and less considered by italian historiography that has traditionally focused on the jurisdictional (both landlord and ecclesiastical or fiscal one and therefore the relationship between power and territory. The comparative reading of location practice as a system of relations between the words – elaborated by a topographic level diachronic as well as synchronous – allows

  4. Gradišča – odsevi prazgodovinske poselitve / Hillforts – reflections of prehistoric settlement

    OpenAIRE

    Mitja Guštin

    2011-01-01

    Hillforts are generally fortified settlements situated on hilltops. Theyare characterised by large stone earthworks containing carefullybuilt walls in drywall technique; they can also be settlements fortifiedwith earthen entrenchments in combination with wooden palisades.Since the Copper Age hillforts have represented a reflection of specificprehistoric settlement n the varied Slovenian landscape. The mainperiod of their existence is the Early Iron Age. The memory of adistant settlement is mi...

  5. Improving Housing Durability in Deprived Settlements of Lagos Megacity through Ingenuous Use of Sustainable Indigenous Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony C.O. Iweka; Anthony K. Adebayo

    2011-01-01

    The challenge of housing delivery in many developing nations is exacerbated by the predominance of deprived settlements, according to recent publications of the United Nations Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat). In Nigeria, 30% of its urban population is currently living in Lagos megacity. The Lagos megacity region plays host to more than 200 officially recognized slum settlements. Going by the United Nations’ adopted definition, these settlements harbour households that suffer from lack of ac...

  6. Indonesia; CPSS-IOSCO Recommendations for Securities Settlement Systems: The Equity and Corporate Bonds Securities Settlement Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the joint IMF–World Bank Indonesia Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) undertaken during 2009– 10. The assessment was conducted on processes and functions, as opposed to institutions and with the cooperation of the Bapepam-LK, the Bank Indonesia. It was found that the legal framework governing the clearing and settlement operations of the equity and corporate bond market supports some, but not all, of the key elements of the clearing and settlement ...

  7. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. da Silva Pinto Vieira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 57% of the Brazilian Northeast region is recognized as semiarid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the eleven driving factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index (HDI, conservation units which were model-simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions, representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The result indicates that 94% of the Brazilian Northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.35 km2 from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provide the technical basis for decision making that involves mitigating actions, as well as the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  8. Identifying areas susceptible to desertification in the Brazilian northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R. M. S. P.; Tomasella, J.; Alvalá, R. C. S.; Sestini, M. F.; Affonso, A. G.; Rodriguez, D. A.; Barbosa, A. A.; Cunha, A. P. M. A.; Valles, G. F.; Crepani, E.; de Oliveira, S. B. P.; de Souza, M. S. B.; Calil, P. M.; de Carvalho, M. A.; Valeriano, D. M.; Campello, F. C. B.; Santana, M. O.

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 57% of the Brazilian northeast region is recognized as semi-arid land and has been undergoing intense land use processes in the last decades, which have resulted in severe degradation of its natural assets. Therefore, the objective of this study is to identify the areas that are susceptible to desertification in this region based on the 11 influencing factors of desertification (pedology, geology, geomorphology, topography data, land use and land cover change, aridity index, livestock density, rural population density, fire hot spot density, human development index, conservation units) which were simulated for two different periods: 2000 and 2010. Each indicator were assigned weights ranging from 1 to 2 (representing the best and the worst conditions), representing classes indicating low, moderate and high susceptibility to desertification. The results indicate that 94% of the Brazilian northeast region is under moderate to high susceptibility to desertification. The areas that were susceptible to soil desertification increased by approximately 4.6% (83.4 km2) from 2000 to 2010. The implementation of the methodology provides the technical basis for decision-making that involves mitigating actions and the first comprehensive national assessment within the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification framework.

  9. A brief overview of Sino-Brazilian relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hinia Lan Wan

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the Sino-Brazilian relations approaching a Brazilian perspective and outlines bilateral trade features,challenges and opportunities.It is basically a reflection after analyzes on the existing literature related to Brazilian foreign rela

  10. 75 FR 423 - Notice of Availability: HUD Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Availability: HUD Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) Handbook... revised special information booklet (Booklet) pursuant to the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA) requirement in 12 U.S.C. Sec. 2604. The Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (RESPA) (12 U.S.C....

  11. 75 FR 71724 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Solicitation of Information on Changes in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... real interest of the settlement lender.'' (See 57 FR at 49609; ``settlement lender'' later changed to... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Solicitation of Information on Changes... currently operates within residential real estate mortgage transactions. HUD welcomes input from...

  12. 42 CFR 93.410 - Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...

  13. 42 CFR 93.411 - Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...

  14. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... entered into four (4) settlements for past response costs concerning the Florida Petroleum Reprocessors... settlement are available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida...

  15. Conservation and tourism development of house settlements in Moso matriarchate in Lugu Lake area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaoyun XING; Zhujiu XIA; Jian DAI

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the present situation of the settlement and the influence of tourism development and construction. It discusses the attitude toward the conservation and development of the settlement as well as the way to maintain the production, life, and culture of the Mosian and the way to promote the sustainable development of the settlement by tourism.

  16. 75 FR 79393 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Liability Act Notice is hereby given that on December 14, 2010, a proposed Garland Road Consent Decree and Settlement Agreement (``Garland Road Settlement Agreement'') in the bankruptcy matter, Motors Liquidation... Garland Road Settlement Agreement are debtors Motors Liquidation Corporation, formerly known as...

  17. Protection of World Heritage Settlements and their surroundings : factors affecting management policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Leitao, Leticia M. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly urbanised world, historic settlements have been facing tremendous urbanisation and development pressures. In this context, historic settlements included on the World Heritage List ought to be flagships for urban conservation. This dissertation investigates how effectively the existing protection and management policies under the World Heritage Convention contribute to the protection of historic urban settlements and especially their surroundings. The fa...

  18. 26 CFR 1.468B-2 - Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxation of qualified settlement funds and... Taken § 1.468B-2 Taxation of qualified settlement funds and related administrative requirements. (a) In...) of this section is in lieu of any other taxation of the income of a qualified settlement fund...

  19. 31 CFR 539.703 - Response to prepenalty notice; informal settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DESTRUCTION TRADE CONTROL REGULATIONS Penalties § 539.703 Response to prepenalty notice; informal settlement...; informal settlement. 539.703 Section 539.703 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... proposed. (c) Informal settlement. In addition or as an alternative to a written response to a...

  20. Ramet demography of a nurse bromeliad in Brazilian restingas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Michelle C; Picó, F Xavier; Scarano, Fabio R

    2005-04-01

    Restingas are sandy coastal plains that stand between the sea and the Brazilian Atlantic forest mountains. The predominant restinga vegetation type in northern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is characterized by the formation of islands that begins with colonization by some pioneer herbs and/or woody plants. Pioneer plants are stress-resistant and nurse many other less-resistant plant species. Determining the spatiotemporal variation in the dynamics of nurse plants is essential to understand the ecological functioning of restingas as a whole. The goal of this study was to analyze the spatiotemporal variation in population dynamics of the nurse bromeliad Aechmea nudicaulis. We monitored A. nudicaulis ramets in different habitats, microhabitats, and years. We analyzed the spatiotemporal variation in demographic traits and in population growth rate. Results showed young ramet traits were more variable at the microhabitat level, and when variable, vegetative ramet traits varied at all spatiotemporal scales. Overall, λ values indicated that A. nudicaulis basically remained spatiotemporally stable as most of the λ values did not significantly differ from unity. Hence, the stability of A. nudicaulis in different microhabitats and habitats in the restinga may create several settlement opportunities for many other less-resistant species. PMID:21652445

  1. Balance Responsibility and Imbalance Settlement in Northern Europe: An Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Veen, R.A.C.; Hakvoort, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    In liberalized power markets, balance responsibility and imbalance settlement are two closely related elements that constitute the heart of a balancing market (which is actually an institutional arrangement establishing market-based balancing). This paper aims to compare balance responsibility and i

  2. Class Action and Class Settlement in a European Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the options for introducing common European rules on class action lawsuits with an opt-out-model in individual cases. An analysis is made of how the risks of misuse of class actions can be prevented. The article considers the Dutch rules on class settlements (the WCAM procedure...

  3. Immigrants' Labour Market Experiences in the Early Settlement Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandenHeuvel, Adriana; Wooden, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examination of the labor market experiences of three waves of recent immigrants to Australia in their early settlement years confirms that labor market outcomes improve over time as their length of residence increases. Labor force participation was greater for those who entered Australia for business reasons than for those entering for…

  4. 17 CFR 166.5 - Dispute settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) The agreement may not require any customer to waive the right to seek reparations under section 14 of... organization selected. A customer's failure to provide such notice shall give the opposing party the right to... maintain an account with . See 17 CFR 166.5. (d) Enforceability. A dispute settlement procedure may...

  5. Interaction, Language Learning and Social Inclusion in Early Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    While first language social networks offer immigrants practical and emotional support in the early period of their settlement in a new country, the development of social networks through English is crucial at this time not only for the acquisition of the linguistic and social capital vital to their long-term advancement, but also for the…

  6. 46 CFR 326.6 - Settlement of claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY MARINE PROTECTION AND INDEMNITY INSURANCE UNDER AGREEMENTS WITH AGENTS § 326.6 Settlement of claims. (a) After ascertaining from MARAD the availability of funds, the Agent is authorized to settle individual claims of a P&I...

  7. Pastoral Settlement. Farming and Hierarchy in Norse Vatnahverfi, South Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Koch

    farming system relied on extensive land use practices organized around shielings, and apparently after unique Greenlandic patterns. A population estimate based on these settlement patterns implies an average population in Vatnahverfi of only ca. 225-550 people, and an average maximum population of ca...

  8. The competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Luiz Gustavo Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    This thesis proposes a construct to measure the competitiveness of Brazilian tourist destinations and orient the actions of public and private tourism managers. The model of this study is based on a relevant literature review, a panel with specialists that have expertise in Brazilian tourism and field research. The investigation was carried out in 15 Brazilian tourist cities, representative of the socioeconomic diversity that characterises the heterogeneity of a developing country. The result...

  9. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Estêvão C. Gamba; Abel Laerte Packer; Rogerio Meneghini

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to inter...

  10. Permeability measuremens of brazilian Eucalyptus

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Rogério da Silva; Gilmara de Oliveira Machado; Jay Deiner; Carlito Calil Junior

    2010-01-01

    The permeability of Brazilian Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora wood was measured in a custom build gas analysis chamber in order to determine which species could be successfully treated with preservatives. Liquid permeability was tested using an emulsion of Neen oil and a control of distillated water. Air was used to test the gas phase permeability. For both Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus citriodora, the longitudinal permeability of gas was shown to be about twice as great as t...

