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Sample records for brazilian resource population

  1. Pharmacogenetics in the Brazilian population

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    Guilherme eSuarez-Kurtz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world and its present population, in excess of 190 million, is highly heterogeneous, as a result of centuries of admixture between Amerindians, Europeans and Sub-Saharan Africans. The estimated individual proportions of biogeographical ancestry vary widely and continuously among Brazilians, most individuals - irrespective of self-identification as White, Brown or Black, the major categories of the Brazilian Census race/color system - having significant degrees of European and African ancestry, while a sizeable number display also Amerindian ancestry. These features have important pharmacogenetic (PGx implications: first, extrapolation of PGx data from relatively well-defined ethnic groups is clearly not applicable to the majority of Brazilians; second, the frequency distribution of polymorphisms in pharmacogenes (e.g. CYP3A5, CYP2C9, GSTM1, ABCB1, GSTM3, VKORC, etc varies continuously among Brazilians and is not captured by race/color self-identification; third, the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of PGx studies in order to avoid spurious conclusions based on improper matching of study cohorts. The peculiarities of PGx in Brazilians are illustrated with data for different therapeutic groups, such as anticoagulants, HIV-protease inhibitors and nonsteroidal antinflammatory drugs, and the challenges and advantages created by population admixture for the study and implementation of PGx are discussed. PGx data for Amerindian groups and Brazilian-born, first generation Japanese are presented to illustrate the rich diversity of the Brazilian population. Finally, I introduce the reader to the Brazilian Pharmacogenetic Network or Refargen (www.refargen.org.br, a nationwide consortium of research groups, with the mission to provide leadership in PGx research and education in Brazil, with a population health impact.

  2. HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT PRACTICES IN BRAZILIAN COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the analysis of human resource management practices for Brazilian companies. The country-specific context and organizational behavior peculiarities of Brazil define the companies’ approach for HRM practices. The example of “CCR Group” is considered as a case study example. Analysis from company structure, culture specific context, current situation of human resource management not only in this company, but also in Brazil, in order to give the recommendation about how to ...

  3. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, R; Costa, C H; Lopes, A J; Maiworm, A I; Maynard, K; Silva, L M R A; Dias, R M

    2017-03-02

    The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%), 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%), and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT). This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index). From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method). Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9). The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5), and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  4. Hydropower Resource Assessment of Brazilian Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas G. Hall

    2011-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with the assistance of the Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE) and the Agencia Nacional de Energia Electrica (ANEEL) has performed a comprehensive assessment of the hydropower potential of all Brazilian natural streams. The methodology by which the assessment was performed is described. The results of the assessment are presented including an estimate of the hydropower potential for all of Brazil, and the spatial distribution of hydropower potential thus providing results on a state by state basis. The assessment results have been incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) application for the Internet called the Virtual Hydropower Prospector do Brasil. VHP do Brasil displays potential hydropower sites on a map of Brazil in the context of topography and hydrography, existing power and transportation infrastructure, populated places and political boundaries, and land use. The features of the application, which includes tools for finding and selecting potential hydropower sites and other features and displaying their attributes, is fully described.

  5. Spirometry reference values in the Brazilian population

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    R. Rufino

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide new spirometry reference equations in a sample of the Brazilian population for the following parameters: forced vital capacity (FVC, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, FEV1/FVC ratio, peak of expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory flow at 50% (FEF50%, 75% average vital capacity (FEF25-75%, and average forced expiratory flow time (FEFT. This was a prospective study using results from chest radiographs, electrocardiograms, and questionnaires to investigate the participants' respiratory symptoms, sedentarism, and comorbidities (Charlson comorbidity index. From December 2010 to July 2014, individuals were randomly selected from various locations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. All individuals were examined by a single technician in the morning at the laboratory, and performed the spirometry with the same spirometer. Spirometry values were tabulated for the creation of three equation models: linear regression, logarithmic regression, and logarithms through a method that incorporates the lambda, median, and coefficient of variation (LMS method. Initially, 7003 individuals from both genders were contacted, and 454 were recruited. The data from the new equations were compared with one Brazilian and eight international equations, resulting in a high correlation (r>0.9. The values derived from the LMS method and linear regression were very similar (P>0.5, and both could be used to acquire the reference values for Brazilian spirometry. Data derived from the equations of this study were different from the current Brazilian equation, which could be justified by the different method used.

  6. Sleep complaints in the Brazilian population: Impact of socioeconomic factors

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    Camila Hirotsu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available National surveys are relevant for the study of sleep epidemiology since they can provide specific data about sleep in large dimension with important implications for the health system. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep complaints among the Brazilian population using a randomized cluster sample according to region and socioeconomic class. For this, a 3-stage sampling technique was used to randomly select Brazilian subjects of both genders older than 16 years. A total of 2017 subjects, from 132 different cities, were selected to estimate prevalence in the Brazilian population with a sampling error of ±2%. Questions about sleep complaints were administered face-to-face by Instituto Datafolha interviewers on April 10 and 16, 2012. Data were expanded using a weighted variable. The results showed that 76% of the study population suffers from at least 1 sleep complaint, indicating that approximately 108 million Brazilians may be affected by sleep disorders. On average, each subject had 1.9 sleep problems with the most common complaints being light and insufficient sleep, snoring, moving a lot during sleep, and insomnia, which usually occurred more than 3 times per week. Low income was associated with higher number of sleep complaints only in Northeast and Southeast regions. In conclusion, this study showed a high prevalence of sleep complaints in a sample of the Brazilian population, suggesting that sleep disorders may be markedly frequent in the Brazilian population with a possible correlation with the socioeconomic situation of the interviewed subjects.

  7. Huntington disease: DNA analysis in brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    RASKIN, SALMO; ALLAN, NASSER; TEIVE, HÉLIO A.G.; CARDOSO, FRANCISCO; HADDAD, MÔNICA SANTORO; LEVI, GILBERTO; BOY, RAQUEL; LERENA JR, JUAN; SOTOMAIOR, VANESSA SANTOS; JANZEN-DÜCK, MÔNICA; JARDIM, LAURA BANNACH; FELLANDER, FLÁVIO R.; ANDRADE, LUIZ AUGUSTO FRANCO

    2000-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is associated with expansions of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the HD gene. Accurate measurement of a specific CAG repeat sequence in the HD gene in 92 Brazilian controls without HD, 44 Brazilian subjects with clinical findings suggestive of HD and 40 individuals from 6 putative HD families, showed a range from 7 to 33 repeats in normal subjects and 39 to 88 repeats in affected subjects. A trend between early age at onset of first symptoms and increasing number of repe...

  8. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Silva, Jose M.C.; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. Methods We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. Results We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. Discussion These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity. PMID:29038758

  9. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon

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    Érico E. Kauano

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The Brazilian Amazon is the world’s largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. Methods We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. Results We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%, followed by illegal fishing (27.30% and hunting activities (18.20%. The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. Discussion These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  10. Illegal use of natural resources in federal protected areas of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauano, Érico E; Silva, Jose M C; Michalski, Fernanda

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Amazon is the world's largest rainforest regions and plays a key role in biodiversity conservation as well as climate adaptation and mitigation. The government has created a network of protected areas (PAs) to ensure long-term conservation of the region. However, despite the importance of and positive advances in the establishment of PAs, natural resource depletion in the Brazilian Amazon is pervasive. We evaluated a total of 4,243 official law enforcement records generated between 2010 and 2015 to understand the geographical distribution of the illegal use of resources in federal PAs in the Brazilian Amazon. We classified illegal activities into ten categories and used generalized additive models (GAMs) to evaluate the relationship between illegal use of natural resources inside PAs with management type, age of PAs, population density, and accessibility. We found 27 types of illegal use of natural resources that were grouped into 10 categories of illegal activities. Most infractions were related to suppression and degradation of vegetation (37.40%), followed by illegal fishing (27.30%) and hunting activities (18.20%). The explanatory power of the GAMs was low for all categories of illegal activity, with a maximum explained variation of 41.2% for illegal activities as a whole, and a minimum of 14.6% for hunting activities. These findings demonstrate that even though PAs are fundamental for nature conservation in the Brazilian Amazon, the pressures and threats posed by human activities include a broad range of illegal uses of natural resources. Population density up to 50 km from a PA is a key variable, influencing illegal activities. These threats endanger long-term conservation and many efforts are still needed to maintain PAs that are large enough and sufficiently intact to maintain ecosystem functions and protect biodiversity.

  11. Spinopelvic parameters evaluation in a Brazilian population sample.

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    Jacob, C J; Cardoso, I M; Batista, J L J; Maia, T C; Roncaglio, B

    2015-07-01

    The morphology of the spine is variable within a population, and its maintenance in appropriate values implies a decrease in the energy expended. We need to know their normal values in population. This study aims to carry out a literature review and evaluate published papers on spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample. Eleven potentially eligible papers were initially identified for inclusion in this review: three papers from PubMed and eight from Medicine. Out of these, only five papers contained methodology and relevant significance level, and therefore, they were included in the final analytical run. According to a Brazilian study, Pratali mentions no significant difference in the average values of spinopelvic balance in the Brazilian population and those found in the literature; there was also no significant difference comparing Brazilian and Korean population; however, a difference was found in comparison with European population regarding PI parameters and SS, but the latter with higher values. According to Kulcheski (Column/Columna 12:224-227, 2013), the values of pelvic tilt in the Brazilian population evaluated in his research were 19° (10°-35°) and the sacral inclination was 38° (30°-55°), presenting similar values concerning the European population. In another Brazilian paper, Oliveira (Rev Bras Ort 49:189-193, 2014) reports that the research population had PI average of 45° (41.9°-48.1°). The values obtained are relatively minor when compared to the European population. However, all of these are within the normal margin considered in the worldwide literature.

  12. Analysis of paternal lineages in Brazilian and African populations

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    Mónica Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present-day Brazilian population is a consequence of the admixture of various peoples of very different origins, namely, Amerindians, Europeans and Africans. The proportion of each genetic contribution is known to be very heterogeneous throughout the country. The aim of the present study was to compare the male lineages present in two distinct Brazilian populations, as well as to evaluate the African contribution to their male genetic substrate. Thus, two Brazilian population samples from Manaus (State of Amazon and Ribeirão Preto (State of São Paulo and three African samples from Guinea Bissau, Angola and Mozambique were typed for a set of nine Y chromosome specific STRs. The data were compared with those from African, Amerindian and European populations. By using Y-STR haplotype information, low genetic distances were found between the Manaus and Ribeirão Preto populations, as well as between these and others from Iberia. Likewise, no significant distances were observed between any of the African samples from Angola, Mozambique and Guinea Bissau. Highly significant Rst values were found between both Brazilian samples and all the African and Amerindian populations. The absence of a significant Sub-Saharan African male component resulting from the slave trade, and the low frequency in Amerindian ancestry Y-lineages in the Manaus and Ribeirão Preto population samples are in accordance with the accentuated gender asymmetry in admixture processes that has been systematically reported in colonial South American populations.

  13. Governance in managing public health resources in Brazilian municipalities.

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    Avelino, George; Barberia, Lorena G; Biderman, Ciro

    2014-09-01

    This study contributes to the health governance discussion by presenting a new data set that allows for comparisons of the management of health resources among Brazilian municipalities. Research on Brazil is particularly important as the provision of health services was decentralized in 1988 and since then municipalities have been given greater responsibilities for the management of fiscal resources for public health service provision. Based on detailed information on corruption practices (such as over-invoicing, illegal procurement and fake receipts) from audit reports of health programmes in 980 randomly selected Brazilian municipalities, this study deepens understanding of the relationship between health governance institutions and the incidence of corruption at the local level by exploring the extent to which horizontal and vertical accountabilities contribute to reducing the propensity of municipal government officials to divert public health resources for private gain. The results of our multiple regression analysis suggest that the experience of health municipal councils is correlated with reductions in the incidence of corruption in public health programmes. This impact is significant over time, with each additional year of health council experience reducing corruption incidence levels by 2.1% from baseline values. The findings reported in this study do not rely on the subjectivity of corruption measures which usually conflate the actual incidence of corruption with its perception by informants. Based on our results, we provide recommendations that can assist policy makers to reduce corruption. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  14. Private Health Care Coverage in the Brazilian population, according to the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey.

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    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Stopa, Sheila Rizzato; Pereira, Cimar Azeredo; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann; Oliveira, Martha; Reis, Arthur Chioro Dos

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to present the percentages of the Brazilian population holding health insurance plans, itemized by social-demographic characteristics, based on the data of the National Health Survey carried out in 2013, and to compare this information with the administrative data of the National Supplementary Health Agency for the same year. Data from the National Health Survey, and from the Beneficiaries Information System of the National Health Agency for the year 2013, were used. The percentage of people having a health plan was described according to stratification for: all of Brazil, urban/rural, Brazilian official Regions, Brazilian States and state capitals, gender, age group, level of schooling, position in the workforce, ethnic classification, and self-assessed state of health. Results include the following: The percentage of people saying they had some health plan in Brazil was 27.9% (CI 95%: 27.1-28.8). A significant difference was found relating to level of schooling - the percentage being highest for those who stated they had complete secondary education (68.8% CI 95%: 67.2-70.4) and for those who said they were currently in work (32.5% CI 95%: 31.5-33.5). The increase in health plan coverage in the Brazilian population reflects the improvement of the suply of employment and the growth in the country's economy.

  15. Population and human resources development.

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    Jones, G W

    1992-06-01

    The concern of this discourse on social development planning was that individuals be part of human resources development. Population growth is an obstacle to social development, but so is national expenditures on the military rather than diverting funds for social improvements. There are important benefits for society in social development: a valued consumption good, increased productivity, and reduced fertility. Dissatisfaction with an economic growth model of development occurred during the 1960s, and by the mid-1980s, human resource development was capsuled in Asia and the Pacific Region in the Jakarta Plan of Action on Human Resources Development and adopted in 1988. Earlier approaches favored the supply side. This article emphasizes "human" development which considers people as more than inputs to productivity. The quality of human resources is dependent on the family and society, the educational system, and individual levels of health and nutrition. Differences in income levels between East and South Asia have been attributed by Oshima to full use of the labor force and mechanization and training of workers. Ogawa, Jones, and Williamson contend that huge investment in infrastructure, efficient absorption of advanced technology, a stable political environment, and commitment to human capital formation are key to development. Demographic transition and decline in fertility at one point reflect growth and engagement in the labor force and resource accumulation. Although East Asia had higher levels of literacy and educational attainment than many developing countries, South Asia still has high fertility. Human resource development is dependent on reduced population growth rates, but rapid population growth is not an insurmountable obstacle to achieving higher levels of education. Rapid population growth is a greater obstacle in poorer countries. The impact can be reflected in increased costs of attaining educational targets of universal primary education or in

  16. Brazilian population 1982: growth, migration, race, religion.

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    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    The rate of population increase dropped to less than 2.5% annually in Brazil between 1970-80, but 26 million more people were born. The 1980 census also provides details of continuing urbanization, settlement of the farthest frontiers, and changes in racial composition. The direct cause of the drop in population increase was a drop of about 15% in the fertility rate that had been projected for the decade. Brazil's rate of population increase declined impressively despite the fact that the country continued to make progress in reducing mortality. The greatest improvement occurred between 1930-60. The mortality rate averaged 20.9/1000 between 1940-50 but dropped to 14.2/1000 between 1950-60. Even though the crude death rate dropped 28% in the 1970-80 decade and each child born in 1980 can expect to live 6.5 years longer than a child born in 1970, the life expectancy of 62 years compares with Colombia and El Salvador, which are much poorer countries. In Brazil as a whole the crude birthrate in the 15-19 age group was 66/1000 in 1980. It was 46/1000 in 1970, an increase of nearly 50%. In urban areas the rate increased from 37/1000 to 57/1000 and in the countryside from 59/1000 to 89/1000. The crude birthrate went down slightly in Brazil from 1970-80 from 34 to 32/1000. The total fertility rate (TFR) dropped in the same period from 4.9ll to 3.983. The question that arises is whether fertility rates will increase, with women in the youngest age group continuing to have more children during their reproductive years. Internal migration plays a major role in the distribution of the population. Between 1970-80 there were changes in the migration pattern from the previous decade. All the rapidly growing areas, defined as the frontier, have high fertility rates, but much of their growth results from migration. Between 1960-70 and 1970-80 the most rapidly growing areas of the frontier changed. Few are aware of the extent to which Brazil is becoming a country of large cities

  17. Economic and social characteristics of the Brazilian population.

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    Sanders, T G

    1982-01-01

    The question of whether Brazilians have improved their economic situation since 1970 is controversial. A number of questions on the Brazilian census of 1980 dealt with the economic and social characteristics of the population. The usefulness of census data lies in their capacity to indicate trends every 10 years. Consequently, one can get some idea of whether Brazil is making progress in certain aspects of modernization or in improving the skills and living conditions of the people. Census data have limitations. They indicate averages, not specific cases. They fail to raise a number of questions about economic and social conditions that would improve understanding. Discussion is focused on population structure and the economy, income, housing, education, and health. Brazil is continuing the process of modernization by which population shifts from the primary sector (agriculture and mining) into other sectors of the economy. The 14.88% of the work force in agriculture, livestock, and fishing represent about 30% of the potentially economically active (PEA) population. 1/3 of the population is still rural, but the trend since 1940 is striking. The momentum of decline intensified in both 1960-70 and 1970-80, reflecting a process of abandoning small farms, mechanizing larger farms, and a general flow of population to the cities. All other sectors of the economy have increased the proportion of people working in them. The data of 1980 reflect a period of sustained economic growth that culminated in that year with an increase of 8%. In 1981 and 1982, Brazil had been in a recession so that in 1983 some of these figures might have changed. The dispute began when the results of the 1970 census were used to show that income was becoming more concentrated, i.e., the top percentages, in comparison with 1960, received a larger share of national income, while the lowest percentages received less. The differences in income between men and women is particularly strong in the

  18. Frequency of CCR5delta32 in Brazilian populations

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    A.E. Vargas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 103 randomly chosen healthy individuals from Alegrete, RS, Brazil, was tested for the CCR5delta32 allele, which is known to influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. The CCR5delta32 allele was identified by PCR amplification using specific primers flanking the region of deletion, followed by electrophoresis on a 3% agarose gel. The data obtained were compared to those reported for other populations and interpreted in terms of Brazilian history. The individuals studied came from a highly admixed population. Most of them were identified as white (N = 59, while blacks and browns (mulattoes were N = 13 and N = 31, respectively. The observed frequencies, considering the white, black and brown samples (6.8, 3.8, and 6.4%, respectively, suggest an important European parental contribution, even in populations identified as black and brown. However, in Brazil as a whole, this allele shows gradients indicating a relatively good correlation with the classification based on skin color and other physical traits, used here to define major Brazilian population groups.

  19. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

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    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  20. Palms of riverine communities as a sustainable resource in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Ires Paula de Andrade Miranda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Amazon, approximately 30% of the population is agglomerated in small villages or isolated areas. One of the most serious problems is the lack of electricity, where reduced supply and frequent rationing reduce life quality and prevent the instalation of industries that could raise the value of renewable regional products. Consequently, the pursuit of better socioeconomic conditions promote the quick depletion of natural resources, which invariably results in the accelerated destruction of local ecosystems. Oil palms, that are mainly used for basic nutrition of local populations, could also form the basis for models of self-sustained technological and industrial development. A quantitative survey of native species of oil palms offers an alternative for sustained development based on a technological and industrial model because this resource occurs in populated areas in the Amazon, which facilitates retaining the people in the field, preventing the depletion of natural ecosystems. This study presents the activities that were used to identify the potential of biomass of Euterpe precatoriaMart and other oil palms available in riverside communities in the state of Amazonas (Brazil. These activities are associated with the possibilities of using palm species for sustainable development of energy generation. It was possible to identify the conditions for a sustainable supply of biomass as an alternative energy source which contributes to the Energy Universalization Program in the Brazilian Amazon.

  1. Population Issues. Resources in Technology.

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    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents information about the problems caused by increasing population. Discusses the environmental impact and the ways that technology can be used to solve problems of overpopulation. Includes possible student outcomes and a student quiz. (JOW)

  2. Historical gene flow within and among populations of Luehea divaricata in the Brazilian Pampa.

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    Nagel, Jordana Carolina; Ceconi, Denise Ester; Poletto, Igor; Stefenon, Valdir Marcos

    2015-06-01

    Within and among population gene flow is a central aspect of the evolutionary history of ecosystems and essential for the potential for adaptive evolution of populations. We employed nuclear microsatellite markers to assess inter- and intra-population gene flow in five natural populations of Luehea divaricata growing in the Pampa biome, in southern Brazil. This species occurs in practically all secondary forests of the Pampa and has recognized ecological significance for these formations. The genetic structuring of the studied populations suggests limited gene dispersal among forest fragments, despite a homogeneous level of migration among populations. Notwithstanding the gene flow among populations, significant SGS is still found in some fragments. Significant spatial genetic structure within population was also found likely as result of limited seed and/or pollen dispersal. The scattered distribution of the populations and their relatively high density seem to limit pollen dispersal. Also seed dispersal by wind is not efficient due to large distances among forest formations. As conservationist actions towards preserving the genetic resources of L. divaricata and the Brazilian Pampa, we suggest the protection of the existing forest formations and the maintenance of the natural expansion of the forests over the grasslands in the biome.

  3. Analysis of sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters in a brazilian population sample

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    Raphael De Rezende Pratali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To define the sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters in a Brazilian population sample composed of asymptomatic volunteers. Methods: Fifty healthy adult individuals volunteered to participate in this study. The exclusion criteria included spinal deformity or improper radiograph study. In each radiograph exam in profile view, the sagittal balance and spinopelvic parameters were evaluated, including vertical sagittal axis, sacral slope, pelvic tilt and pelvic incidence. Results: The data obtained in this study are according to the values presented in the worldwide literature. None of the radiographic parameters showed any differences between the genders. Comparing the values presented in this study with those of other reports, with different populations, it was observed that: there was no significant difference in any of the pelvic parameters between Brazilian and Korean populations; there was a significant difference in pelvic incidence between Brazilian and European populations in a total sample (p=0.0001, in males (p=0.02, and in females (p=0.0007; there was a difference in sacral slope between Brazilian and European populations in a total sample (p=0.0140, and in females (p=0.005. Conclusion: There were no differences in any parameter in terms of gender. There were no differences in pelvic incidence between Brazilian and Korean populations. There was a difference in pelvic incidence between Brazilian and European populations, in the total sample and in males and females. There was a difference in sacral slope between Brazilian and European populations in a total sample, and in females.

  4. Population, resources, environment: an uncertain future.

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    Repetto, R

    1987-07-01

    This issue analyzes the economic and environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries (LDC), the population decline in developed countries, the limits that life on a finite planet impose on economic and demographic expansion and progress, and the proper governmental response to promote the welfare of its current and future citizens. The links between population growth, resource use, and environmental quality are too complex to permit straightforward generalizations about direct causal relationships. However, rapid population growth has increased the number of poor people in LDC, thus contributing to degradation of the environment and the renewable resources of land, water, and nonhuman species on which humans depend. Demands of the rich industrial countries have also generated environmental pressures and have been foremost in consumption of the nonrenewable resources of fossil fuels, metals, and nonmetallic minerals. On the other hand, population and economic growth have also stimulated technological and management changes that help supply and use resources more effectively. Wide variations in the possible ultimate size of world population and accelerating technological change make future interrelationships of population, resources, and the environment uncertain as well as complex. Those interrelationships are mediated largely by government policies. Responsible governments can bring about a sustainable balance in the population/resource/environment equation by adopting population and development policies that experience has shown could reduce future population numbers in LDC below the additional 5 billion indicated in current UN medium projections. This coupled with proven management programs in both LDC and developed countries could brake and reverse the depletion and degradation of natural resources.

  5. Correspondence between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the adult Brazilian population

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    Vladimir Schuindt da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the correlation between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators among Brazilian adults, using data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey from 2008/2009.METHODS: We analyzed the joint relationships between overweight and socioeconomic and demographic indicators in the Brazilian adult population (99,532,672 individuals, through the multiple correspondence analysis technique.RESULTS: The featured profile of the Brazilian adult population with regard to overweight was correlated with ages from 30 years of the most developed and economically social geographic regions of Brazil; however between genders, the correlation was in the opposite direction in the variables income, education, and subjective issues about life conditions related to food and nutrition security.CONCLUSION: By the joint relationship between overweight and selected demographic and socioeconomic indicators, the urgency of the development of strategies and/or preventive public health programs of health problems with overweight in the Brazilian adult population is suggested.

  6. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

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    Carly Vynne

    Full Text Available Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus, giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguar (Panthera onca, and puma (Puma concolor. We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for

  7. Resource selection and its implications for wide-ranging mammals of the brazilian cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vynne, Carly; Keim, Jonah L; Machado, Ricardo B; Marinho-Filho, Jader; Silveira, Leandro; Groom, Martha J; Wasser, Samuel K

    2011-01-01

    Conserving animals beyond protected areas is critical because even the largest reserves may be too small to maintain viable populations for many wide-ranging species. Identification of landscape features that will promote persistence of a diverse array of species is a high priority, particularly, for protected areas that reside in regions of otherwise extensive habitat loss. This is the case for Emas National Park, a small but important protected area located in the Brazilian Cerrado, the world's most biologically diverse savanna. Emas Park is a large-mammal global conservation priority area but is too small to protect wide-ranging mammals for the long-term and conserving these populations will depend on the landscape surrounding the park. We employed novel, noninvasive methods to determine the relative importance of resources found within the park, as well as identify landscape features that promote persistence of wide-ranging mammals outside reserve borders. We used scat detection dogs to survey for five large mammals of conservation concern: giant armadillo (Priodontes maximus), giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), jaguar (Panthera onca), and puma (Puma concolor). We estimated resource selection probability functions for each species from 1,572 scat locations and 434 giant armadillo burrow locations. Results indicate that giant armadillos and jaguars are highly selective of natural habitats, which makes both species sensitive to landscape change from agricultural development. Due to the high amount of such development outside of the Emas Park boundary, the park provides rare resource conditions that are particularly important for these two species. We also reveal that both woodland and forest vegetation remnants enable use of the agricultural landscape as a whole for maned wolves, pumas, and giant anteaters. We identify those features and their landscape compositions that should be prioritized for conservation, arguing

  8. Solar energy resources not accounted in Brazilian National Energy Balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro, Paulo Cesar da Costa [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: pinheiro@netuno.Lcc.ufmg.br, pinheiro@demec.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    The main development vector of a society is the energy. The solar energy is the main energy source on the planet earth. Brazil is a tropical country, and the incident solar energy on its soil (15 trillion MWh/year) is 20,000 times its annual oil production. Several uses of solar energy are part of our lives in a so natural way that it despised in the consumption and use energy balance. In Brazil, solar energy is used directly in many activities and not accounted for in Energy Balance (BEN 2007), consisting of a virtual power generation. This work aims to make a preliminary assessment of solar energy used in different segments of the Brazilian economy. (author)

  9. Temporal Dynamics and Resource Availability for Drosophilid Fruit Flies (Insecta, Diptera in a Gallery Forest in the Brazilian Savanna

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    Henrique Valadão

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality can cause severe bottlenecks in natural populations, even leading to local extinction. Large variation in resource availability may explain the bottlenecks, but the role of these variations is still poorly understood. The goal of this study was to analyze if temporal variations in the guild of drosophilids breeding in fruits of Mauritia flexuosa (Arecaceae can be explained by the shortage of this resource during the dry season. Fruits of M. flexuosa were collected over one year in a gallery forest located in the Central Brazilian Savanna. The drosophilid assemblage varied over time, with a lower density of species and of individuals in the dry season, when the percentage of colonized fruits was also smaller. These findings suggest that although the fruits were available during the dry season, they were underused. This way, the resource availability does not seem to regulate the community in the dry season.

  10. Growth curves for ostriches (Struthio camelus) in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, S B; Caetano, S L; Savegnago, R P; Nunes, B N; Ramos, A A; Munari, D P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to fit growth curves using nonlinear and linear functions to describe the growth of ostriches in a Brazilian population. The data set consisted of 112 animals with BW measurements from hatching to 383 d of age. Two nonlinear growth functions (Gompertz and logistic) and a third-order polynomial function were applied. The parameters for the models were estimated using the least-squares method and Gauss-Newton algorithm. The goodness-of-fit of the models was assessed using R(2) and the Akaike information criterion. The R(2) calculated for the logistic growth model was 0.945 for hens and 0.928 for cockerels and for the Gompertz growth model, 0.938 for hens and 0.924 for cockerels. The third-order polynomial fit gave R(2) of 0.938 for hens and 0.924 for cockerels. Among the Akaike information criterion calculations, the logistic growth model presented the lowest values in this study, both for hens and for cockerels. Nonlinear models are more appropriate for describing the sigmoid nature of ostrich growth.

  11. Historical shifts in Brazilian P. falciparum population structure and drug resistance alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffing, Sean M; Viana, Giselle M Rachid; Mixson-Hayden, Tonya; Sridaran, Sankar; Alam, Mohammad Tauqeer; de Oliveira, Alexandre Macedo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Povoa, Marinete Marins; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2013-01-01

    Previous work suggests that Brazilian Plasmodium falciparum has limited genetic diversity and a history of bottlenecks, multiple reintroductions due to human migration, and clonal expansions. We hypothesized that Brazilian P. falciparum would exhibit clonal structure. We examined isolates collected across two decades from Amapá, Rondônia, and Pará state (n = 190). By examining more microsatellites markers on more chromosomes than previous studies, we hoped to define the extent of low diversity, linkage disequilibrium, bottlenecks, population structure, and parasite migration within Brazil. We used retrospective genotyping of samples from the 1980s and 1990s to explore the population genetics of SP resistant dhfr and dhps alleles. We tested an existing hypothesis that the triple mutant dhfr mutations 50R/51I/108N and 51I/108N/164L developed in southern Amazon from a single origin of common or similar parasites. We found that Brazilian P. falciparum had limited genetic diversity and isolation by distance was rejected, which suggests it underwent bottlenecks followed by migration between sites. Unlike Peru, there appeared to be gene flow across the Brazilian Amazon basin. We were unable to divide parasite populations by clonal lineages and pairwise FST were common. Most parasite diversity was found within sites in the Brazilian Amazon, according to AMOVA. Our results challenge the hypothesis that triple mutant alleles arose from a single lineage in the Southern Amazon. SP resistance, at both the double and triple mutant stages, developed twice and potentially in different regions of the Brazilian Amazon. We would have required samples from before the 1980s to describe how SP resistance spread across the basin or describe the complex internal migration of Brazilian parasites after the colonization efforts of past decades. The Brazilian Amazon basin may have sufficient internal migration for drug resistance reported in any particular region to rapidly spread to

  12. Incidence Of The Mandibular Accessory Foramina In Brazilian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Freire, A. R.; Rossi, A. C.; Prado, F. B.; Caria, P. H F; Botacin, Paulo Roberto [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    In adults, the mandibular accessory foramina are variables and are located on the medial surface of the mandible in positions above or below of the mandibular foramen. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of the mandibular accessory foramina in Brazilians human mandibles and discuss the clinical aspects related to the presence of these foramina. Were evaluated 222 mandibles, adults, irrespective of gender. Was observed that 27.93% and 43.24% of the mandibles presented at least ...

  13. Drivers of human resource management competences development in Brazilian multinational subsidiaries: a multilevel research

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    Germano Glufke Reis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to verify the factors associated with the development of human resource management (HRM competences in foreign subsidiaries of Brazilian multinationals. These competences are essential in that they allow foreign units to adopt HRM practices that are consistent with the countries or markets in which they operate. A multilevel research was conducted, involving headquarters and subsidiaries of major Brazilian companies; the empirical analysis employed hierarchical linear modelling. Despite the recurrent debate on global standardisation versus local adaptation, it was identified that the integration of international HRM policies (addressing simultaneously global guidelines and local response may stimulate competences development. In addition, interaction in external networks in the host country may enhance the development of HRM competences in the subsidiaries. However, specific cultural factors of the company may inhibit development activity in units abroad.

  14. Observations about a central Brazilian indigenous population: the Bakairi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, D

    1994-03-01

    Studies of small, isolated, nonindustrial societies can yield models about the rate of natural increase of indigenous groups, and how changes affect available natural resources, health status, and long-term adaptation. South American Indian populations pose distinct problems. In this study, the aim was to explain population change among the Bakairi of central Brazil in the context of complex historical and social change. Contact with white society has occurred since the 1920s. The fertility rate has been moderate (5.36 children per woman). Information from field research in 1979, 1981, and 1989 was provided on village and household composition marriage patterns, fertility and reproduction, mortality by cause, and recent population trends. Total population was 137 males and 151 females. The estimated crude birth rate was 45.1 births per 1000 people. The crude death rate was 10.4 deaths per 1000 people. Natural rate of increase was 3.47%. The moderate fertility was attributed to the mean birth interval of 4 years, the long breast-feeding period, postpartum sex taboos, and fasting. Other factors may be the nature of forest, which is dry prairie, the limited size of the reservation, and the small percentage of arable land. Other traditional societies have a fertility of 4-8 children; higher fertility is usually associated with colonizing populations that are expanding into new territory. Fertility data was checked several times by first asking individual women for birth and death information, then verifying results with older women in the village, and finally consulting the FUNAI death-birth records, which are considered incomplete. There were 288 Indians living on the Bakairi reservation in 59 households, clustered in a T shape rather than a traditional circle due to FUNAI administrative rules. 80% (47) of households were married couples, and 10% were widows/widowers. Marriage occurred when parents of both families agreed, and took place at an average age of 16

  15. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  16. A popular and potentially sustainable fishery resource under pressure–extinction risk and conservation of Brazilian Sciaenidae (Teleostei: Perciformes

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    Ning Labbish Chao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Croakers (Sciaenidae are major fishery resource in Brazil; constituting 22% of marine and 9% of freshwater fishery landings. Croakers are subject to heavy fishing pressure throughout Brazil, but habitat alteration is also an important threat to regional populations. In this regional Sciaenidae assessment, each species was analyzed for relative risk of extinction, including the identification and quantification of the impact of major threats and existing conservation measures, based on application of the Categories and Criteria of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Of the 52 species of Sciaenid fishes (34 marine and 18 freshwater present in Brazilian waters, the majority are at low risk of extinction, with 10 species classified as Data Deficient (DD and 36 as Least Concern (LC. However the Southern black drum (Pogonias cromis, listed as Endangered (EN is the most threatened species in the region, while three other species are classified as Near Threatened (NT. A large portion of Brazilian croakers is landed by small-scale artisanal fisheries, which are scattered along coastal and riverine communities. However, our assessments reveal that available fishery landing statistics may have greatly underestimated the artisanal fishery production and by-catch of Sciaenids. We recommend establishing, with adequate enforcement, coastal and riverine protected areas as well as strategic fishing seasons to improve and maintain the conservation status of Sciaenids and sustainable Sciaenid fisheries.

  17. No association between periodontal disease and GHQ-12 in a Brazilian Police population

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, Eliane Lopes; Farias, Lucyana Conceição; Aguiar, João Carlos Andrade; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; De Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Guimaraes, Andre Luiz Sena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: We attempt to investigate a possible association between periodontal disease (PD) and mental disorders (MD) in a population of Brazilian Police. Study Method: From a total study population consisting of 803 policemen, 345 police officers were obtained by a sample calculation using the finite population correction who were randomly selected in Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Patients who had been prescribed steroids or those diagnosed with diabetes and cardiovascular diseases ...

  18. Screening for thyroid disorders in asymptomatic adults from Brazilian populations

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    Isabela Benseñor

    Full Text Available Advances in thyroid disorder diagnosis have created new thyroid disorder categories such as subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. In the 1980s, immunometric assaying for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH emerged and became defined as the most cost-effective test in thyroid disorder screening. The second step in the screening of thyroid disorders is to determine free thyroxine (FT4, and cost-effective methods for its detection are now available. Using TSH and FT4, it is possible to determine four situations: clinical hyperthyroidism, clinical hypothyroidism, subclinical hyperthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism. Subclinical hypothyroidism can be a strong indicator of risk for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women. Cardiovascular mortality among Brazilian women is one of the highest in the Western world. The best-known risk factors for cardiovascular diseases are high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. Although these are recognized as primary risk factors, there are other risk factors that could be identified as primordial risk factors. This may be the case for subclinical hypothyroidism. Early detection of thyroid disorders in women over fifty could be a highly cost-effective option in the prevention of cardiovascular disorders among Brazilian women.

  19. Distribution of QPY and RAH haplotypes of granzyme B gene in distinct Brazilian populations

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    Fernanda Bernadelli Garcia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The cytolysis mediated by granules is one of the most important effector functions of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Recently, three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified at exons 2, 3, and 5 of the granzyme B gene, resulting in a haplotype in which three amino acids of mature protein Q48P88Y245 are changed to R48A88H245, which leads to loss of cytotoxic activity of the protein. In this study, we evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian populations. METHODS: We evaluated the frequency of these polymorphisms in Brazilian ethnic groups (white, Afro-Brazilian, and Asian by sequencing these regions. RESULTS: The allelic and genotypic frequencies of SNP 2364A/G at exon 2 in Afro-Brazilian individuals (42.3% and 17.3% were significantly higher when compared with those in whites and Asians (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0007, respectively. The polymorphisms 2933C/G and 4243C/T also were more frequent in Afro-Brazilians but without any significant difference regarding the other groups. The Afro-Brazilian group presented greater diversity of haplotypes, and the RAH haplotype seemed to be more frequent in this group (25%, followed by the whites (20.7% and by the Asians (11.9%, similar to the frequency presented in the literature. CONCLUSIONS: There is a higher frequency of polymorphisms in Afro-Brazilians, and the RAH haplotype was more frequent in these individuals. We believe that further studies should aim to investigate the correlation of this haplotype with diseases related to immunity mediated by cytotoxic lymphocytes, and if this correlation is confirmed, novel treatment strategies might be elaborated.

  20. Transcultural validation of the ALS-CBS Cognitive Section for the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Lucas M T; Zanao, Tamires; De Rezende, Thiago J; Casseb, Raphael F; Balthazar, Marcio F; Woolley, Susan C; França, Marcondes C

    2017-02-01

    Cognitive decline (CD) is common but often under-recognized in ALS due to the scarcity of adequate cognitive screening methods. In this scenario, the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS) is the most investigated instrument and presents high sensitivity to identify CD. Currently, there are no validated cognitive screening tools for ALS patients in the Brazilian population and little is known about the frequency of ALS related CD in the country. We assessed the accuracy of the Brazilian Portuguese version of ALS-CBS Cognitive Section (ALS-CBS-Br) for classifying the cognitive status of Brazilian patients compared to a standard neuropsychological battery, and estimated the prevalence of CD in the Brazilian ALS population. Among 73 initially recruited ALS patients, 49 were included. Twenty-four patients were excluded due to severe motor disability, FTD diagnosis or non-acceptance. Ten healthy controls were also included. Ten ALS patients (20%) were diagnosed with executive dysfunction (ALSci) based on the battery results. ALS-CBS-Br scores were significantly lower in the ALSci group (p ALS-CBS-Br may facilitate the recognition of CD in routine clinical care and complement future studies in our population.

  1. Tools for resistance monitoring in oriental fruit moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and first assessment in Brazilian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegwart, M; Monteiro, L B; Maugin, S; Olivares, J; Malfitano Carvalho, S; Sauphanor, B

    2011-04-01

    In southern Brazilian apple (Malus spp.) orchards, predominantly organophosphates are used to control the oriental fruit moth, Cydia molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but control failures often occur. Therefore the susceptibility of three C. molesta Brazilian populations was investigated to five insecticides of different groups and modes of action, in comparison with a susceptible laboratory strain mass reared in southern France for >10 yr. At the same time, comparative biochemical and genetic analysis were performed, assessing the activities of the detoxification enzymatic systems and sequencing a gene of insecticide molecular target to find out markers associated with resistance. The three Brazilian populations were significantly resistant to chlorpyrifos ethyl compared with the reference strain. One of the field populations that had been frequently exposed to deltamethrin treatments showed significant decreasing susceptibility to this compound, whereas none of the three populations had loss of susceptibility to tebufenozide and thiacloprid compared with the reference strain. All three populations had slight but significant increases of glutathione transferase and carboxylesterases activities and significant decrease of specific acetylcholinesterase activities compared with the reference. Only the most resistant population to chlorpyriphos exhibited a significantly higher mixed function oxidase activity than the reference. The acetylcholinesterase of females was significantly less inhibited by carbaryl in the Brazilian populations than in the reference strain (1.7-2.5-fold), and this difference was not expressed in the male moth. However, no mutation in the MACE locus was detected. These biological and molecular characterizations of adaptive response to insecticides in C. molesta provide tools for early detection of insecticide resistance in field populations of this pest.

  2. Development of Environmental Health Indicators for the Child Population: Report on a Brazilian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Flavia Franchini; de Magalhaes Camara, Volney; Froes Asmus, Carmen Ildes R

    This report presents the Brazilian experience on the elaboration of a matrix of children's environmental health indicators to the Brazilian Health Surveillance System. This experience was part of a project with the financial support of the Ministry of Health of Brazil to develop appropriate indicators for identification, measuring, and monitoring of the environmental risk factors to the children's health. The methodology adopted for the development of the matrix of indicators of children's environmental health to Brazil comprised 3 steps. In the first step, the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the Brazilian population, aged 0-14 years, were identified, according to the data available from the Ministry of Health. The second step consisted of the identification of the Brazilian public-access information systems, with available official data regarding environmental, health, and socioeconomic conditions. In the third step, a preliminary matrix was elaborated. Correlation analyses were done to determine the indicators that would constitute the final matrix. The selected indicators allowed the identification and surveillance of cancer, injuries, adverse birth outcomes, diarrheic and respiratory diseases, associated with environmental risk factors, in the Brazilian child population. The existing Brazilian official information systems provided data with the necessary quality for the construction of children's environmental health indicators. Nevertheless, some official systems on health information presented limitations related to the data availability over the course of time and timeliness of data capture. Concerning the environmental information, the major limitation was accessibility. A matrix of indicators of children's environmental health to Brazil can come to contribute to the implementation of a surveillance system of children's exposure to environmental contaminants in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by

  3. Temporal niche overlap and distinct bee ability to collect floral resources on three species of Brazilian Malpighiaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Barônio, Gudryan Jackson; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena Maura

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Spatial and temporal limited resource and niche overlap studies have been widely used to explain resource-sharing in community ecology. Furthermore, morphological and behavioral differences among species are relevant to predict how they may share niche availabilities. We evaluated temporal niche overlap and the ability of visitors to collect floral resources on three Malpighiaceae species in the Brazilian savannah. We hypothesized: (I) an overlap between the temporal n...

  4. TIMP2 gene polymorphism as a potential tool to infer Brazilian population origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silva RA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo Augusto da Silva,1 André Luis Shinohara,2 Denise Carleto Andia,1 Ariadne Letra,3 Regina Célia Peres,1 Ana Paula de Souza11Department of Morphology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, 2Oral Biology Program, Bauru Dental School, State University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Department of Endodontics and Center for Craniofacial Research, School of Dentistry, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms are genome variations that can be used as population-specific markers to infer genetic background and population origin. The Brazilian population is highly admixed due to immigration from several other populations. In particular, the state of São Paulo is recognized for the presence of Japanese individuals who seem likely to have contributed to a substantial proportion of ancestry in the modern Brazilian population. In the present study, we analyzed allele and genotype frequencies and associations of the –418G>C (rs8179090 single nucleotide polymorphism in the TIMP2 gene promoter in Brazilian and Japanese subjects, as well as in Japanese descendants from southeastern Brazil. The allele and genotype frequency analyses among groups demonstrated statistical significance (PC single nucleotide polymorphism of the TIMP2 gene, have a high probability of being Japanese or Japanese descendants. In addition to other genetic polymorphisms, the −418G>C TIMP2 polymorphism could be a population marker to assist in predicting Japanese ancestry, both in Japanese individuals and in admixed populations.Keywords: Brazilian, Japanese, polymorphism, allele, TIMP2

  5. Population matrix models and palm resource management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available MATRICES DE POPULATIONS ET MISE EN VALEUR DES PALMIERS. Au cours des 20 dernières années, les structures de population de nombreuses espèces de palmiers ont été décrites et discutées. La croissance et la stabilité des populations ont été analysées à l’aide de matrices. Dans cet article, nous reprenons un modèle et en discutons les aspects méthodologiques en vue d’une estimation des paramètres de l’histoire de la vie des palmiers. Les généralisations résultant de précédentes études sont présentées et les conséquences pour la mise en valeur des palmiers, concernant en particulier la confection de toitures, les fruits, la récolte des stipes, sont discutées. MATRICES DE POBLACIONES Y MANEJO DE PALMERAS. En los últimos 20 años, las estructuras de población de numerosas especies de palmeras han sido descritas y discutidas. El crecimiento y la estabilidad de las poblaciones han sido analizadas, utilizando matrices. En el presente artículo, presentamos un modelo y discutimos los aspectos metodológicos específicos para hacer una estimación de los parámetros de la historia de la vida de las palmeras. Son presentadas las generalizaciones diseñadas por estudios previos, y discutidas las implicancias en el manejo de las palmeras, en cuanto a techado, frutas, cosecha de los estípites. Population structures of numerous palm species have been described and discussed in the last 20 years. Population growth and stability have been analyzed with matrix models. In this paper we review matrix models and discuss methodological issues specific to estimating palm life history parameters. Generalizations drawn from previous studies are presented and implications for palm resource management, specifically for thatch, fruit, and stem harvest, are discussed.

  6. Could Fidicina mannifera (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea: Fidicinini promote a resource pulse in two Brazilian Cerrado vegetation classes?

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    R. N. Oliveira

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cicadas are usually studied regarding their importance in agriculture. However, the possibility of this group to represent a pulse of nutrients can also imply on the success of a given species in the biome. The aim of this study was to assess the level of total soluble proteins and lipids of Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius, 1803, and to determine whether the species can promote a pulse of nutrients in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. To assess the pulse of nutrients, it was concluded the determination of total soluble proteins and lipids from samples of males and adult females of F. mannifera, and the spatial distribution of exuviae of this species was also calculated in two vegetation classes of the Brazilian Cerrado. The amount of protein provided by each individual did not differ between males and females (p = 0.66 but females had 40% more lipids than males (p = 0.05. Regarding F. mannifera the gallery forest offered 11.75 g/ha of protein, 3.91 g/ha of lipids, and the Cerrado stricto sensu offered 4.25 g/ha of protein, and 1.41 g/ha of lipid. The male cicadas have a hollow abdomen, which houses a resonance chamber for sound production in order to attract females to mate, and females store larger amounts of lipids, mainly located in the abdominal cavity, where the body fat is directly linked to the reproductive system for the development of the ovaries and egg production after emergence. The mass occurrence of F. mannifera in the Brazilian Cerrado and the fast availability of proteins and lipids make this species a food resource that can directly impact the diet of secondary consumers and scavengers, although the amount of nutrients available by F. mannifera does not promote a pulse of nutrients in the study site.

  7. Haptoglobin gene subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities

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    Ana L. Miranda-Vilela

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Haptoglobin is a plasma hemoglobin-binding protein that limits iron loss during normal erythrocyte turnover and hemolysis, thereby preventing oxidative damage mediated by iron excess in the circulation. Haptoglobin polymorphism in humans, characterized by the Hp*1 and Hp*2 alleles, results in distinct phenotypes known as Hp1-1, Hp2-1 and Hp2-2, whose frequencies vary according to the ethnic origin of the population. The Hp*1 allele has two subtypes, Hp*1F and Hp*1S, that also vary in their frequencies among populations worldwide. In this work, we examined the distribution frequencies of haptoglobin subtypes in three Brazilian population groups of different ethnicities. The haptoglobin genotypes of Kayabi Amerindians (n = 56, Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 70 and an urban population (n = 132 were determined by allele-specific PCR. The Hp*1F allele frequency was highest in Kalunga (29.3% and lowest in Kayabi (2.6%. The Hp*1F/Hp*1S allele frequency ratios were 0.6, 1.0 and 0.26 for the Kayabi, Kalunga and urban populations, respectively. This variation was attributable largely to the Hp*1F allele. However, despite the large variation in Hp*1F frequencies, results of FST (0.0291 indicated slight genetic differentiation among subpopulations of the general Brazilian population studied here. This is the first Brazilian report of variations in the Hp *1F and Hp*1S frequencies among non-Amerindian Brazilians.

  8. Resources, Population and Conflicts: Two Africa Case Studies | Obi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article critically analyses the complex linkages between population, resource insecurity and conflict. It argues that rapid population growth beyond the limits of the `carrying capacity' of the eco-system and resource scarcities cannot alone be the cause of conflict. Rather, issues of distribution of resources, power, and the ...

  9. Coping strategies in voice disorders of a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele; Hirani, Shashivadan P; Epstein, Ruth; Yazigi, Latife; Behlau, Mara

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore coping strategies of individuals with and without vocal complaint and to examine relationships between the type of coping and vocal complaint; vocal symptoms; vocal self-assessment; perceptual analysis and states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. One hundred seventy-eight subjects with (n=87) and without vocal (n=91) complaint completed the following analysis: identification and characterization questionnaire, vocal self-assessment, perceptual analysis, Voice Disability Coping Questionnaire (VDCQ)-Brazilian Version, Beck Depression Inventory, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Health Locus of Control Scale. Age (P=0.219) and sex (P=0.132) were similar for both groups. The groups were statistically different for the following vocal characterization: number of symptoms, voice complaint, vocal self-assessment, and perceptual analysis. Conversely, the groups did not differ on states of depression, anxiety, and aspects related to self-esteem; and locus of control. Mean coping scores for the group with vocal complaint was 51.86 and for the group without vocal complaint was 23.18. Furthermore, men and women did not differ on the coping strategies reported (P=0.750); however, individuals with vocal complaint reported statistically more strategies than the individuals without vocal complaint (Pvocal complaint (46.7%). Coping results correlated (Spearman's r) positively with vocal perceptual analysis (P=0.036), depression (P=0.006), and anxiety (P=0.022), and correlated negatively with locus of control (P=0.001). No correlation was found between coping and the other variables studied. These findings indicate that people with vocal complaint use a variety of coping strategies, problem focused in particular, to deal with their voice problems. Coping results appear to be associated with perceptual characteristics of voice and some traits, such as

  10. [Evaluation of population data quality and coverage of registration of deaths for the Brazilian regions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, N A; Albuquerque, M E

    1999-02-01

    The evaluation of the quality of population data and coverage of death statistics for all Federal Brazilian Units by sex in 1990. The population data came from censuses and the recorded death data from "Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística" and the Health Ministry. The population data were evaluated by applying classical demographic methods. Three techniques were chosen to evaluate the extent of death registration coverage. The degree of precision of the age statement for the majority of the Brazilian regions improved the status from "low precision" or "moderate" to "precise" during the 80's. The coverage of deaths in 1990 was classified as "good" or "satisfactory" for all Federal Units in the South, Southeast and Centre-West and for the Northeastern States below Rio Grande do Norte. All the remaining states were classified as "regular" or "unsatisfactory". There was a significant improvement in the quality of the census population data and an increase in the coverage of death. It is possible to obtain get reliable mortality indicators for many Brazilian States.

  11. Pharmacoepidemiology and Health in a Brazilian Older Population

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    Tassiane C. Morais

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: In this older population, the presence of morbidities and frequent use of drug use were commonly observed. Special care should be taken for older subjects with bone and skeletal muscle diseases to reduce the risk of falls. The high proportion of older people using drugs without a recent medical prescription indicated irrational medicinal drug use.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA mapping of social-biological interactions in Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations

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    Bruno Maia Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the Brazilian Amazonian population has historically involved three main ethnic groups, Amerindian, African and European. This has resulted in genetic investigations having been carried out using classical polymorphisms and molecular markers. To better understand the genetic variability and the micro-evolutionary processes acting in human groups in the Brazilian Amazon region we used mitochondrial DNA to investigate 159 maternally unrelated individuals from five Amazonian African-descendant communities. The mitochondrial lineage distribution indicated a contribution of 50.2% from Africans (L0, L1, L2, and L3, 46.6% from Amerindians (haplogroups A, B, C and D and a small European contribution of 1.3%. These results indicated high genetic diversity in the Amerindian and African lineage groups, suggesting that the Brazilian Amazonian African-descendant populations reflect a possible population amalgamation of Amerindian women from different Amazonian indigenous tribes and African women from different geographic regions of Africa who had been brought to Brazil as slaves. The present study partially mapped the historical biological and social interactions that had occurred during the formation and expansion of Amazonian African-descendant communities.

  13. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: A pilot study

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    M. Radanovic

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE. Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women, all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7 and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9, were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation, but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  14. Performance of a Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L

    2002-03-01

    Brazilian researchers and health professionals often face the challenge of having to use tests developed in foreign languages and standardized for populations of other countries, especially in the fields of Neuropsychology and Neurolinguistics. This fact promotes a feeling that some scoring systems may be inadequate for our sociocultural reality. In the present study, we describe the performance of a Brazilian population sample submitted to a translated and adapted version of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE). Sixty normal volunteers (21 men and 39 women), all Portuguese native speakers, ranging in age from 15 to 78 years (average 43.7) and with an educational level of 2 to 16 years (average 9.9), were tested using a translated and adapted Portuguese version of the BDAE. Cut-off scores are suggested for our population and the performance of the Brazilian sample is compared to that of American and Colombian samples, with the results being closely similar in all tasks. We also performed a correlation analysis between age, gender and educational level and the influence of these variables on the performance of the subjects. We found no statistically significant differences between genders. Educational level correlated positively with performance, especially in the subtests involving reading and writing. There was a negative correlation between age and performance in two subtests (Visual Confrontation Naming and Sentences to Dictation), but a coexisting effect of educational level could not be ruled out.

  15. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

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    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  16. HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION PROFILE IN CENTRAL BRAZILIAN HEMODIALYSIS POPULATION

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    TELES Sheila A.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B has proved to be a major health hazard in hemodialysis patients. In order to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV infection profile in the hemodialysis population of Goiânia city - Central Brazil, all dialysis patients (N=282 were studied. The prevalence of any HBV marker (HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc was 56.7% (95% CI: 51.1-62.7, ranging from 33.3% to 77.7% depending on dialysis unit. HBV-DNA was detected in 67.6% and 88.2% of the HBsAg-positive serum samples, in 91.3% and 100% of the HBsAg/HBeAg-positive samples, and in 18.2% and 63.6% of the HBsAg/anti-HBe-reactive sera by hybridization and PCR, respectively. The length of time on hemodialysis was significantly associated with HBV seropositivity. Only 10% of the patients reported received hepatitis B vaccination. The findings of a high HBV infection prevalence in this population and the increased risk for HBV infection on long-term hemodialysis suggest the environmental transmission, emphasizing the urgent need to evaluate strategies of control and prevention followed in these units.

  17. Plant phenology, resource seasonality and climate change in a Brazilian cerrado savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez de Camargo, Maria Gabriela; de Camargo Guaraldo, André; Reys, Paula; Patrícia Cerdeira Morellato, Leonor

    2010-05-01

    Plant phenology, the study of recurring events and its relationship to climate, contributes with key information for the understanding of forest dynamics and plant resource availability to the fauna. Plant reproduction and growth are affected by proximate factors such as precipitation, temperature and photoperiod, ecological factors such as plant-animal interaction, for instance pollination and seed dispersal, and by phylogeny. Therefore, phenological changes may have enormous consequences for both, plants and animals depending upon the periodical availability of plant resources. The Brazilian tropical savannas, the cerrado, is a highly diverse vegetation with around 70% of the woody flora relaying on animal vectors for pollination and seed dispersal. We consider the cerrado savanna a good model to investigate shifts on tropical phenology and climate change. This vegetation presents a very seasonal phenology shaped by the climate characterized by the alternation of a hot, wet season and a dry, cooler one. The onset of leafing, flowering and fruiting is defined by the duration and intensity of the dry season, and changes on precipitation patterns and dryness may likely affect the plant species reproductive pattern as well as the resource availability to the fauna. In that context, we are carrying out a long-term project to investigate the phenology of growth and reproduction of a cerrado savanna woody community in Southeastern Brazil. Our aim is to understand the cerrado savanna long-term phenological patterns, its relationship to local climate, and whether phenological shifts over time may occur due to variations on climate. We are collecting data on crop size, species abundance and fruit consumption by birds to understand the fruit-frugivore network. Additionally, analyses are underway to explore the relationship among fruit season, fruit production, color and nutritional contents, and the activity of frugivores. Our final goal is to verify at which extension

  18. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes

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    Andrea M. Iannelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  19. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration.