  11. History of settlement of villages from Central Tunisia by studying families sharing a common founder Glycogenosis type III mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Faten Ben; Messai, Habib; Hsouna, Sana; Halim, Nizar Ben; Cherif, Wafa; Fadhel, Sihem Ben; Tiar, Afaf; Nagara, Majdi; Azzouz, Hatem; Sfar, Mohamed-Tahar; Dridi, Marie-Françoise Ben; Tebib, Neji; Ayadi, Abdelkarim; Abdelhak, Sonia; Kefi, Rym

    2016-09-01

    Glycogen storage disease type III (GSD III; Cori disease; Forbes disease) is an autosomal recessive inherited metabolic disorder resulting from deficient glycogen debrancher enzyme activity in liver and muscle. In this study, we focused on a single AGL gene mutation p.W1327X in 16 Tunisian patients from rural area surrounding the region of Mahdia in Central Tunisia. This constitutes the largest pool of patients with this mutation ever described. This study was performed to trace the history of the patients' ancestries in a single region. After extraction of genomic DNA, exon 31 of AGL gene was sequenced. The patients were investigated for the hypervariable segment 1 of mitochondrial DNA and 17 Y-STR markers. We found that the p.W1327X mutation was a founder mutation in Tunisia Analysis of maternal lineages shows an admixture of autochthonous North African, sub-Saharan and a predominance of Eurasian haplogroups. Heterogeneity of maternal haplogroups indicates an ancient settlement. However, paternal gene flow was highly homogeneous and originates from the Near East. We hypothesize that the p.W1327X mutation was introduced into the Tunisian population probably by a recent migration event; then the mutation was fixed in a small region due to the high rate of consanguineous marriages and genetic drift. The screening for this mutation should be performed in priority for GSD III molecular diagnosis, for patients from the region of Mahdia and those from regions sharing the same settlement history. PMID:26704523

  12. The occurrence of alien species in the settlement areas of the Kampinos National Park and its vicinity (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirpluk Izabella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies aimed at the identification of the range and method of spread of alien plant species in settlement areas in Kampinos National Park (KNP and its immediate vicinity were carried out in years 2012-2014. Special emphasis was put on surveying the sites of invasive alien species (IAS, and diagnosing potential threats posed to the natural and semi-natural vegetation of the national park by the IAS present in rural areas. We found 53 alien vascular plant species, including 40 invasive taxa which may potentially pose a threat to the ecosystems of KNP. Species encroaching from settlement areas to semi-natural and natural communities included: Bidens frondosa, Echinocystis lobata, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Juncus tenuis, Lupinus polyphyllus, Reunoutria japonica and Solidago gigantea. Most of them were species from the highest invasiveness (IV and III classes in Poland. Similarity analysis carried out for all investigated localities with regard to all alien species, and only for invasive ones showed a clear division into separate groups: villages within the boundaries of the national park and villages outside the park.

  13. Alternative fuels: a Brazilian outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on studies and information related to the use of alternative fuels in Brazil. The first part of this paper deals with the economics of different biomass technologies. The analysis consists of a careful costing of all operations involved. The study deals with wood, sugar cane and cassava, since these crops are exploited for commercial purposes in Brazil. Corn, although a useful raw material for producing ethanol in the United States, is not used for this purpose in Brazil. The second part deals with the industrial technologies used to convert biomass into energy. We consider several forms of energy derived from biomass and evaluate the economics of the processes. When opportune, we compare costs with those of the North American market. Market analysis and displacement of conventional energy are the subject of the third part of the paper. While the cost of each product is evaluated in most cases; in others the current market price is used. Finally, we raise the issues of institutional problems and planning and offer some conclusions on the future of biomass as an alternative energy source. The technological discussion in this paper is based on the Brazilian experience in producing ethanol and other fuels from biomass. It is possible to extrapolate the Brazilian experience to other developing countries. The observations made in this chapter are based on the conditions prevalent in the Brazilian south-central agricultural region, specifically the state of Sao Paulo. (author). 91 refs., 16 figs., 11 tabs

  14. Brazilian Studies Then and Now

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pereira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1912 the Brazilian diplomat and scholar Manuel de Oliveira Lima gave six lectures at Stanford University that encapsulated his views of what we now call Brazilian Studies. This article summarizes Oliveira Lima’s lectures. It then points out three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s worldview that are problematic from the perspective of the twenty-first century: his Eurocentrism; the unproblematic nature of the nation-state in his thinking; and his largely negative view of Brazil’s racial heritage. The third part of the essay analyzes three aspects of Oliveira Lima’s lectures that are still contemporary. These are the need to establish an adequate comparative context for the study of Brazil; the difficulty of justifying an academic discipline that revolves around the study of a single country; and the challenge of uniting disparate and specialized disciplines in order to appreciate Brazil’s complexity and trajectory in the modern world. In the conclusion, some guidelines for maintaining Brazilian Studies as a vibrant field are suggested.

  15. Rural Architectural Intensification: A Multidisciplinar Planning Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Lotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When approaching a composite territorial problem that involves different scales and disciplines, it is necessary to establish a precise logical framework. Every planning or design activity is an iterative process applied to a complex system; not linear relations among the entities that compose the system are numerous and it is problematic to spell out them.  Authors developed a framework that has a hybrid structure in which different classical tool such as Spatial Decision Support Systems, Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD, and Expert Systems (ES converge. The method is not completely automatic and there is a continuous interaction between user and system. The main aim of the entire research group who participated to a national research (PRIN 2009 was to define an informed methodology for decision makers, stakeholders and public bureaus who have to (or want to face the problem of improving and intensifying insediative activities in minor centers located in rural-urban context. In particular authors defined Rural Architectural Intensification (RAI as a way to improve territorial features throughout a serie of interventions in small settlements and buildings. The explanation of the relations among different disciplines, different scales and different related methodologies is the key point of the paper. After an introduction and the description of RAI, authors introduce the main methodological structure; then each passage is detailed and specified considering the elements involved and the technical operations.

  16. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Castro, Rosalía; Castellanos, Jaime E; Olano, Víctor A; Matiz, María Inés; Jaramillo, Juan F; Vargas, Sandra L; Sarmiento, Diana M; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2016-01-01

    The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV) has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50%) and DENV-1 (35%). Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models. PMID:27074252

  17. Detection of all four dengue serotypes in Aedes aegypti female mosquitoes collected in a rural area in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalía Pérez-Castro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Aedes aegypti vector for dengue virus (DENV has been reported in urban and periurban areas. The information about DENV circulation in mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas is limited, so we aimed to evaluate the presence of DENV in Ae. aegypti females caught in rural locations of two Colombian municipalities, Anapoima and La Mesa. Mosquitoes from 497 rural households in 44 different rural settlements were collected. Pools of about 20 Ae. aegypti females were processed for DENV serotype detection. DENV in mosquitoes was detected in 74% of the analysed settlements with a pool positivity rate of 62%. The estimated individual mosquito infection rate was 4.12% and the minimum infection rate was 33.3/1,000 mosquitoes. All four serotypes were detected; the most frequent being DENV-2 (50% and DENV-1 (35%. Two-three serotypes were detected simultaneously in separate pools. This is the first report on the co-occurrence of natural DENV infection of mosquitoes in Colombian rural areas. The findings are important for understanding dengue transmission and planning control strategies. A potential latent virus reservoir in rural areas could spill over to urban areas during population movements. Detecting DENV in wild-caught adult mosquitoes should be included in the development of dengue epidemic forecasting models.

  18. Recording of building development patterns in rural areas: Case of Podravska region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuša Voda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rural areas of today involve a range of different activities. On the one hand, this is perceived as changes that are reflected in the frequent abandonment of utilised agricultural areas or in the changed land use, and, on the other hand, in the continuous transformation of the image of our villages, and the artistic and aesthetic transformation of the built form (Fikfak, 2008. We can see that the connection between the house in the countryside, and the land on which it stands, has been devalued in the last decades in terms of the quality of living and functional connections inside the building and with exterior areas. The primary objective of the research was the recording of the existing patterns of development in selected rural settlements and to find the connection between the residential buildings and appertaining land, and, furthermore, the connection with adjacent structures and land. The research into development patterns in the Slovenian countryside was performed through the application on a case study, i.e. on three rural settlements of the Podravska Region (the region along the Drava River. The research methodology was based on a systematic elaboration of presentations from the geographic information system (GIS, surveying groundwork, field observations and photography of incidence of three different types of building (a traditional rural house, a standard detached house design and a contemporary rural house. The existing development patterns in the settlements were recorded and the relationships between the respective land plots and residential buildings, and the adjacent land and residential buildings, were described.

  19. Chagas disease: from bush to huts and houses. Is it the case of the Brazilian amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rodrigues Coura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Two of the major problems facing the Amazon - human migration from the other areas and uncontrolled deforestation - constitute the greatest risk for the establishment of endemic Chagas disease in this part of Brazil. At least 18 species of triatomines had been found in the Brazilian Amazon, 10 of them infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, associated with numerous wild reservoirs. With wide-range deforestation, wild animals will perforce be driven into other areas, with tendency for triatomines to become adapted to alternative food sources in peri and intradomicilies. Serological surveys and cross-sectional studies for Chagas disease, carried out in rural areas of the Rio Negro, in the Brazilian Amazon, showed a high level of seropositivity for T. cruzi antibodies. A strong correlation of seroreactivity with the contact of gatherers of piaçava fibers with wild triatomines could be evidenced.

  20. Prospects for land-use sustainability on the agricultural frontier of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Cerri, Carlos E P

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Amazon frontier shows how remarkable leadership can work towards increased agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability without new greenhouse gas emissions. This is due to initiatives among various stakeholders, including national and state government and agents, farmers, consumers, funding agencies and non-governmental organizations. Change has come both from bottom-up and top-down actions of these stakeholders, providing leadership, financing and monitoring to foster environmental sustainability and agricultural growth. Goals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from land-cover and land-use change in Brazil are being achieved through a multi-tiered approach that includes policies to reduce deforestation and initiatives for forest restoration, as well as increased and diversified agricultural production, intensified ranching and innovations in agricultural management. Here, we address opportunities for the Brazilian Amazon in working towards low-carbon rural development and environmentally sustainable landscapes. PMID:23610175

  1. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  2. Competitiveness in the Brazilian oil industry. The Brazilian 'oil diamond'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is recognized the economic benefits that might follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which shall experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private investors. However, we should not neglect the broader impact of this process on the future development of all that cluster of national agents that lived around and served the former national oil monopoly, managed by the Brazilian National Oil Company, Petrobras. This work focuses on this larger perspective, discussing about the capacity of Brazil to sustain and expand its competitiveness in the oil business as well as to obtain the maximum economic development from the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. We adopt the work of Michael Porter, from the University of Harvard, about the Competitive Advantage of Nations, as a theoretical model to analyze the Competitive Advantage of Brazil in the global oil industry. By introducing the concept of ''oil diamond'', adapted from the notion introduced by this author, we develop a new understanding of national competitiveness in the oil sector. In this paper, we present the general model as well as a brief characterization of the results found for Brazil Subsequently, we focus on just one leg of the model, for which we discuss, with more detail, about the competitive condition of the country in the opening-up scenario. This leg regards the so-called supporting and supplementary industries that constitute what is denominated in the French tradition the ''para petroleum'' industry. We analyze the conditions for the Brazilian domestic ''para petroleum industry'' to survive and grow in the new competitive environment. (authors)

  3. Settlement prediction model of slurry suspension based on sedimentation rate attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-jie GUO

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a slurry suspension settlement prediction model for cohesive sediment in a still water environment. With no sediment input and a still water environment condition, control forces between settling particles are significantly different in the process of sedimentation rate attenuation, and the settlement process includes the free sedimentation stage, the log-linear attenuation stage, and the stable consolidation stage according to sedimentation rate attenuation. Settlement equations for sedimentation height and time were established based on sedimentation rate attenuation properties of different sedimentation stages. Finally, a slurry suspension settlement prediction model based on slurry parameters was set up with a foundation being that the model parameters were determined by the basic parameters of slurry. The results of the settlement prediction model show good agreement with those of the settlement column experiment and reflect the main characteristics of cohesive sediment. The model can be applied to the prediction of cohesive soil settlement in still water environments.

  4. Rural Tourism, Rural Economy Diversification, and Sustainable Development

    OpenAIRE

    Štefan Bojnec

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of patterns in farm, agro and rural tourism development in a way of farm, agro and rural economy diversification to achieve economic and environmental sustainability. The importance of rural tourism in the rural economy is increasing by farm, agro and rural economy diversification addressing its multifunctional development. The European Union policies are targeting both, farm and agro diversification as well as rural economy diversification. Farm, agro and rura...

  5. Exploration of Rural Informatization and Urban-rural Information Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on the status quo of rural informatization and information service,this article conducts analysis and discussion of problems in rural informatization and urban-rural information fusion,using statistics. And corresponding countermeasures are put forward as follows: building rural information platform; strengthening information literacy training in rural areas and cultivating new farmers; making information network serve production and operation to increase jobs and income for farmers; developing rural e-commerce; enhancing network information security and prevention.

  6. Innovative Rural Development Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Wickenhagen, A.; Pontieri, A.; Heilig, G.K.

    2002-01-01

    This Interim Report provides first results from case studies of innovative rural development initiatives in Europe. They were conducted by IIASA's European Rural Development (ERD) project during 2001 -- primarily to test the feasibility of the research concept and to get a first realistic impression of rural development problems and possibilities at the IDeal level. These reports are only the first round of a much larger sample of some 40 to 50 case studies, which are planned for the nex...

  7. Education for rural people

    OpenAIRE

    Acker, David; Gasperini, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Nearly one out of six people in the world is suffering from hunger and illiteracy. This book was developed to assist policy makers dealing with rural poverty, food insecurity and education challenges confronting rural people. It seeks to address the correlation between education, training, empowerment and food security, mainly through a number of examples from all over the world. It is about strengthening the capacity of rural people to achieve food security. It identifies different dimension...

  8. 36th Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandão de Oliveira, José Roberto; Barbosa Shorto, Julian Marco; Higa, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics (RTFNB, acronym in Portuguese) is organized annually by the Brazilian Physics Society since 1978, in order to: promote Nuclear Physics research in the country; stimulate and reinforce collaborations among nuclear physicists from around the country; disseminate advances in nuclear physics research and its applications; disseminate, disclose and evaluate the scientific production in this field.

  9. Oral Health in Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rural Oral Health Toolkit identifies the resources and best practices to help implement a rural Mobile Dental Services ... Health Information Hub is supported by the Health Resources and ... Human Services (HHS) under Grant Number U56RH05539 (Rural Assistance ...

  10. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Moura Jr., Newton J.; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2005-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results w...

  11. Working Group Reports and Presentations: Mars Settlement and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The long-term implications of space exploration must be considered early in the process. With this in mind, the Mars Settlement and Society Group focused on five key areas: Philosophical Framework, Community Infrastructure and Government, Creating Stakeholders, Human Subsystems, and Habitat Design. The team proposes long and short term goals to support getting to and then staying long-term on Mars. All objectives shared the theme that they should engage, inspire, and educate the public with the intent of fostering stakeholders in the exploration of Mars. The objectives of long-term settlement on Mars should not neglect group dynamics, issues of reproduction, and a strong philosophical framework for the establishment of a society.

  12. Settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ming-hua; ZHANG Ling; YANG Ming-hui

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of long-short composite piled raft foundation was discussed. Assuming the relationship between shear stress and shear strain of the surrounding soil was elasto-plastic, shear displacement method was employed to establish the different explicit relational equations between the load and the displacement at the top of pile in either elastic or elasto-plastic period. Then Mylonakis & Gazetas model was introduced to simulate the interaction between two piles or between piles and soil. Considering the effect of cushion, the flexible coefficients of interaction were provided. With the addition of a relevant program, the settlement calculation for long-short composite piled raft foundation was developed which could be used to account for the interaction of piles,soil and cushion. Finally, the calculation method was used to analyze an engineering example. The calculated value of settlement is 10.2 mm, which is close to the observed value 8.8 mm.

  13. Resilience and social costs: centralised towns vs. distributed settlements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    for subsistence catching and local fishery used for exports. During the last generation a decoupling between settlement and trade has evolved. The paper will discuss which factors are decisive for the utilization of the trade opportunities at the local level. Cost reductions seen from a private business...... and the national economy and are less expensive concerning government spending than e.g. larger towns. The local potentials and not least the social and economic costs of a fast centralization process are often not taken into account. Historical the location of settlements is generally based on the possibilities...... perspective has become more dominant in the last decades rather than societies’ economic benefit. Consequently e.g. the processing of shrimps and fish (that amount to the great majority of the export) has been moved to countries with less labor costs than Greenland. This development tend to conflict...

  14. Sanitation in Mumbai's informal settlements : state, 'slum' and infrastructure.

    OpenAIRE

    McFarlane, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines an ongoing intervention in sanitation in informal settlements in Mumbai, India. The Slum Sanitation Programme (SSP) is premised upon ‘partnership’, ‘participation’, and ‘cost recovery’ in the delivery of large toilet blocks as a practical solution to the stark lack and inadequacy of sanitation, and offers an opportunity to interrogate a growing consensus on sanitation provision among mainstream development agencies. In the paper, I argue for a more flexible approach to pol...

  15. Youth in Tanzania's urbanizing mining settlements: Prospecting a mineralized future

    OpenAIRE

    Bryceson, Deborah Fahy.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a mining take-off. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the...

  16. Mechanism of Liquefaction-Induced Large Settlements of Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani; Kamran Ansari; Ashfaque Ahmed Memon

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, mechanism of liquefaction-related large settlements of the soil-structure system during the earthquake was studied using numerical modelling. The isolated shallow strip plane strain footing pad, supporting a typical simple frame structure, was founded on the ground at the shallow depth from the level ground surface. This system was modelled as plane-strain using the FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of continua) 2D dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses...

  17. URBAN DEVELOPMENT IN ZIMBABWE: A HUMAN SETTLEMENT PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Jonga WELLINGTON; Killian MUNZWA

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines and analyses the historical development of Zimbabwean towns and cities with a view to tracing and understanding policy directions, urban spatial development trends and other factors such as population dynamics that may have led to the development of the present-day urban settlements in the country. The paper observes that whilst pre-colonial cities existed during the golden age of the Munhumutapa dynasty and empire, these had no influence on the modern town and city becaus...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BALUWERTI SETTLEMENT IN SURAKARTA, CENTRAL JAVA

    OpenAIRE

    SOLIKHAH Nafi’ah

    2014-01-01

    Empathy is inseparable from social and cultural. One district in Surakarta Cities, Central Java that still has a specific character is Baluwerti which is the area for family and courtiers of Kasunanan palace. The problem of the development in Baluwerti Settlement is as a result the shift of empathy from its inhabitants. To assess, used syncrhonic-diachronic reading methods. Assessment of physical aspects reviewed through of compliance with spatial concepts of Mataram (Java) state. Assessment ...

  19. Settlement Policies and the Economic Success of Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Edin, Per-Anders; Fredriksson, Peter; Åslund, Olof

    2001-01-01

    Many developed countries, e.g. the UK, Germany, and Sweden, use or have used settlement policies to direct the inflow of new immigrants away from immigrant dense metropolitan areas. We evaluate a reform of Swedish immigration policy that featured dispersion of refugee immigrants across the country, but also a change in the approach to labour market integration. We focus exclusively on how immigrants fared because of the policy. The results indicate that immigrants experienced fairly substanti...

  20. Settlement and migration patterns among immigrants in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Stambøl, Lasse Sigbjørn

    2014-01-01

    The immigration to Norway has increased strongly since the turn of the millennium and especially since the eastward EU-enlargements. The aim of the paper is to investigate the regional settlement and migration patterns of immigrants mostly recognized by their reason of immigration. The immigration has changed from a gender balance during the first years of the 2000 towards a clear male dominance after 2005, mostly due to increased labour immigration. The immigration has changed from a dominan...

  1. HISTORY OF THE MUSLIMS’ SETTLEMENT IN TAMIL NADU

    OpenAIRE

    P. Nallathambi

    2014-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to analyse the history of the Muslims’ settlement in different parts of Tamilnadu. There are about 3 to 4 million Tamil Muslims in India mostly in Tamil Nadu state and also in neighbouring Kerala. A significant Tamil-speaking Muslim population numbering 1.8 million or more live in the Northern, Eastern provinces and Colombo in Sri Lanka and many other pockets across central, southwest provinces; however they are listed as a separate ethnic...

  2. Ontogenetic changes in responses to settlement cues by Anemonefish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, D. L.; Munday, P. L.; Pratchett, M.; Jones, G. P.

    2011-12-01

    Population connectivity for most marine species is dictated by dispersal during the pelagic larval stage. Although reef fish larvae are known to display behavioral adaptations that influence settlement site selection, little is known about the development of behavioral preferences throughout the larval phase. Whether larvae are attracted to the same sensory cues throughout their larval phase, or exhibit distinct ontogenetic shifts in sensory preference is unknown. Here, we demonstrate an ontogenetic shift in olfactory cue preferences for two species of anemonefish, a process that could aid in understanding both patterns of dispersal and settlement. Aquarium-bred naïve Amphiprion percula and A. melanopus larvae were tested for olfactory preference of relevant reef-associated chemical cues throughout the 11-day pelagic larval stage. Age posthatching had a significant effect on the preference for olfactory cues from host anemones and live corals for both species. Preferences of olfactory cues from tropical plants of A. percula, increased by approximately ninefold between hatching and settlement, with A. percula larvae showing a fivefold increase in preference for the olfactory cue produced by the grass species. Larval age had no effect on the olfactory preference for untreated seawater over the swamp-based tree Melaleuca nervosa, which was always avoided compared with blank seawater. These results indicate that reef fish larvae are capable of utilizing olfactory cues early in the larval stage and may be predisposed to disperse away from reefs, with innate olfactory preferences drawing newly hatched larvae into the pelagic environment. Toward the end of the larval phase, larvae become attracted to the olfactory cues of appropriate habitats, which may assist them in identification of and navigation toward suitable settlement sites.

  3. Manifestations of 'capabilities poverty' with learners attending informal settlement schools

    OpenAIRE

    Rouaan Maarman

    2009-01-01

    In this study I use the notion of 'capabilities poverty', as theorised by Sen, to examine the experiences of learners attending informal settlement schools in North-West Province, South Africa. Sen distinguishes between functionings (what people do or their ability to do something) and capabilities (various combi­nations of what people do, their notions of freedom, what life opportunities they may have). The study was based on a sample of respondents from four schools in the Sarafina informal...