  20. Heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population: Baependi Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Rafael O; Horimoto, Andréa R V R; Oliveira, Camila M; Bortolotto, Luiz A; Krieger, José E; Pereira, Alexandre C

    2017-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, it has been recognized that arterial stiffness has familial aggregation; however, there are no studies involving Brazilian families. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the heritability of arterial stiffness in a Brazilian population. In this study, 1675 eligible individuals (both sexes and aged 18-102 years) were distributed in 125 families resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the southeast of Brazil. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured with a noninvasive automatic device (Complior; Artech Medical, Pantin, France). Variance component approaches, implemented in the SOLAR computer package (San Antonio, Texas, USA), were applied to estimate the heritability of the studied phenotype under different statistical models. Heritability estimates for carotid-femoral PWV stratified by age ranging from 11 to 35% (higher in individuals aged ≤45 years and lower in individuals aged 18-102 years). Age and hypertension showed significant effects on the PWV trait and significantly affect heritability estimates in all models. We conclude that the heritability of carotid-femoral PWV in a Brazilian population is intermediate, and therefore genetic studies evolving arterial stiffness phenotypes should be encouraged.

  1. Evaluation of the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their relation with the nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tureck, Camila; Locateli, Gelvani; Corrêa, Vanesa Gesser; Koehnlein, Eloá Angélica

    2017-01-01

    The study of dietary antioxidants has gained prominence owing to the elucidation of the deleterious effects of oxidative stress to the human body. Objective: To evaluate the Brazilian population's intake of antioxidant nutrients and their association with the nutritional status. A cross-sectional study was carried out including secondary data on food consumption of 33,459 individuals from both sexes, aged 10 years or older, from all Brazilian regions based on microdata of the "2008-2009 Household Budget Survey, Brazilian Dairy Survey." The content of vitamins E, A, and C; zinc; manganese; copper; and selenium from 188 food items, divided into 12 groups, according to the habitual consumption form was analyzed. The means of antioxidant nutrient intake according to the nutritional status were compared using Bonferroni's t-test. Higher percentages of insufficient intake of vitamins than antioxidant minerals were seen. A significant difference in the intake of vitamin E as to the nutritional status was noticed, wherein the intake in overweight individuals was lower than in those with proper weight. Participants with low weight presented lower intake of almost all antioxidant minerals, except for copper, in which the intake of participants with low weight was equal to those with normal weight. High percentages of insufficient intake of antioxidant nutrients were observed in the studied population, especially vitamins. It was also found that the intake of antioxidant nutrients varied based on nutritional status, gender, and life stage.

  2. Mapping the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation - cosmic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: elaine@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (lRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Salles, Krause C.S.; Prado, Nadya M.C., E-mail: krausesalles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: nadya@ime.ib.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The main objective of this work is to statically and graphically describe the exposure of the Brazilian population to natural background radiation. in this stage, doses due to cosmic rays is being assessed based on sea level dose rates, corrected by latitude and altitude, according to the model recommended by UNSCEAR. In this work, the doses were estimated for ali Brazilian municipalities with more than 100.000 inhabitants. The 253 municipalities selected for this study include about 52% of the Brazilian population. Average dose rate was estimated to be about 50 n Sv/h with a variation coefficient of 31%. The estimated doses have shown a strong influence of altitude on dose rates, with a correlation coefficient of 0,998 for ao exponential fit. This result confirms previous studies that show a large effect of the altitude 00 exposure from cosmic radiation. Considering the same occupation and shielding conditions used by UNSCEAR as global averages, average annual dose was estimated to be 0,37 (0,24 - 0,76) mSv/y, very close to UNSCEAR worldwide average of 0,38 (0,3 - 1,0) mSv/y. (author)

  3. Ocelot Population Status in Protected Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Rodrigo Lima Massara

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and habitat loss are detrimental to top carnivores, such as jaguars (Panthera onca and pumas (Puma concolor, but effects on mesocarnivores, such as ocelots (Leopardus pardalis, are less clear. Ocelots need native forests, but also might benefit from the local extirpation of larger cats such as pumas and jaguars through mesopredator release. We used a standardized camera trap protocol to assess ocelot populations in six protected areas of the Atlantic forest in southeastern Brazil where over 80% of forest remnants are < 50 ha. We tested whether variation in ocelot abundance could be explained by reserve size, forest cover, number of free-ranging domestic dogs and presence of top predators. Ocelot abundance was positively correlated with reserve size and the presence of top predators (jaguar and pumas and negatively correlated with the number of dogs. We also found higher detection probabilities in less forested areas as compared to larger, intact forests. We suspect that smaller home ranges and higher movement rates in smaller, more degraded areas increased detection. Our data do not support the hypothesis of mesopredator release. Rather, our findings indicate that ocelots respond negatively to habitat loss, and thrive in large protected areas inhabited by top predators.

  4. The Inherited p53 Mutation in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achatz, Maria Isabel; Zambetti, Gerard P

    2016-12-01

    A common criticism of studying rare diseases is the often-limited relevance of the findings to human health. Here, we review ∼15 years of research into an unusual germline TP53 mutation (p.R337H) that began with its detection in children with adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), a remarkably rare childhood cancer that is associated with poor prognosis. We have come to learn that the p.R337H mutation exists at a very high frequency in Southern and Southeastern Brazil, occurring in one of 375 individuals within a total population of ∼100 million. Moreover, it has been determined that carriers of this founder mutation display variable tumor susceptibility, ranging from isolated cases of pediatric ACC to Li-Fraumeni or Li-Fraumeni-like (LFL) syndromes, thus representing a significant medical issue for this country. Studying the biochemical and molecular consequences of this mutation on p53 tumor-suppressor activity, as well as the putative additional genetic alterations that cooperate with this mutation, is advancing our understanding of how p53 functions in tumor suppression in general. These studies, which originated with a rare childhood tumor, are providing important information for guiding genetic counselors and physicians in treating their patients and are already providing clinical benefit. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Heterogeneity of Self-Reported Ancestry Groups in an Admixed Brazilian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Tulio C; Vieira, Rodrigo G; Abreu, Breno S; Gentil, Paulo; Moreno-Lima, Ricardo; Oliveira, Ricardo J; Pereira, Rinaldo W

    2011-01-01

    Background Population stratification is the main source of spurious results and poor reproducibility in genetic association findings. Population heterogeneity can be controlled for by grouping individuals in ethnic clusters; however, in admixed populations, there is evidence that such proxies do not provide efficient stratification control. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of self-reported with genetic ancestry and the statistical risk of grouping an admixed sample based on self-reported ancestry. Methods A questionnaire that included an item on self-reported ancestry was completed by 189 female volunteers from an admixed Brazilian population. Individual genetic ancestry was then determined by genotyping ancestry informative markers. Results Self-reported ancestry was classified as white, intermediate, and black. The mean difference among self-reported groups was significant for European and African, but not Amerindian, genetic ancestry. Pairwise fixation index analysis revealed a significant difference among groups. However, the increase in the chance of type 1 error was estimated to be 14%. Conclusions Self-reporting of ancestry was not an appropriate methodology to cluster groups in a Brazilian population, due to high variance at the individual level. Ancestry informative markers are more useful for quantitative measurement of biological ancestry. PMID:21498954

  6. Population Dynamics and Natural Resources in the Volta in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, population growth is causing shortfalls in agricultural land, deforestation and high demand on water resources in some of the sub-basins of the Volta River Keywords: Population, Natural resources, Volta River Basin, Human Settlement Land Use/Coverage Change Ghana Journal of Development Studies Vol.

  7. A general consumer-resource population model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; DeLeo, Giulio; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Gross, Thilo; Kuris, Armand M.

    2015-01-01

    Food-web dynamics arise from predator-prey, parasite-host, and herbivore-plant interactions. Models for such interactions include up to three consumer activity states (questing, attacking, consuming) and up to four resource response states (susceptible, exposed, ingested, resistant). Articulating these states into a general model allows for dissecting, comparing, and deriving consumer-resource models. We specify this general model for 11 generic consumer strategies that group mathematically into predators, parasites, and micropredators and then derive conditions for consumer success, including a universal saturating functional response. We further show how to use this framework to create simple models with a common mathematical lineage and transparent assumptions. Underlying assumptions, missing elements, and composite parameters are revealed when classic consumer-resource models are derived from the general model.

  8. Correlation between histocompatibility antigens and recurrent aphthous stomatitis in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsen, Niels Salles Willo; Weber, Raimar; Monteiro, Francisco; Kalil, Jorge; Miziara, Ivan Dieb

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is a common oral mucosa disorder that affects 20% of the world's population, characterized by recurring painful ulcers in the mouth. The diagnosis is primarily based on the patient's clinical history. Inheritance may pose as a risk factor for the disease; however, the studies available are inconclusive as to the results attained, and they vary according to the population studied. to typify class I and class II HLA molecules and to assess how frequent these molecules are present in the Brazilian population with Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis, compared to healthy controls. In this prospective, cross-sectional and investigative study, thirty one patients with diagnostic hypothesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis were seen from February of 2004 to May of 2006. We obtained the DNA from those patients who matched the inclusion criteria and typified their HLA by PCR. In those patients with Recurrent Minor Aphthous Stomatitis we found statistically significant occurrences of HLA-A33 and HLA-B35. HLA-A33 and HLA-B35 may be associated with recurrent minor aphthous stomatitis in the Brazilian's population.

  9. Estimate of the theoretical maximum daily intake of Sunset Yellow FCF by the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feitosa, Luana Carolina Alves; Rodrigues, Patricia Da Silva; Da Silva, Adson Storck; Rios, Alessandro De Oliveira; Cladera-Olivera, Florencia

    2017-05-01

    This study estimated the theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) of Sunset Yellow (SY) synthetic food dye by the Brazilian population through food consumption data from the Household Budget Survey (HBS) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE, 2008/09). The study covered the population in urban and rural areas in the five regions of the country, and from different age groups, in order to verify if it were possible to exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of SY, which is 4.0 mg kg-1 body weight. This was assessed by cross-checking food products containing this dye from the largest supermarket chains in Brazil with data from the HBS-IBGE 2008/09. These data showed that the average consumption of SY per capita did not exceed the ADI in any of the aforementioned population groups. However, when considering food consumption in urban and rural areas (279 and 260 mg of SY day-1), in the five regions of the country (260-338 mg of SY day-1), and for adolescents (332 mg SY day-1), it is noted that part of the population could be exceeding the recommended ADI, which may pose health risks. Although it is unlikely that individuals will exceed the SY ADI, this may occur in some cases, especially for younger people.

  10. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  11. Genetic structure analysis of Eufriesea violacea (Hymenoptera, Apidae populations from southern Brazilian Atlantic rainforest remnants

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    Silvia H. Sofia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were used to analyze the genetic structure of Eufriesea violacea populations in three fragments (85.47, 832.58 and 2800 ha of Atlantic rainforest located in the north of the Brazilian state of Paraná. A total of twelve primers produced 206 loci, of which 129 were polymorphic (95% criterion. The proportions of polymorphic loci in each population ranged from 57.28% to 59.2%, revealing very similar levels of genetic variability in the groups of bees from each fragment. Unbiased genetic distances between groups ranged from 0.0171 to 0.0284, the smallest genetic distance occurring between bees from the two larger fragments. These results suggest that the E. violacea populations from the three fragments have maintained themselves genetically similar to native populations of this species originally present in northern Paraná.

  12. Dental age estimation in a Brazilian adult population using Cameriere’s method

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    Alana de Cássia Silva AZEVEDO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop a specific formula to estimate age in a Brazilian adult population and to compare the original formula from Cameriere to this Brazilian formula. The sample comprised 1,772 periapical radiographs from 443 subjects (219 men, 224 women that were organized into 12 groups according to sex (men or women and age (20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, and 70 years and older. The films were analyzed using the criteria described by Cameriere et al. (2004 and Adobe Photoshop®. We obtained a mean error of 8.56 (SD = 5.80 years for tooth 13, 7.99 (SD = 5.78 years for tooth 23, 8.38 (SD = 6.26 years for tooth 33, and 8.20 (SD = 6.54 years for tooth 43. When teeth were combined in the analysis, we observed lower mean errors. The Brazilian formula developed from this sample group was more accurate than Cameriere’s formula. However, other factors must be considered to improve age estimates in adults.

  13. Frequency of Werner helicase 1367 polymorphism and age-related morbidity in an elderly Brazilian population

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    M.A.C. Smith

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Werner syndrome (WS is a premature aging disease caused by a mutation in the WRN gene. The gene was identified in 1996 and its product acts as a DNA helicase and exonuclease. Some specific WRN polymorphic variants were associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. The identification of genetic polymorphisms as risk factors for complex diseases affecting older people can improve their prevention, diagnosis and prognosis. We investigated WRN codon 1367 polymorphism in 383 residents in a district of the city of São Paulo, who were enrolled in an Elderly Brazilian Longitudinal Study. Their mean age was 79.70 ± 5.32 years, ranging from 67 to 97. This population was composed of 262 females (68.4% and 121 males (31.6% of European (89.2%, Japanese (3.3%, Middle Eastern (1.81%, and mixed and/or other origins (5.7%. There are no studies concerning this polymorphism in Brazilian population. These subjects were evaluated clinically every two years. The major health problems and morbidities affecting this cohort were cardiovascular diseases (21.7%, hypertension (83.7%, diabetes (63.3%, obesity (41.23%, dementia (8.0%, depression (20.0%, and neoplasia (10.8%. Their prevalence is similar to some urban elderly Brazilian samples. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR and digested with PmaCI. Allele frequencies were 0.788 for the cysteine and 0.211 for the arginine. Genotype distributions were within that expected for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Female gender was associated with hypertension and obesity. Logistic regression analysis did not detect significant association between the polymorphism and morbidity. These findings confirm those from Europeans and differ from Japanese population.

  14. Cannabinoid Type-1 Receptor Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Central Obesity in a Southern Brazilian Population

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    Janaína P. Jaeger

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The CB1 cannabinoid receptor and its endogenous ligands, the endocannabinoids, are involved in energy balance control, stimulating appetite and increasing body weight in wasting syndromes. Different studies have investigated the relationship between polymorphisms of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CNR1 gene and obesity with conflicting results. In the present study, we investigated the 1359G/A (rs1049353, 3813A/G (rs12720071 and 4895A/G (rs806368 polymorphisms in the CNR1 gene in a Brazilian population of European descent. To verify the association between these variants and obesity-related traits in this population, 756 individuals were genotyped by PCR-RFLP methods. The 4895G allele was associated with waist to hip ratio (WHR (P = 0.014; P = 0.042 after Bonferroni correction. An additive effect with the GAA haplotype was associated with WHR (P = 0.028, although this statistical significance disappeared after Bonferroni correction (P = 0.084. No significant association was observed between the genotypes of the 1359G/A and 3813A/G polymorphisms and any of the quantitative variables investigated. Our findings suggest that CNR1 gene polymorphism is associated with central obesity in this Brazilian population of European ancestry.

  15. Is there really natural selection affecting the l frequencies (long hair) in the Brazilian cat populations?

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    Ruiz-Garcia, M

    2000-01-01

    The scientific literature on cat genetics contains a presumed typical example of natural selection affecting l frequencies (long hair) in 16 Brazilian cat populations. It has been observed that the hotter and more tropical the climate in Brazil, the lower the values of l frequencies in the cat populations. Nevertheless, this study of some new cat populations in Latin America showed that all of them, independent of the climate, had high or very high l frequencies. l postulate that an alternative migrational-historical hypothesis exists that explains the correlation between the l frequencies and climate characteristics (which are correlated with the latitude) without using natural selection explanations concerning the appearance of the l allele in Brazil.

  16. Planning and administration of human resources in Brazilian Electric Power Companies; Planejamento e administracao de recursos humanos nas empresas brasileiras do setor de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Devanir Vieira

    1985-12-01

    Administration and planning of human resources in Brazilian Companies of Electric Power Sector analyzes the evolution of the concept of business planning. This work explore the specific literature of this theme, giving emphasis in predict methods and human resources development and planning models. Is also presented a case study, realized in 1979, which comprehended 84 % of Brazilian Energy Companies. This study aims to evaluate the results of an implementation of this planning and development models 64 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Interrelations among population, resources, environment and development.

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    Soemarwoto, O

    1981-06-01

    This article is concerned with the question of ecological balance in Indonesia. The author defines the concept of carrying capacity and argues that it can be increased by the use of improved technology and capital formation. The program involving the transmigration of population from Java to the outer islands is analyzed in this context.

  18. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in a Brazilian population: The Botucatu Eye Study

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    Cordeiro Ricardo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports population-based data on the prevalence and causes of visual impairment among children and adults in Botucatu, Brazil. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted involving a random start point and then systematic sampling of an urban Brazilian population in the city of Botucatu. There were approximately 3 300 individuals aged 1 to 91 years who were eligible to participate in the study. Of this sample, 2485 (75.3% underwent ophthalmic examination. The ophthalmic examination included uncorrected (presenting and best corrected distance visual acuity using standardized protocols. The primary cause of decreased visual acuity was identified for all patients with visual impairment. Results Presenting low vision and presenting blindness were found in 5.2% (95% CI: 4.3–6.1 and 2.2% (95% CI: 1.6–2.8 of the population, respectively. Unilateral presenting low vision and unilateral presenting blindness were found in 8.3% (95% CI: 7.2–9.5 and 3.7% (95% CI: 2.9–4.4 of the population respectively. Best corrected low vision was found in 1.3% of the population (95% CI: 0.9–1.7 and best corrected blindness was discovered in 0.4% of people (95% CI: 0.2–0.7. The main cause of presenting low vision was refractive error (72.3% and cataract was the most prevalent cause of blindness (50%. Conclusion The main causes of low vision and blindness in this Brazilian city were uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, and retinal diseases. Programs to further reduce the burden of visual impairment need to be targeted toward the correction of refractive error and surgery for cataracts.

  19. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  20. [Instruments in Brazilian Sign Language for assessing the quality of life of the deaf population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveiro, Neuma; Duarte, Soraya Bianca Reis; Freitas, Adriana Ribeiro de; Barbosa, Maria Alves; Porto, Celmo Celeno; Fleck, Marcelo Pio de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    To construct versions of the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS instruments in Brazilian sign language to evaluate the Brazilian deaf population's quality of life. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS) was used to construct instruments adapted to the deaf community using Brazilian Sign Language (Libras). The research for constructing the instrument took placein 13 phases: 1) creating the QUALITY OF LIFE sign; 2) developing the answer scales in Libras; 3) translation by a bilingual group; 4) synthesized version; 5) first back translation; 6) production of the version in Libras to be provided to the focal groups; 7) carrying out the Focal Groups; 8) review by a monolingual group; 9) revision by the bilingual group; 10) semantic/syntactic analysis and second back translation; 11) re-evaluation of the back translation by the bilingual group; 12) recording the version into the software; 13) developing the WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS software in Libras. Characteristics peculiar to the culture of the deaf population indicated the necessity of adapting the application methodology of focal groups composed of deaf people. The writing conventions of sign languages have not yet been consolidated, leading to difficulties in graphically registering the translation phases. Linguistics structures that caused major problems in translation were those that included idiomatic Portuguese expressions, for many of which there are no equivalent concepts between Portuguese and Libras. In the end, it was possible to create WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-DIS software in Libras. The WHOQOL-BREF and the WHOQOL-DIS in Libras will allow the deaf to express themselves about their quality of life in an autonomous way, making it possible to investigate these issues more accurately.

  1. Reference serving sizes for the Brazilian population: An analysis of processed food labels

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    Nathalie Kliemann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare serving sizes reported on processed food labels with reference serving sizes according to nutrition labeling legislation and the "Food Guide for the Brazilian Population". METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed the labels of 2,072 processed foods in a supermarket of Florianópolis, Santa Caratina, Brazil. The foods were classified according to the Brazilian food labeling legislation. Central tendency and variability values were calculated for the serving sizes and energy values reported on the labels, as well as the ratio between the reported and reference energy value. The Spearman correlation test was performed between the reference serving size and the reference energy density, and also between the reference serving size and energy density of each study food. RESULTS: Nutrition labeling and the Food Guide presented reference servings with different sizes and energy values. The serving sizes reported on the labels did not follow either of the references and presented heterogeneous values, with a maximum range of 55-240 g among ready and semi-ready pre-prepared dishes. The reported energy values were between 0.1 times smaller and 2.4 times larger than the reference values. The reference serving sizes presented a highly inverse correlation with the reference energy density (Spearman coefficient= 0.9 and a very low inverse correlation with the energy density of the foods analyzed (Spearman coefficient= 0.2. CONCLUSION: This study showed the need for standardizing reference serving size information for the Brazilian population as well as reviewing nutrition labeling legislation in order to standardize the serving sizes reported on labels and to update the reference energy density used to calculate serving sizes.

  2. Resources, environment, and population: the nature of future limits.

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    Ridker, R G; Cecelski, E W

    1979-08-01

    The balance between world supplies of resources and the demands presented by population growth in the recent past, during the period to 2025, and for the long term is examined. Focus is on the issues, the past in terms of socioeconomic indicators, past trends in market places, and specific evidence of depletion; future demands in terms of population projections and growth in per capita demand; resource supplies to 2025; ultimate resource production possibilities; environmental constraints and risks (problems capable of control at reasonable cost, other domestic environmental problems, and potentially severe global problems); and implications. Improvement in socioeconomic indicators, relatively stable resource market prices, along with evidence of resource and environmental changes suggest that thus far the world as a whole has been able to win the race between demand and supply. For the next 50 years, during which a slowdown is projected in population growth rates and resource consumption, the most important problems to be faced are associated with the unequal distribution of resources and the transition problems of moving from 1 resource regime to another in an orderly fashion. For the long term, a projected equilibrium population of 10-12 billion can probably be sustained at a decent standard of living by more equitable distribution of food and shifts from less to more abundant resources. Ultimately, environmental and security problems associated with growing energy production and use such as increasing atmospheric levels of carbon dioxide and nuclear proliferation may be the most difficult to resolve. Although cessation of population growth would help, it does not by itself constitute a solution to the world's resource problems. Both the causes and the symptoms need to be worked on simultaneously. Understanding the true nature of the world's resource and environmental limitations is a 1st step in that direction.

  3. Association of apolipoprotein E polymorphism with plasma lipids and Alzheimer's disease in a Southern Brazilian population

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    de-Andrade F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (protein: apo E; gene: APOE plays an important role in the multifactorial etiology of both Alzheimer's disease (AD and lipid level concentrations. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to investigate the APOE gene polymorphism in 446 unrelated Caucasians, among them 23 AD patients, and 100 Afro-Brazilians living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. The frequencies of the APOE*2, APOE*3 and APOE*4 alleles were 0.075, 0.810 and 0.115 in Caucasians and 0.075, 0.700 and 0.225 in Afro-Brazilians, respectively (c2 = 8.72, P = 0.013. A highly significant association was observed between the APOE*4 allele and AD in this population-based sample. The APOE*4 frequency in AD patients (39% was about four times higher than in the general Caucasian population (11.5%. The influence of each of the three common APOE alleles on lipid traits was evaluated by the use of the average excess statistic. The E*2 allele is associated with lower levels of triglycerides and of total and non-HDL cholesterol in both men and women. Conversely, the E*4 allele is associated with higher levels of these traits in women only. The effect of APOE alleles was of greater magnitude in women.

  4. Three-dimensional analysis of facial morphology in Brazilian population with Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity

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    Ana Maria Bettoni Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare facial features related to the nose, lips and face between the Caucasian, Asian, and Black ethnicity in the Brazilian population by means of linear measurements and proportion indices obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional (3D images taken by 3D stereophotogrammetry. Materials and Methods: Thirty healthy subjects, being 10 Caucasians, 10 Blacks and 10 Asians had reference points (landmarks demarcated on their faces, 3D images were obtained (Vectra M3 and the following measurements were calculated: Facial proportion indices relative to the nose, lips and face. The statistical analysis was performed comparing the ethnic groups (one-way analysis of variance. Results: The Blacks and Asians showed the greatest difference in the face analysis (width, height of the lower face, upper face index and lower face index – P < 0.05. In the comparisons between groups, differences were verified to the mouth width and lower lip vermilion height. In the nose analysis, the biggest differences were obtained for the proportion indices, being that Caucasians versus Asians and Caucasians versus Blacks have showed the largest differences. Conclusion: This study found the presence of some similarities in the proportion indices of nose, lips and face between the ethnic groups of the Brazilian population, as well as some important differences that should be known to guide surgical and forensics procedures, among others.

  5. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire on Dementia for the Brazilian population.

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    Belfort, Tatiana; Bramham, Jessica; Simões Neto, José Pedro; Sousa, Maria Fernanda Barroso de; Santos, Raquel Luiza dos; Nogueira, Marcela Moreira Lima; Torres, Bianca; Rosa, Rachel Dias Lopes da; Dourado, Marcia Cristina Nascimento

    2015-01-01

    Impairments in social and emotional functioning may affect the communication skills and interpersonal relationships of people with dementia and their caregivers. This study had the aim of presenting the steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire (SEQ) for the Brazilian population. Cross-cultural adaptation study, conducted at the Center for Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders in a public university. The process adopted in this study required six consecutive steps: initial translation, translation synthesis, back translation, committee of judges, pretesting of final version and submission to the original author. In general, the items had semantic, idiomatic, conceptual and experiential equivalence. During the first pretest, people with dementia and their caregivers had difficulties in understanding some items relating to social skills, which were interpreted ambiguously. New changes were made to allow better adjustment to the target population and, following this, a new pretest was performed. This pre-test showed that the changes were relevant and gave rise to the final version of the instrument. There was no correlation between education level and performance in the questionnaire, among people with dementia (P = 0.951). The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Social and Emotional Questionnaire was well understood and, despite the cultural and linguistic differences, the constructs of the original version were maintained.

  6. Global pharmacogenomics: distribution of CYP3A5 polymorphisms and phenotypes in the Brazilian population.

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    Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz

    Full Text Available The influence of self-reported "race/color", geographical origin and genetic ancestry on the distribution of three functional CYP3A5 polymorphisms, their imputed haplotypes and inferred phenotypes was examined in 909 healthy, adult Brazilians, self-identified as White, Brown or Black ("race/color" categories of the Brazilian census. The cohort was genotyped for CYP3A5*3 (rs776746, CYP3A5*6 (rs10264272 and CYP3A5*7 (rs41303343, CYP3A5 haplotypes were imputed and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes were inferred according to the number of defective CYP3A5 alleles. Estimates of the individual proportions of Amerindian, African and European ancestry were available for the entire cohort. Multinomial log-linear regression models were applied to infer the statistical association between the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles, haplotypes and phenotypes (response variables, and self-reported Color, geographical region and ancestry (explanatory variables. We found that Color per se or in combination with geographical region associates significantly with the distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles and CYP3A5 metabolizer phenotypes, whereas geographical region per se influences the frequency distribution of CYP3A5 variant alleles. The odds of having the default CYP3A5*3 allele and the poor metabolizer phenotype increases continuously with the increase of European ancestry and decrease of African ancestry. The opposite trend is observed in relation to CYP3A5*6, CYP3A5*7, the default CYP3A5*1 allele, and both the extensive and intermediate phenotypes. No significant effect of Amerindian ancestry on the distribution of CYP3A5 alleles or phenotypes was observed. In conclusion, this study strongly supports the notion that the intrinsic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population must be acknowledged in the design and interpretation of pharmacogenomic studies, and dealt with as a continuous variable, rather than proportioned in arbitrary categories that do not capture the

  7. Criteria for central obesity in a Brazilian population: impact on metabolic syndrome.

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    Barbosa, Paulo José Bastos; Lessa, Ines; de Almeida Filho, Naomar; Magalhães, Lucélia Batista N Cunha; Araújo, Jenny

    2006-10-01

    To identify and propose the optimal waist circumference cut-off points (WCp) for the diagnosis of central obesity (CO) in a Brazilian population, so as to compare these cut-off points with those recommended by the ATPIII (WC-ATPIII), and to estimate the difference in prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MS) using the two criteria. Cross-sectional study conducted in a population subgroup of 1439 adults in the city of Salvador, Brazil. ROC curves of waist circumference (WC) were plotted to identify diabetes mellitus (DM) and obesity. ROC curve sensitivity and specificity values >60% and the closest to each other were used to define WCp. The prevalence of MS was estimated using WCp and WC-ATPIII. Eight hundred and twenty nine women comprised 57.7% of the sample. The WCp selected were 84 cm for women and 88 cm for men. These cut-off points detected DM with a 68.7% and 70% sensitivity, and a 66.2% and 68.3% specificity, respectively. For obesity, sensitivity and specificity were 79.8% and 77.6% in women and 64.3% and 71.6% in men, respectively. Using WC-ATPIII, 88 cm (for women) and 102 cm (for men), the sensitivity was 53.3% and 26.5%, respectively, to diagnose DM. For obesity, sensitivity was 66.5% (for women) and 28.6% (for men). The prevalence of MS using WCp was 23.7%, 95%CI (21.6-25.9), whereas using WC-ATPIII it was 19.0%, 95%CI (17.1-20.9), 1.2 times higher using WCp. WC-ATPIII were inappropriate and underestimated the prevalence of MS in the population studied, particularly among men. We suggest that the WC cut-off points > 84 cm for women and > 88 cm for men should be tested in other Brazilian populations.

  8. Exposure to toxic chemicals in the diet: is the Brazilian population at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Eloisa Dutra; Jardim, Andreia Nunes Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    In Brazil, in the last 20 years, dietary risk assessments have been conducted on pesticides, mycotoxins, food additives, heavy metals (mainly mercury), environmental contaminants (mainly DDT) and acrylamide, a compound formed during food processing. The objectives of this paper were to review these studies, discuss their limitations and uncertainties and identify the most critical chemicals that may pose a health risk to Brazilian consumers. The studies have shown that the cumulative intake of organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides by high consumers of fruits and vegetables may represent a health concern (up to 169% of the ARfD), although the benefits of consuming large portions of those foods most probably overcome the risks. High consumers of maize products may also be at risk due to the presence of fumonisin (355% of the PMTDI), a mycotoxin present at high levels in Brazilian maize. The studies conducted in the Brazilian Amazon have shown that riparian fish consumers are exposed to unsafe levels of mercury. However, this is a more complex issue, as mercury levels in the region are naturally high and the health benefits of a fish-based diet are well known. Studies conducted both in Brazil and internationally on acrylamide have shown that the exposure to this genotoxic compound, mainly from the consumption of French fries and potato chips, is of health concern. Reducing the population dietary exposure to toxic chemicals is a challenge for government authorities and food producers in all countries. Management strategies aimed at decreasing exposure to the critical chemicals identified in this review involve limiting the use or eliminating highly toxic pesticides, implementing good agricultural practices to decrease maize contamination by fumonisins, educating local fish-eating communities toward a fish diet less contaminated by mercury, and changing dietary habits concerning the consumption of fried potatoes, the main processed food containing acrylamide.

  9. Morphological variation among populations of Hemigrammus coeruleus (Characiformes: Characidae in a Negro River tributary, Brazilian Amazon

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    Henrique Lazzarotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We explored patterns of phenotypic variation in Hemigrammus coeruleus from the Unini River basin, a blackwater river in the Brazilian Amazon. Geometric morphometrics was used to evaluate variation in body shape among populations from four tributaries (UN2-UN5. We found no evidence for sexual dimorphism in body size and shape. However, morphological differences among populations were detected as the analyses recovered significant groups corresponding to each sub-basin, with some overlap among them. The populations from UN2, UN3 and UN5 had more elongate bodies than fish from UN4. The most morphologically divergent population belonged to UN4, the tributary with the most divergent environmental conditions and the only one with seasonally-muddy waters. The morphological variation found among these populations is likely due to phenotypic plasticity or local adaptation, arising as a product of divergent ecological selection pressures among sub-basins. This work constitutes one of the first to employ a population-level geometric morphometric approach to assess phenotypic variation in Amazonian fishes. This method was able to distinguish subtle differences in body morphology, and its use with additional species can bring novel perspectives on the evaluation of general patterns of phenotypic differentiation in the Amazon.

  10. Modelagem do crescimento populacional do rebanho bovino brasileiro Modeling the growth of Brazilian cattle population

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    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerando-se o número efetivo de animais e a taxa de abate do rebanho bovino brasileiro no período de 1983 a 2000, estimou-se o crescimento dessa população utilizando-se o modelo de Richards, ajustado pela técnica de verossimilhança profile. O modelo se mostrou adequado para descrever o crescimento da população brasileira de bovinos, pois as superestimavas e ou subestimavas dos valores se situaram entre 1 e 2,5%. A partir da modelagem por cadeia de Markov, foram calculados a probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, em função da taxa de abate, e o tempo esperado para se atingir este tamanho populacional, em função da taxa de abate. A probabilidade de o rebanho atingir 200 milhões de animais até o ano de 2015, a uma taxa de abate de aproximadamente 17%, é 0,7. Com taxa de abate anual de 16%, o rebanho atingirá esse tamanho no período de 11 anos e, com taxa de abate de 18%, em 20 anos.The growth of the Brazilian bovine cattle population was evaluated using the effective number of animals and the annual slaughter rate from 1983 to 2000. The Richards model was fitted with the profile likelihood technique. Two population parameters were calculated by Markov chain modeling: a the probability of the cattle population to reach 200 million of animals in 2015 as a function of the slaughter rate; b the time to reach this size, considering different annual slaughter rates. The Richards model was adequate to estimate the Brazilian cattle population growth since overestimated and/or underestimated values ranged between one and 2.5%. The probability of the Brazilian herd to reach 200 millions animals in 2015 for an annual slaughter rate of approximately 17% is 0.7 and the expected time to reach 200 million animals for annual slaughter rates of 16% and 18% was 11 and 20 years respectively.

  11. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierantoni, Celia Regina; Garcia, Ana Claudia P

    2011-05-17

    The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS), has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH), through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH) management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals) and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them, specialization courses account for 61.4% and short

  12. Human resources for health and decentralization policy in the Brazilian health system

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    Pierantoni Celia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Brazilian health reform process, following the establishment of the Unified Health System (SUS, has had a strong emphasis on decentralization, with a special focus on financing, management and inter-managerial agreements. Brazil is a federal country and the Ministry of Health (MoH, through the Secretary of Labour Management and Health Education, is responsible for establishing national policy guidelines for health labour management, and also for implementing strategies for the decentralization of management of labour and education in the federal states. This paper assesses whether the process of decentralizing human resources for health (HRH management and organization to the level of the state and municipal health departments has involved investments in technical, political and financial resources at the national level. Methods The research methods used comprise a survey of HRH managers of states and major municipalities (including capitals and focus groups with these HRH managers - all by geographic region. The results were obtained by combining survey and focus group data, and also through triangulation with the results of previous research. Results The results of this evaluation showed the evolution policy, previously restricted to the field of 'personnel administration', now expanded to a conceptual model for health labour management and education-- identifying progress, setbacks, critical issues and challenges for the consolidation of the decentralized model for HRH management. The results showed that 76.3% of the health departments have an HRH unit. It was observed that 63.2% have an HRH information system. However, in most health departments, the HRH unit uses only the payroll and administrative records as data sources. Concerning education in health, 67.6% of the HRH managers mentioned existing cooperation with educational and teaching institutions for training and/or specialization of health workers. Among them

  13. Investigation of host candidate malaria-associated risk/protective SNPs in a Brazilian Amazonian population.

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    Simone da Silva Santos

    Full Text Available The Brazilian Amazon is a hypo-endemic malaria region with nearly 300,000 cases each year. A variety of genetic polymorphisms, particularly in erythrocyte receptors and immune response related genes, have been described to be associated with susceptibility and resistance to malaria. In order to identify polymorphisms that might be associated with malaria clinical outcomes in a Brazilian Amazonian population, sixty-four human single nucleotide polymorphisms in 37 genes were analyzed using a Sequenom massARRAY iPLEX platform. A total of 648 individuals from two malaria endemic areas were studied, including 535 malaria cases (113 individuals with clinical mild malaria, 122 individuals with asymptomatic infection and 300 individuals with history of previous mild malaria and 113 health controls with no history of malaria. The data revealed significant associations (p<0.003 between one SNP in the IL10 gene (rs1800896 and one SNP in the TLR4 gene (rs4986790 with reduced risk for clinical malaria, one SNP in the IRF1 gene (rs2706384 with increased risk for clinical malaria, one SNP in the LTA gene (rs909253 with protection from clinical malaria and one SNP in the TNF gene (RS1800750 associated with susceptibility to clinical malaria. Also, a new association was found between a SNP in the CTL4 gene (rs2242665, located at the major histocompatibility complex III region, and reduced risk for clinical malaria. This study represents the first association study from an Amazonian population involving a large number of host genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility or resistance to Plasmodium infection and malaria outcomes. Further studies should include a larger number of individuals, refined parameters and a fine-scale map obtained through DNA sequencing to increase the knowledge of the Amazonian population genetic diversity.

  14. Main visual symptoms associated to refractive errors and spectacle need in a Brazilian population

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    Silvana Schellini

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine the main visual symptoms in a Brazilian population sample, associated to refractive errors (REs and spectacle need to suggest priorities in preventive programs. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the southeast region of Brazil, using a systematic sampling of households, between March 2004 and July 2005. The population was defined as individuals aged between 1 and 96y, inhabitants of 3600 residences to be evaluated and 3012 households were included, corresponding to 8010 subjects considered for participation in the survey, of whom 7654 underwent ophthalmic examinations. The individuals were evaluated according their demographic data, eye complaints and eye examination including the RE and the need to prescribe spectacles according to age. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software package and descriptive analysis using 95% confidence intervals (P<0.05. RESULTS: The main symptom detected was asthenopia, most frequent in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life, with a significant decline after the 4th decade. Astigmatism was the RE most associated with asthenopia. Reduced near vision sight was more frequent in those ≥40y with a progressive decline thereafter. Spectacles were most frequently required in subjects of ≥40 years of age. CONCLUSION: The main symptom related to the vision was asthenopia and was associated to astigmatism. The greatest need for spectacles prescription occurred after 40’s, mainly to correct near vision. Subjects of ≥40 years old were determined to be at high risk of uncorrected REs. These observations can guide intervention programs for the Brazilian population.

  15. First record of intestinal parasites in a wild population of jaguar in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo

    Full Text Available Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.

  16. Vitamin D receptor alleles and bone mineral density in a normal premenopausal Brazilian female population

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    Lazaretti-Castro M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the association between vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphism and bone mineral density (BMD in different populations have produced conflicting results probably due to ethnic differences in the populations studied. The Brazilian population is characterized by a very broad genetic background and a high degree of miscegenation. Of an initial group of 164, we studied 127 women from the city of São Paulo, aged 20 to 47 years (median, 31 years, with normal menses, a normal diet and no history of diseases or use of any medication that could alter BMD. VDR genotype was assessed by PCR amplification followed by BsmI digestion of DNA isolated from peripheral leukocytes. BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Lunar DPX at the lumbar site (L2-L4 and femoral neck. Most of the women (77.6% were considered to be of predominantly European ancestry (20.6% of them reported also native American ancestry, 12.8% were of African-Brazilian ancestry and 9.6% of Asian ancestry, 41.0% (52 were classified as bb, 48.8% (62 as Bb and 10.2% (13 as BB. The BB, Bb and bb groups did not differ in age, height, weight, body mass index or age at menarche. Lumbar spine BMD was significantly higher in the bb group (1.22 ± 0.16 g/cm² than in the BB group (1.08 ± 0.14; P<0.05, and the Bb group presented an intermediate value (1.17 ± 0.15. Femoral neck BMD was higher in the bb group (0.99 ± 0.11 g/cm² compared to Bb (0.93 ± 0.12 and BB (0.90 ± 0.09 (P<0.05. These data indicate that there is a significant correlation between the VDR BsmI genotype and BMD in healthy Brazilian premenopausal females.

  17. QTL mapping for yield components and agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population

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    Josiane Isabela da Silva Rodrigues

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to map QTL for agronomic traits in a Brazilian soybean population. For this, 207 F2:3 progenies from the cross CS3035PTA276-1-5-2x UFVS2012 were genotyped and cultivated in Viçosa-MG, using randomized block design with three replications. QTL detection was carried out by linear regression and composite interval mapping. Thirty molecular markers linked to QTL were detected by linear regression for the total of nine agronomic traits. QTL for SWP (seed weight per plant, W100S (weight of 100 seeds, NPP (number of pods per plant, and NSP (number of seeds per plant were detected by composite interval mapping. Four QTL with additive effect are promising for marker-assisted selection (MAS. Particularly, the markers Satt155 and Satt300 could be useful in simultaneous selection for greater SWP, NPP, and NSP.

  18. Population genetic structure of an estuarine and a reef fish species exploited by Brazilian artisanal fishing

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    Regina H.G. Priolli

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we used microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structures of Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch, 1792 and Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834 populations collected from artisanal fishing sites along a stretch of coastline in southeastern Brazil. Based on F-statistics, there was no significant genetic differentiation evident in any C. undecimalis samples (FST=0.012. However, Bayesian clustering, principal component analysis (PCA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC results suggested that there were most likely two clusters, with no relation to geographic areas. The bottleneck results showed no significant values and the effective population sizes (Ne for the two genetically differentiated groups were large and similar. In contrast, for E. marginatus populations, the microsatellite loci showed no population subdivisions. The FST value was low and non-significant (FST=0.008, a Bayesian analysis indicated one cluster, and a PCA showed that all samples from different geographical sites shared the same genetic structure. The bottleneck results exhibited significant differences, and a low Ne was observed. The results of the genetic study of these two species along the southeastern Brazilian coast suggest that the distinct genetic structure of each species should be taken into account as management units for the conservation of their genetic diversities.

  19. Population Dynamics of Lepidoptera Pests in Eucalyptus urophylla Plantations in the Brazilian Amazonia

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    José Cola Zanuncio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Forestry companies study the population dynamics of insect pests in Integrated Pest Management for cost effectiveness. The objective of this study was to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on population fluctuation of the Lepidopteran defoliators of Eucalyptus urophylla plants in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. In all, 402 species were collected, of which 10 were primary pests, nine were secondary pests, and the remaining bore no definite relevance to eucalyptus. Primary pests formed a low percentage of the total species, although they recorded a high percentage of the total number of individuals. The abundance of secondary pests, except in Caracuru, was less than 150 specimens annually. Primary pests showed higher population peaks during periods of low precipitation. The small number of species and the high abundance of primary and secondary pests could be due to the availability of food, or a deficiency in natural biological control. This suggests the possibilities of population outbreaks in the eucalyptus plantations. The period of highest occurrence for insect species in these crops must be identified so that suitable strategies can be developed for Integrated Pest Management.

  20. The role of strong-tie social networks in mediating food security of fish resources by a traditional riverine community in the Brazilian Amazon

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    Frédéric Mertens

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social networks are a significant way through which rural communities that manage resources under common property regimes obtain food resources. Previous research on food security and social network analysis has mostly focused on egocentric network data or proxy variables for social networks to explain how social relations contribute to the different dimensions of food security. Whole-network approaches have the potential to contribute to former studies by revealing how individual social ties aggregate into complex structures that create opportunities or constraints to the sharing and distribution of food resources. We used a whole-network approach to investigate the role of network structure in contributing to the four dimensions of food security: food availability, access, utilization, and stability. For a case study of a riparian community from the Brazilian Amazon that is dependent on fish as a key element of food security, we mapped the community strong-tie network among 97% of the village population over 14 years old (n = 336 by integrating reciprocated friendship and occupational ties, as well as close kinship relationships. We explored how different structural properties of the community network contribute to the understanding of (1 the availability of fish as a community resource, (2 community access to fish as a dietary resource, (3 the utilization of fish for consumption in a way that allows the villagers to maximize nutrition while at the same time minimizing toxic risks associated with mercury exposure, and (4 the stability of the fish resources in local ecosystems as a result of cooperative behaviors and community-based management. The contribution of whole-network approaches to the study of the links between community-based natural resource management and food security were discussed in the context of recent social-ecological changes in the Amazonian region.

  1. Association of human leukocyte antigen DQ1 and dengue fever in a white Southern Brazilian population

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    José Roberto Polizel

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue is an infectious disease of viral etiology transmitted by the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti, A. albopictus, and A. scutellaris. It can develop either as a benign form or as a severe hemorrhagic form. Previous work showed an association of the hemorrhagic form with human leukocyte antigens (HLA, suggesting a role of genetic factors in disease susceptibility. Nevertheless, data on HLA association with the classical form of the disease is scarce in literature. Sixty-four patients and 667 normal individuals, living in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil, were used as test and control group, respectively. The patients developed the disease during a virus 1 dengue outbreak either in Maringá city in 1995 (47 or in Paranavaí city in 1999 (17. The diagnostic was confirmed through serology and/or viral culture. HLA class I and II typing was performed by the classical microlynfocitotoxicity test using monoclonal antisera and fluorobeads. Qui-square statistical analysis confirmed a positive association with HLA-DQ1 (76.6% vs 57.7%; p = 0.005243; pc = 0.026215. HLA-DR1 also presented an increased frequency in the test group, not statistically significant after p correction though (32.8% vs 15.9%; p = 0.005729; pc = 0.080206. In conclusion, genetic factors may play a role on the susceptibility to the classical dengue, virus 1, in the Brazilian population. Further independent studies should be performed in the Brazilian population to confirm these preliminary data.

  2. Genetic linkage maps of chicken chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 11 and 13 from a Brazilian resource population Mapas de ligação dos cromossomos 6, 7, 8, 11 e 13 de uma população brasileira de galinha

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    Marcel Ambo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A linkage map is essential not only for quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping, but also for the organization and location of genes along the chromosomes. The present study is part of a project whose major objective is, besides from construction the linkage maps, the whole genome scan for mapping QTL for performance traits in the Brazilian experimental chicken population. Linkage maps of chicken chromosomes 6 to 8, 11 and 13 were constructed based on this population. The population was developed from two generations of crossbreeding between a broiler and a layer line. Fifty-one microsatellite markers were tested, from which 28 were informative: 4, 8, 7, 4 and 5 for chromosomes 6, 7, 8, 11 and 13, respectively. A SNP located in the leptin receptor gene was included for chromosome 8. Ten parental, 8 F1 and 459 F2 chickens from five full-sib families were genotyped with these markers. The number of total informative meioses per locus varied from 232 to 862, and the number of phase-known informative meioses from 0 to 764. Marker orders in the chromosomes coincided with those of the chicken consensus map, except for markers ADL0147 and MCW0213, on chromosome 13, which were inverted. The reduced number of phase-known informative meioses for ADL0147 (150 may be pointed out as a possible cause for this inversion, apart from the relative short distance between the two markers involved in the inversion (10.5 cM.O mapa de ligação além de ser fundamental no mapeamento de locos de características quantitativas (QTLs é importante na organização e localização de genes distribuídos ao longo dos cromossomos. O presente estudo é parte de um trabalho cujo objetivo maior, é a análise de mapeamento de QTLs para características de desempenho no genoma de uma população experimental desenvolvida no Brasil. Com base nesta população foram construídos os mapas de ligação dos cromossomos 6 a 8, 11 e 13 da galinha. A população foi desenvolvida a partir

  3. MtDNA haplogroup analysis of black Brazilian and sub-Saharan populations: implications for the Atlantic slave trade.

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    Silva, Wilson Araújo; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Schneider, Maria Paula Cruz; Marrero, Andrea; Elion, Jacques; Krishnamoorthy, Rajagopal; Zago, Marco Antonio

    2006-02-01

    Seventy individuals from two African and four black Brazilian populations were studied for the first hypervariable segment of mtDNA. To delineate a more complete phylogeographic scenario of the African mtDNA haplogroups in Brazil and to provide additional information on the nature of the Atlantic slave trade, we analyzed our data together with previously published data. The results indicate different sources of African slaves for the four major Brazilian regions. In addition, the data revealed patterns that differ from those expected on the basis of historical registers, thus suggesting the role of ethnic sex differences in the slave trade.

  4. Optimal exploitation of spatially distributed trophic resources and population stability

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    Basset, A.; Fedele, M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between optimal foraging of individuals and population stability are addressed by testing, with a spatially explicit model, the effect of patch departure behaviour on individual energetics and population stability. A factorial experimental design was used to analyse the relevance of the behavioural factor in relation to three factors that are known to affect individual energetics; i.e. resource growth rate (RGR), assimilation efficiency (AE), and body size of individuals. The factorial combination of these factors produced 432 cases, and 1000 replicate simulations were run for each case. Net energy intake rates of the modelled consumers increased with increasing RGR, consumer AE, and consumer body size, as expected. Moreover, through their patch departure behaviour, by selecting the resource level at which they departed from the patch, individuals managed to substantially increase their net energy intake rates. Population stability was also affected by the behavioural factors and by the other factors, but with highly non-linear responses. Whenever resources were limiting for the consumers because of low RGR, large individual body size or low AE, population density at the equilibrium was directly related to the patch departure behaviour; on the other hand, optimal patch departure behaviour, which maximised the net energy intake at the individual level, had a negative influence on population stability whenever resource availability was high for the consumers. The consumer growth rate (r) and numerical dynamics, as well as the spatial and temporal fluctuations of resource density, which were the proximate causes of population stability or instability, were affected by the behavioural factor as strongly or even more strongly than by the others factors considered here. Therefore, patch departure behaviour can act as a feedback control of individual energetics, allowing consumers to optimise a potential trade-off between short-term individual fitness

  5. Susceptibility of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Brazilian populations to ryanodine receptor modulators.

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    Campos, Mateus R; Silva, Tadeu B M; Silva, Wellington M; Silva, Jefferson E; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2015-04-01

    Phthalic and anthranilic diamides comprise a new insecticide class recently registered in Brazil to control Lepidoptera such as Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Therefore, the baseline of susceptibility was determined for eight representative field populations of this species to establish a resistance monitoring programme. The potential for cross-resistance as well as detoxification metabolism was assessed in order to fine-tune the resistance management programme. Brazilian populations were very susceptible to chlorantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 3.17 to 29.64 µg AI L(-1) ), cyantraniliprole (LC50 values varied from 8.61 to 28.95 µg AI L(-1) ) and flubendiamide (LC50 values varied from 94 to 230 µg AI L(-1) ), with respective resistance ratios of 9.33-, 3.36- and 2.45-fold between most susceptible and tolerant populations. Anthranilic diamides showed significant correlations between log LC50 values among themselves, suggesting a high risk of cross-resistance. However, the log LC50 values of T. absoluta to phthalic diamide did not show any correlation with anthranilic diamides. Cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenase activity showed a weak correlation with log LC50 values of T. absoluta populations to anthranilic diamides, which suggests a potential route for evolving resistance to anthranilic diamides. The diamides were highly effective against T. absoluta, with populations showing a homogeneous response to them. Cross-resistance is very likely between anthranilic diamides in T. absoluta. Populations of this pest may evolve resistance by increasing cytochrome- P450-dependent monooxygenases. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Sex differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease: a study in a Brazilian population

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    Oliveira Helena CF

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Brazil coronary heart disease (CHD constitutes the most important cause of death in both sexes in all the regions of the country and interestingly, the difference between the sexes in the CHD mortality rates is one of the smallest in the world because of high rates among women. Since a question has been raised about whether or how the incidence of several CHD risk factors differs between the sexes in Brazil the prevalence of various risk factors for CHD such as high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and cigarette smoking was compared between the sexes in a Brazilian population; also the relationships between blood cholesterol and the other risk factors were evaluated. Results The population presented high frequencies of all the risk factors evaluated. High blood cholesterol (CHOL and hypertension were more prevalent among women as compared to men. Hypertension, diabetes and smoking showed equal or higher prevalence in women in pre-menopausal ages as compared to men. Obesity and physical inactivity were equally prevalent in both sexes respectively in the postmenopausal age group and at all ages. CHOL was associated with BMI, sex, age, hypertension and physical inactivity. Conclusions In this population the high prevalence of the CHD risk factors indicated that there is an urgent need for its control; the higher or equal prevalences of several risk factors in women could in part explain the high rates of mortality from CHD in females as compared to males.

  7. Association between blood lead and blood pressure: a population-based study in Brazilian adults.

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    Almeida Lopes, Ana Carolina Bertin de; Silbergeld, Ellen Kovner; Navas-Acien, Ana; Zamoiski, Rachel; Martins, Airton da Cunha; Camargo, Alissana Ester Iakmiu; Urbano, Mariana Ragassi; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Paoliello, Monica Maria Bastos

    2017-03-14

    Environmental lead exposure among adults may increase blood pressure and elevate the risk of hypertension. The availability of data on blood lead levels (BLL) in adult Brazilian population is scarce and population-based studies are important for screening the population exposure and also to evaluate associations with adverse health effects. The goal of this study was to examine the association of BLL with blood pressure and hypertension in a population-based study in a city in Southern Brazil. A total of 948 adults, aged 40 years or older, were randomly selected. Information on socioeconomic, dietary, lifestyle and occupational background was obtained by orally administered household interviews. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured according to the guidelines VI Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension. BLL were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to evaluate associations of BLL with SBP and DBP, and with the chance of hypertension and of elevated SBP and DBP. The geometric mean of BLL was 1.97 μg/dL (95%CI:1.90-2.04 μg/dL). After multivariable adjustment, participants in the quartile 4 of blood lead presented 0.06 mm/Hg (95%CI, 0.04-0.09) average difference in DBP comparing with those in quartile 1. Participants in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution had 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.11) higher DBP compared with those participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead. The adjusted OR for hypertension was 2.54 (95% CI, 1.17-5.53), comparing the highest to the lowest blood lead quartiles. Compared with participants in the 10th percentile of blood lead, participants in the 90th percentile presented higher OR for hypertension (OR: 2.77; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.46). At low concentrations, BLL were positively associated with DBP and with the odds for hypertension in adults aged 40 or older. It is important to enforce lead

  8. TP53 codon 72 polymorphism as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population

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    M.A.C. Smith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available TP53, a tumor suppressor gene, has a critical role in cell cycle, apoptosis and cell senescence and participates in many crucial physiological and pathological processes. Identification of TP53 polymorphism in older people and age-related diseases may provide an understanding of its physiology and pathophysiological role as well as risk factors for complex diseases. TP53 codon 72 (TP53:72 polymorphism was investigated in 383 individuals aged 66 to 97 years in a cohort from a Brazilian Elderly Longitudinal Study. We investigated allele frequency, genotype distribution and allele association with morbidities such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, obesity, neoplasia, low cognitive level (dementia, and depression. We also determined the association of this polymorphism with serum lipid fractions and urea, creatinine, albumin, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels. DNA was isolated from blood cells, amplified by PCR using sense 5'-TTGCCGTCCCAAGCAATGGATGA-3' and antisense 5'-TCTGGGAAGGGACAGAAGATGAC-3' primers and digested with the BstUI enzyme. This polymorphism is within exon 4 at nucleotide residue 347. Descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis and Student t-test using the multiple comparison test were used. Allele frequencies, R (Arg = 0.69 and P (Pro = 0.31, were similar to other populations. Genotype distributions were within Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. This polymorphism did not show significant association with any age-related disease or serum variables. However, R allele carriers showed lower HDL levels and a higher frequency of cardiovascular disease than P allele subjects. These findings may help to elucidate the physiopathological role of TP53:72 polymorphism in Brazilian elderly people.

  9. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling.

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    Radanovic, M; Mansur, L L; Scaff, M

    2004-11-01

    In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE), in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean +/- SD = 47.2 +/- 17.6 years), with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 +/- 4.8 years). Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50) and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61). Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05). When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05), except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05) in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  10. Normative data for the Brazilian population in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: influence of schooling

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    Radanovic M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Neurolinguistics, the use of diagnostic tests developed in other countries can create difficulties in the interpretation of results due to cultural, demographic and linguistic differences. In a country such as Brazil, with great social contrasts, schooling exerts a powerful influence on the abilities of normal individuals. The objective of the present study was to identify the influence of schooling on the performance of normal Brazilian individuals in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE, in order to obtain reference values for the Brazilian population. We studied 107 normal subjects ranging in age from 15 to 84 years (mean ± SD = 47.2 ± 17.6 years, with educational level ranging from 1 to 24 years (9.9 ± 4.8 years. Subjects were compared for scores obtained in the 28 subtests of the BDAE after being divided into groups according to age (15 to 30, N = 24, 31 to 50, N = 33 and 51 years or more, N = 50 and education (1 to 4, N = 26, 5 to 8, N = 17 and 9 years or more, N = 61. Subjects with 4 years or less of education performed poorer in Word Discrimination, Visual Confrontation Naming, Reading of Sentences and Paragraphs, and Primer-Level Dictation (P < 0.05. When breakdown by schooling was 8 years or less, subjects performed poorer in all subtests (P < 0.05, except Responsive Naming, Word Recognition and Word-Picture Matching. The elderly performed poorer (P < 0.05 in Complex Ideational Material, Visual Confrontation Naming, Comprehension of Oral Spelling, Written Confrontation Naming, and Sentences to Dictation. We present the reference values for the cut-off scores according to educational level.