  4. Accounting Specifics of Foreign Currency Settlements with Persons Accountable

    OpenAIRE

    Oksana Mykhasyk

    2014-01-01

    The article covers individual aspects of organizing analytical accounting of foreign currency payments for persons accountable at the enterprises of Ukraine. Issues of foreign currency settlements with persons accountable and other debtors have been considered. The need for inclusion of all accounts into monetary items of accounting has been reasoned. The focus has been made on the feasibility of making the amendments into the Accounting Regulation (Standard) 21 – The Effects of Changes in ...

  5. A nova lei de falências brasileira: primeiros impactos The new Brazilian bankruptcy law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisio Araujo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to analyze the premiere effects of the New Brazilian Bankruptcy Law, measuring its impact over the amount of bankruptcies and judicial reorganizations, and the firms' access to credit. Making use of econometric models we find that the amount of bankruptcies (requested and decreed suffered a strong and immediate impact, reducing it in a significant way as well as the requirement of judicial reorganizations. Finally, using sectorial aggregated credit data, we find an expansion of the credit market, mainly to commercial, rural and services sectors. Additionally we did not evidence changes at the average interest rate charged to firms.

  6. Investigation and Analysis of Herdsman’s Settlement in Xinjiang-A Case Study of Fuhai County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the status quo of herdsman’s settlement in Fuhai County of Xinjiang.As to the herdsman’s settlement in this county,there are 5 models:centralized settlement,sporadic settlement,settlement along the river,striped settlement along hillside,flower-arrangement-style settlement.Through settlement,herdsman’s production mode changes dramatically,along with concept of production and management.On the one hand,the herdsman enjoys the fruits of economic development of modern society;on the other hand,the natural grassland is protected effectively and border stability is guaranteed.The problems existing in herdsman’s settlement in Fuhai County are analysed as follows:first,the funds for building herdsman’s settlement are short;second,the natural grassland degrades and the existing forage land is critically insufficient;third,the holistic level of herdsman’s settlement is low,and herdsman’s production and living mode is backward;fourth,the former settlements lack long-term and systematic planning.By establishing the building standard and principle of site selection regarding settlement,this paper proposes optimization program for herdsman’s settlement in Fuhai County,and points out the following measures for guaranteeing herdsman’s settlement:increase support for herdsman’s settlement,and further ease herdsman’s self-fund-raising pressure;accelerate building of forage base so that the herdsman can settle;strengthen technology promotion and scientific training for grass-roots personnel in settlements;focus on solving the problem of follow-up industry concerning herdsman’s settlement;combine herdsman’s settlement work and pastoral area organically,and promote large-scale herdsman’s settlement.

  7. Mechanism of Liquefaction-Induced Large Settlements of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Ahmed Almani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, mechanism of liquefaction-related large settlements of the soil-structure system during the earthquake was studied using numerical modelling. The isolated shallow strip plane strain footing pad, supporting a typical simple frame structure, was founded on the ground at the shallow depth from the level ground surface. This system was modelled as plane-strain using the FLAC (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of continua 2D dynamic modelling and analysis code. This case focuses on the basic mechanisms of liquefaction-induced large deformations of the structure during an earthquake and will provide a benchmark model case for comparison with the model case in which jet grouted columns are provided as ground reinforcement. The results showed that large settlements of shallow foundations in punching shear are triggered during cyclic excitation. These large settlements under the structure are driven by load of structure and earthquake excitation. Monotonic shear deformation, lateral shear deformations and volume change of soil are main phenomena under the structure when the pore pressure rises and soil is liquefied in cyclic loading.

  8. Early Maori settlement impacts in northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollen and charcoal analyses of sediments from northern coastal Taranaki, New Zealand, show that Maori settlement impacts on the vegetation began with the burning of tall coastal forest in the mid-17th century. Forest was replaced with a fern-shrubland, and small wetlands expanded with changing hydrological conditions. This forest clearance was much later than in most regions of the country, where major forest disturbance and clearance began between AD 1200 and AD 1400. However, Maori were known to be using the forested coastal Taranaki landscape from at least AD 1300 to hunt the now extinct moa, and to collect shellfish, but neither of these activities necessarily required forest clearance or permanent settlement. Preserved rat-gnawed seeds in the wetland deposits provide evidence for the presence of the introduced kiore (Polynesian rat, Rattus exulans) in coastal Taranaki from about AD 1200, significantly before forest clearance or permanent human settlement. Although kiore were present in the coastal forests for as much as 400 years before forest clearance, the pollen records do not show any changes in forest composition during this time. (author). 58 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Food shortages and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, L

    1998-03-01

    In 1996, an 18-month-old settlement created for 55,000 Sudanese refugees in northern Uganda came under attack by Ugandan rebels. By March 1997, the entire population of the settlement had migrated in search of safety. Because the refugees lost their livelihoods and cultivated fields, they had to adopt short-term coping strategies to acquire food. Two Oxfam researchers gathering information during this period for use in program planning and monitoring found that coping strategies included 1) hazarding dangerous journeys (women risked rape or abduction; men risked beating, looting, killing, or abduction) to harvest crops; 2) seeking piece-work employment; 3) exchanging sex for food; and 4) depleting assets. The crisis was particularly severe for single people (especially those with children). In families where the women but not the men could find employment, some men took on household responsibilities. As malnutrition increased, health declined. Observed changes to household gender relations included new sexual divisions of labor, assumption by females of decision-making power, increased domestic quarreling, and marital break-down (especially in cases where women had been raped). On the community level, women assumed more responsibility as men withdrew socially or left the settlement. These findings point to the importance of providing refugees with seeds, with small loans to stimulate business, and with the means to rebuild their sense of community. PMID:12321534

  10. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  11. Funding Rural Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kim

    This paper provides first-time grant writers with suggestions on how to approach a private funding source. While intended for rural health care advocates, the remarks are equally applicable for educators and others. The rural crisis has produced many heart-rending stories about medically indigent people, but there is a lack of reliable statistics…

  12. Migration and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Robert E. B. Lucas

    2007-01-01

    The paper summarizes the key routes through which internal and international migration impact rural development and some of the evidence pertaining to these effects in low income countries. It concludes that, although the study of migration impacts on rural economies has come a long way from the early dual theories of development, some of the potentially more important aspects remain to be investigated systematically.

  13. Developing Rural Business Incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Mark L.; Burnier, DeLysa

    1991-01-01

    Offers background on rural entrepreneurship and incubation in the United States, with particular focus on rural incubators at community colleges and regional incubation systems. Explains how incubators, which provide shared services and business/management assistance for tenant companies, differ from other entrepreneurial development strategies.…

  14. The Rural Information Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    1989-01-01

    Describes the events that led to the creation of the Rural Information Center (RIC), a joint venture between the Extension Service and the National Agricultural Library to provide information to government officials involved in rural development. The databases accessed by RIC are described, and plans for a gateway system and network of all…

  15. Mobile Gis: a Tool for Informal Settlement Occupancy Audit to Improve Integrated Human Settlement Implementation in Ekurhuleni, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokoena, B. T.; Musakwa, W.

    2016-06-01

    Upgrading and relocating people in informal settlements requires consistent commitment, good strategies and systems so as to improve the lives of those who live in them. In South Africa, in order to allocate subsidised housing to beneficiaries of an informal settlement, beneficiary administration needs to be completed to determine the number of people who qualify for a subsidised house. Conventional methods of occupancy audits are often unreliable, cumbersome and non-spatial. Accordingly, this study proposes the use of mobile GIS to conduct these audits to provide up-to-date, accurate, comprehensive and real-time data so as to facilitate the development of integrated human settlements. An occupancy audit was subsequently completed for one of the communities in the Ekurhuleni municipality, Gauteng province, using web-based mobile GIS as a solution to providing smart information through evidence based decision making. Fieldworkers accessed the off-line capturing module on a mobile device recording GPS coordinates, socio-economic information and photographs. The results of this audit indicated that only 56.86% of the households residing within the community could potentially benefit from receiving a subsidised house. Integrated residential development, which includes fully and partially subsidised housing, serviced stands and some fully bonded housing opportunities, would then be key to adequately providing access to suitable housing options within a project in a post-colonial South Africa, creating new post-1994 neighbourhoods, in line with policy. The use of mobile GIS therefore needs to be extended to other informal settlement upgrading projects in South Africa.

  16. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. This potential can be used under various kinds in the rural area: cultural tourism, historical tourism, religious tourism, ecotourism, fishing tourism or bird-watching tourism, and other kinds of rural tourism. By linking these tourism resources and tourism forms, tourism routes can result, which together with the local customs, traditions and cuisine may contribute to the social and economic development of Dobrudja's rural area, through sustainable tourism as alternative to seasonal seashore tourism.

  17. Pathways to Internationalize Brazilian Journals of Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão C. Gamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe science of psychology has been developing in the country of Brazil over the last 50 years. Nonetheless, most of the science in this field is published only in Brazilian journals. Overall, Brazil has yet to share its science with the international community. The potential to internationalize the science generated by Brazilian psychologists exists, though. One way would be to scale up the publication of Brazilian psychologists in international journals. Another way would be to internationalize the existing Brazilian journals. With regard to the latter possibility, a metric analysis of scientometrics databases suggests that the reasons for the low impact of articles published in Brazilian journals are manifold, but the low performance is mainly explained by the scarce employment of the lingua franca-English language-in the articles. This article discusses the role that SciELO, a Brazilian scientific publisher, has played in indexing and assisting the best Brazilian psychology journals in raising their horizons, in terms of internationalizing their output, while at the same time serving as an instrument of promotion for national studies of psychology within the country of Brazil.

  18. A review on cultural landscape approach as a base for regeneration strategies on rural condition: Gran Canaria Island

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Martin, Carolina; Ley Bosch, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The rural territory presents nowadays a complex situation with serial difficulties for the development of the traditional activities (agriculture, stockbreeding, etc). This leads to a decline of these environments, with consequences at very diverse levels. But in a particular way it is influencing in the abandonment of the settlements and in the deterioration of its tangible and untangible heritage. Thus, there is a need for planning tools that promote the sustainable development ...

  19. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    OpenAIRE

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and t...

  20. ATTENTION OF CHILDBIRTH, RURAL-URBAN MIGRATION AND PUBLIC POLITICS OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH IN INDIGENOUS POPULATION OF CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Benito Salvatierra Izaba y Emma Zapata Martelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it’s analyze the tendencies of childbirth attention of urban indigenous women excluded in Chiapas, from rural settlement in Los Altos de Chiapas. It’s an exploratory essay which contributes to clear up the relation that establishes immigrant indigenous population with institutional health services for childbirth attention and modifications in traditional medicine. Are discussed the scopes of these changes in the operation of the institutional program of reproductive health and the risk of mother death.

  1. Rurality Research and Rural Education: Exploratory and Explanatory Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents analysed data from the first year of the Rural Teacher Education Project (RTEP 2007-2009) with a view to illustrating how a generative theory of rurality as education research was developed, and for which ends it might be utilised. The article suggests that data from projects in rural communities, which take the rural as…

  2. Organic Agriculture as Livelihood Strategy: A Case Study in a Rural Community of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel; Egelyng, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to ...

  3. SBR Brazilian organophilic/clay nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is the obtaining of SBR composites using a Brazilian raw bentonite and the same bentonite treated with an organic salt. The clays were characterized by XRD. The clay addition in the composites was 10 pcr. The composites were characterized by XRD and had measured theirs tension strength (TS). The composite with Brazilian treated clay showed TS 233% higher than a composite with no clay, 133% higher than a composite with Cloisite 30B organophilic clay and 17% lower than a composite with Cloisite 20 A organophilic clay. XRD and TS data evidence that the composite with Brazilian treated clay is an intercalated nanocomposite. (author)

  4. Settlement and metamorphosis of Styela canopus Savigny larvae in response to some neurotransmitters and thyroxin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Danqing; HUANG Ying; KE Caihuan; ZHOU Shiqiang; LI Shaojing

    2006-01-01

    The larvae of ascidian Styela canopus Savigny were treated with epinephrine, norepinephrine, L-DOPA, GABA and thyroxin to test the ability of these compounds to induce or inhibit larval settlement and metamorphosis. The results showed that epinephrine,norepinephrine and L-DOPA at the concentration of 1 μ mol/dm3 induced larval settlement and metamorphosis in S. canopus, with short exposure ( 1 h) to 1 μmoL/dm3 of L-DOPA inducing rapid settlement. In contrast, GABA at the concentrations of 0.1 ~100.0 μmol/dm3 significantly inhibited the settlement and metamorphosis of S. canopus larvae. In addition, thyroxin at 1 ~ 50μg/dm3 had no effect on larval settlement and metamorphosis in S. canopus. These results suggest the importance of neurotransmitters in the settlement and metamorphosis of S. canopus larvae.

  5. Settlement Prediction for Buildings Surrounding Foundation Pits Based on a Stationary Auto-regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Lin-ya; HUA Xi-sheng

    2007-01-01

    To ensure the safety of buildings surrounding foundation pits, a study was made on a settlement monitoring and trend prediction method. A statistical testing method for analyzing the stability of a settlement monitoring datum has been discussed. According to a comprehensive survey, data of 16 stages at operating control point, were verified by a standard t test to determine the stability of the operating control point. A stationary auto-regression model, AR(p), used for the observation point settlement prediction has been investigated. Given the 16 stages of the settlement data at an observation point, the applicability of this model was analyzed. Settlement of last four stages was predicted using the stationary auto-regression model AR (1); the maximum difference between predicted and measured values was 0.6 mm,indicating good prediction results of the model. Hence, this model can be applied to settlement predictions for buildings surrounding foundation pits.

  6. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century)

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Papavero; Márcia Souto Couri

    2012-01-01

    Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century). Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also...

  7. Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology: II. notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Papavero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Essays on the history of Brazilian dipterology. II. Notices about Brazilian Diptera (17th century. Notices from the Brazilian Diptera from the 17th century come mainly from two foreign invasions occurred in Brazil, the first one by the French in Maranhão and the second by the Dutch in northeastern Brazil. This paper includes reports of Fathers Claude d'Abbeville and Yves d'Evreux and from Piso and Marcgrave, the last two presenting the first illustrations of Brazilian Diptera. The paper also includes reports of Friar Laureano de la Cruz, Father João de Sotto Mayor and Maurício de Heriarte.

  8. Archaeology in the Forgotten Peninsula: Prehistoric Settlement and Subsistence Strategies in Northern Baja California

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Jerry D.

    1999-01-01

    The preliminary data suggest that the settlement pattern in the Rio Rosario Valley was extremely mobile and dispersed, and not semisedentary and concentrated as the mission documents suggest. The high level of settlement mobility and low levels of population aggregation are indicated by various lines of archaeological evidence, and a hypothesis is advanced linking the impermanence of settlement to limits in terrestrial resources, particularly the local staple plant food, the coastal agave (Ag...

  9. Modelling of Informal Settlement Growth with Satellite Data in Latakia City,Syria

    OpenAIRE

    GHASSOUN, Yahya; Buchroithner, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Due to social, economic and political reasons, informal settlements are considered as a challenging problem in the third world countries. These create problems to the society and to the local government. The present study aims to discuss informal settlements of Latakia city (Syria) during 1970 and 2005 using satellite data. Where based on all the information available, until today the present study is the first one carried out in Syria concerning the development of informal settlements. In th...

  10. Three-Dimensional Ground Settlement Induced by Metro Tunnel Excavation Considering the Influence of Group Piles

    OpenAIRE

    Zou Jin-feng; Zhang Yan-jun; Dan Han-cheng

    2016-01-01

    Considering the influence of group piles, a prediction model for three-dimensional ground surface settlement induced by circular metro tunnels excavation in incompressible rock masses is proposed based on the stochastic medium theory and the shear displacement method. The surface settlement caused by the metro tunnel opening is divided into two parts. One part is soil mass settlement caused by the metro tunnel opening and calculated by the stochastic medium theory. The other part is the settl...

  11. An evaluation of sampling methodology for assessing settlement of temperate fish in seagrass meadows

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. CATALAN; Dunand, A.; I. Álvarez; J. ALOS; Colinas, N.; Nash, R.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    All demersal fish with planktonic larvae settle at some point early in life, generally around the transformation from larvae to juveniles or soon after. Sampling pre-settlement or very young, settled fish is challenging due to spatial concretions within the habitat and the pulsed, rapid nature of the settlement process. There is a lack of robust methods that enable this sampling, but information on the settlement, that represents a mortality bottleneck, is crucial for the follow-up of populat...

  12. Challenges to Achieving Sustainable Sanitation in Informal Settlements of Kigali, Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Aime Tsinda; Pamela Abbott; Steve Pedley; Katrina Charles; Jane Adogo; Kenan Okurut; Jonathan Chenoweth

    2013-01-01

    Like most cities in developing countries, Kigali is experiencing rapid urbanisation leading to an increase in the urban population and rapid growth in the size and number of informal settlements. More than 60% of the city’s population resides in these settlements, where they experience inadequate and poor quality urban services including sanitation. This article discusses the issues and constraints related to the provision of sustainable sanitation in the informal settlements in Kigali. Two i...

  13. A comparative study of the anti-settlement properties of mytilid shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bers, A.V.; Hansson, L.J.; Head, R.M.;

    2006-01-01

    Marine organisms have evolved defence mechanisms to prevent epibiosis. This study investigated the anti-settlement properties of natural periostracal microtopographies of two mytilid species, Mytilus edulis (from North, Baltic and White Seas) and Perna perna (from the SW Atlantic). Resin replicas......-settlement property, at least against S. balanoides cyprids, which is not regionally adapted. Such a potential globally effective anti-settlement mechanism possibly contributes to the invasive success of Mytilidae....

  14. The Distribution of Daily Stock Returns and Settlement Procedures: The Paris Bourse.

    OpenAIRE

    SOLNIK, Bruno

    1990-01-01

    In many countries, settlements take place a fixed number of business days after the transaction (United States, Japan). In other countries, settlements take place periodically on a fixed date when all transactions performed before this date are settled (United Kingdom, France, Italy). In both cases, settlement procedures should cause returns not to be identically distributed over all days. The effect is likely to be the largest on markets where all trades are settled only once a month. An emp...

  15. China's rural poverty line and the determinants of rural poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuqing Wang; Juan Liu; Shujie Yao; Xian Xin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to yield more plausible rural poverty lines for China and then assess the determinants of rural poverty using these newly revised rural poverty lines. Design/methodology/approach – In this paper it is argued that the Chinese official poverty line substantially misestimates the actual rural poverty situations. The poverty lines are derived with Ravallion's method with a rural household survey data of China's two provinces, Hubei, and Inner Mongolia. Pover...

  16. Energy for rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 72 million households in rural India do not have access to electricity and rely primarily on traditional biofuels. This research investigates how rural electrification could be achieved in India using different energy sources and what the effects for climate change mitigation could be. We use the Regional Energy Model (REM) to develop scenarios for rural electrification for the period 2005-2030 and to assess the effects on greenhouse gas emissions, primary energy use and costs. We compare the business-as-usual scenario (BAU) with different electrification scenarios based on electricity from renewable energy, diesel and the grid. Our results indicate that diesel systems tend to have the highest CO2 emissions, followed by grid systems. Rural electrification with primarily renewable energy-based end-uses could save up to 99% of total CO2 emissions and 35% of primary energy use in 2030 compared to BAU. Our research indicates that electrification with decentralised diesel systems is likely to be the most expensive option. Rural electrification with renewable energy tends to be the most cost-effective option when end-uses are predominantly based on renewable energy, but turns out to be more costly than grid extensions when electric end-use devices are predominantly used. This research therefore elaborates whether renewable energy is a viable option for rural electrification and climate change mitigation in rural India and gives policy recommendations.

  17. Appropriate technology for solar energy system aiming water heating for human bath in houses of rural areas; Tecnologia apropriada para sistema de energia solar visando aquecimento de agua para o banho humano em moradias do meio rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rispoli, Italo Alberto Gatica [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo], e-mail: gatica@dglnet.com.br; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], e-mail: cam@fec.unicamp.br

    2004-07-01

    The Brazilian land receives a great amount of solar radiation all over the year, therefore, because both the culture and practical aspects, Brazilians use in a non-moderate way the electricity to boil the water for human bath in the rural homes, in the lower income residences even at part of the medium class homes. That happens due to the very low price of an electrical shower, about US$ 6,5. In fact, that way of heating water is largely used because, besides the very low electrical shower price, it is not necessary to install a complete hot water both hydraulic and electrical building systems, but just both single hydraulic pipes and electrical devices. On the other hands, at rural regions where the electricity does not achieve the rural people uses firewood in order to get hot water for human bath. At the rural places the use of electrical showers has meaning an increase in the electrical transformers powers, heavier electrical transmission rural lines, with greater prices and, at the urban zones, the use of electrical showers in the lower social classes has contributed to a more expressive electrical load at the nacional electrical system load peck, between 5:30 to 8:30 a.m. The public administration, mostly, does not take into account both social, economic and environmental costs in order to think about the electricity offer. The solar heating systems, generally used in Brazil, conserves the same reservoirs used in France at 1880. Therefore, this paper presents some technical subsidies applied to rural homes, even to lower income people's homes aiming to stimulate the Brazilian public authorities to make a public police to facilitate both the industrialization and dissemination of solar heating systems, appropriate to the rural area, with lower costs, compounded by good technology equipment, with guarantee of lasting and quality. (author)

  18. Zipf Law for Brazilian Cities

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, N J; Jr., Newton J. Moura; Ribeiro, Marcelo B.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the Zipf Law for cities in Brazil. Data from censuses of 1970, 1980, 1991 and 2000 were used to select a sample containing only cities with 30,000 inhabitants or more. The results show that the population distribution in Brazilian cities does follow a power law similar to the ones found in other countries. Estimates of the power law exponent were found to be 2.22 +/- 0.34 for the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and 2.26 +/- 0.11 for censuses of 1991 and 2000. More accurate results were obtained with the maximum likelihood estimator, showing an exponent equal to 2.41 for 1970 and 2.36 for the other three years.