  11. Nasalance of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking populations from two different states.

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    Maturo, Denise Silva; Pirola, Melissa Nara de Carvalho Picinato; Ricz, Lílian Neto Aguiar; Trawitzki, Luciana Vitaliano Voi

    2017-03-16

    To measure the nasalance scores of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking young adults from the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais in order to investigate whether dialect variations and gender affect these scores. Nasalance was assessed in 36 individuals: 20 native residents of Sao Paulo state (mean age=23 y.o.) and 16 native residents of Minas Gerais state (mean age=24 y.o.), following the same criteria. Nasalance measures were taken using the Nasometer II 6400 (KayPentax) device based on the reading of three texts (nasal-1, nasal-2, and oral). Intergroup nasalance scores were compared using the unpaired Student's t test considering two experimental groups. The nasalance scores in individuals from the states of Sao Paulo and Minas Gerais were 52.7% and 48.8% for the nasal-1 text, 49.6% and 49.9% for the nasal-2 text, and 14.3% and 9.8% for the oral text, respectively. Statistical analysis comparing the mean nasalance scores in both groups showed significant difference (p=0.03) only for the oral text, in which individuals from Sao Paulo state presented higher scores. Although nasalance scores were lower in individuals from Minas Gerais state compared with those of individuals from Sao Paulo state, both groups presented values within the normal range. The variable gender was not relevant in the nasalance assessment; however, a tendency for higher scores was observed in women compared with men from Minas Gerais state in the same group in the reading of the nasal-2 text. This study contributes to the knowledge of nasalance reference scores for two different populations of Brazilian Portuguese speakers; however, the results herein reported should be interpreted with caution due to the small study sample size.

  12. Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae to deltamethrin pyrethroid

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    Grasielle Caldas D`avila Pessoa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. METHODS: The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso. Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. RESULTS: The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.

  13. Susceptibility characterization of residual Brazilian populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) to deltamethrin pyrethroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'avila; Rosa, Aline Cristine Luiz; Bedin, Cleonara; Wilhelms, Tânia; Mello, Fernanda de; Coutinho, Helder Silveira; Fonseca, Eduardo Oyama Lins; dos Santos, Roberto Fonseca; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2015-01-01

    Despite years of efforts towards the elimination of Triatoma infestans in Brazil, residual foci still persist in some areas of the States of Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul. The persistence of these T. infestans populations in the country has two different origins of equal concern: operational failures or insecticide resistance. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the susceptibility profile of the residual Brazilian populations of T. infestans to deltamethrin. The susceptibility reference lineage was derived from Cipein/Argentina. The populations studied were manually collected using a dislodging agent in peridomiciles in the States of Bahia (Novo Horizonte) and of Rio Grande do Sul (Santa Rosa and Doutor Maurício Cardoso). Serial dilutions of deltamethrin were prepared and applied at the dorsal abdomen of first instar nymphs. The control group received only pure acetone. Mortality was evaluated after 72h. Qualitative tests assessed the mortality of a diagnostic dose of 1xLD99 (2.76ng a.i./nymph) determined for the susceptibility reference lineage. The susceptibility profile characterization of the T. infestans populations revealed an RR50 ranging from 1.73 to 3.26. The mortality percentage in response to a diagnostic dose was 100%. The results obtained in the quantitative and qualitative assays corresponded for all populations. The results of this study indicate that the persistence of residual foci of T. infestans in Bahia and Rio Grande do Sul is not related to insecticide resistance but may be associated with operational failures. In Rio Grande do Sul, we must consider the possibility of continuous reinfestation by Argentinian individuals, which justifies active and efficient epidemiological surveillance.

  14. The American Nurses of the Special Public Health Service and the Formation of Human Resources in Brazilian Nursing.

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    Bonini, Bárbara Barrionuevo; Freitas, Genival Fernandes de; Fairman, Julie; Mecone, Márcia Cristina da Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Objective To historicize the changes in training human resources in nursing in Brazil during the period from 1942 to 1961 based on the presence of 35 American nurses assigned to work in cooperation with Special Public Health Service. Method The sources used for the study were reports written by American nurses who described their impressions, suggestions, and the activities they carried out in the country. These were analyzed based on the discourse analysis of Michel Foucault. Results The period mentioned was marked by an American presence in nursing projects developed by the Special Public Health Service. The discourses indicated that the period was marked by many changes in Brazilian nursing, particularly with respect to attracting and training human resources for the profession. Conclusion The results indicate that the American nurses, through what they said and their influence, were central to the consolidation of a new paradigm in the training of nursing professionals in Brazil.

  15. Can individual and social patterns of resource use buffer animal populations against resource decline?

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    Sam C Banks

    Full Text Available Species in many ecosystems are facing declines of key resources. If we are to understand and predict the effects of resource loss on natural populations, we need to understand whether and how the way animals use resources changes under resource decline. We investigated how the abundance of arboreal marsupials varies in response to a critical resource, hollow-bearing trees. Principally, we asked what mechanisms mediate the relationship between resources and abundance? Do animals use a greater or smaller proportion of the remaining resource, and is there a change in cooperative resource use (den sharing, as the availability of hollow trees declines? Analyses of data from 160 sites surveyed from 1997 to 2007 showed that hollow tree availability was positively associated with abundance of the mountain brushtail possum, the agile antechinus and the greater glider. The abundance of Leadbeater's possum was primarily influenced by forest age. Notably, the relationship between abundance and hollow tree availability was significantly less than 1:1 for all species. This was due primarily to a significant increase by all species in the proportional use of hollow-bearing trees where the abundance of this resource was low. The resource-sharing response was weaker and inconsistent among species. Two species, the mountain brushtail possum and the agile antechinus, showed significant but contrasting relationships between the number of animals per occupied tree and hollow tree abundance. The discrepancies between the species can be explained partly by differences in several aspects of the species' biology, including body size, types of hollows used and social behaviour as it relates to hollow use. Our results show that individual and social aspects of resource use are not always static in response to resource availability and support the need to account for dynamic resource use patterns in predictive models of animal distribution and abundance.

  16. Epidemiological evaluation of apical periodontitis prevalence in an urban Brazilian population

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    Teresa BERLINCK

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of apical periodontitis (AP in an urban Brazilian population according to gender, age group and tooth type. Data were collected from clinical files containing the medical and dental histories and periapical radiographs of 1,126 patients treated at the School of Dentistry at Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro between March 2000 and December 2010. A total of 15,724 periapical radiographs were evaluated. All the radiographs were evaluated by two independent, previously calibrated endodontists (kappa = 0.88. Periapical areas on the radiographs were classified as N (normal or AR (apical radiolucency. The frequency of AP and the 95% Confidence Interval (95%CI were calculated according to gender, age group and tooth type. Differences between groups were calculated using the Z-test at a significance level of 5% (p < 0.05. AP was present in 7.87% of the samples, with 16.70% occurring on previously endodontically treated teeth and 44.65% occurring on teeth referred for endodontic treatment (TR-RCT. The frequency of AP was higher among females (64% than among males (35%. The central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth. The frequency of AP was higher among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age. In this population, AP was more prevalent among females and among individuals between 30 and 49 years of age, and the central and lateral maxillary incisors were the most frequently affected teeth.

  17. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

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    Souza, L.T. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Kowalski, T.W. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Collares, M.V.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Departamento de Cirurgia, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Departamento de Cirurgia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Félix, T.M. [Laboratório de Medicina Genômica, Centro de Pesquisa Experimental, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduaçãoo em Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Serviço de Genética Médica, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil, Serviço de Genética Médica, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-08-10

    Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC) are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp), 0.169 (173 bp), 0.096 (171 bp) and 0.67 (169 bp). A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT) software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005). These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  18. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  19. Fitness costs and stability of Cry1Fa resistance in Brazilian populations of Spodoptera frugiperda.

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    Santos-Amaya, Oscar F; Tavares, Clébson S; Rodrigues, João Victor C; Campos, Silverio O; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Alves, Analiza P; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2017-01-01

    The presence of fitness costs of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins in insect populations may delay or even reverse the local selection of insect resistance to Bt transgenic crops, and deserves rigorous investigation. Here we assessed the fitness costs associated with Cry1Fa resistance in two strains of fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), derived from field collections in different Brazilian regions and further selected in the laboratory for high levels of resistance to Cry1Fa using leaves of TC1507 corn. Fitness components were compared using paired resistant and susceptible strains with similar genetic backgrounds and F 1 generations from reciprocal crosses, all of them reared on non-transgenic corn leaves. No apparent life history costs in the larval stage were observed in the Bt-resistant strains. Moreover, the resistance remained stable for seven generations in the absence of selection, with no decrease in the proportion of resistant individuals. Larval respiration rates were also similar between resistant and susceptible homozygotes, and heterozygotes displayed respiration rates and demographic performance equal or superior to those of susceptible homozygotes. In combination, these results indicate the lack of strong fitness costs associated with resistance to Cry1Fa in the fall armyworm strains studied. These findings suggest that Cry1Fa resistance in S. frugiperda populations is unlikely to be counterselected in Cry1Fa-free environments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. MSX1 gene and nonsyndromic oral clefts in a Southern Brazilian population

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    L.T. Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic oral clefts (NSOC are the most common craniofacial birth defects in humans. The etiology of NSOC is complex, involving both genetic and environmental factors. Several genes that play a role in cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis have been associated with clefting. For example, variations in the homeobox gene family member MSX1, including a CA repeat located within its single intron, may play a role in clefting. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between MSX1 CA repeat polymorphism and NSOC in a Southern Brazilian population using a case-parent triad design. We studied 182 nuclear families with NSOC recruited from the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre in Southern Brazil. The polymorphic region was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and analyzed by using an automated sequencer. Among the 182 families studied, four different alleles were observed, at frequencies of 0.057 (175 bp, 0.169 (173 bp, 0.096 (171 bp and 0.67 (169 bp. A transmission disequilibrium test with a family-based association test (FBAT software program was used for analysis. FBAT analysis showed overtransmission of the 169 bp allele in NSOC (P=0.0005. These results suggest that the CA repeat polymorphism of the MSX1 gene may play a role in risk of NSOC in populations from Southern Brazil.

  1. [Characteristics associated with the use of dental services by the adult Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Matos, Divane Leite; de Loyola Filho, Antônio Ignácio

    2012-02-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the factors related to the use of dental services by Brazilian adults. Data were collected from 13,356 adults (35 to 44 years of age), participating in a nationwide epidemiological survey of oral health (SB-BRASIL 2003 Project). Data analysis was based on Poisson regression, which produced estimates of Prevalence Ratios as a measure of association. Data analysis showed that the use of dental services by adults was associated with: female gender, low education and income, living in the Northeastern and Southern regions and in small cities, complaints of toothache or gum pain, need for partial/total prosthesis, a greater amount of permanent teeth requiring treatment, demand for service due to some dental problems and evaluation of dental care received on a regular basis. These results showed that the population attended by the public service was socio-economically less privileged and had greater need for treatment. This situation reflects an historical abandonment of the adult population by the dental healthcare system in Brazil and poses a major challenge to the Unified Health Service, in light of its intended role to reduce inequalities and provide universal access to comprehensive care.

  2. Federalism and distributive conflicts: competition among Brazilian states for federal budgetary resources

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    Celina Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes how states' representatives in the Brazilian Congress process and negotiate amendments to the federal budget on Congress' Joint Budget Committee. Amendments submitted by members of Congress from three selected States (Bahia, Ceará, and Paraná between 1995 and 1999 are analyzed. The article challenges certain hypotheses concerning the role of amendments and argues that budgetary amendments and certain federal policies tend to accommodate tensions which arise in a federation marked by regional inequalities.

  3. Population, resources and environment: The case of tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okediji, F O

    1976-02-01

    This paper analyzes the complex interrelationship between the rate of population growth, development and environmental capacity in Tropical Africa, and suggests policy guidelines for tackling these problems. 5 population problems which constitute an impediment to socioeconomic development and/or cause waste of natural resources are discussed: 1) Relatively low crude population densities; 2) Unevenness of population distribution; 3) High and constant fertility; 4) Low degree of urbanization despite high growth rates of existing urban areas; and 5) Higher proportion of children in the population implying large expenditures for education and employment. Although many population studies have shown that Africa has a low population density and a high level of natural resources, the author refutes this. A more realistic analysis of factors which explain tropical Africa's underdevelopment is its externally-oriented mode of development. 6 characteristics are given: 1) A high ratio of export to national income; 2) A high ratio of imports of gross domestic products, with the bulk of manufactured, consumer and capital goods being imported; 3) High capital imports in relation to aggregate domestic investment; 4) Small national markets; 5) Inadequate public sector revenues and low domestic savings; and 6) Limited scientific, technical and managerial capacity necessitating reliance on external sources for almost all requirements pertaining to technology and applied research. A holistic approach to development must be implemented by policy makers. Modern agricultural methods must be introduced. Governments must make sure that pollution control devices be installed in foreign-owned factories, and sewage systems must be installed in cities. Rural development, urban health facilities, family planning, adult education, management of resources, and control of pollution, among other things must also be implemented.

  4. Raising awareness of chronic kidney disease in a Brazilian urban population

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    M. Mazza Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease have been increasing in recent years in developing countries. The aim of this study was to report the results of a general chronic kidney disease awareness program applied to an urban population in a large Brazilian city. From January 2002 to January 2005 a total of 8883 individuals in the city of Curitiba (PR, Brazil were screened for hypertension, body mass index, hematuria, and proteinuria. A family history and previous medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM were also recorded. Of the 8883 individuals assessed, 56% were women, subject median age was 47 years (range: 17-93 years and more than 90% were Caucasian. Thirty percent had signs of hematuria, 6% had proteinuria, and 3% had hematuria and proteinuria. The median of mean arterial pressure values was 93 mmHg (range: 71-135 mmHg and 16% of the population screened had a history of hypertension. A significant positive family history of both hypertension or DM was present in 42% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 83.18 and 7% (P < 0.0001; chi-square = 161.31 of the hypertensive group, respectively. Finally, the prevalence of hypertension and DM was significantly higher in older individuals with proteinuria. In the present study, a higher prevalence of hematuria and proteinuria was found in older individuals with hypertension and diabetes compared to the general population. These data confirm the need for public awareness of renal disease in high-risk individuals.

  5. Endogenous population growth and the exploitation of renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prskawetz, A; Feichtinger, G; Wirl, F

    1994-01-01

    The authors consider a demo-economic model where the economy consists of two sectors ("hunting and farming" and "industry"), and both sectors depend directly or indirectly on the explanation of a renewable resource. The primary sector harvests a renewable resource (fish, corn, or wood) which is used as the input into industrial production, the secondary sector of our economy. Labor is divided up between these two sectors under the assumption of competitive labor markets. A system of two nonlinear differential equations for the resources and the population is studied by phase space analysis. Using the Hopf bifurcation theorem, the authors obtain two different routes to limit cycles and prove numerically the existence of a stable Malthusian limit cycle.

  6. Major depressive episode among Brazilian adults: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Tiago N; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2013-09-05

    Despite the fact that there is extensive scientific research on depression very few population-based studies have been conducted in Brazilian cities. A sampling design of two-stage conglomerates with probability proportional to size. All adults aged 20 or more living in the selected households were invited to participate in the study. Depression was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) with a cutoff ≥9. The study sample comprised 2925 respondents. The prevalence of depression in the sample studied was 20.4% (95% CI 18.9;21.8). After adjustment for confounding factors according to a conceptual analysis model the following variables were associated with a higher prevalence of depression: female gender; younger age; white skin color; lower socioeconomic condition; lower education; smoking; being single or separated; being unemployed; and reporting a heart condition. Alcohol use, arterial hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not found to be associated with depression. The difference in the proportion of males among losses and refusals compared to that in the sample analyzed. Another limitation is reverse causality bias that is a problem inherent to cross-sectional studies. Our findings support the relevance of depression as a prevalent condition among adults. It also provided evidence of the factors associated with depression, and that some are potentially modifiable risk factors may have implications for policy and health service planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

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    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  8. The relative frequency of odontogenic tumors: A study of 376 cases in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Verde-Osterne, R; Turatti, E; Cordeiro-Teixeira, R; Barroso-Cavalcante, R

    2017-03-01

    Odontogenic tumors (OTs) are rare lesions, exclusive of the jaws, that are derived from epithelial and/or ectomesenchymal elements of the tooth-forming apparatus. Their biological behavior is heterogeneous, including hamartomatous tissue proliferation, benign nonaggressive and aggressive neoplasms, and malignant tumors with metastatic capacity. The aim of this study was to describe the relative frequency of odontogenic tumors in a Brazilian population. In addition, a review of the literature identified studies on odontogenic tumors that follow the 2005 World Health Organization. A total of 376 cases of odontogenic tumors from an oral pathology service were reviewed about age, gender, anatomic site and histologic diagnosis. Keratocystic odontogenic tumors (31.6%) were the most common, followed by ameloblastoma (28.5%), and odontoma (22.6%). The mean age was 32.2 years, and more than half the patients (52.1%) were in the second and third decades of life. The male to female ratio was 1:1.37, with a maxilla to mandible ratio of 1:2.08. The variation in relative frequency of tumors observed among the several series, including the present study, is probably due in part to cultural differences between geographic areas but also to the study design.

  9. Oral and Maxillofacial Lesions Diagnosed in Older People of a Brazilian Population: A Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Leorik P; Leite, Rafaella B; Sobral, Ana P V; Arruda, José A; Oliveira, Leni V; Noronha, Mariana S; Kato, Camila O; Mesquita, Ricardo A; Schuch, Lauren F; Gomes, Ana P N; Vasconcelos, Ana C U; Souza, Lélia B

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of oral and maxillofacial lesions among older adults (≥60 years) from representative regions in Brazil. Retrospective descriptive cross-sectional study. Biopsy records were obtained from the archives of four Brazilian referral centers of oral diagnosis between 2000 and 2016. A total of 45,506 biopsy records of all patients were analyzed, of these 7,259 persons aged 60 and older were selected. Data such as gender, age, race, anatomical location, and histopathological diagnosis were collected and categorized. Pearson's chi-square test (P people, including 59.4% women (P < .001) and 61.3% white patients (P = .07). The most commonly affected sites were the cheek mucosa (20.3%) and mandible (8.9%) (P < .001). Reactive and inflammatory lesions were the most common lesions, followed by neoplasms. Oral squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent neoplasm (83.4%) (P < .001). Knowledge of oral diseases obtained from biopsy records provides more accurate data about the diagnosis and oral health of elderly patients. These indicators thus support the development of specific health policies for the prevention and treatment of oral and maxillofacial lesions that affect this population. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  10. Does the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations suffer taxonomic influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    deMedeiros, Patrícia Muniz; Ladio, Ana Haydée; Santos, André Maurício Melo; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2013-04-19

    The analysis of the influence of taxonomic affiliation on the selection of medicinal plants by Brazilian local populations can help elucidate theoretical aspects of medicinal plant selection. Ethnobotanical medicinal plant studies were compiled and the resulting medicinal flora was compared to the total angiosperm flora with a Bayesian approach and the IDM model. A total of 35 families were considered to be overused and six were classified as underused for the Bayesian approach. On the other hand, the IDM model considered 13 families as overused and five as underused (all of them were also highlighted by the Bayesian approach). A high overuse level of Bixaceae, Amaranthaceae, Anacardiaceae and Smilacaceae was recorded for both Bayesian and IDM model, while Orchidaceae, Melastomataceae, Eriocaulaceae, Poaceae and Bromeliaceae were considered as underused for both analyses. The most dissimilar body system in terms of family composition was 'mental and behavioral disorders'. It was also found that the body systems are different from one another in the proportion of taxonomic groups, which could indicate chemical specificity in the treatment of diseases. Results indicate that the chemical specificity of taxonomic groups directly influences medicinal plant selection. Moreover, when data presented here are compared to other studies, there is clearly an overuse pattern for families like Lamiaceae, Rosaceae and Euphorbiaceae and an underuse pattern for Poaceae and Orchidaceae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of four ischemic stroke prognostic scores in a Brazilian population

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    Gustavo W. Kuster

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Ischemic stroke (IS prognostic scales may help clinicians in their clinical decisions. This study aimed to assess the performance of four IS prognostic scales in a Brazilian population. Method We evaluated data of IS patients admitted at Hospital Paulistano, a Joint Commission International certified primary stroke center. In-hospital mortality and modified Rankin score at discharge were defined as the outcome measures. The performance of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS, Stroke Prognostication Using Age and NIHSS (SPAN-100, Acute Stroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne (ASTRAL, and Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events (THRIVE were compared. Results Two hundred six patients with a mean ± SD age of 67.58 ± 15.5 years, being 55.3% male, were included. The four scales were significantly and independently associated functional outcome. Only THRIVE was associated with in-hospital mortality. With area under the curve THRIVE and NIHSS were the scales with better performance for functional outcome and THRIVE had the best performance for mortality. Conclusion THRIVE showed the best performance among the four scales, being the only associated with in-hospital mortality.

  12. Association between anthropometric indicators of adiposity and hypertension in a Brazilian population: Baependi Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Camila Maciel; Ulbrich, Anderson Zampier; Neves, Felipe Silva; Dias, Fernando Augusto Lavezzo; Horimoto, Andréa Roseli Vançan Russo; Krieger, José Eduardo; Alvim, Rafael de Oliveira; Pereira, Alexandre da Costa

    2017-01-01

    Recently, some studies have evaluated the role of adiposity measures in the prediction of hypertension risk, but the results are conflicting. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare which of the four indicators of adiposity (waist circumference-WC, body mass index-BMI, body adiposity index-BAI, and visceral adiposity index-VAI) were better associated with hypertension in a Brazilian population. For this study, were selected 1627 individuals (both genders, and aged over 18 years) resident in the municipality of Baependi, a city located in the Southeast of Brazil. WC, BMI, BAI and VAI were determined according to a standard protocol. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, and/or antihypertensive drug use. The indicators of adiposity WC, BMI, BAI, and VAI were higher in hypertensive when compared to non-hypertensive individuals. In addition, WC and BMI were most strongly associated with hypertension in men and women, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of WC was significantly higher than VAI in men. In women, both AUC of BMI and WC showed higher discriminatory power to predict hypertension than BAI and VAI. The indicators of adiposity WC and BMI were better associated with hypertension than BAI and VAI, in both genders, and it could be a useful tools for the screening of hypertensive patients.

  13. Prevalence of maternal group B streptococcal colonization and related risk factors in a Brazilian population

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    Alexander S. Zusman

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of maternal group B Streptococcal (GBS colonization and compare risk factor data related to GBS colonization. A prospective surveillance study of 598 pregnant women was conducted in two socioeconomically diverse maternity hospitals in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil between June and October 1999. Swabs from the lower vagina were obtained between 35 and 37 weeks gestation and cultured on selective media. Risk factor data were obtained by patient interview and chart review. The overall maternal GBS colonization prevalence rate was 17.9%. There was no association of GBS colonization with maternity hospital and no association of GBS colonization with previously identified risk factors, such as age, race, martial status, maternal education, parity, smoking, or alcohol use. There is a relatively high prevalence of maternal GBS colonization in this Brazilian population, although previously-identified-risk factors were not found to be important. This study provides baseline data for the creation of community-based GBS disease prevention protocols.

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12) for the Brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Marangoni,Bruna E.M.; Karina Pavan; Charles Peter Tilbery

    2012-01-01

    Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's cr...

  15. The Spectrum of β-Thalassemia Mutations in a Population from the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aylla N L M; Cardoso, Greice L; Cunha, Daniele A; Diniz, Isabela G; Santos, Sidney E B; Andrade, Gabriela B; Trindade, Saide M S; Cardoso, Maria do Socorro O; Francês, Larissa T V M; Guerreiro, João F

    2016-01-01

    The spectrum of β-thalassemia (β-thal) mutations was investigated for the first time in a cohort of 33 unrelated patients from the Brazilian Amazon attending the Center for Hemotherapy and Hematology of the Pará Foundation (HEMOPA), in Belém, the state capital of Pará, Northern Brazil. Identification of the β-thal mutations was made by direct genomic sequencing of the β-globin gene. Mutations were identified in all patients, corresponding to a spectrum of 10 different point mutations and a total of 37 alleles studied. HBB: c.92 + 5G > A [IVS-I-5 (G > A)], was the most common β-thal mutation, followed by HBB: c.118C > T [codon 39 (C > T)], HBB: c.-138C > T [-88 (C>T)], HBB: c.92 + 1G > A [IVS-I-1 (G > A)] and HBB: c.92 + 6T > C [IVS-I-6 (T > C)] mutations. These five mutations (four Mediterranean origin and one African origin) accounted for 86.5% of the β-thal alleles. The profile of β-thal mutations found in northern Brazil is different from those described in other regions of the country. In the southeast and south, the nonsense mutation HBB: c.118C > T is the most prevalent, followed by HBB: c.93-21G > A [IVS-I-110 (G > A)], whereas in the northeast, HBB: c.92 + 6T > C has been identified as the most common mutation, followed by HBB: c.92 + 1G > A. This heterogeneous geographical distribution is certainly related to the ancestry of Brazilian populations because they have similar genetic backgrounds (European, African and Amerindian), although with slightly different admixture proportions. Furthermore, the European contribution in the southeast and south was largely made up of immigrants of other nationalities, such as Italian and Spanish, in addition to Portuguese.

  16. Temporomandibular Disorders in a Young Adolescent Brazilian Population: Epidemiologic Characterization and Associated Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Micheloni, Ana Lucia; Fernandes, Giovana; de Godoi Gonçalves, Daniela Aparecida; Camparis, Cinara Maria

    2015-01-01

    To carry out an epidemiologic characterization of the most common subtypes of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and to identify associated factors in a Brazilian sample of young adolescents. From a population of public schoolchildren (12 to 14 years of age), 3,117 students were randomly invited to participate in this study. TMD was assessed according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Axis I, in addition to some questions of the Axis II history questionnaire. The associated factors, ie, difficulty with concentration/attention, anger, sadness, anxiety, headache complaints, oral parafunctions, diurnal jaw clenching, tooth grinding at night, and parents not living together, were assessed based on the responses of the adolescents and their parents to structured questions. For the statistical analyses, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, odds ratio, and logistic regression models were used, adopting a 95% confidence interval and 5% level of significance. The sample consisted of 1,307 individuals (response rate of 41.9%), 56.8% (n = 742) girls. Overall, 397 (30.4%) adolescents presented with TMD, of whom 330 (25.2%) had painful TMD diagnoses. The majority of these had painful TMD of muscular origin (13.1%) and comprised chronic cases (14.9%). Girls presented higher frequencies of TMD overall, painful TMD, painful combined TMD, and chronic painful TMD diagnoses The final multivariate logistic regression model revealed that headache complaints (odds ratio 2.87; confidence intervals 2.21-3.72), oral parafunctions (2.08; 1.26-3.44), tooth grinding at night (2.05; 1.56-2.70), diurnal jaw clenching (1.96; 1.50-2.55), and parents not living together (1.38; 1.07-1.80) were the factors significantly associated with a TMD (overall) diagnosis. About 25% of the adolescents evaluated presented painful TMD, and the majority of these comprised muscular and chronic cases. Some factors, such as reports of headache complaints, oral parafunctions, tooth grinding at

  17. The presence of calcifications along the course of internal carotid artery in Greek and Brazilian populations: a comparative and retrospective cone beam CT data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silveira, H.L.D.; Damaskos, S.; Arús, N.A.; Tsiklakis, K.; Berkhout, E.W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We aimed to retrospectively compare the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications (STCs) depicted incidentally along the extra- and intracranial course of the internal carotid artery (ICA) on cone beam computed tomography examinations in 2 different populations (Greeks and Brazilians).

  18. [News of the inquiry about nursing needs and resources in the Brazilian Journal of Nursing (1955-1958)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Daniela Vieira; Pereira, Laís de Araújo; Santos, Tânia Cristina Franco

    2014-01-01

    Social historical study that has as object news related to the Assessment of the Resources and Needs of Nursing in Brazil published in the Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem between 1955 and 1958. The primary source is constituted of copies of Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem published within the selected period of the study. The secondary sources are constituted of books, papers, dissertations and thesis related to the Nursing history. The data analysis was supported by the secondary sources and the thought of the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results evidenced that Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, in addition to making possible the dissemination of news about the Assessment provided visibility to it and, at last, had the symbolic effect of giving power and prestige to the Brazilian Nursing.

  19. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalli, Ângelo Giuseppe; Cancela, Marianna de Camargo; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old) according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95%) were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states). Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and consequently

  20. Prevalence of multimorbidity in the Brazilian adult population according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Januse Nogueira de Carvalho

    Full Text Available Knowledge on the occurrence of multimorbidity is important from the viewpoint of public policies, as this condition increases the consumption of medicines as well as the utilization and expenses of health services, affecting life quality of the population. The objective of this study was to estimate prevalence of self-reported multimorbidity in Brazilian adults (≥18 years old according to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. A descriptive study is presented herein, based on data from the National Health Survey, which was a household-based survey carried out in Brazil in 2013. Data on 60,202 adult participants over the age of 18 were included. Prevalences and its respective confidence intervals (95% were estimated according to sex, age, education level, marital status, self-reported skin color, area of residence, occupation and federative units (states. Poisson regression models univariate and multivariate were used to evaluate the association between socioeconomic and demographic variables with multimorbidity. To observe the combinations of chronic conditions the most common groups in pairs, trios, quartets and quintets of chronic diseases were observed. The prevalence of multimorbidity was 23.6% and was higher among women, in individuals over 60 years of age, people with low educational levels, people living with partner, in urban areas and among unemployed persons. The states of the South and Southeast regions presented higher prevalence. The most common groups of chronic diseases were metabolic and musculoskeletal diseases. The results demonstrated high prevalence of multimorbidity in Brazil. The study also revealed that a considerable share of the economically active population presented two or more chronic diseases. Data of this research indicated that socioeconomic and demographic aspects must be considered during the planning of health services and development of prevention and treatment strategies for chronic diseases, and

  1. Influence of uncorrected refractive error and unmet refractive error on visual impairment in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Fabio H; Corrente, José E; Opromolla, Paula; Schellini, Silvana A

    2014-06-25

    The World Health Organization (WHO) definitions of blindness and visual impairment are widely based on best-corrected visual acuity excluding uncorrected refractive errors (URE) as a visual impairment cause. Recently, URE was included as a cause of visual impairment, thus emphasizing the burden of visual impairment due to refractive error (RE) worldwide is substantially higher. The purpose of the present study is to determine the reversal of visual impairment and blindness in the population correcting RE and possible associations between RE and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional study was conducted in nine counties of the western region of state of São Paulo, using systematic and random sampling of households between March 2004 and July 2005. Individuals aged more than 1 year old were included and were evaluated for demographic data, eye complaints, history, and eye exam, including no corrected visual acuity (NCVA), best corrected vision acuity (BCVA), automatic and manual refractive examination. The definition adopted for URE was applied to individuals with NCVA > 0.15 logMAR and BCVA ≤ 0.15 logMAR after refractive correction and unmet refractive error (UREN), individuals who had visual impairment or blindness (NCVA > 0.5 logMAR) and BCVA ≤ 0.5 logMAR after optical correction. A total of 70.2% of subjects had normal NCVA. URE was detected in 13.8%. Prevalence of 4.6% of optically reversible low vision and 1.8% of blindness reversible by optical correction were found. UREN was detected in 6.5% of individuals, more frequently observed in women over the age of 50 and in higher RE carriers. Visual impairment related to eye diseases is not reversible with spectacles. Using multivariate analysis, associations between URE and UREN with regard to sex, age and RE was observed. RE is an important cause of reversible blindness and low vision in the Brazilian population.

  2. Re-orientation of human resources for health: a great challenge for the Brazilian National Health System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanetto, D L C; Pinho, D L M; Parreira, C M S F

    2015-09-01

    To present the data available and discuss the progress, current advances and challenges of the initiatives, current policies and guidance implemented by the Health and Education Ministries in Brazil to target transformation of health teaching in order to improve the health care offered by the Brazilian National Health System. Literature review. Documentary analysis and review of articles identified in a search of electronic databases, along with reports and documents acquired from the Health and Education Ministries between 1988 and 2013. This study identified some important initiatives, including the Programme for the Encouragement of Curricular Changes in Medical Courses (PROMED), implemented in 2002 for medical courses alone. Inspired by PROMED and covering a wider range of graduate courses, the National Programme for Re-orientation of Health Professionals was implemented in 2005. This initiative launched its third edition in 2012, covering 14 health professional areas. Another relevant innovation was the National Policy of Permanent Health Education, implemented in 2007, with the goal of transforming public health services into a locus of teaching-learning through working. The Unified Health System Open University was also implemented. There is general concern and ongoing actions involving different sectors in Brazil in an attempt to improve the health of the Brazilian population in the future. However, the changes pursued involve deep transformations and may take considerable time. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Afro-brazilian history and culture: a curricular affirmation policy of the black population in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudilene; Santiago,Eliete

    2016-01-01

    The paper discuss the institutionalization of the mandatory teaching of theAfro-Brazilian history and culture, which is understood as a curricular policy that aims to promote the racial equality and that is a reference in the fight for an anti-racist education in Brazil. This is an exploratory study which was done from the academic production and the legislation concerning the theme. To achieve a better understanding of the Black Brazilian Movements’ anti-racist fight trajectory, we debated w...

  4. Postglacial north-south expansion of populations of Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae) along the Brazilian coast revealed by microsatellite analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pil, Maria W; Boeger, Maria R T; Muschner, Valéria C; Pie, Marcio R; Ostrensky, Antonio; Boeger, Walter A

    2011-06-01

    Red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) dominates tropical tidal areas along both sides of the Atlantic, yet little is known about its degree of population differentiation over large geographical scales. Information on the genetic variability of mangrove species along the Brazilian coast is important not only for understanding the recent gene flow dynamic between populations, but also to evaluate models of evolutionary diversification and develop effective strategies for conservation. We investigated the genetic variability of the red mangrove along the Brazilian coast. Eight microsatellite loci were used to genotype 145 individuals across 10 populations spanning more than 4500 km of coast line. We estimated the genetic variability and structure of the populations and the historical gene flow between them. The level of genetic variability was low, with only 27 different alleles being detected and allele richness between 1.25 and 2.75. On the other hand, there was substantial population differentiation (R(st) = 0.48; P mangroves, which likely remained stable during the Quaternary glaciations. The lowest variability observed in the southern populations of the red mangrove most likely reflects their recent age, associated with allelic reduction, resulting from the consecutive founder events that followed subsequent colonization of estuaries during the gradual warming by the end of the last glacial period.

  5. Potential of Five Brazilian Populations of Phytoseiidae (Acari) for the Biological Control of Bemisia tabaci (Insecta: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ana Cristina Cerqueira; dos Santos, Victor Lucas Vicente; Rossi, Letícia Caroline; de Moraes, Gilberto José

    2015-02-01

    Biotype B of the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), causes considerable losses to growers worldwide. Phytoseiid mites have been successfully used for the control of this pest in several countries. The Brazilian phytoseiid fauna is very diverse and potentially useful for this purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate five Brazilian populations of phytoseiids as candidates for the control of the whitefly, a serious pest of different crops worldwide. Evaluated species were Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman & McGregor), Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant), Amblyseius largoensis (Muma), Amblyseius tamatavensis (Blommers), and Neoseiulus tunus (De Leon), which are found naturally in Brazil and elsewhere. The work was conducted at 28±1°C, 75±10% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D) h. All evaluated phytoseiids preyed on eggs of B. tabaci, with the highest levels of predation recorded for Am. herbicolus and N. tunus, and highest level of oviposition recorded for Am. tamatavensis. The results show the Brazilian populations of those three species to be promising as control agents of B. tabaci. Aleuroglyphus ovatus (Troupeau) (Acari: Acaridae) was found to be a suitable prey for the mass production of those predators. Complementary studies are considered justified, given the positive results of this study. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population

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    Bruna E. M. Marangoni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Gait impairment is reported by 85% of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS as main complaint. In 2003, Hobart et al. developed a scale for walking known as The 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12, which combines the perspectives of patients with psychometric methods. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and validate the MSWS-12 for the Brazilian population with MS. METHODS: This study included 116 individuals diagnosed with MS, in accordance with McDonald's criteria. The steps of the adaptation process included translation, back-translation, review by an expert committee and pretesting. A test and retest of MSWS-12/BR was made for validation, with comparison with another scale (MSIS-29/BR and another test (T25FW. RESULTS: The Brazilian version of MSWS-12/BR was shown to be similar to the original. The results indicate that MSWS-12/BR is a reliable and reproducible scale. CONCLUSIONS: MSWS-12/BR has been adapted and validated, and it is a reliable tool for the Brazilian population.

  7. alpha-Globin genes: thalassemic and structural alterations in a Brazilian population

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    M.R.S.C. Wenning

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven unrelated patients with hemoglobin (Hb H disease and 27 individuals with alpha-chain structural alterations were studied to identify the alpha-globin gene mutations present in the population of Southeast Brazil. The -alpha3.7, --MED and -(alpha20.5 deletions were investigated by PCR, whereas non-deletional alpha-thalassemia (alphaHphalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI, alphaIcalpha and alphaTSaudialpha was screened with restriction enzymes and by nested PCR. Structural alterations were identified by direct DNA sequencing. Of the seven patients with Hb H disease, all of Italian descent, two had the -(alpha20.5/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/-alpha3.7 genotype, one had the --MED/alphaHphalpha genotype and three showed interaction of the -alpha3.7 deletion with an unusual, unidentified form of non-deletional alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7/(aaT]. Among the 27 patients with structural alterations, 15 (of Italian descent had Hb Hasharon (alpha47Asp->His associated with the -alpha3.7 deletion, 4 (of Italian descent were heterozygous for Hb J-Rovigo (alpha53Ala->Asp, 4 (3 Blacks and 1 Caucasian were heterozygous for Hb Stanleyville-II (alpha78Asn->Lys associated with the alpha+-thalassemia, 1 (Black was heterozygous for Hb G-Pest (alpha74Asp->Asn, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Kurosaki (alpha7Lys->Glu, 1 (Caucasian was heterozygous for Hb Westmead (alpha122His->Gln, and 1 (Caucasian was the carrier of a novel silent variant (Hb Campinas, alpha26Ala->Val. Most of the mutations found reflected the Mediterranean and African origins of the population. Hbs G-Pest and Kurosaki, very rare, and Hb Westmead, common in southern China, were initially described in individuals of ethnic origin differing from those of the carriers reported in the present study and are the first cases to be reported in the Brazilian population.

  8. Identifying consumer-resource population dynamics using paleoecological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Árni; Hauptfleisch, Ulf; Leavitt, Peter R; Ives, Anthony R

    2016-02-01

    Ecologists have long been fascinated by cyclic population fluctuations, because they suggest strong interactions between exploiter and victim species. Nonetheless, even for populations showing high-amplitude fluctuations, it is often hard to identify which species are the key drivers of the dynamics, because data are generally only available for a single species. Here, we use a paleoecological approach to investigate fluctuations in the midge population in Lake Mývatn, Iceland, which ranges over several orders of magnitude in irregular, multigeneration cycles. Previous circumstantial evidence points to consumer-resource interactions between midges and their primary food, diatoms, as the cause of these high-amplitude fluctuations. Using a pair of sediment cores from the lake, we reconstructed 26 years of dynamics of midges using egg remains and of algal groups using diagnostic pigments. We analyzed these data using statistical methods that account for both the autocorrelated nature of paleoecological data and measurement error caused by the mixing of sediment layers. The analyses revealed a signature of consumer-resource interactions in the fluctuations of midges and diatoms: diatom abundance (as inferred from biomarker pigment diatoxanthin) increased when midge abundance was low, and midge abundance (inferred from egg capsules) decreased when diatom abundance was low. Similar patterns were not found for pigments characterizing the other dominant primary producer group in the lake (cyanobacteria), subdominant algae (cryptophytes), or ubiquitous but chemically unstable biomarkers of total algal abundance (chlorophyll a); however, a significant but weaker pattern was found for the chemically stable indicator of total algal populations (β-carotene) to which diatoms are the dominant contributor. These analyses provide the first paleoecological evaluation of specific trophic interactions underlying high amplitude population fluctuations in lakes.

  9. Instrument of self-perception and knowledge of dental erosion: cross-cultural adaptation to the Brazilian population

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    Sandro Bertazzo SILVA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There are few instruments available in Brazil for obtaining data on dental erosion among adults. For this reason, the interview entitled “A Survey on Hong Kong People’s Dietary Behavior in Relations to Acid Erosion”, published in English, was considered for translation. The aim of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and content validation for the Brazilian population. After obtaining the author’s permission, the interview underwent several stages: translation, back translation, review by a bilingual person and a committee of experts, administration of the English instrument and of the Portuguese version to a bilingual group, and pretesting in a convenience sample of 50 adults. The interview was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and the Brazilian culture. The analysis of the data revealed that the interview was easy to apply, conduct and understand; therefore, it was considered viable and capable of being used in different studies.

  10. Instrument of self-perception and knowledge of dental erosion: cross-cultural adaptation to the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sandro Bertazzo da; Cabral, Tanise de Medeiros; Pinto, Tatiana Militz Perrone; Durand, Letícia Brandão

    2015-01-01

    There are few instruments available in Brazil for obtaining data on dental erosion among adults. For this reason, the interview entitled "A Survey on Hong Kong People's Dietary Behavior in Relations to Acid Erosion", published in English, was considered for translation. The aim of this study was to perform a cross-cultural adaptation and content validation for the Brazilian population. After obtaining the author's permission, the interview underwent several stages: translation, back translation, review by a bilingual person and a committee of experts, administration of the English instrument and of the Portuguese version to a bilingual group, and pretesting in a convenience sample of 50 adults. The interview was translated and adapted to the Portuguese language and the Brazilian culture. The analysis of the data revealed that the interview was easy to apply, conduct and understand; therefore, it was considered viable and capable of being used in different studies.

  11. Association between weather seasonality and blood parameters in riverine populations of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Poliany C O; Ignotti, Eliane; Hacon, Sandra S

    To analyze the seasonality of blood parameters related to iron homeostasis, inflammation, and allergy in two riverine populations from the Brazilian Amazon. This was a cross-sectional study of 120 children and adolescents of school age, living in riverine communities of Porto Velho, Rondonia, Brazil, describing the hematocrit, hemoglobin, ferritin, serum iron, total white blood cell count, lymphocytes, eosinophils, C-reactive protein, and immunoglobulin E levels in the dry and rainy seasons. The chi-squared test and the prevalence ratio were used for the comparison of proportions and mean analysis using paired Student's t-test. Hemoglobin (13.3g/dL) and hematocrit (40.9%) showed higher average values in the dry season. Anemia prevalence was approximately 4% and 12% in the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. Serum iron was lower in the dry season, with a mean of 68.7 mcg/dL. The prevalence of iron deficiency was 25.8% in the dry season and 9.2% in the rainy season. Serum ferritin did not show abnormal values in both seasons; however, the mean values were higher in the dry season (48.5ng/mL). The parameters of eosinophils, lymphocytes, global leukocyte count, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin E showed no seasonal differences. C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin E showed abnormal values in approximately 7% and 60% of the examinations, respectively. Hematological parameters of the red cell series and blood iron homeostasis had seasonal variation, which coincided with the dry season in the region, in which an increase in atmospheric pollutants derived from fires is observed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Estrogen receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and coronary artery disease in the Brazilian population

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    Almeida S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the association of three established single nucleotide polymorphisms, IVS1-397T>C, IVS1-351A>G, and +261G>C, in the ESR1 gene with the prevalence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis in a southern Brazilian population of European ancestry. Three hundred and forty-one subjects (127 women and 214 men with coronary artery disease (CAD were classified as having significant disease (CAD+ patient group when they showed 60% or more luminal stenosis in at least one coronary artery or major branch segment at angiography; patients with 10% or less luminal stenosis were considered to have minimal CAD (CAD- patient group. The control sample consisted of 142 subjects (79 women and 63 men without significant disease, in whom coronary angiography to rule out the presence of asymptomatic CAD was not performed. The polymorphisms were investigated by polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction analyses. In the male sample, the +261G>C*C allele was more frequent in CAD+ than CAD- subjects (8 versus 1%, P = 0.024. Homozygosity for the C allele of the IVS1-397T>C polymorphism was also significantly associated with increased CAD severity (OR: 2.99; 95% CI = 1.35-6.63; P = 0.007. In agreement with previous findings, these results suggest that the IVS1-397T>C*C allele was associated with CAD severity independent of gender, whereas the association of the +261G>C variant with CAD was observed in males only. The relation between ESR1 variation and CAD may influence clinical decisions such as the use of hormone therapy, and additionally will be helpful to identify the genetic susceptibility determinants of cardiovascular disease development.

  13. Use of generic medicines by the Brazilian population: an evaluation of PNAUM 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Mengue, Sotero Serrate; Dal-Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva; Farias, Mareni Rocha; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the existence of differences in the use of generic medicines in Brazil according to demographic and socioeconomic variables and acquisition sources of the medicines. Population-based cross-sectional study, conducted with data from the Pesquisa Nacional de Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM - National Survey on Access, Use and Promotion of Rational Use of Medicines). Data collection took place between September, 2013 and February, 2014 in homes of Brazilian cities (urban area). The use of medicines has been investigated in relation to the treatment of chronic diseases and, in the case of acute events, regarding use over the previous 15 days. Generics were identified by visualization of packaging presented by the users of the medicines. The independent variables used were sex, age, education level, economic class, and region of the Country. The statistical significance of differences between the groups was evaluated by Pearson's Chi-squared test, considering a 5% significance level. The prevalence of generic medicines use was 45.5% (95%CI 43.7-47.3). There was no difference considering education level. The prevalence was higher in females (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.0) than in males (43.1%; 95%CI 40.5-45.8), and were higher with increasing age. Generic medicines were more used in the economic class C (47.0%; 95%CI 44.9-49.1) and in the South (50.6%; 95%CI 46.6-54.6) and Southeast (49.9%; 95%CI 46.8-53.0) regions. Generics accounted for 37.3% of the medicines provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System. Currently, there is a choice of purchase or free provision by the Brazilian Unified Health System, characterized by quality assurance and reduced price regarding branded medicines considered as reference. In the private market, a considerable part of the population is choosing generic medicines thanks to the availability of this option for virtually all medicines most used by the population. Analisar se há diferença no

  14. Harvesting Renewable Resources of Population with Size Structure and Diffusion

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    Qiang-Jun Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the optimal exploitation way for a biological resources model incorporating individual’s size difference and spatial effects. The existence of a unique nonnegative solution to the state system is shown by means of Banach’s fixed point theorem, and the continuous dependence of the population density with the harvesting effort is given. The optimal harvesting strategy is established via normal cone and adjoint system technique. Some conditions are found to assure that there is only one optimal policy.

  15. Determinants of Export Performance of Small and Medium-sized Manufacturing Brazilian Enterprises from the Perspective of Resource-based View and Uppsala Model

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    Edson Wilson Torrens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the determinants of export performance include companies located in developed countries and emerging economies. A predominance of studies focusing on large companies in developed countries was observed. The studies tested the RBV and the Uppsala model in isolated ways. The combined use of variables in the models of RBV and Uppsala studies of Brazilian SMEs appear as a gap to be filled in organizational research. This research contributes to theoretical and empirical knowledge involving the phenomena related to the internationalization of Brazilian SMEs by proposing a model integrating these approaches. This research aims identify the determinants of export performance of SMEs in the perspective of RBV and the Uppsala Model. On a survey with 84 SMEs were employed multiple statistical techniques (factor analysis, linear and logistic regression and structural equation modeling. Resources influenced by the idiosyncrasies of the company and its stage of internationalization affected the export performance. Managerial resources were prevalent on organizational resources. Stage of internationalization and exporting time influenced the relationship between export performance and resources. Size and technological intensity not mediated export performance. Resources and stage of internationalization affect the export performance of SMEs. The following question was developed: What are the determinants of export performance of Brazilian manufacturing SMEs? SMEs in emerging countries arouse the attention of governments worldwide since its economic, employment and income opportunities that provide and challenges facing to innovate, promote sustainability, establish and consolidate its internationalization.

  16. Field studies of a Brazilian seahorse population, Hippocampus reidi Ginsburg, 1933

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    Natalie Villar Freret-Meurer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to fill the gaps that remain under Hippocampus reidi biology. Analysis of variations of sex ratio, density, breeding season, distribution and home range of a population of the endangered Brazilian seahorse H. reidi from a rocky shore on Araçatiba beach, Ilha Grande, Brazil were carried out. Araçatiba beach is a tourist Environmental Protected Area, suffering antropic pressure. A fixed population of H. reidi was studied, where al lthe individuals were visually tagged and sex, reproductive state and location on site were identified from December 2002 to November 2004. A total of 20 individuals were visually tagged with a mean density of 0.18 m-2. Sex ratios were skewed, with more females than males. All the males brooded during 13 months and presented smaller home range than the females during the breeding season. The highest densities were found on shallowest areas.Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de preencher algumas lacunas sobre a biologia natural de Hippocampus reidi. Foram analisadas as variações na proporção sexual e densidade, período reprodutivo, distribuição e área de deslocamento de uma população do cavalo marinho brasileiro ameaçado de extinção Hippocampus reidi de um costão rochoso da praia de Araçatiba, Ilha Grande, Brasil. A praia de Araçatiba é uma Área de Proteção Ambiental turística, a qual sofre com a pressão antropogênica. Foi estudada uma população fixa de H. reidi, sendo que todos os indivíduos foram marcados visualmente e foram determinados o sexo, o período reprodutivo e a localização na área de novembro de 2002 a novembro de 2004. Um total de 20 indivíduos foram marcados com uma densidade média na área de 0,18 m-2. A proporção sexual variou de forma alternada com maior número de fêmeas que de machos. Durante 13 meses todos os machos encontrados estavam incubando. Os cavalos marinhos apresentaram área de deslocamento menor que as fêmeas durante o

  17. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  18. The functional EGF+61 polymorphism and nonsyndromic oral clefts susceptibility in a Brazilian population

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    Priscila FALAGAN-LOTSCH

    2015-08-01

    susceptibility in a Brazilian population, but supported the different genetic background between CL±P and CP. Moreover, we confirmed the potential effect of maternal alcohol intake on cleft risk in our population.

  19. Determination of insulin-like growth factor-I reference values using an immunoradiometric assay in a Brazilian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Denise B; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos A; Matos, Haroldo J; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion in healthy adults, which makes it a good diagnostic marker for screening of GH-related disorders. Studies also have supported a possible relation between IGF-I levels and the risk and prognostic for some malignancies, besides a relation between IGF-I levels and mortality. As the determination of the IGF-I normal values for local populations is strongly desired, the aim of this investigation was to determine reference values for IGF-I using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in an adult Brazilian population of Rio de Janeiro city, since there is no other study using this methodology in Brazilian population, and that this method is widely used in Brazil and worldwide. The study included samples of blood taken from 484 healthy subjects (251 men and 233 women) aged 18-70. The subjects agreed with this study, approved by the Ethical Committee of the Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed using a Diagnostic System Laboratories kit. For data analysis, age- and sex-specific figures were fitted after transformation of IGF-I values. In adulthood, a slow age-dependent decrease was found. There was no significant difference in IGF-I values between men and women. This study established age-specific IGF-I reference values, for a healthy Brazilian adult population, determined by a widely IGF-I, IRMA used currently in Brazil.

  20. Mycobacterium bovis in a European bison (Bison bonasus) raises concerns about tuberculosis in Brazilian captive wildlife populations: a case report.

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    Zimpel, Cristina Kraemer; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Souza Filho, Antônio Francisco; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Perotta, João Henrique; Dib, Cristina Corsi; Bonat, Marcelo; Neto, José Soares Ferreira; Brandão, Paulo Eduardo; Heinemann, Marcos Bryan; Guimaraes, Ana Marcia Sa

    2017-02-10

    Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is an important worldwide zoonosis and has been reported to cause clinical disease in several animal species, including captive wildlife. This report describes a case of M. bovis infection in a European bison from a Brazilian zoo and compiles a number of literature reports that raise concern regarding tuberculosis among captive wildlife in Brazil. A 13 year-old captive-born male bison (Bison bonasus) from a Brazilian zoo began presenting weight loss, diarrhea and respiratory symptoms, which inevitably led to his death. At the animal's necropsy, inspection of the thoracic and abdominal cavities revealed multiple enlarged lymph nodes, ranging from 4 to 10 cm, and pulmonary nodules containing caseous masses with firm white materials consistent with mineralization. Histopathology findings showed a significant amount of acid-alcohol resistant bacilli compatible with Mycobacterium spp. Specimens from lymph nodes and lungs were cultured on Petragnani and Stonebrink media, and specific PCR assays of the bacterial isolate identified it as M. bovis. The European bison reported herein died from a severe form of disseminated tuberculosis caused by M. bovis. A review of the available literature indicates possible widespread occurrence of clinical disease caused by M. bovis or M. tuberculosis affecting multiple animal species in Brazilian wildlife-related institutions. These likely underestimated numbers raise concern regarding the control of the disease in captive animal populations from Brazil.

  1. [Funding, public spending and management of health resources: the current situation in a Brazilian state].

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    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; Lima, Kenio Costa; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia

    2012-07-01

    This article investigates the issue of funding and the decentralization process in order to examine the composition, application and management of resources in the healthcare area. The sample surveyed involved 14 municipalities in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. The research involved data gathering of financial transfers, the municipality's own resources and primary healthcare expenses. Management analysis included a survey of local managers and counselors. It was seen that the Unified Health System is funded mainly by federal transfers and municipal revenues and to a far lesser extent by state resources. Funds have been applied predominantly in primary healthcare. The management process saw centralization of actions in the city governments. Municipal secretarial offices and councils comply partially with legislation, though they have problems with autonomy and social control. The results show that planning and management instruments are limited, due to the contradictions inherent to the institutional, political and cultural context of the region.

  2. The heterogeneous HLA genetic composition of the Brazilian population and its relevance to the optimization of hematopoietic stem cell donor recruitment.

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    Fabreti-Oliveira, R A; Nascimento, E; Fonseca, C G; Santos, M A

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecular variation across the Brazilian population in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and understanding the population genetic background of this heterogeneous country. HLA data of 551 HSCT donors from five Brazilian regions were characterized by high-resolution DNA alleles at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci and compared with other populations in Brazil and worldwide populations. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated. The analysis was performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among different loci in each recruitment center. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance analyzed by using a new algorithm based on linear algebra, taking into account geographic regions of Brazil. The results indicated a heterogeneous genetic composition of the Brazilian population, such that HLA allele and haplotype frequencies exhibit different distributions among Brazilian regions, which has important implications for donor matching. In addition, a pronounced differentiation was observed by the absence of clustering of the regional populations in the reduced-dimension space. These data may be useful for increasing donor recruitment with more genetic representativeness in the Brazilian Volunteer Bone Marrow Donors Registry (REDOME). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Culture-Bound Syndromes of a Brazilian Amazon Riverine population: Tentative correspondence between traditional and conventional medicine terms and possible ethnopharmacological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, E; Santos, J de F L; Rodrigues, E

    2017-05-05

    It is not always possible to correlate the "emic" terms to the "etic" ones during ethnopharmacological surveys, especially regarding those related to Culture-Bound Syndromes (CBS). Nevertheless, it is the role of ethnopharmacology to address these correlations, since they are the basis for the understanding of potential bioactives. This study reports the clinical manifestations and therapeutic resources used for the treatment of CBS among some riverine inhabitants of Brazilian Amazonia. An effort was made to establish a correspondence between the local "emic" terms of traditional medicine and the symptoms or diseases known by conventional medicine ("etic" terms). The ultimate goal was to gain insights to suggest further pharmacological studies with the local resources. Fieldwork was guided by methods of anthropology, botany and zoology-with the assistance of a doctor-among the traditional healing experts in Jaú National Park (during 199 days in 1995) and Unini River Extractive Reserve (210 days from 2008 to 2012). Fifty-nine healers of different kinds were interviewed: a prayer-maker, medium, natural resource expert, massage therapist, midwife and snakebite healer. The clinical manifestations and healing resources of the following CBS were collected: "mau olhado" (evil eye), "quebrante" (chipping); "espante" (fright or susto); "doença do ar" (air diseases); "vento caído" (fallen wind); "derrame" (leakage); "mãe do corpo" (mother of the body) and "panema" (unlucky). The first three seem to be local variations of other CBSs already described in Latin America. "doença do ar", "vento caído", "derrame" and "mãe do corpo" seem to be folk terms for known conventional medical disorders, while "panema" is a yet undescribed Brazilian CBS that is possibly related to dysthymic disorder or depression and deserves further investigation. Treatments included prayer rituals, fumigation, baths and oral remedies using 25 plants and 10 animals. It was possible to establish

  4. Analysis of susceptibility polymorphisms for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Messetti, Ana Camila; Hoshi, Ryuchi; Borges, Andréa; Viena, Camila Sane; Reis, Sílvia R A; Oliveira Swerts, Mário Sérgio; Graner, Edgard; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2014-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have identified several susceptibility loci for nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P) in populations around the world, the role of most loci is unknown in the highly heterogeneous Brazilian population. To determine the association of 7 markers that showed genome-wide significant association in Brazilians with NSCL/P, we conducted a structured association study conditioned upon the individual ancestry proportions to evaluate markers at 1p36 (rs742071), 2p21 (rs7590268), 3p11.1 (rs7632427), 8q21.3 (rs12543318), 13q31.1 (rs8001641), 15q22.2 (rs1873147), and 17q22 (rs227731) in 505 patients with NSCL/P and 594 healthy controls recruited from 2 different geographical regions of Brazil. The polymorphisms were genotyped by TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay, and each sample was independently typed for 40 biallelic short insertion/deletion markers to characterize the genomic ancestry. After Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, significant associations with NSCL/P were observed for rs742071, rs1873147, and rs227731. However, the frequency of the risk alleles varied between the geographical regions, according to the proportions of European and African genomic ancestry. The group enriched by European ancestry showed significant association with rs227731 (p = 0.001), whereas the group with high African ancestry was significantly associated with rs1873147 polymorphism (p = 0.005). The significant association with rs742071 was only detected in the combined sample (p = 0.005). The findings of the present study revealed the associations of 1p36 (rs742071), 15q22 (rs1873147), and 17p22 (rs227731) with NSCL/P in the Brazilian population, and further confirmed that the genetic heterogeneity of NSCL/P may be related to the different ethnic background of the affected individuals. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Resources

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    ... disease - resources Hemophilia - resources Herpes - resources Incest - resources Incontinence - resources Infertility - resources Interstitial cystitis - resources Kidney disease - resources Leukemia - resources Liver disease - resources Loss ...