  19. Basic Characteristics and Spatial Patterns of Pseudo-Settlements--Taking Dalian as An Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jiaji; Zhang, Yingjia; Li, Xueming

    2016-01-01

    A person's living behavior patterns are closely related to three types of settlements: real-life settlements, imagined settlements, and pseudo-settlements. The term "pseudo-settlement" (PS) refers to the places that are selectively recorded and represented after the mass media chose and restructure the residence information. As the mass media rapidly develops and people's way of obtaining information gradually change, PS has already become one of the main ways for people to recognize and understand real-life settlements, as well as describe their impressions of imagined settlements. PS also has a profound impact on tourism, employment, investment, migration, real estate development, etc. Thus, the study of PSs has important theoretical and practical significance. This paper proposes to put forward residential quarters where the mass media is displayed as the object of study and establishes the pseudo-settlement index system of Dalian in and elaborate analysis of the concept of PSs. From three aspects, including pseudo-buildings, pseudo-districts and pseudo-culture, this paper uses the ArcGIS 10.0 kernel density (spacial analyst) to analyze and interpret the basic characteristics and spatial patterns of 14 elements of the PS in Dalian. Through systemic clustering analysis, it identifies eight major types of PSs in Dalian. Then it systematically elaborates current situations and characteristics of the spatial pattern of PSs in Dalian, namely: regionally concentrated, widely scattered and blank spaces without pseudo-settlements. Finally, this paper discusses the mechanism of formation of PSs in Dalian. PMID:26805859

  20. Conceptualising integrated rural tourism.

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Gunjan; Clark, Gordon; Oliver, Tove; Ilbery, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Rural spaces are no longer associated purely with agricultural commodity production but are seen as locations for the stimulation of new socioeconomic activity, often incorporating tourism, leisure, speciality food production and consumption and e-commerce. Within the context of debates about integrated and territorial approaches to rural development in Europe�s �lagging regions�, this paper introduces the notion of �Integrated Rural Tourism� (IRT) and describes the various methods ...

  1. Regional food dishes in the Brazilian National School Food Program: Acceptability and nutritional composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo thimoteo da Cunha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition and describe the acceptability of regional culinary dishes served to students from public schools of rural and urban areas. Methods: Ten Brazilian regional dishes were evaluated for acceptability and nutritional composition. the survey was conducted in schools located in rural and urban areas of two cities in the state of São Paulo. Dish acceptability was evaluated using leftover analysis and a 5-point facial hedonic scale. the adherence index was calculated and used as an indirect measure of acceptance, and the nutritional composition was calculated based on the technical files of each dish. Results: A total of 2,384 students from 20 schools participated in the study and 1,174 tasted and evaluated the dishes. the test using the 5-point facial hedonic scale demonstrated that five dishes (Caldo verde soup, persimmon jelly, chicken with okra, puréed cornmeal with spinach, and arugula pizza had an acceptability rate above 85.0%. the mean adherence indices were 57.3% and 55.6% in urban and rural environments, respectively. Analysis of the nutritional composition of regional dishes indicates that these dishes can partially meet macronutrient recommendations. Conclusion: the tested dishes can become part of school menus as they were accepted or partly accepted by the students regardless of school location, whether rural or urban. the cultural heritage is an important resource for the food sovereignty of a country and should be constantly encouraged.

  2. Trends in breastfeeding research by Brazilian nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Oliveira B. Oriá

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Exclusive breastfeeding is acknowledged as important for survival, optimal growth, and development of infants. The current review presents a synthesis of research output by Brazilian nurses on breastfeeding over the last 20 years, analyzes the theoretical and methodological issues emerging from studies on breastfeeding in Brazil, and provides directions for future research and practice by nurses in the area breastfeeding. Studies included in this review were identified through LILACS searches of Portuguese-language sources. Articles were organized and analyzed chronologically by comparing the evolution of the Brazilian Breastfeeding Program. The incomplete research output of the Brazilian nursing profession in regard to breastfeeding research needs to be addressed. In addition, specific cultural, sociological, and anthropological characteristics of Brazilian regional settings remain to be explored. Emphasis on potential confounders and critical interrelations is warranted.

  3. Brazilian nuclear programme - energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The brazilian energetic model, highly dependent of petroleum, have been changed in the sense to adopt diversified and regionalized solutions. This paper describes the role and the perspective of the nuclear energy in this context. (M.I.)

  4. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development in particular.

  5. Agritourism Rural Development Public Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Maria MORTAN

    2006-01-01

    For Romania agritourism development represents the opportunity to differentiate between the rural and urban environment, as well as the best way for the preservation of traditions and customs in the rural areas, supplying a sustainable rural development. This work portrays agritourism as an element of rural development and critically analyzes the way in which the public administration should become involved in sustaining rural development in general and in sustaining agritourism development i...

  6. Large-area settlement pattern recognition from Landsat-8 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Marc; Pittore, Massimiliano

    2016-09-01

    The study presents an image processing and analysis pipeline that combines object-based image analysis with a Support Vector Machine to derive a multi-layered settlement product from Landsat-8 data over large areas. 43 image scenes are processed over large parts of Central Asia (Southern Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Eastern Uzbekistan). The main tasks tackled by this work include built-up area identification, settlement type classification and urban structure types pattern recognition. Besides commonly used accuracy assessments of the resulting map products, thorough performance evaluations are carried out under varying conditions to tune algorithm parameters and assess their applicability for the given tasks. As part of this, several research questions are being addressed. In particular the influence of the improved spatial and spectral resolution of Landsat-8 on the SVM performance to identify built-up areas and urban structure types are evaluated. Also the influence of an extended feature space including digital elevation model features is tested for mountainous regions. Moreover, the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties is analyzed and compared to the heterogeneity of the building stock within the computational unit of the segments. The study concludes that the information content of Landsat-8 images is sufficient for the tested classification tasks and even detailed urban structures could be extracted with satisfying accuracy. Freely available ancillary settlement point location data could further improve the built-up area classification. Digital elevation features and pan-sharpening could, however, not significantly improve the classification results. The study highlights the importance of dynamically tuned classifier parameters, and underlines the use of Shannon entropy computed from the soft answers of the SVM as a valid measure of the spatial distribution of classification uncertainties.

  7. Myths and truths about Brazilian hospitality

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraz, Valéria de Souza

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilians image is often associated with sympathy and joy. However these characteristics do not necessarily make them hospitable. To be hospitable it´s not just have a smile or be helpful, you must have hospitability, that is, the ability to offer hospitality. Hospitality is a social phenomenon that manifests in the domestic, commercial or public context. It is believed that the Brazilian has a natural talent for the domestic hospitality, which extends somehow into the ...

  8. Brazilians sentenced to sewage-related diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Édison Carlos

    2016-01-01

    There is no furthest behind infrastructure in Brazil than the lack of sewage disposal, particularly the shortage of services for treating water, and for collecting and treating waste. The scarcity of these essential services to human dignity has been plaguing millions of Brazilians, as indicated by the data of the National Sanitation Information System 2014. We have 35 million Brazilians without access to services for treating water, where half the population has no sewage collection an...

  9. Ethics and science in brazilian legal discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Cota Marçal, Antônio; Nasser Cury, Paula Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Brazilian Constitution of 1988 declares Brazil as a Democratic State of Law. This formally democratic legal status has been facing difficulties when it comes to its material implementation. Brazilian legal procedures are still greatly influenced by the catholic heritage from Portugal in the times of colonization, translated in the present times into a strong moral set of dogmas that still reflects upon the legal production and interpretation in the country. Recently in Brazil, a debate br...

  10. Collective retaliation and the WTO dispute settlement system

    OpenAIRE

    Korotana, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    Article 22 of the Dispute Settlement Understanding (DSU) of the WTO offers, as last resort countermeasures, withdrawal of the concessions the state parties had agreed to in their schedules of commitments. The problem is that such a withdrawal of concessions would have very little impact on the economy and consequently on the behaviour of the respondent state if that party happened to be a developed state vis-à -vis a small, developing country. To deal with this situation a remedy of “collec...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON ASSESSMENT OF PAYMENT AND SETTLEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timeea Maria DUMESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Payment and settlement systems are financial instruments that are significant to the financial and banking system. Payment systems are a source of current information and an operative intervention tool by providing oversight use funds in the accounts of the banks. Since their implementation in the banking system structure these systems have evolved continuously in the market requirements, we are encountering major problems are mostly due to strict compliance with international standards, which ensure a high level of safety in their operation and measures by the central bank.

  12. (De)Legitimation at the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creamer, Cosette; Godzimirska, Zuzanna

    2016-01-01

    exercise of authority over time and across subsets of Members. In addition, through an in-depth examination of statements on focal reports, this paper sheds new light on the sources of the DSM's legitimacy by identifying practices that contribute to reducing or enhancing it in the eyes of the primary...... authority has been received by the system's primary constituents—WTO Members. Drawing on an original dataset of statements made by WTO Members within meetings of the Dispute Settlement Body from 1995-2013 and a series of interviews, this paper provides a descriptive analysis of expressed views on its...

  13. The Effect of Ancient Konya Lake to First Settlements

    OpenAIRE

    Tapur, Tahsin

    2009-01-01

    Ancient Konya Lake is placed in Konya Closed Basin in Middle Anatolian Region that consists of Konya, Çumra, Karaman, Ereğli, Karapınar plains. The average depth of the lake which occurred in pluvial conditions of Pleistocene is 15-20 metres. The level of the lake’s water has begun to decrease by the drought till Pleistocene to especially Holocene. This drought is still going on at present. It is seen that most of the first settlements are settled near the dried and getting dried lakes in ...

  14. Short term settlement of footing on snow foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Mahajan

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available "A constitutive theory for snow, developed by the authors, is applied to solve for the short-term settlement of footing on snow foundation. The constitutive law used is a microstructurally-based formulation which includes the effects of bond deformation and fracture. It also includes transient creep effects and strain hardening of snow. The foundation problem is solved for stress and displacement distribution, with two different loads of 0.008 MPa and 0.1 MPa distributed uniformly over a part of the top face. The stress distribution matches closely with the existing theoretical results.

  15. Moral Damages in Investor-State Dispute Settlement (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    TAMADA Dai

    2014-01-01

    Although it has been long thought that the object of protection in investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS) is the economic and material interests of investment, certain recent cases have shown that ISDS protects not only the economic interest of investment, but also some moral or non-material value, which had been damaged by host states by way of "moral damages." Is this implying that ISDS is now changing its character? On this issue, this research shows the following points. First, there wa...

  16. Futebol mulato: racial constructs in Brazilian football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Fernandes Maranhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review Gilberto Freyre’s ideas about futebol mulato and the way these ideas have spread the notion of the Brazilian mulatto as a symbol of a ‘racial democracy’, unique in Brazil, around the world. The notion first appeared in 1938 in an article by Freyre for the Diários Associados, an important Brazilian newspaper. Football (soccer was employed by Freyre as the special arena where the multiracial Brazilian nation could shine and show the world a different way of being, opposed to the white and ‘rational’ way of European football. In Freyre’s work, the so-called ‘football-art’ was compared to poetry, while the European style was equated with prose. This essay argues that Freyre’s ideas were useful in constructing the Brazilian identity, a nation of harmony in all its aspects, including the area of race, and how the idea of the mulatto has been used to minimise social disparities within Brazilian society. Freyre’s ideas remain contemporary; many Brazilian intellectuals still refer to these concepts. As well, the press in this huge country, and especially in World Cup years, uses the concepts of mulatto and football-art to characterize Brazil and differentiate it from other countries.