  6. Diversity of the MBL2 gene in various Brazilian populations and the case of selection at the mannose-binding lectin locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, A B W; Culpi, L; Tsuneto, L T; de Souza, I R; Kun, J F J; Petzl-Erler, M L

    2006-09-01

    The mannose binding lectin (MBL2) polymorphism is responsible for a common immunodeficiency in the human species. There were suggestions that the MBL2 polymorphism has been under balancing selection, based on the high global frequency of alleles generating MBL deficiency and on the worldwide distribution of diseases negatively associated with them. To describe the distribution of MBL2 allelic haplotypes in Brazilian populations and to discuss the evolution of this polymorphism, we analyzed six South Brazilian populations (152 Guarani Amerindian, 239 Kaingang Amerindian, 107 admixed, Brazilian 32 Afro-Brazilian, 202 Euro-Brazilian and 16 Oriental-Brazilian). Eight haplotypes were observed: MBL2*HYPA, LYQA, LYPA, LXPA, LYPB, LYQC, HYPD, and LYPD. In addition, through sequencing of the promoter and exon 1 from Amerindian and Oriental individuals, three new single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the MBL2 promoter region in the Kaingang. Analysis of the sequencing data by neutrality tests (Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D* and F*) revealed no deviation from selective neutrality equilibrium in the Guarani and Kaingang. Significant Fay and Wu's H results are explained by the recent gene flow in these populations. Contrarily to previous thoughts, stochastic evolutionary factors seem therefore to have had a predominant role in shaping the MBL2 polymorphism, at least in the Amerindians.

  7. Genetic differentiation in geographically close populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

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    Maroja L.S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the genetic structure and the effects of a bottleneck in populations of the water rat Nectomys squamipes, a primary host of Schistosoma mansoni. Eight microsatellite loci were studied in 7 populations from the Sumidouro region of the Brazilian state of Rio de Janeiro. Our data, covering a four-year period during which a bottleneck occurred, revealed substantial variation (6-31 alleles per locus and high levels of both observed (0.718-0.789 and expected (0.748-0.832 heterozygosity. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium without linkage disequilibrium between loci. Overall average genetic differentiation between populations (estimated with the F ST (q and R ST (r analogues was 0.037 for q and 0.060 for r. There was significant allelic and genotypic differentiation between populations, especially in pairwise comparisons that included the most geographically isolated population. Direct migration estimates showed a low rate of migration, indicating that infected N. squamipes populations had a limited ability to spread S. mansoni. When the pre- and post-bottleneck populations were compared there was no detectable reduction in heterozygosity or allele number, although a significant excess of heterozygosity was detected in the post-bottleneck population.

  8. A biogeographical population genetics perspective of the colonization of cats in Latin America and temporal genetic changes in Brazilian cat populations

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    Manuel Ruiz-García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We used nine morphological genes to analyze cat populations from Mexico, the Dominican Republic, the Colombian, Brazilian and Peruvian Amazon, Bolivia and Brazil. Most populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at the O locus. The highest allele frequencies so far detected at world level for alleles I (inhibitor and L (long hair were found at La Paz (Bolivia. The analyses revealed at least five cat gene pools in Latin America: These findings suggest that the current genetic distribution of cats in Latin America correlates with the colonization of the Americas during the XIV to XVIII centuries. Additionally, the cat populations of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Manaus were sampled, to compare their 1996-2003 genetic profiles with those obtained in 1983. Generally, these genetic profiles seem temporally stable, which is important for comparing cat populations sampled in different years and decades.

  9. Groundwater resources monitoring and population displacement in northern Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalikakis, K.; Hammache, Y.; Nawa, A.; Slinski, K.; Petropoulos, G.; Muteesasira, A.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Uganda has been devastated by more than 20 years of open conflict by the LRA (Lord's Resistance Army) and the Government of Uganda. This war has been marked by extreme violence against civilians, who had been gathered in protected IDP (Internally Displaced Persons) camps. At the height of the displacement in 2007, the UN office for coordination of humanitarian affairs, estimated that nearly 2.5 million people were interned into approximately 220 camps throughout Northern Uganda. With the improved security since mid-2006, the people displaced by the conflict in Northern Uganda started to move out of the overcrowded camps and return either to their villages/parishes of origin or to resettlement/transit sites. However, basic water, sanitation and hygiene infrastructure in the return areas or any new settlements sites are minimal. People returning to their villages of origin encounter a situation where in many cases there is no access to safe water. Since 1998 ACF (Action Against Hunger, part of the Action Contre la Faim International Network) activities have been concentrated in the Acholi and Lango regions of Northern Uganda. ACF's WASH (Water, sanitation and hygiene) department interventions concern sanitation infrastructure, hygiene education and promotion as well as water points implementation. To ensure safe water access, actions are focused in borehole construction and traditional spring rehabilitation, also called "protected" springs. These activities follow the guidelines as set forth by the international WASH cluster, led by UNICEF. A three year project (2008-2010) is being implemented by ACF, to monitor the available groundwater resources in Northern Uganda. The main objectives are: 1. to monitor the groundwater quality from existing water points during different hydrological seasons, 2. to identify, if any, potential risks of contamination from population concentrations and displacement, lack of basic infrastructure and land use, and finally 3. to

  10. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Francez, Pablo Abdon; Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; Frazão, Gleycianne Furtado; dos Reis Borges, Nathalia Danielly; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies with those of other Brazilian populations and of the Iberian Peninsula population, no significant distances were observed. The interpopulation genetic distances (FST coefficients) to the present database ranged from FST = 0.0016 between Macapá and Belém to FST = 0.0036 between Macapá and the Iberian Peninsula. PMID:21637540

  11. [Live longer and better? Estimates of healthy life expectancy in the Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Mirela Castro Santos; Gonzaga, Marcos Roberto

    2015-07-01

    This study analyzed differences in healthy life expectancy in the elderly based on three health dimensions in Brazil from 1998 to 2008: disability-free life expectancy, healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health, and chronic disease-free life expectancy. The Sullivan method was used, combining life tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and interval estimates of the prevalence of functional disability, self-rated health, and chronic diseases according to the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD, 1998 and 2008). Besides the increase in life expectancy, the study showed significant and similar increases in disability-free life expectancy and healthy life expectancy based on self-rated health at almost all ages. Women had higher life expectancies than men, but expected to live longer with poor health, regardless of the indicator used to measure health. Although the studies measured health differently (making comparisons difficult), women showed a consistent disadvantage in healthy life expectancy.

  12. Rotavirus genotyping in gastroenteritis cases of an infantile population from Western Brazilian Amazonia

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    Maria Sandra Moura Costa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: During the period from 2000 to 2002, 79 rotavirus-positive stool samples were collected from children presenting diarrhea in the Western Brazilian Amazon. METHODS: Molecular characterization of the G and P genotypes was performed using RT-PCR and electropherotyping analysis by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: A total of 59 samples were confirmed as group A rotavirus. A long electrophoretic profile was exhibited by the G1P[8], G3P[8], and G4P[8] genotypes. The G1P[8] genotype was found in greater proportion. The short electropherotype was exhibited only by G2 genotype strains. CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of the rotavirus genotypes observed was not different from that in other areas of Brazil. This study is the first genotyping of rotavirus in the Western Brazilian Amazon.

  13. [Association of processed meat intake and obesity in a population-based study of Japanese-Brazilians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofoletti, Maria F; Gimeno, Suely G A; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of processed meat with overall, abdominal, and overall with abdominal obesity in a Japanese-Brazilian population, which is known to be at cardiometabolic risk. A total of 329 men and 443 women aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional population-based survey. Diagnosis of overall obesity and abdominal obesity were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionaire. In men, processed meat intake was positively associated with overall with abdominal obesity (OR 2.97; 95%CI 1.13-7.78) after adjustment. In women, only the red meat group was associated with overall with abdominal obesity after adjustment (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.96). Our results showed that high intakes of processed meats were associated with overall with abdominal obesity in male Japanese-Brazilians, but not in females.

  14. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12) in an older Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Lisa F; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P

    2013-01-01

    Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  15. Resource availability and diet in Harpy Eagle breeding territories on the Xingu River, Brazilian Amazon

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    FH. Aguiar-Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Tapajos-Xingu interfluve, one of the largest birds of prey, the Harpy Eagle, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to historical and recent reductions in forest cover. We studied prey availability and use by Harpy Eagle on six breeding territories on the low- and mid-Xingu River, between 2013 and 2015. We evaluated food resource availability using the environmental-surveys database from two methods: terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method and fauna rescue/flushing before vegetation suppression for the Belo Monte Hydroelectric Complex construction. Harpy Eagle diet was identified by prey remains sampled around six nest trees. Eighteen species of mammals, birds and reptiles comprised the prey items. Most prey species were sloths, primates and porcupines, which have arboreal habits and are found in forested areas, but two species, hoatzin and iguana, are usually associated with riverine habitats. The proportion of prey from each species predated on the nest best studied was different from estimated availability (χ2 = 54.23; df = 16; p < 0.001, however there was a positive correlation (rs = 0.7; p < 0.01 between prey species consumed and abundance available, where the predation was more on species more abundant. Continuous monitoring of the Harpy Eagle diet at these nests could evidence changes in the assemblage of prey species available for Harpy Eagles, due to changes in the seasonal flood pulse of the Xingu River to be caused by the operation of the hydroelectric dam, and changes in habitat features by forest reduction around breeding territories. We believe that it is important to consider the protection of remnants of forested areas in the landscape matrix surrounding the breeding territories to maintain the food resource availability and allow all pairs to successfully reproduce.

  16. Food consumption as an indicator of the conservation of natural resources in riverine communities of the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Victoria J; Almeida, Morgana C; Giarrizzo, Tommaso; Deus, Claudia P; Vale, Rozeilza; Klein, Gilmar; Begossi, Alpina

    2015-01-01

    The present study analyzed and compared the daily consumption of foods of animal origin in eleven communities of the Lower Amazon, Trombetas and Purus Rivers, representing three different management systems and levels of conservation in the Brazilian Amazon. All food items of animal origin were weighed by at least 10% of the families in the study communities during a week in each period of the flood cycle between 2006 and 2008. Fish was the most important food, and was consumed during six days of the week, with an average rate of 169 kg.person(-1).year(-1). Game was second in importance, with 37 kg.person(-1).year-(1). This yearly rate of fish consumption is one of the highest in the world and is almost double the minimum recommended by the World Health Organization. The dietary patterns reflect both the isolation of the communities from large urban centers and the better preservation of the local environments due to the existence of protected areas. Environmental degradation may thus have effects on the health and food security of local populations. The study emphasizes the need for the implementation of public policies and participative management initiatives.

  17. Differentiation of African components of ancestry to stratify groups in a case-control study of a Brazilian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C

    2012-06-01

    Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.

  18. Superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and gluthatione S-transferases M1 and T1 gene polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Hiragi, Cássia; Miranda-Vilela, Ana Luisa; Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana; Hatagima, Ana; de Nazaré Klautau-Guimarães, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) reduce the oxidation rates in the organism. Gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs) play a vital role in phase 2 of biotransformation of many substances. Variation in the expression of these enzymes suggests individual differences for the degree of antioxidant protection and geographical differences in the distribution of these variants. We described the distribution frequency of CAT (21A/T), SOD2 (Ala9Val), GPX1 (Pro198Leu), GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms in three Brazilian population groups: Kayabi Amerindians (n = 60), Kalunga Afro-descendants (n = 72), and an urban mixed population from Federal District (n = 162). Frequencies of the variants observed in Kalunga (18% to 58%) and Federal District (33% to 63%) were similar to those observed in Euro and Afro-descendants, while in Kayabi (3% to 68%), depending on the marker, frequencies were similar to the ones found in different ethnic groups. Except for SOD2 in all population groups studied here, and for GPX1 in Kalunga, the genotypic distributions were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. These data can clarify the contribution of different ethnicities in the formation of mixed populations, such as that of Brazil. Moreover, outcomes will be valuable resources for future functional studies and for genetic studies in specific populations. If these studies are designed to comprehensively explore the role of these genetic polymorphisms in the etiology of human diseases they may help to prevent inconsistent genotype-phenotype associations in pharmacogenetic studies.

  19. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Jardim, Lorena Amaral; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Rodrigues, Carlos Alberto Quintão; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  20. Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency χ2test and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7% evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor. Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.

  1. Y-STR diversity and ethnic admixture in White and Mulatto Brazilian population samples

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    Luzitano Brandão Ferreira

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated 50 Mulatto and 120 White Brazilians for the Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (Y-STR markers (DYS19, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393 and found 79 different haplotypes in the White and 35 in the Mulatto sample. Admixture estimates based on allele frequencies showed that the admixture of the white sample was 89% European, 6% African and 5% Amerindian while the Mulatto sample was 93% European and 7% African. Results were consistent with historical records of the directional mating between European males and Amerindian or African females.

  2. Which body mass index is best associated with risk of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in a Japanese-Brazilian population?

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    Rosana Farah Simony

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of different body mass index (BMI ranges associated with the risk of diabetes and hypertension in Japanese-Brazilians. This cross-sectional study was based on data from 1,330 Japanese-Brazilians > 30 years of age who participated in a population-based survey on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated diseases. Glucose tolerance status was classified according to WHO criteria and blood pressure levels according to the VI-JNC. Odds ratios for diabetes and hypertension were calculated for different BMI ranges; for different BMIs, sensitivity and specificity for percentiles 25, 50, 75, 90 and 95 were obtained. Increased odds ratios for diabetes mellitus and hypertension were observed with BMI values > 25kg/m². The 50th percentile corresponded to the highest sensitivity and specificity for the identification of risk for both diseases. Our results suggest that BMI values proposed by WHO should also be useful for this group of Japanese descendants in the assessment of risk for DM and hypertension.

  3. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian population.

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    Silva, F T; Araujo Júnior, E; Santana, E F M; Lima, J W O; Cecchino, G N; Silva Costa, F Da

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the total activity performed by women with low-risk pregnancy as well as translate and pursue a cross-cultural adaptation of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) to the Brazilian reality. We conducted a cross-sectional quantitative study including 305 women between 16 and 40 years of age with low-risk pregnancies. The Department of Public Health, State University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Brazil. We applied an adapted version of PPAQ to assess the levels of physical activity and the intensity in the metabolic equivalent task (MET), which could be distinguished as follows: sedentary (6.0 METs). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare energy expenditure (MET) with socio-demographic variables. More than half of the participants performed activities that were classified as light (51.4%). If we group the activities that were categorized as sedentary and light, this value increases to 74.7%, showing a high prevalence of insufficiently active pregnant women. Lower energy expenditure was observed in the third gestational trimester among pregnant women with lower educational level, single women, and mixed-race women (p < 0.05). There is a prevalence of physical inactivity during the three trimesters of pregnancy. The results validate PPAQ for the Brazilian population to serve as a basis for future public policies focused on combating the health problems of mother-infant pairs.

  4. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of sexual dysfunction modified scale in multiple sclerosis for Brazilian population

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    Raquel Ataíde Peres da Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. These patients suffer from various comorbidities, including sexual dysfunction (SD. The lesions of MS may affect regions of the CNS along the pathway of sexual response. The Multiple Sclerosis Intimacy and Sexuality Questionnaire-19 (MSISQ-19 is a scale that assesses sexual dysfunction. Adapt and validate the MSISQ-19 to Brazilian patients with MS. 204 individuals were evaluated, 134 patients with MS and 70 healthy persons for the control group. It was determined reproducibility, validity, internal consistency and sensitivity of the MSISQ-19-BR. Among patients with MS, 54.3% of male and 71.7% of female presented some kind of SD. In the control group the results were 12.5% and 19.5%, respectively. The MSISQ-19-BR is reproducible, reliable and valid for the Brazilian population and may be used as a tool for assessing the impact of sexual dysfunction in patients with MS.

  5. Association between ACVR2A and early-onset preeclampsia: replication study in a Northeastern Brazilian population.

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    Ferreira, L C; Gomes, C E M; Araújo, A C P; Bezerra, P F; Duggal, P; Jeronimo, S M B

    2015-02-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex and heterogeneous disease with increased risk of maternal mortality, especially for earlier gestational onset. There is a great inconsistency regarding the genetics of preeclampsia across the literature. The gene Activin A receptor, type IIA (ACVR2A), was reported as associated to preeclampsia in Australian/New Zealand and Norwegian populations. The goal of this study was to validate this genetic association in a Brazilian population. We performed a case-control study using 693 controls and 613 cases (443 preeclampsia, 64 eclampsia and 106 HELLP syndrome), from a Northeastern Brazilian population. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ACVR2A were tested for association through multiple logistic regression models. There was no statistical association with preeclampsia (per se), eclampsia or HELLP. However, by grouping preeclampsia in accordance to the gestational age at delivery, SNPs rs1424954 (OR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.25-2.78; p = 0.002) and rs1014064 (OR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.21-2.60; p = 0.004) were significantly associated with early onset preeclampsia (gestational age ≤ 34 weeks). The risk haplotype had a frequency of 0.468 in early preeclampsia compared to 0.316 in controls (p = 0.0008 and permuted p = 0.002). Activin A receptors are important in decidualization, trophoblast invasion and placentation processes during pregnancy. The gene ACVR2A was associated with the more severe early onset preeclampsia. This finding supports the hypothesis of different pathogenic mechanisms contributing to the early- and late-onset preeclampsia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are self-reported measures valid for the assessment of nutritional status in the brazilian population?

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    Raildo da Silva Coqueiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n1p112   Self-reported measures have been widely used for the assessment of nutritional status in epidemiological studies. This paper discusses aspects regarding the validity of self-reported measures of body weight and height for the assessment of nutritional status in Brazilian children, adolescents, adults and elderly subjects. The available evidencesuggests that: a in children, the use of self-reported measures is not recommended because of the lack of Brazilian studies; b in adolescents, these measures should be used with caution since the only study carried out in Brazil was restricted to a local sample and may not represent the situation in other regions; c in adults, this method can be considered a viable alternative for assessing and monitoring nutritional status in situations in which these data cannot be measured directly; d in the elderly, the use of self-reported measures cannot yet be recommended for two reasons: first, studies specifically including subjects older than 60 years have not been conducted and, second, this age group tends to estimate these measures less accurately.

  7. Are self-reported measures valid for the assessment of nutritional status in the brazilian population?

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    Aline Rodrigues Barbosa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported measures have been widely used for the assessment of nutritional status in epidemiological studies. This paper discusses aspects regarding the validity of self-reported measures of body weight and height for the assessment of nutritional statusin Brazilian children, adolescents, adults and elderly subjects. The available evidence suggests that: a in children, the use of self-reported measures is not recommended because of the lack of Brazilian studies; b in adolescents, these measures should be used with caution since the only study carried out in Brazil was restricted to a local sample and may not represent the situation in other regions; c in adults, this method can be considereda viable alternative for assessing and monitoring nutritional status in situations in which these data cannot be measured directly; d in the elderly, the use of self-reported measures cannot yet be recommended for two reasons: first, studies specifically includingsubjects older than 60 years have not been conducted and, second, this age group tends to estimate these measures less accurately.

  8. How do people gain access to water resources in the Brazilian semiarid (Caatinga) in times of climate change?

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    de Lira Azevêdo, Evaldo; Alves, Rômulo Romeu Nóbrega; Dias, Thelma Lúcia Pereira; Molozzi, Joseline

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is becoming an imminent reality, especially in arid and semiarid regions. Therefore, it is essential to understand the relationships between humans and aquatic ecosystems in order to devise efficient management and conservation strategies. We conducted 126 interviews using a semi-structured form to record water sources, transport strategies, and the use and treatment of water by communities surrounding four reservoirs within two drainage basins in the semiarid region of Brazil. These factors were then compared to the mean water volumes of the respective reservoirs from 2013 to 2015, a period of severe drought in that area. Seven types of water sources were considered, according to the perspectives of the interviewees: large reservoirs (dams) (43% of the citations), other smaller reservoirs (25%), rainwater (17.5%), wells (7%), waterholes (3%), bottled water (4%), and water tanks (0.5%). The water resources obtained are transported to human residences in seven different manners: actively pumped (34% of the citations), by water tanker truck (33%), distributed in pipes by local resident associations (11%), transport by animal (14%), human transport (4%), by car (2%), and by motorcycle (2%). The water is then used for domestic purposes (21%), for personal hygiene (20%), by animals (19%), in agriculture (18%), for cooking (10%), for fishing (7%), and for drinking (6%). A worrisome trend was that many local residents did not treat the water they were consuming. Climate change affects seasonal patterns of rainfall that will, in turn, determine the availability and quantities of water resources, provoking changes in the sources of water used by human populations, their strategies of access to that resource, and water-use patterns. It is necessary sustainable use of water resources based on the realities of local populations.

  9. Sex inequalities in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population aged 15 to 64 years old, 2008

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    Ana Roberta Pati Pascom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze gender differences in HIV-related practices in the Brazilian population. A national survey was carried out in 2008 with a sample size of 8,000 individuals aged 15-64 years old. The sampling was stratified by macro geographical region and urban/rural areas. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the main predictors of consistent condom use. The results showed that women have less sexy, start sexual life later than men, have fewer casual sexual partners, but use condom less frequently than men. On the other hand, the coverage of HIV testing is significantly greater among women. Significant differences by gender were seen in all HIV-related risky practices. The greater vulnerability was always associated with women, with exception of HIV testing. The low proportion of condom use in infidelity situations was a problem for box sexes and deserves special consideration when developing prevention strategies.

  10. Sociodemographic characteristics of indigenous population according to the 2000 and 2010 Brazilian demographic censuses: a comparative approach.

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    Bastos, João Luiz; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Longo, Luciene Aparecida Ferreira de Barros; Silva, Leandro Okamoto da

    2017-05-25

    The sociodemographic profiles of different segments of the Brazilian population have been the object of multiple inter-census comparisons. This study compared the age distribution, number of household residents, formal schooling, and income of indigenous persons according to the population censuses of 2000 and 2010. There was an important decrease in the number of residents per occupied household, and slight aging of the indigenous population, except in the urban North. Meanwhile, there was a proportional increase in individuals with per capita household income up to one minimum wage, along with a reduction in the income bracket of more than two minimum wages in the country's five major geographic regions, in both urban and rural areas. Although schooling also increased, the increments differed according to geographic region and urban versus rural area; the urban Southeast showed larger gains in schooling, while the rural North and Central displayed smaller increases. The study emphasizes the need for more in-depth research focusing on specificities and backing the evaluation and implementation of public policies for the indigenous population.

  11. Stroke in the rain forest: prevalence in a ribeirinha community and an urban population in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Fernandes, Tiótrefis Gomes; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Tavares, Bruno Mendes; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Santos, Itamar Souza; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the cerebrovascular prevalence in a town in the Brazilian Amazon basin and compare the ribeirinhos (riparians) to the urban population in the same municipality. From May to October 2011, 6,216 residents over 35 years of age in the town of Coari were interviewed using a screening questionnaire, the Stroke Symptom Questionnaire. Cerebrovascular prevalence rates (PRs) from the door-to-door surveillance were calculated according to the location of the home. Respondent totals were 4,897 in the urban area and 1,028 in the rural area. The crude prevalence of stroke was 6.3% in rural and 3.7% in urban areas with differences maintained after sex and age adjustment. Among stroke cases, the ribeirinhos were those with less access to medical care in comparison to the urban area (32.1 vs. 52.5%, p = 0.01), and a positive association between rural area and no medical care for stroke remained (PR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.71), independently of age, sex, education and functional impairment. This study provides the first population-based cerebrovascular prevalence comparison between an urban and a rural population in the Amazon rain forest. The PRs were higher in the ribeirinha compared to the urban population in the same municipality. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and nutritional correlates in free-living elderly Brazilians: a population-based survey.

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    Castro, Michelle A; Carlos, Jackeline V; Lopes, Raíssa C V; Januário, Bruna L; Marchioni, Dirce M L; Fisberg, Regina M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association of dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) with nutrient intake and to describe the foods that contribute to dietary GI and GL in elderly subjects. This is a cross-sectional population-based survey performed in 2003, which enrolled 804 free-living Brazilian subjects aged 60 years or older. Dietary intake was measured by a single 24-hour dietary recall applied at the subjects' homes. The usual dietary GI and GL as well as the usual energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using external variance components. Dietary GI and GL were categorized in tertiles and the usual mean of nutrient intake was described accordingly. Linear association between dietary GI and GL and nutrient intake was investigated before and after energy adjustment. Foods that contributed with at least 1% of dietary GI and GL were described. Dietary GI was positively associated with starch, total fat, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and inversely associated with total sugar, protein, fiber, and calcium. Dietary GL was strongly and positively associated with total and available carbohydrates, starch, and total sugar and inversely associated with protein, total fat, MUFA, PUFA, and cholesterol. White breads and white rice were the major contributors to dietary GI and GL in the studied population. Dietary GI and GL are important indicators of overall quality and quantity of carbohydrates from elderly Brazilians diet and are also associated with other macronutrients such as protein, fat, and fiber. The overall dietary GI and GL reflects other dietary aspects, such as composition of the diet and combination of foods consumed.

  13. Gender Differences: Examination of the 12-Item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI-12) in an Older Brazilian Population

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    Carver, Lisa F.; Vafaei, Afshin; Guerra, Ricardo; Freire, Aline; Phillips, Susan P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. Methods The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution) for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. Results The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women) were 65–99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women). Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22). A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12) previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66) loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51) loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. Conclusions Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female. PMID:24098482

  14. Gender differences: examination of the 12-item bem sex role inventory (BSRI-12 in an older Brazilian population.

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    Lisa F Carver

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although gender is often acknowledged as a determinant of health, measuring its components, other than biological sex, is uncommon. The Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI quantifies self-attribution of traits, indicative of gender roles. The BSRI has been used with participants across cultures and countries, but rarely in an older population in Brazil, as we have done in this study. Our primary objective was to determine whether the BSRI-12 can be used to explore gender in an older Brazilian population. METHODS: The BSRI was completed by volunteer participants, all community dwelling adults aged 65+ living in Natal, Brazil. Exploratory factor analysis was performed, followed by a varimax rotation (orthogonal solution for iteration to examine the underlying gender roles of feminine, masculine, androgynous and undifferentiated, and to validate the BSRI in older adults in Brazil. RESULTS: The 278 participants, (80 men, 198 women were 65-99 years old (average 73.6 for men, 74.7 for women. Age difference between sexes was not significant (p = 0.22. A 12 item version of the BSRI (BSRI-12 previously validated among Spanish seniors was used and showed validity with 5 BSRI-12 items (Cronbach=0.66 loading as feminine, 6 items (Cronbach=0.51 loading onto masculine roles and neither overlapping with the category of biological sex of respondent. CONCLUSIONS: Although the BSRI-12 appears to be a valid indicator of gender among elderly Brazilians, the gender role status identified with the BSRI-12 was not correlated with being male or female.

  15. [Design and implementation of the ELSA-Brasil biobank: a prospective study in a Brazilian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M; Fedeli, Ligia M; Castilhos, Cristina; Vidigal, Pedro G; Maniero, Viviane; Leite, Claudia M; Pimentel, Robercia A; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a multicenter prospective cohort of civil servants designed to assess the determinants of chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The present article describes the main design and implementation points of the ELSA-Brasil biobank project. Economic, political, logistical and technological aspects of this study are characterized. Additionally, it discusses the final biorepository protocol and the facilities implemented to achieve this objective. The design and implementation process of the ELSA-Brasil biobank took three years to be performed. Both the central and local biobanks were built according to the best biorepository techniques, using different technological solutions for the distinct needs expected in this study.

  16. The Impact of Selection with Diflubenzuron, a Chitin Synthesis Inhibitor, on the Fitness of Two Brazilian Aedes aegypti Field Populations.

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    Belinato, Thiago Affonso; Valle, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Several Aedes aegypti field populations are resistant to neurotoxic insecticides, mainly organophoshates and pyrethroids, which are extensively used as larvicides and adulticides, respectively. Diflubenzuron (DFB), a chitin synthesis inhibitor (CSI), was recently approved for use in drinking water, and is presently employed in Brazil for Ae. aegypti control, against populations resistant to the organophosphate temephos. However, tests of DFB efficacy against field Ae. aegypti populations are lacking. In addition, information regarding the dynamics of CSI resistance, and characterization of any potential fitness effects that may arise in conjunction with resistance are essential for new Ae. aegypti control strategies. Here, the efficacy of DFB was evaluated for two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations known to be resistant to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Laboratory selection for DFB resistance was then performed over six or seven generations, using a fixed dose of insecticide that inhibited 80% of adult emergence in the first generation. The selection process was stopped when adult emergence in the diflubenzuron-treated groups was equivalent to that of the control groups, kept without insecticide. Diflubenzuron was effective against the two Ae. aegypti field populations evaluated, regardless of their resistance level to neurotoxic insecticides. However, only a few generations of DFB selection were sufficient to change the susceptible status of both populations to this compound. Several aspects of mosquito biology were affected in both selected populations, indicating that diflubenzuron resistance acquisition is associated with a fitness cost. We believe that these results can significantly contribute to the design of control strategies involving the use of insect growth regulators.

  17. Genetic variation in native and farmed populations of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum in the Brazilian Amazon: regional discrepancies in farming systems

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    Jonas Aguiar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the most popular fish species used for aquaculture in Brazil but there is no study comparing genetic variation among native and farmed populations of this species. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequences of the mitochondrial DNA to evaluate the genetic diversity among two wild populations, a fry-producing breeding stock, and a sample of fish farm stocks, all from the region of Santarém, in the west of the Brazilian state of Pará. Similar levels of genetic diversity were found in all the samples and surprisingly the breeding stock showed expressive representation of the genetic diversity registered on wild populations. These results contrast considerably with those of the previous study of farmed stocks in the states of Amapá, Pará, Piauí, and Rondônia, which recorded only two haplotypes, indicating a long history of endogamy in the breeding stocks used to produce fry. The results of the two studies show two distinct scenarios of tambaqui farming in the Amazon basin, which must be better evaluated in order to guarantee the successful expansion of this activity in the region, and the rest of Brazil, given that the tambaqui and its hybrids are now farmed throughout the country.

  18. The Population Reference Sample, POPRES: a resource for population, disease, and pharmacological genetics research.

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    Nelson, Matthew R; Bryc, Katarzyna; King, Karen S; Indap, Amit; Boyko, Adam R; Novembre, John; Briley, Linda P; Maruyama, Yuka; Waterworth, Dawn M; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hauser, Stephen L; Stirnadel, Heide A; Kooner, Jaspal S; Chambers, John C; Jones, Brendan; Mooser, Vincent; Bustamante, Carlos D; Roses, Allen D; Burns, Daniel K; Ehm, Margaret G; Lai, Eric H

    2008-09-01

    Technological and scientific advances, stemming in large part from the Human Genome and HapMap projects, have made large-scale, genome-wide investigations feasible and cost effective. These advances have the potential to dramatically impact drug discovery and development by identifying genetic factors that contribute to variation in disease risk as well as drug pharmacokinetics, treatment efficacy, and adverse drug reactions. In spite of the technological advancements, successful application in biomedical research would be limited without access to suitable sample collections. To facilitate exploratory genetics research, we have assembled a DNA resource from a large number of subjects participating in multiple studies throughout the world. This growing resource was initially genotyped with a commercially available genome-wide 500,000 single-nucleotide polymorphism panel. This project includes nearly 6,000 subjects of African-American, East Asian, South Asian, Mexican, and European origin. Seven informative axes of variation identified via principal-component analysis (PCA) of these data confirm the overall integrity of the data and highlight important features of the genetic structure of diverse populations. The potential value of such extensively genotyped collections is illustrated by selection of genetically matched population controls in a genome-wide analysis of abacavir-associated hypersensitivity reaction. We find that matching based on country of origin, identity-by-state distance, and multidimensional PCA do similarly well to control the type I error rate. The genotype and demographic data from this reference sample are freely available through the NCBI database of Genotypes and Phenotypes (dbGaP).

  19. Association Between Genes Involved in Craniofacial Development and Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and/or Palate in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Renato Assis; Messetti, Ana Camila; de Aquino, Sibele Nascimento; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira; de Almeida Reis, Silvia Regina; Moreira, Helenara Salvati Bertolossi; Persuhn, Darlene Camati; Coletta, Ricardo D

    2016-09-01

    To determine the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to craniofacial development, which were previously identified as susceptibility signals for nonsyndromic oral clefts, in Brazilians with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (NSCL/P). The SNPs rs748044 (TNP1), rs1106514 (MSX1), rs28372960, rs15251 and rs2569062 (TCOF1), rs7829058 (FGFR1), rs1793949 (COL2A1), rs11653738 (WNT3), and rs242082 (TIMP3) were assessed in a family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and a structured case-control analysis based on the individual ancestry proportions. The SNPs were initially analyzed by TDT, and polymorphisms showing a trend toward excess transmission were subsequently studied in an independent case-control sample. The study sample consisted of 189 case-parent trios of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL±P), 107 case-parent trios of nonsyndromic cleft palate (NSCP), 318 isolated samples of NSCL±P, 189 isolated samples of NSCP, and 599 healthy controls. Association of alleles with NSCL/P pathogenesis. Preferential transmission of SNPs rs28372960 and rs7829058 in NSCL±P trios and rs11653738 in NSCP trios (P = .04) were observed, although the structured case-control analysis did not confirm these associations. The haplotype T-C-C formed by TCOF1 SNPs rs28372960, rs15251, and rs2569062 was more frequently transmitted from healthy parents to NSCL±P offspring, but the P value (P = .01) did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple tests. With the modest associations, our results do not support the hypothesis that TNP1, MSX1, TCOF1, FGFR1, COL2A1, WNT3, and TIMP3 variants are risk factors for nonsyndromic oral clefts in the Brazilian population.

  20. A multicentric association study between 39 genes and nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, Tânia Kawasaki; Secolin, Rodrigo; Félix, Têmis Maria; de Souza, Liliane Todeschini; Fontes, Marshall Ítalo Barros; Monlleó, Isabella Lopes; de Souza, Josiane; Fett-Conte, Agnes Cristina; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Xavier, Ana Carolina; de Rezende, Adriana Augusto; Simioni, Milena; Ribeiro-dos-Santos, Ândrea Kely Campos; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; Gil-da-Silva-Lopes, Vera Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the TaqMan OpenArray system to evaluate associations between 39 genes and the etiology of nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) in a Brazilian population. This case-control association study was designed with 80.11% statistical power according to logistic regression (GPOWER software). The case group had 182 patients with NSCLP enrolled in the Brazilian Database on Orofacial Clefts. The controls included 355 healthy individuals with no history of oral clefting in the past three generations. All samples were genotyped for 253 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 39 genes, including two that had recently been associated with this process. The association analysis was performed using logistic regression and stepwise regression. The results were corrected for multiple testing [Bonferroni correction and False Discovery Rate (FDR)]. Twenty-four SNPs in 16 genes were significantly associated with the etiology of NSCLP, including MSX1, SPRY1, MSX2, PRSS35, TFAP2A, SHH, VAX1, TBX10, WNT11, PAX9, BMP4, JAG2, AXIN2, DVL2, KIF7, and TCBE3. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that 11 genes contributed to 15.5% of the etiology of NSCLP in the sample. This is the first study to associate KIF7 and TCEB3 with the etiology of NSCLP. New technological approaches using the same design should help to identify further etiological susceptibility variants. Copyright © 2015 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo A. Lotufo

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Methods: Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Results: Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8 never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women, and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. Conclusion: The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide.

  2. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Santos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA+ was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the χ² test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03. The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  3. Relationship of IL-1 and TNF-α polymorphisms with Helicobacter pylori in gastric diseases in a Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.C. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil); Ladeira, M.S.P. [Departamento de Patologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Pedrazzoli, J. Jr.; Ribeiro, M.L. [Unidade Integrada de Farmacologia e Gastroenterologia, Universidade São Francisco, Bragança Paulista, SP (Brazil)

    2012-06-22

    It is well known that the risk of development of gastric cancer (GC) in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients depends on several factors. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of proinflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms for IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α on the development of GC in a Brazilian population. A total of 202 biopsies obtained from Brazilian patients with chronic gastritis and GC were included in the study. Infection with H. pylori cagA{sup +} was determined by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as previously described. IL-1β, IL-1RN and TNF-α polymorphism genotyping was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism PCR. Associations between gene polymorphisms, clinical diseases and virulence markers were evaluated using either the X{sup 2} test or the Fisher exact test. Our results demonstrated that the IL-1β -511 C/C and IL-1β -511 C/T alleles were associated with chronic gastritis in H. pylori-positive patients (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively) and the IL-1β -511 C/C genotype was associated with GC (P = 0.03). The frequency of IL-1RN alleles from patients with chronic gastritis and GC indicated that there was no difference between the genotypes of the groups studied. Similar results were found for TNF-α -308 gene polymorphisms. Our results indicate that the IL-1β -511 C/C and C/T gene polymorphisms are associated with chronic gastritis and GC development in H. pylori-infected individuals.

  4. Brazilian energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Shaughnessy, H.

    1997-04-01

    Brazilian Energy provides all the information necessary for energy companies to invest and operate in Brazil, including: a review of Brazil`s natural resources; an assessment of privatisation strategies at the federal, state and regional level; an analysis of the electricity industry and the future for Electrobras; an analysis of the oil industry and, in particular, Petrobras; a discussion of the fuel alcohol industry; the discovery of local natural gas, its prospects and the involvement of the auto industry; an assessment of the problems facing the coal industry and its future; a discussion of the regulatory framework for the newly privatised companies; the importance of intra-regional energy links and the booming membership of Mercosur; the difficulties experienced by foreign investors doing business in Brazil; brief profiles of the key energy companies; profiles of key people influencing the privatisation process in Brazil. Brazilian energy is essential reading for those wishing to advise and assist Brazil in this period of change and development, as well as those who wish to invest or become key players in the Brazilian energy sector. (author)

  5. Opening the eyes about dictatorship: audio description as a resource of brazilian memory´s maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Brazilian society had the opportunity to debate the harsh period of its dictatorship after 50 years since the 1964 Military Coup. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an Audio Description project with remarkable photos and videos from Brazilian Dictatorship and its reflections on Brazilian society. The project was elaborated by the research group “Accessible Media and Audiovisual Translation”, whose main focus is provide accessibility (audio description and subtitles for different audiovisual products. We produced a photo documentary with an overview of some important images and with a script focusing on important information about Brazilian politics from 1964 up to 1989. Many steps were followed during the whole process: selection of photos, historical contextualization, script, narration, final editing of the video. In order to produce the audio description scripts of photos and images selected, we have followed some assumptions about audio description. According to Matamala (2006:330 various competences are required to audio describers such as: “the ability to undertake intersemiotic translations (turning images into words, the ability to summarise information in order to adapt the text to the limited space available, keeping the original meaning, by means of rewording and by using synonyms; the ability to critically select the most relevant information”.

  6. Opening the eyes about dictatorship: audio description as a resource of brazilian memory´s maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinea Marcelino Villela

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 the Brazilian society had the opportunity to debate the harsh period of its dictatorship after 50 years since the 1964 Military Coup. The main goal of this paper is the presentation of an Audio Description project with remarkable photos and videos from Brazilian Dictatorship and its reflections on Brazilian society. The project was elaborated by the research group “Accessible Media and Audiovisual Translation”, whose main focus is provide accessibility (audio description and subtitles for different audiovisual products. We produced a photo documentary with an overview of some important images and with a script focusing on important information about Brazilian politics from 1964 up to 1989. Many steps were followed during the whole process: selection of photos, historical contextualization, script, narration, final editing of the video. In order to produce the audio description scripts of photos and images selected, we have followed some assumptions about audio description. According to Matamala (2006:330 various competences are required to audio describers such as: “the ability to undertake intersemiotic translations (turning images into words, the ability to summarise information in order to adapt the text to the limited space available, keeping the original meaning, by means of rewording and by using synonyms; the ability to critically select the most relevant information”.

  7. TSH levels associated with slimming pill use in a population-based study of Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Andrade, Roseli; Baima, Jader; Henriques, Jodelia; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-12-01

    To determine the consumption of slimming pills (SP) and its association with TSH levels. A survey was carried out in Rio de Janeiro (about 5 million inhabitants), Brazil, from June 2004 to April 2005. Households (1,500) were selected using three-stage probability sampling. Women were asked about use of SP, and blood sample was collected. Women were classified as users of SP any time in life, but not in previous two months (n = 293), current users (n = 150), and never users (n = 853). Weighted multivariate regression analyses compared TSH levels among these groups of users. The frequency of use of SP any time in life was 34% and the use in the previous two months was 11%. Both frequencies were greater among younger and obese women, and among those of high socioeconomic level (p-value < 0.001). TSH level was statistically lower among current users of SP (1.96 mUI/ml; 95%CI = 1.93-1.98) compared to previous users 2.83 mUI/ml (95%CI = 2.13-3.02) and never users 2.59 mUI/ml (95%CI = 2.20-3.21). These differences were still statistically significant after adjusting for age and body mass index. Use of SP decreased TSH levels among Brazilian women.

  8. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,IA.; Valenti,MW.; Silva-Matos,DM.

    2009-01-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of th...

  9. Genetic composition of a brazilian population: the footprint of the Gold Cycle.

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Erica Maria de; Santos, A.M.; Castro, Ieso de Miranda; Coelho, George Luiz Lins Machado; Mendes, Ana Paula Carlos Cândido; Leite, T. M.; Pereira,Rinaldo Wellerson; Freitas, Renata Nascimento de

    2013-01-01

    Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) are powerful tools for inferring the genetic composition of admixed populations. In this study, we determined the genetic ancestry of the Ouro Preto (Brazil) population and evaluated the association between ancestry and self-reported skin color. The genetic ancestry of 189 children and adolescents was estimated by genotyping 15 AIMs. The estimate of population admixture was determined using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented in ...

  10. Levels of taurine introgression in the current Brazilian Nelore and Gir indicine cattle populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    A high density panel of more than 777000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to investigate the population structure of Nelore and Gir, compared to seven other populations worldwide. Principal Component Analysis and model-based ancestry estimation clearly separate the indici...

  11. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular characterization of Meloidogyne spp. populations from Brazilian soybean production regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Martins de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Soybean is a commodity of great economic importance worldwide, particularly in Brazil, world’s second largest producer. Nematodes, especially those of the Meloidogyne genus, severely limit productivity. Identification of nematode species is important for effective soybean management. Here, 26 populations of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. from 15 municipalities in the states of Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goias, and Minas Gerais were characterized based on the morphology of the female perineal region, esterase profile, and identification based on amplification of specific regions of the population genome. Among the Meloidogyne spp. populations obtained, M. incognita and M. javanica, were identified. No mixed populations were present in the samples. Diagnosis based on molecular analysis was shown to be reliable and the fastest for characterization of nematode populations compared to other methods analyzed.

  12. Investigation of the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of dentin hypersensitivity in a selected Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramucci, Taís; de Almeida Anfe, Taciana Emília; da Silva Ferreira, Stella; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Sobral, Maria Angela Pita

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, clinical features, and risk factors of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) in a Brazilian population. 300 patients at the Dentistry Clinic of the University of São Paulo participated in this study. The subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their personal information, the presence of DH, and some of its risk factors. Following completion of the questionnaire, a clinical examination was undertaken. To confirm the presence of DH, the subjects were evaluated with the use of a probe and cold air from a triple syringe. Statistical analysis was performed with the chi-square test and odds ratio, with the critical level p prevalence of DH was 46%. Females presented a higher prevalence than males (p bruxism (p prevalence of DH was particularly high. The risk factors for DH were gender (female), toothbrushing four times a day, toothbrushing with excessive force, bruxism, and gastroesophageal reflux. DH was a common finding in this population suggesting that preventive measures considering its risk factors must be implemented in order to reduce or control the symptoms.

  13. Antenatal depressive symptoms among pregnant women: Evidence from a Southern Brazilian population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll, Carolina de Vargas Nunes; da Silveira, Mariângela Freitas; Bassani, Diego Garcia; Netsi, Elena; Wehrmeister, Fernando César; Barros, Fernando César; Stein, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Antenatal depression (AD) is a major public health issue but evidence regarding its prevalence and associated factors in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) is limited. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors for AD among Brazilian pregnant women. All women living in the urban area of the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, with confirmed pregnancy and estimated delivery date in the year 2015, were invited to take part. Eligible pregnant women were recruited from health services. Symptoms of antenatal depression were assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) by face-to-face interviews. A cutoff-point of 13 or more was used to define probable AD. EPDS scores were available for 4130 women. The prevalence of AD was 16% (95%CI 14·9-17·1). After adjustment for potential confounders, the factors most strongly associated with higher EPDS scores were a previous history of depression (PR 2·81; 95%CI 2·44-3·25), high parity (PR 1·72; 95%CI 1·38-2·15 - ≥2 children vs. 1 child) and maternal education (PR 5·47; 95%CI 4·22-7·09 - 0-4 vs. ≥12 years of formal education). EPDS was administered through face-to-face interviews rather than questionnaires and some women may have felt uncomfortable reporting their symptoms leading to underreporting and consequently underestimation of the prevalence found. AD prevalence is substantially higher in Brazil than in high-income countries (HICs) but similar to other LMICs. Our study identified relevant risk factors that may be potential targets to plan interventions, particularly a history of depression. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Human Herpesvirus-8 Infection and Oral Shedding in Amerindian and Non-Amerindian Populations in the Brazilian Amazon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Sumita, Laura M.; Nascimento, Maria-Claudia; Oliveira, Juliane; Mascheretti, Melissa; Quiroga, Mariana; Freire, Wilton S.; Tateno, Adriana; Boulos, Marcos; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) is hyperendemic in Amerindian populations, but its modes of transmission are unknown. Methods Antibodies against either HHV-8 lytic antigen or HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) were detected, by immunofluorescence assays, in 339 Amerindians and 181 non-Amerindians from the Brazilian Amazon. Serological markers of oro-fecal (hepatitis A), parenteral (hepatitis B and C), and sexual (herpes simplex virus type 2 and syphilis) transmission were measured by specific ELISAs. Salivary HHV-8 DNA was detected by use of a nested polymerase chain reaction assay and was sequenced. Results Antibodies against either lytic antigen or LANA were detected in 79.1% of Amerindians and in 6.1% of non-Amerindians (adjusted seroprevalence ratio [SR], 12.63 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 7.1–22.4]; P< .0001). HHV-8 seroprevalence increased with age among Amerindians (PTrend< .001) and already had high prevalence in childhood but was not sex specific in either population. The 2 populations did not differ in seroprevalence of oro-fecal or parenteral markers, but seroprevalence of markers of sexual transmission was lower among Amerindians. HHV-8 DNA in saliva was detected in 47 (23.7%) of 198 HHV-8 seropositive Amerindians. Detection of HHV-8 DNA decreased with age (PTrend< .04) and was more common in men (SR, 2.14 [95% CI, 1.3–3.5]; P= .003). A total of 36 (76.6%) of the 47 saliva HHV-8 DNA samples were sequenced, and all clustered as subtype E. Conclusion The data support the hypothesis of early acquisition and horizontal transmission, via saliva, of HHV-8 subtype E in Amerindian populations. PMID:17703414

  15. Increasing population and declining biological resources in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to cope with this problem in a situation where the traditional societies have to cope with rapidly depleting biodiversity on which they are dependant for their livelihood, there is an urgent need to explore additional pathways for sustainable management of natural resources and societal development. Such pathways ...

  16. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae in a Brazilian savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA. Silva

    Full Text Available Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m². We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  17. Fire effects on the population structure of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam (Rutaceae) in a Brazilian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, I A; Valenti, M W; Silva-Matos, D M

    2009-08-01

    Since cerrado fires may impede the growth of seedlings into trees, they may shape the population of woody species. In this study, we assessed the effects of a severe fire on the population structure and spatial distribution of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium, a widespread cerrado tree. We were interested to know the importance of the resprouting and sexual reproduction in regenerating the population. The study area had been for about six years protected from fire, before a severe fire at the end of the dry season in 2006. We sampled and measured all individuals of Z. rhoifolium found in 80 plots of 25 m(2). We found 149 individuals before the fire and 112 after the fire, of which 77 were resprouts from burned seedlings and saplings. We did not find significant differences between the population structure before and after the fire. The spatial distribution of the population remained clumped after the fire. Thus, the Z. rhoifolium population was very resilient to a severe fire. We did not find any new seedlings. As a consequence, resprouting seems to be more important than sexual reproduction in promptly regenerating the Z. rhoifolium populations.

  18. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARVALHO, Suzana Papile Maciel; BRITO, Liz Magalhães; de PAIVA, Luiz Airton Saavedra; BICUDO, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; CROSATO, Edgard Michel; de OLIVEIRA, Rogério Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. Objective This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. Material and Methods The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. Results The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. Conclusion It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological

  19. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Suzana Papile Maciel; Brito, Liz Magalhães; Paiva, Luiz Airton Saavedra de; Bicudo, Lucilene Arilho Ribeiro; Crosato, Edgard Michel; Oliveira, Rogério Nogueira de

    2013-01-01

    Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995), previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995) presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South), previous methodological adjustment is recommended as demonstrated in this

  20. Validation of a physical anthropology methodology using mandibles for gender estimation in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Papile Maciel Carvalho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Validation studies of physical anthropology methods in the different population groups are extremely important, especially in cases in which the population variations may cause problems in the identification of a native individual by the application of norms developed for different communities. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to estimate the gender of skeletons by application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995, previously used in a population sample from Northeast Brazil. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The accuracy of this method was assessed for a population from Southeast Brazil and validated by statistical tests. The method used two mandibular measurements, namely the bigonial distance and the mandibular ramus height. The sample was composed of 66 skulls and the method was applied by two examiners. The results were statistically analyzed by the paired t test, logistic discriminant analysis and logistic regression. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the application of the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 in this population achieved very different outcomes between genders, with 100% for females and only 11% for males, which may be explained by ethnic differences. However, statistical adjustment of measurement data for the population analyzed allowed accuracy of 76.47% for males and 78.13% for females, with the creation of a new discriminant formula. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that methods involving physical anthropology present high rate of accuracy for human identification, easy application, low cost and simplicity; however, the methodologies must be validated for the different populations due to differences in ethnic patterns, which are directly related to the phenotypic aspects. In this specific case, the method of Oliveira, et al. (1995 presented good accuracy and may be used for gender estimation in Brazil in two geographic regions, namely Northeast and Southeast; however, for other regions of the country (North, Central West and South

  1. Prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in a Brazilian population sample at-risk for hereditary breast cancer and characterization of its genetic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gabriela C; Michelli, Rodrigo A D; Galvão, Henrique C R; Paula, André E; Pereira, Rui; Andrade, Carlos E; Felicio, Paula S; Souza, Cristiano P; Mendes, Deise R P; Volc, Sahlua; Berardinelli, Gustavo N; Grasel, Rebeca S; Sabato, Cristina S; Viana, Danilo V; Mauad, Edmundo C; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Arun, Banu; Reis, Rui M; Palmero, Edenir I

    2016-12-06

    There are very few data about the mutational profile of families at-risk for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) from Latin America (LA) and especially from Brazil, the largest and most populated country in LA. Of the 349 probands analyzed, 21.5% were BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated, 65.3% at BRCA1 and 34.7% at BRCA2 gene. The mutation c.5266dupC (former 5382insC) was the most frequent alteration, representing 36.7% of the BRCA1 mutations and 24.0% of all mutations identified. Together with the BRCA1 c.3331_3334delCAAG mutation, these mutations constitutes about 35% of the identified mutations and more than 50% of the BRCA1 pathogenic mutations. Interestingly, six new mutations were identified. Additionally, 39 out of the 44 pathogenic mutations identified were not previously reported in the Brazilian population. Besides, 36 different variants of unknown significance (VUS) were identified. Regarding ancestry, average ancestry proportions were 70.6% European, 14.5% African, 8.0% Native American and 6.8% East Asian. This study characterized 349 Brazilian families at-risk for HBOC regarding their germline BRCA1/BRCA2 status and genetic ancestry. This is the largest report of BRCA1/BRCA2 assessment in an at-risk HBOC Brazilian population. We identified 21.5% of patients harboring BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations and characterized the genetic ancestry of a sample group at-risk for hereditary breast cancer showing once again how admixed is the Brazilian population. No association was found between genetic ancestry and mutational status. The knowledge of the mutational profile in a population can contribute to the definition of more cost-effective strategies for the identification of HBOC families.

  2. Genetic composition of a Brazilian population: the footprint of the Gold Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, E M; Santos, A M; Castro, I M; Machado-Coelho, G L L; Cândido, A P C; Leite, T M; Pereira, R W; Freitas, R N

    2013-10-29

    Ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) are powerful tools for inferring the genetic composition of admixed populations. In this study, we determined the genetic ancestry of the Ouro Preto (Brazil) population and evaluated the association between ancestry and self-reported skin color. The genetic ancestry of 189 children and adolescents was estimated by genotyping 15 AIMs. The estimate of population admixture was determined using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method implemented in two different programs (STRUCTURE and ADMIXMAP). Volunteers self-reported their skin colors. The European ancestry contribution ranged from 0.503 to 0.539, the African contribution ranged from 0.333 to 0.425, and the Amerindian component ranged from 0.04 to 0.164. The relative contributions of African (P Brazil. Therefore, extrapolating the African ancestry contribution for southeastern Brazil to the Ouro Preto population would underestimate the actual value for this city. We also showed that self-reported skin color could be appropriate for describing the genetic structure of this particular population.

  3. Health-related quality of life in the Brazilian Amazon: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marcus Tolentino; Caicedo Roa, Monica; Galvao, Tais Freire

    2017-08-14

    To analyze perceptions of health-related quality of life and associated factors in populations from the Manaus Metropolitan Region. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study from May to August 2015. Adults aged 18 years and older were selected using probabilistic three-phase cluster sampling and stratified by sex and age, based on official estimates. Quality of life data were collected using the European Quality of Life 5-Dimensions 3-Levels (EQ-5D-3L) along with socioeconomic, demographic, and health perception data. Utility scores were calculated using the Brazilian version of the EQ-5D-3L. Descriptive statistics were derived, and a multivariate Tobit regression model with correction for complex sampling was performed to identify the variables that influence utility levels. A total of 4001 participants were included. The average utility score was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.881-0.890) with significant differences according to living area (the capital (0.882 ± 0.144) or inner cities (0.908 ± 0.122; p life than women (β = 0.041, p life compared with being formally employed (β = 0.031, p = 0.037). The poorest people had a lower quality of life than the richest people (β = -0.118, p life in the Manaus Metropolitan Region was high, as expected for the general population, and was higher among individuals who lived in the inner cities, men and those in higher social classes. Gender discrepancies and differences in quality of life between the capital and inner cities should be further investigated.

  4. Mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of a southern Brazilian population of Boophilus microplus (Acari, Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Nunes Garcia

    Full Text Available Using conventional staining with acetic orcein and C-banding techniques it was investigated constitutive heterochromatin chromosomal polymorphisms and the mitotic and the meiotic behavior of male and female chromosomes of Boophilus microplus (Canestrini, 1887. Some differences were detected in the population of southern Brazil as compared to the data of other authors for populations in other latitudes. The differences being mainly concerned with the distribution of constitutive centromeric heterochromatin and variation in the length of heterochromatic blocks in the pericentromeric regions of some chromosome pairs.

  5. Increasing population and declining biological resources in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    465. Keywords. Biodiversity; global change; globalization; population and land use; sustainable landscape management; traditional ..... Climate change, in the present context, refers only to human-induced changes that are being brought about through industrial emissions into the atmosphere and the consequent changes.

  6. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

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    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  7. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version in an elderly population

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    Natalia A. Ricci

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective: This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method: The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI. To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results: Patients (n=140 had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions: This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders.

  8. Molecular characterization of the hepatitis B virus in autochthonous and endogenous populations in the Western Brazilian Amazon

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    Ádila Liliane Barros Dias

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a serious public health issue worldwide. Hepatitis B virus is classified into eight genotypes, varying from A to H, with distinct geographical distributions. In Brazil, the most frequent genotypes are A, D, and F. METHODS: This study aimed to characterize the HBV genotypes in cases of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus (HDV co-infections in an endemic area in the Western Brazilian Amazon. We analyzed 86 serum samples reactive for HBsAg from indigenous and non-indigenous populations obtained from previous serological surveys. RESULTS: Of the 86 reactive serum samples, 39 were found to be HBV-DNA-positive by semi-nested PCR. The genotypes were established by sequencing the amplified S gene region. We obtained 20 sequences classified into three genotypes: A, D, and F. Genotype A was the most frequent (60%, followed by D (35% and F (5%. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution of the HBV genotypes reflected the pattern of historical occupation of the region.

  9. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

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    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  10. Clinical and radiological analysis of a series of periapical cysts and periapical granulomas diagnosed in a Brazilian population.

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    Tavares, Daniel-Petitet; Rodrigues, Janderson-Teixeira; Dos Santos, Teresa-Cristina-Ribeiro-Bartholomeu; Armada, Luciana; Pires, Fábio-Ramôa

    2017-01-01

    Periapical cysts (PC) and periapical granulomas (PG) are the two most common chronic inflammatory periapical diseases, but their clinicoradiological characteristics can vary depending on the methods employed in each study. The aim of the present work was to analyze the clinical and radiological profile of a series of PC and PG diagnosed in a Brazilian population. The files of two Oral Pathology laboratories were reviewed and all cases diagnosed as PG and PC were selected for the study. Clinical and radiological information were retrieved and data were tabulated and descriptively and comparatively analyzed. Final sample was composed by 647 inflammatory periapical lesions, including 244 PG (38%) and 403 PC (62%). The number of women affected by PG was significantly higher than the number of women affected by PC (p=0.037). Anterior region of the maxilla was the most common affected area for both entities (39% of the cases), but the most common anatomical location of PG (anterior maxilla and posterior maxilla) was different from PC (anterior maxilla and posterior mandible) (pincisor was the most affected tooth. The mean radiological size of the PC was larger than the mean radiological size of the PG (pcyst, radicular cyst, diagnosis, Oral Pathology.

  11. Seasonal Variation in Population Abundance and Chytrid Infection in Stream-Dwelling Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

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    Joice Ruggeri

    Full Text Available Enigmatic amphibian declines were first reported in southern and southeastern Brazil in the late 1980s and included several species of stream-dwelling anurans (families Hylodidae and Cycloramphidae. At that time, we were unaware of the amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd; therefore, pollution, habitat loss, fragmentation and unusual climatic events were hypothesized as primary causes of these declines. We now know that multiple lineages of Bd have infected amphibians of the Brazilian Atlantic forest for over a century, yet declines have not been associated specifically with Bd outbreaks. Because stream-dwelling anurans occupy an environmental hotspot ideal for disease transmission, we investigated temporal variation in population and infection dynamics of three stream-adapted species (Hylodes asper, H. phyllodes, and Cycloramphus boraceiensis on the northern coast of São Paulo state, Brazil. We surveyed standardized transects along streams for four years, and show that fluctuations in the number of frogs correlate with specific climatic variables that also increase the likelihood of Bd infections. In addition, we found that Bd infection probability in C. boraceiensis, a nocturnal species, was significantly higher than in Hylodes spp., which are diurnal, suggesting that the nocturnal activity may either facilitate Bd zoospore transmission or increase susceptibility of hosts. Our findings indicate that, despite long-term persistence of Bd in Brazil, some hosts persist with seasonally variable infections, and thus future persistence in the face of climate change will depend on the relative effect of those changes on frog recruitment and pathogen proliferation.

  12. Taurodontism in patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate in a Brazilian population: a case control evaluation with panoramic radiographs.

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    Melo Filho, Mario Rodrigues; Nogueira dos Santos, Luis Antônio; Barbosa Martelli, Daniella Reis; Silveira, Marise Fagundes; Esteves da Silva, Myrian; de Barros, Letízia Monteiro; Coletta, Ricardo D; Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of taurodontism in patients with nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate (NSCLP) within a Brazilian population. The study was designed as an epidemiologic case-control single-center study. Three hundred eighty-eight patients were included: 88 had NSCLP, and 300 comprised the control group. The first and second permanent mandibular molars were included in this study. By using panoramic radiographs, taurodontism was categorized as mesotaurodontism, hypotaurodontism, and hypertaurodontism. Seventy patients (23.3%) from the control group and 36 patients (40.9%) from the case group presented taurodontism (P taurodontism, whereas in the case group with cleft lip and palate (CLP), 64 (18.2%) teeth showed dental anomalies (P taurodontic teeth presented hypotaurodontism, followed by mesotaurodontism, while hypertaurodontism was found in only two teeth. The probability of taurodontism in patients with cleft lip (CL) was 2.36 (P = .010) times higher compared with those with CLP, whereas the occurrence of taurodontism in patients with cleft palate (CP) was 3.15 (P = .002) times greater than in patients with CLP. The results from this study indicate a close relationship between taurodontism and NSCLP and the possibility of different cleft subphenotypes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of properties of the Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (Brazilian version) in an elderly population

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    Ricci, Natalia A.; Aratani, Mayra C.; Caovilla, Heloisa H.; Cohen, Helen S.; Ganança, Fernando F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Vestibular Disorders Activities of Daily Living Scale (VADL) is considered an important subjective assessment to evaluate patients suffering from dizziness and imbalance. Although frequently used, its metric characteristics still require further investigation. Objective This paper aims to analyze the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the VADL in an elderly population. Method The sample comprises patients (≥65 years old) with chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. For discriminant analysis, patients were compared to healthy subjects. All subjects answered the VADL-Brazil by interview. To examine the VADL validity, patients filled out the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and the ABC scale and were tested on the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). To evaluate the VADL responsiveness, 20 patients were submitted to rehabilitation. Results Patients (n=140) had a VADL total score of 4.1±1.6 points. Healthy subjects scored significantly less than patients in all the subscales and in the VADL total score. The VADL-Brazil was weakly correlated with the DHI and moderately to the ABC scale and the DGI. Instead of the original 3 subscales, factor analysis resulted in 6 factors. The VADL was capable of detecting changes after rehabilitation, which means that the instrument has responsiveness. Conclusions This study provided more data about the psychometric properties and usefulness of the VADL-Brazil. The use of such a reliable and valid instrument increases the knowledge about disability in patients with vestibular disorders. PMID:24676704

  14. [Analysis of TV food advertising in the context of recommendations by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Emanuella Gomes; Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Coelho, Francielly de Souza; Guimarães, Julia Soares; Fortaleza, Rafaela Garcia; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2017-05-18

    This study aimed to analyze TV food advertising in Brazil based on the recommendations of the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014. Programming from the four most popular TV channels was recorded on two non-consecutive days in January 2014. The commercials were categorized in (i) foods and beverages, (ii) restaurants, and (iii) non-food services, goods, and products, with those in the first category subdivided according to recommendations in the food guide. The commercials' categories were described by means of their frequency (and 95% confidence interval), for all the records and according to the day of the week. Of the 2,732 commercials that were identified, food and beverage advertising was the third largest category, with 10.2% of the total. In this category, ultra-processed foods accounted for 60.7% of the commercials, while fresh or minimally processed foods at around 7%. The findings run counter to the guide's recommendations, reinforcing the importance of measures to regulate food advertising in Brazil.

  15. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Eduardo Tarazona-Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil.Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases; and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls. The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection.GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; P<0.02. Moreover, population genetics tests applied on the GYPB exon sequencing data suggest that natural selection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity.Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is associated with the GPB S

  16. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

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    Rossini A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  17. CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a Brazilian population living in Rio de Janeiro

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    A. Rossini

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 (CYP is a superfamily of enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. CYP2A6 catalyzes the oxidation of nicotine and the activation of carcinogens such as aflatoxin B1 and nitrosamines. CYP2E1 metabolizes ethanol and other low-molecular weight compounds and can also activate nitrosamines. The CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 genes are polymorphic, altering their catalytic activities and susceptibility to cancer and other diseases. A number of polymorphisms described are ethnic-dependent. In the present study, we determined the genotype and allele frequencies of the main CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 polymorphisms in a group of 289 volunteers recruited at the Central Laboratory of Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. They had been residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro for at least 6 months and were divided into two groups according to skin color (white and non-white. The alleles were determined by allele specific PCR (CYP2A6 or by PCR-RFLP (CYP2E1. The frequencies of the CYP2A6*1B and CYP2A6*2 alleles were 0.29 and 0.02 for white individuals and 0.24 and 0.01 for non-white individuals, respectively. The CYP2A6*5 allele was not found in the population studied. Regarding the CYP2E1*5B allele, we found a frequency of 0.07 in white individuals, which was statistically different (P < 0.05 from that present in non-white individuals (0.03. CYP2E1*6 allele frequency was the same (0.08 in both groups. The frequencies of CYP2A6*1B, CYP2A6*2 and CYP2E1*6 alleles in Brazilians are similar to those found in Caucasians and African-Americans, but the frequency of the CYP2E1*5B allele is higher in Brazilians.

  18. Sagittal Abdominal Diameter as a Surrogate Marker of Insulin Resistance in an Admixtured Population--Brazilian Metabolic Syndrome Study (BRAMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Ana Carolina J; Cassani, Roberta S L; Forti, Adriana C e; Vilela, Brunna S; Pareja, José Carlos; Tambascia, Marcos Antonio; Geloneze, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) has been proposed as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR). However, the utilization of SAD requires specific validation for each ethnicity. We aimed to investigate the potential use of SAD, compared with classical anthropometrical parameters, as a surrogate marker of IR and to establish the cutoff values of SAD for screening for IR. A multicenter population survey on metabolic disorders was conducted. A race-admixtured sample of 824 adult women was assessed. The anthropometric parameters included: BMI, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio and SAD. IR was determined by a hyperglycemic clamp and the HOMA-IR index. After adjustments for age and total body fat mass, SAD (r = 0.23 and r = -0.70) and BMI (r = 0.20 and r = -0.71) were strongly correlated with the IR measured by the HOMA-IR index and the clamp, respectively (p < 0.001). In the ROC analysis, the optimal cutoff for SAD in women was 21.0 cm. The women with an increased SAD presented 3.2 (CI 95%: 2.1-5.0) more likelihood of having IR, assessed by the HOMA-IR index compared with those with normal SAD (p < 0.001); whereas women with elevated BMI and WC were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.4-3.3) and 2.8 (95% CI: 1.7-4.5) more likely to have IR (p < 0.001), respectively. No statistically significant results were found for waist-to-hip ratio. SAD can be a suitable surrogate marker of IR. Understanding and applying routine and simplified methods is essential because IR is associated with an increased risk of obesity-related diseases even in the presence of normal weight, slight overweight, as well as in obesity. Further prospective analysis will need to verify SAD as a determinant of clinical outcomes, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events, in the Brazilian population.

  19. Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in Brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations.

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    Sousa, Taís N; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo M; Wilson, Daniel J; Madureira, Ana P; Falcão, Paula R K; Fontes, Cor J F; Gil, Luiz H S; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Carvalho, Luzia H; Brito, Cristiana F A

    2010-11-22

    Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP). The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII), which is the most variable segment of the protein. To test whether diversifying natural selection has shaped the nucleotide diversity of PvDBPII in Brazilian populations, this region was sequenced in 122 isolates from six different geographic areas. A Bayesian method was applied to test for the action of natural selection under a population genetic model that incorporates recombination. The analysis was integrated with a structural model of PvDBPII, and T- and B-cell epitopes were localized on the 3-D structure. The results suggest that: (i) recombination plays an important role in determining the haplotype structure of PvDBPII, and (ii) PvDBPII appears to contain neutrally evolving codons as well as codons evolving under natural selection. Diversifying selection preferentially acts on sites identified as epitopes, particularly on amino acid residues 417, 419, and 424, which show strong linkage disequilibrium. This study shows that some polymorphisms of PvDBPII are present near the erythrocyte-binding domain and might serve to elude antibodies that inhibit cell invasion. Therefore, these polymorphisms should be taken into account when designing vaccines aimed at eliciting antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion.

  20. Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations

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    Gil Luiz HS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP. The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII, which is the most variable segment of the protein. Methods To test whether diversifying natural selection has shaped the nucleotide diversity of PvDBPII in Brazilian populations, this region was sequenced in 122 isolates from six different geographic areas. A Bayesian method was applied to test for the action of natural selection under a population genetic model that incorporates recombination. The analysis was integrated with a structural model of PvDBPII, and T- and B-cell epitopes were localized on the 3-D structure. Results The results suggest that: (i recombination plays an important role in determining the haplotype structure of PvDBPII, and (ii PvDBPII appears to contain neutrally evolving codons as well as codons evolving under natural selection. Diversifying selection preferentially acts on sites identified as epitopes, particularly on amino acid residues 417, 419, and 424, which show strong linkage disequilibrium. Conclusions This study shows that some polymorphisms of PvDBPII are present near the erythrocyte-binding domain and might serve to elude antibodies that inhibit cell invasion. Therefore, these polymorphisms should be taken into account when designing vaccines aimed at eliciting antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion.

  1. Food choices to meet nutrient recommendations for the adult Brazilian population based on the linear programming approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Quenia; Sichieri, Rosely; Darmon, Nicole; Maillot, Matthieu; Verly-Junior, Eliseu

    2018-01-18

    To identify optimal food choices that meet nutritional recommendations to reduce prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes. Linear programming was used to obtain an optimized diet with sixty-eight foods with the least difference from the observed population mean dietary intake while meeting a set of nutritional goals that included reduction in the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes to ≤20 %. Brazil. Participants (men and women, n 25 324) aged 20 years or more from the first National Dietary Survey (NDS) 2008-2009. Feasible solution to the model was not found when all constraints were imposed; infeasible nutrients were Ca, vitamins D and E, Mg, Zn, fibre, linolenic acid, monounsaturated fat and Na. Feasible solution was obtained after relaxing the nutritional constraints for these limiting nutrients by including a deviation variable in the model. Estimated prevalence of nutrient inadequacy was reduced by 60-70 % for most nutrients, and mean saturated and trans-fat decreased in the optimized diet meeting the model constraints. Optimized diet was characterized by increases especially in fruits (+92 g), beans (+64 g), vegetables (+43 g), milk (+12 g), fish and seafood (+15 g) and whole cereals (+14 g), and reductions of sugar-sweetened beverages (-90 g), rice (-63 g), snacks (-14 g), red meat (-13 g) and processed meat (-9·7 g). Linear programming is a unique tool to identify which changes in the current diet can increase nutrient intake and place the population at lower risk of nutrient inadequacy. Reaching nutritional adequacy for all nutrients would require major dietary changes in the Brazilian diet.

  2. Population biology of the crab Armases angustipes (Crustacea, Decapoda, Sesarmidae at Brazilian tropical coast

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    Marina de Sá Leitão C. de Araújo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The semi terrestrial crabs are important elements of the fauna of coastal regions. The aim of this study was to analyze the population structure of Armases angustipes (Dana, 1852 at estuaries of the Ariquindá River, considered a non impacted area, and Mamucabas River, considered a few impacted area, on the south coast of state of Pernambuco, Brazil. The species occurred in all months of the year. The number of individuals per month varied, being higher in the months of transition between the seasons. This is probably due to significant seasonal variations of air and burrow temperature and burrow salinity. There was no sexual dimorphism in size of A. angustipes in the mangrove of Ariquindá River, but males were larger than females in the mangrove of Mamucabas River. In both estuaries, the sex ratio did not differ from Mendelian proportion, but showed a deviation for females. The analysis of temporal variation in sex ratio showed significant differences in some months of the year. These variations are due to cyclical events that act distinctly on each sex. In both estuaries, size classes of carapace width were equally represented by both sexes. The ovigerous females of A. angustipes occurred only in some months of the year, especially in summer, in both estuaries. Probably the high phytoplankton productivity observed in summer favors the reproductive activity, since these algae serve as food for the larvae. Specimens of the population of Rio Ariquindá are largest and wider than those of Mamucabas River. This fact, associated with the low abundance of crabs and the lower frequency of ovigerous females observed in Mamucabas River, is an indication that this population may be influenced by the environmental impacts that this estuary has received.

  3. Developing educational resources for population genetics in R: an open and collaborative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamvar, Zhian N; López-Uribe, Margarita M; Coughlan, Simone; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Lapp, Hilmar; Manel, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    The r computing and statistical language community has developed a myriad of resources for conducting population genetic analyses. However, resources for learning how to carry out population genetic analyses in r are scattered and often incomplete, which can make acquiring this skill unnecessarily difficult and time consuming. To address this gap, we developed an online community resource with guidance and working demonstrations for conducting population genetic analyses in r. The resource is freely available at http://popgen.nescent.org and includes material for both novices and advanced users of r for population genetics. To facilitate continued maintenance and growth of this resource, we developed a toolchain, process and conventions designed to (i) minimize financial and labour costs of upkeep; (ii) to provide a low barrier to contribution; and (iii) to ensure strong quality assurance. The toolchain includes automatic integration testing of every change and rebuilding of the website when new vignettes or edits are accepted. The process and conventions largely follow a common, distributed version control-based contribution workflow, which is used to provide and manage open peer review by designated website editors. The online resources include detailed documentation of this process, including video tutorials. We invite the community of population geneticists working in r to contribute to this resource, whether for a new use case of their own, or as one of the vignettes from the 'wish list' we maintain, or by improving existing vignettes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Prevalence of Chronic Pain, Treatments, Perception, and Interference on Life Activities: Brazilian Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perissinotti, Dirce Maria Navas; de Oliveira Junior, Jose Oswaldo; da Fonseca, Paulo Renato Barreiros; Posso, Irimar de Paula

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Chronic pain affects between 30% and 50% of the world population. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of chronic pain in Brazil, describe and compare differences between pain types and characteristics, and identify the types of therapies adopted and the impact of pain on daily life. Methods Cross-sectional study of a population-based survey with randomized sample from a private database. The interviews were conducted by phone. 78% of the respondents aged 18 years or more agreed to be interviewed, for a total of 723 respondents distributed throughout the country. Independent variables were demographic data, pain and treatment characteristics, and impact of pain on daily life. Comparative and associative statistical analyses were conducted to select variables for nonhierarchical logistic regression. Results Chronic pain prevalence was 39% and mean age was 41 years with predominance of females (56%). We found higher prevalence of chronic pain in the Southern and Southeastern regions. Pain treatment was not specific to gender. Dissatisfaction with chronic pain management was reported by 49% of participants. Conclusion 39% of interviewed participants reported chronic pain, with prevalence of females. Gender-associated differences were found in intensity perception and interference of pain on daily life activities. PMID:29081680

  5. Population genetics of GYPB and association study between GYPB*S/s polymorphism and susceptibility to P. falciparum infection in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Castilho, Lilian; Amaral, Daphne R T; Costa, Daiane C; Furlani, Natália G; Zuccherato, Luciana W; Machado, Moara; Reid, Marion E; Zalis, Mariano G; Rossit, Andréa R; Santos, Sidney E B; Machado, Ricardo L; Lustigman, Sara

    2011-01-24

    Merozoites of Plasmodium falciparum invade through several pathways using different RBC receptors. Field isolates appear to use a greater variability of these receptors than laboratory isolates. Brazilian field isolates were shown to mostly utilize glycophorin A-independent invasion pathways via glycophorin B (GPB) and/or other receptors. The Brazilian population exhibits extensive polymorphism in blood group antigens, however, no studies have been done to relate the prevalence of the antigens that function as receptors for P. falciparum and the ability of the parasite to invade. Our study aimed to establish whether variation in the GYPB*S/s alleles influences susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum in the admixed population of Brazil. Two groups of Brazilian Amazonians from Porto Velho were studied: P. falciparum infected individuals (cases); and uninfected individuals who were born and/or have lived in the same endemic region for over ten years, were exposed to infection but have not had malaria over the study period (controls). The GPB Ss phenotype and GYPB*S/s alleles were determined by standard methods. Sixty two Ancestry Informative Markers were genotyped on each individual to estimate admixture and control its potential effect on the association between frequency of GYPB*S and malaria infection. GYPB*S is associated with host susceptibility to infection with P. falciparum; GYPB*S/GYPB*S and GYPB*S/GYPB*s were significantly more prevalent in the in the P. falciparum infected individuals than in the controls (69.87% vs. 49.75%; Pselection shaped the observed pattern of nucleotide diversity. Epidemiological and evolutionary approaches suggest an important role for the GPB receptor in RBC invasion by P. falciparum in Brazilian Amazons. Moreover, an increased susceptibility to infection by this parasite is associated with the GPB S+ variant in this population.

  6. Semi-volatile compounds variation among Brazilian populations of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.

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    Rogério Luis Cansian

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of compressed carbon towards extracting semi-volatile compounds present in maté leaves (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. is due to the growing interest in mate constituents to develop new products in the cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industries. The objective of this work was to assess the chemical distribution of semi-volatile compounds in 20 native populations of maté collected all over Brazil. The extracts of bulk samples (30 plants of each population were obtained by the high-pressure carbon dioxide extraction technique, and analyzed by GC/MSD. The quantification of compounds (caffeine, theobromine, phytol, squalene, vitamin E, eicosane, pentatriacontane, and stigmasterol showed significant variations within the different populations and compounds analyzed, which are not related to geographical origin or macroclimate characteristics. The results pointed out to the importance of genetic and local environmental factors on the chemical composition of this species.A extração empregando dióxido de carbono a altas pressões em erva-mate (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil., tem sido justificada pelo crescente interesse desta matriz vegetal ou de parte de seus constituintes na formulação de novos produtos, tais como cosméticos e medicamentos, entre outros. Neste contexto, o objetivo do presente trabalho é avaliar a distribuição química de compostos semi-voláteis em 20 populações de erva-mate coletadas em toda área de distribuição desta espécie no Brasil. 30 plantas foram selecionadas para produzir a amostra de cada população. Os extratos de cada amostra foram obtidos por extração com dióxido de carbono a alta pressão e, posteriormente, foram analisados por CG/EM. A quantificação de alguns compostos semi-voláteis presentes nos extratos (cafeína, teobromina, fitol, esqualeno, vitamina E, eicosano, pentatriacontano e stigmasterol, apresentaram variações significativas entre as concentrações dos diferentes compostos

  7. Surgery for valvular heart disease: a population-based study in a Brazilian urban center.

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    Guilherme S Ribeiro

    Full Text Available In middle income countries, the burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD remains high, but the prevalence of other heart valve diseases may rise as the population life expectancy increases. Here, we compared population-based data on surgical procedures to assess the relative importance of causes of heart valve disease in Salvador, Brazil.Medical charts of patients who underwent surgery for valvular heart disease from January 2002-December 2005 were reviewed. Incidence of surgery for valvular heart disease was calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with in-hospital death following surgery. The most common etiologies for valvular dysfunction in 491 valvular heart surgery patients were RHD (60.3%, degenerative valve disease (15.3%, and endocarditis (4.5%. Mean annual incidence for surgeries due to any valvular heart diseases, RHD, and degenerative valvular disease were 5.02, 3.03, and 0.77 per 100,000 population, respectively. Incidence of surgery due to RHD was highest in young adults; procedures were predominantly paid by the public health sector. In contrast, the incidence of surgery due to degenerative valvular disease was highest among those older than 60 years of age; procedures were mostly paid by the private sector. The overall in-hospital case-fatality ratio was 11.9%. Independent factors associated with death included increase in age (odds ratio: 1.04 per year of age; 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.06, endocarditis (6.35; 1.92-21.04, multiple valve operative procedures (4.35; 2.12-8.95, and prior heart valve surgery (2.49; 1.05-5.87.RHD remains the main cause for valvular heart surgery in Salvador, which primarily affects young adults without private health insurance. In contrast, surgery due to degenerative valvular disease primarily impacts the elderly with private health insurance. Strategies to reduce the burden of valvular heart disease will need to address the disparate factors that contribute to RHD

  8. Surgery for Valvular Heart Disease: A Population-Based Study in a Brazilian Urban Center

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    Oliveira, Dalton W. S.; Guedes, Aldalice C. S.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Riley, Lee W.; Ko, Albert I.

    2012-01-01

    Background In middle income countries, the burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains high, but the prevalence of other heart valve diseases may rise as the population life expectancy increases. Here, we compared population-based data on surgical procedures to assess the relative importance of causes of heart valve disease in Salvador, Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings Medical charts of patients who underwent surgery for valvular heart disease from January 2002–December 2005 were reviewed. Incidence of surgery for valvular heart disease was calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with in-hospital death following surgery. The most common etiologies for valvular dysfunction in 491 valvular heart surgery patients were RHD (60.3%), degenerative valve disease (15.3%), and endocarditis (4.5%). Mean annual incidence for surgeries due to any valvular heart diseases, RHD, and degenerative valvular disease were 5.02, 3.03, and 0.77 per 100,000 population, respectively. Incidence of surgery due to RHD was highest in young adults; procedures were predominantly paid by the public health sector. In contrast, the incidence of surgery due to degenerative valvular disease was highest among those older than 60 years of age; procedures were mostly paid by the private sector. The overall in-hospital case-fatality ratio was 11.9%. Independent factors associated with death included increase in age (odds ratio: 1.04 per year of age; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–1.06), endocarditis (6.35; 1.92–21.04), multiple valve operative procedures (4.35; 2.12–8.95), and prior heart valve surgery (2.49; 1.05–5.87). Conclusions/Significance RHD remains the main cause for valvular heart surgery in Salvador, which primarily affects young adults without private health insurance. In contrast, surgery due to degenerative valvular disease primarily impacts the elderly with private health insurance. Strategies to reduce the burden of valvular heart disease

  9. A comparative study of resource allocation in Pteridium in different Brazilian ecosystems and its relationship with European studies

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    DM Silva Matos

    Full Text Available Pteridium is a cosmopolitan genus that acts as an invasive species in many parts of the world. Most research on this genus has occurred in Europe, and there is a lack of data on it from South America, in spite of causing considerable conservation problems. We compared the biomass allocation of P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum in two ecosystems in Brazil - Atlantic forest and Brazilian savanna. We measured the biomass of fronds, rhizomes and above-ground litter. We also compared the density, length and biomass of fronds from this Brazilian study with similar data of P. esculentumsubsp. arachnoideum derived from Venezuela and P. aquilinum from Europe. P. esculentum subsp. arachnoideum showed a wide response range. We found a negative relationship between frond and necromass, indicating a negative feedback effect, while a positive relationship was observed between frond and rhizome biomass. The continental comparison of relationships showed that Pteridium responds in a different way in both Brazil and Europe, and that in Brazil fronds tend to be longer and heavier, presumably as a result of the continuous growing season in South America while is shortened in Europe by frost. The paper shows the ability of Pteridium to adapt to different ecosystems.

  10. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Pablo Abdon da Costa Francez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%, E1b1b (11.6%, J2 (10.1% and Q (7.2%. Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%, followed by Amerindian (7.2% and African (3.6% lineages.

  11. Haplotype diversity of 17 Y-str loci in an admixed population from the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francez, Pablo Abdon da Costa; Ramos, Luiz Patrick Vidal; de Jesus Brabo Ferreira Palha, Teresinha; dos Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista

    2012-01-01

    The allelic and haplotype frequencies of 17 Y-STR loci most commonly used in forensic testing were estimated in a sample of 138 unrelated healthy males from Macapá, in the northern Amazon region of Brazil. The average gene diversity was 0.6554 ± 0.3315. 134 haplotypes of the 17 loci were observed, 130 of them unique and four present in two individuals each. The haplotype diversity index was 0.9996 + 0.0009, with the most frequent haplogroups being R1b (52.2%), E1b1b (11.6%), J2 (10.1%) and Q (7.2%). Most haplogroups of this population belonged to European male lineages (89.2%), followed by Amerindian (7.2%) and African (3.6%) lineages. PMID:22481873

  12. B-chromosomes in two Brazilian populations of Dendropsophus nanus (Anura, Hylidae

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    Lilian R. Medeiros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the presence of B-chromosomes in two populations of Dendropsophus nanus (= Hyla nana Boulenger, 1889 from São Paulo State, Brazil. Such chromosomes were observed in 4 out of 43 specimens (9.3% and in 9 out of 15 specimens (60% from the municipalities of Nova Aliança and Botucatu, respectively. The karyotype 2n = 30 + 1B found in D. nanus was similar to that of other species with 2n = 30 chromosomes, except for the presence of an additional small telocentric chromosome. In one specimen from Botucatu, cells with one to three extra chromosomes were observed. These B-chromosomes appeared as univalent in meiosis I and did not bear a nucleolar organizer region or exhibit constitutive heterochromatin.

  13. External validation of the SF-36 quality-of-life questionnaire in Italian and Brazilian populations to select patients with colorectal endometriosis for surgery.

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    Laas, Enora; Zacharopoulou, Chrysoula; Montanari, Giulia; Seracchioli, Renato; Abrão, Mauricio S; Bassi, Marco A; Ballester, Marcos; Daraï, Emile

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the external validity of the validated French model of the quality-of-life questionnaire (QOL) SF-36 in predicting improvement after colorectal resection for endometriosis. Italian and Brazilian cohort studies (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Tertiary referral university hospital in Brazil and expert center in endometriosis in Italy. Patients with colorectal endometriosis from an Italian population (n = 63) and a Brazilian population (n = 151). Laparoscopic colorectal resection for treatment of endometriosis. Preoperative and postoperative evaluations of the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the Mental Component Summary (MCS) of the SF-36 were performed. Substantial improvement in PCS and MCS was observed after colorectal resection in both populations. In the Brazilian population, the receiver operating curve (ROC) (area under the curve [AUC]) was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-0.89) for MCS and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.71-0.83) for PCS, demonstrating good discrimination performance. The mean difference between the predicted and calibrated probabilities was 19.6% for MCS and 32.8% for PCS. In the Italian population, the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.52-0.78) for PCS and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.55-0.78) for MCS. The model demonstrated poor discrimination and calibration performance for PCS (p SF-36, our results underline the limits of this tool in selection of patients for colorectal resection due to underestimation of predicted quality of life, possibly because of variations in epidemiologic characteristics of the populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Association of workplace and population characteristics with prevalence of hypertension among Brazilian industry workers: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Bassanesi, Sérgio L; Chaves Junior, Hilton de Castro; Machado, Carlos Alberto; Melo, Ione M F; Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to risk factors for hypertension may be influenced by the characteristics of the workplace, where workers spend most of their daily time. To evaluate the association between features of the companies, particularly the presence of facilities to provide meals, and of population characteristics and the prevalence of hypertension, taking into account individual risk factors for hypertension. This multilevel analysis was based on a cross-sectional study with individual and company data from the SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria-Social Service of Industries) study and population-based data from the national census statistics. Workers aged ≥15 years were randomly selected from small (20-99), medium (100-499) and large (≥500 employees) companies per state using multistage sampling. Logistic regression was used to analyse the association between hypertension and individual, workplace and population variables, with odds ratios (ORs; 95% CI) adjusted for three-level variables. 4818 Workers from 157 companies were interviewed and their blood pressure, weight and height were measured. Overall, 77% were men, aged 35.4 ±10.7 years, with 8.7 ±4.1 years of schooling and mostly worked in companies with a staff canteen (66%). Besides individual characteristics-being male, ageing, low schooling, alcohol abuse and higher BMI-a workplace with no staff canteen (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.52), small companies (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.60) and living in cities with higher economic inequality (OR=1.47; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.76) were associated with a higher risk for hypertension. Among Brazilian workers, the prevalence of hypertension is associated with individual risk factors, lack of a canteen at the workplace, small companies and higher economic inequalities of cities. These three-level characteristics help to interpret differences in the prevalence of hypertension between regions or countries. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the

  15. Gastric cancer is associated with NOS2 -954G/C polymorphism and environmental factors in a Brazilian population

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    Silva Ana E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gastric cancer can progress from a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection that activates the inflammatory response of the host. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes involved in the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2, have been implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of NOS2 polymorphisms Ser608Leu (rs2297518 in exon 16, -954G/C and -1173C/T, both in the promoter region, with gastric cancer and chronic gastritis and the association of cancer with risk factors such as smoking, alcohol intake and H. pylori infection. Methods We conducted a population-based case-control study in 474 Southeast Brazilian individuals (150 with gastric cancer, 160 with chronic gastritis, and 164 healthy individuals, in which we performed NOS2 genotyping by PCR-RFLP. Results SNP Ser608Leu was not associated with risk of chronic gastritis or gastric cancer. The polymorphic allele -1173T was not found in the studied population. However, the frequency of -954GC+CC genotypes was significantly higher (p NOS2 SNP -954G/C was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.12-3.13. We also observed an association with risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake in both the gastric cancer (OR = 2.68; 95% CI = 1.58-4.53; OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 2.05-6.32, respectively and the chronic gastritis (OR = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.19-3.13; OR = 2.79; 95% CI = 1.55-5.02, respectively groups. This is the first report of increased risk of gastric cancer in association with the -954G/C polymorphism. These findings show that several polymorphisms in the promoter region of the NOS2 gene may contribute to the susceptibility to gastric cancer. Conclusions Polymorphism NOS2 -954 G/C, along with alcohol intake and tobacco smoking, is associated with gastric cancer. However, the NOS2 Ser608Leu polymorphism was not associated with

  16. Psoriasis and comorbidities in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Dóris B; Pereira, Ana G; Camerin, Anna C; Cestari, Tania

    2014-11-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease with worldwide prevalences of 0.6-4.8%. Its inherent chronic inflammatory component predisposes patients to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the associations of psoriasis with comorbidities and health risk factors such as smoking and alcohol intake, and to examine demographic differences in its occurrence in a southern Brazil population. A case-control study was conducted at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre between April 2009 and March 2011. The sample comprised 350 patients with psoriasis and 346 healthy control subjects. Data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Tobacco load and alcohol consumption per person were investigated. Physical examination included blood pressure, waist circumference (WC), and body mass index (BMI) calculation. Clinical evaluation investigated whether psoriasis was localized or widespread and the percentage of body surface area (BSA) affected. Psoriasis patients exhibited an increased WC (P 20% of BSA revealed significant differences in prevalences of hypertension (P = 0.03) and diabetes (P 20% of BSA affected were 1.69 times more likely to have hypertension and 2.9 times more likely to have diabetes. Healthcare providers should be alert to the increased cardiovascular risk and metabolic specificities of patients with psoriasis. Appropriate information on healthy lifestyle habits, including maintenance of a healthy weight and participation in physical exercise, and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are fundamental. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Resistance Status to the Insecticides Temephos, Deltamethrin, and Diflubenzuron in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana-Medeiros, Priscila Fernandes; Araújo, Simone Costa; Martins, Ademir J.; Lima, José Bento Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Insecticides are still largely applied in public health to control disease vectors. In Brazil, organophosphates (OP) and pyrethroids (PY) are used against Aedes aegypti for years. Since 2009 Insect Growth Regulators (IGR) are also employed in the control of larvae. We quantified resistance to temephos (OP), deltamethrin (PY), and diflubenzuron (IGR) of A. aegypti samples from 12 municipalities distributed throughout the country, collected between 2010 and 2012. High levels of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides were detected in almost all populations: RR95 to temephos varied between 4.0 and 27.1; the lowest RR95 to deltamethrin was 13.1, and values higher than 70.0 were found. In contrast, all samples were susceptible to diflubenzuron (RR95 < 2.3). Biochemical tests performed with larvae and adults discarded the participation of acetylcholinesterase, the OP target, and confirmed involvement of the detoxifying enzymes esterases, mixed function oxidases, and glutathione-S-transferases. The results obtained were discussed taking into account the public chemical control component and the increase in the domestic use of insecticides during dengue epidemic seasons in the evaluated municipalities. PMID:27419140

  18. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae) in a Brazilian tropical estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marina S L C; Barreto, Aline V; Negromonte, Aurinete O; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2012-03-01

    This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively), an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p < 0.05), while adult females, including ovigerous, inhabited the lower estuary, an area of major marine influence (p < 0.05). While juveniles look for estuarine waters due to the benefit from the shelter and abundance of food, ovigerous females migrate to areas of greater depth and higher salinity in order to provide a more favorable environment for embryonic and larval development and to enhance larval dispersal. Recruitment of juveniles was continuous along the year, but intensified from March to June and, with less intensity, from October to December.

  19. Genomic ancestry and education level independently influence abdominal fat distributions in a Brazilian admixed population.

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    Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the independent associations of genomic ancestry and education level with abdominal fat distributions in the 1982 Pelotas birth cohort study, Brazil. In 2,890 participants (1,409 men and 1,481 women, genomic ancestry was assessed using genotype data on 370,539 genome-wide variants to quantify ancestral proportions in each individual. Years of completed education was used to indicate socio-economic position. Visceral fat depth and subcutaneous abdominal fat thickness were measured by ultrasound at age 29-31y; these measures were adjusted for BMI to indicate abdominal fat distributions. Linear regression models were performed, separately by sex. Admixture was observed between European (median proportion 85.3, African (6.6, and Native American (6.3 ancestries, with a strong inverse correlation between the African and European ancestry scores (ρ = -0.93; p<0.001. Independent of education level, African ancestry was inversely associated with both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat distributions in men (both P = 0.001, and inversely associated with subcutaneous abdominal fat distribution in women (p = 0.009. Independent of genomic ancestry, higher education level was associated with lower visceral fat, but higher subcutaneous fat, in both men and women (all p<0.001. Our findings, from an admixed population, indicate that both genomic ancestry and education level were independently associated with abdominal fat distribution in adults. African ancestry appeared to lower abdominal fat distributions, particularly in men.

  20. Risk factors for basal cell carcinoma in a southern Brazilian population: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gon, Airton; Minelli, Lorivaldo

    2011-10-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer to occur in Caucasian populations, and its incidence is increasing. Despite its frequency, there is a paucity of data on risk factors for BCC in some regions. This study investigated the association between pigmentary characteristics, distinctive patterns of solar exposure, habits and lifestyle, and risk for BCC among patients attending a dermatology center in a region in southern Brazil. We conducted a hospital-based, case-control study that included 127 case patients with histologically confirmed BCC and 280 cancer-free control subjects with other dermatologic conditions, observed between January 2006 and December 2007. The study was conducted using a questionnaire and physical examination by a dermatologist. Relative risks were estimated using exposure odds ratios generated by cross-tabulation and logistic regression models. Risk for BCC was associated with family history of skin cancer, Fitzpatrick skin type I, and the presence of actinic keratoses, solar lentigines, leukoderma, and elastosis romboidalis nuchae. No effect was found for different patterns of solar exposure, eye, hair or skin color, exposure to non-solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), or lifestyle-related habits such as sunscreen use and cigarette smoking. The results of this study suggest that skin type and family history of skin cancer may be important in establishing risk for developing BCC. Additionally, the detection by clinical examination of skin markers related to UVR action is important in establishing which patients are more likely to develop BCC. © 2011 The International Society of Dermatology.

  1. Constant Savings Rates and Quasi-arithmetic Population Growth under Exhaustible Resource Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asheim, G.; Buchholz, W.; Hartwick, J.; Mitra, T.; Withagen, C.A.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the Dasgupta-Heal-Solow-Stiglitz (DHSS) model of capital accumulation and resource depletion we show the following equivalence: if an efficient path has constant (gross and net of population growth) savings rates, then population growth must be quasi-arithmetic and the path is a maximin or a

  2. Metabolic syndrome and physical activity in southern Brazilian community-dwelling elders: a population-based, cross-sectional study

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    Reichert César L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background - The association between a sedentary lifestyle and obesity is well documented, and is linked to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS. There is some evidence that information regarding the health benefits of physical activity is beginning to impact on the elderly people and is beginning to change their behavior. We aimed to investigate the level of physical activity undertaken by elderly people with MS and those without this condition. Methods - We evaluated 362 community-dwelling elders of Novo Hamburgo, southern Brazil. Diagnosis of MS was based on the International Diabetes Federation criteria and the physical activity (PA level was estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Analysis of covariance was carried out to verify associations between MS risk factors and the level of PA. Logistic regression was used to estimate the MS odds ratio for each level of PA. Results - No significant association was found between MS and the level of physical activity, irrespective of sex. The odds ratio for the presence of MS adjusted for sex and age and using insufficiently active elderly people as reference was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.6 to 1.7 in sufficiently active elderly people and 1.15 (95% CI, 0.7 to 2.0 in very active elderly people. Conclusion - The elderly citizens of a southern Brazilian community who were diagnosed with MS presented the same levels of PA as the individuals who did not have this diagnosis. This may imply that information on the importance of physical activity has already reached this higher risk population.

  3. Preeclampsia is associated with increased maternal body weight in a northeastern Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Edailna Maria de Melo; Pereira, Flávio Venicio Marinho; Queiroz, José Wilton; Dantas, Diogo Luis de Melo; Monteiro, Gloria Regina Gois; Duggal, Priya; Azevedo, Maria de Fatima; Jeronimo, Selma Maria Bezerra; Araújo, Ana Cristina Pinheiro Fernandes

    2013-08-08

    Preeclampsia is a disease with great variability in incidence across the world. The mortality is higher in lower income countries, where it is the leading cause of maternal mortality. This study aimed to determine the frequency of and risk factors for preeclampsia in a low income population from an urban area of Brazil. A prospective case control study of 242 women of which 30 developed preeclampsia, 4 had gestational hypertension, 2 had superimposed hypertension, 11 had spontaneous abortion, 13 were lost to follow up and 192 had normal pregnancy. This latter group was considered the normotensive controls. The rate of preeclampsia and the risk of cardiovascular disease, after onset of preeclampsia, were determined. Of the 218 women who completed the study, the frequency of hypertensive disorder of pregnancy was 16.5% (36 of 218) and of preeclampsia was 13.8% (30 of 218). Women with preeclampsia had a higher body mass index (BMI), mean of 25.3 ± 4.8 compared to 23.5 ± 3.7 for the normotensive controls, p = 0.02. The risk of preeclampsia increased with BMI [Odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.02;1.24, p-value = 0.023)]. Women with preeclampsia developed chronic hypertension more often than normotensive controls (p = 0.043) and their systolic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was elevated (p = 0.034). Women with preeclampsia had higher BMI even 5 years post-pregnancy (p = 0.008). Women who are overweight or older have an increased risk of preeclampsia. Previous history of preeclampsia increases the risk of early onset of chronic hypertension. Therefore, effective preventive measures are needed, particularly women at lower social economic stratum who have less access to proper medical care and adequate nutrition.

  4. Eating practices and habitus in mothers. A Brazilian population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Sato, Priscila; da Rocha Pereira, Patrícia; de Carvalho Stelmo, Isis; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Ulian, Mariana Dimitrov; Sabatini, Fernanda; Martins, Paula Andrea; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2014-11-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with mothers living in the city of Santos, Brazil, in order to investigate their eating practices, and the interface between those practices and the concept of habitus. From a cluster analysis of the scores for dietary pattern and for food preparation and consumption, the mothers were categorised into five clusters of eating practices: practical mothers (19.8%), symbiotic mothers (3.2%), health-conscious hedonists (17.3%), traditionalists (34.6%), and family cooks (25.1%). To access the habitus of the eating-practice clusters, the following variables were compared: location of residence, profession, socioeconomic status, weight-loss practices, risk behaviours for eating disorders, disordered eating attitudes, body dissatisfaction, and cultural and technological consumption. For all the groups, the observed eating practices were permeated by responsibility for the family's diet, but with different manifestations. For symbiotic mothers, practical mothers, and family cooks, the primary function of their relation with food was to nourish their families, with little expression of their own tastes and preferences. The traditionalists and the health-conscious hedonists, on the other hand, manifested their role as mothers by providing food considered 'nutritionally proper' to their family members. Furthermore, aspects of contemporary lifestyles, such as little time for food, individualisation of meals, and consumption of processed foods, were found to coexist with the valorisation and maintenance of the traditional meals within some groups. The variety of eating practices could not be understood as a linear association between economic and cultural capitals; however, eating practices seemed to interact with those capitals, composing a habitus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of alpha thalassemic genotypes by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification in the Brazilian population

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    C.N. Suemasu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alpha-thalassemia is the most common inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis. Genomic deletions involving the alpha-globin gene cluster on chromosome 16p13.3 are the most frequent molecular causes of the disease. Although common deletions can be detected by a single multiplex gap-PCR, the rare and novel deletions depend on more laborious techniques for their identification. The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA technique has recently been used for this purpose and was successfully used in the present study to detect the molecular alterations responsible for the alpha-thalassemic phenotypes in 8 unrelated individuals (3 males and 5 females; age, 4 months to 30 years in whom the molecular basis of the disease could not be determined by conventional methods. A total of 44 probe pairs were used for MLPA, covering approximately 800 kb from the telomere to the MSLN gene in the 16p13.3 region. Eight deletions were detected. Four of these varied in size from 240 to 720 kb and affected a large region including the entire alpha-globin gene cluster and its upstream regulatory element (alpha-MRE, while the other four varied in size from 0.4 to 100 kb and were limited to a region containing this element. This study is the first in Brazil to use the MLPA method to determine the molecular basis of alpha-thalassemia. The variety of rearrangements identified highlights the need to investigate all cases presenting microcytosis and hypochromia, but without iron deficiency or elevated hemoglobin A2 levels and suggests that these rearrangements may be more frequent in our population than previously estimated.

  6. Inferring paternal history of rural African-derived Brazilian populations from Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Lilian; Nunes, Kelly; Macedo-Souza, Lúcia Inês; Rocha, Jorge; Meyer, Diogo; Mingroni-Netto, Regina Célia

    2017-03-01

    Quilombo remnants are relics of communities founded by runaway or abandoned African slaves, but often with subsequent extensive and complex admixture patterns with European and Native Americans. We combine a genetic study of Y-chromosome markers with anthropological surveys in order to obtain a portrait of quilombo structure and history in the region that has the largest number of quilombo remnants in the state of São Paulo. Samples from 289 individuals from quilombo remnants were genotyped using a set of 17 microsatellites on the Y chromosome (AmpFlSTR-Yfiler). A subset of 82 samples was also genotyped using SNPs array (Axiom Human Origins-Affymetrix). We estimated haplotype and haplogroup frequencies, haplotype diversity and sharing, and pairwise genetic distances through F ST and R ST indexes. We identified 95 Y chromosome haplotypes, classified into 15 haplogroups. About 63% are European, 32% are African, and 6% Native American. The most common were: R1b (European, 34.2%), E1b1a (African, 32.3%), J1 (European, 6.9%), and Q (Native American, 6.2%). Genetic differentiation among communities was low (F ST  = 0.0171; R ST  = 0.0161), and haplotype sharing was extensive. Genetic, genealogical and oral surveys allowed us to detect five main founder haplotypes, which explained a total of 27.7% of the Y chromosome lineages. Our results showed a high European patrilineal genetic contribution among the founders of quilombos, high amounts of gene flow, and a recent common origin of these populations. Common haplotypes and genealogical data indicate the origin of quilombos from a few male individuals. Our study reinforces the importance of a dual approach, involving the analysis of both anthropological and genetic data. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Resource-based View as a Perspective for Public Tourism Management Research: Evidence from Two Brazilian Tourism Destinations

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    Marcia Shizue Massukado-Nakatani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study adopted the Resource-Based View approach to analyse two public organizations located in Curitiba and Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil. The focus was to verify how organizational and tourist resources are being used for planning and public management in these cities. Data collection was made by adopting semi-structured interviews with two groups: public and private sector managers. The insights of these two groups and the use of documentary secondary data made it possible to infer that the main resource for the implementation of public policies was organizational architecture. However, the most influential resource in public tourism management is the existence of tourist resources and organizational resources related to internal and external relationships and organizational culture. The analysis demonstrated that the researched cities do not use or do not know how to use the available resources in value-creating activities for local tourist management. Both cities present imperfections that do not earmark the full exploitation of organizational resources, compromising the exploration of available tourist resources.

  8. Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    was considerable LD extension while no variation of LD with physical distance was observed in the landraces. From the first STRUCTURE result, LG1 had the greatest proportion of alleles in LD within all three subpopulations. Conclusions Our study demonstrates a high level of genetic diversity and relatively fast decay of LD in the Oriental peach breeding program. Inclusion of Chinese landraces will have a greater effect on increasing genetic diversity in Occidental breeding programs. Fingerprinting with genotype data for all 658 cultivars will be used for accession management in different germplasms. A higher density of markers are needed for association mapping in Oriental germplasm due to the low extension of LD. Population structure and evaluation of LD provides valuable information for GWAS experiment design in peach. PMID:24041442

  9. Genetic diversity of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) population in the Brazilian Pantanal assessed by combining fresh fecal DNA analysis and a set of heterologous microsatellite loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantellatto, Aline Meira Bonfim; Caparroz, Renato; Christofoletti, Maurício Durante; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Duarte, José Maurício Barbanti

    2017-10-02

    The pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus) is close to being classified as 'globally threatened', with the largest population occurring in the Brazilian Pantanal. Since capture is stressful to these animals, non-invasive sampling methods such as the use of feces can provide reliable sources of DNA. The aim of this study was to use fecal samples to evaluate the genetic variability of the Brazilian Pantanal population of pampas deer. Six heterologous microsatellite markers were used to screen 142 stool specimens. Seventy-four deer were identified, of which 50 adults were used to determine the genetic characteristics of the population. The Pantanal population showed high genetic diversity (mean number of alleles per locus = 11.5, expected heterozygosity = 0.75). This is the first investigation to characterize a South American deer species using fecal DNA and demonstrates the usefulness and efficiency of this approach, as well as the feasibility of obtaining information that could not have been easily obtained by traditional DNA sampling. Our findings suggest that management strategies for this species may be much more effective if applied now when the population still shows high genetic variability.

  10. Population ecology of the blue crab Callinectes danae (Crustacea: Portunidae in a Brazilian tropical estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina S.L.C. Araújo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing the population ecology of the swimming crab Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 in one of the most productive estuaries of Brazil, the Santa Cruz Channel. These crabs were monthly collected from January to December/2009 at four stations along the channel, two in the upper and two in the lower estuary. A total of 2373 specimens of C. danae were collected during the study. Males had a larger average carapace width than non-ovigerous females (60.0 ± 15.6 mm and 52.9 ± 12.4 mm, respectively, an adaptation that gives greater protection for females during the copulation. Overall sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1. However, evaluating sex-ratio by sampling area, males and juveniles of both sexes occurred preferentially in the upper estuary (p O presente trabalho tem por objetivo descrever a estrutura populacional do siri Callinectes danae Smith, 1869 em um dos estuários mais produtivos do Brasil, o Canal de Santa Cruz. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente de Janeiro a Dezembro/ 2009 em quatro estações ao longo do canal, duas no estuário superior e duas no estuário inferior. Um total de 2373 exemplares de C. danae foi coletado. Os machos apresentaram média de largura de carapaça superior à das fêmeas não-ovígeras (60,0 ± 15,6 mm e 5,9 ± 12,4 mm, respectivamente, uma adaptação que confere maior proteção às fêmeas durante a cópula. A proporção sexual total não diferiu significativamente de 1:1. Porém, avaliando a 'sex-ratio' por área de coleta, os machos e os juvenis residem preferencialmente no estuário superior (p < 0, 05, enquanto as fêmeas adultas e ovígeras habitam no estuário inferior, área de maior influência marinha (p < 0, 05. Enquanto os juvenis procuram águas estuarinas devido a abundância de abrigos e comida, as fêmeas ovígeras migram para áreas de maior profundidade e maior salinidade visando prover um ambiente mais favorável ao desenvolvimento embrionário e

  11. Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalka, Sérgio; Steiner, Denise; Ravelli, Flávia Naranjo; Steiner, Tatiana; Terena, Aripuanã Cobério; Marçon, Carolina Reato; Ayres, Eloisa Leis; Addor, Flávia Alvim Sant'anna; Miot, Helio Amante; Ponzio, Humberto; Duarte, Ida; Neffá, Jane; da Cunha, José Antônio Jabur; Boza, Juliana Catucci; Samorano, Luciana de Paula; Corrêa, Marcelo de Paula; Maia, Marcus; Nasser, Nilton; Leite, Olga Maria Rodrigues Ribeiro; Lopes, Otávio Sergio; Oliveira, Pedro Dantas; Meyer, Renata Leal Bregunci; Cestari, Tânia; dos Reis, Vitor Manoel Silva; Rego, Vitória Regina Pedreira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with a large heterogeneity of climates and massive mixing of the population. Almost the entire national territory is located between the Equator and the Tropic of Capricorn, and the Earth axial tilt to the south certainly makes Brazil one of the countries of the world with greater extent of land in proximity to the sun. The Brazilian coastline, where most of its population lives, is more than 8,500 km long. Due to geographic characteristics and cultural trends, Brazilians are among the peoples with the highest annual exposure to the sun. Epidemiological data show a continuing increase in the incidence of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers. Photoprotection can be understood as a set of measures aimed at reducing sun exposure and at preventing the development of acute and chronic actinic damage. Due to the peculiarities of Brazilian territory and culture, it would not be advisable to replicate the concepts of photoprotection from other developed countries, places with completely different climates and populations. Thus the Brazilian Society of Dermatology has developed the Brazilian Consensus on Photoprotection, the first official document on photoprotection developed in Brazil for Brazilians, with recommendations on matters involving photoprotection. PMID:25761256

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE RURAL POPULATION AS A RESOURCE OF LABOR FORCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the dynamics of Romania’s population and mainly of the rural population in the period 2005-2010. The following indicators were used: total population, rural population, the share of rural population in the total population, active population at national level, in the rural areas and the share of the rural active population in the total population, employment, unemployment, activity rate, employment rate, unemployment rate, employment rate by educational level, employment in agriculture by population’s age, active persons by age group. As a conclusion, Romania’s rural population accounts for 45 % of total population. A series of restraining factors such as: ageing, low training level, low capital and financial resources, lack of investments and other job alternatives affect the development of the rural areas where most of the population is dealing with agriculture. Rural space requires a multifunctional development meaning to achieve a balanced combination between agriculture, connected industries and services which could create jobs and raise the population income and living standard. This means investments both in agricultural and non-agricultural activities, a new national and local policy concerning the development of rural communities.

  13. Risks, disputes and interests: the scenery of the trust and distrust on the Renewable Resources and Environment Brazilian Institute (IBAMA); Riscos, disputas e interesses: o cenario da (des)confianca no Instituto Brasileiro de Meio Ambiente e Recursos Renovaveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeronymo, Alexandre Cosme Jose; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mals: alexandrecjj@iee.usp.br; cbermann@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this paper is detach the confidence in the IBAMA by means of the polarization of the immerse interests to the brazilian electric sector and the demands post materialists referring to the populations reached for barrages. We will finish presenting scene on trust and distrust of some actors (electric, non governmental organizations, researches, industry) on the IBAMA institution. (author)

  14. Methylmercury exposure affects motor performance of a riverine population of the Tapajós river, Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolbec, J; Mergler, D; Sousa Passos, C J; Sousa de Morais, S; Lebel, J

    2000-04-01

    Gold mining and deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon are increasing mercury pollution of the extensive water system, exposing riverine populations to organic mercury through fish-eating. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of such exposure on motor performance. This cross-sectional study was carried out in May 1996, in a village located on the banks of the Tapajós river in the Amazonian Basin, Brazil. Information concerning sociodemographics, health, smoking habits, alcohol drinking, dietary habits and work history were collected using an interview-administered questionnaire. Mercury concentrations were measured by cold vapor atomic absorption in blood and hair of each participant, of whom those aged between 15 and 79 years were assessed for motor performance (n = 84). Psychomotor performance was evaluated using the Santa Ana manual dexterity test, the Grooved Pegboard Fine motor test and the fingertapping motor speed test. Motor strength was measured by dynamometry for grip and pinch strength. Following the exclusion of 16 persons for previous head injury, working with mercury in the goldmining sites, or for diabetes, the relationship between performance and bioindicators of mercury was examined using multivariate statistical analyses, taking into account covariables. All participants in the study reported eating fish, which comprised 61.8% of the total meals eaten during the preceding week. The median hair total mercury concentration was 9 microg/g. Organic mercury accounted for 94.4 = 1.9% of the total mercury levels. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that hair mercury was inversely associated with overall performance on the psychomotor tests, while a tendency was observed with blood mercury. Semipartial regression analyses showed that hair total mercury accounted for 8% to 16% of the variance of psychomotor performance. Neither hair nor blood total mercury was associated with the results of the strength tests in women and men

  15. Using dynamic population simulations to extend resource selection analyses and prioritize habitats for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, Julie; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Schumaker, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Prioritizing habitats for conservation is a challenging task, particularly for species with fluctuating populations and seasonally dynamic habitat needs. Although the use of resource selection models to identify and prioritize habitat for conservation is increasingly common, their ability to characterize important long-term habitats for dynamic populations are variable. To examine how habitats might be prioritized differently if resource selection was directly and dynamically linked with population fluctuations and movement limitations among seasonal habitats, we constructed a spatially explicit individual-based model for a dramatically fluctuating population requiring temporally varying resources. Using greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming as a case study, we used resource selection function maps to guide seasonal movement and habitat selection, but emergent population dynamics and simulated movement limitations modified long-term habitat occupancy. We compared priority habitats in RSF maps to long-term simulated habitat use. We examined the circumstances under which the explicit consideration of movement limitations, in combination with population fluctuations and trends, are likely to alter predictions of important habitats. In doing so, we assessed the future occupancy of protected areas under alternative population and habitat conditions. Habitat prioritizations based on resource selection models alone predicted high use in isolated parcels of habitat and in areas with low connectivity among seasonal habitats. In contrast, results based on more biologically-informed simulations emphasized central and connected areas near high-density populations, sometimes predicted to be low selection value. Dynamic models of habitat use can provide additional biological realism that can extend, and in some cases, contradict habitat use predictions generated from short-term or static resource selection analyses. The explicit inclusion of population

  16. Population, resources, environment and development: highlights of the issues in the context of the World Population Plan of Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In examining interrelationships among population, resources, environment and development, it must always be kept in mind that population trends not only affect those other factors but are profoundly affected by them. This requires an approach that goes beyond inquiries into the determinants and consequences of demographic change, involving a systems approach in which all factors are treated simultaneously. 4 topics are treated: 1) food and nutrition; 2) social aspects of development; 3) resources and environment; and 4) integrated planning; each viewed as a selected example of key problem areas, the understanding of which is better revealed when considered as an aspect of the holistic and synergistic character of the interrelationships. The division of topics is not arbitrary: the 1st 2 sections are devoted to issues considered crucial in the alleviation of poverty. Lack of food, adequate nutrition, health care, education, gainful employment, old age security and adequate per capita incomes perpetuate poverty of large numbers of people in developing countries and therefore also their production and consumption patterns which undermine, through environmental and resource degradation, the very resources on which they depend for their livelihood. The latter process and the environmental problems which result from affluence are described in the next section, where the environment is viewed both as a supplier of resources and as a repository of wastes. Supplies of minerals, energy and water are considered 1st. Attention then turns to the stock of agricultural land that can be expanded through fertilization and irrigation and that may be reduced as a result of desertification, deforestation, urbanization, salinization and waterlogging. The 4th section focuses on the need for integrating population variables into development planning.