  17. 3rd BRAZILIAN CONSENSUS ON Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Coelho

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Significant progress has been obtained since the Second Brazilian Consensus Conference on Helicobacter pylori Infection held in 2004, in São Paulo, SP, Brazil, and justify a third meeting to establish updated guidelines on the current management of H. pylori infection. The Third Brazilian Consensus Conference on H pylori Infection was organized by the Brazilian Nucleus for the Study of Helicobacter, a Department of the Brazilian Federation of Gastroenterology and took place on April 12-15, 2011, in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. Thirty-one delegates coming from the five Brazilian regions and one international guest, including gastroenterologists, pathologists, epidemiologists, and pediatricians undertook the meeting. The participants were allocated in one of the five main topics of the meeting: H pylori, functional dyspepsia and diagnosis; H pylori and gastric cancer; H pylori and other associated disorders; H pylori treatment and retreatment; and, epidemiology of H pylori infection in Brazil. The results of each subgroup were submitted to a final consensus voting to all participants. Relevant data were presented, and the quality of evidence, strength of recommendation, and level of consensus were graded. Seventy per cent and more votes were considered as acceptance for the final statement. This article presents the main recommendations and conclusions to guide Brazilian doctors involved in the management of H pylori infection.

  18. Identitarian Politics in the "Quilombo" Frechal: Live Histories in a Brazilian Community of Slave Descendants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Malighetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Based on an extended fieldwork, the paper discusses the construction of identity in a Brazilian quilombo - a term originally used by the Portuguese authorities to juridically define the flights of the Brazilian slaves. Appealing to a Constitutional Article granting the property of the land to the descendant of the fugitive slaves, the people of Frechal (Maranhão obtained - after complex events overshadowed by tension and violence - the expropriation of the land bought by an entrepreneur of São Paulo with the precise intent to forcibly expel the local population. Founding their right on an idea of cultural authenticity and mobilizing a symbolism capable of legitimating their claims and of giving them a legal weight, they transformed themselves from object of slavery, discrimination and racism to ethno-political subjects. Proceeding from the analysis of this paradigmatic case, the article shows how the term quilombo can be "re-semanticized" in order to be applicable to the contemporary situations of the Afro-Brazilian population. The actuality of the word, transferred from its original juridical meaning of colonial matrix, is founded on the idea that the quilombos are not isolated survivals of the past to honor in the memory of the heroes that fought against slavery. Rather they represent true projects of a new political order, nuclei of the contemporary resistance founded on the collective property of the land. As such the quilombos are considered as real counterpoints to the neoliberal expansion in the rural areas.

  19. Characterization of human thermal comfort in urban areas of brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vieira de Azevedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Experimental studies were conducted aiming to characterize the thermal conditions in urban areas of the Brazilian semiarid for identifying the level of human thermal comfort in urban areas of the municipalities of Mossoró-RN, Serra Talhada-PE, Petrolina-PE and Juazeiro-BA. The results showed that the constituent elements of urban areas contribute to human thermal discomfort index (DIT. Both the wet and dry seasons showed up an uncomfortable condition in Mossoró on May 15th and on 23rd, 2008 (rural area and on May 25rd, 2008 (urban area. By applying Thom's equation for obtaining the DIT, it was observed that the urban areas reported thermal comfort conditions always inferior to those observed in the rural areas. The results indicate conditions of partial comfort for the all areas surveyed. However, the incidence of human thermal discomfort related to the minimum, average and maximum air temperatures are, probably associated to the formation of urban heat islands. In addition, the afforestation is an effective mechanism of mitigating the adverse effects of these structures with better quality of life to the population. Therefore, it can be stated that the Brazilian semiarid region has specific urban climate, which is influenced by the design characteristics of the urban structure and buildings.

  20. Rural Veterans by State

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...

  1. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has a high degree of social and economic integration with the core as measured by commuting ties. 3. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Services Rural Classification Page: http://www.ers.usda.gov/ ...

  2. Changing Rural Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    more complex picture and understanding of rural development. The paper therefore tracks the evolution and origin of development paradigms, methods and objectives. Beginning in the 1950s is an “industrial” paradigm promoting industrial development and linked closely to the welfare state institutions....... Alongside this were agricultural policies and reforms that have been central in promoting large-scale production and “competitive” units. Where earlier policies were centered on national equality in and between regions and by redistribution and subsidies, this overarching aim and methodology was abandoned...... somewhere in the 1980s in order to improve the competitive power of Danish rural areas one for one. What is new then, is the international, or perhaps post-national, reasoning of rural policies, a tendency influencing not only the “new” rural paradigm, but also the still-going “old” agricultural and...

  3. Rural Wellness and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Community Health Tools for Success Am I Rural? Economic Impact Analysis Tool Planning for Sustainability Testing New ... provided time during the day to stretch or exercise, sponsored wellness fairs, and awarded recognition for worksite ...

  4. Tourism in Rural Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAI IELENICZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is now determined by limited economic opportunities, poor infrastructure, low motivation to possible offers, lack of proper service guarantees. Nearly 500 Romanian villages are already tourist locations, with certain characteristics determined by a heritage item, or complex ones when multiple components lead to various activities. This paper includes a typology of tourist villages in Romania according to the types of practiced tourist activities, insisting on the use of a more comprehensive terminology: tourism in rural environment, participative and creative tourism in rural areas. Tourism becomes a system accepted in the rural environment as a real opportunity for economic development with multiple social consequences. By multiplying tourism potential to meet tourists’ demands, many villages will get tourism valences with various activities in this filed, including environment protection.

  5. What Is Rural?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Community Survey, including age, race and ethnicity, migration and immigration, education, household size and family composition. ... USDA." 2. U.S. Census Bureau Geographic Terms and Concepts - Urban and Rural. http://www.census.gov/geo/ ...

  6. "Ruralizing" Presidential Job Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Rural community college presidential job advertisements that focus on geography, politics, and culture can improve the likelihood of a good fit between the senior leader and the institution. (Contains 2 figures.)

  7. Mozambique - Rural Water Supply

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — This report provides the results from (1) an impact evaluation of the MCA's Rural Water Point Implementation Program ('RWPIP') in Nampula and (2) an evaluation of...

  8. Medicaid and Rural Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... programs. How does Medicaid impact rural healthcare and the economy? In many ways, Medicaid plays a larger role ... supporting the social services infrastructure; and contributing to the economy through revenue and jobs it generates.” Findings in ...

  9. Organizing Rural Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Mikkel

    2012-01-01

    The liberalization of health care in the course of three decades of ‘reform and opening up’ has given people in rural China access to a diverse range of treatment options, but the health care system has also been marred by accusations of price hikes, fake pharmaceuticals, and medical malpractice....... This chapter offers an ethnographic description of health as an issue in a Hebei township and it focuses on a popular and a statist response to the perceived inadequacy of the rural health care system. The revival of religious practices in rural China is obviously motivated by many factors, but in the township...... roads to healing. The recent introduction of new rural cooperative medicine in the township represents an attempt to bring the state back in and address popular concern with the cost and quality of health care. While superficially reminiscent of the traditional socialist system, this new state attempt...

  10. Positioning for the Development of New Rural Financial Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on regional differences,differences in the content and scale of economic activities,we analyze different levels of rural financial needs in China,using the system analysis method.Different types of financial need subject have characteristics of diversity and hierarchy in terms of financial needs,in need of different credit patterns and credit mechanisms for satisfaction.Based on this,we position the differentiated development of new rural financial organizations as follows:village and town banks should be established in the central and west regions and counties with the proportion of primary industry higher than the national average,to actively innovate upon loan types,support maintenance-oriented farmers, market-oriented farmers and small and medium-sized agriculture-related enterprises;loan companies and small loan companies can be established in the regions with the potential for development,lacking collaboration between economy and finance,to constantly explore the loan types and innovate upon the loan patterns for self-employed households,micro-enterprises and farmers;it is appropriate to establish rural credit union in the poverty-stricken areas with sluggish economic development and relatively isolated remote areas,to provide services for farmers and micro-enterprises, especially impoverished farmers,provide the business such as deposits,loans,and settlement for members,actively carry out business consulting services for members’poverty alleviation and income increase.

  11. RURAL TOURISM IN DOBRUDGEA

    OpenAIRE

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-01-01

    The natural and anthropic tourism resources of a certain area generate specific tourism forms, which complete each other within the different destination categories.The rural area in Dobrudja has diversified tourism potential, provided by the contrast of natural environment factors, ranging from the oldest and to the youngest relief units, natural protected areas, spa resources and cultural, historical, religious sites, as well as multicultural local customs and traditions of the rural area. ...

  12. Malacological survey and geographical distribution of vector snails for schistosomiasis within informal settlements of Kisumu City, western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opisa Selpha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although schistosomiasis is generally considered a rural phenomenon, infections have been reported within urban settings. Based on observations of high prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infection in schools within the informal settlements of Kisumu City, a follow-up malacological survey incorporating 81 sites within 6 informal settlements of the City was conducted to determine the presence of intermediate host snails and ascertain whether active transmission was occurring within these areas. Methods Surveyed sites were mapped using a geographical information system. Cercaria shedding was determined from snails and species of snails identified based on shell morphology. Vegetation cover and presence of algal mass at the sites was recorded, and the physico-chemical characteristics of the water including pH and temperature were determined using a pH meter with a glass electrode and a temperature probe. Results Out of 1,059 snails collected, 407 (38.4% were putatively identified as Biomphalaria sudanica, 425 (40.1% as Biomphalaria pfeifferi and 227 (21.5% as Bulinus globosus. The spatial distribution of snails was clustered, with few sites accounting for most of the snails. The highest snail abundance was recorded in Nyamasaria (543 snails followed by Nyalenda B (313 snails. As expected, the mean snail abundance was higher along the lakeshore (18 ± 12 snails compared to inland sites (dams, rivers and springs (11 ± 32 snails (F1, 79 = 38.8, P Biomphalaria snails was higher in the inland (2.7% compared to the lakeshore sites (0.3% (P = 0.0109. B. sudanica was more abundant in sites along the lakeshore whereas B. pfeifferi and B. globosus were more abundant in the inland sites. Biomphalaria and Bulinus snails were found at 16 and 11 out of the 56 inland sites, respectively. Conclusions The high abundance of Biomphalaria and Bulinus spp. as well as observation of field-caught snails shedding cercariae confirmed that besides Lake

  13. Progress toward sustainable settlements: a role for urban climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, G.

    2006-02-01

    Sustainable development can be defined as that which meets the needs of the current generation while leaving sufficient resources for the needs of future generations. A central objective is to decouple conventional resource use (and its corollary, waste generation) from economic development through technological innovation, improved efficiency and changes in individual practices. As the global population becomes urbanized and human activity is concentrated in urban areas, settlement planning is a key aspect of sustainability. The widespread inclusion of environmental objectives in urban plans at all scales provides an opportunity for the incorporation of urban climate knowledge into the planning process on a routine basis. Many of the stated objectives have both direct and indirect connections to climate. However, for this to happen, climate research and results must be linked more explicitly to the objectives of the sustainable settlement. In this paper, the relevance of sustainability to urban design and climate is discussed and the potential contribution of current urban climatology is assessed, identifying areas of special consideration for transfer to achieve sustainable urban planning and design.