  17. Evidence-Based Practice: a survey regarding behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from São Paulo state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tatiane M.; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Costa, Leonardo O. P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) has been widely used by health professionals. However, no study in Brazil has investigated the data regarding the knowledge and difficulties related to EBP from a representative sample of physical therapists. OBJECTIVE: To identify behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers of Brazilian physical therapists from the state of São Paulo regarding EBP. METHOD: A customized questionnaire about behavior, knowledge, skills, resources, opinions and perceived barriers regarding EBP was sent by email to a sample of 490 physical therapists registered by the Registration Board of São Paulo, Brazil. Physical therapists who did not respond to the questionnaire were contacted by telephone and/or letter. The data were analyzed descriptively. RESULTS: The final response rate was 64.4% (316/490). Because 60 physical therapists were no longer practicing, 256 answers were analyzed. The physical therapists reported that they routinely read scientific papers (89.5%) as a resource for professional development, followed by continuing education courses (88.3%) and books (86.3%). Approximately 35% of the respondents reported a clear understanding of the implementation of research findings in their practice; approximately 37% reported no difficulties in critically appraising scientific papers; and 67.2% strongly agreed that EBP is important for their practice. The most commonly reported barriers were related to difficulties in obtaining full-text papers (80.1%), using EBP may represent higher cost (80.1%) and the language of publication of the papers (70.3%). CONCLUSION: Physical therapists from São Paulo state believe that they have knowledge and skills to use EBP. Although they have favorable opinions regarding its implementation, they still encounter difficulties in implementing EBP successfully. PMID:26443977

  18. Equitably sharing benefits from the utilization of natural genetic resources: the Brazilian interpretation of the Convention of Biological Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pena-Neira, S.; Dieperink, C.; Addink, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    The utilization of natural genetic resources could yield great benefits. The Convention on Biological Diversity introduced a number of rules concerning the sharing of these benefits. However, the interpretation and application (legal implementation) of these rules is a matter of discussion among

  19. [Relating briefly the natural resources and the population problems of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Y

    1983-01-29

    Problems in population, manifested primarily as either "over" or "under" population, are ultimately related to the development of natural resources. Land is the most basic of natural resources. China's land mass is largely mountainous, with 56% of its more than 2000 counties, 1/3 of its population, 40% of its cultivated land and a majority of its forests, situated in mountainous regions. The quality and the distribution of the various kinds of land are complex and uneven. Although China is rich in forests, grazing, and arable land compared to the rest of the world, its 1 billion population makes the land a limited resource. The limitations of the land are also seen in soil erosion, soil that is increasingly turning into sand, and deforestation. Water resources are not considered scarce, yet compared to the rest of the world, it is limited. Its distribution is very uneven, with more water in the east and west, and less in the north and south. In the southwest mountainous border regions, for instance, water is abundant, but the population and arable land there is such that the demand for water is low. Moreover, droughts and heavy precipitation make the annual water supply unpredicatable. The demand for water becomes increasingly greater as agricultural production develops further, the population increases and as the cities continue to expand. living matter as a resource includes all the animal and plant life that is necessary for livelihood, but only forests and grasslands are discussed here. China's forests, if their use is not abused, can serve as a continuous supply for manufactured products. But its distribution is uneven and sparse. Population control will be ineffective if the forests are not replenished and developed. Grasslands are the primary source for animal products. The natural grasslands, found mainly in the north and west, are not as productive as that of other nations due to the nature of China's topography, the vagaries of climate, and deterioration

  20. Are more resources always the answer? A supply and demand analysis for public health services in Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Rocha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine whether it is necessary to increase available resources to local governments or if better use of these funds is sufficient. The paper contributes to the literature by looking both at the supply and demand for public health services. If the demand is estimated correctly, one can compare its expected value to actual health expenditures. Even if actual expenditures are lower than the estimated demand, it is not certain that additional spending is necessary. If the efficiency scores (supply side indicate that local governments can simply “save” resources to make up for the difference, then it is possible to reduce (or bring to zero new resources only by requiring local governments to efficiently manage their expenditures. Since municipalities in Brazil are very heterogeneous, we estimate their efficiency using the metafrontier approach (O’Donnell et al., 2008, while we estimate the demand through an equation derived from the median voter theorem model. Using 2010 data, we find evidence that efficient management of spending is sufficient to meet excess demand for goods and services in the health sector.

  1. Self-Reported High-Cholesterol Prevalence in the Brazilian Population: Analysis of the 2013 National Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotufo, Paulo A; Santos, Raul D; Sposito, Andrei C; Bertolami, Marcelo; Rocha-Faria, Jose; Izar, M Cristina; Szwarcwald, Celia; Prado, Rogério R; Stoppa, Sheila R; Malta, Deborah C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2017-05-01

    Data on the prevalence of dyslipidemia in Brazil are scarce, with surveys available only for some towns. To evaluate the prevalence of the self-reported medical diagnosis of high cholesterol in the Brazilian adult population by use of the 2013 National Health Survey data. Descriptive study assessing the 2013 National Health Survey data, a household-based epidemiological survey with a nationally representative sample and self-reported information. The sample consisted of 60,202 individuals who reported a medical diagnosis of dyslipidemia. The point prevalence and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol/triglyceride by gender, age, race/ethnicity, geographic region and educational level were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio was calculated. Of the 60,202 participants, 14.3% (95%CI=13.7-14.8) never had their cholesterol or triglyceride levels tested, but a higher frequency of women, white individuals, elderly and those with higher educational level had their cholesterol levels tested within the last year. The prevalence of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol was 12.5% (9.7% in men and 15.1% in women), and women had 60% higher probability of a diagnosis of high cholesterol than men. The frequency of the medical diagnosis of high cholesterol increased up to the age of 59 years, being higher in white individuals or those of Asian heritage, in those with higher educational level and in residents of the Southern and Southeastern regions. The importance of dyslipidemia awareness in the present Brazilian epidemiological context must be emphasized to guide actions to control and prevent coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in Brazil and worldwide. A prevalência de hipercolesterolemia no Brasil não é conhecida para todo o país, havendo somente inquéritos em algumas cidades. Avaliar a prevalência de diagnóstico médico de colesterol alto autorreferido na população adulta brasileira, utilizando-se dos dados da

  2. Who were the male founders of rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities? A proposal based on three populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme Galvarros Bueno Lobo; Abe-Sandes, Kiyoko; Barcelos, Rejane da Silva Sena; Klautau-Guimarães, Maria de Nazaré; Junior, Wilson Araujo da Silva; Oliveira, Silviene Fabiana de

    2011-03-01

    Brazilian Quilombos are Afro-derived communities founded mainly by fugitive slaves between the 16(th) and 19(th) centuries; they can be recognized today by ancestral and cultural characteristics. Each of these remnant communities, however, has its own particular history, which includes the migration of non-African derived people. The present work presents a proposal for the origin of the male founder in Brazilian quilombos based on Y-haplogroup distribution. Y haplogroups, based on 16 binary markers (92R7, SRY2627, SRY4064, SRY10831.1 and .2, M2, M3, M09, M34, M60, M89, M213, M216, P2, P3 and YAP), were analysed for 98 DNA samples from genetically unrelated men from three rural Brazilian Afro-derived communities-Mocambo, Rio das Rãs and Kalunga-in order to estimate male geographic origin. Data indicated significant differences among these communities. A high frequency of non-African haplogroups was observed in all communities. This observation suggested an admixture process that has occurred over generations and directional mating between European males and African female slaves that must have occurred on farms before the slaves escaped. This means that the admixture occurred before the slaves escaped and the foundation of the quilombo.

  3. Environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, new funeral technologies, and preferences of the Northeastern and Southern Brazilian population as for the funeral process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Nicholas Joseph Tavares; Lezana, Álvaro Guillermo Rojas; Freire Dos Santos, Paulo da Cruz; Santana Pinto, Ibsen Mateus Bittencourt; Zancan, Claudio; Silva de Souza, Gustavo Henrique

    2017-11-01

    Cemeteries and crematoria are the main funeral ways used in the world nowadays. It is a little-studied segment in the present days, mainly as for the possible environmental impacts in the environment, such as those derived from dental amalgam, prostheses, and dioxins, among other. This article aimed to identify the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria and to point out new trends in funeral processes such as freeze-drying and alkaline hydrolysis. The study is justified due to the large part of the Brazilian population that do not know the environmental impacts caused by cemeteries and crematoria, as well as to bring information about the new processes. For that, a research was carried out with 400 people. The main results show that among all the funeral processes, the new freeze-drying process was opted by 33% of the sample. We also identified that the main reasons for choosing the funeral process were less environmental impact (28%), no after-death expenses (grave payment) (16.1%), and the possibility of putting away or throwing away the remains wherever you want (14.9%). Finally, new funeral processes were well accepted by the Brazilian population-those who were interviewed-due to their benefits.

  4. Population pressure and land resources in Nepal: a revisit, twenty years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, N R; Conway, D; Bhattarai, K

    1999-01-01

    This study analyzes the changes in the relationship between population and land resources in Nepal from 1971 to 1991. During this period, the country's total population increased by 7 million people while it's national per capita holding of cultivated land dropped significantly from 0.17 to 0.13 hectares. However, it was noted that there is a greater balance in the regional distribution of population and land resources in 1991 as compared to 1971. A shift in the redistribution of population can be accounted to the migration of the people from the Hills to Tarai. The large agricultural area in Tarai contributes to its underpopulated status compared with the Hills in relation to the total agricultural production. The increase in rural population is the direct result of poverty, and the inability of the Nepal government to grant lands to the Hill migrants resulted to land encroachment. The problem of Nepal is not simply the number of people living in an area nor the interregional migration, but the number of people who have and who have no access to land and forest resources.

  5. Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing Existing Clinical and Population Biospecimen Resources for Discovery or Validation of Markers for Early Cancer Detection, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. The food security under another look: analysis on the evolution of the Brazilian population occupied in activities of self-consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of the Brazilian active population occupied in activities of self-consumption between 2001 and 2006 years. The date used come from the National Research on Sample of Domiciles. The authors examine the situation since the point of view the individuals and families (rural or urban, also classified as employers, self employed e and workers families, besides others forms of classification (exclusively agrarian, no-agrarian and pluriactive. The study reveals an important and general increment on the population employed in the self-consumption activities. However this research showed that this kind of activity is essentially feminine which occupies approximately 6.1 million of families in rural and urban areas of Brazil.

  7. Population growth and natural-resources pressures in the Mekong River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pech, Sokhem; Sunada, Kengo

    2008-05-01

    The Mekong River Basin possesses the region's largest potential water source and related resources, which support ongoing economic development and basin community livelihoods. It is currently witnessing a major demographic transition that is creating both opportunities and challenges. An analysis of the complex relationship between demographic changes and impacts on the natural-resource base confirms that resource exploitation is occurring not only to meet growing domestic needs but also for other vested interests. Population, together with other major drivers, such as institutions, markets, and technology, will have a very strong bearing on the way in which the rich resources of the Mekong River Basin are developed and distributed in the present and future. The Mekong River Basin's rich resources, and the benefits derived from them, are unevenly distributed both in time and geographically. Moreover, since the causes and impacts do not respect political boundaries, the Mekong countries need to jointly develop alternative management strategies to meet projected demands within the sustainable capacity of the Mekong River Basin natural-resource base.

  8. Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Clinimetric Testing of Instruments Used to Assess Patients With Ankle Sprain in the Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, Ronaldo Alves; Hazime, Fuad Ahmad; da Silva Martins, Maria Cecília; Ferreira, Mateus; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno

    2016-12-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background Ankle sprain is a common condition. Therefore, translated, culturally adapted, and clinimetrically tested instruments for measuring the ankle are needed. Objectives To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Sports Athlete Foot and Ankle Score (SAFAS) and the global rating of change (GROC) into Brazilian Portuguese. This study also aimed to test the measurement properties of the SAFAS, the GROC, and the existing Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the numeric pain-rating scale (NPRS) and the ankle-hindfoot scale of the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) in a group with ankle sprain. Methods The SAFAS and GROC instruments were cross-culturally adapted into Brazilian Portuguese and pretested in this population (n = 18). The measurement properties of the SAFAS, GROC, NPRS, and AOFAS (internal consistency, ceiling and floor effects, construct validity, reproducibility, and responsiveness) were tested in a test-retest design in patients with ankle sprain at baseline (n = 63) and at follow-up periods of 48 to 72 hours (n = 53) and 4 weeks (n = 43) after baseline. Results The SAFAS, GROC, NPRS, and AOFAS yielded considerable internal consistency (Cronbach alpha ranging from .76 to .97), moderate reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient model 2,1 ranging from 0.59 to 0.80), and dubious agreement (percentage of the standard error of measurement ranging from 13% to 22.43%). The highest correlations on construct validity were observed among the 4 SAFAS subscales (Pearson r = 0.75 to 0.86, P<.01), but statistically significant values appeared in the intercorrelation of instruments. There were no observed floor or ceiling effects in any of the instruments. All of their scores of change showed moderate correlation with the GROC (r = -0.48 to 0.30, P<.05) and could be classified as responsive. Conclusion The Brazilian-Portuguese versions of the SAFAS, GROC, NPRS, and AOFAS had acceptable measurement

  9. Equity inthe use of dental services provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS) among the elderly: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Renata Francine Rodrigues de; Souza, João Gabriel Silva; Haikal, Desireé Sant'Ana; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima

    2016-11-01

    The scope of this study is to establish the profile of elderly users of dental services provided by the Brazilian Unified Health System(SUS) and associated factors from the standpoint of equity. It involves an analytical cross-sectional study with hierarchical modeling conducted on the basis of a complex probabilistic sample of groups of the elderly (65-74 years of age) living in a densely populated Brazilian city. Independent variables were included relating to: socio-demographic characteristics, access to information on health, behaviors/health-care system and health outcomes. Descriptive, bivariate and multiple hierarchical analysis was performed. Of the 480 elderly persons included, 138 (31.2%) used dental services from the SUS. Use of these services was greater as per capita income and level of schooling decreased. It was lower among those who had not conducted exams of their own mouths (oral self-examinations) and higher among those individuals who used dental services for non-routine procedures. In addition, people whose relationship had been affected by oral health issues and a negative perception of their appearance used the SUS more frequently. The conclusion drawn is that the use of dental services of the SUS was most prevalent among the elderly living in precarious conditions.

  10. Molecular and Population Genetics Tools for Animal Resources Conservation: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Terezia Socol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in animal genome data and in genetic analysis, next to the increasing use of artificial reproductive technology resulted in progress into the animal sciences area, transposing the applied technologies into the omics field. This paper provides a brief overview related to some aspects of the population genetics characterization, as well as on the animal population genetic improvement and on the main molecular tools available for farm animals, highlighting at the same time the perspectives and priorities in terms of the advanced genetic methods, that can be considered for farm animal genetic resources (FAnGR breeding, improvement and conservation programmes in Romania.

  11. Comparison of risk and protective factors for chronic diseases in the population with and without health insurance in the Brazilian capitals, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Carvalho Malta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The article compares the risk and protective factors for Non-communicable Diseases (NCD, referred morbidity and access to preventive examinations in the population with and without health insurance in all Brazilian State capitals. METHODS: The study population consists of adults (≥ 18 years old living in households with landlines in 26 Brazilian State capitals and the Federal District. Estimates of selected variables are presented according to possession of health plans ("Yes" or "No" and sex. A post-stratification was performed according to age, gender and education in both populations, and prevalence ratios were calculated, adjusted for age and sex between people with and without health insurance for the risk and protective factors for NCDs. RESULTS: A total of 54,099 people at the age of 18 or older were evaluated, 47.4% of them were beneficiaries of health plans. The coverage of health insurance tends to increase with age and level of education. Compared to non-beneficiaries of health plans, beneficiaries were more likely to have protective factors, such as healthy eating, physical activity, coverage tests, such as mammography and Pap test, and lower prevalence of risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor health assessment and hypertension. Alcohol abuse, consumption of excessively fat meats, overweight, obesity and diabetes were not associated with the variable possession of health insurance. When controlled by education, individuals who have health insurance generally have better indicators. CONCLUSION: This information is important to establish measures for reducing differences among people with and without health insurance.

  12. Where Deforestation Leads to Urbanization: How Resource Extraction is Leading to Urban Growth in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; VanWey, Leah

    2015-07-01

    Developing the Amazon into a major provider of internationally traded mineral and food commodities has dramatically transformed broad expanses of tropical forests to farm and pasturelands, and to mining sites. The environmental impacts of this transformation, as well as the drivers underlying the process, have already been well documented. In this article we turn our analytical lenses to another, less examined effect of Amazon land use and environmental change, namely the creation and development of new urban areas. Here we argue that urban growth in the Amazon is a direct residual of international interest in the production of traded commodities, and of the capacity of local urban residents to capture capital and value before it is extracted from the region. Specifically, we suggest that urban growth is occurring fastest where cities have access to both rural export commodities and export corridors. We also show correlations between urban growth and lower rural population density, and cities' capacities to draw migrants from beyond their immediate rural surroundings. More broadly, we argue that urbanization in the Amazon is better interpreted as a symptom rather than a driver of the region's land use and land cover change.

  13. Genotyping-by-sequencing approach indicates geographic distance as the main factor affecting genetic structure and gene flow in Brazilian populations of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Brandão, Karina Lucas; Silva, Oscar Arnaldo Batista Neto E; Brandão, Marcelo Mendes; Omoto, Celso; Sperling, Felix A H

    2015-06-01

    The oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta is one of the major pests of stone and pome fruit species in Brazil. Here, we applied 1226 SNPs obtained by genotyping-by-sequencing to test whether host species associations or other factors such as geographic distance structured populations of this pest. Populations from the main areas of occurrence of G. molesta were sampled principally from peach and apple orchards. Three main clusters were recovered by neighbor-joining analysis, all defined by geographic proximity between sampling localities. Overall genetic structure inferred by a nonhierarchical amova resulted in a significant ΦST value = 0.19109. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that SNPs gathered by genotyping-by-sequencing can be used to infer genetic structure of a pest insect in Brazil; moreover, our results indicate that those markers are very informative even over a restricted geographic scale. We also demonstrate that host plant association has little effect on genetic structure among Brazilian populations of G. molesta; on the other hand, reduced gene flow promoted by geographic isolation has a stronger impact on population differentiation.

  14. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 polymorphism associated with statin-induced myopathy is differently distributed according to ethnicity in the Brazilian general population: Amerindians as a high risk ethnic group

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Paulo CJL; Soares, Renata AG; Nascimento, Raimundo M; Machado-Coelho, George LL; Mill, Jos? G; Krieger, Jos? E; Pereira, Alexandre C

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies reported the association between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and the development of statin-induced myopathy. In the scenario of the Brazilian population, being one of the most heterogeneous in the world, the main aim here was to evaluate SLCO1B1 polymorphisms according to ethnic groups as an initial step for future pharmacogenetic studies. Methods ...

  15. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2010-05-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer-resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant-mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  16. A consumer-resource approach to the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    Like predation and competition, mutualism is now recognized as a consumer resource (C-R) interaction, including, in particular, bi-directional (e.g., coral, plant- mycorrhizae) and uni-directional (e.g., ant-plant defense, plant-pollinator) C-R mutualisms. Here, we develop general theory for the density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism based on the C-R mechanism of interspecific interaction. To test the influence of C-R interactions on the dynamics and stability of bi- and uni-directional C-R mutualisms, we developed simple models that link consumer functional response of one mutualistic species with the resources supplied by another. Phase-plane analyses show that the ecological dynamics of C-R mutualisms are stable in general. Most transient behavior leads to an equilibrium of mutualistic coexistence, at which both species densities are greater than in the absence of interactions. However, due to the basic nature of C-R interactions, certain density-dependent conditions can lead to C-R dynamics characteristic of predator-prey interactions, in which one species overexploits and causes the other to go extinct. Consistent with empirical phenomena, these results suggest that the C-R interaction can provide a broad mechanism for understanding density-dependent population dynamics of mutualism. By unifying predation, competition, and mutualism under the common ecological framework of consumer-resource theory, we may also gain a better understanding of the universal features of interspecific interactions in general.

  17. Developing nutrition education resources for a multi-ethnic population in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyles, Helen; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni; Wharemate, Laurie; Funaki-Tahifote, Mafi; Lanumata, Tolotea; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    In New Zealand, the burden of nutrition-related disease is greatest among vulnerable and disadvantaged groups, including Maori and Pacific peoples. However, little research is currently available on effective ways to improve nutrition in these communities. This paper describes the development of six paper-based nutrition education resources for multi-ethnic participants in a large supermarket intervention trial. Six focus groups involving 15 Maori, 13 Pacific and 16 non-Maori, non-Pacific participants were held. A general inductive approach was applied to identify common themes around participants' understanding and thoughts on relevance and usefulness of the draft resources. Feedback from focus groups was used to modify resources accordingly. Five themes emerged across all focus groups and guided modification of the resources: (i) perceived higher cost of healthy food, (ii) difficulty in changing food-purchasing habits, (iii) lack of knowledge, understanding and information about healthy food, (iv) desire for personally relevant information that uses ethnically appropriate language and (v) other barriers to healthy eating, including limited availability of healthy food. Many issues affect the likelihood of purchase and consumption of healthy food. These issues should be taken into account when developing nutritional materials for New Zealanders and possibly other multi-ethnic populations worldwide. PMID:18974069

  18. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders in an Adult Brazilian Community Population Using the Research Diagnostic Criteria (Axes I and II) for Temporomandibular Disorders (The Maringá Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progiante, Patrícia Saram; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Lawrence, Herenia P; Goya, Suzana; Grossi, Patrícia Krieger; Grossi, Márcio Lima

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and comorbid factors (sleep bruxism and headaches). This study was a cross-sectional population survey in the city of Maringá, state of Paraná, Brazil. Axes I and II of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) were used for assessment of TMD signs and symptoms. The population was users of the Brazilian public health system (SUS), of both sexes, between the ages of 20 and 65 years, and not seeking treatment for TMD. The selected population (N = 1,643) was composed mostly of (a) women (65.9%), (b) married or single individuals (90.6%), (c) Caucasians (70.1%), (d) individuals aged 32.7 ± 10.3 years, (e) individuals earning a medium income (75.1%), and (f) those who had completed a high school education or higher (79.9%). According to the chronic pain grade classification (CPG) in the RDC/TMD Axis II, 36.2% of the population had some degree of TMD pain (CPG I to IV); however, only 5.1% had severe limitation due to pain (CPG III or IV). In the RDC/TMD Axis I diagnoses, 29.5% presented with muscle disorders (group I), 7.9% with disk displacements (group II), and 39.1% with other joint disorders (group III). Headaches were present in 67.9% and awake and sleep bruxism in 30% and 33.4% of the population, respectively. The prevalence of signs and symptoms of TMD was high in this population, but with low disability; however, the proportion of patients in need of treatment was much lower.

  19. Temperature-Dependent Development and Survival of Brazilian Populations of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata, from Tropical, Subtropical and Temperate Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P.; Nava, Dori E.; Loeck, Alci E.; Donatti, Michele G.

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions. PMID:22963468

  20. Temperature-dependent development and survival of Brazilian populations of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, from tropical, subtropical and temperate regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricalde, Marcelo P; Nava, Dori E; Loeck, Alci E; Donatti, Michele G

    2012-01-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is one of the principal exotic pests affecting Brazilian production in the northeastern and southeastern regions of Brazil. In the south, it is has potential as a serious threat to temperate-climate fruit farms, since it is already found in urban and suburban communities in this region. We studied the biological characteristics of C. capitata populations from Pelotas-RS (temperate climate), Petrolina-PE (tropical), and Campinas-SP (subtropical). Ceratitis capitata biology was studied under controlled temperature (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 ± 1 °C), 70 ± 10% RH, and 14:10 L:D photoperiod. The duration and survival rate of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were evaluated and the thermal requirements of these three populations were determined. The duration and survival of these developmental stages varied with temperature, with similar values for the three populations, except for some variation in the egg phase. Egg to adult developmental time for all three populations was inversely proportional to temperature; from 15 to 30 °C developmental time varied from 71.2 to 17.1, 70.2 to 17.1, and 68.5 to 16.9 days, respectively. Survival during development was affected at 15 to 30 °C, and differed significantly from survival at 20 to 25 °C. At 35 °C, immature stages did not develop. The basal temperature and degree-day requirement were similar for all immature stages except for the egg stage. The basal temperatures and thermal constants were 9.30 and 350, 8.47 and 341, and 9.60 °C and 328 degree-days for the Pelotas, Petrolina, and Campinas populations, respectively. Results suggested that survival and thermal requirements are similar for these tropical, subtropical, and temperate populations of C. capitata, and demonstrate the species' capacity to adapt to different climate conditions.

  1. Literature review on land carrying capacity of the coordinated development of population, resources, environment and economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Land carrying capacity is an important index of evaluation on land resources. And the land carrying capacity is also very important for guiding regional plans and promoting sustainable development of regional economy. So it is significant to clarify the land carrying capacity in the sequence of events which helps the decision makers understand and grasp the knowledge of land carrying capacity more clearly and make the right judgment and decision. Based on the theory of population, resources, environment and economy, the method of reviewing literatures is used in this paper to summarize the theory of the land carrying capacity and the researching methods of the land carrying capacity, as well as the problems existing in the study of land carrying capacity.

  2. High organochlorine accumulation in blubber of Guiana dolphin, Sotalia guianensis, from Brazilian coast and its use to establish geographical differences among populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lailson-Brito, J., E-mail: lailson@biof.ufrj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Dorneles, P.R., E-mail: dorneles.paulo@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo-Silva, C.E., E-mail: ceass@biof.ufrj.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Azevedo, A.F., E-mail: azevedo.alex@uerj.b [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Vidal, L.G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Zanelatto, R.C. [Pro- Reitoria de Administracao, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Lozinski, C.P.C. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil); Azeredo, A., E-mail: aazeredo@uefs.b [Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Colegiado de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Departamento de Saude, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS) (Brazil); Fragoso, A.B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos e Bioindicadores ' Prof. Izabel Gurgel' (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ) (Brazil)

    2010-05-15

    Blubber samples from 33 Guiana dolphins (Sotalia guianensis) from three estuaries (Guanabara, Sepetiba/Ilha Grande and Paranagua Bays) of Southern and Southeastern Brazil were analyzed for organochlorine compounds (DDTs, PCBs and HCB). The sampled individuals were incidentally captured in gillnet fishery between 1995 and 2005. The concentrations (in ng/g lipids) varied from 652 to 23 555 for SIGMADDT; from 765 to 99 175 for SIGMAPCB; and from <4.4 to 156 for HCB. The results have shown that cetaceans from Brazil present organochlorine concentrations that are comparable to those reported for highly industrialized regions of Northern Hemisphere. Using discriminant analysis it was possible to verify that the dolphin populations from the three bays present different organochlorine accumulation patterns. This feature allows the use of this set of pollutants as an auxiliary tool for identification of different populations of the species off Brazilian Coast. - The site fidelity of Guiana dolphins inhabiting polluted environments allows population differentiation through discriminant analysis using organochlorine profiles.

  3. A Population Study of Golden Eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area: Population Trend Analysis, 1994-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, W. G.; Jackman, R. E.; Hunt, T. L.; Driscoll, D. E.; Culp, L.

    1999-07-20

    The wind industry has annually reported 28-43 turbine blade strike casualties of golden eagles in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, and many more carcasses have doubtless gone unnoticed. Because this species is especially sensitive to adult survival rate changes, we focused upon estimating the demographic trend of the population. In aerial surveys, we monitored survival within a sample of 179 radio-tagged eagles over a four-year period. We also obtained data on territory occupancy and reproduction of about 65 eagle pairs residing in the area. Of 61 recorded deaths of radio-tagged eagles during the four-year investigation, 23 (38%) were caused by wind turbine blade strikes. Additional fatalities were unrecorded because blade strikes sometimes destroy radio transmitters. Annual survival was estimated at 0.7867 (SE=0.0263) for non-territorial eagles and 0.8964 (SE=0.0371) for territorial ones. Annual reproduction was 0.64 (SE=0.08) young per territorial pair (0.25 per female). These parameters were used to estimate population growth rates under different modeling frameworks. At present, there are indications that a reserve of non-breeding adults still exists, i.e., there is an annual territorial reoccupancy rate of 100% and a low incidence (3%) of subadults as members of breeding pairs.

  4. Genetic resources of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.)—strong genetic structure among natural populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Kim; Changtragoon, Suchitra; Ponoy, Bundit

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-nine provenances of teak (Tectona grandis Linn. f.) representing the full natural distribution range of the species were genotyped with microsatellite DNA markers to analyse genetic diversity and population genetic structure. Provenances originating from the semi-moist east coast of India...... had the highest genetic diversity while provenances from Laos showed the lowest. In the eastern part of the natural distribution area, comprising Myanmar, Thailand and Laos, there was a strong clinal decrease in genetic diversity the further east the provenance was located. Overall, the pattern...... of the findings for conservation and use of genetic resources of the species are discussed....

  5. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Rodrigues Machado

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (>255mL/day or >123mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (123mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8±1.5 vs 2.3±1.5, p=0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p<0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p<0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.

  6. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Silmara Rodrigues; Parise, Edison Roberto; Carvalho, Luciana de

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥ 255 mL/day or ≥ 123 mg caffeine/day). According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (caffeine/day). Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal) (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p=0.04), lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4) fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, pcaffeine intake (OR- 0.16; 95%CI - 0.03-0.80; p=0.026), γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. Population, Resources and Female Labor in the Raw Silk Industry of Nagano in Meiji Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim F. Liao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gendered realities in local regions are a prominent issue in today’s global economy. However, the process of globalization in the late-19th century already involved the local Nagano women in an indispensable role in Japan’s raw silk industry. This paper studies the interplay between population growth and relatively limited resources in Nagano vis-à-vis the demand for female labor during the Meiji era, when Japan became a major raw silk producer. The local/regional constraints in Nagano interacted with economic globalization and gave Nagano its position in the global market. Therefore, we cannot ignore the consequences of local/regional constraints and advantages in global processes on female workers. Population pressure and environmental squeeze are found to have been important forces that integrated the local and regional in the global process of industrialization and trade, and together, they produced social outcomes, such as gender hierarchies in globalization and glocalization processes.

  8. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto X. Piccini

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.

  9. How well is hypertension managed in the community? A population-based survey in a Brazilian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccini Roberto X.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is usually little information available on how well hypertensive individuals are managed at the community level. This survey measured the frequency of hypertension in a medium-sized Brazilian city by studying a cluster sample of 1657 adults aged 20-69 years. The 328 hypertensives (19.8% answered a questionnaire on the knowledge and management of their condition. Two-thirds were aware of their status and more than half were on antihypertensive medication, but only one-third had their blood pressure under control. Physicians failed to advise a large proportion of their patients about the need to lose weight, take exercise, and quit smoking. Although laboratory tests were carried out in most patients, fundoscopy and chest X-rays were performed in fewer than 50%. Continued care by the same physician was the only factor significantly associated with compensated high blood pressure (relative risk for not having continued care = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.02-1.71. High levels of absenteeism, reduction of the work load, and early retirement were found among the individuals with high blood pressure.

  10. Association of LEC and tnpA Helicobacter pylori genes with gastric cancer in a Brazilian population

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    Carrilho Flair J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background H. pylori seroprevalence in Brazilians varies and is dependent on socioeconomic status, sanitation conditions and ethnicity; furthermore, H. pylori is not always associated with the incidence of gastric cancer, suggesting the role of more virulent strains. The purpose of this study was to analyze the association of more virulent H. pylori strains with gastric cancer. Methods DNA was extracted from gastric biopsies of thirty-four cases of gastric cancer (11 intestinal-type, 23 diffuse-type, and thirty-four of patients with endoscopic gastritis. The presence of cagPAI genes (cagA, cagA promoter, cagE, cagM, tnpB, tnpA, cagT and the left end of the cagII (LEC and babA were analyzed by PCR. Results Comparison of H. pylori isolates from gastric cancer and gastritis patients showed significant associations of tnpA and LEC with gastric cancer (73.5% [OR, 6.66; 95% CI, 2.30-19.25] and 58.8% [OR, 10.71; 95% CI, 3.07-37.28] of cases, respectively. Other cagPAI genes were detected in both groups at similar frequencies. Conclusions tnpA and LEC of H. pylori cagPAI were associated with gastric cancer; nonetheless, these results were restricted within this group of patients and further studies are needed to confirm these results in a larger sample and determine their role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  11. Brazilian propolis extract used as an additive to decrease methane emissions from the rumen microbial population in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Woruby; Zeoula, Lucia Maria; Yoshimura, Emerson Henri; Machado, Erica; Macheboeuf, Didier; Cornu, Agnès

    2016-06-01

    Propolis is a product that is rich in phenolic compounds and can be utilized in animal nutrition as a dietary additive. In this study, the effects of a Brazilian green propolis extract on rumen fermentation and gas production were determined. The fate of propolis phenolic compounds in the rumen medium was also investigated. Fermentation was done in 24-h batches over three periods. Inoculates were obtained from cows fed on grassland hay and concentrate. Propolis extract in a hydroalcoholic solution was applied at increasing doses to the substrate (1 to 56 g/kg). The fermentation substrate consisted on a mixture of alfalfa hay, soybean meal, and wheat grain mixture in dry matter. After 24 h of fermentation, seven new compounds were observed in the medium in amounts that correlated to the propolis dose. The dose of propolis extract linearly decreased the pH of the medium and linearly increased propionate production, which reduced the acetate-to-propionate ratio and influenced the total production of short-chain fatty acids. Propolis also linearly reduced methane production and increased the carbon dioxide-to-methane ratio. Ammonia nitrogen levels and in vitro digestibility of organic matter were similar among the treatments. The combination of increased propionate production and decreased methane production suggests better energy utilization from the feed.

  12. Act No. 7.735 of 22 February relating to the abolition of an organization and an autonomous body and the creation of the Brazilian Institute of the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources, and other matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This Act abolishes the Special Secretary for the Environment and the Superintendency for the Development of Fishing and creates the Brazilian Institute for the Environment and Renewable Natural Resources as an autonomous body within the Ministry of the Interior. The Institute is to have the resources, functions, and personnel of the abolished agencies, as well as those of the Brazilian Institute of Forestry Development, which was abolished by Act No. 7.732 of 14 February 1989 (Colecao das Leis, No. 1, 1989, pp. 93-94). The objective of the Institute is to formulate, coordinate, execute, and have executed a national policy relating to the environment and the preservation, conservation, rational use, supervision, control, and promotion of renewable natural resources. Act 7.797 of 10 July 1989 (Colecao das Leis, Nos. 4, 1989, pp. 1461-1462) creates a National Environmental Fund that is administered by the Institute and the Secretariat of Planning and Co-ordination. This Institute has as a priority projects taking place in the Amazon area.

  13. A diffusion model of protected population on bilocal habitat with generalized resource

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    Vasilyev, Maxim D.; Trofimtsev, Yuri I.; Vasilyeva, Natalya V.

    2017-11-01

    A model of population distribution in a two-dimensional area divided by an ecological barrier, i.e. the boundaries of natural reserve, is considered. Distribution of the population is defined by diffusion, directed migrations and areal resource. The exchange of specimens occurs between two parts of the habitat. The mathematical model is presented in the form of a boundary value problem for a system of non-linear parabolic equations with variable parameters of diffusion and growth function. The splitting space variables, sweep method and simple iteration methods were used for the numerical solution of a system. A set of programs was coded in Python. Numerical simulation results for the two-dimensional unsteady non-linear problem are analyzed in detail. The influence of migration flow coefficients and functions of natural birth/death ratio on the distributions of population densities is investigated. The results of the research would allow to describe the conditions of the stable and sustainable existence of populations in bilocal habitat containing the protected and non-protected zones.

  14. Dynamic simulation of connections between population, water resources, agriculture, and energy: Towards a global synthesis

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    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, scientists at Sandia National Laboratories have been attempting to integrate multi-disciplinary issues associated with human demands for water resources, agriculture, and energy, and the interconnections inherent in these into a common modeling framework. A variety of models have been created, each focusing specifically on certain aspects of the population - water - food - energy question, and each at a different geographic scale. The modeling of these dimensions of human resource use involves quantification of supply of and demand for the resources through time in order to gain some insight into sensitivities of the system to different model parameters. These models have been used to evaluate policy options in real time in an interactive setting. This presentation will summarize the localized efforts that have been made to this point, and propose a framework for a simulation tool to evaluate all four dimensions in a global context. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  15. Resource allocation in a patient population exhibiting bimodal and logarithmic cost behavior.

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    Patterson, Charles W

    2011-12-01

    Budgeting and forecasting is a part of the resource allocation process. Statistical models used in these processes often use data based on unimodal or normal probability distributions using mean values for analysis. However, health care data are frequently skewed and stratified, demanding careful analyses. In this study, financial data was examined over a 10-month period at an overseas federal health care facility in a patient population of 70 with a primary diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder without a concurrent concussive injury. There were 823 direct provider contacts incurring a total cost of $286,917 that included allocated fixed overhead. The data were stratified and highly variable as two distinct groups based on chronicity. Group A (acute) consisted of 62 cases costing $117,612. Group B (chronic) consisted of 8 cases costing $169,755. This data, presented in descending order, fit a logarithmic equation with an r value of 0.95. Using this equation, a decreasing linear budget model is developed that represents an alternative nonparametric approach to allocate resources for this population. The model predicted an expenditure of $284,880, within 0.70% of the amount actually spent, and addresses the subcomponent simplification issue raised by a 2008 Rand study and mitigates problems associated with data stratification or transformations.

  16. Expanding Maize Genetic Resources with Predomestication Alleles: Maize–Teosinte Introgression Populations

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    Zhengbin Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Teosinte ( subsp. H. H. Iltis & Doebley has greater genetic diversity than maize inbreds and landraces ( subsp. . There are, however, limited genetic resources to efficiently evaluate and tap this diversity. To broaden resources for genetic diversity studies in maize, we developed and evaluated 928 near-isogenic introgression lines (NILs from 10 teosinte accessions in the B73 background. Joint linkage analysis of the 10 introgression populations identified several large-effect quantitative trait loci (QTL for days to anthesis (DTA, kernel row number (KRN, and 50-kernel weight (Wt50k. Our results confirm prior reports of kernel domestication loci and identify previously uncharacterized QTL with a range of allelic effects enabling future research into the genetic basis of these traits. Additionally, we used a targeted set of NILs to validate the effects of a KRN QTL located on chromosome 2. These introgression populations offer novel tools for QTL discovery and validation as well as a platform for initiating fine mapping.

  17. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. -765 G>C POLYMORPHISM OF THE COX-2 GENE AND GASTRIC CANCER RISK IN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

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    Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine CAMPANHOLO

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Genomic alterations play important roles in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. Cyclooxygenases (COX are important enzymes in the maintenance of mucosal integrity and in pathological processes, mainly in inflammation and cancer. The -765G>C COX-2 polymorphism has been implicated in gastric cancer risk. Objectives To evaluate the COX-2 gene polymorphism as a predictor of gastric cancer risk. Methods One hundred gastric cancer patients and 150 controls were enrolled from a Brazilian centre. Personal data regarding related risk factors, including alcohol consumption and smoking behavior, were collected via questionnaire. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the genotypes were analyzed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results G/G, G/C and C/C genotypes frequencies was 42.7%, 50% and 7.3%, respectively in controls and 59.0%, 34.0% and 7.0% in gastric cancer. The frequency of the genotypes differed between the groups (P = 0.033. A higher risk of gastric cancer was associated with COX-2 -765G/G genotype (P = 0.048; OR:1.98, 95% CI = 1.01-3.90. Alcohol consumption and smoking in patients with -765G/G genotype also increased the risk of gastric cancer. Conclusions The -765G/G genotype and the -765G allele had been associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. The presence of smoking and alcohol consumption increased the risk for gastric cancer in subjects with -765G/G genotype compared with the control group. Polymorphism of COX-2 gene and gastric cancer risk.

  20. Structural validity of the tonic immobility scale in a population exposed to trauma: evidence from two large Brazilian samples.

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    Michael Reichenheim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tonic Immobility is a temporary state of motor inhibition in situations involving extreme fear. The first scale developed for its assessment was the 10-item Tonic Immobility Scale (TIS. However, there are still few studies on its structural (dimensional validity. The objective of this study was to reassess the factor structure of the TIS applied to representative samples exposed to general trauma of two Brazilian mega-cities. METHODS: The sample comprised 3,223 participants reporting at least one traumatic experience. In São Paulo (n = 2,148, a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA first tested the originally proposed two-dimensional structure. This was followed by sequential Exploratory Structural Equation Models to identify the best fitting model, and subsequently tested in Rio de Janeiro (n = 1,075 via CFA. Alternative reduced versions were further explored using the aggregate sample. Model-based Item Response Theory (IRT location parameters were also investigated. RESULTS: An absence of factor-based convergent and discriminant validity rejected the original proposition. However, the one-dimensional structure still held several residual correlations. Further exploration indicated the sustainability of reduced versions with seven (alternative A and six (alternative B items. Both presented excellent fit and no relevant residual item correlation. According to the IRT location parameters, items in alternative B covered a wider range of the latent trait. The Loevinger's H scalability coefficients underscored this pattern. CONCLUSIONS: The original model did not hold. A one-factor solution was the most tenable in both large samples, but with significant item residual correlations, indicating that content redundancies persisted. Further reduced and simplified versions of the TIS proved promising. Although studies are yet to be carried out in other settings, it is the authors' impression that the restricted versions of the TIS are

  1. The Association of the Immune Response Genes to Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Disease in a Brazilian Population

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    Amanda Vansan Marangon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The genetic variability of the host contributes to the risk of human papillomavirus (HPV-related cervical disease. Immune response genes to HPV must be investigated to define patients with the highest risk of developing malignant disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of polymorphic immune response genes, namely KIR, HLA class I and II, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of cytokines with HPV-related cervical disease. We selected 79 non-related, admixed Brazilian women from the state of Paraná, southern region of Brazil, who were infected with high carcinogenic risk HPV and present cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3, and 150 HPV-negative women from the same region matched for ethnicity. KIR genes were genotyped using an in-house PCR-SSP. HLA alleles were typed using a reverse sequence-specific oligonucleotide technique. SNPs of TNF −308G>A, IL6 −174G>C, IFNG +874T>A, TGFB1 +869T>C +915G>C, and IL10 −592C>A −819C>T −1082G>A were evaluated using PCR-SSP. The KIR genes were not associated with HPV, although some pairs of i(inhibitoryKIR-ligands occurred more frequently in patients, supporting a role for NK in detrimental chronic inflammatory and carcinogenesis. Some HLA haplotypes were associated with HPV. The associations of INFG and IL10 SNPs potentially reflect impaired or invalid responses in advanced lesions.

  2. Dental approach in the pediatric oncology patient: characteristics of the population treated at the dentistry unit in a pediatric oncology brazilian teaching hospital.

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    Carrillo, Camila; Vizeu, Heloisa; Soares-Júnior, Luis Alberto; Fava, Marcelo; Filho, Vicente Odone

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this paper was to characterize the population seen at the dentistry unit of the hematology-oncology service of the Oncology-Hematology Service, Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Oral problems resulting from cancer therapy increase the risk of infection, length of hospital stay, treatment cost and negative impact on the course and prognosis of the disease. Of the 367 medical records of cancer patients seen from November 2007 until December 2008: 186 with a cancer diagnosis and complete clinical data were selected, while 20 with a cancer diagnosis and incomplete records were excluded; 161 medical records with only hematological diagnosis were also excluded. The following characteristics were assessed: ethnicity, gender, age, diagnosis and characteristics of the neoplasm, cancer therapy status and performed dental procedures. Review of 1,236 visits indicated that 54% (n=100) of the patients had blood cancers, 46% (n=86) had solid tumors and 63% were undergoing anticancer therapy. The proportion of males (52.7%) in the study population was slightly greater. The most common cancer was acute lymphocytic leukemia (32.2%). Cancer occurred more often among those patients aged 5 to 9 years. The most common dental procedures were restorative treatment, preventive treatment and removal of infectious foci. The characteristics of the studied population were similar to those of the general Brazilian and global populations, especially regarding gender and diagnosis distributions. The aim of implementation of the dentistry unit was to maintain good oral health and patients' quality of life, which is critical to provide oral care and prevent future oral problems.

  3. Dental approach in the pediatric oncology patient: characteristics of the population treated at the dentistry unit in a pediatric oncology brazilian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Carrillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this paper was to characterize the population seen at the dentistry unit of the hematology-oncology service of the Oncology-Hematology Service, Instituto da Criança at the Hospital das Clínicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo. Oral problems resulting from cancer therapy increase the risk of infection, length of hospital stay, treatment cost and negative impact on the course and prognosis of the disease. METHOD: Of the 367 medical records of cancer patients seen from November 2007 until December 2008: 186 with a cancer diagnosis and complete clinical data were selected, while 20 with a cancer diagnosis and incomplete records were excluded; 161 medical records with only hematological diagnosis were also excluded. The following characteristics were assessed: ethnicity, gender, age, diagnosis and characteristics of the neoplasm, cancer therapy status and performed dental procedures. RESULTS: Review of 1,236 visits indicated that 54% (n=100 of the patients had blood cancers, 46% (n=86 had solid tumors and 63% were undergoing anticancer therapy. The proportion of males (52.7% in the study population was slightly greater. The most common cancer was acute lymphocytic leukemia (32.2%. Cancer occurred more often among those patients aged 5 to 9 years. The most common dental procedures were restorative treatment, preventive treatment and removal of infectious foci. CONCLUSION: The characteristics of the studied population were similar to those of the general Brazilian and global populations, especially regarding gender and diagnosis distributions. The aim of implementation of the dentistry unit was to maintain good oral health and patients' quality of life, which is critical to provide oral care and prevent future oral problems.

  4. Incidence of bifid uvula and its relationship to submucous cleft palate and a family history of oral cleft in the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Sizina Aguiar G; Santos, Maria Luiza; Machado, Renato Assis; Dias, Verônica Oliveira; Nascimento, Jairo Evangelista; Swerts, Mario Sérgio Oliveira; Júnior, Hercílio Martelli; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa

    2017-08-24

    Bifid uvula is a frequently observed anomaly in the general population and can be regarded as a marker for submucous cleft palate. In this study aimed to determine the frequency of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate and their relationship with oral clefts in a Brazilian population. We conducted a transversal, descriptive and quantitative study of 1206 children between August 2014 and December 2015. A clinical examination of the children was conducted by means of inspection of the oral cavity with the aid of a tongue depressor and directed light. After the clinical examination in children, parents answered a questionnaire with questions about basic demographic information and their family history of oral clefts in their first-degree relatives. After application of the questionnaires, the information collected was archived in a database and analyzed by the statistical program SPSS(®) version 19.0, by applying Chi-Square tests. Values with pcleft palate was not found in any child. When the family histories of children were examined for the presence of nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or cleft palate, no first degree relatives presented with the congenital anomaly. This study revealed that the incidence of bifid uvula and submucous cleft palate in this population was quite similar to previously reported incidence rates. Our study suggests an intensification of new reviews, with broader and diverse populations, seeking to associate the occurrence of bifid uvula, submucous cleft palate and oral clefts. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Sexual violence in the college population: a systematic review of disclosure and campus resources and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-08-01

    To synthesise research examining college student sexual violence disclosure and campus sexual violence resources and services. Recently, the issue of sexual violence within the college population has garnered attention worldwide. The prevalence of sexual violence within college students is alarmingly high. Survivors often experience negative outcomes (e.g. health-related consequences, impact on education). Efforts have been made to address this significant public health concern. Systematic review of published literature. Studies were identified through systematic searches of PubMed, CINAHL and PsycInfo of articles published between January 2010-February 2015. A total of 672 articles were identified. After screening, 16 articles were included in this review. A lack of consistency in how sexual violence was referred to and measured was identified. Research on college student sexual violence disclosure has primarily been conducted in six areas: (1) informal disclosure, (2) formal disclosure, (3) friends' perceptions of disclosure, (4) process/effects of disclosure on the survivor, (5) barriers to disclosure and (6) social support in the disclosure process. Research related to campus sexual violence resources and services has primarily focused on: (1) students' knowledge, (2) students' utilization and (3) students' suggestions. Synthesised findings are presented. Sexual violence impacts college student survivors and the campus community as a whole. To appropriately assist/address sexual violence, a thorough understanding of college student sexual violence disclosure and campus sexual violence resources/services is necessary. Suggestions for researchers, colleges and nurses are provided. Nurses who serve students, especially those at on-campus student health centres, are opportunely placed to address sexual violence. Findings highlight the need for nurses to use consistent definitions of sexual violence when identifying survivors. Nurses should take measures to increase

  6. Social and personal resources and the prevalence of phobic disorder in a community population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybels, C F; Blazer, D G; Kaplan, B H

    2000-05-01

    Phobic disorder is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders in community populations and much attention has focused on the association of sociodemographic factors and social resources with the disorder. There has been little investigation of the more personal resources such as self-confidence, religiosity, social support and self-perceived health that may increase vulnerability. We used a sample of 2914 community residents aged 18 or older who participated in the Duke University Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study to explore the relationship between both social and personal resources and the prevalence of DIS/DSM-III phobic disorder. The 1-month prevalence of any phobic disorder was 7.6%. In bivariate analyses, we found both race/ethnicity and gender differences in prevalence, with a higher prevalence of phobic disorder in African-Americans and females. Lower socio-economic status, rural residence and unmarried status were also associated with current prevalence. No association was found for social network and social interaction. Impaired subjective social support, low self-confidence, perceived poorer physical health and co-morbid psychiatric disorder were significantly associated with current prevalence in uncontrolled analyses, while associations between lack of a confidant as well as religiosity and phobic disorder were not. Female gender (OR = 1.7), perceived low self-confidence (OR = 2.0), and two interaction terms, age x co-morbid psychiatric disorder and race/ethnicity x perceived physical health were associated with phobic disorder in controlled analyses using logistic regression. We conclude that both social and personal resources, particularly self-confidence, co-morbidity and perceived physical health are important correlates of phobic disorder.

  7. Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John; MacDonald, Ian

    1980-01-01

    Presents a guide to resources on television drama available to teachers for classroom use in television curriculum. Lists American and British television drama videorecordings of both series and individual presentations and offers a bibliography of "one-off" single fiction plays produced for British television. (JMF)

  8. The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intraspecific growth and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Bailey; Grant, James W A; Peres-Neto, Pedro R

    2015-07-01

    How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering the equitability of resource accessibility and thereby the effective number of competitors. While much work has investigated the influence of morphology on competitive ability for different resource types, less is known regarding the phenotypic characteristics conferring relative ability for a single resource type, particularly when exploitative competition predominates. Here we used young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to test whether and how the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density interact to influence the level and variance of individual growth, as well as if functional morphology relates to competitive ability. Feeding trials were conducted within stream channels under three spatial distributions of nine resource patches (distributed, semi-clumped and clumped) at two density levels (9 and 27 individuals). Average trial growth was greater in high-density treatments with no effect of resource distribution. Within-trial growth variance had opposite patterns across resource distributions. Here, variance decreased at low-population, but increased at high-population densities as patches became increasingly clumped as the result of changes in the levels of interference vs. exploitative competition. Within-trial growth was related to both pre- and post-trial morphology where competitive individuals were those with traits associated with swimming capacity and efficiency: larger heads/bodies/caudal fins

  9. Integration of population genetic structure and plant response to climate change: sustaining genetic resources through evaluation of projected threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Marcus V. Warwell; Mee-Sook Kim; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Geral I. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    To assess threats or predict responses to disturbances, or both, it is essential to recognize and characterize the population structures of forest species in relation to changing environments. Appropriate management of these genetic resources in the future will require (1) understanding the existing genetic diversity/variation and population structure of forest trees...

  10. TSHR intronic polymorphisms (rs179247 and rs12885526) and their role in the susceptibility of the Brazilian population to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, N E; Dos Santos, R B; Marcello, M A; Piai, R P; Secolin, R; Romaldini, J H; Ward, L S

    2015-05-01

    Intronic thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor polymorphisms have been associated with the risk for both Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, but results have been inconsistent among different populations. We aimed to investigate the influence of thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms in a large well-characterized population of GD patients. We studied 279 Graves' disease patients (231 females and 48 males, 39.80 ± 11.69 years old), including 144 with Graves' ophthalmopathy, matched to 296 healthy control individuals. Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor genotypes of rs179247 and rs12885526 were determined by Real Time PCR TaqMan(®) SNP Genotyping. A multivariate analysis showed that the inheritance of the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor AA genotype for rs179247 increased the risk for Graves' disease (OR = 2.821; 95 % CI 1.595-4.990; p = 0.0004), whereas the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor GG genotype for rs12885526 increased the risk for Graves' ophthalmopathy (OR = 2.940; 95 % CI 1.320-6.548; p = 0.0083). Individuals with Graves' ophthalmopathy also presented lower mean thyrotropin receptor antibodies levels (96.3 ± 143.9 U/L) than individuals without Graves' ophthalmopathy (98.3 ± 201.9 U/L). We did not find any association between the investigated polymorphisms and patients clinical features or outcome. We demonstrate that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor intronic polymorphisms are associated with the susceptibility to Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy in the Brazilian population, but do not appear to influence the disease course.

  11. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

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    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  12. Multi-population comparison of resource exploitation by island foxes: Implications for conservation

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    B.L. Cypher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Imperiled island foxes are inherently resource-limited by their insular ecology. We examined food use on all 6 islands where they occur to assess resource exploitation patterns. Over 40 different food items were identified with item use varying among islands. Sixteen items occurred with ≥10% frequency in annual fox diets: deer mice, birds, lizards, beetles, beetle larvae, Jerusalem crickets, silk-spinning sand crickets, grasshoppers, earwigs, snails, and fruits of toyon, manzanita, prickly pear cactus, ice plant, Australian saltbush, and summer holly. Foxes used a diversity of food items with variations among islands attributable to island-specific availabilities. Deer mice in particular appeared to be preferred. Foxes also exhibited extensive use of non-native items, such as ice plant fruits, European snails, and earwigs, and foxes may even be dependent on these items on some islands. To increase food security and promote population stability, we recommend (1 continuing and enhancing habitat restoration efforts on all islands, (2 increasing the abundance of native items in association with any removals of non-native species used by foxes, and (3 monitoring annual trends in abundance of key food items as well as periodic monitoring of item use by foxes to determine functional responses to changes in item availability.

  13. Impact of forest fragment size on the population structure of three palm species (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portela, Rita de Cássia Quitete; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes

    2014-06-01

    The main threats to natural populations in terrestrial ecosystems have been widly recognized to be the habitat fragmentation and the exploitation of forest products. In this study, we compared the density of the populations and the structure of three tropical palm species, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum, Euterpe edulis and Geonoma schottiana. For this, we selected five forest fragments of different sizes (3 500ha, 2 400ha, 57ha, 21ha and 19ha) where palms were censused in nine 30 x 30m plots. We tracked the palms survival from 2005 to 2007, and recorded all new individuals encountered. Each individual was assigned in one of the five ontogenetic stages: seedling, infant, juvenile, immature and reproductive. The demographic structure of each palm species was analyzed and compared by a generalized linear model (GLM). The analysis was performed per palm species. The forest fragment area and the year of observation were explanatory variables, and the proportion of individuals in each ontogenetic class and palm density were response variables. The total number of individuals (from seedlings to reproductives, of all species) monitored was 6 450 in 2005, 7 268 in 2006, and 8 664 in 2007. The densities of two palm species were not influenced by the size of the fragment, but the population density of A. aculeatissimum was dependent on the size of the fragment: there were more individuals in the bigger than in the smaller forest fragments. The population structure of A. aculeatissimum, E. edulis, and G. schottiana was not altered in the smaller fragments, except the infants of G. schottiana. The main point to be drawn from the results found in this study is that the responses of density and population structure seem not to be dependent on fragment size, except for one species that resulted more abundant in bigger fragments.

  14. Polymorphism in the tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene (TNFA -308 G/A is not associated with susceptibility to chronic periodontitis in a Brazilian population

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    Paula Cristina Trevilatto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α is a major mediator of the immune-inflammatory response and may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of chronic periodontitis. Polymorphisms in the promoter of the TNFA gene have been associated with some types of inflammatory diseases. The present study investigated the association between a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of the TNFA (G-308A gene and chronic periodontitis in Brazilians. Methods: One hundred and thirteen (113 over 25 years were divided according to the severity level of periodontal disease: 44 healthy individuals (control group, 31 subjects with moderate and 38 patients with severe periodontitis. Genomic DNA was obtained from epithelial cells. The samples were analyzed for TNFA (G-308A polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The significance of the differences in the genotype frequencies of the polymorphism was assessed by Chi-square test (p<0.05. Results: No significant differences in the genotype distribution and allele frequency were found between control and groups with periodontitis. Conclusion: It was concluded that TNFA (-308 polymorphism was not associated with chronic periodontitis. Other polymorphisms in this or/and other genes of the host inflammatory response might be involved in determining susceptibility to periodontitis in the study population.

  15. Glutathione S-transferase Mu (GSTM1 null genotype in relation to gender, age and smoking status in a healthy Brazilian population

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    Losi-Guembarovski Roberta

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The glutathione S-transferase mu (GSTM1 gene which acts during phase II of xenobiotic metabolism is polymorphic in the population, being absent in about 30-50% of individuals depending on the ethnic group from which they come. Epidemiological studies suggest that individuals who are homozygous null at the GSTM1 locus may have an increased risk of developing various types of neoplastic disease. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR to estimate the frequency of GSTM1 in 176 healthy individuals from the north of Paraná (Brazilian state, the null genotype being detected in 48.86% of these individuals. The Student?s t-test was used to evaluate the frequency of the glutathione S-transferase null genotype in relation to age, gender and smoking habit and no significant differences were found. In our sample there were 142 individuals of Caucasian origin, of which 47.88% had the null genotype. When applied to the Caucasian group only (n = 142 the Student?s t-test again showed no significant differences between the frequency of the GSTM1 null genotype and age, gender and smoking habit.

  16. FAS and FASL Gene Polymorphisms Are Not Associated with Hepatitis B Virus Infection Based on a Case-Control Study in a Brazilian Population

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    Bárbara B. Santana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigated the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the FAS and FASL genes with the outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV infection. Methods. Blood samples were collected from 116 HBV-infected patients at the Hospital of the Santa Casa de Misericordia Foundation (Belém, PA, Brazil. Seronegative individuals were used as controls. DNA samples were extracted from the leukocytes and assayed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR followed by RFLP analysis with restriction endonucleases. Results. The frequencies of the mutant genotypes for -670FAS (GG, Ivs2nt-124FASL (GG, Ivs3nt-169FASL (ΔT/ΔT, and -844FASL (TT were higher in the HBV patients, and the FAS-1377AA genotype was more frequent in the control group; however, the differences between the allele and genotype frequencies were not statistically significant. When the HBV patient population was divided into two groups (inactive carriers and active chronic hepatitis patients, the mutant genotypes were found to be more prevalent in the active chronic hepatitis group with respect to the FAS gene polymorphisms; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions. The results suggest that the polymorphisms in FAS and FASL genes are not associated with HBV infection or even with the natural history of the infection in the Brazilian Amazon region.

  17. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

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    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  18. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

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    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  19. The song of the Brazilian population of Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae, in the year 2000: individual song variations and possible implications

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    Arraut Eduardo M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The song of the Brazilian population of the Humpback Whale Megaptera novaeangliae was studied in its breeding and calving ground, the Abrolhos Bank, Bahia, Brazil, from July to November 2000. Aural and spectral analyses of digital recordings were completed for approximately 20 song cycles, totaling 5 hours of song from 10 different recording events. We identified 24 note types, organized in five themes. All songs presented the same themes and the order in which they were sung did not vary. We registered the appearance of a note type and the disappearance of a phrase ending, which indicate that the song changed as the season progressed. Moreover, we detected individual variation in the way singers performed certain complex note types. As songs are transmitted culturally, it is likely that singers have different abilities to compose and/or learn new notes. If, as it has been previously suggested, 'new' songs are preferred to 'old' ones, these more able singers will be sending out information about their learning abilities that could be used by other whales to decide whether or not to interact with them.

  20. The impact of psychosocial factors on the risk of erectile dysfunction and inhibition of sexual desire in a sample of the Brazilian population

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    Carmita Helena Najjar Abdo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Sexual dysfunctions can have origins in physical, psychological and psychosocial factors. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of erectile dysfunction (ED and female inhibition of sexual desire (ISD in a Brazilian sample, and to estimate the risks of these dysfunctions. TYPE OF STUDY: Non-random survey. SETTING: Ten Brazilian cities. METHODS: 2,835 subjects (53% women aged over 18 years answered a questionnaire about their general health and sex life. The chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression were used. Values of p < 0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: The women's average age was 36.6 years (± 13.3 and the men's was 39.5 (± 13.3. 14.7% of men presented moderate/complete ED and 34.6% of women presented ISD. Depression was mentioned by 16.8% of men and 29.7% of women. The chances of having ED and ISD were higher for subjects who had had lower school attainment. Lack of a job and depression gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 2.3 and 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.2 - 3.0 greater chances of ED respectively. Compared with men aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 had 1.9 times (95% CI: 1.0 - 3.4 and those aged 61 and over had 5.4 times (95% CI: 2.3 - 12.6 greater risk of ED. For women, lack of a job gave rise to 1.5 times (95% CI: 1.1 - 1.9 greater chance of ISD; depression was not associated with higher risk. Compared with women aged up to 25 years, those aged 41-60 and 61 or over had, respectively, 2.9 times (95% CI: 2.0 - 4.1 and 7.5 times (95% CI: 3.0 -18.6 greater risk of ISD. DISCUSSION: Increasing unemployment has affected the whole population, but especially those with lower levels of school attainment. Such levels are positively linked with presence of sexual dysfunctions. CONCLUSION: Lack of jobs, age and low school attainment are risks for the sexual dysfunctions studied. Depression increased the risk of ED but not female ISD.

  1. Coffee has hepatoprotective benefits in Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C even in lower daily consumption than in American and European populations

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    Silmara Rodrigues Machado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential role of coffee as a hepatoprotective substance for chronic liver diseases has been widely discussed. Our main aim was to evaluate the effect of coffee intake regarding clinical, biochemical tests and liver biopsy data in treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C. One hundred and thirty-six patients with chronic hepatitis C, diagnosed through liver biopsy, or by means of clinical, ultrasound or endoscopic signs of cirrhosis, were assessed by determination of biochemical tests, metabolic and morphological alterations. Food frequency was scrutinized by using a structured questionnaire. Coffee intake represented more than 90% of the total daily caffeine, and the 75th percentile was 4-Brazilian coffee-cup/day (≥255 mL/day or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. According to caffeine intake, patients were divided into two groups (< or ≥123 mg caffeine/day. Patients with higher ingestion of caffeine had lower serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (× upper limit of normal (1.8 ± 1.5 vs 2.3 ± 1.5, p = 0.04, lower frequencies of advanced (F3, F4 fibrosis (23.5% vs 54.5%, p < 0.001 and of histological activity grade (A3, A4 observed in liver biopsies (13.8% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001. By multivariate logistic regression, fibrosis was independently associated with caffeine intake (OR– 0.16; 95%CI – 0.03–0.80; p = 0.026, γ-glutamil transferase serum levels and morphological activity. But only fibrosis was associated with histological activity. In conclusion caffeine consumption greater than 123 mg/day was associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis. In addition, this study supports the assumption that coffee intake has hepatoprotective benefits for Brazilian patients with chronic hepatitis C, even in lower doses than that of American and European population intake.

  2. Phylogeography of the sand dune ant Mycetophylax simplex along the Brazilian Atlantic Forest coast: remarkably low mtDNA diversity and shallow population structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Danon Clemes; Cristiano, Maykon Passos; Tavares, Mara Garcia; Schubart, Christoph D; Heinze, Jürgen

    2015-06-10

    During past glacial periods, many species of forest-dwelling animals experienced range contractions. In contrast, species living outside such moist habitats appear to have reacted to Quaternary changes in different ways. The Atlantic Forest represents an excellent opportunity to test phylogeographic hypotheses, because it has a wide range of vegetation types, including unforested habitats covered predominantly by herbaceous and shrubby plants, which are strongly influenced by the harsh environment with strong wind and high insolation. Here, we investigated the distribution of genetic diversity in the endemic sand dune ant Mycetophylax simplex across its known range along the Brazilian coast, with the aim of contributing to the understanding of alternative phylogeographic patterns. We used partial sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I and nuclear gene wingless from 108 specimens and 51 specimens, respectively, to assess the phylogeography and demographic history of this species. To achieve this we performed different methods of phylogenetic and standard population genetic analyses. The observed genetic diversity distribution and historical demographic profile suggests that the history of M. simplex does not match the scenario suggested for other Atlantic Forest species. Instead, it underwent demographic changes and range expansions during glacial periods. Our results show that M. simplex presents a shallow phylogeographic structure with isolation by distance among the studied populations, living in an almost panmictic population. Our coalescence approach indicates that the species maintained a stable population size until roughly 75,000 years ago, when it underwent a gradual demographic expansion that were coincident with the low sea-level during the Quaternary. Such demographic events were likely triggered by the expansion of the shorelines during the lowering of the sea level. Our data suggest that over evolutionary time M. simplex did not

  3. Allelic frequencies and statistical data obtained from 12 codis STR loci in an admixed population of the Brazilian Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCEZ, Pablo Abdon da Costa; RODRIGUES, Elzemar Martins Ribeiro; FRAZÃO, Gleycianne Furtado; BORGES, Nathalia Danielly dos Reis; SANTOS, Sidney Emanoel Batista dos

    2011-01-01

    The allelic frequencies of 12 short tandem repeat loci were obtained from a sample of 307 unrelated individuals living in Macapá, a city in the northern Amazon region, Brazil. These loci are the most commonly used in forensics and paternity testing. Based on the allele frequency obtained for the population of Macapá, we estimated an interethnic admixture for the three parental groups (European, Native American and African) of, respectively, 46%, 35% and 19%. Comparing these allele frequencies...

  4. Genetic diversity and recruitment of the tropical palm, Euterpe edulis Mart., in a natural population from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, R; Nodari, R O; Vencovsky, R; dos Reis, M Sedrez

    2003-10-01

    The genetic diversity and recruitment of plants of heart-of-palm tree (Euterpe edulis Mart.) were investigated in a natural population located in Southern Brazil. Five categories of plants, from seedlings to adults, were analysed using 16 allozymic loci. The results showed an average population level of genetic diversity (He=0.278) greater than the average of plant species already studied. The recruitment process of E. edulis is related to its genetic characteristics. A significant increase in the heterozygote frequency towards the adult stages was observed at three loci (Pgdh-2, G6pdh-1 and Mdh-1). This suggests the possible action of natural selection in promoting such heterozygote increase. In the same way, a linear increase in allele frequencies was observed at four loci (Prx-3, Prx-4, Pgdh-2 and G6pdh-1), indicating that recruitment is also related to a greater survival of individuals that are carriers of certain alleles. The maintenance of high diversity levels, as well as the increase in the heterozygote frequency, are positive aspects for in situ conservation. Furthermore, an increase in heterozygote frequency is favourable to the management of the species, since the maintenance of a stock of reproductive individuals with high heterozygosity levels favours the maintenance of the population dynamic and structure.

  5. Crescimento físico e estado nutricional de populações indígenas brasileiras Physical growth and nutritional status of Brazilian indian populations

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    Ricardo V. Santos

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho revisa a literatura sobre crescimento físico de populações indígenas do Brasil. Os estudos voltados para caracterização do estado nutricional através da antropometria são relativamente recentes e, ainda, não chegam a prover um quadro claro da situação. Quando comparadas com crianças brasileiras ou com populações-referência internacionais (NCHS, as indígenas são em média de menor estatura e peso, ainda que mantenham a proporcionalidade corporal, avaliada pelo indicador 'peso para estatura'. Estes resultados podem ser interpretados como evidência de altas freqüências de desnutrição energética-protéico crônica. Pelo menos para alguns grupos, dados oriundos de inquéritos de saúde provêem evidências favoráveis à existência de condições nutricionais marginais. É indicado, contudo, que curvas de referências internacionais talvez não sejam adequadas para avaliar o crescimento físico de populações específicas, incluindo as crianças indígenas brasileiras. Chama-se atenção, também, para o fato de que mudanças nas práticas tradicionais de subsistência e nas condições de saúde devido ao processo aculturativo podem contribuir para a deterioração do estado de nutrição das populações indígenas.This paper reviews the literature on the physical growth of native populations from Brazil. Studies aiming at relating the physical growth patterns of these populations to their nutritional status are relatively recent and still do not provide a comprehensive picture of the situation. Compared to non-indigenous Brazilian children and international reference populations (NCHS, indigenous children are short and light for their age, although they maintain their body proportionality, as evaluated by weight for height. These findings could be interpreted as an indication of high rates of chronic protein-energy undernutrition. At least for some groups, data derived from health surveys provide further

  6. MOLECULAR DETECTION OF CLARITHROMYCIN AND FLUOROQUINOLONES RESISTANCE IN HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION, DIRECTLY APPLIED TO GASTRIC BIOPSIES, IN AN URBAN BRAZILIAN POPULATION

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    Gustavo Miranda MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - Antimicrobial resistance is the major factor leading to eradication failure in H. pylori treatment. Molecular tests are useful to detect genetic mutations predictive of clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones resistance. Knowledge of the local prevalence rate of resistance is important to define the best recommended treatment. Objective - To assess the prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin and fluoroquinolones, using a molecular test, in a Southeastern urban Brazilian population. Methods - A total of 72 H. pylori seropositive patients [65% female, mean age 39 (19-73 years] never treated before for this infection were studied. All patients underwent gastroscopy in addition to antrum and corpus biopsies and molecular test GenoType HelicoDR (Hain Life Science, Germany to detect H. pylori and point mutations in genes responsible for clarithromycin and fluoroquinolone resistance. The molecular procedure was divided into three steps: DNA extraction from biopsy samples, a multiplex amplification with biotinylated primers and a reverse hybridization. The most frequent point mutations involved in resistance to the two antibiotics were evaluated. Results - Resistance to clarithromycin was detected in nine (12.5% patients and to fluoroquinolones in eight (11.1% patients. The point mutation A2147G was the most common (77.8% among resistant strains to clarithromycin. In 50% of the resistant strains to fluoroquinolones, the mutant codon couldn't be identified. Conclusion - The resistance rates to clarithromycin and fluorquinolones in a large urban population in the Southeast of Brazil were acceptable, suggesting that these drugs remain appropriate options to first and second-line of H. pylori treatment. The molecular test represents an adequate diagnostic tool for monitoring H. pylori resistance.

  7. Analyzing NEXRAD doppler radar images to assess nightly dispersal patterns and population trends in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Jason W; Kunz, Thomas H

    2008-07-01

    Operators of early weather-surveillance radars often observed echoes on their displays that did not behave like weather pattern, including expanding ring-like shapes they called angels. These echoes were caused by high-flying insects, migrating birds, and large colonies of bats emerging from roosts to feed. Modern weather-surveillance radar stations in the United States (NEXt-generation RADar or NEXRAD) provide detailed images that clearly show evening bat emergences from large colonies. These images can be used to investigate the flight behavior of groups of bats and population trends in large colonies of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) in south-central Texas which are clearly imaged by local NEXRAD radar stations. In this study, we used radar reflectivity data from the New Braunfels, Texas NEXRAD station to examine relative colony size, direction of movement, speed of dispersion, and altitude gradients of bats from these colonies following evening emergence. Base reflectivity clear-air-mode Level-II images were geo-referenced and compiled in a GIS along with locations of colonies and features on the landscape. Temporal sequences of images were filtered for the activity of bats, and from this, the relative size of bat colonies, and the speed and heading of bat emergences were calculated. Our results indicate cyclical changes in colony size from year to year and that initial headings taken by bats during emergence flights are highly directional. We found that NEXRAD data can be an effective tool for monitoring the nightly behavior and seasonal changes in these large colonies. Understanding the distribution of a large regional bat population on a landscape scale has important implications for agricultural pest management and conservation efforts.

  8. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

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    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  9. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  10. Low prevalence of hypothyroidism among black and Mulatto people in a population-based study of Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, Rosely; Baima, Jader; Marante, Tatiana; de Vasconcellos, Mauricio Teixeira Leite; Moura, Anibal Sanchez; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-06-01

    Objective African-Americans have been shown to have low prevalence of hypothyroidism. Brazil has a high ethnic admixture allowing further exploration into whether environmental factors can explain the ethnic differences. Design A survey, representative of the population of Rio de Janeiro, a large metropolitan city in Brazil. Factors studied included race, parity, income, schooling, and smoking. Population The survey was carried out in Rio de Janeiro whereby households (1500) were selected using three-stage probability sampling. A total of 1298 (86.5%) women participated in the survey (non-response: 13.5%). Measurements TSH from blood drawn at the households. Anti-thyroperoxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies and free T4 were also measured. Results Overall prevalence of hypothyroidism (TSH > 4 mUI/ml or taking medication) was 12.3%. Prevalence was 6.9% in black people, 8.8% in Mulatto people, and 16.7% among white people. The mean serum TSH of the population was 2.65 (95% confidence interval 2.33-2.97). The TSH distribution of black and Mulatto people was shifted to the left compared to white people. After adjustment for age, income, smoking and presence of anti-TPO, Black and Mulatto people were still protected from hypothyroidism. The adjusted odds ratio for black compared to white people was 0.45 (95% CI 0.30-0.68) and for Mulatto people was 0.34 (95% CI 0.18-0.63). Serum TSH levels were significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers, but there was no association between number of cigarettes smoked and serum TSH level. Conclusions This is the first time it has been demonstrated that Mulatto people have a prevalence of hypothyroidism which lies between that of white and black people, independent of the prevalence of anti-TPO and smoking.

  11. Field-Evolved Resistance and Cross-Resistance of Brazilian Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Populations to Diamide Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jefferson E; Assis, Carla P O; Ribeiro, Lílian M S; Siqueira, Herbert A A

    2016-07-17

    Tuta absoluta (Meyrick), one of the most important tomato pests worldwide, is heavily controlled by the application of insecticides. Diamide insecticides represent a new class of products recently registered to control T. absoluta After 6 yr of use, control failures have been reported in populations of this pest, suggesting a hypothetical resistance development. Therefore, a resistance survey was performed using nine populations of T. absoluta that were collected in open fields, including from areas with reports of a reduced efficacy of diamides in the Northeast and Central regions of Brazil. Initial surveys with diagnostic and label doses proved the reduced efficacy of diamides against most populations. The LC 50 values of chlorantraniliprole varied from 0.0044 (Brasília) to 1,263 (América Dourada) mg AI liter -1 (the resistance ratios [RR 50 ] ranged from 1.0- to 288,995-fold), whereas the LC 50 values for cyantraniliprole and flubendiamide, respectively, varied from 0.015 (Brasília) to 281 (América Dourada) mg AI liter -1 and from 0.038 (Guaraciaba do Norte) to 3,018 (Gameleira 1) mg AI liter -1 The resistance ratios (RR 50 ) ranged from 1.0- to 18,423-fold for cyantraniliprole and from 1.0- to 80,413-fold for flubendiamide. The log LC 50 values of pairwise diamides were strongly and significantly correlated, which denoted cross-resistance among them. Very high resistance to diamides in T. absoluta was observed in this study, suggesting that strategies to mitigate resistance and thereby control the pest must not include only insecticides. Other control tactics must be carefully implemented over time to increase the life span of diamides, including rotational practices with other molecules. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Brazilian Firms

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    Vicente Lima Crisóstomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work makes an analysis of the determinants of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR of Brazilian firms, as proxied by firm membership of the ISE Index of BM&FBOVESPA. Besides other proposed determinants of CSR present in the literature (firm size, profitability, growth opportunities, the work examines ownership concentration and the persistence on CSR status. Logit regression estimates have been run for a sample of 1649 firm-year observations in the period 2006-2011. The findings show that CSR of Brazilian firms is inversely correlated to its ownership concentration indicating that controlling voting shareholders may not see social concerns as a priority. Besides, firms tend to maintain their present CSR status. The results also indicate that leading CSR firms are larger, face more growth opportunities, and are persistent in their superior CSR situation.

  13. Population Genetic Structure of Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) Is Shaped by Habitat Fragmentation, Water Resources and Biological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lulu; Chen, Jianjun; Hu, Weiming; Yang, Tianshun; Zhang, Yanjun; Yukiyoshi, Tamura; Zhou, Yanyang; Wang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation, water resources and biological characteristics are important factors that shape the genetic structure and geographical distribution of desert plants. Analysis of the relationships between these factors and population genetic variation should help to determine the evolutionary potential and conservation strategies for genetic resources for desert plant populations. As a traditional Chinese herb, Glycyrrhiza inflata B. (Fabaceae) is restricted to the fragmented desert habitat in China and has undergone a dramatic decline due to long-term over-excavation. Determining the genetic structure of the G. inflata population and identifying a core collection could help with the development of strategies to conserve this species. We investigated the genetic variation of 25 G. inflata populations based on microsatellite markers. A high level of population genetic divergence (FST = 0.257), population bottlenecks, reduced gene flow and moderate genetic variation (HE = 0.383) were detected. The genetic distances between the populations significantly correlated with the geographical distances, and this suggests that habitat fragmentation has driven a special genetic structure of G. inflata in China through isolation by distance. STRUCTURE analysis showed that G. inflata populations were structured into three clusters and that the populations belonged to multiple water systems, which suggests that water resources were related to the genetic structure of G. inflata. In addition, the biological characteristics of the perennial species G. inflata, such as its long-lived seeds, asexual reproduction, and oasis ecology, may be related to its resistance to habitat fragmentation. A core collection of G. inflata, that included 57 accessions was further identified, which captured the main allelic diversity of G. inflata. Recent habitat fragmentation has accelerated genetic divergence. The population genetic structure of G. inflata has been shaped by habitat

  14. Transmission of Human Herpesvirus Type 8 Infection Within Families in American Indigenous Populations From the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Jaila D.; Souza, Vanda A. U. F.; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Dudbridge, Frank; Freire, Wilton S.; Gregório, Shinai Arriel; Torrez, Pasesa Pascuala Quispe; Quiroga, Mariana; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S.; Nascimento, Maria Cláudia

    2012-01-01

    Background The intrafamilial dynamics of endemic infection with human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) in Amerindian populations is unknown. Methods Serum samples were obtained from 517 Amerindians and tested for HHV-8 anti–latent nuclear antigen (anti-LANA) and antilytic antibodies by immunofluorescence assays. Logistic regression and mixed logistic models were used to estimate the odds of being HHV-8 seropositive among intrafamilial pairs. Results HHV-8 seroprevalence by either assay was 75.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 71.5%–79.1%), and it was age-dependent (Ptrend 4) number of siblings (OR, 3.20, 95% CI: 1.33–7.67). In separate analyses by serological assay, there was strong dependence in mother–offspring (OR 8.94, 95% CI: 2.94–27.23) and sibling pairs aged ≥10 years (OR, 11.91, 95% CI: 2.23–63.64) measured by LANA but not lytic antibodies. Conclusions This pattern of familial dependence suggests that, in this endemic population, HHV-8 transmission mainly occurs from mother to offspring and between close siblings during early childhood, probably via saliva. The mother to offspring dependence was derived chiefly from anti-LANA antibodies. PMID:22474036

  15. Forecasting the Optimal Factors of Formation of the Population Savings as the Basis for Investment Resources of the Regional Economy

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    Odintsova Tetiana M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the optimal factors of formation of the population savings as the basis for investment resources of the regional economy. A factorial (nonlinear correlative-regression analysis of the formation of savings of the population of Ukraine was completed. On its basis a forecast of the optimal structure and volumes of formation of the population incomes was carried out taking into consideration impact of fundamental factors on these incomes. Such approach provides to identify the marginal volumes of tax burden, population savings, and capital investments, directed to economic growth.

  16. Migration, Quality of Life And Health of Brazilian Immigrants in Portugal

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    Eliany Nazaré Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immigrants face many challenges when settling in a foreign country, numerous factors influence this immigrant experience including the resources they bring with them and those they find in the host society. The literature has indicated that a significant number of individuals migrate in search of a better quality of life. In this context, the objective of the study was to analyze the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal, using the "Medical Outcomes Study: 36-Item Short Form Survey" (SF-36. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach developed under the project titled: Health status and quality of life of Brazilian immigrants in Portugal conducted in the first half of 2016, with 682 Brazilian immigrant women over 18 living in Portugal. This study adopted as reference SF-36, a generic instrument for the evaluation of Quality of Life. It can be affirmed that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, since all dimensions presented values above 50%. It was evidenced that Brazilian immigrants who live alone have lower levels of quality of life and health than those who live with someone and, that Brazilian immigrants who are unemployed, have low levels of quality of life and health compared to those who are in another employment situation, and Brazilian immigrants entering the labor market with a workload of more than 40 hours per week present similar levels of quality of life and health compared to those who work fewer hours. Conclusion: In general, one can affirm that the quality of life and health of Brazilian immigrants living in Portugal is good, but due to the particularities of the migration process in the current political and international context, a systematic monitoring of living conditions and health of this population is necessary. Keywords: Emigrants and Immigrants; Quality of life; Women, Mental health

  17. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study

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    M.F. Gronner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m², waist circumference and blood pressure (BP were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively. Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  18. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its association with educational inequalities among Brazilian adults: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronner, M F; Bosi, P L; Carvalho, A M; Casale, G; Contrera, D; Pereira, M A; Diogo, T M; Torquato, M T C G; Souza, G M D; Oishi, J; Leal, A M O

    2011-07-01

    The present study estimated the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) according to the criteria established by the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and analyzed the contribution of social factors in an adult urban population in the Southeastern region of Brazil. The sample plan was based on multistage probability sampling according to family head income and educational level. A random sample of 1116 subjects aged 30 to 79 years was studied. Participants answered a questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and medical history. Fasting capillary glucose (FCG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides were determined and all non-diabetic subjects were submitted to the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test. Body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)), waist circumference and blood pressure (BP) were determined. Age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of MS was 35.9 and 43.2% according to NCEP-ATPIII and IDF criteria, respectively. Substantial agreement was found between NCEP-ATPIII and IDF definitions. Low HDL-C levels and high BP were the most prevalent MS components according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria (76.3 and 59.2%, respectively). Considering the diagnostic criteria adopted, 13.5% of the subjects had diabetes and 9.7% had FCG ≥100 mg/dL. MS prevalence was significantly associated with age, skin color, BMI, and educational level. This cross-sectional population-based study in the Southeastern region of Brazil indicates that MS is highly prevalent and associated with an important social indicator, i.e., educational level. This result suggests that in developing countries health policy planning to reduce the risk of MS, in particular, should consider improvement in education.

  19. Population genetic structure of the major malaria vector Anopheles darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae from the Brazilian Amazon, using microsatellite markers

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    Vera Margarete Scarpassa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The population genetic structure of Anopheles darlingi, the major human malaria vector in the Neotropics, was examined using seven microsatellite loci from nine localities in central and western Amazonian Brazil. High levels of genetic variability were detected (5-25 alleles per locus; H E = 0.519-0.949. There was deviation from Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium for 59.79% of the tests due to heterozygote deficits, while the analysis of linkage disequilibrium was significant for only two of 189 (1.05% tests, most likely caused by null alleles. Genetic differentiation (F ST = 0.001-0.095; Nm = 4.7-363.8 indicates that gene flow is extensive among locations < 152 km apart (with two exceptions and reduced, but not absent, at a larger geographic scale. Genetic and geographic distances were significantly correlated (R² = 0.893, P < 0.0002, supporting the isolation by distance (IBD model. The overall estimate of Ne was 202.4 individuals under the linkage disequilibrium model, and 8 under the heterozygote excess model. Analysis of molecular variance showed that nearly all variation (~ 94% was within sample locations. The UPGMA phenogram clustered the samples geographically, with one branch including 5/6 of the state of Amazonas localities and the other branch the Acre, Rondônia, and remaining Amazonas localities. Taken together, these data suggest little genetic structure for An. darlingi from central and western Amazonian Brazil. These findings also imply that the IBD model explains nearly all of the differentiation detected. In practical terms, populations of An. darlingi at distances < 152 km should respond similarly to vector control measures, because of high gene flow.

  20. Measuring population fluctuation of jatropha stem-borer [Cophes notaticeps (Marshall)] in the Brazilian Cerrado using a new trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C M; Silva, C N; Frizzas, M R; Dianese, A C

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to monitor the population fluctuation of Cophes notaticeps (Marshall) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in a jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation in the Federal District, Brazil, through the use of a new trap, combined with different attractive lures and trap colors. The study was conducted at Embrapa Cerrados (Planaltina/DF) in a field trial with 720 plants. The new trap, named CPAC16, was made with PVC pipes (100 mm in diameter) of about 40 cm in length, with a window (8 × 10 cm2) in its center to enable insect access. A lure compartment was fixed on the inside of the trap`s top, and a pot, containing water and detergent, was placed at its bottom to collect the insects. The traps were painted in red, yellow, blue and green. Molasses, ethanol and pineapple were used as attractive lures. The traps were in the field trial area between May 2013 and April 2014 and the insects were collected weekly. The incidence of plants presenting damage caused by C. notaticeps was evaluated in the beginning and at the end of the study. The CPAC16 trap proved efficient in monitoring C. notaticeps. About 3494 of C. notaticeps adults were collected during the study. There were no significant differences among traps painted with different colors. The most attractive lure was molasses collecting 75.2% (n = 2627) of the specimens. Although the population peak occurred in December (n = 1162), C. notaticeps were collected throughout the year. The incidence of plants attacked by C. notaticeps ranged from 66.4% (start) to 100% (end).

  1. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, G. [California Univ., Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Predatory Bird Research Group

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding and recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.

  2. New technology and illness self-management: Potential relevance for resource-poor populations in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Henry

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technology have made it possible for many standard diagnostic and health monitoring procedures, traditionally carried out by qualified personnel within medical facilities, to be reliably undertaken by patients or carers in their own homes with a minimum of basic training. There has also been a dramatic increase in the number and diversity of both sources of information on health issues and the possibilities for sharing information and experiences over ICT-based social networks. It has been suggested that these developments have the potential to 'empower' patients, reducing their dependence on providers and possibly improving their quality of care by increasing the volume and timeliness of diagnostic data and encouraging active self-management of their condition, for example through lifestyle changes. Perhaps more significantly, it is also seen by many economies with ageing populations as a way to contain high and ever rising healthcare costs. It has also been suggested that a move to greater self-management supported by expert networks and smart phone technology could improve the treatment of many millions of patients with chronic diseases in low and middle income economies that are also confronting the potential cost implications of epidemiological and demographic transitions, combined with the higher expectations of a more educated and knowledgeable population. There is now limited evidence that some fairly basic e- and mHealth interventions, for example in the areas of MNCH, malaria and HIV/AIDS can have a positive impact, even in resource-poor contexts. The aim here is to explore the extent to which further investment in technology could play a role in the development of an effective and affordable health sector strategy for at least some developing economies. It is suggested that the effectiveness of the approach may be highly dependent on the specific health conditions addressed, the nature of existing health systems and the overall socio

  3. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  4. O envelhecimento da população brasileira: um enfoque demográfico The aging process in the Brazilian population: a demographic approach

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    José Alberto Magno de Carvalho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Contrariamente ao indicado pelo senso comum, o processo de envelhecimento populacional, tal como observado até hoje, é resultado do declínio da fecundidade, e não da mortalidade. O envelhecimento populacional iniciou-se no final do século XIX em alguns países da Europa Ocidental, espalhou-se pelo resto do Primeiro Mundo, no século passado, e se estendeu, nas últimas décadas, por vários países do Terceiro Mundo, inclusive o Brasil. No caso brasileiro, observou-se, a partir do final dos anos 60, rapidíssima e generalizada queda da fecundidade, e haverá, conseqüentemente, um célere processo de envelhecimento da população. Este processo será, necessariamente, mais rápido e com mudanças estruturais, demograficamente falando, mais profundas do que nos países do Primeiro Mundo por duas razões: o declínio da fecundidade, no País, deu-se em um ritmo maior e origina-se de uma população mais jovem do que aquela dos países desenvolvidos.Contrary to common sense, the population aging process is due to the decline in fertility rather than mortality. The aging process began around the end of the 19th century in a number of Western European countries, expanded to the rest of the so-called First World over the past century, and reached several Third World countries afterwards, including Brazil over the last decades. In the Brazilian case, a sharp and widespread fertility decline began by the end of the 1960s, and an accelerated population aging process can thus be expected. This process will necessarily be faster and with deeper structural changes, demographically speaking, than in First World countries, for two reasons: the fertility decline in Brazil was faster, and it took place in a population with a younger age structure.

  5. A simple method based on ICP-MS for estimation of background levels of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead, and selenium in blood of the Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana A; Batista, Bruno L; Rodrigues, Jairo L; Caldas, Naise M; Neto, Jose A G; Barbosa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the world, biomonitoring has become the standard for assessing exposure of individuals to toxic elements as well as for responding to serious environmental public health problems. However, extensive biomonitoring surveys require rapid and simple analytical methods. Thus, a simple and high-throughput method is proposed for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and selenium (Se) in blood samples by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Prior to analysis, 200 microl of blood samples was mixed with 500 microl of 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 10 min, and subsequently diluted to 10 ml with a solution containing 0.05% w/v ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) + 0.005% v/v Triton X-100. After that, samples were directly analyzed by ICP-MS (ELAN DRC II). Rhodium was selected as an internal standard with matrix-matching calibration. Method detection limits were 0.08, 0.04, 0.5, 0.09, 0.12, 0.04, and 0.1 microg//L for As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se, respectively. Validation data are provided based on the analysis of blood samples from the trace elements inter-\\comparison program operated by the Institut National de Sante Publique du Quebec, Canada. Additional validation was provided by the analysis of human blood samples by the proposed method and by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was subsequently applied for the estimation of background metal blood values in the Brazilian population. In general, the mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Se in blood were 1.1, 0.4, 890, 9.6, 2.1, 65.4, and 89.3 microg/L, respectively, and are in agreement with other global populations. Influences of age, gender, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and geographical variation on the values were also considered. Smoking habits influenced the levels of Cd in blood. The levels of Cu, Mn, and Pb were

  6. Falls and self-assessment of eyesight among elderly people: a population-based study in a south Brazilian municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Bruno Pereira; de Oliveira Saes, Mirelle; Siqueira, Fernando Vinholes; Tomasi, Elaine; Silva, Suele Manjourany; da Silveira, Denise Silva; Soares, Mariangela Uhlmann; Facchini, Luiz Augusto; Thumé, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to verify the association between falls and self-assessment of visual acuity in elderly people by means of a cross-sectional population-based study involving 1593 elderly people (aged 60 or over) from the urban zone of the municipality of Bagé-RS. Poisson regression was used for association analysis. Fall prevalence in the last year was 28.0% (95%CI: 25.8; 30.2), with 45.0% of these having suffered two or more falls in the same period. Elderly people self-assessing their eyesight as bad/very poor (10.0%) or regular (33.3%) showed a linear increase in fall occurrence when compared to individuals who considered their eyesight to be good/excellent. Self-assessment of eyesight showed itself to be an important factor associated with the occurrence of falls. This results entails the need to make progress with tracing elderly people with eyesight difficulties and its possible impact on actions to prevent the occurrence of falls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. HLA-B*44 Is Associated with Dengue Severity Caused by DENV-3 in a Brazilian Population

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    Liciana Xavier Eurico de Alencar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles have been correlated with susceptibility or resistance to severe dengue; however, few immunogenetic studies have been performed in Latin American (LA populations. We have conducted immunogenetic studies of HLA class I and II alleles in a cohort of 187 patients with DENV-3 infection and confirmed clinical diagnosis of either severe dengue, known as dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF, or the less severe form, dengue fever (DF, in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. An association analysis was performed using Fisher’s association test, with odds ratios (ORs calculated using conditional maximum likelihood estimates. HLA-B*44 (P=0.047, OR = 2.025, 95% CI = 0.97–4.24 was found to be associated with increased susceptibility to DHF in response to DENV-3 infection. In addition, HLA-B*07 (P=0.048, OR = 0.501, one-sided 95% CI = 0–0.99 and HLA-DR*13 (P=0.028, OR = 0.511, one-sided 95% CI = 0–0.91 were found to be associated with resistance to secondary dengue infection by DENV-3. These results suggest that HLA-B*44 supertype alleles and their respective T-cell responses might be involved in susceptibility to severe dengue infections, whereas the HLA-B*07 supertype alleles and DR*13 might be involved in cross-dengue serotype immunity.

  8. Fatores de risco para o prolapso genital em uma população brasileira Risk factors for genital prolapse in a Brazilian population

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    Andrea Moura Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar os fatores de risco para o desenvolvimento de prolapso genital na população brasileira. MÉTODOS: estudo caso-controle envolvendo 316 pacientes que foram submetidas a estadiamento de prolapso, utilizando-se o sistema de quantificação de prolapso dos órgãos pélvicos. As pacientes foram divididas em dois grupos. No Grupo Caso, foram incluídas 107 pacientes com prolapso nos estádios III ou IV, e no Controle, 209 mulheres com estádios 0 ou I. As mulheres selecionadas respondiam à anamnese na qual eram questionadas sobre a presença de possíveis fatores de risco para prolapso genital, tais como: idade, idade da menopausa, paridade, tipos de parto (vaginal, cesariana ou fórcipe, ocorrência de macrossomia fetal, história familiar em parentes de primeiro grau de distopia genital, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal. RESULTADOS: as variáveis que se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos foram: idade, índice de massa corpórea, paridade, número de partos vaginais, de cesarianas, de partos fórcipe, peso do recém-nascido e história familiar positiva para prolapso. Raça, idade da menopausa, tosse crônica e constipação intestinal não se mostraram diferentes entre os grupos. Após a regressão logística, somente três variáveis se apresentaram como fatores de risco independentes: presença de pelo menos um parto vaginal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva. A cesariana se mostrou como fator protetor. CONCLUSÕES: na população brasileira, os fatores de risco independentes para prolapso foram a presença de pelo menos um parto normal, macrossomia fetal e história familiar positiva para distopia.PURPOSE: to evaluate risk factors for the development of genital prolapse in the Brazilian population. METHODS: case-control study involving 316 patients submitted to prolapse staging, according to the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system. The patients were divided into two groups: in the Case Group

  9. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

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    Soraya da Rocha BRITTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and Adolescents' Rights Resolution nº 163 of 2014 about food advertising. The advertisements were recorded in July 2015, at different times and days of the week. Results: One hundred and sixty-two hours were recorded, registering 3,468 commercials: 1,850 were related to internal programming and 1,618 advertised toys (22.15%, food and beverages (5.61%, applications for electronic devices (5.58%, and entertainment/events (5.56%. The Fisher exact test showed fewer number of food commercials compared to other types of commercials (p<0.001. The main food items advertised by all television stations were ultraprocessed foods and no advertisements of fresh food were observed (p<0.001. Most of the food commercials (64.30% used children's language and characters; 43.00% used songs in children's voices, and 21.40% linked gift distribution to food. Conclusion: The number of food commercials observed was lower than in previous national studies. However, the advertisements did not follow current legislation, indicating the abuse of marketing communication to children. More effective public policies and the respect and enforcement of legislation on child advertising could protect children from high consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

  10. Gender differences in the perception of asthma and respiratory symptoms in a population sample of asthma patients in four Brazilian cities

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    Laura Russo Zillmer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of asthma, by gender, in a population sample of asthma patients in Brazil. METHODS: We conducted face-to-face interviews with 400 subjects (> 12 years of age included in a national probability telephone sample of asthma patients in the Brazilian state capitals of São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, and Salvador. Each of those 400 subjects completed a 53-item questionnaire that addressed five asthma domains: symptoms; impact of asthma on quality of life; perception of asthma control; exacerbations; and treatment/medication. RESULTS: Of the 400 patients interviewed, 272 (68% were female. In relation to respiratory symptoms, the proportion of women reporting extremely bothersome symptoms (cough with sputum, tightness in the chest, cough/shortness of breath/tightness in the chest during exercise, nocturnal shortness of breath, and nocturnal cough was greater than was that of men. Daytime symptoms, such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, and tightness in the chest, were more common among women than among men. Women also more often reported that their asthma interfered with normal physical exertion, social activities, sleep, and life in general. Regarding the impact of asthma on quality of life, the proportion of subjects who reported that asthma caused them to feel that they had no control over their lives and affected the way that they felt about themselves was also greater among women than among men. CONCLUSIONS: Among women, asthma tends to be more symptomatic, as well as having a more pronounced effect on activities of daily living and on quality of life.

  11. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

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    Junia Maria Serra-Negra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female, aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%, whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4% and some artistic activity (51.3% while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%. The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. CONCLUSION: Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  12. Relationship between Tasks Performed, Personality Traits, and Sleep Bruxism in Brazilian School Children - A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Background Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children’s tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. Methods And Findings A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female), aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%), whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4%) and some artistic activity (51.3%) while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%). The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. Conclusion Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism. PMID:24244614

  13. Relationship between tasks performed, personality traits, and sleep bruxism in Brazilian school children--a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Negra, Junia Maria; Paiva, Saul Martins; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Flores-Mendoza, Carmen Elvira; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Tasks can be instruments of stress and may affect the health of children. Sleep bruxism is a multifactorial sleep-related movement disorder that affects children and adults. The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between children's tasks, personality traits and sleep bruxism. A cross-sectional, population-based study of 652 randomly selected Brazilian schoolchildren (52% of whom were female), aged from 7 to 10 years was conducted in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. A questionnaire based on criteria proposed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) was completed by parents. In addition, the Neuroticism and Responsibility sub-scales of the Big Five Questionnaire for Children (BFQ-C) were administered to the children. Psychological tests were administered and evaluated by psychologists. The Social Vulnerability Index from the city council database was used to determine the social classification of the families. Chi-square and Poisson regression statistical tests were used with a 95% confidence interval. The majority of families were classified as having low social vulnerability (61.3%), whereas, 38.7% were classified as having high social vulnerability. Regarding extracurricular activities, the majority of girls performed household work (56.4%) and some artistic activity (51.3%) while sporting activities were most common among boys (61%). The results of the Poisson regression model indicated that sleep bruxism was most prevalent in children who scored highly in the Neuroticism sub-scale, and who frequently performed household tasks. Children whose personality domain has a high level of Neuroticism and who perform household chores imposed by the family are more vulnerable to sleep bruxism.

  14. Uroflowmetry in a Large Population of Brazilian Men Submitted to a health check up program and its correlation with ipss and prostate size

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    Joao Paulo Zambon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The aim of this study was to assess the uroflowmetry data in a large population of asymptomatic Brazilian men submitted to a health check up program and their correlation to IPSS and prostate size. Materials and Methods Asymptomatic men underwent a health check-up program between January and December 2012. The inclusion criteria were men between 40 and 70 years, IPSS ≤ 7, without bladder, prostate, urethral surgery, neurological diseases, urinary tract infection, PSA < 4.0 ng/dL and urinary volume higher than 150 mL. Urological assessment consisted of clinical history, IPSS, digital rectal examination (DRE, prostate specific antigen (PSA, urinalysis, ultrasonography and uroflowmetry. Results A total of 1041 asymptomatic men were included in this study. The average age was 49 years and average maximum flow rate was 17.4 mL/s. In spite of IPSS and prostate size increase with aging, they had a weak correlation with Qmax cutoffs (10 mL/s and 15 mL/s. A total of 85 men (8.3% had more than 60 years, and even in this group, Qmax was higher than 15 mL/s. Out of 1041 men, 117 had IPSS less than 8 and Qmax less than 10 mL/s. Conclusions In asymptomatic men there is a weak correlation between IPSS, prostate size and uroflowmetric data. The establishment of different normal cutoffs seems to be complicated and uroflowmetry data should be interpreted with caution in order to avoid misdiagnosis.

  15. Preliminary Analysis of the Nonsynonymous Polymorphism rs17563 in BMP4 Gene in Brazilian Population Suggests Protection for Nonsyndromic Cleft Lip and Palate

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    Tânia Kawasaki Araújo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cleft lip with or without palate (CL±P is common congenital anomalies in humans. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein 4 gene (Bmp4 is involved in the etiology of CL±P in animal models. The nonsynonymous polymorphism rs17563 T>C (p.V152A in the BMP4 gene has been associated to the risk of nonsyndromic CL±P in Chinese population and microforms from different ethnic backgrounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of BMP4 gene in CL±P in Brazilian sample using genetic association approach. Our sample was composed by 123 patients with nonsyndromic CL±P and 246 controls, in which absence of CL±P was confirmed in 3 generations. The rs17563 polymorphism was genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate allele and genotype association. Our data showed statistical power to detect association (86.83% in this sample. Logistic regression results showed significant association between C allele and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.40, and 95% CI = 0.25–0.65, as well as CC genotype and CL±P (P=0.00018, OR =0.35, and 95% CI = 0.19–0.66. So, there is a strong association between nonsyndromic CL±P and BMP4 rs17563 polymorphism in our sample and the C allele had a protective effect against the occurrence of nonsyndromic CL±P.

  16. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in IL17A and IL6 Are Associated with Decreased Risk for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Southern Brazilian Population.

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    Mariana Milano

    Full Text Available In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection, the complex interaction of host immune system and the mycobacteria is associated with levels of cytokines production that play a major role in determining the outcome of the disease. Several single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in cytokine genes have been associated with tuberculosis (TB outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between previously reported SNPs IL2-330 T>G (rs2069762; IL4-590 C>T (rs2243250; IL6-174 G>C (rs1800795; IL10-592 A>C (rs1800872; IL10-1082 G>A (rs1800896; IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036; IL17A -197 G>A (rs2275913; TNF -238 G>A (rs361525; TNF -308 G>A (rs1800629 and IFNG +874 T>A (rs2430561 and pulmonary TB (PTB susceptibility. We conducted a case-control study in individuals from Southern Brazil who were recruited between February 2012 and October 2013 in a high incidence TB city. We performed a multiplex genotyping assay in 191 patients with PTB and 175 healthy subjects. Our results suggest a decreased risk for PTB development associated with the IL17A -197A allele (OR = 0.29; p = 0.04, AA genotype (OR = 0.12; p = 0.04 and A carrier (AG/AA (OR = 0.29; p = 0.004 and IL6 -174C carrier (CC/CG (OR = 0.46; p = 0.04. We could not properly analyze IL17A -692 C>T (rs8193036 and IFNG +874T>A due to genotypic inconsistencies and found no evidence of association for the IL2, IL4, IL10 and TNF polymorphisms and PTB. In conclusion, our results show a protective effect of IL17 and IL6 polymorphisms on PTB outcome in Southern Brazilian population.

  17. [Factors associated with poor sleep quality in the Brazilian population ≥ 40 years of age: VIGICARDIO Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Loch, Mathias Roberto; Dos Santos, Hellen Geremias; Sakay Bortoletto, Maira Sayuri; Durán González, Alberto; Maffei de Andrade, Selma

    The prevalence of poor sleep quality in men and women ≥ 40 years old from the VIGICARDIO Study was determined, and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors associated with poor sleep quality were identified. A population-based study conducted in 2011 among 1,058 non-institutionalised individuals randomly selected from Cambé, Paraná State, Brazil. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between sleep quality and sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and social capital factors in men and women. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 34% in men and 44% in women. Having bad/regular self-rated health status was a factor associated with poor sleep quality in men (OR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.17-2.72) and women (OR: 2.43; 95% CI: 1.68-3.53). Being obese (OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.46), having depression (OR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.41-3.13) and presenting temporal orientation difficulties (OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.08-3.52) were associated factors in women. Difficulty to understand what is explained (OR: 2.18; 95% CI: 1.16-4.09) and alcohol abuse (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21-2.83) were associated factors in men. Factors affecting sleep quality are different for men and for women. These factors should be taken into consideration when devising activities that promote good sleep quality, with a view to improving their effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations: potential Leishmania spp. vectors in the Brazilian savanna

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    Tâmara Dias Oliveira Machado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Knowledge on synanthropic phlebotomines and their natural infection by Leishmania is necessary for the identification of potential areas for leishmaniasis occurrence. OBJECTIVE To analyse the occurrence of Phlebotominae in gallery forests and household units (HUs in the city of Palmas and to determine the rate of natural infection by trypanosomatids. METHODS Gallery forests and adjacent household areas were sampled on July (dry season and November (rainy season in 2014. The total sampling effort was 960 HP light traps and eight Shannon traps. Trypanosomatids were detected in Phlebotominae females through the amplification of the SSU rDNA region, and the positive samples were used in ITS1-PCR. Trypanosomatid species were identified using sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 1,527 sand flies representing 30 species were captured in which 949 (28 spp. and 578 (22 spp. were registered in July and November, respectively. In July, more specimens were captured in the gallery forests than in the HUs, and Nyssomyia whitmani was particularly frequent. In November, most of the specimens were found in the HUs, and again, Ny. whitmani was the predominant species. Lutzomyia longipalpis was commonly found in domestic areas, while Bichromomyia flaviscutellata was most frequent in gallery forests. Molecular analysis of 154 pools of females (752 specimens identified Leishmania amazonensis, L. infantum, and Crithidia fasciculata in Ny. whitmani, as well as L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis, Trypanosoma sp. and L. amazonensis in Pintomyia christenseni, and L. amazonensis in both Psathyromyia hermanlenti and Evandromyia walkeri. MAIN CONCLUSIONS These results show the importance of gallery forests in maintaining Phlebotominae populations in the dry month, as well as their frequent occurrence in household units in the rainy month. This is the first study to identify Leishmania, Trypanosoma, and Crithidia species in Phlebotominae collected in Palmas, Tocantins

  19. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families.

  20. BRAZILIAN NEWS PORTALS CHARACTERISTICS

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    Heloiza G. Herckovitz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A content analysis of four Brazilian news media portals found that economic news dominated the top headlines with little attention paid to education, the environment and welfare. Other trends included a focus on local events and national news sources, reliance on few sources, mostly official ones, and a low percentage of news that fitted the concept of newsworthiness (a combination of both social significance and deviance concepts. Other findings of a study of 432 top news stories published by UOL, Estadão, iG and Terra during a 15-day period between February and March 2008 indicate that the top portions of the portals’ front pages carry news that lacks story depth, editorial branding, and multimedia applications. The results suggest that online news portals are in their infancy although Brazil has the largest online population of Latin America. This study hopes to shed light on the gatekeeping process in Brazilian news portals. Brazilian media portals have yet to become a significant editorial force able to provide knowledge about social issues and public affairs in a socially responsible fashione.

  1. Comparison of postmenopausal endogenous sex hormones among Japanese, Japanese Brazilians, and non-Japanese Brazilians

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    Maciel Maria

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in sex hormone levels among populations might contribute to the variation in breast cancer incidence across countries. Previous studies have shown higher breast cancer incidence and mortality among Japanese Brazilians than among Japanese. To clarify the difference in hormone levels among populations, we compared postmenopausal endogenous sex hormone levels among Japanese living in Japan, Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo, and non-Japanese Brazilians living in the state of São Paulo. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted using a control group of case-control studies in Nagano, Japan, and São Paulo, Brazil. Participants were postmenopausal women older than 55 years of age who provided blood samples. We measured estradiol, estrone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS, testosterone and free testosterone by radioimmunoassay; bioavailable estradiol by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method; and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG by immunoradiometric assay. A total of 363 women were included for the present analyses, comprising 185 Japanese, 44 Japanese Brazilians and 134 non-Japanese Brazilians. Results Japanese Brazilians had significantly higher levels of estradiol, bioavailable estradiol, estrone, testosterone and free testosterone levels, and lower SHBG levels, than Japanese. Japanese Brazilians also had significantly higher levels of bioavailable estradiol, estrone and DHEAS and lower levels of SHBG and androstenedione than non-Japanese Brazilians. Levels of estradiol, testosterone and free testosterone, however, did not differ between Japanese Brazilians and non-Japanese Brazilians. These differences were observed even after adjustment for known breast cancer risk factors. We also found an increase in estrogen and androgen levels with increasing body mass index, but no association for most of the other known risk factors. Conclusions We found higher levels of

  2. IL33 and IL1RL1 variants are associated with asthma and atopy in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, G A; Costa, R S; Alcantara-Neves, N M; Nunes de Oliveira Costa, G; Barreto, M L; Carneiro, V L; Figueiredo, C A

    2017-04-01

    Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease in airways resulting from genetic and environmental factors, characterized by production of the Th2 cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-13 (IL-13). Interleukin-33 (IL-33) appears to be a potent inducer of Th2 immune response. This occurs when IL-33 binds and activates its receptor, the membrane ST2 (ST2L) in mast cells, dendritic cells, basophils, eosinophils, innate lymphoids and Th2 cells, leading to the release of these cytokines and intensifying allergic inflammation. Polymorphisms in the IL33 and IL1RL1 can act as protective or risk factors for asthma and/or allergy in humans. No study was conducted to replicate such findings in a European and African descendent mixed population. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood from 1223 subjects, and the samples were genotyped using Illumina 2.5 Human Omni Beadchip. We tested for possible associations between SNPs in the IL33 and ST2 with asthma and allergy markers such as specific IgE (sIgE), IL-5 and IL-13 production and skin prick test (SPT). Logistics regressions were performed using PLINK software 1.07. The analyses were adjusted for sex, age, helminth infection and ancestry markers. The G allele of IL33 SNP rs12551256 was negatively associated with asthma (OR 0.71, 95% CI: 0.53-0.94, P = 0.017). In contrast, the A allele of IL1RL1 rs1041973 was positively associated with IL-5 production (OR 1.36, 95% CI: 1.09-1.84, P = 0.044), sIgE levels (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07-1.84, P = 0.013) and positive SPT (OR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.08-2.03, P = 0.014), for Blomia tropicalis mite. The same allele, in atopic subjects, was associated with decreased production of soluble ST2 (sST2) (P asthma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The importance of the energy resource management of a renewable energy matrix: the case of the Brazilian sugar-alcohol sector; A importancia da gestao dos recursos energeticos na manutencao de uma matriz energetica renovavel: o caso do setor sucroalcooleito brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Oliveira, Luciano Basto [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: afiorotti@yahoo.com, luciano.oliveira@epe.gov.br; Lopes, Jose Ricardo de Moraes, E-mail: jrlopes21@terra.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper identifies the management of energy resources in the maintenance of a energy and renewable matrix, observing the environmental results favorable to the Brazilian sugar-alcohol sector as an alternative and renewable changing important factor of the chain of production and management of energy.

  4. Resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector: the reversion global reserve (RGR) and the guarantee global reserve (GGR); Centralizacao e transferencia de recursos no setor eletrico brasileiro: a reserva global de reversao (RGR) e a reserva global de garantia (RGG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Amaral Filho, J.B. de

    1991-12-31

    This dissertation makes the analysis of resources transfer and centralization in Brazilian electrical sector, through reversion global reserve (RGR) and guarantee global reserve (GGR). RGR and GGR are funds. RGR finances sectorial investments in electric power and GGR aims the supply of deficient concessionaires. Governmental investments and the results of this application are showing. (M.V.M.). 55 refs, 2 figs, 61 tabs.