  14. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  15. Precolombian settlements in French Guiana : geoarchaeological approach toward a new understanding of the human impact on landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancier, J.; Cammas, C.; Todisco, D.; Fouache, E.

    2012-04-01

    Recent archaeological research in French Guiana conducted by INRAP (Institut National de Recherches Archéologiques Préventives), specifically in the Couac Program (Cirad, Inra, Inrap) revealed precolombian settlements on different geomorphic contexts like coastal and fluvial areas, as is seen in Brazil, but also what seems to be quite a dense occupation on higher grounds (mounds). Most of the times, the excavation shows cultural remains like pottery, archaeological pits and ditches, as well as sediments that are described by the archaeologists as "thick and dark-coloured layers". In Brazil, dark layers found in archaeological sites are called Terra Preta do Indio or Amazonian Dark Earth (ADE), and their study is thought necessary to explain and understand ancient human settlement. In Brazil, geoarchaeological methods as well as chemical analyses, pedology and micromorphology helped to describe ADE and understand their archaeological potential and characteristics. In order to better understand the French Guiana dark layers, we studied two sites from the estuarine zone of the lower Maroni River (Surinam border) (Chemin Saint Louis and Balaté at Saint Laurent du Maroni), and two ring-ditched hilltop sites, on ferralsols, in the interfluvial forest area ("Montagnes Couronnées" in French) (MC 87 et 88, near Regina). Regarding Brazilians research on ADE, we described for the first time the archaeological stratigraphy of French Guiana ancient settlement using a geoarchaeological approach combining biogeochemistry, pedology in correlation with micromorphological analyses. Our first results show that dark layers from archaeological sites studied are very different from natural soils underneath in the estuarine zone. Although, the pH is quite low, micromorphological analyses show clay coatings in the alluvial terrace before human settlement. These analyses also show more organic matter and charcoals in the archaeological layers than beneath, and very large amounts of

  16. Changing Settlements and Landscapes: Medieval Whittlewood, its Predecessors and Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Jones

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an interpretative synthesis of the development of a medieval landscape in the English Midlands. It explores its administrative organisation and divisions; the exploitation of its woodland, pasture, and arable resources; and the creation, growth, and decline of its villages, hamlets and farmsteads. It takes as its central theme two inter-related oppositions: continuity and change, moments and processes. In particular it examines the role these played in the development of varying settlement morphologies (the area under investigation contains both nucleated and dispersed settlement forms and in the introduction and demise of the open field system. The article is based on the investigation of twenty-one medieval villages and hamlets and their surrounding landscapes, straddling the Northamptonshire-Buckinghamshire boundary and previously falling within the royal forest of Whittlewood. This work was undertaken between 2000 and 2005 as part of an AHRC (formerly ARHB-funded research project. This enquiry, and the use it has made of the comparative method, has pinpointed moments of village and hamlet 'creation' and the alternative forms that these could take in their earliest phases. The subsequent development of these settlements has been charted, revealing the divergent paths they took towards the nucleated or dispersed plans they present when first mapped in the 17th, 18th or 19th centuries. This dynamic pattern of settlement has been set against a background of related changes to the authoritative landscape, which saw the fission and fusion of administrative units; to the economic landscape, which witnessed the development of the open field system and the re-organisation of woodland; and to social and cultural landscapes, affected inter alia by the growth and decline of population, and the imposition of Forest Law. The reconstruction of these medieval village territories has only been achieved by adopting an interdisciplinary

  17. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake..., Chicago, Illinois, C-14J, 60604, (312) 886-6609. Comments should reference the Lake Linden Superfund...

  18. 76 FR 14968 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Eugenio Painting Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Industrial Street Drum Site in Dearborn, Michigan with the following settling party: Eugenio Painting Company. The settlement......

  19. 17 CFR 240.6h-1 - Settlement and regulatory halt requirements for security futures products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... price of a cash-settled security futures product must fairly reflect the opening price of the underlying... settlement price of the security futures product shall fairly reflect: (i) The price of the underlying...(b)(7)), to which the final settlement price of a security futures product is or would be...

  20. Entity of the mutual settlements in context of economic security of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzhytskiy I. V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defined the list of conceptual issues that must decide the management of enterprise in the organization of the mutual settlements in context of economic security. Developed the system of agency relationship that forms the essence of mutual settlements and identifying the most common payment distribution of enterprise with other members of agency relations.

  1. 48 CFR 49.603-8 - Fixed-price contracts-settlements with subcontractors only.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fixed-price contracts-settlements with subcontractors only. 49.603-8 Section 49.603-8 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL....603-8 Fixed-price contracts—settlements with subcontractors only. (a) This agreement settles...

  2. 48 CFR 49.304-2 - Submission of settlement proposal (fee only).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Submission of settlement proposal (fee only). 49.304-2 Section 49.304-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Contracts Terminated for Convenience 49.304-2 Submission of settlement proposal (fee only). The...

  3. 76 FR 32202 - Proposed Settlement Agreement for Recovery of Past Response Costs Under the Comprehensive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    ... Reauthorization Act of 1986; in Re: Agawam Sportsman's Club Superfund Site, Located in Agawam, MA AGENCY... settlement for recovery of past response costs at the Agawam Sportsman's Club Superfund Site, in Agawam, Massachusetts. The settlement requires the settling party, Agwam Sportsman's Club, Inc. (``ASC'') to sell...

  4. 10 CFR 2.338 - Settlement of issues; alternative dispute resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Settlement of issues; alternative dispute resolution. 2... alternative dispute resolution under paragraph (b) of this section. (b) Settlement judge; alternative dispute... alternative dispute resolution as the Commission may provide or to which the parties may agree. The......

  5. 24 CFR 30.100 - Settlement of a civil money penalty action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Settlement of a civil money penalty... Housing and Urban Development CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES: CERTAIN PROHIBITED CONDUCT Procedures § 30.100 Settlement of a civil money penalty action. The officials listed at subpart B of this part, or...

  6. India : CPSS-IOSCO Recommendations for Securities Settlement Systems and Central Counterparties

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank, (WB)

    2013-01-01

    The securities and derivatives clearing and settlement systems in India are organized around different types of products, which are (1) government securities, money market instruments and forex instruments; (2) corporate securities and financial derivatives; and (3) commodity derivatives. The scope of this assessment is limited to the clearing and settlement systems for the first two sets ...

  7. 77 FR 24200 - American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... AGENCY American Drum & Pallet, Memphis, Shelby County, TN; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental... settlement for reimbursement of past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet Superfund Site...-04- 2012-3770 or Site name American Drum & Pallet Superfund Site by one of the following methods:...

  8. 77 FR 47840 - American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... AGENCY American Drum and Pallet Company Site; Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee; Notice of settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the American Drum and Pallet... Drum and Pallet Company Site by one of the following methods:...

  9. 22 CFR 23.5 - Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... General Accounting Office. 23.5 Section 23.5 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE FEES AND FUNDS FINANCE AND ACCOUNTING § 23.5 Claims for settlement by Department of State or General Accounting Office. Claims for settlement by the Department of State or by the General Accounting Office shall be...

  10. 75 FR 33617 - Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Proposed Settlement Agreement and Opportunity for Public Comment: West Huntington Spill... United States Department of Justice on behalf of EPA, in connection with the West Huntington Spill Site, Huntington, West Virginia (``Site''). DATES: Written comments on the proposed settlement agreement must...

  11. Coral settlement onto Halimeda opuntia: a fatal attraction to an ephemeral substrate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugues, Maggy M.; Szmant, Alina M.

    2006-11-01

    Degraded reefs with a high abundance of macroalgae usually also have low densities of coral recruits. Few studies, however, have examined whether these algae affect coral larval settlement. This study demonstrates, experimentally, that larvae of the Caribbean coral Favia fragrum can settle on the green alga Halimeda opuntia even when another substrate more suitable for settlement is present. Larval settlement onto experimental substrates was quantified under three treatments: rubble only, rubble plus plastic algal mimic, and rubble plus live H. opuntia. Similar total larval settlement was observed in all treatments. No larvae settled on the algal mimic, but total settlement was similar on the rubble in the first two treatments, showing that the rubble alone offered sufficient substrate for high settlement success. About half the larvae in the live algal treatment settled on H. opuntia instead of on the rubble, showing that larvae did not reject this substrate as they did the algal mimic. This result raises the possibility that corals will settle on some macroalgae when their abundance is high. Most macroalgae, including H. opuntia, are ephemeral substrates unsuitable for post-settlement survival. Such unexpected settlement may therefore have significant consequences for coral recruitment success on algal-dominated reefs.

  12. 75 FR 36271 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 3500 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (RESPA): Home Warranty Companies' Payments to Real Estate Brokers and Agents AGENCY: Office of General Counsel, HUD. ACTION... performed by real estate brokers and agents as additional settlement services in a real estate...

  13. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... EPA Region 4 contact Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Ward...

  14. Centrifuge model test on earthquake-induced differential settlement of foundation on cohesive ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAMOTO; Yasuhiro; HOTTA; Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic centrifuge model test was conducted to study the earthquake-induced differential settlement of foundation on cohesive ground, and the influence of asymmetry of building was investigated. During the experiment, the overconsolidated kaolin clay ground with a three-dimensional asymmetrical structure model was shaken by a basically balanced input motion, and bender elements were used to measure shear wave velocities of model ground to reveal the soil fabric evolution during and after shaking. The test results show that, the total seismic settlement of foundation is composed of instantaneous and long-term post-earthquake settlements, and most of the differential settlement occurs immediately after the earthquake while the post-earthquake settlement is relatively uniform despite its large amplitude. The asymmetry of building affects the settlement behavior considerably. Compared with 1-or 2-dimensional structures, more evident differential settlement occurs under threedimensional asymmetrical building during shaking, which accounts for one-half of the total seismic settlements and results in complex spatial tilting effects of foundation.

  15. 78 FR 43881 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site, Davie, Broward County, Florida; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement with Jap. Tech, Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  16. 78 FR 13339 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... AGENCY Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement with 2238 NW. 86th Street Inc. concerning the Florida Petroleum... Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Florida Petroleum Reprocesssors Site by...

  17. 17 CFR 31.29 - Arbitration or other dispute settlement procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arbitration or other dispute... COMMISSION LEVERAGE TRANSACTIONS § 31.29 Arbitration or other dispute settlement procedures. Each self..., equitable and expeditious procedure, through arbitration or otherwise, for the voluntary settlement of...

  18. Settlement and recruitment of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaonkar, C.A.; Anil, A.C.

    , with two-phase life cycle, and understanding the determinants of recruitment is a complex problem. Many processes which operate during the pelagic pre-settlement phase and benthic post-settlement phase at different spatial and temporal scales can determine...

  19. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Protection Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road...

  20. MSettle Version 8.2 - Embankment Design and Soil Settlement Prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, M.A.T.; Trompille, V.

    2009-01-01

    This is the user manual for MSetuser manual tle, which is being developed by Delft GeoSystems, a Deltares company. MSettle is a dedicated tool for predicting soil settlements by external loading. MSettle accurately and quickly determines the direct settlement, consolidation and creep along verticals