  5. Factors associated with last dental visit or not to visit the dentist by Brazilian adolescents: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Emílio P da; Frias, Antonio C; Mialhe, Fábio L; Pereira, Antonio C; Meneghim, Marcelo de C

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the factors associated with no dental visit within the last two years by adolescents in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, by using data from the Oral Health Conditions of São Paulo state population Project (SBSP-2015) conducted in 2015. This was a cross-sectional epidemiological study with a representative sample of adolescents aged 15 to higher years residing in São Paulo State. The examiners were calibrated and dental visits were measured categorically as 1- Less than 1 year, 2- One to two years, 3 - Three years or more, 4- I have never visited the dentist. Based on the literature we dichotomized the outcome in two groups: response 1 plus 2 against response 3 plus 4. Then, Multilevel Poisson Regression (MPR) was used to estimate the prevalence ratios of last dental visit three years or had never been to a dentist by adolescents compared with those who had visited the dentist within the past two years, with contextual variables as the distal level; sociodemographic variables, mesial; and individual variables, proximal level. A high percentage of adolescents (84.9%) reported visiting the dentist in the last 2 years. Whereas, 626 (11.6%) had not visited the dentist for over 3 years and 188 (3.4%) had never been. A significantly higher proportion of females than males reported visiting the dentist in the past 2 years (p = 0.003). The oral and dental condition was reported as satisfactory by 4,350 respondents (80.6%), and when they accessed the health service, 2,286 (42.3%) went to the public service. Lower mean family income (1.62PR;95%CI;1.36-1.94); ≥ 1,000 inhabitant/Dental Surgeons (1.25PR;95%IC;1.03-1.56);male (1.26PR;95%CI; 1.11-1.43) non-Caucasian ethnicity (Mulatto:1.30PR;95%CI;1.13-1.50 and Black:1.58PR;95%CI;1.29-1.93); dissatisfaction with the oral health condition (1.20PR;95%CI;1.01-1.45),last visit to the public service versus private service (2.26PR; 95%CI;1.91-2.65) and presenting with periodontal disease in the form of dental

  6. Climate-Based Models for Pulsed Resources Improve Predictability of Consumer Population Dynamics: Outbreaks of House Mice in Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, E. Penelope; James, Alex; Ruscoe, Wendy A.; Pech, Roger P.; Byrom, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the timing and magnitude of consumer responses to episodic seeding events (masts) are important for understanding ecosystem dynamics and for managing outbreaks of invasive species generated by masts. While models relating consumer populations to resource fluctuations have been developed successfully for a range of natural and modified ecosystems, a critical gap that needs addressing is better prediction of resource pulses. A recent model used change in summer temperature from one year to the next (ΔT) for predicting masts for forest and grassland plants in New Zealand. We extend this climate-based method in the framework of a model for consumer–resource dynamics to predict invasive house mouse (Mus musculus) outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Compared with previous mast models based on absolute temperature, the ΔT method for predicting masts resulted in an improved model for mouse population dynamics. There was also a threshold effect of ΔT on the likelihood of an outbreak occurring. The improved climate-based method for predicting resource pulses and consumer responses provides a straightforward rule of thumb for determining, with one year’s advance warning, whether management intervention might be required in invaded ecosystems. The approach could be applied to consumer–resource systems worldwide where climatic variables are used to model the size and duration of resource pulses, and may have particular relevance for ecosystems where global change scenarios predict increased variability in climatic events. PMID:25785866

  7. Climate-based models for pulsed resources improve predictability of consumer population dynamics: outbreaks of house mice in forest ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Penelope Holland

    Full Text Available Accurate predictions of the timing and magnitude of consumer responses to episodic seeding events (masts are important for understanding ecosystem dynamics and for managing outbreaks of invasive species generated by masts. While models relating consumer populations to resource fluctuations have been developed successfully for a range of natural and modified ecosystems, a critical gap that needs addressing is better prediction of resource pulses. A recent model used change in summer temperature from one year to the next (ΔT for predicting masts for forest and grassland plants in New Zealand. We extend this climate-based method in the framework of a model for consumer-resource dynamics to predict invasive house mouse (Mus musculus outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Compared with previous mast models based on absolute temperature, the ΔT method for predicting masts resulted in an improved model for mouse population dynamics. There was also a threshold effect of ΔT on the likelihood of an outbreak occurring. The improved climate-based method for predicting resource pulses and consumer responses provides a straightforward rule of thumb for determining, with one year's advance warning, whether management intervention might be required in invaded ecosystems. The approach could be applied to consumer-resource systems worldwide where climatic variables are used to model the size and duration of resource pulses, and may have particular relevance for ecosystems where global change scenarios predict increased variability in climatic events.

  8. Climate-based models for pulsed resources improve predictability of consumer population dynamics: outbreaks of house mice in forest ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, E Penelope; James, Alex; Ruscoe, Wendy A; Pech, Roger P; Byrom, Andrea E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the timing and magnitude of consumer responses to episodic seeding events (masts) are important for understanding ecosystem dynamics and for managing outbreaks of invasive species generated by masts. While models relating consumer populations to resource fluctuations have been developed successfully for a range of natural and modified ecosystems, a critical gap that needs addressing is better prediction of resource pulses. A recent model used change in summer temperature from one year to the next (ΔT) for predicting masts for forest and grassland plants in New Zealand. We extend this climate-based method in the framework of a model for consumer-resource dynamics to predict invasive house mouse (Mus musculus) outbreaks in forest ecosystems. Compared with previous mast models based on absolute temperature, the ΔT method for predicting masts resulted in an improved model for mouse population dynamics. There was also a threshold effect of ΔT on the likelihood of an outbreak occurring. The improved climate-based method for predicting resource pulses and consumer responses provides a straightforward rule of thumb for determining, with one year's advance warning, whether management intervention might be required in invaded ecosystems. The approach could be applied to consumer-resource systems worldwide where climatic variables are used to model the size and duration of resource pulses, and may have particular relevance for ecosystems where global change scenarios predict increased variability in climatic events.

  9. The development of old age human resource under the background of population ageing in china

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xin; Xu, Jian-pei

    2007-01-01

    China is the country that has the most population in quantity of the world. Rapidly growing population has brought about enormous pressure on the social and economic development. Thus population control is always one of the population policies focuses in our country. However, China has not succeed in escaping out from the pressure of population control, another challenge-population ageing is coming. This challenge also can bring the great impact on the whole social and economic development. M...

  10. Estudo audiológico de uma população idosa brasileira Audiological study of an elderly brazilian population

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    Luís Cláudio do Carmo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A população idosa brasileira cresce e representa 8,6% do total populacional. Fatores ambientais, hábitos de vida, sexo e fatores genéticos interferem na evolução da presbiacusia que reduz a qualidade de vida. OBJETIVO: Investigar queixas audiológicas e vestibulares em idosos, executar audiometria tonal, verificar se há diferenças entre os sexos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo de corte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: 320 pacientes idosos (160 homens e 160 mulheres foram submetidos a anamnese audiológica e audiometria tonal. Análise estatística dos resultados pelos testes ANOVA, Mann-Whitney e Qui-Quadrado. RESULTADO: As queixas audiológicas e vestibulares (perda auditiva, tinnitus, plenitude auricular, tontura foram similares entre os sexos (exceção, a tontura: pThe Brazilian elderly population is growing, and already represents 8,6% of our total population. Environmental factors, lifestyle, gender and genetics impact the development of presbycusis, which reduces quality of life. AIM: investigate audiologic and vestibular complaints in the elderly; perform tonal audiometry and check to see if there are differences between genders. STUDY: Cross-sectional clinical prospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 320 elderly patients (160 men and 160 women were submitted to audiologic interview and tonal audiometry. The results were statistically analyzed by the following methods: ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Chi-Squared. RESULTS: audiologic and vestibular complaints (hearing loss, tinnitus, ear fullness, dizziness were similar between the genders (except for dizziness: p<0,05; tonal audiometry showed a significant difference, with hearing loss in the high frequencies among men; and among women the curves were descending and flat. These results were statistically significant (P<0,001. CONCLUSION: our results lead us to conclude that, when the genders are compared, hearing loss in the elderly has similar symptoms; however, there are

  11. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

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    Lucio Bakos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0

  12. The Central Sensitization Inventory validated and adapted for a Brazilian population: psychometric properties and its relationship with brain-derived neurotrophic factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caumo W

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wolnei Caumo,1–4 Luciana C Antunes,1 Jéssica Lorenzzi Elkfury,1 Evelyn G Herbstrith,5 Raquel Busanello Sipmann,6 Andressa Souza,7 Iraci LS Torres,1,8 Vinicius Souza dos Santos,1 Randy Neblett9 1Postgraduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Pain and Palliative Care Service, Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, 3Laboratory of Pain and Neuromodulation, 4Surgery Department, School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 5School of Psychology, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, 6School of Medicine, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 7Postgraduate Program in Health and Human Development, La Salle University Center, Canoas, 8Pharmacology Department, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil; 9PRIDE Research Foundation, Dallas, TX, USA Objectives: The primary aim was to assess the psychometric properties (including internal consistency, construct validity, reproducibility, and factor structure of the Central Sensitization Inventory (CSI, adapted and validated for a Brazilian population (CSI-BP. Additionally, we evaluated the relationship between the CSI-BP and the serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and determined if the symptoms elicited by the CSI-BP discriminate between subjects who do/do not respond to the conditioned pain modulation (CPM task, as assessed by change in numeric pain scale (0–10 score. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a pain clinic in a tertiary teaching hospital. A total of 222 adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain and 63 healthy control subjects completed the CSI-BP and the Brazilian Portuguese pain-catastrophizing scale (BP-PCS. A team of experts translated the CSI according to the international guidelines. Test–retest, item analysis, convergent validity, and factor analysis were performed. Later, a random subsample (n=77 was used to

  13. Swedish Advanced Home Care: organizational structure and implications of adopting this care model in Brazilian health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroca, Marcia Galan; Ek, Anna-Christina

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the organization of the Advanced Home Care Program provided in a region of Sweden and to discuss some benefits and implications of this model adoption in Brazilian settings. Data triangulation as interview, observation and questionnaire was used. Thirty two professionals participated in this study. The organizational structure, working method, home visits, and related health resources were described. The investigated model presented both clear effectiveness and versatility; therefore feasible to be adopted in Brazilian settings improving their population health care. Doubtless, the improvement of life quality and security are the best benefits this model of care can provide.

  14. Resource assessment and projections for the belugas off West Greenland using the population model of HITTER-FITTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doug S Butterworth

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The population model of the HITTER-FITTER package is applied to compute trajectories for single and two stock scenarios for the beluga population wintering off West Greenland. Values of MSYR1+ from 1% to 4% are considered, with results computed to hit best estimates and lower 5%-iles for total abundance in 1999. Twenty year projections show that even for the most optimistic of these options in the single stock case, the resource is rendered extinct within 20 years if recent estimated annual catch levels of some 700 are continued. A time series of relative abundance information from surveys indicates that MSYR1+ may be no more than 0.5%. All scenarios considered are suggestive of a heavily depleted resource for which catch levels need to be substantially reduced to secure against possible further reduction of the population.

  15. Portability and Usability of Open Educational Resources on Mobile Devices: A Study in the Context of Brazilian Educational Portals and Android-Based Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, André Constantino; Freire, Fernanda Maria Pereira; Mourão, Vitor Hugo Miranda; da Cruz, Márcio Diógenes de Oliveira; da Rocha, Heloísa Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Open Educational Resources (OER) are freely accessible, openly licensed hypertext, audio, video, simulations, games and animations that are useful for teaching and learning purposes. In order to facilitate the location of such resources, educational content portals are being created, crowding contents that were produced by different teams with…

  16. Assessing the Impact of Population Growth, Climate Change, and Land Use Change on Water Resources in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    India is poised to become the most populous country in the world by 2019 and reach a population of over 2 billion by 2050 based on current growth rates. It is also a region which will be under severe socio-economic and environmental stress if mitigation efforts are not adapted. In the past 10 years the population of India has grown by an average rate of 17 million people per year. In addition to unprecedented population growth, rapid urbanization and industrialization are straining the overburdened environmental system. This rapid growth in population, urbanization and industrialized will result in increased demand for food, requiring expansion of agricultural resources. Since total agricultural land in India has been relatively constant over the past 10 years the demand for additional food has to be partly met by enhanced production on existing land. Arable land in India has declined by around 3% according to FAOSTAT while the total agricultural area under irrigation has increased by about 9% thus further straining its water resources. In addition projections for future climate indicate that India is one of the regions where water resources are expected to be negatively impacted. Total agriculture water withdrawal in India increased by approximately 18 % from 2000-2010 while the total per capita water withdrawal increased by over 9% from 2000-2010. Total freshwater withdrawal as percentage of renewable water resources was around 40% in 2010. In addition, recent mandates of biofuel policies in India are also expected to impact its water resources. The combined impact of these various factors on future water availability in India could be one of the most severe globally due its unprecedented increase in population, food production and industrialization. In this study we assess the impact of land use and climate change on water resources over southern India in the face of a growing population and interest in development of national biofuel supplies. We use

  17. Heterogeneidade de desempenho das pequenas empresas brasileiras: uma abordagem da Visão Baseada em Recursos (VBR Performance heterogeneity of Brazilian small firms: a resource-based view approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Alemandro Leite Filho

    2012-12-01

    was suggested that the internal factors (organizational capabilities and skills would exert greater influence than the external factors (strategic positioning and location in the heterogeneity of performance of Brazilian's small firms. Data were collected from a sample of 328 fastest growing Brazilian's small firms in 2010. The main results showed significant differences in performance (Sales growth rate -SGR between the Brazilian's small firms regardless of industry sector, confirming the effect of variation in firm performance. The industry effect was not significant, since the results suggested no significant differences in performance (Sales growth rate -SGR in Brazilian's small firms at the sectoral level. It was also observed that the variance of performance (Sales growth rate -SGR among the sectors where the companies was lower than the variance of performance within the sector where the companies operate. Thus reinforcing the assumption that the internal factors related to the companies individually, able to influence more significant than external factors in the performance heterogeneity. It was concluded that the skills and organizational skills were unevenly distributed among firms, causing various influences on their performance (Sales growth rate -SGR, validating the theoretical foundations of the resource based view.

  18. Mitigation of Natural Hazards and Disasters. International Perspectives. Improving Access to Water Resources through Rainwater Harvesting as A Mitigation Measure. The Case of the Brazilian Semi-Arid Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Melo Branco, A.; Suassuna, J.; Adler Vainsencher, S. [Independent Consultant, Rua Cardeal Arcoverde, 100/701, Gracas, Recife, Pernambuco (Brazil)

    2005-07-15

    This paper focuses on the importance of rainwater harvesting to mitigate the scarcity of water in the semi-arid region of Brazil. It is a case study about the Million Cisterns Project, an initiative developed by NGOs with the support of Brazilian Federal Government Institutions and international funding organizations. The project is innovative in a series of ways when compared to mitigation measures previously implemented by the government. Instead of focussing on short-term, top-down, palliative measures based on the construction of dams and wells, it focuses on low cost, bottom-up, long-term measures and, most importantly, it involves an educational component. Thus, the provision of water is closely related to the empowerment of the most destitute population and this leads to the sustainability of the actions. The case study serves to illustrate the relevance of the partnership between grassroots organizations and governmental institutions in the context of mitigation.

  19. People and environment: what is the relationship between exploitation of natural resources and population growth in the South?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, S J

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews the nature and scale of the problems between natural resource management (NRM), agricultural productivity, and population growth in developing countries. It suggests a framework for examining the dynamics of land quality change, and reviews the evidence on land management under population pressure in tropical hillside areas and suggests some lessons learned for policy development. The evidence suggests that the effect of population on land quality is unknown; it depends upon economic and institutional factors. Aggregate data obscures the dynamics of change. There are four distinct patterns of land use changes with different market, population, and agro-environmental conditions: irrigated lands, high potential rain-fed lands, long-settled marginal lands, and frontier marginal lands. Sustainable NRM and strategies of agricultural development vary with population and market growth in these four areas. Currently 50% of the poorest people live on marginal lands. When countries and regions are more dependent upon marginal lands for food production, the key environmental issues are devegetation, nutrient depletion, and erosion. The 1997 Templeton and Scheer review examined 150 studies that focused on land use, intensity, and quality under forest, crops, and pastures in hilly-mountainous areas. Studies suggest that many hill and mountain areas could sustain high production levels without excessive resource degradation, depending upon the impact of microeconomic incentives on choice of production systems. Local populations cannot cope with the challenge of sustainable intensification without supportive policy and institutions.

  20. [An analysis of the diabetic population in a Spanish rural are: morbidity profile, use of resources, complications and metabolic control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoriza, José M; Pérez, Marc; Cols, Montse; Sánchez, Inma; Carreras, Marc; Coderch, Jordi

    2013-11-01

    To describe the characteristics of a diabetic population, morbidity profile, resource consumption, complications and degree of metabolic control. Cross-sectional study during 2010. Four Health Areas (91.301 people) where the integrated management organization Serveis de Salut integrated Baix Empordà completely provide healthcare assistance. 4.985 diabetic individuals, identified through clinical codes using the ICD-9-MC classification and the 3M? Clinical Risk Groups software. Morbidity profile, related complications and degree of metabolic control were obtained for the target diabetic population. We analyzed the consumption of healthcare resources, pharmaceutical and blood glucose reagent strips. All measurements obtained at individual level. 99.3% of the diabetic population were attended at least once at a primary care center (14.9% of visits). 39.5% of primary care visits and less than 10% of the other scanned resources were related to the management of diabetes. The pharmaceutical expenditure was 25.4% of the population consumption (average cost ?1.014,57). 36.5% of diabetics consumed reagents strips (average cost ?120,65). The more frequent CRG are 5424-Diabetes (27%); 6144-Diabetes and Hypertension (25,5%) and 6143-Diabetes and Other Moderate Chronic Disease (17,2%). The degree of disease control is better in patients not consumers of antidiabetic drugs or treated with oral antidiabetic agents not secretagogues. Comorbidity is decisive in the consumption of resources. Just a few part of this consumption is specifically related to the management of diabetes. Results obtained provide a whole population approach to the main existing studies in our national and regional context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of subsidized predators, resource variability, and human population density on desert tortoise populations in the Mojave Desert, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Drake, K. Kristina; Walde, Andrew D.; Berry, Kristin H.; Averill-Murray, Roy C.; Woodman, A. Peter; Boarman, William I.; Medica, Phil A.; Mack, Jeremy S.; Heaton, Jill S.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding predator–prey relationships can be pivotal in the conservation of species. For 2 decades, desert tortoise Gopherus agassizii populations have declined, yet quantitative evidence regarding the causes of declines is scarce. In 2005, Ft. Irwin National Training Center, California, USA, implemented a translocation project including 2 yr of baseline monitoring of desert tortoises. Unusually high predation on tortoises was observed after translocation occurred. We conducted a retrospective analysis of predation and found that translocation did not affect the probability of predation: translocated, resident, and control tortoises all had similar levels of predation. However, predation rates were higher near human population concentrations, at lower elevation sites, and for smaller tortoises and females. Furthermore, high mortality rates were not limited to the National Training Center. In 2008, elevated mortality (as high as 43%) occurred throughout the listed range of the desert tortoise. Although no temporal prey base data are available for analysis from any of the study sites, we hypothesize that low population levels of typical coyote Canis latrans prey (i.e. jackrabbits Lepus californicus and other small animals) due to drought conditions influenced high predation rates in previous years. Predation may have been exacerbated in areas with high levels of subsidized predators. Many historical reports of increased predation, and our observation of a range-wide pattern, may indicate that high predation rates are more common than generally considered and may impact recovery of the desert tortoise throughout its range.

  2. The GHEP-EMPOP collaboration on mtDNA population data--A new resource for forensic casework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L; Zimmermann, B; Goios, A; Rodriguez-Monge, A; Paneto, G G; Alves, C; Alonso, A; Fridman, C; Cardoso, S; Lima, G; Anjos, M J; Whittle, M R; Montesino, M; Cicarelli, R M B; Rocha, A M; Albarrán, C; de Pancorbo, M M; Pinheiro, M F; Carvalho, M; Sumita, D R; Parson, W

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data for forensic purposes are still scarce for some populations, which may limit the evaluation of forensic evidence especially when the rarity of a haplotype needs to be determined in a database search. In order to improve the collection of mtDNA lineages from the Iberian and South American subcontinents, we here report the results of a collaborative study involving nine laboratories from the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) and EMPOP. The individual laboratories contributed population data that were generated throughout the past 10 years, but in the majority of cases have not been made available to the scientific community. A total of 1019 haplotypes from Iberia (Basque Country, 2 general Spanish populations, 2 North and 1 Central Portugal populations), and Latin America (3 populations from São Paulo) were collected, reviewed and harmonized according to defined EMPOP criteria. The majority of data ambiguities that were found during the reviewing process (41 in total) were transcription errors confirming that the documentation process is still the most error-prone stage in reporting mtDNA population data, especially when performed manually. This GHEP-EMPOP collaboration has significantly improved the quality of the individual mtDNA datasets and adds mtDNA population data as valuable resource to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The GHEP–EMPOP collaboration on mtDNA population data—A new resource for forensic casework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, L.; Zimmermann, B.; Goios, A.; Rodriguez-Monge, A.; Paneto, G.G.; Alves, C.; Alonso, A.; Fridman, C.; Cardoso, S.; Lima, G.; Anjos, M.J.; Whittle, M.R.; Montesino, M.; Cicarelli, R.M.B.; Rocha, A.M.; Albarrán, C.; de Pancorbo, M.M.; Pinheiro, M.F.; Carvalho, M.; Sumita, D.R.; Parson, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) population data for forensic purposes are still scarce for some populations, which may limit the evaluation of forensic evidence especially when the rarity of a haplotype needs to be determined in a database search. In order to improve the collection of mtDNA lineages from the Iberian and South American subcontinents, we here report the results of a collaborative study involving nine laboratories from the Spanish and Portuguese Speaking Working Group of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (GHEP-ISFG) and EMPOP. The individual laboratories contributed population data that were generated throughout the past 10 years, but in the majority of cases have not been made available to the scientific community. A total of 1019 haplotypes from Iberia (Basque Country, 2 general Spanish populations, 2 North and 1 Central Portugal populations), and Latin America (3 populations from São Paulo) were collected, reviewed and harmonized according to defined EMPOP criteria. The majority of data ambiguities that were found during the reviewing process (41 in total) were transcription errors confirming that the documentation process is still the most error-prone stage in reporting mtDNA population data, especially when performed manually. This GHEP–EMPOP collaboration has significantly improved the quality of the individual mtDNA datasets and adds mtDNA population data as valuable resource to the EMPOP database (www.empop.org). PMID:21075696

  4. A multi-scale distribution model for non-equilibrium populations suggests resource limitation in an endangered rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T Bean

    Full Text Available Species distributions are known to be limited by biotic and abiotic factors at multiple temporal and spatial scales. Species distribution models, however, frequently assume a population at equilibrium in both time and space. Studies of habitat selection have repeatedly shown the difficulty of estimating resource selection if the scale or extent of analysis is incorrect. Here, we present a multi-step approach to estimate the realized and potential distribution of the endangered giant kangaroo rat. First, we estimate the potential distribution by modeling suitability at a range-wide scale using static bioclimatic variables. We then examine annual changes in extent at a population-level. We define "available" habitat based on the total suitable potential distribution at the range-wide scale. Then, within the available habitat, model changes in population extent driven by multiple measures of resource availability. By modeling distributions for a population with robust estimates of population extent through time, and ecologically relevant predictor variables, we improved the predictive ability of SDMs, as well as revealed an unanticipated relationship between population extent and precipitation at multiple scales. At a range-wide scale, the best model indicated the giant kangaroo rat was limited to areas that received little to no precipitation in the summer months. In contrast, the best model for shorter time scales showed a positive relation with resource abundance, driven by precipitation, in the current and previous year. These results suggest that the distribution of the giant kangaroo rat was limited to the wettest parts of the drier areas within the study region. This multi-step approach reinforces the differing relationship species may have with environmental variables at different scales, provides a novel method for defining "available" habitat in habitat selection studies, and suggests a way to create distribution models at spatial and

  5. INFORMATION AND ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS THE NATURAL RESOURCES CONSUMPTION OF THE POPULATION OF BUCHAREST

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Marinescu; Marin Burcea

    2012-01-01

    .... The scope of our article is to briefly highlight the importance of concrete actions aimed at informing and getting awareness of the environmental aspect in the consumption of natural resources...

  6. Discussion on the Concept of Forest Public Product Based on the Relationship of Modern Population, Resource and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Changchun; Zhang, Enguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the unbalanced relationship among modern population, resource and environment, as well as the weak awareness and supply-demand conflict of forest public product, the paper exposed the public product function of forestry and explained its meaning, then evaluated the traditional concepts of forestry, product, and forest products, and finally redefined the extension of forest products. On this basis, the concepts of forestry and public products were elaborated, and the connotation, char...

  7. Genetic diversity and population structure of Brazilian native bovine breeds Diversidade genética e estrutura de população de bovinos nativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Maria Serrano

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and improvement strategies should be based on the association between genetic and phenotypic characteristics. The objective of this work was to characterize five native Brazilian cattle breeds (Caracu, Crioulo Lageano, Curraleiro, National Polled and Pantaneiro and two commercial breeds (Holstein and Nellore using RAPD technique to estimate genetic distances and variability between and within breeds. Genetic relationships were investigated using 22 primers which generated 122 polymorphic bands. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation lay among individuals within populations. The genetic variabilities between pairs of breeds were statistically significant. The smallest genetic divergence was between Crioulo Lageano and Curraleiro.The National Polled, although historically considered to be of Bos taurus aquitanicus origin,similar to theCaracu, was grouped together with the other breeds of Bos taurus ibericus origin. Generally, the individual breeds formed distinct clusters except the National Polled. The RAPD technique was capable to distinguish genetically between the breeds studied; the Caracu, Crioulo Lageano, Curraleiro and Pantaneiro may be considered distinct genetic entities thereby proving the uniqueness of the populations; the National Polled has not been able to re-establish itself after its decline in the 1950s, thereby losing its genetic identity.Estratégias para conservação e melhoramento animal devem ser baseadas na associação de características fenotípicas e genéticas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar cinco raças nativas brasileiras (Caracu, Crioulo Lageano, Curraleiro, Mocho Nacional e Pantaneiro e duas comerciais (Holandês e Nelore pela técnica de RAPD para estimar a distância genética e a variabilidade genética entre e dentro das raças. As relações genéticas foram investigadas utilizando-se 22 primers, que geraram 122 bandas polimórficas. A análise de

  8. Application of the physiological and morphological parameters of the brazilian population sample to the mathematical model of the human respiratory tract; Aplicacao dos parametros fisiologicos e morfologicos de uma amostra da populacao brasileira no modelo matematico do trato respiratorio humano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Arlene Alves dos

    2005-07-01

    The Human Respiratory Tract Model proposed by the ICRP Publication 66 accounts for the morphology and physiology of the respiratory tract. The characteristics of air drawn into the lungs and exhaled are greatly influenced by the morphology of the respiratory tract, which causes numerous changes in pressure, flow rate, direction and humidity as air moves into and out of the lungs. Concerning the respiratory physiological parameters the breathing characteristics influence the volume, the inhalation rate of air and the portion that enters through the nose and the mouth. These characteristics are important to determine the fractional deposition. The model uses morphological and physiological parameters from the Caucasian man to establish deposition fractions in the respiratory tract regions. It is known that the morphology and physiology are influenced by environmental, occupational and economic conditions. The ICRP recommends, for a reliable evaluation of the regional deposition, the use of parameters from a local population when information is available. The main purpose of this study is to verify the influence in using the morphology and physiology parameters representative of a sample of the Brazilian population on the deposition model of the ICRP Publication 66. The morphological and physiological data were obtained from the literature. The software EXCEL for Windows (version 2000) was used in order to implement the deposition model and also to allow the changes in parameters of interest. Initially, the implemented model was checked using the parameters defined by the ICRP and the results of the fraction deposition in the respiratory tract compartments were compared. Finally, morphological and physiological parameters from Brazilian adult male were applied and the fractional deposition calculated. The results suggest a significant variation in fractional deposition when Brazilian parameters are applied in the model. (author)

  9. Translation, cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Leganés cognitive test in a low educated elderly Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Vescia Vieira de Alencar; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Freire, Aline do Nascimento Falcão; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    To validate the Leganés cognitive test (LCT) for cognitive screening in low educated elderly Brazilians. The study sample was composed of 59 elderly residents from the city of Santa Cruz, in Brazil, with low schooling levels. Reliability was analyzed with a two-day interval between assessments, and concurrent validity was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). According to the LCT, the prevalence of dementia was 11.8%. The scale items showed a moderate to strong correlation between domains (p<0.01), and inter-rater reliability exhibited ICC=0.81, 95%CI=0.72-0.88. The factor analysis resulted in two factors: memory and orientation. Interscale agreement was considered poor (k=-0.02), supporting the hypothesis of an educational impact on final MMSE scores. The results suggest that LCT has acceptable levels of reliability for use in low-educated Brazilian elderly.

  10. Effects of temperature and resource variation on insect population dynamics: the bordered plant bug as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher A.; Coutinho, Renato M.; Berlin, Erin; Dolphin, Kimberly E.; Heyer, Johanna; Kim, Britney; Leung, Alice; Sabellon, Jamie Lou; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2017-01-01

    Summary In species with complex life cycles, population dynamics result from a combination of intrinsic cycles arising from delays in the operation of negative density-dependent processes (e.g., intraspecific competition) and extrinsic fluctuations arising from seasonal variation in the abiotic environment. Abiotic variation can affect species directly through their life history traits and indirectly by modulating the species’ interactions with resources or natural enemies.We investigate how the interplay between density-dependent dynamics and abiotic variability affects population dynamics of the bordered plant bug (Largus californicus), a Hemipteran herbivore inhabiting the California coastal sage scrub community. Field data show a striking pattern in abundance: adults are extremely abundant or nearly absent during certain periods of the year, leading us to predict that seasonal forcing plays a role in driving observed dynamics.We develop a stage-structured population model with variable developmental delays, in which fecundity is affected by both intra-specific competition and temporal variation in resource availability and all life history traits (reproduction, development, mortality) are temperature-dependent. We parameterize the model with experimental data on temperature-responses of life history and competitive traits and validate the model with independent field census data.We find that intra-specific competition is strongest at temperatures optimal for reproduction, which theory predicts leads to more complex population dynamics. Our model predicts that while temperature or resource variability interact with development-induced delays in self-limitation to generate population fluctuations, it is the interplay between all three factors that drive the observed dynamics. Considering how multiple abiotic factors interact with density-dependent processes is important both for understanding how species persist in variable environments and predicting species

  11. BRAZILIAN PINE NUTS’ PRODUCTION IN CAÇADOR’S REGION, SC: ASPECTS OF THE ATTAINMENT AND ITS IMPORTANCE FOR LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Vieira-da-Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study had as objective to characterize aspects of the attainment and commercialization of the Brazilian-pine nut, as a resource capable to contribute for attainment of income and conservation of FOM. For this, studies were carried out aiming at: checking Brazilian-pine production on a natural population (RGFC – Genetic and Forest Reserve of Caçador and on a reforestation with Brazilian-pine (Flona- Caçador’s National Florest; identifying the profile of the Brazilian-pine nut’s collectors in the District of Taquara Verde, Caçador-SC – its knowledge about the resource and the importance of this resource as an income source. For this, 36 female Brazilian-pines were target in Flona and 25 in RGFC. Brazilian-pine nut production was estimated based on the number of female plants, number of cones per plant, number of nut per cone and nut weight. To the other objectives, interviews with the nut’s collectors were made. The production found at RGFC was 44.3kg.ha-1 and at Flona was 24.6kg.ha-1, the difference was attributed to the higher density found at Flona. About the importance of Brazilian-pine nut to the community, it could be found out that this resource is very important both as an income source and food, allowing us to separate the collectors in four kinds of profile. The families which were more dependent on this resource as income, more often they collect and more people in the family are involved in the collection of the Brazilian-pine nut, but not necessary they know more about it. The results of this study indicate a good potential of this resource to increase the household of poor communities, emphasizing the importance of natural areas to the exploration of Brazilian-pine nut and bringing subsidies for the establishment of politics that can effectively join a valuation of the forest resources, the communities’ development together with nature conservation.

  12. The Brazilian health system: history, advances, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paim, Jairnilson; Travassos, Claudia; Almeida, Celia; Bahia, Ligia; Macinko, James

    2011-05-21

    Brazil is a country of continental dimensions with widespread regional and social inequalities. In this report, we examine the historical development and components of the Brazilian health system, focusing on the reform process during the past 40 years, including the creation of the Unified Health System. A defining characteristic of the contemporary health sector reform in Brazil is that it was driven by civil society rather than by governments, political parties, or international organisations. The advent of the Unified Health System increased access to health care for a substantial proportion of the Brazilian population, at a time when the system was becoming increasingly privatised. Much is still to be done if universal health care is to be achieved. Over the past 20 years, there have been other advances, including investments in human resources, science and technology, and primary care, and a substantial decentralisation process, widespread social participation, and growing public awareness of a right to health care. If the Brazilian health system is to overcome the challenges with which it is presently faced, strengthened political support is needed so that financing can be restructured and the roles of both the public and private sector can be redefined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Population, Poverty, and Land Degradation. Teacher's Guide to World Resources. Comprehensive Coursework on the Global Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Sarah A.

    This teacher's guide presents teaching suggestions and presentation materials about the complex connections among population growth, economic activity, and changes in the environment. The lesson is divided into five parts and may be completed in one or more class periods. Student handouts include: (1) "Facts about Population, Poverty, and…

  14. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 polymorphism associated with statin-induced myopathy is differently distributed according to ethnicity in the Brazilian general population: Amerindians as a high risk ethnic group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krieger José E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies reported the association between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and the development of statin-induced myopathy. In the scenario of the Brazilian population, being one of the most heterogeneous in the world, the main aim here was to evaluate SLCO1B1 polymorphisms according to ethnic groups as an initial step for future pharmacogenetic studies. Methods One hundred and eighty-two Amerindians plus 1,032 subjects from the general urban population were included. Genotypes for the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (c.T521C, p.V174A, exon 5 and SLCO1B1 rs4363657 (g.T89595C, intron 11 polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by high resolution melting analysis with the Rotor Gene 6000® instrument. Results The frequencies of the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs4363657 C variant allele were higher in Amerindians (28.3% and 26.1% and were lower in African descent subjects (5.7% and 10.8% compared with Mulatto (14.9% and 18.2% and Caucasian descent (14.8% and 15.4% ethnic groups (p Conclusion Our findings indicate interethnic differences for the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 C risk allele frequency among Brazilians. These data will be useful in the development of effective programs for stratifying individuals regarding adherence, efficacy and choice of statin-type.

  15. SLCO1B1 rs4149056 polymorphism associated with statin-induced myopathy is differently distributed according to ethnicity in the Brazilian general population: Amerindians as a high risk ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Paulo C J L; Soares, Renata A G; Nascimento, Raimundo M; Machado-Coelho, George L L; Mill, José G; Krieger, José E; Pereira, Alexandre C

    2011-10-12

    Recent studies reported the association between SLCO1B1 polymorphisms and the development of statin-induced myopathy. In the scenario of the Brazilian population, being one of the most heterogeneous in the world, the main aim here was to evaluate SLCO1B1 polymorphisms according to ethnic groups as an initial step for future pharmacogenetic studies. One hundred and eighty-two Amerindians plus 1,032 subjects from the general urban population were included. Genotypes for the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 (c.T521C, p.V174A, exon 5) and SLCO1B1 rs4363657 (g.T89595C, intron 11) polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction followed by high resolution melting analysis with the Rotor Gene 6000® instrument. The frequencies of the SLCO1B1 rs4149056 and rs4363657 C variant allele were higher in Amerindians (28.3% and 26.1%) and were lower in African descent subjects (5.7% and 10.8%) compared with Mulatto (14.9% and 18.2%) and Caucasian descent (14.8% and 15.4%) ethnic groups (prs4149056 C risk allele frequency among Brazilians. These data will be useful in the development of effective programs for stratifying individuals regarding adherence, efficacy and choice of statin-type.

  16. BRAZILIAN EXPORTS OF MANUFACTURED WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de Azevedo Calderon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the Brazilian exports of sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, from 1961 to 2002. The data regarding the three studied products, sawnwood of non-coniferous, veneer sheets and plywood, were joined through the method of Fisher so that an econometric evaluation of the market of the three products could be carried out. Supply and demand models of the Brazilian exports were specified. The results were satisfactory and they match with the literature. The supply of exports presented a positive answer in relation to the exporter's remuneration, to the production, to the use of the installed capacity (cycles of domestic economical activity and to the tendency, and negative in relation to the internal demand. The demand for the Brazilian exports was influenced positively by the world income, participation index and tendency, and negatively for the relative price. The low elasticity-price of the found demand can have implications in the conservation of the Brazilian forest resources because the exporters can increase the prices, reduce the amounts and still increase the incomes.

  17. Physiological proteins in resource-limited herbivores experiencing a population die-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, R.; Bento, A. I.; Hansen, C.; Pilkington, J. G.; Pemberton, J. M.; Graham, A. L.

    2017-08-01

    Nutrient availability is predicted to interact with herbivore population densities. Competition for low quality food at high density may reduce summer food intake, and in turn winter survival. Conversely, low population density may favor physiological recovery through better access to better quality spring forage. Here, we take advantage of the long-term study of the Soay sheep population of St. Kilda (Scotland) to measure plasma protein markers and immunity in two consecutive summers with contrasting population densities. We show that, following a winter die-off resulting in a shift to low population density, albumin and total proteins increased, but only in adult sheep. The effect was not solely attributable to selective disappearance of malnourished sheep. Similarly, the concentration of antibodies was higher following the die-off, potentially indicating recovery of immune function. Overall, our results are consistent with the physiological recovery of surviving individuals after a harsh winter.

  18. Sexual victimization: incidence, knowledge and resource use among a population of college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasta, Aarti; Shah, Brijen; Brahmanandam, Shoma; Richman, Katherine; Wittels, Kathleen; Allsworth, Jenifer; Boardman, Lori

    2005-04-01

    To assess the incidence of sexual victimization among a convenience sample of college women and evaluate both victims and non-victims' knowledge and use of available on and off campus resources. Written questionnaire distributed to students in lobbies of two campus libraries and large computing center A private northeastern university Upper-class undergraduate women (sophomores, juniors and seniors) Respondents (n=234) were asked to complete demographic information, report instances of sexual victimization (including rape, sexual coercion and unwanted sexual contact) that occurred during the 1999-2000 academic year and indicate whether they would or did use either university and/or outside resources available to sexual assault victims. Of the women who participated, 38% (90/234) affirmed one or more episodes of sexual victimization, with 6% (14/234) reporting a completed rape and 4% (9/234) an attempted rape. Drug or alcohol-related impairment leading to unwanted sexual activity was reported by 15% (35/234) of women. Utilization of available on- and off-campus resources was uncommon among victims (22% and 6%, respectively); 12% contacted health services, while only 4% reported an event to university security. Victims cited fear, embarrassment and guilt, as well as lack of confidentiality, as the most common reasons for failure to use resources. Increasing campus awareness of sexual victimization and removing barriers to access for victims should remain university goals.

  19. Genética comunitária e hemofilia em uma população brasileira Community genetics and hemophilia in a Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Maria Caio

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A hemofilia é uma doença hemorrágica importante no Brasil, afetando cerca de um em cada dez mil indivíduos do sexo masculino. A autopercepção do portador a respeito da hemofilia e a sua interação com a comunidade são relevantes na abordagem clínica dessa doença. Nós investigamos vários aspectos sociais, psicológicos e comunitários da hemofilia em uma população brasileira (Campinas, São Paulo. Entrevistamos trinta portadores adultos da hemofilia, uma amostra-controle composta por 73 de seus irmãos normais do sexo masculino e 641 indivíduos da comunidade. A integração comunitária dos portadores da hemofilia mostrou-se afetada apenas nos aspectos sócio-econômicos, sem alteração no que diz respeito ao casamento, à procriação e à aquisição de melhores níveis educacionais. Observaram-se entre os portadores da hemofilia altos níveis de auto-rotulação, acompanhados de depressão, ansiedade e insegurança. A comunidade apresentou uma alta freqüência de completo desconhecimento a respeito da hemofilia (49%, demonstrando contra os hemofílicos os preconceitos normalmente observados contra os portadores de doenças contagiosas, como a AIDS. O trabalho sugere a estruturação de programa comunitário, visando à melhor adequação psicossocial dos portadores da hemofilia.Hemophilia is an important hemorrhagic disease in Brazil, affecting about 1 out of every 10,000 males. Patient's self-perception of hemophilia and interaction with the community are relevant to the clinical management of this disease. We investigated several social, psychological, and community aspects of hemophilia in a Brazilian population (Campinas, São Paulo State, interviewing 30 hemophiliac males, a control sample comprised of 73 non-hemophiliac brothers, and 641 individuals from the community. According to our results, more severe social disability in the hemophiliac patient was related to economic factors, mainly unemployment; however, no

  20. Condições periodontais e diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira Periodontal conditions and diabetes mellitus in the Japanese-Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilce E Tomita

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as condições periodontais e sua relação com o diabetes mellitus na população nipo-brasileira. MÉTODOS: Foram examinados 1.315 indivíduos do município de Bauru, SP, na faixa etária de 30 a 92 anos de idade, ambos os sexos, primeira (Isseis e segunda (Niseis gerações. Os critérios de exclusão da amostra foram o edentulismo total e a presença de seis sextantes nulos. O índice periodontal comunitário e o índice de perda de inserção periodontal foram obtidos mediante sondagem em 10 dentes-índice, em uma amostra de 831 indivíduos. O diagnóstico de diabetes mellitus foi estabelecido através da glicemia em jejum e de duas horas após sobrecarga com 75 g de glicose. Para análise estatística foram utilizados os Testes de Kappa e de Qui-quadrado. RESULTADOS: Quanto às condições periodontais, foram encontrados 25,5% de indivíduos sadios, 12,5% com sangramento à sondagem, 49,4% com presença de cálculo, 10,4% com bolsas superficiais, 2,2% com bolsas profundas. Apresentaram perdas de inserção periodontal de 0-3 mm, 24,2% dos indivíduos, de 4-5 mm, 36,7%, de 6-8 mm, 23,7%, de 9-11 mm, 11,3% e de 12 mm ou mais, 4,1%. A avaliação entre diabetes e condições periodontais não apresentou associação estatística (pOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between diabetic status and periodontal conditions in the Japanese-Brazilian population. METHODS: The sample consisted of 1,315 subjects, of both sexes, first (Issei and second (Nisei generations, aged 30 to 92 years, living in Bauru, Brazil. Edentulism and presence of 6 null sextants were the exclusion criteria for the sample. The Community Periodontal Index and Periodontal Attachment Loss Index were determined using the probing of 10 teeth in a sample of 831 subjects. The diagnosis of diabetes mellitus was based on fasting blood sugar and blood sugar 2 hours after 75 mg of glucose overload. Statistical analysis was conducted using Kappa test and Chi

  1. Increasing population growth by asymmetric segregation of a limiting resource during cell division

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Avraham, Nurit; Soifer, Ilya; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    .... Notably, while deletion of WHI5 alleviates daughter cell division arrest in low‐zinc conditions, it results in a lower final population size, as cell division rate becomes progressively slower...

  2. mtDB: Human Mitochondrial Genome Database, a resource for population genetics and medical sciences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ingman, Max; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    ..., as well as for population genetics studies. Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB) (http://www.genpat.uu.se/mtDB) has provided a comprehensive database of complete human mitochondrial genomes since early 2000...

  3. Effect of routine mental health screening in a low-resource pediatric primary care population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger-Jenkins, Evelyn; McCord, Mary; Gallagher, Trish; Olfson, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Despite evidence for its feasibility, the usage of mental health screening in primary care practices with overburdened providers and few referral options remains unclear. This study explores the effects of routine screening on mental health problem identification and management in a low-resource setting. Medical records of 5 to 12 year-old children presenting for well visits before and after screening was implemented were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore associations between study period and identification/management practices. Changes in the number of visits and wait times for a co-located referral service were assessed post hoc. Parents disclosed more mental health problems, and providers initiated more workups but referred fewer patients after screening was implemented. The proportion of new visits and wait times for the referral service did not change. Even in low-resource settings, screening may facilitate parental disclosure and increase clinical attention to mental health problems without overburdening referral services.

  4. Evaluation of sustainability by a population living near fossil fuel resources in Northwestern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatalis, Konstantinos I

    2010-12-01

    The emergence of sustainability as a goal in the management of fossil fuel resources is a result of the growing global environmental concern, and highlights some of the issues expected to be significant in coming years. In order to secure social acceptance, the mining industry has to face these challenges by engaging its many different stakeholders and examining their sustainability concerns. For this reason a questionnaire was conducted involving a simple random sampling of inhabitants near an area rich in fossil fuel resources, in order to gather respondents' views on social, economic and environmental benefits. The study discusses new subnational findings on public attitudes to regional sustainability, based on a quantitative research design. The site of the study was the energy-rich Greek region of Kozani, Western Macedonia, one of the country's energy hubs. The paper examines the future perspectives of the area. The conclusions can form a useful framework for energy policy in the wider Balkan area, which contains important fossil fuel resources. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Social inequalities in health are large in Norway. In part, these inequalities may stem from differences in access to supportive social networks - since occupying disadvantaged positions in affluent societies has been associated with disposing poor network resources. Research has demonstrated that social networks are fundamental resources in the prevention of mental and physical illness. However, to determine potentials for public health action one needs to explore the health impact of different types of network resources and analyze if the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health is partially explained by social network factors. That is the aim of this paper. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2007, through a postal survey from a gross sample of 8000 Norwegian adults, of which 3,190 (about 40%) responded. The outcome variable was self-rated health. Our main explanatory variables were indicators of socioeconomic positions and social capital indicators that was measured by different indicators that were grouped under 'bonding', 'bridging' and 'linking' social capital. Demographic data were collected for statistical control. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis was performed. Result Results indicated that those who had someone to talk to when distressed were more likely to rate their health as good compared to those deprived of such person(s) (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.02). Similarly, those who were active members in two or more social organisations (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.22) and those who count a medical doctor among their friends (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.00) report better health. The association between self-rated health and socio-economic background indicators were marginally attenuated when social network indicators were added into the model. Conclusion Among different types of network resources, close and strong friendship-based ties are of importance for people's health in Norway. Networks linking

  6. Types of social capital resources and self-rated health among the Norwegian adult population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gele Abdi A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social inequalities in health are large in Norway. In part, these inequalities may stem from differences in access to supportive social networks - since occupying disadvantaged positions in affluent societies has been associated with disposing poor network resources. Research has demonstrated that social networks are fundamental resources in the prevention of mental and physical illness. However, to determine potentials for public health action one needs to explore the health impact of different types of network resources and analyze if the association between socioeconomic position and self-rated health is partially explained by social network factors. That is the aim of this paper. Methods Cross-sectional data were collected in 2007, through a postal survey from a gross sample of 8000 Norwegian adults, of which 3,190 (about 40% responded. The outcome variable was self-rated health. Our main explanatory variables were indicators of socioeconomic positions and social capital indicators that was measured by different indicators that were grouped under 'bonding', 'bridging' and 'linking' social capital. Demographic data were collected for statistical control. Generalized ordered logistic regression analysis was performed. Result Results indicated that those who had someone to talk to when distressed were more likely to rate their health as good compared to those deprived of such person(s (OR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.02. Similarly, those who were active members in two or more social organisations (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.22 and those who count a medical doctor among their friends (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.00 report better health. The association between self-rated health and socio-economic background indicators were marginally attenuated when social network indicators were added into the model. Conclusion Among different types of network resources, close and strong friendship-based ties are of importance for people's health in

  7. Roads to health : multi-state modelling of population health and resource use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, Louis Wilhelmus

    2002-01-01

    The book has described the dynamics of disease occurrence in populations and gives an overview of the major known health determinants of mortality decline, health risk factors and health services, and studies the health interventions options in two example diseases i.e. diabetes and stroke. We

  8. The Need to Improve Population and Resource Control in Thailand’s Counterinsurgency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    dentistry and veterinary medicine, to food storage and hygiene. Another necessary element in conducting assessment is an assessment tool. Planners...created discontent in the population. The use of working dogs (police – K9) has been prohibited because such use is against Islam culture. However

  9. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. (Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States)); Witherspoon, M.J. (National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States)); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy's national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  10. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. [Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Witherspoon, M.J. [National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States); Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy`s national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  11. Uso do sistema de controle gerencial e desempenho: um estudo em empresas brasileiras sob a perspectiva da resources-based view Management control system use and performance: a study in brazilian companies using resources-based view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Tiomatsu Oyadomari

    2011-08-01

    of the international research that has shown some contradictory results. The research was carried out in 2008, by a survey in a sample of 104 companies from Exame Magazine 1000 Biggest Brazilian Companies. Using the Structural Equation Model, the main results indicate no evidence of negative relationships between the diagnostic use and the organizational competences development, what contradicts Henri's results (2006. It was also identified that the interactive use has positive influences in the competences of Organizational Learning and Market Orientation, and these have positive influences in Performance (measured by self-evaluation. This study contributes to Brazilian research as its subject integrates Management Accounting and Strategy and also for measurement the construct Dynamic Tensions. For the practice, the result is important as it shows that companies should continue to use Management Control for diagnostic, as it helps the organization to correct errors, simultaneously recommending the use of interactive way to activate organizational ompetences.

  12. Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I Genes Associated With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Severe Ocular Complications Following Use of Cold Medicine in a Brazilian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakamatsu, Tais H; Ueta, Mayumi; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Okada, Yukinori; Loureiro, Renata R; Costa, Karita A; Sallum, Juliana Maria F; Milhomens, José Arthur; Inoue, Chikara; Sotozono, Chie; Gomes, José Álvaro P; Kinoshita, Shigeru

    2017-04-01

    Describing the association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles could facilitate the understanding of increased risk factors for development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in patients with severe ocular complications (SOCs). To investigate the association between HLA class I genes and cold medicine (CM)-associated SJS/TEN with SOCs. This case-control study was conducted between February 8, 2013, and August 29, 2014. Thirty-nine Brazilian patients with CM-SJS/TEN of 74 patients with SJS/TEN with SOCs and 133 healthy Brazilian volunteers were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigen class I genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) were examined to determine whether there was a genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOC. Patients were interviewed to identify possible etiologic factors. Data analysis was performed from April 14, 2013, to August 29, 2014. Genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs by analysis of HLA class I genes. Of 74 patients included in the analysis, 32 (43%) were male; mean (SD) age was 36.01 [15.42] years. HLA-A*66:01 (odds ratio [OR], 24.0; 95% CI, 2.79-206.0; P < .001), HLA-B*44:03 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11-6.65; P = .04), and HLA-C*12:03 (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.67-18.80; P = .006) were associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs, and HLA-A*11:01 (OR, 0.074; 95% CI, 0.004-1.26; P = .008), HLA-B*08:01 (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-1.15; P = .048), and HLA-B*51:01 (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05-1.03; P = .045) were inversely associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs (39 cases: 19 Pardo and 16 European ancestry; 14 males and 25 females; age, 35.2 [14.4] years; and 133 controls: 66 Pardo and 61 European ancestry; 55 males and 78 females; age, 41.2 [12.9] years). When multiple test correction within the HLA locus, HLA-A*66:01 and HLA-C*12:03 demonstrated associations. When participants were segregated into Pardo and locus is considered, HLA-A*66:01 was associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC among

  13. Use of space and resources in a Mediterranean population of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguira, Miguel L.; Martín, José; García-Barros, Enrique; Viejo, José Luis

    Population parameters of a central Spanish population of the marsh fritillary butterfly, Euphydryas aurinia (Rott.), were studied between 1990 and 1991. Numbers were very similar in the two study years, but adult emergence was delayed 15 days in the second year as a consequence of variation in weather conditions. The nectar sources used by adults were different in the two years and were correlated with the most abundant plants available during the flight period. Adult abundance was correlated with the presence of the larval foodplant ( Lonicera periclymenum) in open woodland and was higher where this habitat was mixed with open areas, where nectar sources abound. Estimates of male population numbers were higher than those of females, suggesting that males used wider ranges than females, or a higher residence rate for males. Nevertheless mobility did not differ significantly between the sexes. The conservation of the species in central Spain depends on maintaining patches of oak woodlands, important for the presence of larval foodplants. Large numbers of the butterfly in the Natural Park study area are favoured by traditional management including charcoal production and extensive grazing by cattle and goats.

  14. [A model for integrating mental health care resources in the rural population of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Díaz-Pérez, Ma de Jesús; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to identify behaviors of health service utilization to solve mental health-related problems among rural inhabitants of Mexico. A model of pathways to mental health services was built. Based on this model, an integration-intervention model is proposed to help improve access to mental health services and their quality. In 1997, in-depth interviews were conducted among 21 adults (9 men and 12 women) and seven healthcare providers, in a rural community in Jalisco, Mexico. Women's age ranged from 23 to 44 years; ten were married and two single. Men were between 30 and 74 years old; eight were married and one was a widower. Healthcare providers in the same community were: a priest, a general physician, a pharmacy clerk, two nurses, and two traditional healers. The pathways models suggest that the first attempt a person does to solve a symptom is self-care. When such strategies are not sufficient to relief the symptom, the person turns to the members of his/her social network for help, who in addition to providing information about remedies, offer their emotional and instrumental support. If after consulting the social network, the symptom is not relieved, the individual seeks help from other external resources, such as the members of the ethnomedical local system. Inhabitants of rural communities tend to seek help from physicians, only when the symptom persists and the suffering associated with it seems to be out of the individual's control, or if members of the social network or the ethno-medical local system refer the patient to the physician. Seeking help from a specialist in mental health (psychiatrist or psychologist) is quite improbable among the rural inhabitants of Mexico, mostly due to difficulties in accessing these services, such as geographical location, distance, transportation, cost, and cultural distance between the health providers and the patient. In order to conduct successful intervention programs that are culturally

  15. ASSESSMENT OF REQUIREMENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION, THE DONOR RESOURCE AND PLANNING OF THE EFFECTIVE NETWORK OF THE MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS (THE CENTERS OF TRANSPLANTATION)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. V. Gautier; S. M. Khomyakov

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To estimate the requirement of the population of the Russian Federation for an organ transplantation and donor resource, to offer approach to planning of an effective network of the medical organizations...

  16. Fine-Grained Distribution of a Non-Native Resource Can Alter the Population Dynamics of a Native Consumer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mifuyu Nakajima

    Full Text Available New interactions with non-native species can alter selection pressures on native species. Here, we examined the effect of the spatial distribution of a non-native species, a factor that determines ecological and evolutionary outcomes but that is poorly understood, particularly on a fine scale. Specifically, we explored a native butterfly population and a non-native plant on which the butterfly oviposits despite the plant's toxicity to larvae. We developed an individual-based model to describe movement and oviposition behaviors of each butterfly, which were determined by plant distribution and the butterfly's host preference genotype. We estimated the parameter values of the model from rich field data. We simulated various patterns of plant distributions and compared the rates of butterfly population growth and changes in the allele frequency of oviposition preference. Neither the number nor mean area of patches of non-native species affected the butterfly population, whereas plant abundance, patch shape, and distance to the nearest native and non-native patches altered both the population dynamics and genetics. Furthermore, we found a dramatic decrease in population growth rates when we reduced the distance to the nearest native patch from 147 m to 136 m. Thus changes in the non-native resource distribution that are critical to the fate of the native herbivore could only be detected at a fine-grained scale that matched the scale of a female butterfly's movement. In addition, we found that the native butterfly population was unlikely to be rescued by the exclusion of the allele for acceptance of the non-native plant as a host. This study thus highlights the importance of including both ecological and evolutionary dynamics in analyses of the outcome of species interactions and provides insights into habitat management for non-native species.

  17. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  18. A procedure to improve the information flow in the assessment of discoveries of oil and gas resources in the Brazilian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Henrique; Suslick, Saul B.; Sousa, Sergio H.G. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Geosciences; Castro, Jonas Q. [ANP - Brazilian National Petroleum Agency, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper is focused on the elaboration of a standardization model for the existing flow of information between the Petroleum National Agency (ANP) and the concessionaire companies in the event of the discovery of any potentially commercial hydrocarbon resources inside their concession areas. The method proposed by Rosa (2003) included the analysis of a small sample of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans (PADs), elaborated by companies that operate in exploratory blocks in Brazil, under the regulatory context introduced by the Petroleum Law (Law 9478, August, 6th, 1997). The analysis of these documents made it possible to identify and target the problems originated from the lack of standardization. The results obtained facilitated the development of a model that helps the creation process of Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. It turns out that the standardization procedures suggested provide considerable advantages while speeding up several technical and regulatory steps. A software called 'ePADs' was developed to consolidate the automation of the several steps in the model for the standardization of the Oil and Gas Discovery Assessment Plans. A preliminary version has been tested with several different types of discoveries indicating a good performance by complying with all regulatory aspects and operational requirements. (author)

  19. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), a health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument for adolescents, in a healthy Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Mariana T; Auquier, Pascal; Robitail, Stephane; Werneck, Guilherme L; Simeoni, Marie-Claude

    2011-01-27

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment, encompassing the adolescents' perceptions of their mental, physical, and social health and well-being is increasingly considered an important outcome to be used to identify population health needs and to provide targeted medical care. Although validated instruments are essential for accurately assessing HRQoL outcomes, there are few cross-culturally adapted tools for use in Brazil, and none designed exclusively for use among adolescents. The Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent (VSP-A) is a generic, multidimensional self-reported instrument originally developed and validated in France that evaluates HRQoL of ill and healthy adolescents. To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the VSP-A, a generic HRQoL measure for adolescents originally developed in France. The VSP-A was translated following a well-validated forward-backward process leading to the Brazilian version. The psychometric evaluation was conducted in a sample of 446 adolescents (14-18 years) attending 2 public high schools of São Gonçalo City. The adolescents self-reported the Brazilian VSP-A, the validated Psychosomatic Symptom Checklist and socio-demographic information. A retest evaluation was carried out on a sub-sample (n = 195) at a two-week interval. The internal construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multi-trait scaling analyses, Rasch analysis evaluating unidimensionality of each scale and Cronbach's alpha coefficients. The reproducibility was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Zumbo's ordinal logistic regression analysis was used to detect differential item functioning (DIF) between the Brazilian and the French items. External construct validity wa